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Sample records for koch snowflake fractal

  1. Small-angle scattering from the Cantor surface fractal on the plane and the Koch snowflake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherny, Alexander Yu.; Anitas, Eugen M.; Osipov, Vladimir A.; Kuklin, Alexander I.

    The small-angle scattering (SAS) from the Cantor surface fractal on the plane and Koch snowflake is considered. We develop the construction algorithm for the Koch snowflake, which makes possible the recurrence relation for the scattering amplitude. The surface fractals can be decomposed into a sum of surface mass fractals for arbitrary fractal iteration, which enables various approximations for the scattering intensity. It is shown that for the Cantor fractal, one can neglect with a good accuracy the correlations between the mass fractal amplitudes, while for the Koch snowflake, these correlations are important. It is shown that nevertheless, the correlations can be build in the mass fractal amplitudes, which explains the decay of the scattering intensity $I(q)\\sim q^{D_{\\mathrm{s}}-4}$ with $1 < D_{\\mathrm{s}} < 2$ being the fractal dimension of the perimeter. The curve $I(q)q^{4-D_{\\mathrm{s}}}$ is found to be log-periodic in the fractal region with the period equal to the scaling factor of the fractal. The log-periodicity arises from the self-similarity of sizes of basic structural units rather than from correlations between their distances. A recurrence relation is obtained for the radius of gyration of Koch snowflake, which is solved in the limit of infinite iterations. The present analysis allows us to obtain additional information from SAS data, such as the edges of the fractal regions, the fractal iteration number and the scaling factor.

  2. Self-Similarity of Plasmon Edge Modes on Koch Fractal Antennas.

    PubMed

    Bellido, Edson P; Bernasconi, Gabriel D; Rossouw, David; Butet, Jérémy; Martin, Olivier J F; Botton, Gianluigi A

    2017-11-28

    We investigate the plasmonic behavior of Koch snowflake fractal geometries and their possible application as broadband optical antennas. Lithographically defined planar silver Koch fractal antennas were fabricated and characterized with high spatial and spectral resolution using electron energy loss spectroscopy. The experimental data are supported by numerical calculations carried out with a surface integral equation method. Multiple surface plasmon edge modes supported by the fractal structures have been imaged and analyzed. Furthermore, by isolating and reproducing self-similar features in long silver strip antennas, the edge modes present in the Koch snowflake fractals are identified. We demonstrate that the fractal response can be obtained by the sum of basic self-similar segments called characteristic edge units. Interestingly, the plasmon edge modes follow a fractal-scaling rule that depends on these self-similar segments formed in the structure after a fractal iteration. As the size of a fractal structure is reduced, coupling of the modes in the characteristic edge units becomes relevant, and the symmetry of the fractal affects the formation of hybrid modes. This analysis can be utilized not only to understand the edge modes in other planar structures but also in the design and fabrication of fractal structures for nanophotonic applications.

  3. A Snowflake Project: Calculating, Analyzing, and Optimizing with the Koch Snowflake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Linda A.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a project that addresses several components of the Algebra and Communication Standards for Grades 9-12 presented in Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM, 2000). Describes doing mathematical modeling and using the language of mathematics to express a recursive relationship in the perimeter and area of the Koch snowflake.…

  4. Design of inside cut von koch fractal UWB MIMO antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tharani, V.; Shanmuga Priya, N.; Rajesh, A.

    2017-11-01

    An Inside Cut Hexagonal Von Koch fractal MIMO antenna is designed for UWB applications and its characteristics behaviour are studied. Self-comparative and space filling properties of Koch fractal structure are utilized in the antenna design which leads to the desired miniaturization and wideband characteristics. The hexagonal shaped Von Koch Fractal antenna with Defected Ground Structure (DGS) is designed on FR4 substrate with a compact size of 30mm x 20mm x 1.6mm. The antenna achieves a maximum of -44dB and -51dB at 7.1GHz for 1-element and 2-element case respectively.

  5. Design and analysis microstrip dipole using fractal Koch for 433 MHz applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfin, M.; Rambe, A. H.; Budi, B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper discussed the dipole microstrip antenna design using fractal Koch for working on frequency of 433 MHz. The fractal Koch was used to reduce the size of the microstrip antenna. The smaller the antenna size, the lighter the equipment. AWR simulator was employed to evaluate antenna parameters such as return loss, gain and radiation pattern. The antenna was designed on a FR4 substrate with relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness 1.6 mm. The result shows that the fractal Koch reduce antenna size about 41.2% and decrease return loss about 30%.

  6. The Power of L-Systems in Fractal Construction and Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perham, Arnold E.; Perham, Faustine L.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses the use of L-systems, which provide students with a unique method to construct line fractals, including the Koch snowflake, the Sierpinski triangle, and the Harter-Heighway dragon. Applets that use L-system theory offer a graphics tool that promotes geometric reasoning, sparks enthusiasm, and connects to historical themes in…

  7. Optimal spinneret layout in Von Koch curves of fractal theory based needleless electrospinning process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxiu; Liu, Yanbo; Zhang, Ligai; Cao, Hong; Wang, Yang; Yao, Jinbo

    2016-06-01

    Needleless electrospinning technology is considered as a better avenue to produce nanofibrous materials at large scale, and electric field intensity and its distribution play an important role in controlling nanofiber diameter and quality of the nanofibrous web during electrospinning. In the current study, a novel needleless electrospinning method was proposed based on Von Koch curves of Fractal configuration, simulation and analysis on electric field intensity and distribution in the new electrospinning process were performed with Finite element analysis software, Comsol Multiphysics 4.4, based on linear and nonlinear Von Koch fractal curves (hereafter called fractal models). The result of simulation and analysis indicated that Second level fractal structure is the optimal linear electrospinning spinneret in terms of field intensity and uniformity. Further simulation and analysis showed that the circular type of Fractal spinneret has better field intensity and distribution compared to spiral type of Fractal spinneret in the nonlinear Fractal electrospinning technology. The electrospinning apparatus with the optimal Von Koch fractal spinneret was set up to verify the theoretical analysis results from Comsol simulation, achieving more uniform electric field distribution and lower energy cost, compared to the current needle and needleless electrospinning technologies.

  8. Micro and MACRO Fractals Generated by Multi-Valued Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banakh, T.; Novosad, N.

    2014-08-01

    Given a multi-valued function Φ : X \\mumap X on a topological space X we study the properties of its fixed fractal \\malteseΦ, which is defined as the closure of the orbit Φω(*Φ) = ⋃n∈ωΦn(*Φ) of the set *Φ = {x ∈ X : x ∈ Φ(x)} of fixed points of Φ. A special attention is paid to the duality between micro-fractals and macro-fractals, which are fixed fractals \\maltese Φ and \\maltese {Φ -1} for a contracting compact-valued function Φ : X \\mumap X on a complete metric space X. With help of algorithms (described in this paper) we generate various images of macro-fractals which are dual to some well-known micro-fractals like the fractal cross, the Sierpiński triangle, Sierpiński carpet, the Koch curve, or the fractal snowflakes. The obtained images show that macro-fractals have a large-scale fractal structure, which becomes clearly visible after a suitable zooming.

  9. Simultaneous realization of slow and fast acoustic waves using a fractal structure of Koch curve.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jin; Fan, Li; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Wei-Wei

    2018-01-24

    An acoustic metamaterial based on a fractal structure, the Koch curve, is designed to simultaneously realize slow and fast acoustic waves. Owing to the multiple transmitting paths in the structure resembling the Koch curve, the acoustic waves travelling along different paths interfere with each other. Therefore, slow waves are created on the basis of the resonance of a Koch-curve-shaped loop, and meanwhile, fast waves even with negative group velocities are obtained due to the destructive interference of two acoustic waves with opposite phases. Thus, the transmission of acoustic wave can be freely manipulated with the Koch-curve shaped structure.

  10. A Brief Historical Introduction to Fractals and Fractal Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with a brief historical introduction to fractals, fractal dimension and fractal geometry. Many fractals including the Cantor fractal, the Koch fractal, the Minkowski fractal, the Mandelbrot and Given fractal are described to illustrate self-similar geometrical figures. This is followed by the discovery of dynamical systems and…

  11. Dual-band and polarization-insensitive terahertz absorber based on fractal Koch curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yan-Bing; Zhang, Huai-Wu; Li, Yuan-Xun; Wang, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Wei-En; Li, Jie

    2014-05-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of a dual-band and polarization-insensitive metamaterial absorber (MA), which consists of periodically arranged fractal Koch curves acting as the top resonator array and a metallic ground plane separated by a dielectric spacer. Compared with conventional MAs, a more compact size and multi-frequency operation are achieved by using fractal geometry as the unit cell of the MA. Both the effective medium theory and the multi-reflection interference theory are employed to investigate the underlying physical mechanism of the proposed terahertz MA, and results indicate that the latter theory is not suitable for explaining the absorption mechanism in our investigated structure. Two absorption peaks are observed at 0.226 THz and 0.622 THz with absorptivities of 91.3% and 95.6% respectively and good agreements between the full-wave simulation and experimental results are achieved.

  12. Algebraic Thinking through Koch Snowflake Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghosh, Jonaki B.

    2016-01-01

    Generalizing is a foundational mathematical practice for the algebra classroom. It entails an act of abstraction and forms the core of algebraic thinking. Kinach (2014) describes two kinds of generalization--by analogy and by extension. This article illustrates how exploration of fractals provides ample opportunity for generalizations of both…

  13. Fractal nematic colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, S. M.; Jagodič, U.; Mozaffari, M. R.; Ejtehadi, M. R.; Muševič, I.; Ravnik, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fractals are remarkable examples of self-similarity where a structure or dynamic pattern is repeated over multiple spatial or time scales. However, little is known about how fractal stimuli such as fractal surfaces interact with their local environment if it exhibits order. Here we show geometry-induced formation of fractal defect states in Koch nematic colloids, exhibiting fractal self-similarity better than 90% over three orders of magnitude in the length scales, from micrometers to nanometres. We produce polymer Koch-shaped hollow colloidal prisms of three successive fractal iterations by direct laser writing, and characterize their coupling with the nematic by polarization microscopy and numerical modelling. Explicit generation of topological defect pairs is found, with the number of defects following exponential-law dependence and reaching few 100 already at fractal iteration four. This work demonstrates a route for generation of fractal topological defect states in responsive soft matter.

  14. Fractal nematic colloids

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, S. M.; Jagodič, U.; Mozaffari, M. R.; Ejtehadi, M. R.; Muševič, I.; Ravnik, M.

    2017-01-01

    Fractals are remarkable examples of self-similarity where a structure or dynamic pattern is repeated over multiple spatial or time scales. However, little is known about how fractal stimuli such as fractal surfaces interact with their local environment if it exhibits order. Here we show geometry-induced formation of fractal defect states in Koch nematic colloids, exhibiting fractal self-similarity better than 90% over three orders of magnitude in the length scales, from micrometers to nanometres. We produce polymer Koch-shaped hollow colloidal prisms of three successive fractal iterations by direct laser writing, and characterize their coupling with the nematic by polarization microscopy and numerical modelling. Explicit generation of topological defect pairs is found, with the number of defects following exponential-law dependence and reaching few 100 already at fractal iteration four. This work demonstrates a route for generation of fractal topological defect states in responsive soft matter. PMID:28117325

  15. Technology Tips: Using the Iterate Command to Construct Recursive Geometric Sketches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Suzanne R.; Driskell, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    How to iterate geometric shapes to construct Baravelle spirals and Pythagorean trees is demonstrated in this article. The "Surfing Note" sends readers to a site with applets that will generate fractals such as the Sierpinski gasket or the Koch snowflake.

  16. Aesthetic Responses to Exact Fractals Driven by Physical Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Bies, Alexander J.; Blanc-Goldhammer, Daryn R.; Boydston, Cooper R.; Taylor, Richard P.; Sereno, Margaret E.

    2016-01-01

    Fractals are physically complex due to their repetition of patterns at multiple size scales. Whereas the statistical characteristics of the patterns repeat for fractals found in natural objects, computers can generate patterns that repeat exactly. Are these exact fractals processed differently, visually and aesthetically, than their statistical counterparts? We investigated the human aesthetic response to the complexity of exact fractals by manipulating fractal dimensionality, symmetry, recursion, and the number of segments in the generator. Across two studies, a variety of fractal patterns were visually presented to human participants to determine the typical response to exact fractals. In the first study, we found that preference ratings for exact midpoint displacement fractals can be described by a linear trend with preference increasing as fractal dimension increases. For the majority of individuals, preference increased with dimension. We replicated these results for other exact fractal patterns in a second study. In the second study, we also tested the effects of symmetry and recursion by presenting asymmetric dragon fractals, symmetric dragon fractals, and Sierpinski carpets and Koch snowflakes, which have radial and mirror symmetry. We found a strong interaction among recursion, symmetry and fractal dimension. Specifically, at low levels of recursion, the presence of symmetry was enough to drive high preference ratings for patterns with moderate to high levels of fractal dimension. Most individuals required a much higher level of recursion to recover this level of preference in a pattern that lacked mirror or radial symmetry, while others were less discriminating. This suggests that exact fractals are processed differently than their statistical counterparts. We propose a set of four factors that influence complexity and preference judgments in fractals that may extend to other patterns: fractal dimension, recursion, symmetry and the number of segments in a

  17. The snowflake divertor

    DOE PAGES

    Ryutov, D. D.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-11-17

    The snowflake magnetic configuration is characterized by the presence of two closely spaced poloidal field nulls that create a characteristic hexagonal (reminiscent of a snowflake) separatrix structure. The magnetic field properties and the plasma behaviour in the snowflake are determined by the simultaneous action of both nulls, this generating a lot of interesting physics, as well as providing a chance for improving divertor performance. One of the most interesting effects of the snowflake geometry is the heat flux sharing between multiple divertor channels. The authors summarise experimental results obtained with the snowflake configuration on several tokamaks. Wherever possible, relation tomore » the existing theoretical models is described. Divertor concepts utilizing the properties of a snowflake configuration are briefly discussed.« less

  18. Fractals and Transformations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are several different transformations based on the generation of fractals including self-similar designs, the chaos game, the koch curve, and the Sierpinski Triangle. Three computer programs which illustrate these concepts are provided. (CW)

  19. The snowflake divertor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The snowflake magnetic configuration is characterized by the presence of two closely spaced poloidal field nulls that create a characteristic hexagonal (reminiscent of a snowflake) separatrix structure. The magnetic field properties and the plasma behaviour in the snowflake are determined by the simultaneous action of both nulls, this generating a lot of interesting physics, as well as providing a chance for improving divertor performance. Among potential beneficial effects of this geometry are: increased volume of a low poloidal field around the null, increased connection length, and the heat flux sharing between multiple divertor channels. The authors summarise experimental results obtained with the snowflake configuration on several tokamaks. Wherever possible, relation to the existing theoretical models is described.

  20. A Fractal Excursion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Dane R.

    1991-01-01

    After introducing the two-dimensional Koch curve, which is generated by simple recursions on an equilateral triangle, the process is extended to three dimensions with simple recursions on a regular tetrahedron. Included, for both fractal sequences, are iterative formulae, illustrations of the first several iterations, and a sample PASCAL program.…

  1. Make an Impression--Find Snowflake Twins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woelfel, Kay D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students gather their own snowflake collection in search of matching crystals. Students stretch plastic wrap over embroidery hoops that provide a snowflake-catching surface. Snowflakes are viewed under a microscope and photographed. (MDH)

  2. GENERATING FRACTAL PATTERNS BY USING p-CIRCLE INVERSION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, José L.; Rubiano, Gustavo N.; Zlobec, Borut Jurčič

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce the p-circle inversion which generalizes the classical inversion with respect to a circle (p = 2) and the taxicab inversion (p = 1). We study some basic properties and we also show the inversive images of some basic curves. We apply this new transformation to well-known fractals such as Sierpinski triangle, Koch curve, dragon curve, Fibonacci fractal, among others. Then we obtain new fractal patterns. Moreover, we generalize the method called circle inversion fractal be means of the p-circle inversion.

  3. Multifractal analysis and topological properties of a new family of weighted Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Da-Wen; Yu, Zu-Guo; Anh, Vo

    2017-03-01

    Weighted complex networks, especially scale-free networks, which characterize real-life systems better than non-weighted networks, have attracted considerable interest in recent years. Studies on the multifractality of weighted complex networks are still to be undertaken. In this paper, inspired by the concepts of Koch networks and Koch island, we propose a new family of weighted Koch networks, and investigate their multifractal behavior and topological properties. We find some key topological properties of the new networks: their vertex cumulative strength has a power-law distribution; there is a power-law relationship between their topological degree and weight strength; the networks have a high weighted clustering coefficient of 0.41004 (which is independent of the scaling factor c) in the limit of large generation t; the second smallest eigenvalue μ2 and the maximum eigenvalue μn are approximated by quartic polynomials of the scaling factor c for the general Laplacian operator, while μ2 is approximately a quartic polynomial of c and μn= 1.5 for the normalized Laplacian operator. Then, we find that weighted koch networks are both fractal and multifractal, their fractal dimension is influenced by the scaling factor c. We also apply these analyses to six real-world networks, and find that the multifractality in three of them are strong.

  4. Average receiving scaling of the weighted polygon Koch networks with the weight-dependent walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Dandan; Dai, Meifeng; Sun, Yanqiu; Shao, Shuxiang; Xie, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Based on the weighted Koch networks and the self-similarity of fractals, we present a family of weighted polygon Koch networks with a weight factor r(0 < r ≤ 1) . We study the average receiving time (ART) on weight-dependent walk (i.e., the walker moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the weight of edge linking them), whose key step is to calculate the sum of mean first-passage times (MFPTs) for all nodes absorpt at a hub node. We use a recursive division method to divide the weighted polygon Koch networks in order to calculate the ART scaling more conveniently. We show that the ART scaling exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the weighted polygon Koch networks are more efficient than expended Koch networks in receiving information. Finally, compared with other previous studies' results (i.e., Koch networks, weighted Koch networks), we find out that our models are more general.

  5. Snowflake divertor configuration studies for NSTX-Upgrade

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Soukhanovskii, V A

    2011-11-12

    Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide basis for PMI development toward NSTX-Upgrade. Snowflake configuration formation was followed by radiative detachment. Significant reduction of steady-state divertor heat flux observed in snowflake divertor. Impulsive heat loads due to Type I ELMs are partially mitigated in snowflake divertor. Magnetic control of snowflake divertor configuration is being developed. Plasma material interface development is critical for NSTX-U success. Four divertor coils should enable flexibility in boundary shaping and control in NSTX-U. Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide good basis for PMI development in NSTX-Upgrade. FY 2009-2010 snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX: (1) Helped understand controlmore » of magnetic properties; (2) Core H-mode confinement unchanged; (3) Core and edge carbon concentration reduced; and (4) Divertor heat flux significantly reduced - (a) Steady-state reduction due to geometry and radiative detachment, (b) Encouraging results for transient heat flux handling, (c) Combined with impurity-seeded radiative divertor. Outlook for snowflake divertor in NSTX-Upgrade: (1) 2D fluid modeling of snowflake divertor properties scaling - (a) Edge and divertor transport, radiation, detachment threshold, (b) Compatibility with cryo-pump and lithium conditioning; (2) Magnetic control development; and (3) PFC development - PFC alignment and PFC material choice.« less

  6. Enhanced Graphene Photodetector with Fractal Metasurface.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jieran; Wang, Di; DeVault, Clayton T; Chung, Ting-Fung; Chen, Yong P; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Shalaev, Vladimir M; Kildishev, Alexander V

    2017-01-11

    Graphene has been demonstrated to be a promising photodetection material because of its ultrabroadband optical absorption, compatibility with CMOS technology, and dynamic tunability in optical and electrical properties. However, being a single atomic layer thick, graphene has intrinsically small optical absorption, which hinders its incorporation with modern photodetecting systems. In this work, we propose a gold snowflake-like fractal metasurface design to realize broadband and polarization-insensitive plasmonic enhancement in graphene photodetector. We experimentally obtain an enhanced photovoltage from the fractal metasurface that is an order of magnitude greater than that generated at a plain gold-graphene edge and such an enhancement in the photovoltage sustains over the entire visible spectrum. We also observed a relatively constant photoresponse with respect to polarization angles of incident light, as a result of the combination of two orthogonally oriented concentric hexagonal fractal geometries in one metasurface.

  7. Snowflake: A Lightweight Portable Stencil DSL

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zhang, Nathan; Driscoll, Michael; Markley, Charles

    Stencil computations are not well optimized by general-purpose production compilers and the increased use of multicore, manycore, and accelerator-based systems makes the optimization problem even more challenging. In this paper we present Snowflake, a Domain Specific Language (DSL) for stencils that uses a 'micro-compiler' approach, i.e., small, focused, domain-specific code generators. The approach is similar to that used in image processing stencils, but Snowflake handles the much more complex stencils that arise in scientific computing, including complex boundary conditions, higher-order operators (larger stencils), higher dimensions, variable coefficients, non-unit-stride iteration spaces, and multiple input or output meshes. Snowflake is embedded inmore » the Python language, allowing it to interoperate with popular scientific tools like SciPy and iPython; it also takes advantage of built-in Python libraries for powerful dependence analysis as part of a just-in-time compiler. We demonstrate the power of the Snowflake language and the micro-compiler approach with a complex scientific benchmark, HPGMG, that exercises the generality of stencil support in Snowflake. By generating OpenMP comparable to, and OpenCL within a factor of 2x of hand-optimized HPGMG, Snowflake demonstrates that a micro-compiler can support diverse processor architectures and is performance-competitive whilst preserving a high-level Python implementation.« less

  8. Snowflake: A Lightweight Portable Stencil DSL

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Nathan; Driscoll, Michael; Markley, Charles; ...

    2017-05-01

    Stencil computations are not well optimized by general-purpose production compilers and the increased use of multicore, manycore, and accelerator-based systems makes the optimization problem even more challenging. In this paper we present Snowflake, a Domain Specific Language (DSL) for stencils that uses a 'micro-compiler' approach, i.e., small, focused, domain-specific code generators. The approach is similar to that used in image processing stencils, but Snowflake handles the much more complex stencils that arise in scientific computing, including complex boundary conditions, higher-order operators (larger stencils), higher dimensions, variable coefficients, non-unit-stride iteration spaces, and multiple input or output meshes. Snowflake is embedded inmore » the Python language, allowing it to interoperate with popular scientific tools like SciPy and iPython; it also takes advantage of built-in Python libraries for powerful dependence analysis as part of a just-in-time compiler. We demonstrate the power of the Snowflake language and the micro-compiler approach with a complex scientific benchmark, HPGMG, that exercises the generality of stencil support in Snowflake. By generating OpenMP comparable to, and OpenCL within a factor of 2x of hand-optimized HPGMG, Snowflake demonstrates that a micro-compiler can support diverse processor architectures and is performance-competitive whilst preserving a high-level Python implementation.« less

  9. About Schrödinger Equation on Fractals Curves Imbedding in R 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golmankhaneh, Alireza Khalili; Golmankhaneh, Ali Khalili; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we introduced the quantum mechanics on fractal time-space. In a suggested formalism the time and space vary on Cantor-set and Von-Koch curve, respectively. Using Feynman path method in quantum mechanics and F α -calculus we find Schrëdinger equation on on fractal time-space. The Hamiltonian and momentum fractal operator has been indicated. More, the continuity equation and the probability density is given in view of F α -calculus.

  10. Radar signatures of snowflake riming: A modeling study.

    PubMed

    Leinonen, Jussi; Szyrmer, Wanda

    2015-08-01

    The capability to detect the state of snowflake riming reliably from remote measurements would greatly expand the understanding of its global role in cloud-precipitation processes. To investigate the ability of multifrequency radars to detect riming, a three-dimensional model of snowflake growth was used to generate simulated aggregate and crystal snowflakes with various degrees of riming. Three different growth scenarios, representing different temporal relationships between aggregation and riming, were formulated. The discrete dipole approximation was then used to compute the radar backscattering properties of the snowflakes at frequencies of 9.7, 13.6, 35.6, and 94 GHz. In two of the three growth scenarios, the rimed snowflakes exhibit large differences between the backscattering cross sections of the detailed three-dimensional models and the equivalent homogeneous spheroidal models, similarly to earlier results for unrimed snowflakes. When three frequencies are used simultaneously, riming appears to be detectable in a robust manner across all three scenarios. In spite of the differences in backscattering cross sections, the triple-frequency signatures of heavily rimed particles resemble those of the homogeneous spheroids, thus explaining earlier observational results that were compatible with such spheroids.

  11. Fractal Image Filters for Specialized Image Recognition Tasks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-11

    butter sets of fractal geometers, such as Sierpinski triangles, twin- dragons , Koch curves, Cantor sets, fractal ferns, and so on. The geometries and...K is a centrally symmetric convex body in R m, then the function ‖x‖K defines a norm on R m. Moreover, the set K is the unit ball with respect to the...positive numbers r and R such that K contains a ball of radius r and is contained in a ball of radius R, the following proposition is clear

  12. Communities and classes in symmetric fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.

    2015-07-01

    Two aspects of fractal networks are considered: the community structure and the class structure, where classes of nodes appear as a consequence of a local symmetry of nodes. The analyzed systems are the networks constructed for two selected symmetric fractals: the Sierpinski triangle and the Koch curve. Communities are searched for by means of a set of differential equations. Overlapping nodes which belong to two different communities are identified by adding some noise to the initial connectivity matrix. Then, a node can be characterized by a spectrum of probabilities of belonging to different communities. Our main goal is that the overlapping nodes with the same spectra belong to the same class.

  13. Implementation for wideband applications using UWB fractal patch antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Naresh

    2018-04-01

    This paper defines in detail about the diverse fractal patch antenna. Microstrip patch antennas has evolved in the field of research and development extending its impact across wide range of applications. A combination of patch antenna with fractal patterns has become a tryout to outspread it further. Because of its low profile nature patch antennas have added to a lot of prominence. Apart from have this property it can also be renovated further for wide bandwidth (2929 MHz) applications, as it exhibits self-analogous property. This antenna is premeditated on a patch using Sierpinski(4.040 GHz, 6.566 GHz) and Koch fractal geometries respectively. The antenna is designed using HFSS software.

  14. Magnetic configuration flexibility of snowflake divertor for HL-2M [Analysis of snowflake divertor configurations for HL-2M

    DOE PAGES

    Zheng, G. Y.; Xu, X. Q.; Ryutov, D. D.; ...

    2014-07-09

    HL-2M (Li, 2013 [1]) is a tokamak device that is under construction. Based on the magnetic coils design of HL-2M, four kinds of divertor configurations are calculated by CORSICA code (Pearlstein et al., 2001 [2]) with the same main plasma parameters, which are standard divertor, exact snowflake divertor, snowflake-plus divertor and snowflake-minus divertor configurations. The potential properties of these divertors are analyzed and presented in this paper: low poloidal field area around X-point, connection length from outside mid-plane to the primary X-point, target plate design and magnetic field shear. The results show that the snowflake configurations not only can reducemore » the heat load at divertor target plates, but also may improve the magneto-hydrodynamic stability by stronger magnetic shear at the edge. Furthermore, a new divertor configuration, named “tripod divertor”, is designed by adjusting the positions of the two X-points according to plasma parameters and magnetic coils current of HL-2M.« less

  15. A fractal process of hydrogen diffusion in a-Si:H with exponential energy distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hikita, Harumi; Ishikawa, Hirohisa; Morigaki, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Hydrogen diffusion in a-Si:H with exponential distribution of the states in energy exhibits the fractal structure. It is shown that a probability P(t) of the pausing time t has a form of tα (α: fractal dimension). It is shown that the fractal dimension α = Tr/T0 (Tr: hydrogen temperature, T0: a temperature corresponding to the width of exponential distribution of the states in energy) is in agreement with the Hausdorff dimension. A fractal graph for the case of α ≤ 1 is like the Cantor set. A fractal graph for the case of α > 1 is like the Koch curves. At α = ∞, hydrogen migration exhibits Brownian motion. Hydrogen diffusion in a-Si:H should be the fractal process.

  16. Bilateral aniridia lenticular coloboma and snowflake retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Doganay, Selim; Emre, Sinan; Firat, Penpegül

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy presented with bilateral aniridia associated with lens coloboma and snowflake retinal degeneration. Ophthalmologic examination revealed bilateral corneal peripheral epithelial thickening and aniridia. Additionally, the patient had lenticular coloboma and snowflake retinal degeneration in both eyes. Intraocular pressure was 22 mm Hg bilaterally. The patient also had pendular nystagmus. Uncorrected visual acuity was counting fingers at 2 meters for both eyes, but improved to 0.2 and 0.05, respectively, with correction. Congenital aniridia has been reported with various ophthalmic pathologies, but this is the first case to display bilateral lenticular coloboma and snowflake retinal degeneration associated with aniridia.

  17. Not just fractal surfaces, but surface fractal aggregates: Derivation of the expression for the structure factor and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besselink, R.; Stawski, T. M.; Van Driessche, A. E. S.; Benning, L. G.

    2016-12-01

    Densely packed surface fractal aggregates form in systems with high local volume fractions of particles with very short diffusion lengths, which effectively means that particles have little space to move. However, there are no prior mathematical models, which would describe scattering from such surface fractal aggregates and which would allow the subdivision between inter- and intraparticle interferences of such aggregates. Here, we show that by including a form factor function of the primary particles building the aggregate, a finite size of the surface fractal interfacial sub-surfaces can be derived from a structure factor term. This formalism allows us to define both a finite specific surface area for fractal aggregates and the fraction of particle interfacial sub-surfaces at the perimeter of an aggregate. The derived surface fractal model is validated by comparing it with an ab initio approach that involves the generation of a "brick-in-a-wall" von Koch type contour fractals. Moreover, we show that this approach explains observed scattering intensities from in situ experiments that followed gypsum (CaSO4 ṡ 2H2O) precipitation from highly supersaturated solutions. Our model of densely packed "brick-in-a-wall" surface fractal aggregates may well be the key precursor step in the formation of several types of mosaic- and meso-crystals.

  18. Fractal Geometry in the Arts: AN Overview across the Different Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Nicoletta

    Fractal, in mathematics, is a geometric shape that is complex and detailed in structure at any level of magnification. The word "fractal" was coined less than thirty years ago by one of history's most creative and mathematicians, Benoit Mandelbrot, whose work, The Fractal Geometry of Nature, first introduced and explained concepts underlying this new vision of the geometry. Although other mathematical thinkers like Georg Cantor (1845-1918), Felix Hausdorff (1868-1942), Gaston Julia (1893-1978), Helge von Koch (1870-1924), Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932), Lewis Richardson (1891-1953), Waclaw Sierpinski (1882-1969) and others had attained isolated insights of fractal understanding, such ideas were largely ignored until Mandelbrot's genius forged them at a single blow into a gorgeously coherent and fascinating discipline. Fractal geometry is applied in different field now: engineering, physics, chemistry, biology, and architecture. The aim of this paper is to introduce an approach where the arts are analysed using a fractal point of view.

  19. Stellar Snowflake Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Stellar Snowflake Cluster Combined Image [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2 Infrared Array CameraFigure 3 Multiband Imaging Photometer

    Newborn stars, hidden behind thick dust, are revealed in this image of a section of the Christmas Tree cluster from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, created in joint effort between Spitzer's infrared array camera and multiband imaging photometer instruments.

    The newly revealed infant stars appear as pink and red specks toward the center of the combined image (fig. 1). The stars appear to have formed in regularly spaced intervals along linear structures in a configuration that resembles the spokes of a wheel or the pattern of a snowflake. Hence, astronomers have nicknamed this the 'Snowflake' cluster.

    Star-forming clouds like this one are dynamic and evolving structures. Since the stars trace the straight line pattern of spokes of a wheel, scientists believe that these are newborn stars, or 'protostars.' At a mere 100,000 years old, these infant structures have yet to 'crawl' away from their location of birth. Over time, the natural drifting motions of each star will break this order, and the snowflake design will be no more.

    While most of the visible-light stars that give the Christmas Tree cluster its name and triangular shape do not shine brightly in Spitzer's infrared eyes, all of the stars forming from this dusty cloud are considered part of the cluster.

    Like a dusty cosmic finger pointing up to the newborn clusters, Spitzer also illuminates the optically dark and dense Cone nebula, the tip of which can be seen towards the bottom left corner of each image.

    This combined image shows the presence of organic molecules mixed with dust as wisps of green, which have been illuminated by nearby star formation. The larger yellowish dots neighboring the baby red stars in the Snowflake Cluster are massive stellar infants forming

  20. Using snowflake surface-area-to-volume ratio to model and interpret snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergely, Mathias; Cooper, Steven J.; Garrett, Timothy J.

    2017-10-01

    The snowflake microstructure determines the microwave scattering properties of individual snowflakes and has a strong impact on snowfall radar signatures. In this study, individual snowflakes are represented by collections of randomly distributed ice spheres where the size and number of the constituent ice spheres are specified by the snowflake mass and surface-area-to-volume ratio (SAV) and the bounding volume of each ice sphere collection is given by the snowflake maximum dimension. Radar backscatter cross sections for the ice sphere collections are calculated at X-, Ku-, Ka-, and W-band frequencies and then used to model triple-frequency radar signatures for exponential snowflake size distributions (SSDs). Additionally, snowflake complexity values obtained from high-resolution multi-view snowflake images are used as an indicator of snowflake SAV to derive snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures. The modeled snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures cover a wide range of triple-frequency signatures that were previously determined from radar reflectivity measurements and illustrate characteristic differences related to snow type, quantified through snowflake SAV, and snowflake size. The results show high sensitivity to snowflake SAV and SSD maximum size but are generally less affected by uncertainties in the parameterization of snowflake mass, indicating the importance of snowflake SAV for the interpretation of snowfall triple-frequency radar signatures.

  1. Asymptomatic snowflake degeneration in a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lens implant.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee T; Shuttleworth, Garry N

    2008-01-01

    Snowflake degeneration is a late complication of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) intraocular lens implants. We report a case of asymptomatic advanced snowflake opacification presenting 13 years after implantation who maintained a visual acuity of 6/6. This report serves to illustrate the variability of the clinical effects of snowflake degeneration, which do not necessarily correlate with slit-lamp appearances.

  2. Classroom Ideas Using Technology: A Snowflake in Winter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Snowflakes falling in Brisbane, Australia would likely make news headlines during any season of a given year, even during winter. Year 8 students at Ormiston College which is located in Brisbane, have made their own snowflakes--of a kind. Using the programming language Scratch, all Year 8 Mathematics students wrote code to construct Swedish…

  3. Two Dimensional Drug Diffusion Between Nanoparticles and Fractal Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samioti, S. E.; Karamanos, K.; Tsiantis, A.; Papathanasiou, A.; Sarris, I.

    2017-11-01

    Drug delivery methods based on nanoparticles are some of the most promising medical applications in nanotechnology to treat cancer. It is observed that drug released by nanoparticles to the cancer tumors may be driven by diffusion. A fractal tumor boundary of triangular Von Koch shape is considered here and the diffusion mechanism is studied for different drug concentrations and increased fractality. A high order Finite Elements method based on the Fenics library is incorporated in fine meshes to fully resolve these irregular boundaries. Drug concentration, its transfer rates and entropy production are calculated in an up to forth order fractal iteration boundaries. We observed that diffusion rate diminishes for successive prefractal generations. Also, the entropy production around the system changes greatly as the order of the fractal curve increases. Results indicate with precision where the active sites are, in which most of the diffusion takes place and thus drug arrives to the tumor.

  4. Static friction between rigid fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Marroquin, Fernando; Huang, Pengyu; Hanaor, Dorian A. H.; Flores-Johnson, E. A.; Proust, Gwénaëlle; Gan, Yixiang; Shen, Luming

    2015-09-01

    Using spheropolygon-based simulations and contact slope analysis, we investigate the effects of surface topography and atomic scale friction on the macroscopically observed friction between rigid blocks with fractal surface structures. From our mathematical derivation, the angle of macroscopic friction is the result of the sum of the angle of atomic friction and the slope angle between the contact surfaces. The latter is obtained from the determination of all possible contact slopes between the two surface profiles through an alternative signature function. Our theory is validated through numerical simulations of spheropolygons with fractal Koch surfaces and is applied to the description of frictional properties of Weierstrass-Mandelbrot surfaces. The agreement between simulations and theory suggests that for interpreting macroscopic frictional behavior, the descriptors of surface morphology should be defined from the signature function rather than from the slopes of the contacting surfaces.

  5. Linking snowflake microstructure to multi-frequency radar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinonen, J.; Moisseev, D.; Nousiainen, T.

    2013-04-01

    Spherical or spheroidal particle shape models are commonly used to calculate numerically the radar backscattering properties of aggregate snowflakes. A more complicated and computationally intensive approach is to use detailed models of snowflake structure together with numerical scattering models that can operate on arbitrary particle shapes. Recent studies have shown that there can be significant differences between the results of these approaches. In this paper, an analytical model, based on the Rayleigh-Gans scattering theory, is formulated to explain this discrepancy in terms of the effect of discrete ice crystals that constitute the snowflake. The ice crystals cause small-scale inhomogeneities whose effects can be understood through the density autocorrelation function of the particle mass, which the Rayleigh-Gans theory connects to the function that gives the radar reflectivity as a function of frequency. The derived model is a weighted sum of two Gaussian functions. A term that corresponds to the average shape of the particle, similar to that given by the spheroidal shape model, dominates at low frequencies. At high frequencies, that term vanishes and is gradually replaced by the effect of the ice crystal monomers. The autocorrelation-based description of snowflake microstructure appears to be sufficient for multi-frequency radar studies. The link between multi-frequency radar observations and the particle microstructure can thus be used to infer particle properties from the observations.

  6. Human physiological benefits of viewing nature: EEG responses to exact and statistical fractal patterns.

    PubMed

    Hagerhall, C M; Laike, T; Küller, M; Marcheschi, E; Boydston, C; Taylor, R P

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and physiological benefits of viewing nature have been extensively studied for some time. More recently it has been suggested that some of these positive effects can be explained by nature's fractal properties. Virtually all studies on human responses to fractals have used stimuli that represent the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature, i.e. statistical fractals, as opposed to fractal patterns which repeat exactly at different scales. This raises the question of whether human responses like preference and relaxation are being driven by fractal geometry in general or by the specific form of fractal geometry found in nature. In this study we consider both types of fractals (statistical and exact) and morph one type into the other. Based on the Koch curve, nine visual stimuli were produced in which curves of three different fractal dimensions evolve gradually from an exact to a statistical fractal. The patterns were shown for one minute each to thirty-five subjects while qEEG was continuously recorded. The results showed that the responses to statistical and exact fractals differ, and that the natural form of the fractal is important for inducing alpha responses, an indicator of a wakefully relaxed state and internalized attention.

  7. A novel snowflake-like SnO2 hierarchical architecture with superior gas sensing properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanqiong

    2018-02-01

    Snowflake-like SnO2 hierarchical architecture has been synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method and followed by calcination. The SnO2 hierarchical structures are assembled with thin nanoflakes blocks, which look like snowflake shape. A possible mechanism for the formation of the SnO2 hierarchical structures is speculated. Moreover, gas sensing tests show that the sensor based on snowflake-like SnO2 architectures exhibited excellent gas sensing properties. The enhancement may be attributed to its unique structures, in which the porous feature on the snowflake surface could further increase the active surface area of the materials and provide facile pathways for the target gas.

  8. Snowflake Visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bliven, L. F.; Kucera, P. A.; Rodriguez, P.

    2010-12-01

    NASA Snowflake Video Imagers (SVIs) enable snowflake visualization at diverse field sites. The natural variability of frozen precipitation is a complicating factor for remote sensing retrievals in high latitude regions. Particle classification is important for understanding snow/ice physics, remote sensing polarimetry, bulk radiative properties, surface emissivity, and ultimately, precipitation rates and accumulations. Yet intermittent storms, low temperatures, high winds, remote locations and complex terrain can impede us from observing falling snow in situ. SVI hardware and software have some special features. The standard camera and optics yield 8-bit gray-scale images with resolution of 0.05 x 0.1 mm, at 60 frames per second. Gray-scale images are highly desirable because they display contrast that aids particle classification. Black and white (1-bit) systems display no contrast, so there is less information to recognize particle types, which is particularly burdensome for aggregates. Data are analyzed at one-minute intervals using NASA's Precipitation Link Software that produces (a) Particle Catalogs and (b) Particle Size Distributions (PSDs). SVIs can operate nearly continuously for long periods (e.g., an entire winter season), so natural variability can be documented. Let’s summarize results from field studies this past winter and review some recent SVI enhancements. During the winter of 2009-2010, SVIs were deployed at two sites. One SVI supported weather observations during the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics. It was located close to the summit (Roundhouse) of Whistler Mountain, near the town of Whistler, British Columbia, Canada. In addition, two SVIs were located at the King City Weather Radar Station (WKR) near Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Access was prohibited to the SVI on Whistler Mountain during the Olympics due to security concerns. So to meet the schedule for daily data products, we operated the SVI by remote control. We also upgraded the

  9. Numerical investigation of disruption characteristics for the snowflake divertor configuration in HL-2M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, L.; Duan, X. R.; Zheng, G. Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Pan, Y. D.; Yan, S. L.; Dokuka, V. N.; Lukash, V. E.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2016-05-01

    Cold and hot vertical displacement events (VDEs) are frequently related to the disruption of vertically-elongated tokamaks. The weak poloidal magnetic field around the null-points of a snowflake divertor configuration may influence the vertical displacement process. In this paper, the major disruption with a cold VDE and the vertical disruption in the HL-2M tokamak are investigated by the DINA code. In order to better illustrate the effect from the weak poloidal field, a double-null snowflake configuration is compared with the standard divertor (SD) configuration under the same plasma parameters. Computational results show that the weak poloidal magnetic field can be partly beneficial for mitigating the vertical instability of the plasma under small perturbations. For major disruption, the peak poloidal halo current fraction is almost the same between the snowflake and the SD configurations. However, this fraction becomes much larger for the snowflake in the event of a hot VDE. Furthermore, during the disruption for a snowflake configuration, the distribution of electromagnetic force on a vacuum vessel gets more non-uniform during the current quench.

  10. Initial development of the DIII–D snowflake divertor control

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kolemen, Egemen; Vail, P. J.; Makowski, M. A.

    Simultaneous control of two proximate magnetic field nulls in the divertor region is demonstrated on DIII–D to enable plasma operations in an advanced magnetic configuration known as the snowflake divertor (SFD). The SFD is characterized by a second-order poloidal field null, created by merging two first-order nulls of the standard divertor configuration. The snowflake configuration has many magnetic properties, such as high poloidal flux expansion, large plasma-wetted area, and additional strike points, that are advantageous for divertor heat flux management in future fusion reactors. However, the magnetic configuration of the SFD is highly-sensitive to changes in currents within the plasmamore » and external coils and therefore requires complex magnetic control. The first real-time snowflake detection and control system on DIII–D has been implemented in order to stabilize the configuration. The control algorithm calculates the position of the two nulls in real-time by locally-expanding the Grad–Shafranov equation in the divertor region. A linear relation between variations in the poloidal field coil currents and changes in the null locations is then analytically derived. This formulation allows for simultaneous control of multiple coils to achieve a desired SFD configuration. It is shown that the control enabled various snowflake configurations on DIII–D in scenarios such as the double-null advanced tokamak. In conclusion, the SFD resulted in a 2.5×reduction in the peak heat flux for many energy confinement times (2–3s) without any adverse effects on core plasma performance.« less

  11. Initial development of the DIII–D snowflake divertor control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolemen, E.; Vail, P. J.; Makowski, M. A.; Allen, S. L.; Bray, B. D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Maingi, R.; Nazikian, R.; Petrie, T. W.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Unterberg, E. A.

    2018-06-01

    Simultaneous control of two proximate magnetic field nulls in the divertor region is demonstrated on DIII–D to enable plasma operations in an advanced magnetic configuration known as the snowflake divertor (SFD). The SFD is characterized by a second-order poloidal field null, created by merging two first-order nulls of the standard divertor configuration. The snowflake configuration has many magnetic properties, such as high poloidal flux expansion, large plasma-wetted area, and additional strike points, that are advantageous for divertor heat flux management in future fusion reactors. However, the magnetic configuration of the SFD is highly-sensitive to changes in currents within the plasma and external coils and therefore requires complex magnetic control. The first real-time snowflake detection and control system on DIII–D has been implemented in order to stabilize the configuration. The control algorithm calculates the position of the two nulls in real-time by locally-expanding the Grad–Shafranov equation in the divertor region. A linear relation between variations in the poloidal field coil currents and changes in the null locations is then analytically derived. This formulation allows for simultaneous control of multiple coils to achieve a desired SFD configuration. It is shown that the control enabled various snowflake configurations on DIII–D in scenarios such as the double-null advanced tokamak. The SFD resulted in a 2.5×  reduction in the peak heat flux for many energy confinement times (2–3 s) without any adverse effects on core plasma performance.

  12. Initial development of the DIII–D snowflake divertor control

    DOE PAGES

    Kolemen, Egemen; Vail, P. J.; Makowski, M. A.; ...

    2018-04-11

    Simultaneous control of two proximate magnetic field nulls in the divertor region is demonstrated on DIII–D to enable plasma operations in an advanced magnetic configuration known as the snowflake divertor (SFD). The SFD is characterized by a second-order poloidal field null, created by merging two first-order nulls of the standard divertor configuration. The snowflake configuration has many magnetic properties, such as high poloidal flux expansion, large plasma-wetted area, and additional strike points, that are advantageous for divertor heat flux management in future fusion reactors. However, the magnetic configuration of the SFD is highly-sensitive to changes in currents within the plasmamore » and external coils and therefore requires complex magnetic control. The first real-time snowflake detection and control system on DIII–D has been implemented in order to stabilize the configuration. The control algorithm calculates the position of the two nulls in real-time by locally-expanding the Grad–Shafranov equation in the divertor region. A linear relation between variations in the poloidal field coil currents and changes in the null locations is then analytically derived. This formulation allows for simultaneous control of multiple coils to achieve a desired SFD configuration. It is shown that the control enabled various snowflake configurations on DIII–D in scenarios such as the double-null advanced tokamak. In conclusion, the SFD resulted in a 2.5×reduction in the peak heat flux for many energy confinement times (2–3s) without any adverse effects on core plasma performance.« less

  13. Tokamak power exhaust with the snowflake divertor: Present results and outstanding issues

    DOE PAGES

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Xu, X.

    2015-09-15

    Here, a snowflake divertor magnetic configuration (Ryutov in Phys Plasmas 14(6):064502, 2007) with the second-order poloidal field null offers a number of possible advantages for tokamak plasma heat and particle exhaust in comparison with the standard poloidal divertor with the first-order null. Results from snowflake divertor experiments are briefly reviewed and future directions for research in this area are outlined.

  14. Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera Instrument Handbook

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stuefer, Martin; Bailey, J.

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) takes 9- to 37-micron resolution stereographic photographs of free-falling hydrometers from three angles, while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Information about hydrometeor size, shape orientation, and aspect ratio is derived from MASC photographs. The instrument consists of three commercial cameras separated by angles of 36º. Each camera field of view is aligned to have a common single focus point about 10 cm distant from the cameras. Two near-infrared emitter pairs are aligned with the camera’s field of view within a 10-angular ring and detect hydrometeor passage, with the lower emitters configured to trigger the MASCmore » cameras. The sensitive IR motion sensors are designed to filter out slow variations in ambient light. Fall speed is derived from successive triggers along the fall path. The camera exposure times are extremely short, in the range of 1/25,000th of a second, enabling the MASC to capture snowflake sizes ranging from 30 micrometers to 3 cm.« less

  15. Afrotropical Melambiina: revision of the genus Tragardhus Koch, 1956 and redescription of Pseudemmallus Koch, 1956 (Tenebrionidae: Pedinini).

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marcin Jan

    2017-11-10

    The genus Tragardhus Koch, 1956 (Pedinini: Melambiina) is revised to include nine Afrotropical species, five of which are new. A taxonomic treatment of the genus is provided including a morphological study, new species descriptions, keys, illustrations, and notes on species distributions. The following species are included: Tragardhus (Mitragardhus) nodosus Koch, 1956, T. (M.) ewae sp. nov., T. (M.) ryszardi sp. nov., T. (M.) zuzannae sp. nov., Tragardhus (Tragardhus) biapicalis Koch, 1956, T. (T.) glandipleurum Koch, 1956, T. (T.) jani sp. nov., T. (T.) majae sp. nov. and T. (T.) stigmaticus Koch, 1956. Additionally, a monotypic genus Pseudemmallus Koch, 1956, previously known from a single specimen representing P. aspericollis Koch, 1956, is redescribed based on newly available material.

  16. A Celebration of Kenneth Koch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    Provides the transcript of an extemporaneous speech by the poet Kenneth Koch at the "Educating the Imagination II" conference sponsored by the Teachers and Writers Collaborative. Comments on issues of creative writing, the imagination, and poetry. Provides autobiographical material about Koch's development as a poet. (HB)

  17. Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2013-10-01

    Advanced divertors are magnetic geometries where a second X-point is added in the divertor region to address the serious challenges of burning plasma power exhaust. Invoking physical arguments, numerical work, and detailed model magnetic field analysis, we investigate the magnetic field structure of advanced divertors in the physically relevant region for power exhaust—the scrape-off layer. A primary result of our analysis is the emergence of a physical "metric," the Divertor Index DI, which quantifies the flux expansion increase as one goes from the main X-point to the strike point. It clearly separates three geometries with distinct consequences for divertor physics—the Standard Divertor (DI = 1), and two advanced geometries—the X-Divertor (XD, DI > 1) and the Snowflake (DI < 1). The XD, therefore, cannot be classified as one variant of the Snowflake. By this measure, recent National Spherical Torus Experiment and DIIID experiments are X-Divertors, not Snowflakes.

  18. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cook cheese, koch kaese. 133.127 Section 133.127... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.127 Cook cheese, koch kaese. (a) Description. (1) Cook cheese, koch...

  19. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cook cheese, koch kaese. 133.127 Section 133.127... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.127 Cook cheese, koch kaese. (a) Description. (1) Cook cheese, koch...

  20. Peter Koch: wizard of wood use

    Treesearch

    M.E. Lora

    1978-01-01

    Like his pioneer forefathers, Peter Koch sees opportunity where others see obstacles. And his vision is helping to reshape the wood industry. Since 1963 Koch has directed research on processing southern woods for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Forest Experiment Station in Pineville, Louisiana. In that time, he has invented six revolutionary machines, developed...

  1. A Simple Lab Exercise Demonstrating Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Michael M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise which applies Koch's Postulates to a plant disease, bacterial speck. Includes an explanation of Koch's Postulate, list of equipment needed, advance preparation, outline of the three-week activity, and variations of the laboratory exercise. (DS)

  2. Robust thermal quantum correlation and quantum phase transition of spin system on fractal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yu-Liang; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhong-Qiang; Kong, Xiang-Mu; Ren, Ting-Qi

    2014-06-01

    We investigate the quantum correlation measured by quantum discord (QD) for thermalized ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin systems in one-dimensional chains and on fractal lattices using the decimation renormalization group approach. It is found that the QD between two non-nearest-neighbor end spins exhibits some interesting behaviors which depend on the anisotropic parameter Δ, the temperature T, and the size of system L. With increasing Δ continuously, the QD possesses a cuspate change at Δ = 0 which is a critical point of quantum phase transition (QPT). There presents the "regrowth" tendency of QD with increasing T at Δ < 0, in contrast to the "growth" of QD at Δ > 0. As the size of the system L becomes large, there still exists considerable thermal QD between long-distance end sites in spin chains and on the fractal lattices even at unentangled states, and the long-distance QD can spotlight the presence of QPT. The robustness of QD on the diamond-type hierarchical lattices is stronger than that in spin chains and Koch curves, which indicates that the fractal can affect the behaviors of quantum correlation.

  3. [Richard Koch's life in national socialism and in Soviet emigration].

    PubMed

    Boltres, Daniela; Töpfer, Frank; Wiesing, Urban

    2006-01-01

    The Jewish historian and theorist of medicine, Richard Koch, teaching in Frankfurt/Main, fled in 1936 from National Socialist Germany to the USSR where he lived in the Caucasian spa Essentuki until his death in 1949. Here he worked as a doctor and continued his scientific work, especially on the foundations of medicine in natural philosophy. None of his works of this time were published. Koch was a scientific outsider in the USSR, and he was aware of this. However, he tried to make his views compatible with official doctrines. In 1947 he lost his employment at the medical clinic of Essentuki, and his material situation grew worse. It is still an open question whether this development was related to an increasingly anti-Jewish atmosphere in the USSR that was linked with the Stalinist "purges", as Koch himself appeared to believe. Before his flight from Germany Koch did not show any tendency towards communism or the political left at all. His attitude towards Soviet society and Stalin was mixed: cautious criticism was accompanied by strong expressions of commitment to Stalin and Koch's new Socialist home. The question to what extent Koch's comments showed his true convictions must remain without a definite answer. At least in part they can be understood as precautions in threatening circumstances. The opportunity of a remigration to Germany after 1945, however, was turned down by Koch.

  4. Developing physics basis for the snowflake divertor in the DIII-D tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Ryutov, D. D.; Kolemen, E.; Groebner, R. J.; Hyatt, A. W.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Petrie, T. W.; Watkins, J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent DIII-D results demonstrate that the snowflake (SF) divertor geometry (see standard divertor) enables significant manipulation of divertor heat transport for heat spreading and reduction in attached and radiative divertor regimes, between and during edge localized modes (ELMs), while maintaining good H-mode confinement. Snowflake divertor configurations have been realized in the DIII-D tokamak for several seconds in H-mode discharges with heating power P_NBI ≤slant 4 -5 MW and a range of plasma currents I_p=0.8-1.2 MA. In this work, inter-ELM transport and radiative SF divertor properties are studied. Significant impact of geometric properties on SOL and divertor plasma parameters, including increased poloidal magnetic flux expansion, divertor magnetic field line length and divertor volume, is confirmed. In the SF-minus configuration, heat deposition is affected by the geometry, and peak divertor heat fluxes are significantly reduced. In the SF-plus and near-exact SF configurations, divertor peak heat flux reduction and outer strike point heat flux profile broadening are observed. Inter-ELM sharing of power and particle fluxes between the main and additional snowflake divertor strike points has been demonstrated. The additional strike points typically receive up to 10-15% of total outer divertor power. Measurements of electron pressure and poloidal beta βp support the theoretically proposed churning mode that is driven by toroidal curvature and vertical pressure gradient in the weak poloidal field region. A comparison of the 4-4.5 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with radiative SF divertor and the standard radiative divertor (both induced with additional gas puffing) shows a nearly complete power detachment and broader divertor radiated power distribution in the SF, as compared to a partial detachment and peaked localized radiation in the standard divertor. However, insignificant difference in the detachment onset w.r.t. density between the SF and the standard

  5. "Snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; McLean, A.; Menard, J. E.; Mueller, D. M.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ryutov, D. D.; Scott, H. A.

    2011-08-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel "snowflake" divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  6. A Matter of Distance: Rachel DeWoskin Remembers Kenneth Koch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWoskin, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Eulogizes poet and teacher Kenneth Koch. Notes that Koch was a renowned poet, a pioneer of the poets-in-the-school movement, and mentor to generations of Columbia students. Describes his often caustic teaching style. (PM)

  7. Music and fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuorinen, Charles

    2015-03-01

    Any of the arts may produce exemplars that have fractal characteristics. There may be fractal painting, fractal poetry, and the like. But these will always be specific instances, not necessarily displaying intrinsic properties of the art-medium itself. Only music, I believe, of all the arts possesses an intrinsically fractal character, so that its very nature is fractally determined. Thus, it is reasonable to assert that any instance of music is fractal...

  8. Fractal Bread.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  9. The Melting of Natural Snowflakes Suspended in a Vertical Wind Tunnel.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    during the melting process is also recorded by cameras A newly developed valve controls the airflow in the chamber while ma n ining the air conditions...12 3.2. Position of Camera System within the Coldroom ..... ... 14 3.3. Schematic Illustration of the Photographic System . . . 15 3.4...apparatus satisfying the majority of the above mentioned criteria. As the snowflake fell into the apparatus, it would pass a camera /stroboscope arrangement

  10. A Legacy for IPY: The Global Snowflake Network (GSN) Together With Art and Ice, and Music and Ice; Unique new Features for Science Education.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasilewski, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    The Global Snowflake Network (GSN) is a program that is simultaneously a science program and an education program. When the validation of the procedures (collection and identification of the type of snowflakes and the associated satellite image archive, as a serial record of a storm), is achieved, then the program becomes a scientific resource. This latter is the ultimate goal. That's why NASA has launched the Global Snowflake Network, a massive project that aims to involve the general public to "collect and classify" falling snowflakes. The data will be compiled into a massive database, along with satellite images, that will help climatologists and others who study climate-related phenomena gain a better understanding of wintry meteorology as they track various snowstorms around the globe. A great deal of information about the atmosphere dynamics and cloud microphysics can be derived from the serial collection and identification of the types of snow crystals and the degree of riming of the snow crystals during the progress of a snow storm. Forecasting winter weather depends in part on cloud physics, which deals with precipitation type, and if it happens to be snow- the crystal type, size, and density of the snowflake population. The History of Winter website will host the evolving snow and ice features for the IPY. Type "Global Snowflake Network" into the search engine (such as GOOGLE) and you will receive a demonstration of the operation of the preliminary GSN by the Indigenous community. The expeditions FINNMARK2007 and the POLAR Husky GoNorth 2007 expedition took the complement of Thermochrons with multimedia instructions for the Global Snowflake Network. This approach demonstrates the continuous Thermochron monitoring of expedition temperature and provides otherwise inaccessible snowflake information to NASA and others interested in the Polar region snow. In addition, reindeer herder and Ph.D. student, Inger Marie G. Eira, will incorporate the HOW, GSN

  11. Cancer stem cells: beyond Koch's postulates.

    PubMed

    Garcion, Emmanuel; Naveilhan, Philippe; Berger, François; Wion, Didier

    2009-06-08

    Until the last century, infectious diseases were the leading cause of human mortality. Therefore, our current medical reasoning is profoundly influenced by views that originated from medical microbiology. The notion that cancer growth is sustained by a sub-population of particular cells, the cancer stem cells, is highly reminiscent of the germ theory of disease as exemplified by Koch's postulates in the XIXth century. However, accumulating data underscore the importance of cell-cell interactions and tumor environment. Hence it is essential to critically review the basic tenets of the cancer stem cell concept on the light of their relationships with Koch's postulates. Shifting the pathogenic element from a special cellular entity (cancer stem cell or microorganism) to a "pathogenic field" could be critical for curing both cancer and drug-resistant infectious diseases.

  12. 78 FR 2482 - Koch Industries, Inc.-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Texas South-Eastern Railroad Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35708] Koch Industries, Inc.--Acquisition of Control Exemption--Texas South-Eastern Railroad Company Koch Industries, Inc. (Koch), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire indirect control of Texas...

  13. A variational technique to estimate snowfall rate from coincident radar, snowflake, and fall-speed observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Steven J.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-07-01

    Estimates of snowfall rate as derived from radar reflectivities alone are non-unique. Different combinations of snowflake microphysical properties and particle fall speeds can conspire to produce nearly identical snowfall rates for given radar reflectivity signatures. Such ambiguities can result in retrieval uncertainties on the order of 100-200 % for individual events. Here, we use observations of particle size distribution (PSD), fall speed, and snowflake habit from the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to constrain estimates of snowfall derived from Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope Alaska (NSA) Climate Research Facility site at Barrow. MASC measurements of microphysical properties with uncertainties are introduced into a modified form of the optimal-estimation CloudSat snowfall algorithm (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) via the a priori guess and variance terms. Use of the MASC fall speed, MASC PSD, and CloudSat snow particle model as base assumptions resulted in retrieved total accumulations with a -18 % difference relative to nearby National Weather Service (NWS) observations over five snow events. The average error was 36 % for the individual events. Use of different but reasonable combinations of retrieval assumptions resulted in estimated snowfall accumulations with differences ranging from -64 to +122 % for the same storm events. Retrieved snowfall rates were particularly sensitive to assumed fall speed and habit, suggesting that in situ measurements can help to constrain key snowfall retrieval uncertainties. More accurate knowledge of these properties dependent upon location and meteorological conditions should help refine and improve ground- and space-based radar estimates of snowfall.

  14. Modeling of frost crystal growth over a flat plate using artificial neural networks and fractal geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahavvor, Ali Reza

    2017-03-01

    In the present study artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to predict frost thickness and density on a cold flat plate having constant surface temperature under forced convection for different ambient conditions. These methods are very applicable in this area because phase changes such as melting and solidification are simulated by conventional methods but frost formation is a most complicated phase change phenomenon consists of coupled heat and mass transfer. Therefore conventional mathematical techniques cannot capture the effects of all parameters on its growth and development because this process influenced by many factors and it is a time dependent process. Therefore, in this work soft computing method such as artificial neural network and fractal geometry are used to do this manner. The databases for modeling are generated from the experimental measurements. First, multilayer perceptron network is used and it is found that the back-propagation algorithm with Levenberg-Marquardt learning rule is the best choice to estimate frost growth properties due to accurate and faster training procedure. Second, fractal geometry based on the Von-Koch curve is used to model frost growth procedure especially in frost thickness and density. Comparison is performed between experimental measurements and soft computing methods. Results show that soft computing methods can be used more efficiently to determine frost properties over a flat plate. Based on the developed models, wide range of frost formation over flat plates can be determined for various conditions.

  15. Applicability of the Rayleigh-Gans approximation for scattering by snowflakes at microwave frequencies in vertical incidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyynelä, J.; Leinonen, J.; Westbrook, C. D.; Moisseev, D.; Nousiainen, T.

    2013-02-01

    The applicability of the Rayleigh-Gans approximation (RGA) for scattering by snowflakes is studied in the microwave region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Both the shapes of the single ice crystals, or monomers, and their amounts in the modeled snowflakes are varied. For reference, the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) is used to produce numerically accurate solutions to the single-scattering properties, such as the backscattering and extinction cross-sections, single-scattering albedo, and the asymmetry parameter. We find that the single-scattering albedo is the most accurate with only about 10% relative bias at maximum. The asymmetry parameter has about 0.12 absolute bias at maximum. The backscattering and extinction cross-sections show about - 65% relative biases at maximum, corresponding to about - 4.6 dB difference. Overall, the RGA agrees well with the DDA computations for all the cases studied and is more accurate for the integrated quantities, such as the single-scattering albedo and the asymmetry parameter than the cross-sections for the same snowflakes. The accuracy of the RGA seems to improve, when the number of monomers is increased in an aggregate, and decrease, when the frequency increases. It is also more accurate for less dense monomer shapes, such as stellar dendrites. The DDA and RGA results are well correlated; the sample correlation coefficients of those are close to unity throughout the study. Therefore, the accuracy of the RGA could be improved by applying appropriate correction factors.

  16. Koch's postulates, carnivorous cows, and tuberculosis today.

    PubMed

    Tabrah, Frank L

    2011-07-01

    With Koch's announcement in 1882 of his work with the tubercle bacillus, his famous postulates launched the rational world of infectious disease and an abrupt social change--strict patient isolation. The postulates, so successful at their inception, soon began to show some problems, particularly with cholera, which clearly violated some of Koch's requirements. Subsequent studies of other diseases and the discovery of entirely new ones have so altered and expanded the original postulates that they now are little but a precious touch of history. The present additions and replacements of the original concepts are skillful changes that several authors have devised to introduce new order into understanding complex viral and prion diseases. In 1988, this knowledge, with the totally rational response of the British population and its cattle industry, was critical in promptly blocking the threatened epidemic of human prion disease. In contrast, the recent upsurge of tuberculosis (TB) in the worldwide AIDS epidemic in developing countries, and the sudden increase in metabolic syndrome in wealthy ones, suggests the need for focused sociobiologic research seeking ways to affect the damaging lifestyle behavior of many less educated populations in both settings. The world awaits an equivalent of Koch's Postulates in sociobiology to explain and possibly avert large self-destructive behaviors.

  17. [Julius Ludwig August Koch (1841-1908). Psychiatrist, philosopher, and Christian].

    PubMed

    Gutmann, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    Julius Ludwig August Koch was born 1841 in the small town of Laichingen (Württemberg) in the Southwest of Germany. After working as a chemist for about seven years, he studied medicine in Tübingen from 1863 to 1867. First he worked as a physican and later in a private mental hospital in Göppingen. From 1874 to 1898, he was director of a state mental hospital in Zwiefalten (Württemberg). Koch died in 1908 after a long period of suffering in Zwiefalten. Being deeply routed in a Christian faith and having much interest in moral and ethical issues, Koch published some philosophical works 'Epistomological investigations' (Erkenntnistheoretische Untersuchungen, 1882), 'Outline of philosophy' (Grundriss der Philosophie, 1885) and 'Reality and its knowledge' (Die Wirklichkeit und ihre Erkenntnis, 1886). In this papers he tried to bring together critical Kantian philosophy and Christian conviction. In 1888 he published a 'Short Textbook of Psychiatry' (Kurzgefasster Leitfaden der Psychiatrie), where he mentioned the term "psychopathic inferiority" for the first time (Psychopathische Minderwertigkeiten). The following work, focussing on this issue with the title 'Psychopathic Inferiority' (Die psychopathischen Minderwertigkeiten, 1891-1893), became one of the fundamental texts concerning the concept of disorders of personality, which are in use today. In this book, published in three parts, he tried to describe the hole field between psychic normality and psychoses. Only the first and biggest part deals with psychopathological symptoms which we now think to be essential for personality disorders. Koch differentiates between "disposition" (Disposition), "burden" (Belastung) and "degeneration" (Degeneration), assuming a graduation. "Disposition" should be the mildest disorder, turning into normality, whereas "degeneration" turns to psychosis. Koch believed, that on the basis of all degrees of "psychpathic inferiority" there was a congenital defect of the constitution of

  18. Fractal vector optical fields.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2016-07-15

    We introduce the concept of a fractal, which provides an alternative approach for flexibly engineering the optical fields and their focal fields. We propose, design, and create a new family of optical fields-fractal vector optical fields, which build a bridge between the fractal and vector optical fields. The fractal vector optical fields have polarization states exhibiting fractal geometry, and may also involve the phase and/or amplitude simultaneously. The results reveal that the focal fields exhibit self-similarity, and the hierarchy of the fractal has the "weeding" role. The fractal can be used to engineer the focal field.

  19. From Mathematical Monsters to Generalized Scale Invariance in Geophysics: Highlights of the Multifractal Saga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schertzer, D. J.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Lovejoy, S.

    2013-12-01

    Fractals and multifractals are very illustrative of the profound synergies between mathematics and geophysics. The book ';Fractal Geometry of Nature' (Mandelbrot, 1982) brilliantly demonstrated the genericity in geophysics of geometric forms like Cantor set, Peano curve and Koch snowflake, which were once considered as mathematical monsters. However, to tame the geophysical monsters (e.g. extreme weather, floods, earthquakes), it was required to go beyond geometry and a unique fractal dimension. The concept of multifractal was coined in the course of rather theoretical debates on intermittency in hydrodynamic turbulence, sometimes with direct links to atmospheric dynamics. The latter required a generalized notion of scale in order to deal both with scale symmetries and strong anisotropies (e.g. time vs. space, vertical vs. horizontal). It was thus possible to show that the consequences of intermittency are of first order, not just 'corrections' with respect to the classical non-intermittent modeling. This was in fact a radical paradigm shift for geophysics: the extreme variability of geophysical fields over wide ranges of scale, which had long been so often acknowledged and deplored, suddenly became handy. Recent illustrations are the possibility to track down in large date sets the Higgs boson of intermittence, i.e. a first order multifractal phase transition leading to self-organized criticality, and to simulate intermittent vector fields with the help of Lie cascades, based for instance on random Clifford algebra. It is rather significant that this revolution is no longer limited to fundamental and theoretical problems of geophysics, but now touches many applications including environmental management, in particular for urban management and resilience. These applications are particularly stimulating when taken in their full complexity.

  20. A variational technique to estimate snowfall rate from coincident radar, snowflake, and fall-speed observations

    DOE PAGES

    Cooper, Steven J.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    2017-07-20

    Estimates of snowfall rate as derived from radar reflectivities alone are non-unique. Different combinations of snowflake microphysical properties and particle fall speeds can conspire to produce nearly identical snowfall rates for given radar reflectivity signatures. Such ambiguities can result in retrieval uncertainties on the order of 100–200% for individual events. Here, we use observations of particle size distribution (PSD), fall speed, and snowflake habit from the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to constrain estimates of snowfall derived from Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope Alaska (NSA) Climate Research Facility site at Barrow. MASCmore » measurements of microphysical properties with uncertainties are introduced into a modified form of the optimal-estimation CloudSat snowfall algorithm (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) via the a priori guess and variance terms. Use of the MASC fall speed, MASC PSD, and CloudSat snow particle model as base assumptions resulted in retrieved total accumulations with a -18% difference relative to nearby National Weather Service (NWS) observations over five snow events. The average error was 36% for the individual events. The use of different but reasonable combinations of retrieval assumptions resulted in estimated snowfall accumulations with differences ranging from -64 to +122% for the same storm events. Retrieved snowfall rates were particularly sensitive to assumed fall speed and habit, suggesting that in situ measurements can help to constrain key snowfall retrieval uncertainties. Furthermore, accurate knowledge of these properties dependent upon location and meteorological conditions should help refine and improve ground- and space-based radar estimates of snowfall.« less

  1. A variational technique to estimate snowfall rate from coincident radar, snowflake, and fall-speed observations

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Cooper, Steven J.; Wood, Norman B.; L'Ecuyer, Tristan S.

    Estimates of snowfall rate as derived from radar reflectivities alone are non-unique. Different combinations of snowflake microphysical properties and particle fall speeds can conspire to produce nearly identical snowfall rates for given radar reflectivity signatures. Such ambiguities can result in retrieval uncertainties on the order of 100–200% for individual events. Here, we use observations of particle size distribution (PSD), fall speed, and snowflake habit from the Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to constrain estimates of snowfall derived from Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR) measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope Alaska (NSA) Climate Research Facility site at Barrow. MASCmore » measurements of microphysical properties with uncertainties are introduced into a modified form of the optimal-estimation CloudSat snowfall algorithm (2C-SNOW-PROFILE) via the a priori guess and variance terms. Use of the MASC fall speed, MASC PSD, and CloudSat snow particle model as base assumptions resulted in retrieved total accumulations with a -18% difference relative to nearby National Weather Service (NWS) observations over five snow events. The average error was 36% for the individual events. The use of different but reasonable combinations of retrieval assumptions resulted in estimated snowfall accumulations with differences ranging from -64 to +122% for the same storm events. Retrieved snowfall rates were particularly sensitive to assumed fall speed and habit, suggesting that in situ measurements can help to constrain key snowfall retrieval uncertainties. Furthermore, accurate knowledge of these properties dependent upon location and meteorological conditions should help refine and improve ground- and space-based radar estimates of snowfall.« less

  2. Of Postulates and Peccadillos: Robert Koch and Vaccine (Tuberculin) Therapy for Tuberculosis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    E The Founders of Modern Medicine Walden 5 Koch. P, Weitere Mittheilungen uber emn Heftmittel gegen Publications. New York. 1939. p 73 Tuberculose ...uber emn Heilnitel gegen 45 Brock, T D Robert Koch. A Life in Medicine and Bacteriology ’ Tuberculose [Continuation of the announcement concerning a

  3. Unification of two fractal families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ying

    1995-06-01

    Barnsley and Hurd classify the fractal images into two families: iterated function system fractals (IFS fractals) and fractal transform fractals, or local iterated function system fractals (LIFS fractals). We will call IFS fractals, class 2 fractals and LIFS fractals, class 3 fractals. In this paper, we will unify these two approaches plus another family of fractals, the class 5 fractals. The basic idea is given as follows: a dynamical system can be represented by a digraph, the nodes in a digraph can be divided into two parts: transient states and persistent states. For bilevel images, a persistent node is a black pixel. A transient node is a white pixel. For images with more than two gray levels, a stochastic digraph is used. A transient node is a pixel with the intensity of 0. The intensity of a persistent node is determined by a relative frequency. In this way, the two families of fractals can be generated in a similar way. In this paper, we will first present a classification of dynamical systems and introduce the transformation based on digraphs, then we will unify the two approaches for fractal binary images. We will compare the decoding algorithms of the two families. Finally, we will generalize the discussion to continuous-tone images.

  4. The fractal forest: fractal geometry and applications in forest science.

    Treesearch

    Nancy D. Lorimer; Robert G. Haight; Rolfe A. Leary

    1994-01-01

    Fractal geometry is a tool for describing and analyzing irregularity. Because most of what we measure in the forest is discontinuous, jagged, and fragmented, fractal geometry has potential for improving the precision of measurement and description. This study reviews the literature on fractal geometry and its applications to forest measurements.

  5. Developing physics basis for the snowflake divertor in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE PAGES

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; ...

    2018-02-01

    Recent DIII-D results demonstrate that the snowflake (SF) divertor geometry (cf. standard divertor) enables significant manipulation of divertor heat transport for heat spreading and reduction in attached and radiative divertor regimes, between and during edge localized modes (ELMs), while maintaining good H-mode confinement. Snowflake divertor configurations have been realized in the DIII-D tokamak for several seconds in H-mode discharges with heating power PNBImore » $$\\leqslant$$ 4-5 MW and a range of plasma currents Ip = 0.8-1.2 MA. In this work, inter-ELM transport and radiative SF divertor properties are studied. Significant impact of geometric properties on SOL and divertor plasma parameters, including increased poloidal magnetic flux expansion, divertor magnetic field line length and divertor volume, is confirmed. In the SF-minus configuration, heat deposition is affected by the geometry, and peak divertor heat fluxes are significantly reduced. In the SF-plus and near-exact SF configurations, divertor peak heat flux reduction and outer strike point heat flux profile broadening are observed. Inter-ELM sharing of power and particle fluxes between the main and additional snowflake divertor strike points has been demonstrated. The additional strike points typically receive up to 10-15% of total outer divertor power. Measurements of electron pressure and poloidal beta !p support the theoretically proposed churning mode that is driven by toroidal curvature and vertical pressure gradient in the weak poloidal field region. A comparison of the 4-4.5 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with radiative SF divertor and the standard radiative divertor (both induced with additional gas puffing) shows a nearly complete power detachment and broader divertor radiated power distribution in the SF, as compared to a partial detachment and peaked localized radiation in the standard divertor. However, insignificant difference in the detachment onset w.r.t. density between the SF and

  6. Developing physics basis for the snowflake divertor in the DIII-D tokamak

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.

    Recent DIII-D results demonstrate that the snowflake (SF) divertor geometry (cf. standard divertor) enables significant manipulation of divertor heat transport for heat spreading and reduction in attached and radiative divertor regimes, between and during edge localized modes (ELMs), while maintaining good H-mode confinement. Snowflake divertor configurations have been realized in the DIII-D tokamak for several seconds in H-mode discharges with heating power PNBImore » $$\\leqslant$$ 4-5 MW and a range of plasma currents Ip = 0.8-1.2 MA. In this work, inter-ELM transport and radiative SF divertor properties are studied. Significant impact of geometric properties on SOL and divertor plasma parameters, including increased poloidal magnetic flux expansion, divertor magnetic field line length and divertor volume, is confirmed. In the SF-minus configuration, heat deposition is affected by the geometry, and peak divertor heat fluxes are significantly reduced. In the SF-plus and near-exact SF configurations, divertor peak heat flux reduction and outer strike point heat flux profile broadening are observed. Inter-ELM sharing of power and particle fluxes between the main and additional snowflake divertor strike points has been demonstrated. The additional strike points typically receive up to 10-15% of total outer divertor power. Measurements of electron pressure and poloidal beta !p support the theoretically proposed churning mode that is driven by toroidal curvature and vertical pressure gradient in the weak poloidal field region. A comparison of the 4-4.5 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with radiative SF divertor and the standard radiative divertor (both induced with additional gas puffing) shows a nearly complete power detachment and broader divertor radiated power distribution in the SF, as compared to a partial detachment and peaked localized radiation in the standard divertor. However, insignificant difference in the detachment onset w.r.t. density between the SF and

  7. Fractal astronomy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, M.

    1989-02-01

    The author discusses some of the more recent research on fractal astronomy and results presented in several astronomical studies. First, the large-scale structure of the universe is considered, while in another section one drops in scale to examine some of the smallest bodies in our solar system; the comets and meteoroids. The final section presents some thoughts on what influence the fractal ideology might have on astronomy, focusing particularly on the question recently raised by Kadanoff, "Fractals: where's the physics?"

  8. Spectrum of walk matrix for Koch network and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Pinchen; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Zhongzhi

    2015-06-01

    Various structural and dynamical properties of a network are encoded in the eigenvalues of walk matrix describing random walks on the network. In this paper, we study the spectra of walk matrix of the Koch network, which displays the prominent scale-free and small-world features. Utilizing the particular architecture of the network, we obtain all the eigenvalues and their corresponding multiplicities. Based on the link between the eigenvalues of walk matrix and random target access time defined as the expected time for a walker going from an arbitrary node to another one selected randomly according to the steady-state distribution, we then derive an explicit solution to the random target access time for random walks on the Koch network. Finally, we corroborate our computation for the eigenvalues by enumerating spanning trees in the Koch network, using the connection governing eigenvalues and spanning trees, where a spanning tree of a network is a subgraph of the network, that is, a tree containing all the nodes.

  9. Fractals for Geoengineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleshko, Klaudia; de Jesús Correa López, María; Romero, Alejandro; Ramírez, Victor; Pérez, Olga

    2016-04-01

    The effectiveness of fractal toolbox to capture the scaling or fractal probability distribution, and simply fractal statistics of main hydrocarbon reservoir attributes, was highlighted by Mandelbrot (1995) and confirmed by several researchers (Zhao et al., 2015). Notwithstanding, after more than twenty years, it's still common the opinion that fractals are not useful for the petroleum engineers and especially for Geoengineering (Corbett, 2012). In spite of this negative background, we have successfully applied the fractal and multifractal techniques to our project entitled "Petroleum Reservoir as a Fractal Reactor" (2013 up to now). The distinguishable feature of Fractal Reservoir is the irregular shapes and rough pore/solid distributions (Siler, 2007), observed across a broad range of scales (from SEM to seismic). At the beginning, we have accomplished the detailed analysis of Nelson and Kibler (2003) Catalog of Porosity and Permeability, created for the core plugs of siliciclastic rocks (around ten thousand data were compared). We enriched this Catalog by more than two thousand data extracted from the last ten years publications on PoroPerm (Corbett, 2012) in carbonates deposits, as well as by our own data from one of the PEMEX, Mexico, oil fields. The strong power law scaling behavior was documented for the major part of these data from the geological deposits of contrasting genesis. Based on these results and taking into account the basic principles and models of the Physics of Fractals, introduced by Per Back and Kan Chen (1989), we have developed new software (Muukíl Kaab), useful to process the multiscale geological and geophysical information and to integrate the static geological and petrophysical reservoir models to dynamic ones. The new type of fractal numerical model with dynamical power law relations among the shapes and sizes of mesh' cells was designed and calibrated in the studied area. The statistically sound power law relations were established

  10. On the relationship between the snowflake type aloft and the surface precipitation types at temperatures near 0 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankaré, Housseyni; Thériault, Julie M.

    2016-11-01

    Winter precipitation types can have major consequences on power outages, road conditions and air transportation. The type of precipitation reaching the surface depends strongly on the vertical temperature of the atmosphere, which is often composed of a warm layer aloft and a refreezing layer below it. A small variation of the vertical structure can lead to a change in the type of precipitation near the surface. It has been shown in previous studies that the type of precipitation depends also on the precipitation rate, which is directly linked to the particle size distribution and that a difference as low as 0.5 °C in the vertical temperature profile could change the type of precipitation near the surface. Given the importance of better understanding the formation of winter precipitation type, the goal of this study is to assess the impact of the snowflake habit aloft on the type of precipitation reaching the surface when the vertical temperature is near 0 °C. To address this, a one dimensional cloud model coupled with a bulk microphysics scheme was used. Four snowflake types (dendrite, bullet, column and graupel) have been added to the scheme. The production of precipitation at the surface from these types of snow has been compared to available observations. The results showed that the thickness of the snow-rain transition is four times deeper when columns and graupel only fall through the atmosphere compared to dendrites. Furthermore, a temperature of the melting layer that is three (four) times warmer is required to completely melt columns and graupel (dendrites). Finally, the formation of freezing rain is associated with the presence of lower density snowflakes (dendrites) aloft compared to the production of ice pellets (columns). Overall, this study demonstrated that the type of snowflakes has an impact on the type of precipitation reaching the surface when the temperature is near 0 °C.

  11. Origins of multicellular evolvability in snowflake yeast

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, William C.; Fankhauser, Johnathon D.; Rogers, David W.; Greig, Duncan; Travisano, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Complex life has arisen through a series of ‘major transitions’ in which collectives of formerly autonomous individuals evolve into a single, integrated organism. A key step in this process is the origin of higher-level evolvability, but little is known about how higher-level entities originate and gain the capacity to evolve as an individual. Here we report a single mutation that not only creates a new level of biological organization, but also potentiates higher-level evolvability. Disrupting the transcription factor ACE2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae prevents mother–daughter cell separation, generating multicellular ‘snowflake’ yeast. Snowflake yeast develop through deterministic rules that produce geometrically defined clusters that preclude genetic conflict and display a high broad-sense heritability for multicellular traits; as a result they are preadapted to multicellular adaptation. This work demonstrates that simple microevolutionary changes can have profound macroevolutionary consequences, and suggests that the formation of clonally developing clusters may often be the first step to multicellularity. PMID:25600558

  12. Design of snowflake-diverted equilibria of CFETR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang, LI; Xiang, GAO; Guoqiang, LI; Zhengping, LUO; Damao, YAO; Yong, GUO

    2018-03-01

    The Chinese Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) represents the next generation of full superconducting fusion reactors in China. Recently, CFETR was redesigned with a larger size and will be operated in two phases. To reduce the heat flux on the target plate, a snowflake (SF) divertor configuration is proposed. In this paper we show that by adding two dedicated poloidal field (PF) coils, the SF configuration can be achieved in both phases. The equilibria were calculated by TEQ code for a range of self-inductances l i3. The coil currents were calculated at some fiducial points in the flattop phase. The results indicate that the PF coil system has the ability to maintain a long flattop phase in 7.5 and 10 MA inductive scenarios for the single null divertor (SND) and SF divertor configurations. The properties of the SF configuration were also analyzed. The connection length and flux expansion of the SF divertor were both increased significantly over the SND.

  13. What Koch Plans for the City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Marcia

    1978-01-01

    Presents a recent interview with education and political reporters of the New York Times and Herman Badillo, the man in charge of education and a Deputy Mayor of New York, on the Koch administration's plans for the New York City public school system. (Author/RK)

  14. High-resolution mapping of the triangle of Koch: Spatial heterogeneity of fast pathway atrionodal connections.

    PubMed

    Chua, Kelvin; Upadhyay, Gaurav A; Lee, Elliot; Aziz, Zaid; Beaser, Andrew D; Ozcan, Cevher; Broman, Michael; Nayak, Hemal M; Tung, Roderick

    2018-03-01

    Dedicated mapping studies of the triangle of Koch to characterize retrograde fast pathway activation have not been previously performed using high-resolution, 3-dimensional, multielectrode mapping technology. To delineate the activation pattern and spatial distribution of the retrograde fast pathway within the triangle of Koch during typical atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) and right ventricular pacing in a consecutive series of patients using the Rhythmia mapping system (Boston Scientific, Natick, MA). A total of 18 patients with symptomatic typical AVNRT referred for ablation underwent ultra high-density mapping of atrial activation with minielectrode basket configuration during tachycardia. The earliest atrial activation was mapped using automated annotation, with manual overreading by 2 independent observers. The triangle of Koch was classified into 3 anatomic regions: anteroseptal (His), midseptal, and posteroseptal (coronary sinus roof). Thirteen patients underwent mapping of atrial activation during ventricular pacing. A median of 422 mapping points (interquartile range 258-896 points) was acquired within the triangle of Koch during tachycardia. The most common site of earliest atrial activation within the triangle of Koch was anterior in 67% of patients (n = 12). Midseptal early atrial activation was seen in 17% (n = 3), and posteroseptal activation was observed in 11% (n = 2). One patient exhibited broad simultaneous activation of the entire triangle of Koch. Slow pathway potentials were not identified. With high-resolution multielectrode mapping, atrial activation during typical AVNRT exhibited anatomic variability and spatially heterogeneous activation within the triangle of Koch. These findings highlight the limitations of an anatomically based classification of atrioventricular nodal retrograde pathways. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Fractal pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis M

    2010-06-01

    Pharmacokinetics (PK) has been traditionally dealt with under the homogeneity assumption. However, biological systems are nowadays comprehensively understood as being inherently fractal. Specifically, the microenvironments where drug molecules interact with membrane interfaces, metabolic enzymes or pharmacological receptors, are unanimously recognized as unstirred, space-restricted, heterogeneous and geometrically fractal. Therefore, classical Fickean diffusion and the notion of the compartment as a homogeneous kinetic space must be revisited. Diffusion in fractal spaces has been studied for a long time making use of fractional calculus and expanding on the notion of dimension. Combining this new paradigm with the need to describe and explain experimental data results in defining time-dependent rate constants with a characteristic fractal exponent. Under the one-compartment simplification this strategy is straightforward. However, precisely due to the heterogeneity of the underlying biology, often at least a two-compartment model is required to address macroscopic data such as drug concentrations. This simple modelling step-up implies significant analytical and numerical complications. However, a few methods are available that make possible the original desideratum. In fact, exploring the full range of parametric possibilities and looking at different drugs and respective biological concentrations, it may be concluded that all PK modelling approaches are indeed particular cases of the fractal PK theory.

  16. Scaling of Average Weighted Receiving Time on Double-Weighted Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Ye, Dandan; Hou, Jie; Li, Xingyi

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we introduce a model of the double-weighted Koch networks based on actual road networks depending on the two weight factors w,r ∈ (0, 1]. The double weights represent the capacity-flowing weight and the cost-traveling weight, respectively. Denote by wFij the capacity-flowing weight connecting the nodes i and j, and denote by wCij the cost-traveling weight connecting the nodes i and j. Let wFij be related to the weight factor w, and let wCij be related to the weight factor r. This paper assumes that the walker, at each step, starting from its current node, moves to any of its neighbors with probability proportional to the capacity-flowing weight of edge linking them. The weighted time for two adjacency nodes is the cost-traveling weight connecting the two nodes. We define the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) on the double-weighted Koch networks. The obtained result displays that in the large network, the AWRT grows as power-law function of the network order with the exponent, represented by θ(w,r) = ½ log2(1 + 3wr). We show that the AWRT exhibits a sublinear or linear dependence on network order. Thus, the double-weighted Koch networks are more efficient than classic Koch networks in receiving information.

  17. Reply to "Comment on 'Hydrodynamics of fractal continuum flow' and 'Map of fluid flow in fractal porous medium into fractal continuum flow'".

    PubMed

    Balankin, Alexander S; Elizarraraz, Benjamin Espinoza

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this Reply is to elucidate the difference between the fractal continuum models used in the preceding Comment and the models of fractal continuum flow which were put forward in our previous articles [Phys. Rev. E 85, 025302(R) (2012); 85, 056314 (2012)]. In this way, some drawbacks of the former models are highlighted. Specifically, inconsistencies in the definitions of the fractal derivative, the Jacobian of transformation, the displacement vector, and angular momentum are revealed. The proper forms of the Reynolds' transport theorem and angular momentum principle for the fractal continuum are reaffirmed in a more illustrative manner. Consequently, we emphasize that in the absence of any internal angular momentum, body couples, and couple stresses, the Cauchy stress tensor in the fractal continuum should be symmetric. Furthermore, we stress that the approach based on the Cartesian product measured and used in the preceding Comment cannot be employed to study the path-connected fractals, such as a flow in a fractally permeable medium. Thus, all statements of our previous works remain unchallenged.

  18. Scattering from fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Alan J.

    The realization that structures in Nature often can be described by Mandelbrot's fractals has led to a revolution in many areas of physics. The interaction of waves with fractal systems has, understandably, become intensely studied since scattering is the method of choice to probe delicate fractal structures such as chainlike particle aggregates. Not all of these waves are electromagnetic. Neutron scattering, for example, is an important complementary tool to structural studies by X-ray and light scattering. Since the phenomenology of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), as it is applied to fractal systems, is identical to that of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), it falls within the scope of this paper.

  19. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified.... The name of the food is “cook cheese” or, alternatively, “koch kaese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of...

  20. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified.... The name of the food is “cook cheese” or, alternatively, “koch kaese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of...

  1. 21 CFR 133.127 - Cook cheese, koch kaese.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the clotting enzymes specified.... The name of the food is “cook cheese” or, alternatively, “koch kaese”. (d) Label declaration. Each of...

  2. Fractal Electronic Circuits Assembled From Nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, M. S.; McCarthy, D.; Taylor, R. P.; Brown, S. A.

    2009-07-01

    Many patterns in nature can be described using fractal geometry. The effect of this fractal character is an array of properties that can include high internal connectivity, high dispersivity, and enhanced surface area to volume ratios. These properties are often desirable in applications and, consequently, fractal geometry is increasingly employed in technologies ranging from antenna to storm barriers. In this paper, we explore the application of fractal geometry to electrical circuits, inspired by the pervasive fractal structure of neurons in the brain. We show that, under appropriate growth conditions, nanoclusters of Sb form into islands on atomically flat substrates via a process close to diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA), establishing fractal islands that will form the basis of our fractal circuits. We perform fractal analysis of the islands to determine the spatial scaling properties (characterized by the fractal dimension, D) of the proposed circuits and demonstrate how varying growth conditions can affect D. We discuss fabrication approaches for establishing electrical contact to the fractal islands. Finally, we present fractal circuit simulations, which show that the fractal character of the circuit translates into novel, non-linear conduction properties determined by the circuit's D value.

  3. Fractals and foods.

    PubMed

    Peleg, M

    1993-01-01

    Fractal geometry and related concepts have had only a very minor impact on food research. The very few reported food applications deal mainly with the characterization of the contours of agglomerated instant coffee particles, the surface morphology of treated starch particles, the microstructure of casein gels viewed as a product limited diffusion aggregation, and the jagged mechanical signatures of crunchy dry foods. Fractal geometry describes objects having morphological features that are scale invariant. A demonstration of the self-similarity of fractal objects can be found in the familiar morphology of cauliflower and broccoli, both foods. Processes regulated by nonlinear dynamics can exhibit a chaotic behavior that has fractal characteristics. Examples are mixing of viscous fluids, turbulence, crystallization, agglomeration, diffusion, and possibly food spoilage.

  4. Confirming the appearance of excess success: Reply to van Boxtel and Koch (2016).

    PubMed

    Francis, Gregory

    2016-12-01

    van Boxtel and Koch (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. doi: 10.3758/s13423-016-1010-0 , 2016) reported finding problems in the Test for Excess Success (TES) analysis in Francis (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21, 1180-1187, 2014). They argued that their findings undermined the general analysis and the conclusions of the specific TES analysis for their article (van Boxtel & Koch in Psychological Science, 23(4), 410-418, 2012). As shown in this paper, their reported problems reflect misunderstandings about both the general properties of a TES analysis and how it was applied to their specific set of findings. Another look at the findings and theoretical claims in van Boxtel and Koch (Psychological Science, 23(4), 410-418, 2012) confirms the appearance of excess success.

  5. Fractals in geology and geophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, Donald L.

    1989-01-01

    The definition of a fractal distribution is that the number of objects N with a characteristic size greater than r scales with the relation N of about r exp -D. The frequency-size distributions for islands, earthquakes, fragments, ore deposits, and oil fields often satisfy this relation. This application illustrates a fundamental aspect of fractal distributions, scale invariance. The requirement of an object to define a scale in photograhs of many geological features is one indication of the wide applicability of scale invariance to geological problems; scale invariance can lead to fractal clustering. Geophysical spectra can also be related to fractals; these are self-affine fractals rather than self-similar fractals. Examples include the earth's topography and geoid.

  6. Fractals in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraboni, Michael; Moller, Trisha

    2008-01-01

    Fractal geometry offers teachers great flexibility: It can be adapted to the level of the audience or to time constraints. Although easily explained, fractal geometry leads to rich and interesting mathematical complexities. In this article, the authors describe fractal geometry, explain the process of iteration, and provide a sample exercise.…

  7. Fundamental Fractal Antenna Design Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L. P.; Kim, T. C.; Kakas, G. D.

    2017-12-01

    Antenna designers are always looking to come up with new ideas to push the envelope for new antennas, using a smaller volume while striving for higher bandwidth, wider bandwidth, and antenna gain. One proposed method of increasing bandwidth or shrinking antenna size is via the use of fractal geometry, which gives rise to fractal antennas. Fractals are those fun shapes that if one zooms in or zoom out, the structure is always the same. Design a new type of antenna based on fractal antenna design by utilize the Design of Experiment (DOE) will be shown in fractal antenna design process. Investigate conformal fractal antenna design for patterns, dimensions, and size, of the antenna but maintaining or improving the antenna performance. Research shows an antenna designer how to create basic requirements of the fractal antenna through a step by step process, and provides how to optimize the antenna design with the model prediction, lab measurement, and actual results from the compact range measurement on the antenna patterns.

  8. Composing a la Koch: Making Sense of Catastrophe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroble, Elizabeth

    1987-01-01

    Argues one way to make sense of a catastrophe is to use Kenneth Koch's poetry methods. By using these strategics, teachers can help students discover the thoughts and feelings of great artists. Students can then express their thoughts through these model poems. (BR)

  9. Fractals, Coherence and Brain Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2010-11-01

    I show that the self-similarity property of deterministic fractals provides a direct connection with the space of the entire analytical functions. Fractals are thus described in terms of coherent states in the Fock-Bargmann representation. Conversely, my discussion also provides insights on the geometrical properties of coherent states: it allows to recognize, in some specific sense, fractal properties of coherent states. In particular, the relation is exhibited between fractals and q-deformed coherent states. The connection with the squeezed coherent states is also displayed. In this connection, the non-commutative geometry arising from the fractal relation with squeezed coherent states is discussed and the fractal spectral properties are identified. I also briefly discuss the description of neuro-phenomenological data in terms of squeezed coherent states provided by the dissipative model of brain and consider the fact that laboratory observations have shown evidence that self-similarity characterizes the brain background activity. This suggests that a connection can be established between brain dynamics and the fractal self-similarity properties on the basis of the relation discussed in this report between fractals and squeezed coherent states. Finally, I do not consider in this paper the so-called random fractals, namely those fractals obtained by randomization processes introduced in their iterative generation. Since self-similarity is still a characterizing property in many of such random fractals, my conjecture is that also in such cases there must exist a connection with the coherent state algebraic structure. In condensed matter physics, in many cases the generation by the microscopic dynamics of some kind of coherent states is involved in the process of the emergence of mesoscopic/macroscopic patterns. The discussion presented in this paper suggests that also fractal generation may provide an example of emergence of global features, namely long range

  10. Fractals: To Know, to Do, to Simulate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talanquer, Vicente; Irazoque, Glinda

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development of fractal theory and suggests fractal aggregates as an attractive alternative for introducing fractal concepts. Describes methods for producing metallic fractals and a computer simulation for drawing fractals. (MVL)

  11. Electromagnetism on anisotropic fractal media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Basic equations of electromagnetic fields in anisotropic fractal media are obtained using a dimensional regularization approach. First, a formulation based on product measures is shown to satisfy the four basic identities of the vector calculus. This allows a generalization of the Green-Gauss and Stokes theorems as well as the charge conservation equation on anisotropic fractals. Then, pursuing the conceptual approach, we derive the Faraday and Ampère laws for such fractal media, which, along with two auxiliary null-divergence conditions, effectively give the modified Maxwell equations. Proceeding on a separate track, we employ a variational principle for electromagnetic fields, appropriately adapted to fractal media, so as to independently derive the same forms of these two laws. It is next found that the parabolic (for a conducting medium) and the hyperbolic (for a dielectric medium) equations involve modified gradient operators, while the Poynting vector has the same form as in the non-fractal case. Finally, Maxwell's electromagnetic stress tensor is reformulated for fractal systems. In all the cases, the derived equations for fractal media depend explicitly on fractal dimensions in three different directions and reduce to conventional forms for continuous media with Euclidean geometries upon setting these each of dimensions equal to unity.

  12. The fractal geometry of life.

    PubMed

    Losa, Gabriele A

    2009-01-01

    The extension of the concepts of Fractal Geometry (Mandelbrot [1983]) toward the life sciences has led to significant progress in understanding complex functional properties and architectural / morphological / structural features characterising cells and tissues during ontogenesis and both normal and pathological development processes. It has even been argued that fractal geometry could provide a coherent description of the design principles underlying living organisms (Weibel [1991]). Fractals fulfil a certain number of theoretical and methodological criteria including a high level of organization, shape irregularity, functional and morphological self-similarity, scale invariance, iterative pathways and a peculiar non-integer fractal dimension [FD]. Whereas mathematical objects are deterministic invariant or self-similar over an unlimited range of scales, biological components are statistically self-similar only within a fractal domain defined by upper and lower limits, called scaling window, in which the relationship between the scale of observation and the measured size or length of the object can be established (Losa and Nonnenmacher [1996]). Selected examples will contribute to depict complex biological shapes and structures as fractal entities, and also to show why the application of the fractal principle is valuable for measuring dimensional, geometrical and functional parameters of cells, tissues and organs occurring within the vegetal and animal realms. If the criteria for a strict description of natural fractals are met, then it follows that a Fractal Geometry of Life may be envisaged and all natural objects and biological systems exhibiting self-similar patterns and scaling properties may be considered as belonging to the new subdiscipline of "fractalomics".

  13. Fractals in physiology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.; West, Bruce J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper demonstrates how the nonlinear concepts of fractals, as applied in physiology and medicine, can provide an insight into the organization of such complex structures as the tracheobronchial tree and heart, as well as into the dynamics of healthy physiological variability. Particular attention is given to the characteristics of computer-generated fractal lungs and heart and to fractal pathologies in these organs. It is shown that alterations in fractal scaling may underlie a number of pathophysiological disturbances, including sudden cardiac death syndromes.

  14. Koch Mineral Services Response to Section 114 Information Request

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Koch Minerals asserts EPA's request exceeds the scope of the Clean Air Act; but does provide site information for its KCBX, Duluth, and Green Bay petroleum coke staging and handling facilities, throughput logs, and fugitive emissions prevention measures.

  15. Comparison of two fractal interpolation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yang; Zheng, Zeyu; Xiao, Rui; Shi, Haibo

    2017-03-01

    As a tool for studying complex shapes and structures in nature, fractal theory plays a critical role in revealing the organizational structure of the complex phenomenon. Numerous fractal interpolation methods have been proposed over the past few decades, but they differ substantially in the form features and statistical properties. In this study, we simulated one- and two-dimensional fractal surfaces by using the midpoint displacement method and the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method, and observed great differences between the two methods in the statistical characteristics and autocorrelation features. From the aspect of form features, the simulations of the midpoint displacement method showed a relatively flat surface which appears to have peaks with different height as the fractal dimension increases. While the simulations of the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method showed a rough surface which appears to have dense and highly similar peaks as the fractal dimension increases. From the aspect of statistical properties, the peak heights from the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot simulations are greater than those of the middle point displacement method with the same fractal dimension, and the variances are approximately two times larger. When the fractal dimension equals to 1.2, 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8, the skewness is positive with the midpoint displacement method and the peaks are all convex, but for the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method the skewness is both positive and negative with values fluctuating in the vicinity of zero. The kurtosis is less than one with the midpoint displacement method, and generally less than that of the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method. The autocorrelation analysis indicated that the simulation of the midpoint displacement method is not periodic with prominent randomness, which is suitable for simulating aperiodic surface. While the simulation of the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function method has

  16. Turbulence Enhancement by Fractal Square Grids: Effects of the Number of Fractal Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omilion, Alexis; Ibrahim, Mounir; Zhang, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Fractal square grids offer a unique solution for passive flow control as they can produce wakes with a distinct turbulence intensity peak and a prolonged turbulence decay region at the expense of only minimal pressure drop. While previous studies have solidified this characteristic of fractal square grids, how the number of scales (or fractal iterations N) affect turbulence production and decay of the induced wake is still not well understood. The focus of this research is to determine the relationship between the fractal iteration N and the turbulence produced in the wake flow using well-controlled water-tunnel experiments. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used to measure the instantaneous velocity fields downstream of four different fractal grids with increasing number of scales (N = 1, 2, 3, and 4) and a conventional single-scale grid. By comparing the turbulent scales and statistics of the wake, we are able to determine how each iteration affects the peak turbulence intensity and the production/decay of turbulence from the grid. In light of the ability of these fractal grids to increase turbulence intensity with low pressure drop, this work can potentially benefit a wide variety of applications where energy efficient mixing or convective heat transfer is a key process.

  17. Towards a physics on fractals: Differential vector calculus in three-dimensional continuum with fractal metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Bory-Reyes, Juan; Shapiro, Michael

    2016-02-01

    One way to deal with physical problems on nowhere differentiable fractals is the mapping of these problems into the corresponding problems for continuum with a proper fractal metric. On this way different definitions of the fractal metric were suggested to account for the essential fractal features. In this work we develop the metric differential vector calculus in a three-dimensional continuum with a non-Euclidean metric. The metric differential forms and Laplacian are introduced, fundamental identities for metric differential operators are established and integral theorems are proved by employing the metric version of the quaternionic analysis for the Moisil-Teodoresco operator, which has been introduced and partially developed in this paper. The relations between the metric and conventional operators are revealed. It should be emphasized that the metric vector calculus developed in this work provides a comprehensive mathematical formalism for the continuum with any suitable definition of fractal metric. This offers a novel tool to study physics on fractals.

  18. Order-fractal transitions in abstract paintings

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Calleja, E.M. de la, E-mail: elsama79@gmail.com; Cervantes, F.; Calleja, J. de la

    2016-08-15

    In this study, we determined the degree of order for 22 Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch fractal dimension. Based on the maximum value of each multi-fractal spectrum, the artworks were classified according to the year in which they were painted. It has been reported that Pollock’s paintings are fractal and that this feature was more evident in his later works. However, our results show that the fractal dimension of these paintings ranges among values close to two. We characterize this behavior as a fractal-order transition. Based on the study of disorder-order transition in physical systems, we interpreted the fractal-ordermore » transition via the dark paint strokes in Pollock’s paintings as structured lines that follow a power law measured by the fractal dimension. We determined self-similarity in specific paintings, thereby demonstrating an important dependence on the scale of observations. We also characterized the fractal spectrum for the painting entitled Teri’s Find. We obtained similar spectra for Teri’s Find and Number 5, thereby suggesting that the fractal dimension cannot be rejected completely as a quantitative parameter for authenticating these artworks. -- Highlights: •We determined the degree of order in Jackson Pollock paintings using the Hausdorff–Besicovitch dimension. •We detected a fractal-order transition from Pollock’s paintings between 1947 and 1951. •We suggest that Jackson Pollock could have painted Teri’s Find.« less

  19. Koch Carbon LLC Response to Section 114 Information Request

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Koch Carbon states objections to several of EPA's Dec. 30, 2013 requests, and asserts that its pet coke facilities do not fall within their scope. It does provide end user information for petroleum coke stored/handled by Detroit Bulk Storage.

  20. Entrainment to a real time fractal visual stimulus modulates fractal gait dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Christopher K; Kiefer, Adam W; D'Andrea, Susan E; Warren, William H; Aaron, Roy K

    2014-08-01

    Fractal patterns characterize healthy biological systems and are considered to reflect the ability of the system to adapt to varying environmental conditions. Previous research has shown that fractal patterns in gait are altered following natural aging or disease, and this has potential negative consequences for gait adaptability that can lead to increased risk of injury. However, the flexibility of a healthy neurological system to exhibit different fractal patterns in gait has yet to be explored, and this is a necessary step toward understanding human locomotor control. Fifteen participants walked for 15min on a treadmill, either in the absence of a visual stimulus or while they attempted to couple the timing of their gait with a visual metronome that exhibited a persistent fractal pattern (contained long-range correlations) or a random pattern (contained no long-range correlations). The stride-to-stride intervals of the participants were recorded via analog foot pressure switches and submitted to detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to determine if the fractal patterns during the visual metronome conditions differed from the baseline (no metronome) condition. DFA α in the baseline condition was 0.77±0.09. The fractal patterns in the stride-to-stride intervals were significantly altered when walking to the fractal metronome (DFA α=0.87±0.06) and to the random metronome (DFA α=0.61±0.10) (both p<.05 when compared to the baseline condition), indicating that a global change in gait dynamics was observed. A variety of strategies were identified at the local level with a cross-correlation analysis, indicating that local behavior did not account for the consistent global changes. Collectively, the results show that a gait dynamics can be shifted in a prescribed manner using a visual stimulus and the shift appears to be a global phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Contour fractal analysis of grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guida, Giulia; Casini, Francesca; Viggiani, Giulia MB

    2017-06-01

    Fractal analysis has been shown to be useful in image processing to characterise the shape and the grey-scale complexity in different applications spanning from electronic to medical engineering (e.g. [1]). Fractal analysis consists of several methods to assign a dimension and other fractal characteristics to a dataset describing geometric objects. Limited studies have been conducted on the application of fractal analysis to the classification of the shape characteristics of soil grains. The main objective of the work described in this paper is to obtain, from the results of systematic fractal analysis of artificial simple shapes, the characterization of the particle morphology at different scales. The long term objective of the research is to link the microscopic features of granular media with the mechanical behaviour observed in the laboratory and in situ.

  2. Fractal reaction kinetics.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, R

    1988-09-23

    Classical reaction kinetics has been found to be unsatisfactory when the reactants are spatially constrained on the microscopic level by either walls, phase boundaries, or force fields. Recently discovered theories of heterogeneous reaction kinetics have dramatic consequences, such as fractal orders for elementary reactions, self-ordering and self-unmixing of reactants, and rate coefficients with temporal "memories." The new theories were needed to explain the results of experiments and supercomputer simulations of reactions that were confined to low dimensions or fractal dimensions or both. Among the practical examples of "fractal-like kinetics" are chemical reactions in pores of membranes, excitation trapping in molecular aggregates, exciton fusion in composite materials, and charge recombination in colloids and clouds.

  3. Scaling of average weighted shortest path and average receiving time on weighted expanded Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zikai; Hou, Baoyu; Zhang, Hongjuan; Jin, Feng

    2014-04-01

    Deterministic network models have been attractive media for discussing dynamical processes' dependence on network structural features. On the other hand, the heterogeneity of weights affect dynamical processes taking place on networks. In this paper, we present a family of weighted expanded Koch networks based on Koch networks. They originate from a r-polygon, and each node of current generation produces m r-polygons including the node and whose weighted edges are scaled by factor w in subsequent evolutionary step. We derive closed-form expressions for average weighted shortest path length (AWSP). In large network, AWSP stays bounded with network order growing (0 < w < 1). Then, we focus on a special random walks and trapping issue on the networks. In more detail, we calculate exactly the average receiving time (ART). ART exhibits a sub-linear dependence on network order (0 < w < 1), which implies that nontrivial weighted expanded Koch networks are more efficient than un-weighted expanded Koch networks in receiving information. Besides, efficiency of receiving information at hub nodes is also dependent on parameters m and r. These findings may pave the way for controlling information transportation on general weighted networks.

  4. Space-time derivative estimates of the Koch-Tataru solutions to the nematic liquid crystal system in Besov spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiao

    2015-06-01

    In recent paper [7], Y. Du and K. Wang (2013) proved that the global-in-time Koch-Tataru type solution (u, d) to the n-dimensional incompressible nematic liquid crystal flow with small initial data (u0, d0) in BMO-1 × BMO has arbitrary space-time derivative estimates in the so-called Koch-Tataru space norms. The purpose of this paper is to show that the Koch-Tataru type solution satisfies the decay estimates for any space-time derivative involving some borderline Besov space norms.

  5. Chaos, Fractals, and Polynomials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tylee, J. Louis; Tylee, Thomas B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses chaos theory; linear algebraic equations and the numerical solution of polynomials, including the use of the Newton-Raphson technique to find polynomial roots; fractals; search region and coordinate systems; convergence; and generating color fractals on a computer. (LRW)

  6. Fractals in biology and medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Havlin, S.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Goldberger, A. L.; Mantegna, R. N.; Ossadnik, S. M.; Peng, C. K.; Simons, M.; Stanley, H. E.

    1995-01-01

    Our purpose is to describe some recent progress in applying fractal concepts to systems of relevance to biology and medicine. We review several biological systems characterized by fractal geometry, with a particular focus on the long-range power-law correlations found recently in DNA sequences containing noncoding material. Furthermore, we discuss the finding that the exponent alpha quantifying these long-range correlations ("fractal complexity") is smaller for coding than for noncoding sequences. We also discuss the application of fractal scaling analysis to the dynamics of heartbeat regulation, and report the recent finding that the normal heart is characterized by long-range "anticorrelations" which are absent in the diseased heart.

  7. Fractal-Based Image Analysis In Radiological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellepiane, S.; Serpico, S. B.; Vernazza, G.; Viviani, R.

    1987-10-01

    We present some preliminary results of a study aimed to assess the actual effectiveness of fractal theory and to define its limitations in the area of medical image analysis for texture description, in particular, in radiological applications. A general analysis to select appropriate parameters (mask size, tolerance on fractal dimension estimation, etc.) has been performed on synthetically generated images of known fractal dimensions. Moreover, we analyzed some radiological images of human organs in which pathological areas can be observed. Input images were subdivided into blocks of 6x6 pixels; then, for each block, the fractal dimension was computed in order to create fractal images whose intensity was related to the D value, i.e., texture behaviour. Results revealed that the fractal images could point out the differences between normal and pathological tissues. By applying histogram-splitting segmentation to the fractal images, pathological areas were isolated. Two different techniques (i.e., the method developed by Pentland and the "blanket" method) were employed to obtain fractal dimension values, and the results were compared; in both cases, the appropriateness of the fractal description of the original images was verified.

  8. [Robert Koch, eminent medical bacteriologist, creator of the applied microbiology and its technnology].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    In our communication we wish consider to bring at a first instance the egregious figure of Robert Koch a hundred of years after his dead. Nobody else had contributed so much in the development of the bacteriology as unic and independent science. Several books and biographical sketchs had been published about Koch in german, english and french, mainly, with differents detais and interpretations, about his life. However, nobody doubred about his innovator spirit and scientist at highest level. This communication revise and discuss diverse chapters about his life as innovator, researcher, groups leader and Magister.

  9. Langevin Equation on Fractal Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satin, Seema; Gangal, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We analyze random motion of a particle on a fractal curve, using Langevin approach. This involves defining a new velocity in terms of mass of the fractal curve, as defined in recent work. The geometry of the fractal curve, plays an important role in this analysis. A Langevin equation with a particular model of noise is proposed and solved using techniques of the Fα-Calculus.

  10. Emergence of fractal scaling in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zong-Wen; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Some real-world networks are shown to be fractal or self-similar. It is widespread that such a phenomenon originates from the repulsion between hubs or disassortativity. Here we show that this common belief fails to capture the causality. Our key insight to address it is to pinpoint links critical to fractality. Those links with small edge betweenness centrality (BC) constitute a special architecture called fractal reference system, which gives birth to the fractal structure of those reported networks. In contrast, a small amount of links with high BC enable small-world effects, hiding the intrinsic fractality. With enough of such links removed, fractal scaling spontaneously arises from nonfractal networks. Our results provide a multiple-scale view on the structure and dynamics and place fractality as a generic organizing principle of complex networks on a firmer ground.

  11. Some problems in fractal differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weiyi

    2016-06-01

    Based upon the fractal calculus on local fields, or p-type calculus, or Gibbs-Butzer calculus ([1],[2]), we suggest a constructive idea for "fractal differential equations", beginning from some special examples to a general theory. However, this is just an original idea, it needs lots of later work to support. In [3], we show example "two dimension wave equations with fractal boundaries", and in this note, other examples, as well as an idea to construct fractal differential equations are shown.

  12. Thermodynamics of photons on fractals.

    PubMed

    Akkermans, Eric; Dunne, Gerald V; Teplyaev, Alexander

    2010-12-03

    A thermodynamical treatment of a massless scalar field (a photon) confined to a fractal spatial manifold leads to an equation of state relating pressure to internal energy, PV(s) = U/d(s), where d(s) is the spectral dimension and V(s) defines the "spectral volume." For regular manifolds, V(s) coincides with the usual geometric spatial volume, but on a fractal this is not necessarily the case. This is further evidence that on a fractal, momentum space can have a different dimension than position space. Our analysis also provides a natural definition of the vacuum (Casimir) energy of a fractal. We suggest ways that these unusual properties might be probed experimentally.

  13. 8. Photocopy of map from Austin Public Library Augustus Koch, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of map from Austin Public Library Augustus Koch, delineator 1873 AERIAL VIEW OF AUSTIN LOOKING NORTHEAST TAYLOR-HuNNIcUTT HOUSE MARKED '5' - Taylor-Hunnicutt House, 405 West Twelfth Street (moved from Guadalupe Street), Austin, Travis County, TX

  14. Fractal structures and fractal functions as disease indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Escos, J.M; Alados, C.L.; Emlen, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Developmental instability is an early indicator of stress, and has been used to monitor the impacts of human disturbance on natural ecosystems. Here we investigate the use of different measures of developmental instability on two species, green peppers (Capsicum annuum), a plant, and Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica), an animal. For green peppers we compared the variance in allometric relationship between control plants, and a treatment group infected with the tomato spotted wilt virus. The results show that infected plants have a greater variance about the allometric regression line than the control plants. We also observed a reduction in complexity of branch structure in green pepper with a viral infection. Box-counting fractal dimension of branch architecture declined under stress infection. We also tested the reduction in complexity of behavioral patterns under stress situations in Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Fractal dimension of head-lift frequency distribution measures predator detection efficiency. This dimension decreased under stressful conditions, such as advanced pregnancy and parasitic infection. Feeding distribution activities reflect food searching efficiency. Power spectral analysis proves to be the most powerful tool for character- izing fractal behavior, revealing a reduction in complexity of time distribution activity under parasitic infection.

  15. Holographic Characterization of Colloidal Fractal Aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chen; Cheong, Fook Chiong; Ruffner, David B.; Zhong, Xiao; Ward, Michael D.; Grier, David G.

    In-line holographic microscopy images of micrometer-scale fractal aggregates can be interpreted with the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering and an effective-sphere model to obtain each aggregate's size and the population-averaged fractal dimension. We demonstrate this technique experimentally using model fractal clusters of polystyrene nanoparticles and fractal protein aggregates composed of bovine serum albumin and bovine pancreas insulin. This technique can characterize several thousand aggregates in ten minutes and naturally distinguishes aggregates from contaminants such as silicone oil droplets. Work supported by the SBIR program of the NSF.

  16. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  17. Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-09-01

    Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested.

  18. Safely Teaching Koch's Postulates on the Causation of Infectious Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Peter R.

    1990-01-01

    Described is an activity in which the interactions between a parasite and its host may be demonstrated using the relationship between yogurt and two species of bacteria. Background information on Koch's postulates is provided. Materials, laboratory procedures, and results are discussed. (CW)

  19. Roughness Perception of Haptically Displayed Fractal Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, Michael A.; Cutkosky, Mark R.; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Surface profiles were generated by a fractal algorithm and haptically rendered on a force feedback joystick, Subjects were asked to use the joystick to explore pairs of surfaces and report to the experimenter which of the surfaces they felt was rougher. Surfaces were characterized by their root mean square (RMS) amplitude and their fractal dimension. The most important factor affecting the perceived roughness of the fractal surfaces was the RMS amplitude of the surface. When comparing surfaces of fractal dimension 1.2-1.35 it was found that the fractal dimension was negatively correlated with perceived roughness.

  20. A Double-Minded Fractal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a fun activity of generating a double-minded fractal image for a linear algebra class once the idea of rotation and scaling matrices are introduced. In particular the fractal flip-flops between two words, depending on the level at which the image is viewed. (Contains 5 figures.)

  1. Paradigms of Complexity: Fractals and Structures in the Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Miroslav M.

    The Table of Contents for the book is as follows: * Preface * The Origin of Complexity (invited talk) * On the Existence of Spatially Uniform Scaling Laws in the Climate System * Multispectral Backscattering: A Fractal-Structure Probe * Small-Angle Multiple Scattering on a Fractal System of Point Scatterers * Symmetric Fractals Generated by Cellular Automata * Bispectra and Phase Correlations for Chaotic Dynamical Systems * Self-Organized Criticality Models of Neural Development * Altered Fractal and Irregular Heart Rate Behavior in Sick Fetuses * Extract Multiple Scaling in Long-Term Heart Rate Variability * A Semi-Continous Box Counting Method for Fractal Dimension Measurement of Short Single Dimension Temporal Signals - Preliminary Study * A Fractional Brownian Motion Model of Cracking * Self-Affine Scaling Studies on Fractography * Coarsening of Fractal Interfaces * A Fractal Model of Ocean Surface Superdiffusion * Stochastic Subsurface Flow and Transport in Fractal Fractal Conductivity Fields * Rendering Through Iterated Function Systems * The σ-Hull - The Hull Where Fractals Live - Calculating a Hull Bounded by Log Spirals to Solve the Inverse IFS-Problem by the Detected Orbits * On the Multifractal Properties of Passively Convected Scalar Fields * New Statistical Textural Transforms for Non-Stationary Signals: Application to Generalized Mutlifractal Analysis * Laplacian Growth of Parallel Needles: Their Mullins-Sekerka Instability * Entropy Dynamics Associated with Self-Organization * Fractal Properties in Economics (invited talk) * Fractal Approach to the Regional Seismic Event Discrimination Problem * Fractal and Topological Complexity of Radioactive Contamination * Pattern Selection: Nonsingular Saffman-Taylor Finger and Its Dynamic Evolution with Zero Surface Tension * A Family of Complex Wavelets for the Characterization of Singularities * Stabilization of Chaotic Amplitude Fluctuations in Multimode, Intracavity-Doubled Solid-State Lasers * Chaotic

  2. Definition of fractal topography to essential understanding of scale-invariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yi; Wu, Ying; Li, Hui; Zhao, Mengyu; Pan, Jienan

    2017-04-01

    Fractal behavior is scale-invariant and widely characterized by fractal dimension. However, the cor-respondence between them is that fractal behavior uniquely determines a fractal dimension while a fractal dimension can be related to many possible fractal behaviors. Therefore, fractal behavior is independent of the fractal generator and its geometries, spatial pattern, and statistical properties in addition to scale. To mathematically describe fractal behavior, we propose a novel concept of fractal topography defined by two scale-invariant parameters, scaling lacunarity (P) and scaling coverage (F). The scaling lacunarity is defined as the scale ratio between two successive fractal generators, whereas the scaling coverage is defined as the number ratio between them. Consequently, a strictly scale-invariant definition for self-similar fractals can be derived as D = log F /log P. To reflect the direction-dependence of fractal behaviors, we introduce another parameter Hxy, a general Hurst exponent, which is analytically expressed by Hxy = log Px/log Py where Px and Py are the scaling lacunarities in the x and y directions, respectively. Thus, a unified definition of fractal dimension is proposed for arbitrary self-similar and self-affine fractals by averaging the fractal dimensions of all directions in a d-dimensional space, which . Our definitions provide a theoretical, mechanistic basis for understanding the essentials of the scale-invariant property that reduces the complexity of modeling fractals.

  3. An Approach to Study Elastic Vibrations of Fractal Cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Lev; Zepeda, Mario

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents our study of dynamics of fractal solids. Concepts of fractal continuum and time had been used in definitions of a fractal body deformation and motion, formulation of conservation of mass, balance of momentum, and constitutive relationships. A linearized model, which was written in terms of fractal time and spatial derivatives, has been employed to study the elastic vibrations of fractal circular cylinders. Fractal differential equations of torsional, longitudinal and transverse fractal wave equations have been obtained and solution properties such as size and time dependence have been revealed.

  4. Fractal dimension of turbulent black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westernacher-Schneider, John Ryan

    2017-11-01

    We present measurements of the fractal dimension of a turbulent asymptotically anti-de Sitter black brane reconstructed from simulated boundary fluid data at the perfect fluid order using the fluid-gravity duality. We argue that the boundary fluid energy spectrum scaling as E (k )˜k-2 is a more natural setting for the fluid-gravity duality than the Kraichnan-Kolmogorov scaling of E (k )˜k-5 /3, but we obtain fractal dimensions D for spatial sections of the horizon H ∩Σ in both cases: D =2.584 (1 ) and D =2.645 (4 ), respectively. These results are consistent with the upper bound of D =3 , thereby resolving the tension with the recent claim in Adams et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 151602 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.151602] that D =3 +1 /3 . We offer a critical examination of the calculation which led to their result, and show that their proposed definition of the fractal dimension performs poorly as a fractal dimension estimator on one-dimensional curves with known fractal dimension. Finally, we describe how to define and in principle calculate the fractal dimension of spatial sections of the horizon H ∩Σ in a covariant manner, and we speculate on assigning a "bootstrapped" value of fractal dimension to the entire horizon H when it is in a statistically quasisteady turbulent state.

  5. Focusing behavior of the fractal vector optical fields designed by fractal lattice growth model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xu-Zhen; Pan, Yue; Zhao, Meng-Dan; Zhang, Guan-Lin; Zhang, Yu; Tu, Chenghou; Li, Yongnan; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2018-01-22

    We introduce a general fractal lattice growth model, significantly expanding the application scope of the fractal in the realm of optics. This model can be applied to construct various kinds of fractal "lattices" and then to achieve the design of a great diversity of fractal vector optical fields (F-VOFs) combinating with various "bases". We also experimentally generate the F-VOFs and explore their universal focusing behaviors. Multiple focal spots can be flexibly enginnered, and the optical tweezers experiment validates the simulated tight focusing fields, which means that this model allows the diversity of the focal patterns to flexibly trap and manipulate micrometer-sized particles. Furthermore, the recovery performance of the F-VOFs is also studied when the input fields and spatial frequency spectrum are obstructed, and the results confirm the robustness of the F-VOFs in both focusing and imaging processes, which is very useful in information transmission.

  6. Pre-Service Teachers' Concept Images on Fractal Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of pre-service teachers' concept images can provide information about their mental schema of fractal dimension. There is limited research on students' understanding of fractal and fractal dimension. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the pre-service teachers' understandings of fractal dimension based on concept image. The…

  7. Fractal Analysis of Rock Joint Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audy, Ondřej; Ficker, Tomáš

    2017-10-01

    Surface reliefs of rock joints are analyzed in geotechnics when shear strength of rocky slopes is estimated. The rock joint profiles actually are self-affine fractal curves and computations of their fractal dimensions require special methods. Many papers devoted to the fractal properties of these profiles were published in the past but only a few of those papers employed a convenient computational method that would have guaranteed a sound value of that dimension. As a consequence, anomalously low dimensions were presented. This contribution deals with two computational modifications that lead to sound fractal dimensions of the self-affine rock joint profiles. These are the modified box-counting method and the modified yard-stick method sometimes called the compass method. Both these methods are frequently applied to self-similar fractal curves but the self-affine profile curves due to their self-affine nature require modified computational procedures implemented in computer programs.

  8. Fractal dynamics of earthquakes

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bak, P.; Chen, K.

    1995-05-01

    Many objects in nature, from mountain landscapes to electrical breakdown and turbulence, have a self-similar fractal spatial structure. It seems obvious that to understand the origin of self-similar structures, one must understand the nature of the dynamical processes that created them: temporal and spatial properties must necessarily be completely interwoven. This is particularly true for earthquakes, which have a variety of fractal aspects. The distribution of energy released during earthquakes is given by the Gutenberg-Richter power law. The distribution of epicenters appears to be fractal with dimension D {approx} 1--1.3. The number of after shocks decay as a function ofmore » time according to the Omori power law. There have been several attempts to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law by starting from a fractal distribution of faults or stresses. But this is a hen-and-egg approach: to explain the Gutenberg-Richter law, one assumes the existence of another power-law--the fractal distribution. The authors present results of a simple stick slip model of earthquakes, which evolves to a self-organized critical state. Emphasis is on demonstrating that empirical power laws for earthquakes indicate that the Earth`s crust is at the critical state, with no typical time, space, or energy scale. Of course the model is tremendously oversimplified; however in analogy with equilibrium phenomena they do not expect criticality to depend on details of the model (universality).« less

  9. Fractal Patterns and Chaos Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devaney, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers incorporate the chaos game and the concept of a fractal into various areas of the algebra and geometry curriculum. The chaos game approach to fractals provides teachers with an opportunity to help students comprehend the geometry of affine transformations.

  10. Band structures in fractal grading porous phononic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kai; Liu, Ying; Liang, Tianshu; Wang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a new grading porous structure is introduced based on a Sierpinski triangle routine, and wave propagation in this fractal grading porous phononic crystal is investigated. The influences of fractal hierarchy and porosity on the band structures in fractal graidng porous phononic crystals are clarified. Vibration modes of unit cell at absolute band gap edges are given to manifest formation mechanism of absolute band gaps. The results show that absolute band gaps are easy to form in fractal structures comparatively to the normal ones with the same porosity. Structures with higher fractal hierarchies benefit multiple wider absolute band gaps. This work provides useful guidance in design of fractal porous phononic crystals.

  11. Embracing the Black English Vernacular: Response to Koch and Gross.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Myra N.; Burlew, Randi; Hudson, Glenetta

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the findings of L. Koch and A. Gross (1997) and suggests that the positive perceptions of black children toward Black English reflect the dominant linguistic standard within their peer groups. Retention of the Black English vernacular is advocated because it is an expressively rich form of communication. (SLD)

  12. Fractal Signals & Space-Time Cartoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oetama, H. C. Jakob; Maksoed, W. H.

    2016-03-01

    In ``Theory of Scale Relativity'', 1991- L. Nottale states whereas ``scale relativity is a geometrical & fractal space-time theory''. It took in comparisons to ``a unified, wavelet based framework for efficiently synthetizing, analyzing ∖7 processing several broad classes of fractal signals''-Gregory W. Wornell:``Signal Processing with Fractals'', 1995. Furthers, in Fig 1.1. a simple waveform from statistically scale-invariant random process [ibid.,h 3 ]. Accompanying RLE Technical Report 566 ``Synthesis, Analysis & Processing of Fractal Signals'' as well as from Wornell, Oct 1991 herewith intended to deducts =a Δt + (1 - β Δ t) ...in Petersen, et.al: ``Scale invariant properties of public debt growth'',2010 h. 38006p2 to [1/{1- (2 α (λ) /3 π) ln (λ/r)}depicts in Laurent Nottale,1991, h 24. Acknowledgment devotes to theLates HE. Mr. BrigadierGeneral-TNI[rtd].Prof. Ir. HANDOJO.

  13. The Calculation of Fractal Dimension in the Presence of Non-Fractal Clutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    1999-01-01

    The area of information processing has grown dramatically over the last 50 years. In the areas of image processing and information storage the technology requirements have far outpaced the ability of the community to meet demands. The need for faster recognition algorithms and more efficient storage of large quantities of data has forced the user to accept less than lossless retrieval of that data for analysis. In addition to clutter that is not the object of interest in the data set, often the throughput requirements forces the user to accept "noisy" data and to tolerate the clutter inherent in that data. It has been shown that some of this clutter, both the intentional clutter (clouds, trees, etc) as well as the noise introduced on the data by processing requirements can be modeled as fractal or fractal-like. Traditional methods using Fourier deconvolution on these sources of noise in frequency space leads to loss of signal and can, in many cases, completely eliminate the target of interest. The parameters that characterize fractal-like noise (predominately the fractal dimension) have been investigated and a technique to reduce or eliminate noise from real scenes has been developed. Examples of clutter reduced images are presented.

  14. Fractal characteristic in the wearing of cutting tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Anhua; Wang, Jinghui

    1995-11-01

    This paper studies the cutting tool wear with fractal geometry. The wearing image of the flank has been collected by machine vision which consists of CCD camera and personal computer. After being processed by means of preserving smoothing, binary making and edge extracting, the clear boundary enclosing the worn area has been obtained. The fractal dimension of the worn surface is calculated by the methods called `Slit Island' and `Profile'. The experiments and calciating give the conclusion that the worn surface is enclosed by a irregular boundary curve with some fractal dimension and characteristics of self-similarity. Furthermore, the relation between the cutting velocity and the fractal dimension of the worn region has been submitted. This paper presents a series of methods for processing and analyzing the fractal information in the blank wear, which can be applied to research the projective relation between the fractal structure and the wear state, and establish the fractal model of the cutting tool wear.

  15. Fractal-based wideband invisibility cloak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Nathan; Okoro, Obinna; Earle, Dan; Salkind, Phil; Unger, Barry; Yen, Sean; McHugh, Daniel; Polterzycki, Stefan; Shelman-Cohen, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    A wideband invisibility cloak (IC) at microwave frequencies is described. Using fractal resonators in closely spaced (sub wavelength) arrays as a minimal number of cylindrical layers (rings), the IC demonstrates that it is physically possible to attain a `see through' cloaking device with: (a) wideband coverage; (b) simple and attainable fabrication; (c) high fidelity emulation of the free path; (d) minimal side scattering; (d) a near absence of shadowing in the scattering. Although not a practical device, this fractal-enabled technology demonstrator opens up new opportunities for diverted-image (DI) technology and use of fractals in wideband optical, infrared, and microwave applications.

  16. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  17. Power dissipation in fractal AC circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Joe P.; Rogers, Luke G.; Anderson, Loren; Andrews, Ulysses; Brzoska, Antoni; Coffey, Aubrey; Davis, Hannah; Fisher, Lee; Hansalik, Madeline; Loew, Stephen; Teplyaev, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    We extend Feynman’s analysis of an infinite ladder circuit to fractal circuits, providing examples in which fractal circuits constructed with purely imaginary impedances can have characteristic impedances with positive real part. Using (weak) self-similarity of our fractal structures, we provide algorithms for studying the equilibrium distribution of energy on these circuits. This extends the analysis of self-similar resistance networks introduced by Fukushima, Kigami, Kusuoka, and more recently studied by Strichartz et al.

  18. The fractal dimension of cell membrane correlates with its capacitance: A new fractal single-shell model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xujing; Becker, Frederick F.; Gascoyne, Peter R. C.

    2010-01-01

    The scale-invariant property of the cytoplasmic membrane of biological cells is examined by applying the Minkowski–Bouligand method to digitized scanning electron microscopy images of the cell surface. The membrane is found to exhibit fractal behavior, and the derived fractal dimension gives a good description of its morphological complexity. Furthermore, we found that this fractal dimension correlates well with the specific membrane dielectric capacitance derived from the electrorotation measurements. Based on these findings, we propose a new fractal single-shell model to describe the dielectrics of mammalian cells, and compare it with the conventional single-shell model (SSM). We found that while both models fit with experimental data well, the new model is able to eliminate the discrepancy between the measured dielectric property of cells and that predicted by the SSM. PMID:21198103

  19. Poiseuille equation for steady flow of fractal fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2016-07-01

    Fractal fluid is considered in the framework of continuous models with noninteger dimensional spaces (NIDS). A recently proposed vector calculus in NIDS is used to get a description of fractal fluid flow in pipes with circular cross-sections. The Navier-Stokes equations of fractal incompressible viscous fluids are used to derive a generalization of the Poiseuille equation of steady flow of fractal media in pipe.

  20. Fractal Interrelationships in Field and Seismic Data

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wilson, T.H.; Dominic, Jovita; Halverson, Joel

    1997-10-01

    Size scaling interrelationships are evaluated in this study using a fractal model. Fractal models of several geologic variables are examined and include fracture patterns, reflection travel times, structural relief, drainage, topographic relief and active fault patterns. The fractal properties of structural relief inferred from seismic data and structural cross sections provide a quantitative means to characterize and compare complex structural patterns. Studies were conducted using seismic data from the Granny Creek oil field in the Appalachian Plateau. Previous studies of the field reveal that subtle detached structures present on the limb of a larger structure are associated with enhanced productionmore » from the field. Vertical increases of fractal dimension across the zone of detachment provide a measure of the extent to which detachment has occurred. The increases of fractal dimension are greatest in the more productive areas of the field. A result with equally important ramifications is that fracture systems do not appear to be intrinsically fractal as is often suggested in the literature. While examples of nearly identical patterns can be found at different scales supporting the idea of self-similarity, these examples are often taken from different areas and from different lithologies. Examination of fracture systems at different scales in the Valley and Ridge Province suggest that their distribution become increasingly sparse with scale reduction, and therefore are dissimilar or non-fractal. Box counting data in all cases failed to yield a fractal regime. The results obtained from this analysis bring into question the general applicability of reservoir simulations employing fractal models of fracture distribution. The same conclusions were obtained from the analysis of 1D fracture patterns such as those that might appear in a horizontal well.« less

  1. Application to recognition of ferrography image with fractal neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xianzhong; Hu, Tongsen; Zhang, Jian

    2005-10-01

    Because wear particles have fractal characteristics, it is necessary that adding fractal parameters to studying wear particles and diagnosing machine troubles. This paper discusses fractal parameters of wear particles, presents arithmetic calculating fractal dimension, and constructs a fractal neural network which can recognize wear particles image. It is proved by experiments that this fractal neural network can recognize some characteristics of wear particles image, and can also classify wear types.

  2. Fractal characterization of fracture surfaces in concrete

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saouma, V.E.; Barton, C.C.; Gamaleldin, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fractal geometry is used to characterize the roughness of cracked concrete surfaces through a specially built profilometer, and the fractal dimension is subsequently correlated to the fracture toughness and direction of crack propagation. Preliminary results indicate that the fracture surface is indeed fractal over two orders of magnitudes with a dimension of approximately 1.20. ?? 1990.

  3. Fractal Theory and Field Cover Experiments: Implications for the Fractal Characteristics and Radon Diffusion Behavior of Soils and Rocks.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wanyu; Li, Yongmei; Tan, Kaixuan; Duan, Xianzhe; Liu, Dong; Liu, Zehua

    2016-12-01

    Radon diffusion and transport through different media is a complex process affected by many factors. In this study, the fractal theories and field covering experiments were used to study the fractal characteristics of particle size distribution (PSD) of six kinds of geotechnical materials (e.g., waste rock, sand, laterite, kaolin, mixture of sand and laterite, and mixture of waste rock and laterite) and their effects on radon diffusion. In addition, the radon diffusion coefficient and diffusion length were calculated. Moreover, new formulas for estimating diffusion coefficient and diffusion length functional of fractal dimension d of PSD were proposed. These results demonstrate the following points: (1) the fractal dimension d of the PSD can be used to characterize the property of soils and rocks in the studies of radon diffusion behavior; (2) the diffusion coefficient and diffusion length decrease with increasing fractal dimension of PSD; and (3) the effectiveness of final covers in reducing radon exhalation of uranium tailings impoundments can be evaluated on the basis of the fractal dimension of PSD of materials.

  4. Variability of fractal dimension of solar radio flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, Hitaishi; Sharma, Som Kumar; Trivedi, Rupal; Vats, Hari Om

    2018-04-01

    In the present communication, the variation of the fractal dimension of solar radio flux is reported. Solar radio flux observations on a day to day basis at 410, 1415, 2695, 4995, and 8800 MHz are used in this study. The data were recorded at Learmonth Solar Observatory, Australia from 1988 to 2009 covering an epoch of two solar activity cycles (22 yr). The fractal dimension is calculated for the listed frequencies for this period. The fractal dimension, being a measure of randomness, represents variability of solar radio flux at shorter time-scales. The contour plot of fractal dimension on a grid of years versus radio frequency suggests high correlation with solar activity. Fractal dimension increases with increasing frequency suggests randomness increases towards the inner corona. This study also shows that the low frequency is more affected by solar activity (at low frequency fractal dimension difference between solar maximum and solar minimum is 0.42) whereas, the higher frequency is less affected by solar activity (here fractal dimension difference between solar maximum and solar minimum is 0.07). A good positive correlation is found between fractal dimension averaged over all frequencies and yearly averaged sunspot number (Pearson's coefficient is 0.87).

  5. Fractal fluctuations in gaze speed visual search.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Damian G; Anastas, Jason

    2011-04-01

    Visual search involves a subtle coordination of visual memory and lower-order perceptual mechanisms. Specifically, the fluctuations in gaze may provide support for visual search above and beyond what may be attributed to memory. Prior research indicates that gaze during search exhibits fractal fluctuations, which allow for a wide sampling of the field of view. Fractal fluctuations constitute a case of fast diffusion that may provide an advantage in exploration. We present reanalyses of eye-tracking data collected by Stephen and Mirman (Cognition, 115, 154-165, 2010) for single-feature and conjunction search tasks. Fluctuations in gaze during these search tasks were indeed fractal. Furthermore, the degree of fractality predicted decreases in reaction time on a trial-by-trial basis. We propose that fractality may play a key role in explaining the efficacy of perceptual exploration.

  6. Verifying the Dependence of Fractal Coefficients on Different Spatial Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gospodinov, Dragomir; Marekova, Elisaveta; Marinov, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    A fractal distribution requires that the number of objects larger than a specific size r has a power-law dependence on the size N(r) = C/rD∝r-D where D is the fractal dimension. Usually the correlation integral is calculated to estimate the correlation fractal dimension of epicentres. A `box-counting' procedure could also be applied giving the `capacity' fractal dimension. The fractal dimension can be an integer and then it is equivalent to a Euclidean dimension (it is zero of a point, one of a segment, of a square is two and of a cube is three). In general the fractal dimension is not an integer but a fractional dimension and there comes the origin of the term `fractal'. The use of a power-law to statistically describe a set of events or phenomena reveals the lack of a characteristic length scale, that is fractal objects are scale invariant. Scaling invariance and chaotic behavior constitute the base of a lot of natural hazards phenomena. Many studies of earthquakes reveal that their occurrence exhibits scale-invariant properties, so the fractal dimension can characterize them. It has first been confirmed that both aftershock rate decay in time and earthquake size distribution follow a power law. Recently many other earthquake distributions have been found to be scale-invariant. The spatial distribution of both regional seismicity and aftershocks show some fractal features. Earthquake spatial distributions are considered fractal, but indirectly. There are two possible models, which result in fractal earthquake distributions. The first model considers that a fractal distribution of faults leads to a fractal distribution of earthquakes, because each earthquake is characteristic of the fault on which it occurs. The second assumes that each fault has a fractal distribution of earthquakes. Observations strongly favour the first hypothesis. The fractal coefficients analysis provides some important advantages in examining earthquake spatial distribution, which are

  7. a Fractal Network Model for Fractured Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Li, Cuihong; Qiu, Shuxia; Sasmito, Agus Pulung

    2016-04-01

    The transport properties and mechanisms of fractured porous media are very important for oil and gas reservoir engineering, hydraulics, environmental science, chemical engineering, etc. In this paper, a fractal dual-porosity model is developed to estimate the equivalent hydraulic properties of fractured porous media, where a fractal tree-like network model is used to characterize the fracture system according to its fractal scaling laws and topological structures. The analytical expressions for the effective permeability of fracture system and fractured porous media, tortuosity, fracture density and fraction are derived. The proposed fractal model has been validated by comparisons with available experimental data and numerical simulation. It has been shown that fractal dimensions for fracture length and aperture have significant effect on the equivalent hydraulic properties of fractured porous media. The effective permeability of fracture system can be increased with the increase of fractal dimensions for fracture length and aperture, while it can be remarkably lowered by introducing tortuosity at large branching angle. Also, a scaling law between the fracture density and fractal dimension for fracture length has been found, where the scaling exponent depends on the fracture number. The present fractal dual-porosity model may shed light on the transport physics of fractured porous media and provide theoretical basis for oil and gas exploitation, underground water, nuclear waste disposal and geothermal energy extraction as well as chemical engineering, etc.

  8. The fractal nature of vacuum arc cathode spots

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-05-27

    Cathode spot phenomena show many features of fractals, for example self-similar patterns in the emitted light and arc erosion traces. Although there have been hints on the fractal nature of cathode spots in the literature, the fractal approach to spot interpretation is underutilized. In this work, a brief review of spot properties is given, touching the differences between spot type 1 (on cathodes surfaces with dielectric layers) and spot type 2 (on metallic, clean surfaces) as well as the known spot fragment or cell structure. The basic properties of self-similarity, power laws, random colored noise, and fractals are introduced. Severalmore » points of evidence for the fractal nature of spots are provided. Specifically power laws are identified as signature of fractal properties, such as spectral power of noisy arc parameters (ion current, arc voltage, etc) obtained by fast Fourier transform. It is shown that fractal properties can be observed down to the cutoff by measurement resolution or occurrence of elementary steps in physical processes. Random walk models of cathode spot motion are well established: they go asymptotically to Brownian motion for infinitesimal step width. The power spectrum of the arc voltage noise falls as 1/f {sup 2}, where f is frequency, supporting a fractal spot model associated with Brownian motion.« less

  9. Fractal dimension and nonlinear dynamical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, Robert C.; Lindley, John P.

    1993-11-01

    Mandelbrot, Falconer and others have demonstrated the existence of dimensionally invariant geometrical properties of non-linear dynamical processes known as fractals. Barnsley defines fractal geometry as an extension of classical geometry. Such an extension, however, is not mathematically trivial Of specific interest to those engaged in signal processing is the potential use of fractal geometry to facilitate the analysis of non-linear signal processes often referred to as non-linear time series. Fractal geometry has been used in the modeling of non- linear time series represented by radar signals in the presence of ground clutter or interference generated by spatially distributed reflections around the target or a radar system. It was recognized by Mandelbrot that the fractal geometries represented by man-made objects had different dimensions than the geometries of the familiar objects that abound in nature such as leaves, clouds, ferns, trees, etc. The invariant dimensional property of non-linear processes suggests that in the case of acoustic signals (active or passive) generated within a dispersive medium such as the ocean environment, there exists much rich structure that will aid in the detection and classification of various objects, man-made or natural, within the medium.

  10. Fractality à la carte: a general particle aggregation model.

    PubMed

    Nicolás-Carlock, J R; Carrillo-Estrada, J L; Dossetti, V

    2016-01-19

    In nature, fractal structures emerge in a wide variety of systems as a local optimization of entropic and energetic distributions. The fractality of these systems determines many of their physical, chemical and/or biological properties. Thus, to comprehend the mechanisms that originate and control the fractality is highly relevant in many areas of science and technology. In studying clusters grown by aggregation phenomena, simple models have contributed to unveil some of the basic elements that give origin to fractality, however, the specific contribution from each of these elements to fractality has remained hidden in the complex dynamics. Here, we propose a simple and versatile model of particle aggregation that is, on the one hand, able to reveal the specific entropic and energetic contributions to the clusters' fractality and morphology, and, on the other, capable to generate an ample assortment of rich natural-looking aggregates with any prescribed fractal dimension.

  11. Fractal Physiology and the Fractional Calculus: A Perspective

    PubMed Central

    West, Bruce J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

  12. Electro-chemical manifestation of nanoplasmonics in fractal media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baskin, Emmanuel; Iomin, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    Electrodynamics of composite materials with fractal geometry is studied in the framework of fractional calculus. This consideration establishes a link between fractal geometry of the media and fractional integrodifferentiation. The photoconductivity in the vicinity of the electrode-electrolyte fractal interface is studied. The methods of fractional calculus are employed to obtain an analytical expression for the giant local enhancement of the optical electric field inside the fractal composite structure at the condition of the surface plasmon excitation. This approach makes it possible to explain experimental data on photoconductivity in the nano-electrochemistry.

  13. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Weyl law for fat fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spina, María E.; García-Mata, Ignacio; Saraceno, Marcos

    2010-10-01

    It has been conjectured that for a class of piecewise linear maps the closure of the set of images of the discontinuity has the structure of a fat fractal, that is, a fractal with positive measure. An example of such maps is the sawtooth map in the elliptic regime. In this work we analyze this problem quantum mechanically in the semiclassical regime. We find that the fraction of states localized on the unstable set satisfies a modified fractal Weyl law, where the exponent is given by the exterior dimension of the fat fractal.

  14. Effective degrees of freedom of a random walk on a fractal.

    PubMed

    Balankin, Alexander S

    2015-12-01

    We argue that a non-Markovian random walk on a fractal can be treated as a Markovian process in a fractional dimensional space with a suitable metric. This allows us to define the fractional dimensional space allied to the fractal as the ν-dimensional space F(ν) equipped with the metric induced by the fractal topology. The relation between the number of effective spatial degrees of freedom of walkers on the fractal (ν) and fractal dimensionalities is deduced. The intrinsic time of random walk in F(ν) is inferred. The Laplacian operator in F(ν) is constructed. This allows us to map physical problems on fractals into the corresponding problems in F(ν). In this way, essential features of physics on fractals are revealed. Particularly, subdiffusion on path-connected fractals is elucidated. The Coulomb potential of a point charge on a fractal embedded in the Euclidean space is derived. Intriguing attributes of some types of fractals are highlighted.

  15. Effective degrees of freedom of a random walk on a fractal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.

    2015-12-01

    We argue that a non-Markovian random walk on a fractal can be treated as a Markovian process in a fractional dimensional space with a suitable metric. This allows us to define the fractional dimensional space allied to the fractal as the ν -dimensional space Fν equipped with the metric induced by the fractal topology. The relation between the number of effective spatial degrees of freedom of walkers on the fractal (ν ) and fractal dimensionalities is deduced. The intrinsic time of random walk in Fν is inferred. The Laplacian operator in Fν is constructed. This allows us to map physical problems on fractals into the corresponding problems in Fν. In this way, essential features of physics on fractals are revealed. Particularly, subdiffusion on path-connected fractals is elucidated. The Coulomb potential of a point charge on a fractal embedded in the Euclidean space is derived. Intriguing attributes of some types of fractals are highlighted.

  16. Fractal dust constrains the collisional history of comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulle, M.; Blum, J.

    2017-07-01

    The fractal dust particles observed by Rosetta cannot form in the physical conditions observed today in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P hereinafter), being instead consistent with models of the pristine dust aggregates coagulated in the solar nebula. Since bouncing collisions in the protoplanetary disc restructure fractals into compact aggregates (pebbles), the only way to preserve fractals in a comet is the gentle gravitational collapse of a mixture of pebbles and fractals, which must occur before their mutual collision speeds overcome ≈1 m s-1. This condition fixes the pebble radius to ≲1 cm, as confirmed by Comet Nucleus Infrared and Visible Analyser onboard Philae. Here, we show that the flux of fractal particles measured by Rosetta constrains the 67P nucleus in a random packing of cm-sized pebbles, with all the voids among them filled by fractal particles. This structure is inconsistent with any catastrophic collision, which would have compacted or dispersed most fractals, thus leaving empty most voids in the reassembled nucleus. Comets are less numerous than current estimates, as confirmed by lacking small craters on Pluto and Charon. Bilobate comets accreted at speeds <1 m s-1 from cometesimals born in the same disc stream.

  17. Perceptual and Physiological Responses to Jackson Pollock's Fractals

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Richard P.; Spehar, Branka; Van Donkelaar, Paul; Hagerhall, Caroline M.

    2011-01-01

    Fractals have been very successful in quantifying the visual complexity exhibited by many natural patterns, and have captured the imagination of scientists and artists alike. Our research has shown that the poured patterns of the American abstract painter Jackson Pollock are also fractal. This discovery raises an intriguing possibility – are the visual characteristics of fractals responsible for the long-term appeal of Pollock's work? To address this question, we have conducted 10 years of scientific investigation of human response to fractals and here we present, for the first time, a review of this research that examines the inter-relationship between the various results. The investigations include eye tracking, visual preference, skin conductance, and EEG measurement techniques. We discuss the artistic implications of the positive perceptual and physiological responses to fractal patterns. PMID:21734876

  18. A Fractal Dimension Survey of Active Region Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Gallagher, Peter; Ireland, Jack

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to quantifying the magnetic complexity of active regions using a fractal dimension measure is presented. This fully-automated approach uses full disc MDI magnetograms of active regions from a large data set (2742 days of the SoHO mission; 9342 active regions) to compare the calculated fractal dimension to both Mount Wilson classification and flare rate. The main Mount Wilson classes exhibit no distinct fractal dimension distribution, suggesting a self-similar nature of all active regions. Solar flare productivity exhibits an increase in both the frequency and GOES X-ray magnitude of flares from regions with higher fractal dimensions. Specifically a lower threshold fractal dimension of 1.2 and 1.25 exists as a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for an active region to produce M- and X-class flares respectively .

  19. Response to "Comment on `Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake' " [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2014-05-01

    Relying on coil positions relative to the plasma, the "Comment on `Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake' " [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)], emphasizes a criterion for divertor characterization that was critiqued to be ill posed [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)]. We find that no substantive physical differences flow from this criteria. However, using these criteria, the successful NSTX experiment by Ryutov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)] has the coil configuration of an X-divertor (XD), rather than a snowflake (SF). On completing the divertor index (DI) versus distance graph for this NSTX shot (which had an inexplicably missing region), we find that the DI is like an XD for most of the outboard wetted divertor plate. Further, the "proximity condition," used to define an SF [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)], does not have a substantive physics basis to override metrics based on flux expansion and line length. Finally, if the criteria of the comment are important, then the results of NSTX-like experiments could have questionable applicability to reactors.

  20. Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

  1. Pond fractals in a tidal flat.

    PubMed

    Cael, B B; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  2. Pond fractals in a tidal flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cael, B. B.; Lambert, Bennett; Bisson, Kelsey

    2015-11-01

    Studies over the past decade have reported power-law distributions for the areas of terrestrial lakes and Arctic melt ponds, as well as fractal relationships between their areas and coastlines. Here we report similar fractal structure of ponds in a tidal flat, thereby extending the spatial and temporal scales on which such phenomena have been observed in geophysical systems. Images taken during low tide of a tidal flat in Damariscotta, Maine, reveal a well-resolved power-law distribution of pond sizes over three orders of magnitude with a consistent fractal area-perimeter relationship. The data are consistent with the predictions of percolation theory for unscreened perimeters and scale-free cluster size distributions and are robust to alterations of the image processing procedure. The small spatial and temporal scales of these data suggest this easily observable system may serve as a useful model for investigating the evolution of pond geometries, while emphasizing the generality of fractal behavior in geophysical surfaces.

  3. Transport properties of electrons in fractal magnetic-barrier structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lifeng; Fang, Chao; Guo, Yong

    2010-09-01

    Quantum transport properties in fractal magnetically modulated structures are studied by the transfer-matrix method. It is found that the transmission spectra depend sensitively not only on the incident energy and the direction of the wave vector but also on the stage of the fractal structures. Resonance splitting, enhancement, and position shift of the resonance peaks under different magnetic modulation are observed at four different fractal stages, and the relationship between the conductance in the fractal structure and magnetic modulation is also revealed. The results indicate the spectra of the transmission can be considered as fingerprints for the fractal structures, which show the subtle correspondence between magnetic structures and transport behaviors.

  4. Characterization of branch complexity by fractal analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The comparison between complexity in the sense of space occupancy (box-counting fractal dimension D(c) and information dimension D1) and heterogeneity in the sense of space distribution (average evenness index f and evenness variation coefficient J(cv)) were investigated in mathematical fractal objects and natural branch structures. In general, increased fractal dimension was paired with low heterogeneity. Comparisons between branch architecture in Anthyllis cytisoides under different slope exposure and grazing impact revealed that branches were more complex and more homogeneously distributed for plants on northern exposures than southern, while grazing had no impact during a wet year. Developmental instability was also investigated by the statistical noise of the allometric relation between internode length and node order. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that fractal dimension of branch structure can be used to analyze the structural organization of plants, especially if we consider not only fractal dimension but also shoot distribution within the canopy (lacunarity). These indexes together with developmental instability analyses are good indicators of growth responses to the environment.

  5. Towards thermomechanics of fractal media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2007-11-01

    Hans Ziegler’s thermomechanics [1,2,3], established half a century ago, is extended to fractal media on the basis of a recently introduced continuum mechanics due to Tarasov [14,15]. Employing the concept of internal (kinematic) variables and internal stresses, as well as the quasiconservative and dissipative stresses, a field form of the second law of thermodynamics is derived. In contradistinction to the conventional Clausius Duhem inequality, it involves generalized rates of strain and internal variables. Upon introducing a dissipation function and postulating the thermodynamic orthogonality on any lengthscale, constitutive laws of elastic-dissipative fractal media naturally involving generalized derivatives of strain and stress can then be derived. This is illustrated on a model viscoelastic material. Also generalized to fractal bodies is the Hill condition necessary for homogenization of their constitutive responses.

  6. Undergraduate Experiment with Fractal Diffraction Gratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monsoriu, Juan A.; Furlan, Walter D.; Pons, Amparo; Barreiro, Juan C.; Gimenez, Marcos H.

    2011-01-01

    We present a simple diffraction experiment with fractal gratings based on the triadic Cantor set. Diffraction by fractals is proposed as a motivating strategy for students of optics in the potential applications of optical processing. Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are obtained using standard equipment present in most undergraduate physics…

  7. M3D-C1 simulations of the plasma response to RMPs in NSTX-U single-null and snowflake divertor configurations

    DOE PAGES

    Canal, G. P.; Ferraro, N. M.; Evans, T. E.; ...

    2017-04-20

    Here in this work, single- and two-fluid resistive magnetohydrodynamic calculations of the plasma response to n = 3 magnetic perturbations in single-null (SN) and snowflake (SF) divertor configurations are compared with those based on the vacuum approach. The calculations are performed using the code M3D-C 1 and are based on simulated NSTX-U plasmas. Significantly different plasma responses were found from these calculations, with the difference between the single- and two-fluid plasma responses being caused mainly by the different screening mechanism intrinsic to each of these models. Although different plasma responses were obtained from these different plasma models, no significant differencemore » between the SN and SF plasma responses were found. However, due to their different equilibrium properties, magnetic perturbations cause the SF configuration to develop additional and longer magnetic lobes in the null-point region than the SN, regardless of the plasma model used. The intersection of these longer and additional lobes with the divertor plates are expected to cause more striations in the particle and heat flux target profiles. In addition, the results indicate that the size of the magnetic lobes, in both single-null and snowflake configurations, are more sensitive to resonant magnetic perturbations than to non-resonant magnetic perturbations.« less

  8. The analysis of the influence of fractal structure of stimuli on fractal dynamics in fixational eye movements and EEG signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kulish, Vladimir V.; Akrami, Amin

    2016-05-01

    One of the major challenges in vision research is to analyze the effect of visual stimuli on human vision. However, no relationship has been yet discovered between the structure of the visual stimulus, and the structure of fixational eye movements. This study reveals the plasticity of human fixational eye movements in relation to the ‘complex’ visual stimulus. We demonstrated that the fractal temporal structure of visual dynamics shifts towards the fractal dynamics of the visual stimulus (image). The results showed that images with higher complexity (higher fractality) cause fixational eye movements with lower fractality. Considering the brain, as the main part of nervous system that is engaged in eye movements, we analyzed the governed Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal during fixation. We have found out that there is a coupling between fractality of image, EEG and fixational eye movements. The capability observed in this research can be further investigated and applied for treatment of different vision disorders.

  9. Fractal dimension analysis of complexity in Ligeti piano pieces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Rolf

    2005-04-01

    Fractal correlation dimensional analysis has been performed with whole solo piano pieces by Gyrgy Ligeti at every 50ms interval of the pieces. The resulting curves of development of complexity represented by the fractal dimension showed up a very reasonable correlation with the perceptional density of events during these pieces. The seventh piece of Ligeti's ``Musica ricercata'' was used as a test case. Here, each new part of the piece was followed by an increase of the fractal dimension because of the increase of information at the part changes. The second piece ``Galamb borong,'' number seven of the piano Etudes was used, because Ligeti wrote these Etudes after studying fractal geometry. Although the piece is not fractal in the strict mathematical sense, the overall structure of the psychoacoustic event-density as well as the detailed event development is represented by the fractal dimension plot.

  10. Quantitative assessment of early diabetic retinopathy using fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Ning; Donaghue, Kim C; Liew, Gerald; Rogers, Sophie L; Wang, Jie Jin; Lim, Shueh-Wen; Jenkins, Alicia J; Hsu, Wynne; Li Lee, Mong; Wong, Tien Y

    2009-01-01

    Fractal analysis can quantify the geometric complexity of the retinal vascular branching pattern and may therefore offer a new method to quantify early diabetic microvascular damage. In this study, we examined the relationship between retinal fractal dimension and retinopathy in young individuals with type 1 diabetes. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 729 patients with type 1 diabetes (aged 12-20 years) who had seven-field stereoscopic retinal photographs taken of both eyes. From these photographs, retinopathy was graded according to the modified Airlie House classification, and fractal dimension was quantified using a computer-based program following a standardized protocol. In this study, 137 patients (18.8%) had diabetic retinopathy signs; of these, 105 had mild retinopathy. Median (interquartile range) retinal fractal dimension was 1.46214 (1.45023-1.47217). After adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration, A1C, blood pressure, and total cholesterol, increasing retinal vascular fractal dimension was significantly associated with increasing odds of retinopathy (odds ratio 3.92 [95% CI 2.02-7.61] for fourth versus first quartile of fractal dimension). In multivariate analysis, each 0.01 increase in retinal vascular fractal dimension was associated with a nearly 40% increased odds of retinopathy (1.37 [1.21-1.56]). This association remained after additional adjustment for retinal vascular caliber. Greater retinal fractal dimension, representing increased geometric complexity of the retinal vasculature, is independently associated with early diabetic retinopathy signs in type 1 diabetes. Fractal analysis of fundus photographs may allow quantitative measurement of early diabetic microvascular damage.

  11. The role of the circadian system in fractal neurophysiological control

    PubMed Central

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin R.; Scheer, Frank A.J.L.; Butler, Matthew P.; Shea, Steven A.; Hu, Kun

    2013-01-01

    Many neurophysiological variables such as heart rate, motor activity, and neural activity are known to exhibit intrinsic fractal fluctuations - similar temporal fluctuation patterns at different time scales. These fractal patterns contain information about health, as many pathological conditions are accompanied by their alteration or absence. In physical systems, such fluctuations are characteristic of critical states on the border between randomness and order, frequently arising from nonlinear feedback interactions between mechanisms operating on multiple scales. Thus, the existence of fractal fluctuations in physiology challenges traditional conceptions of health and disease, suggesting that high levels of integrity and adaptability are marked by complex variability, not constancy, and are properties of a neurophysiological network, not individual components. Despite the subject's theoretical and clinical interest, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying fractal regulation remain largely unknown. The recent discovery that the circadian pacemaker (suprachiasmatic nucleus) plays a crucial role in generating fractal patterns in motor activity and heart rate sheds an entirely new light on both fractal control networks and the function of this master circadian clock, and builds a bridge between the fields of circadian biology and fractal physiology. In this review, we sketch the emerging picture of the developing interdisciplinary field of fractal neurophysiology by examining the circadian system’s role in fractal regulation. PMID:23573942

  12. Using Peano Curves to Construct Laplacians on Fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molitor, Denali; Ott, Nadia; Strichartz, Robert

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new method to construct Laplacians on fractals using a Peano curve from the circle onto the fractal, extending an idea that has been used in the case of certain Julia sets. The Peano curve allows us to visualize eigenfunctions of the Laplacian by graphing the pullback to the circle. We study in detail three fractals: the pentagasket, the octagasket and the magic carpet. We also use the method for two nonfractal self-similar sets, the torus and the equilateral triangle, obtaining appealing new visualizations of eigenfunctions on the triangle. In contrast to the many familiar pictures of approximations to standard Peano curves, that do no show self-intersections, our descriptions of approximations to the Peano curves have self-intersections that play a vital role in constructing graph approximations to the fractal with explicit graph Laplacians that give the fractal Laplacian in the limit.

  13. ABC of multi-fractal spacetimes and fractional sea turtles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    We clarify what it means to have a spacetime fractal geometry in quantum gravity and show that its properties differ from those of usual fractals. A weak and a strong definition of multi-scale and multi-fractal spacetimes are given together with a sketch of the landscape of multi-scale theories of gravitation. Then, in the context of the fractional theory with q-derivatives, we explore the consequences of living in a multi-fractal spacetime. To illustrate the behavior of a non-relativistic body, we take the entertaining example of a sea turtle. We show that, when only the time direction is fractal, sea turtles swim at a faster speed than in an ordinary world, while they swim at a slower speed if only the spatial directions are fractal. The latter type of geometry is the one most commonly found in quantum gravity. For time-like fractals, relativistic objects can exceed the speed of light, but strongly so only if their size is smaller than the range of particle-physics interactions. We also find new results about log-oscillating measures, the measure presentation and their role in physical observations and in future extensions to nowhere-differentiable stochastic spacetimes.

  14. Fractal morphometry of cell complexity.

    PubMed

    Losa, Gabriele A

    2002-01-01

    Irregularity and self-similarity under scale changes are the main attributes of the morphological complexity of both normal and abnormal cells and tissues. In other words, the shape of a self-similar object does not change when the scale of measurement changes, because each part of it looks similar to the original object. However, the size and geometrical parameters of an irregular object do differ when it is examined at increasing resolution, which reveals more details. Significant progress has been made over the past three decades in understanding how irregular shapes and structures in the physical and biological sciences can be analysed. Dominant influences have been the discovery of a new practical geometry of Nature, now known as fractal geometry, and the continuous improvements in computation capabilities. Unlike conventional Euclidean geometry, which was developed to describe regular and ideal geometrical shapes which are practically unknown in nature, fractal geometry can be used to measure the fractal dimension, contour length, surface area and other dimension parameters of almost all irregular and complex biological tissues. We have used selected examples to illustrate the application of the fractal principle to measuring irregular and complex membrane ultrastructures of cells at specific functional and pathological stage.

  15. Three-Dimensional Surface Parameters and Multi-Fractal Spectrum of Corroded Steel

    PubMed Central

    Shanhua, Xu; Songbo, Ren; Youde, Wang

    2015-01-01

    To study multi-fractal behavior of corroded steel surface, a range of fractal surfaces of corroded surfaces of Q235 steel were constructed by using the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot method under a high total accuracy. The multi-fractal spectrum of fractal surface of corroded steel was calculated to study the multi-fractal characteristics of the W-M corroded surface. Based on the shape feature of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded steel surface, the least squares method was applied to the quadratic fitting of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface. The fitting function was quantitatively analyzed to simplify the calculation of multi-fractal characteristics of corroded surface. The results showed that the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface was fitted well with the method using quadratic curve fitting, and the evolution rules and trends were forecasted accurately. The findings can be applied to research on the mechanisms of corroded surface formation of steel and provide a new approach for the establishment of corrosion damage constitutive models of steel. PMID:26121468

  16. Three-Dimensional Surface Parameters and Multi-Fractal Spectrum of Corroded Steel.

    PubMed

    Shanhua, Xu; Songbo, Ren; Youde, Wang

    2015-01-01

    To study multi-fractal behavior of corroded steel surface, a range of fractal surfaces of corroded surfaces of Q235 steel were constructed by using the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot method under a high total accuracy. The multi-fractal spectrum of fractal surface of corroded steel was calculated to study the multi-fractal characteristics of the W-M corroded surface. Based on the shape feature of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded steel surface, the least squares method was applied to the quadratic fitting of the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface. The fitting function was quantitatively analyzed to simplify the calculation of multi-fractal characteristics of corroded surface. The results showed that the multi-fractal spectrum of corroded surface was fitted well with the method using quadratic curve fitting, and the evolution rules and trends were forecasted accurately. The findings can be applied to research on the mechanisms of corroded surface formation of steel and provide a new approach for the establishment of corrosion damage constitutive models of steel.

  17. Exploring fractal behaviour of blood oxygen saturation in preterm babies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahari, Marina; Hui, Tan Xin; Zainuri, Nuryazmin Ahmat; Darlow, Brian A.

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence has been emerging that oxygenation instability in preterm babies could lead to an increased risk of retinal injury such as retinopathy of prematurity. There is a potential that disease severity could be better understood using nonlinear methods for time series data such as fractal theories [1]. Theories on fractal behaviours have been employed by researchers in various disciplines who were motivated to look into the behaviour or structure of irregular fluctuations in temporal data. In this study, an investigation was carried out to examine whether fractal behaviour could be detected in blood oxygen time series. Detection for the presence of fractals in oxygen data of preterm infants was performed using the methods of power spectrum, empirical probability distribution function and autocorrelation function. The results from these fractal identification methods indicate the possibility that these data exhibit fractal nature. Subsequently, a fractal framework for future research was suggested for oxygen time series.

  18. Hierarchical socioeconomic fractality: The rich, the poor, and the middle-class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-05-01

    Since the seminal work of the Italian economist Vilfredo Pareto, the study of wealth and income has been a topic of active scientific exploration engaging researches ranging from economics and political science to econophysics and complex systems. This paper investigates the intrinsic fractality of wealth and income. To that end we introduce and characterize three forms of socioeconomic scale-invariance-poor fractality, rich fractality, and middle-class fractality-and construct hierarchical fractal approximations of general wealth and income distributions, based on the stitching of these three forms of fractality. Intertwining the theoretical results with real-world empirical data we then establish that the three forms of socioeconomic fractality-amalgamated into a composite hierarchical structure-underlie the distributions of wealth and income in human societies. We further establish that the hierarchical socioeconomic fractality of wealth and income is also displayed by empirical rank distributions observed across the sciences.

  19. A Tutorial Review on Fractal Spacetime and Fractional Calculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ji-Huan

    2014-11-01

    This tutorial review of fractal-Cantorian spacetime and fractional calculus begins with Leibniz's notation for derivative without limits which can be generalized to discontinuous media like fractal derivative and q-derivative of quantum calculus. Fractal spacetime is used to elucidate some basic properties of fractal which is the foundation of fractional calculus, and El Naschie's mass-energy equation for the dark energy. The variational iteration method is used to introduce the definition of fractional derivatives. Fractal derivative is explained geometrically and q-derivative is motivated by quantum mechanics. Some effective analytical approaches to fractional differential equations, e.g., the variational iteration method, the homotopy perturbation method, the exp-function method, the fractional complex transform, and Yang-Laplace transform, are outlined and the main solution processes are given.

  20. Fractal analysis of scatter imaging signatures to distinguish breast pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguizabal, Alma; Laughney, Ashley M.; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Wells, Wendy A.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Pogue, Brian W.; López-Higuera, José M.; Conde, Olga M.

    2013-02-01

    Fractal analysis combined with a label-free scattering technique is proposed for describing the pathological architecture of tumors. Clinicians and pathologists are conventionally trained to classify abnormal features such as structural irregularities or high indices of mitosis. The potential of fractal analysis lies in the fact of being a morphometric measure of the irregular structures providing a measure of the object's complexity and self-similarity. As cancer is characterized by disorder and irregularity in tissues, this measure could be related to tumor growth. Fractal analysis has been probed in the understanding of the tumor vasculature network. This work addresses the feasibility of applying fractal analysis to the scattering power map (as a physical modeling) and principal components (as a statistical modeling) provided by a localized reflectance spectroscopic system. Disorder, irregularity and cell size variation in tissue samples is translated into the scattering power and principal components magnitude and its fractal dimension is correlated with the pathologist assessment of the samples. The fractal dimension is computed applying the box-counting technique. Results show that fractal analysis of ex-vivo fresh tissue samples exhibits separated ranges of fractal dimension that could help classifier combining the fractal results with other morphological features. This contrast trend would help in the discrimination of tissues in the intraoperative context and may serve as a useful adjunct to surgeons.

  1. Plasmon confinement in fractal quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westerhout, Tom; van Veen, Edo; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Yuan, Shengjun

    2018-05-01

    Recent progress in the fabrication of materials has made it possible to create arbitrary nonperiodic two-dimensional structures in the quantum plasmon regime. This paves the way for exploring the quantum plasmonic properties of electron gases in complex geometries. In this work we study systems with a fractal dimension. We calculate the full dielectric functions of two prototypical fractals with different ramification numbers, namely the Sierpinski carpet and gasket. We show that the Sierpinski carpet has a dispersion comparable to a square lattice, but the Sierpinski gasket features highly localized plasmon modes with a flat dispersion. This strong plasmon confinement in finitely ramified fractals can provide a novel setting for manipulating light at the quantum level.

  2. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.

    1998-01-01

    Fractals embody important ideas of self-similarity, in which the spatial behavior or appearance of a system is largely independent of scale. Self-similarity is defined as a property of curves or surfaces where each part is indistinguishable from the whole, or where the form of the curve or surface is invariant with respect to scale. An ideal fractal (or monofractal) curve or surface has a constant dimension over all scales, although it may not be an integer value. This is in contrast to Euclidean or topological dimensions, where discrete one, two, and three dimensions describe curves, planes, and volumes. Theoretically, if the digital numbers of a remotely sensed image resemble an ideal fractal surface, then due to the self-similarity property, the fractal dimension of the image will not vary with scale and resolution. However, most geographical phenomena are not strictly self-similar at all scales, but they can often be modeled by a stochastic fractal in which the scaling and self-similarity properties of the fractal have inexact patterns that can be described by statistics. Stochastic fractal sets relax the monofractal self-similarity assumption and measure many scales and resolutions in order to represent the varying form of a phenomenon as a function of local variables across space. In image interpretation, pattern is defined as the overall spatial form of related features, and the repetition of certain forms is a characteristic pattern found in many cultural objects and some natural features. Texture is the visual impression of coarseness or smoothness caused by the variability or uniformity of image tone or color. A potential use of fractals concerns the analysis of image texture. In these situations it is commonly observed that the degree of roughness or inexactness in an image or surface is a function of scale and not of experimental technique. The fractal dimension of remote sensing data could yield quantitative insight on the spatial complexity and

  3. Investigation into How 8th Grade Students Define Fractals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karakus, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of 8th grade students' concept definitions and concept images can provide information about their mental schema of fractals. There is limited research on students' understanding and definitions of fractals. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the elementary students' definitions of fractals based on concept image and concept…

  4. An Inexpensive and Safe Experiment to Demonstrate Koch's Postulates Using Citrus Fruit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobi, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Citrus fruit (oranges, tangerines, grapefruit or lemons) purchased in a grocery store can be experimentally infected with readily-available sources of "Penicillium digitatum" to demonstrate the four basic steps of Koch's postulates, also known as proof of pathogenicity. The mould is isolated from naturally-infected citrus fruit into pure culture…

  5. A cladistically based reinterpretation of the taxonomy of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae, Platynotina).

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marcin Jan

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a newly performed cladistic analysis a new classification of the representatives of two Afrotropical tenebrionid genera, Ectateus Koch, 1956 and Selinus Mulsant & Rey, 1853 sensu Iwan 2002a, is provided. Eleoselinus is described as a new genus. The genus Monodius, previously synonymized with Selinus by Iwan (2002), is redescribed and considered as a separate genus. Following new combinations are proposed: Ectateus calcaripes (Gebien, 1904), Monodius laevistriatus (Fairmaire, 1897), Monodius lamottei (Gridelli, 1954), Monodius plicicollis (Fairmaire, 1897), Eleoselinus villiersi (Ardoin, 1965) and Eleoselinus ursynowiensis (Kamiński, 2011). Neotype for Ectateus calcaripes and lectotypes for E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897), E. ghesquierei Koch, 1956 and Monodius malaisei malaisei Koch, 1956 are designated to fix the taxonomic status of these taxa. The following synonymies are proposed: Selinus monardi Kaszab, 1951 and Ectateus latipennis Koch, 1956 with E. crenatus (Fairmaire, 1897). Identification keys are provided to all known species of Ectateus sensu novum, Eleoselinus, Monodius and Selinus sensu novum.

  6. Anomalous relaxation in fractal structures

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fujiwara, S.; Yonezawa, F.

    1995-03-01

    For the purpose of studying some interesting properties of anomalous relaxation in fractal structures, we carry out Monte Carlo simulations of random walks on two-dimensional fractal structures (Sierpinski carpets with different cutouts and site-percolation clusters in a square lattice at the critical concentration). We find that the relaxation is of the Cole-Cole type [J. Chem. Phys. 9, 341 (1941)], which is one of the empirical laws of anomalous relaxation. Scaling properties are found in the relaxation function as well as in the particle density. We also find that, in strucures with almost the same fractal dimension, relaxation in structures withmore » dead ends is slower than that in structures without them. This paper ascertains that the essential aspects of the anomalous relaxation due to many-body effects can be explained in the framework of the one-body model.« less

  7. Pulse regime in formation of fractal fibers

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Smirnov, B. M., E-mail: bmsmirnov@gmail.com

    The pulse regime of vaporization of a bulk metal located in a buffer gas is analyzed as a method of generation of metal atoms under the action of a plasma torch or a laser beam. Subsequently these atoms are transformed into solid nanoclusters, fractal aggregates and then into fractal fibers if the growth process proceeds in an external electric field. We are guided by metals in which transitions between s and d-electrons of their atoms are possible, since these metals are used as catalysts and filters in interaction with gas flows. The resistance of metal fractal structures to a gasmore » flow is evaluated that allows one to find optimal parameters of a fractal structure for gas flow propagation through it. The thermal regime of interaction between a plasma pulse or a laser beam and a metal surface is analyzed. It is shown that the basic energy from an external source is consumed on a bulk metal heating, and the efficiency of atom evaporation from the metal surface, that is the ratio of energy fluxes for vaporization and heating, is 10{sup –3}–10{sup –4} for transient metals under consideration. A typical energy flux (~10{sup 6} W/cm{sup 2}), a typical surface temperature (~3000 K), and a typical pulse duration (~1 μs) provide a sufficient amount of evaporated atoms to generate fractal fibers such that each molecule of a gas flow collides with the skeleton of fractal fibers many times.« less

  8. Fractal tomography and its application in 3D vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trubochkina, N.

    2018-01-01

    A three-dimensional artistic fractal tomography method that implements a non-glasses 3D visualization of fractal worlds in layered media is proposed. It is designed for the glasses-free 3D vision of digital art objects and films containing fractal content. Prospects for the development of this method in art galleries and the film industry are considered.

  9. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  10. Teaching about Fractals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Stephen J.

    1991-01-01

    Described is a course designed to teach students about fractals using various teaching methods including the computer. Discussed are why the course drew students, prerequisites, clientele, textbook, grading, computer usage, and the syllabus. (KR)

  11. Two-Dimensional Animal-Like Fractals in Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Hong-jun; Xue, Zeng-quan; Wu, Quan-de; Pang, Shi-jin

    1996-02-01

    We present a few unique animal-like fractal patterns in ionized-cluster-beam deposited fullerene-tetracyanoquinodimethane thin films. The fractal patterns consisting of animal-like aggregates such as "fishes" and "quasi-seahorses" have been characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The results indicate that the small aggregates of the animal-like body are composed of many single crystals whose crystalline directions are generally different. The formation of the fractal patterns can be attributed to the cluster-diffusion-limited aggregation.

  12. Flat bands in fractal-like geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, Biplab; Saha, Kush

    2018-05-01

    We report the presence of multiple flat bands in a class of two-dimensional lattices formed by Sierpinski gasket (SPG) fractal geometries as the basic unit cells. Solving the tight-binding Hamiltonian for such lattices with different generations of a SPG network, we find multiple degenerate and nondegenerate completely flat bands, depending on the configuration of parameters of the Hamiltonian. Moreover, we establish a generic formula to determine the number of such bands as a function of the generation index ℓ of the fractal geometry. We show that the flat bands and their neighboring dispersive bands have remarkable features, the most interesting one being the spin-1 conical-type spectrum at the band center without any staggered magnetic flux, in contrast to the kagome lattice. We furthermore investigate the effect of magnetic flux in these lattice settings and show that different combinations of fluxes through such fractal unit cells lead to a richer spectrum with a single isolated flat band or gapless electron- or holelike flat bands. Finally, we discuss a possible experimental setup to engineer such a fractal flat-band network using single-mode laser-induced photonic waveguides.

  13. Elasticity of fractal materials using the continuum model with non-integer dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a generalization of vector calculus for space with non-integer dimension, we consider elastic properties of fractal materials. Fractal materials are described by continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. A generalization of elasticity equations for non-integer dimensional space, and its solutions for the equilibrium case of fractal materials are suggested. Elasticity problems for fractal hollow ball and cylindrical fractal elastic pipe with inside and outside pressures, for rotating cylindrical fractal pipe, for gradient elasticity and thermoelasticity of fractal materials are solved.

  14. Surface and mass fractals in vapor-phase aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Alan J.; Schaefer, Dale W.; Martin, James E.

    1987-03-01

    Several types of fumed-silica aggregates with differing surface areas were studied over a wide range of spatial resolution by employing both light and neutron scattering. At intermediate length scales, between 100 and 1000 Å, the aggregates are mass fractals with Dm~=1.7-2.0, in basic agreement with simulations of aggregating clusters. At short length scales below 100 Å where the nature of the surfaces of the primary particles dominates the scattering, some of the samples appear to be fractally rough. In particular, a higher surface area seems to be correlated not with smaller primary particles in the aggregates, as previously assumed, but with fractally rough surfaces having Ds as high as 2.5. These may be the first materials discovered to have both mass and surface fractal structure.

  15. Fractal analysis of bone structure with applications to osteoporosis and microgravity effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharya, Raj S.; LeBlanc, Adrian; Shackelford, Linda; Swarnakar, Vivek; Krishnamurthy, Ram; Hausman, E.; Lin, Chin-Shoou

    1995-05-01

    We characterize the trabecular structure with the aid of fractal dimension. We use alternating sequential filters (ASF) to generate a nonlinear pyramid for fractal dimension computations. We do not make any assumptions of the statistical distributions of the underlying fractal bone structure. The only assumption of our scheme is the rudimentary definition of self-similarity. This allows us the freedom of not being constrained by statistical estimation schemes. With mathematical simulations, we have shown that the ASF methods outperform other existing methods for fractal dimension estimation. We have shown that the fractal dimension remains the same when computed with both the x-ray images and the MRI images of the patella. We have shown that the fractal dimension of osteoporotic subjects is lower than that of the normal subjects. In animal models, we have shown that the fractal dimension of osteoporotic rats was lower than that of the normal rats. In a 17 week bedrest study, we have shown that the subject's prebedrest fractal dimension is higher than that of the postbedrest fractal dimension.

  16. Average Weighted Receiving Time of Weighted Tetrahedron Koch Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Meifeng; Zhang, Danping; Ye, Dandan; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Lei

    2015-07-01

    We introduce weighted tetrahedron Koch networks with infinite weight factors, which are generalization of finite ones. The term of weighted time is firstly defined in this literature. The mean weighted first-passing time (MWFPT) and the average weighted receiving time (AWRT) are defined by weighted time accordingly. We study the AWRT with weight-dependent walk. Results show that the AWRT for a nontrivial weight factor sequence grows sublinearly with the network order. To investigate the reason of sublinearity, the average receiving time (ART) for four cases are discussed.

  17. Fractals and the irreducibility of consciousness in plants and animals.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, John

    2013-08-01

    In both plants and animals consciousness is fractal. Since fractals can only pass information in one direction it is impossible to extrapolate backward to find the rule that governs the fractal. Thus, similarly, it will be impossible to completely determine the rule or rules that govern consciousness.

  18. A new numerical approximation of the fractal ordinary differential equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atangana, Abdon; Jain, Sonal

    2018-02-01

    The concept of fractal medium is present in several real-world problems, for instance, in the geological formation that constitutes the well-known subsurface water called aquifers. However, attention has not been quite devoted to modeling for instance, the flow of a fluid within these media. We deem it important to remind the reader that the concept of fractal derivative is not to represent the fractal sharps but to describe the movement of the fluid within these media. Since this class of ordinary differential equations is highly complex to solve analytically, we present a novel numerical scheme that allows to solve fractal ordinary differential equations. Error analysis of the method is also presented. Application of the method and numerical approximation are presented for fractal order differential equation. The stability and the convergence of the numerical schemes are investigated in detail. Also some exact solutions of fractal order differential equations are presented and finally some numerical simulations are presented.

  19. Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera Value-Added Product

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shkurko, Konstantin; Garrett, T.; Gaustad, K

    The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) addresses a need for high-resolution multi-angle imaging of hydrometeors in freefall with simultaneous measurement of fallspeed. As illustrated in Figure 1, the MASC consists of three cameras, separated by 36°, each pointing at an identical focal point approximately 10 cm away. Located immediately above each camera, a light aims directly at the center of depth of field for its corresponding camera. The focal point at which the cameras are aimed lies within a ring through which hydrometeors fall. The ring houses a system of near-infrared emitter-detector pairs, arranged in two arrays separated vertically by 32more » mm. When hydrometeors pass through the lower array, they simultaneously trigger all cameras and lights. Fallspeed is calculated from the time it takes to traverse the distance between the upper and lower triggering arrays. The trigger electronics filter out ambient light fluctuations associated with varying sunlight and shadows. The microprocessor onboard the MASC controls the camera system and communicates with the personal computer (PC). The image data is sent via FireWire 800 line, and fallspeed (and camera control) is sent via a Universal Serial Bus (USB) line that relies on RS232-over-USB serial conversion. See Table 1 for specific details on the MASC located at the Oliktok Point Mobile Facility on the North Slope of Alaska. The value-added product (VAP) detailed in this documentation analyzes the raw data (Section 2.0) using Python: images rely on OpenCV image processing library and derived aggregated statistics rely on some clever averaging. See Sections 4.1 and 4.2 for more details on what variables are computed.« less

  20. Fractality of eroded coastlines of correlated landscapes.

    PubMed

    Morais, P A; Oliveira, E A; Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2011-07-01

    Using numerical simulations of a simple sea-coast mechanical erosion model, we investigate the effect of spatial long-range correlations in the lithology of coastal landscapes on the fractal behavior of the corresponding coastlines. In the model, the resistance of a coast section to erosion depends on the local lithology configuration as well as on the number of neighboring sea sides. For weak sea forces, the sea is trapped by the coastline and the eroding process stops after some time. For strong sea forces erosion is perpetual. The transition between these two regimes takes place at a critical sea force, characterized by a fractal coastline front. For uncorrelated landscapes, we obtain, at the critical value, a fractal dimension D=1.33, which is consistent with the dimension of the accessible external perimeter of the spanning cluster in two-dimensional percolation. For sea forces above the critical value, our results indicate that the coastline is self-affine and belongs to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class. In the case of landscapes generated with power-law spatial long-range correlations, the coastline fractal dimension changes continuously with the Hurst exponent H, decreasing from D=1.34 to 1.04, for H=0 and 1, respectively. This nonuniversal behavior is compatible with the multitude of fractal dimensions found for real coastlines.

  1. Fractals and the irreducibility of consciousness in plants and animals

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, John

    2013-01-01

    In both plants and animals consciousness is fractal. Since fractals can only pass information in one direction it is impossible to extrapolate backward to find the rule that governs the fractal. Thus, similarly, it will be impossible to completely determine the rule or rules that govern consciousness. PMID:23759545

  2. Persistent fluctuations in stride intervals under fractal auditory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals.

  3. Methods of nanoassembly of a fractal polymer and materials formed thereby

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Newkome, George R; Moorefield, Charles N

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to the formation of synthesized fractal constructs and the methods of chemical self-assembly for the preparation of a non-dendritic, nano-scale, fractal constructs or molecules. More particularly, the invention relates to fractal constructs formed by molecular self-assembly, to create synthetic, nanometer-scale fractal shapes. In an embodiment, a nanoscale Sierpinski hexagonal gasket is formed. This non-dendritic, perfectly self-similar fractal macromolecule is comprised of bisterpyridine building blocks that are bound together by coordination to 36 Ru and 6 Fe ions to form a nearly planar array of increasingly larger hexagons around a hollow center.

  4. Methods of nanoassembly of a fractal polymer and materials formed thereby

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Newkome, George R; Moorefield, Charles N

    2014-09-23

    The invention relates to the formation of synthesized fractal constructs and the methods of chemical self-assembly for the preparation of a non-dendritic, nano-scale, fractal constructs or molecules. More particularly, the invention relates to fractal constructs formed by molecular self-assembly, to create synthetic, nanometer-scale fractal shapes. In an embodiment, a nanoscale Sierpinski hexagonal gasket is formed. This non-dendritic, perfectly self-similar fractal macromolecule is comprised of bisterpyridine building blocks that are bound together by coordination to (36) Ru and (6) Fe ions to form a nearly planar array of increasingly larger hexagons around a hollow center.

  5. Applications of fractals in ecology.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, G; M May, R

    1990-03-01

    Fractal models describe the geometry of a wide variety of natural objects such as coastlines, island chains, coral reefs, satellite ocean-color images and patches of vegetation. Cast in the form of modified diffusion models, they can mimic natural and artificial landscapes having different types of complexity of shape. This article provides a brief introduction to fractals and reports on how they can be used by ecologists to answer a variety of basic questions, about scale, measurement and hierarchy in, ecological systems. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Stochastic parameterization for light absorption by internally mixed BC/dust in snow grains for application to climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; He, C.; Yang, P.; Leung, L. R.; Gu, Y.; Lee, W. L.

    2014-06-01

    A stochastic approach has been developed to model the positions of BC (black carbon)/dust internally mixed with two snow grain types: hexagonal plate/column (convex) and Koch snowflake (concave). Subsequently, light absorption and scattering analysis can be followed by means of an improved geometric-optics approach coupled with Monte Carlo photon tracing to determine BC/dust single-scattering properties. For a given shape (plate, Koch snowflake, spheroid, or sphere), the action of internal mixing absorbs substantially more light than external mixing. The snow grain shape effect on absorption is relatively small, but its effect on asymmetry factor is substantial. Due to a greater probability of intercepting photons, multiple inclusions of BC/dust exhibit a larger absorption than an equal-volume single inclusion. The spectral absorption (0.2-5 µm) for snow grains internally mixed with BC/dust is confined to wavelengths shorter than about 1.4 µm, beyond which ice absorption predominates. Based on the single-scattering properties determined from stochastic and light absorption parameterizations and using the adding/doubling method for spectral radiative transfer, we find that internal mixing reduces snow albedo substantially more than external mixing and that the snow grain shape plays a critical role in snow albedo calculations through its forward scattering strength. Also, multiple inclusion of BC/dust significantly reduces snow albedo as compared to an equal-volume single sphere. For application to land/snow models, we propose a two-layer spectral snow parameterization involving contaminated fresh snow on top of old snow for investigating and understanding the climatic impact of multiple BC/dust internal mixing associated with snow grain metamorphism, particularly over mountain/snow topography.

  7. Stochastic Parameterization for Light Absorption by Internally Mixed BC/dust in Snow Grains for Application to Climate Models

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Liou, K. N.; Takano, Y.; He, Cenlin

    2014-06-27

    A stochastic approach to model the positions of BC/dust internally mixed with two snow-grain types has been developed, including hexagonal plate/column (convex) and Koch snowflake (concave). Subsequently, light absorption and scattering analysis can be followed by means of an improved geometric-optics approach coupled with Monte Carlo photon tracing to determine their single-scattering properties. For a given shape (plate, Koch snowflake, spheroid, or sphere), internal mixing absorbs more light than external mixing. The snow-grain shape effect on absorption is relatively small, but its effect on the asymmetry factor is substantial. Due to a greater probability of intercepting photons, multiple inclusions ofmore » BC/dust exhibit a larger absorption than an equal-volume single inclusion. The spectral absorption (0.2 – 5 um) for snow grains internally mixed with BC/dust is confined to wavelengths shorter than about 1.4 um, beyond which ice absorption predominates. Based on the single-scattering properties determined from stochastic and light absorption parameterizations and using the adding/doubling method for spectral radiative transfer, we find that internal mixing reduces snow albedo more than external mixing and that the snow-grain shape plays a critical role in snow albedo calculations through the asymmetry factor. Also, snow albedo reduces more in the case of multiple inclusion of BC/dust compared to that of an equal-volume single sphere. For application to land/snow models, we propose a two-layer spectral snow parameterization containing contaminated fresh snow on top of old snow for investigating and understanding the climatic impact of multiple BC/dust internal mixing associated with snow grain metamorphism, particularly over mountains/snow topography.« less

  8. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of the fractal dimension of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed (10 to 80 meters). A similar analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images of the East Humboldt Range in Nevada taken four months apart show a more complex relation between pixel size and fractal dimension. The major visible difference between the spring and late summer NDVI images is the absence of high elevation snow cover in the summer image. This change significantly alters the relation between fractal dimension and pixel size. The slope of the fractal dimension-resolution relation provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor spatial resolution.

  9. Multi-Scale Fractal Analysis of Image Texture and Pattern

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of the fractal dimension of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images of homogeneous land covers near Huntsville, Alabama revealed that the fractal dimension of an image of an agricultural land cover indicates greater complexity as pixel size increases, a forested land cover gradually grows smoother, and an urban image remains roughly self-similar over the range of pixel sizes analyzed (10 to 80 meters). A similar analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper images of the East Humboldt Range in Nevada taken four months apart show a more complex relation between pixel size and fractal dimension. The major visible difference between the spring and late summer NDVI images of the absence of high elevation snow cover in the summer image. This change significantly alters the relation between fractal dimension and pixel size. The slope of the fractal dimensional-resolution relation provides indications of how image classification or feature identification will be affected by changes in sensor spatial resolution.

  10. Fractal rigidity in migraine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latka, Miroslaw; Glaubic-Latka, Marta; Latka, Dariusz; West, Bruce J.

    2004-04-01

    We study the middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAfv) in humans using transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD). Scaling properties of time series of the axial flow velocity averaged over a cardiac beat interval may be characterized by two exponents. The short time scaling exponent (STSE) determines the statistical properties of fluctuations of blood flow velocities in short-time intervals while the Hurst exponent describes the long-term fractal properties. In many migraineurs the value of the STSE is significantly reduced and may approach that of the Hurst exponent. This change in dynamical properties reflects the significant loss of short-term adaptability and the overall hyperexcitability of the underlying cerebral blood flow control system. We call this effect fractal rigidity.

  11. Fractal analysis of bone structure with applications to osteoporosis and microgravity effects

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Acharya, R.S.; Swarnarkar, V.; Krishnamurthy, R.

    1995-12-31

    The authors characterize the trabecular structure with the aid of fractal dimension. The authors use Alternating Sequential filters to generate a nonlinear pyramid for fractal dimension computations. The authors do not make any assumptions of the statistical distributions of the underlying fractal bone structure. The only assumption of the scheme is the rudimentary definition of self similarity. This allows them the freedom of not being constrained by statistical estimation schemes. With mathematical simulations, the authors have shown that the ASF methods outperform other existing methods for fractal dimension estimation. They have shown that the fractal dimension remains the same whenmore » computed with both the X-Ray images and the MRI images of the patella. They have shown that the fractal dimension of osteoporotic subjects is lower than that of the normal subjects. In animal models, the authors have shown that the fractal dimension of osteoporotic rats was lower than that of the normal rats. In a 17 week bedrest study, they have shown that the subject`s prebedrest fractal dimension is higher than that of the postbedrest fractal dimension.« less

  12. Is volcanic phenomena of fractal nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, R.; Lopez, D. A. L.; Alparone, S.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Sagiya, T.; Barrancos, J.; Rodriguez-Santana, A. A.; Ramos, A.; Calvari, S.; Perez, N. M.

    2016-12-01

    A particular resonance waveform pattern has been detected beneath different physical volcano manifestations from recent 2011-2012 period of volcanic unrest at El Hierro Island, Canary Islands, and also from other worldwide volcanoes with different volcanic typology. This mentioned pattern appears to be a fractal time dependent waveform repeated in different time scales (periods of time). This time dependent feature suggests this resonance as a new approach to volcano phenomena for predicting such interesting matters as earthquakes, gas emission, deformation etc. as this fractal signal has been discovered hidden in a wide typical volcanic parameters measurements. It is known that the resonance phenomenon occurring in nature usually denote a structure, symmetry or a subjacent law (Fermi et al., 1952; and later -about enhanced cross-sections symmetry in protons collisions), which, in this particular case, may be indicative of some physical interactions showing a sequence not completely chaotic but cyclic provided with symmetries. The resonance and fractal model mentioned allowed the authors to make predictions in cycles from a few weeks to months. In this work an equation for this waveform has been described and also correlations with volcanic parameters and fractal behavior demonstration have been performed, including also some suggestive possible explanations of this signal origin.

  13. Fractal Music: The Mathematics Behind "Techno" Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padula, Janice

    2005-01-01

    This article describes sound waves, their basis in the sine curve, Fourier's theorem of infinite series, the fractal equation and its application to the composition of music, together with algorithms (such as those employed by meteorologist Edward Lorenz in his discovery of chaos theory) that are now being used to compose fractal music on…

  14. A Fractal Permeability Model for Shale Oil Reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tao; Dong, Mingzhe; Li, Yajun

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a fractal analytical model is proposed to predict the permeability of shale reservoir. The proposed model explicitly relates the permeability to the micro-structural parameters (tortuosity, pore area fractal dimensions, porosity and slip velocity coefficient) of shale.

  15. Dynamic fractals in spatial evolutionary games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolotev, Sergei; Malyutin, Aleksandr; Burovski, Evgeni; Krashakov, Sergei; Shchur, Lev

    2018-06-01

    We investigate critical properties of a spatial evolutionary game based on the Prisoner's Dilemma. Simulations demonstrate a jump in the component densities accompanied by drastic changes in average sizes of the component clusters. We argue that the cluster boundary is a random fractal. Our simulations are consistent with the fractal dimension of the boundary being equal to 2, and the cluster boundaries are hence asymptotically space filling as the system size increases.

  16. Fractal continuum model for tracer transport in a porous medium.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Hernández, E C; Coronado, M; Hernández-Coronado, H

    2013-12-01

    A model based on the fractal continuum approach is proposed to describe tracer transport in fractal porous media. The original approach has been extended to treat tracer transport and to include systems with radial and uniform flow, which are cases of interest in geoscience. The models involve advection due to the fluid motion in the fractal continuum and dispersion whose mathematical expression is taken from percolation theory. The resulting advective-dispersive equations are numerically solved for continuous and for pulse tracer injection. The tracer profile and the tracer breakthrough curve are evaluated and analyzed in terms of the fractal parameters. It has been found in this work that anomalous transport frequently appears, and a condition on the fractal parameter values to predict when sub- or superdiffusion might be expected has been obtained. The fingerprints of fractality on the tracer breakthrough curve in the explored parameter window consist of an early tracer breakthrough and long tail curves for the spherical and uniform flow cases, and symmetric short tailed curves for the radial flow case.

  17. Persistent Fluctuations in Stride Intervals under Fractal Auditory Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Marmelat, Vivien; Torre, Kjerstin; Beek, Peter J.; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Stride sequences of healthy gait are characterized by persistent long-range correlations, which become anti-persistent in the presence of an isochronous metronome. The latter phenomenon is of particular interest because auditory cueing is generally considered to reduce stride variability and may hence be beneficial for stabilizing gait. Complex systems tend to match their correlation structure when synchronizing. In gait training, can one capitalize on this tendency by using a fractal metronome rather than an isochronous one? We examined whether auditory cues with fractal variations in inter-beat intervals yield similar fractal inter-stride interval variability as isochronous auditory cueing in two complementary experiments. In Experiment 1, participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by either an isochronous or a fractal metronome with different variation strengths between beats in order to test whether participants managed to synchronize with a fractal metronome and to determine the necessary amount of variability for participants to switch from anti-persistent to persistent inter-stride intervals. Participants did synchronize with the metronome despite its fractal randomness. The corresponding coefficient of variation of inter-beat intervals was fixed in Experiment 2, in which participants walked on a treadmill while being paced by non-isochronous metronomes with different scaling exponents. As expected, inter-stride intervals showed persistent correlations similar to self-paced walking only when cueing contained persistent correlations. Our results open up a new window to optimize rhythmic auditory cueing for gait stabilization by integrating fractal fluctuations in the inter-beat intervals. PMID:24651455

  18. Multispectral image fusion based on fractal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jie; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    Imagery sensors have been one indispensable part of the detection and recognition systems. They are widely used to the field of surveillance, navigation, control and guide, et. However, different imagery sensors depend on diverse imaging mechanisms, and work within diverse range of spectrum. They also perform diverse functions and have diverse circumstance requires. So it is unpractical to accomplish the task of detection or recognition with a single imagery sensor under the conditions of different circumstances, different backgrounds and different targets. Fortunately, the multi-sensor image fusion technique emerged as important route to solve this problem. So image fusion has been one of the main technical routines used to detect and recognize objects from images. While, loss of information is unavoidable during fusion process, so it is always a very important content of image fusion how to preserve the useful information to the utmost. That is to say, it should be taken into account before designing the fusion schemes how to avoid the loss of useful information or how to preserve the features helpful to the detection. In consideration of these issues and the fact that most detection problems are actually to distinguish man-made objects from natural background, a fractal-based multi-spectral fusion algorithm has been proposed in this paper aiming at the recognition of battlefield targets in the complicated backgrounds. According to this algorithm, source images are firstly orthogonally decomposed according to wavelet transform theories, and then fractal-based detection is held to each decomposed image. At this step, natural background and man-made targets are distinguished by use of fractal models that can well imitate natural objects. Special fusion operators are employed during the fusion of area that contains man-made targets so that useful information could be preserved and features of targets could be extruded. The final fused image is reconstructed from the

  19. Fractal characterization of a fractured chalk reservoir - The Laegerdorf case

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Stoelum, H.H.; Koestler, A.G.; Feder, J.

    1991-03-01

    What is the matrix block size distribution of a fractured reservoir In order to answer this question and assess the potential of fractal geometry as a method of characterization of fracture networks, a pilot study has been done of the fractured chalk quarry in Laegerdorf. The fractures seen on the quarry walls were traced in the field for a total area of {approximately}200 {times} 45 m. The digitized pictures have been analyzed by a standard box-counting method. This analysis gave a fractal dimension of similarity varying from 1.33 for fractured areas between faults, to 1.43 for the fault zone, andmore » 1.53 for the highly deformed fault gouge. The amplitude showed a similar trend. The fractal dimension for the whole system of fractures is {approximately}1.55. In other words, fracture networks in chalk have a nonlinear, fractal geometry, and so matrix block size is a scaling property of chalk reservoirs. In terms of rock mechanics, the authors interpret the variation of the fractal dimension as follows: A small fractal dimension and amplitude are associated with brittle deformation in the elastic regime, while a large fractal dimension and amplitude are associated with predominantly ductile, strain softening deformation in the plastic regime. The interaction between the two regimes of deformation in the rock body is a key element of successful characterization and may be approached by seeing the rock as a non-Newtonian viscoelastic medium. The fractal dimension for the whole is close to a material independent limit that constrains the development of fractures.« less

  20. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  1. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-31

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  2. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions. PMID:28361962

  3. Hyper-Fractal Analysis: A visual tool for estimating the fractal dimension of 4D objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossu, I. V.; Grossu, I.; Felea, D.; Besliu, C.; Jipa, Al.; Esanu, T.; Bordeianu, C. C.; Stan, E.

    2013-04-01

    This work presents a new version of a Visual Basic 6.0 application for estimating the fractal dimension of images and 3D objects (Grossu et al. (2010) [1]). The program was extended for working with four-dimensional objects stored in comma separated values files. This might be of interest in biomedicine, for analyzing the evolution in time of three-dimensional images. New version program summaryProgram title: Hyper-Fractal Analysis (Fractal Analysis v03) Catalogue identifier: AEEG_v3_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEG_v3_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC license, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 745761 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12544491 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MS Visual Basic 6.0 Computer: PC Operating system: MS Windows 98 or later RAM: 100M Classification: 14 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEEG_v2_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 181 (2010) 831-832 Does the new version supersede the previous version? Yes Nature of problem: Estimating the fractal dimension of 4D images. Solution method: Optimized implementation of the 4D box-counting algorithm. Reasons for new version: Inspired by existing applications of 3D fractals in biomedicine [3], we extended the optimized version of the box-counting algorithm [1, 2] to the four-dimensional case. This might be of interest in analyzing the evolution in time of 3D images. The box-counting algorithm was extended in order to support 4D objects, stored in comma separated values files. A new form was added for generating 2D, 3D, and 4D test data. The application was tested on 4D objects with known dimension, e.g. the Sierpinski hypertetrahedron gasket, Df=ln(5)/ln(2) (Fig. 1). The algorithm could be extended, with minimum effort, to

  4. Passenger flow analysis of Beijing urban rail transit network using fractal approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaohong; Chen, Peiwen; Chen, Feng; Wang, Zijia

    2018-04-01

    To quantify the spatiotemporal distribution of passenger flow and the characteristics of an urban rail transit network, we introduce four radius fractal dimensions and two branch fractal dimensions by combining a fractal approach with passenger flow assignment model. These fractal dimensions can numerically describe the complexity of passenger flow in the urban rail transit network and its change characteristics. Based on it, we establish a fractal quantification method to measure the fractal characteristics of passenger follow in the rail transit network. Finally, we validate the reasonability of our proposed method by using the actual data of Beijing subway network. It has been shown that our proposed method can effectively measure the scale-free range of the urban rail transit network, network development and the fractal characteristics of time-varying passenger flow, which further provides a reference for network planning and analysis of passenger flow.

  5. Ulam method and fractal Weyl law for Perron-Frobenius operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermann, L.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

    2010-06-01

    We use the Ulam method to study spectral properties of the Perron-Frobenius operators of dynamical maps in a chaotic regime. For maps with absorption we show numerically that the spectrum is characterized by the fractal Weyl law recently established for nonunitary operators describing poles of quantum chaotic scattering with the Weyl exponent ν = d-1, where d is the fractal dimension of corresponding strange set of trajectories nonescaping in future times. In contrast, for dissipative maps we numerically find the Weyl exponent ν = d/2 where d is the fractal dimension of strange attractor. The Weyl exponent can be also expressed via the relation ν = d0/2 where d0 is the fractal dimension of the invariant sets. We also discuss the properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of such operators characterized by the fractal Weyl law.

  6. Resource Letter FR-1: Fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Alan J.

    1988-11-01

    This Resource Letter provides a guide to the literature on fractals. Although ``fractal'' is a relatively new term in science, unifying many new ideas with established ones, its wide application and general popularity have made it one of the fastest growing fields in statistical physics. The letter E after an item indicates elementary level or material of general interest to persons becoming informed in the field; the letter I, for intermediate level, indicates material of somewhat more specialized nature; and the letter A indicates rather specialized or advanced material. An asterisk (*) indicates those articles to be included in an accompanying Reprint Book.

  7. Fractal universe and quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Calcagni, Gianluca

    2010-06-25

    We propose a field theory which lives in fractal spacetime and is argued to be Lorentz invariant, power-counting renormalizable, ultraviolet finite, and causal. The system flows from an ultraviolet fixed point, where spacetime has Hausdorff dimension 2, to an infrared limit coinciding with a standard four-dimensional field theory. Classically, the fractal world where fields live exchanges energy momentum with the bulk with integer topological dimension. However, the total energy momentum is conserved. We consider the dynamics and the propagator of a scalar field. Implications for quantum gravity, cosmology, and the cosmological constant are discussed.

  8. Surface areas of fractally rough particles studied by scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, Alan J.; Schaefer, Dale W.; Smith, Douglas M.; Ross, Steven B.; Le Méhauté, Alain; Spooner, Steven

    1989-05-01

    The small-angle scattering from fractally rough surfaces has the potential to give information on the surface area at a given resolution. By use of quantitative neutron and x-ray scattering, a direct comparison of surface areas of fractally rough powders was made between scattering and adsorption techniques. This study supports a recently proposed correction to the theory for scattering from fractal surfaces. In addition, the scattering data provide an independent calibration of molecular adsorbate areas.

  9. a New Method for Calculating Fractal Dimensions of Porous Media Based on Pore Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Yuxuan; Cai, Jianchao; Wei, Wei; Hu, Xiangyun; Wang, Xin; Ge, Xinmin

    Fractal theory has been widely used in petrophysical properties of porous rocks over several decades and determination of fractal dimensions is always the focus of researches and applications by means of fractal-based methods. In this work, a new method for calculating pore space fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension of porous media is derived based on fractal capillary model assumption. The presented work establishes relationship between fractal dimensions and pore size distribution, which can be directly used to calculate the fractal dimensions. The published pore size distribution data for eight sandstone samples are used to calculate the fractal dimensions and simultaneously compared with prediction results from analytical expression. In addition, the proposed fractal dimension method is also tested through Micro-CT images of three sandstone cores, and are compared with fractal dimensions by box-counting algorithm. The test results also prove a self-similar fractal range in sandstone when excluding smaller pores.

  10. Impact of degree heterogeneity on the behavior of trapping in Koch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongzhi; Gao, Shuyang; Xie, Wenlei

    2010-12-01

    Previous work shows that the mean first-passage time (MFPT) for random walks to a given hub node (node with maximum degree) in uncorrelated random scale-free networks is closely related to the exponent γ of power-law degree distribution P(k )˜k-γ, which describes the extent of heterogeneity of scale-free network structure. However, extensive empirical research indicates that real networked systems also display ubiquitous degree correlations. In this paper, we address the trapping issue on the Koch networks, which is a special random walk with one trap fixed at a hub node. The Koch networks are power-law with the characteristic exponent γ in the range between 2 and 3, they are either assortative or disassortative. We calculate exactly the MFPT that is the average of first-passage time from all other nodes to the trap. The obtained explicit solution shows that in large networks the MFPT varies lineally with node number N, which is obviously independent of γ and is sharp contrast to the scaling behavior of MFPT observed for uncorrelated random scale-free networks, where γ influences qualitatively the MFPT of trapping problem.

  11. Process for applying control variables having fractal structures

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, IV, Jonathan S.; Lawson, Roger L.

    1996-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the application of a control variable having a fractal structure to a body or process. The process of the present invention comprises the steps of generating a control variable having a fractal structure and applying the control variable to a body or process reacting in accordance with the control variable. The process is applicable to electroforming where first, second and successive pulsed-currents are applied to cause the deposition of material onto a substrate, such that the first pulsed-current, the second pulsed-current, and successive pulsed currents form a fractal pulsed-current waveform.

  12. Process for applying control variables having fractal structures

    DOEpatents

    Bullock, J.S. IV; Lawson, R.L.

    1996-01-23

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for the application of a control variable having a fractal structure to a body or process. The process of the present invention comprises the steps of generating a control variable having a fractal structure and applying the control variable to a body or process reacting in accordance with the control variable. The process is applicable to electroforming where first, second and successive pulsed-currents are applied to cause the deposition of material onto a substrate, such that the first pulsed-current, the second pulsed-current, and successive pulsed currents form a fractal pulsed-current waveform. 3 figs.

  13. Independence polynomial and matching polynomial of the Koch network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yunhua; Xie, Xiaoliang

    2015-11-01

    The lattice gas model and the monomer-dimer model are two classical models in statistical mechanics. It is well known that the partition functions of these two models are associated with the independence polynomial and the matching polynomial in graph theory, respectively. Both polynomials have been shown to belong to the “#P-complete” class, which indicate the problems are computationally “intractable”. We consider these two polynomials of the Koch networks which are scale-free with small-world effects. Explicit recurrences are derived, and explicit formulae are presented for the number of independent sets of a certain type.

  14. Comprehensive Fractal Description of Porosity of Coal of Different Ranks

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jiangang; Zhang, Guocheng; Song, Zhimin; Liu, Gaofeng; Li, Bing

    2014-01-01

    We selected, as the objects of our research, lignite from the Beizao Mine, gas coal from the Caiyuan Mine, coking coal from the Xiqu Mine, and anthracite from the Guhanshan Mine. We used the mercury intrusion method and the low-temperature liquid nitrogen adsorption method to analyze the structure and shape of the coal pores and calculated the fractal dimensions of different aperture segments in the coal. The experimental results show that the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of lignite, gas coal, and coking coal with an aperture of greater than or equal to 10 nm, as well as the fractal dimension of the aperture segment of anthracite with an aperture of greater than or equal to 100 nm, can be calculated using the mercury intrusion method; the fractal dimension of the coal pore, with an aperture range between 2.03 nm and 361.14 nm, can be calculated using the liquid nitrogen adsorption method, of which the fractal dimensions bounded by apertures of 10 nm and 100 nm are different. Based on these findings, we defined and calculated the comprehensive fractal dimensions of the coal pores and achieved the unity of fractal dimensions for full apertures of coal pores, thereby facilitating, overall characterization for the heterogeneity of the coal pore structure. PMID:24955407

  15. Fractal density modeling of crustal heterogeneity from the KTB deep hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guoxiong; Cheng, Qiuming

    2017-03-01

    Fractal or multifractal concepts have significantly enlightened our understanding of crustal heterogeneity. Much attention has focused on 1/f scaling natures of physicochemical heterogeneity of Earth crust from fractal increment perspective. In this study, fractal density model from fractal clustering point of view is used to characterize the scaling behaviors of heterogeneous sources recorded at German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) main hole, and of special contribution is the local and global multifractal analysis revisited by using Haar wavelet transform (HWT). Fractal density modeling of mass accumulation generalizes the unit of rock density from integer (e.g., g/cm3) to real numbers (e.g., g/cmα), so that crustal heterogeneities with respect to source accumulation are quantified by singularity strength of fractal density in α-dimensional space. From that perspective, we found that the bulk densities of metamorphic rocks exhibit fractal properties but have a weak multifractality, decreasing with the depth. The multiscaling natures of chemical logs also have been evidenced, and the observed distinct fractal laws for mineral contents are related to their different geochemical behaviors within complex lithological context. Accordingly, scaling distributions of mineral contents have been recognized as a main contributor to the multifractal natures of heterogeneous density for low-porosity crystalline rocks. This finally allows us to use de Wijs cascade process to explain the mechanism of fractal density. In practice, the proposed local singularity analysis based on HWT is suggested as an attractive high-pass filtering to amplify weak signatures of well logs as well as to delineate microlithological changes.

  16. H-fractal seismic metamaterial with broadband low-frequency bandgaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Qiujiao; Zeng, Yi; Xu, Yang; Yang, Hongwu; Zeng, Zuoxun

    2018-03-01

    The application of metamaterial in civil engineering to achieve isolation of a building by controlling the propagation of seismic waves is a substantial challenge because seismic waves, a superposition of longitudinal and shear waves, are more complex than electromagnetic and acoustic waves. In this paper, we design a broadband seismic metamaterial based on H-shaped fractal pillars and report numerical simulation of band structures for seismic surface waves propagating. Comparative study on the band structures of H-fractal seismic metamaterials with different levels shows that a new level of fractal structure creates new band gap, widens the total band gaps and shifts the same band gap towards lower frequencies. Moreover, the vibration modes for H-fractal seismic metamaterials are computed and analyzed to clarify the mechanism of widening band gaps. A numerical investigation of seismic surface waves propagation on a 2D array of fractal unit cells on the surface of semi-infinite substrate is proposed to show the efficiency of earthquake shielding in multiple complete band gaps.

  17. Fractal Dimensions of Umbral and Penumbral Regions of Sunspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajkumar, B.; Haque, S.; Hrudey, W.

    2017-11-01

    The images of sunspots in 16 active regions taken at the University College of the Cayman Islands (UCCI) Observatory on Grand Cayman during June-November 2015 were used to determine their fractal dimensions using the perimeter-area method for the umbral and the penumbral region. Scale-free fractal dimensions of 2.09 ±0.42 and 1.72 ±0.4 were found, respectively. This value was higher than the value determined by Chumak and Chumak ( Astron. Astrophys. Trans. 10, 329, 1996), who used a similar method, but only for the penumbral region of their sample set. The umbral and penumbral fractal dimensions for the specific sunspots are positively correlated with r = 0.58. Furthermore, a similar time-series analysis was performed on eight images of AR 12403, from 21 August 2015 to 28 August 2015 taken from the Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD). The correlation is r = 0.623 between the umbral and penumbral fractal dimensions in the time series, indicating that the complexity in morphology indicated by the fractal dimension between the umbra and penumbra followed each other in time as well.

  18. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.ru

    2014-08-15

    A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensionalmore » space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.« less

  19. Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2014-08-01

    A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.

  20. Turbulent premixed flames on fractal-grid-generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soulopoulos, N.; Kerl, J.; Sponfeldner, T.; Beyrau, F.; Hardalupas, Y.; Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent flame stabilized by a rod. The study compares the flame behaviour with a fractal grid to the behaviour when a standard square mesh grid with the same effective mesh size and solidity as the fractal grid is used. The isothermal gas flow turbulence characteristics, including mean flow velocity and rms of velocity fluctuations and Taylor length, were evaluated from hot-wire measurements. The behaviour of the flames was assessed with direct chemiluminescence emission from the flame and high-speed OH-laser-induced fluorescence. The characteristics of the two flames are considered in terms of turbulent flame thickness, local flame curvature and turbulent flame speed. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry and at the same distance downstream of the location of the grid, fractal-grid-generated turbulence leads to a more turbulent flame with enhanced burning rate and increased flame surface area.

  1. Self-stabilized Fractality of Sea-coasts Through Damped Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapoval, B.; Baldassari, A.; Gabrielli, A.

    2004-05-01

    Coastline morphology is of current interest in geophysical research and coastline erosion has important economic consequences. At the same time, although the geometry of seacoasts is often used as an introductory archetype of fractal morphology in nature there has been no explanation about which physical mechanism could justify that empirical observation. The present work propose a minimal, but robust, model of evolution of rocky coasts towards fractality. The model describes how a stationary fractal geometry arises spontaneously from the mutual self-stabilization of a rocky coast morphology and sea eroding power. If, on one hand, erosion generally increases the geometrical irregularity of the coast, on the other hand this increase creates a stronger damping of the sea and a consequent diminution of its eroding power. The increased damping argument relies on the studies of fractal acoustical cavities, which have shown that viscous damping is augmented on a longer, irregular, surface. A minimal two-dimensional model of erosion is introduced which leads to the through a complex dynamics of the earth-sea interface, to the appearance of a stationary fractal seacoast with dimension close to 4/3. Fractal geometry plays here the role of a morphological attractor directly related to percolation geometry. The model reproduces at least qualitatively some of the features of real coasts using only simple ingredients: the randomness of the lithology and the decrease of the erosion power of the sea. B. Sapoval, Fractals (Aditech, Paris, 1989). B. Sapoval, O. Haeberlé, and S.Russ, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 2014 (1997). B. Hébert B., B. Sapoval, and S.Russ, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 1567 (1999).

  2. Fractal cometary dust - a window into the early Solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannel, T.; Bentley, M. S.; Schmied, R.; Jeszenszky, H.; Levasseur-Regourd, A. C.; Romstedt, J.; Torkar, K.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of dust in the protoplanetary disc are key to understanding the formation of planets in our Solar system. Many models of dust growth predict the development of fractal structures which evolve into non-fractal, porous dust pebbles representing the main component for planetesimal accretion. In order to understand comets and their origins, the Rosetta orbiter followed comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for over two years and carried a dedicated instrument suite for dust analysis. One of these instruments, the MIDAS (Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System) atomic force microscope, recorded the 3D topography of micro- to nanometre-sized dust. All particles analysed to date have been found to be hierarchical agglomerates. Most show compact packing; however, one is extremely porous. This paper contains a structural description of a compact aggregate and the outstanding porous one. Both particles are tens of micrometres in size and show rather narrow subunit size distributions with noticeably similar mean values of 1.48^{+0.13}_{-0.59} μm for the porous particle and 1.36^{+0.15}_{-0.59} μm for the compact. The porous particle allows a fractal analysis, where a density-density correlation function yields a fractal dimension of Df = 1.70 ± 0.1. GIADA, another dust analysis instrument on board Rosetta, confirms the existence of a dust population with a similar fractal dimension. The fractal particles are interpreted as pristine agglomerates built in the protoplanetary disc and preserved in the comet. The similar subunits of both fractal and compact dust indicate a common origin which is, given the properties of the fractal, dominated by slow agglomeration of equally sized aggregates known as cluster-cluster agglomeration.

  3. Fractal analysis as a potential tool for surface morphology of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumya, S.; Swapna, M. S.; Raj, Vimal; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.; Sankararaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Fractal geometry developed by Mandelbrot has emerged as a potential tool for analyzing complex systems in the diversified fields of science, social science, and technology. Self-similar objects having the same details in different scales are referred to as fractals and are analyzed using the mathematics of non-Euclidean geometry. The present work is an attempt to correlate fractal dimension for surface characterization by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Taking the AFM images of zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique, under different annealing temperatures, the effect of annealing temperature and surface roughness on fractal dimension is studied. The annealing temperature and surface roughness show a strong correlation with fractal dimension. From the regression equation set, the surface roughness at a given annealing temperature can be calculated from the fractal dimension. The AFM images are processed using Photoshop and fractal dimension is calculated by box-counting method. The fractal dimension decreases from 1.986 to 1.633 while the surface roughness increases from 1.110 to 3.427, for a change of annealing temperature 30 ° C to 600 ° C. The images are also analyzed by power spectrum method to find the fractal dimension. The study reveals that the box-counting method gives better results compared to the power spectrum method.

  4. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  5. Influence of Turbulent Flow and Fractal Scaling on Effective Permeability of Fracture Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, J.

    2017-12-01

    A new approach is developed to calculate hydraulic gradient dependent effective permeability of a fractal fracture network where both laminar and turbulent flows may occur in individual fractures. A critical fracture length is used to distinguish flow characteristics in individual fractures. The developed new solutions can be used for the case of a general scaling relationship, an extension to the linear scaling. We examine the impact on the effective permeability of the network of fractal fracture network characteristics, which include the fractal scaling coefficient and exponent, fractal dimension, ratio of minimum over maximum fracture lengths. Results demonstrate that the developed solution can explain more variations of the effective permeability in relation to the fractal dimensions estimated from the field observations. At high hydraulic gradient the effective permeability decreases with the fractal scaling exponent, but increases with the fractal scaling exponent at low gradient. The effective permeability increases with the scaling coefficient, fractal dimension, fracture length ratio and maximum fracture length.

  6. Fractal based curves in musical creativity: A critical annotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgaki, Anastasia; Tsolakis, Christos

    In this article we examine fractal curves and synthesis algorithms in musical composition and research. First we trace the evolution of different approaches for the use of fractals in music since the 80's by a literature review. Furthermore, we review representative fractal algorithms and platforms that implement them. Properties such as self-similarity (pink noise), correlation, memory (related to the notion of Brownian motion) or non correlation at multiple levels (white noise), can be used to develop hierarchy of criteria for analyzing different layers of musical structure. L-systems can be applied in the modelling of melody in different musical cultures as well as in the investigation of musical perception principles. Finally, we propose a critical investigation approach for the use of artificial or natural fractal curves in systematic musicology.

  7. Fractal 1/f Dynamics Suggest Entanglement of Measurement and Human Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, John G.; Choi, Inhyun; Amazeen, Polemnia G.; Van Orden, Guy

    2011-01-01

    Variability of repeated measurements in human performances exhibits fractal 1/f noise. Yet the relative strength of this fractal pattern varies widely across conditions, tasks, and individuals. Four experiments illustrate how subtle details of the conditions of measurement change the fractal patterns observed across task conditions. The results…

  8. Study on Conversion Between Momentum and Contrarian Based on Fractal Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xu; Song, Guanghui; Deng, Yan; Xu, Lin

    2015-06-01

    Based on the fractal game which is performed by the majority and the minority, the fractal market theory (FMT) is employed to describe the features of investors' decision-making. Accordingly, the process of fractal games is formed in order to analyze the statistical features of conversion between momentum and contrarian. The result shows that among three fractal game mechanisms, the statistical feature of simulated return rate series is much more similar to log returns on actual series. In addition, the conversion between momentum and contrarian is also extremely similar to real situation, which can reflect the effectiveness of using fractal game in analyzing the conversion between momentum and contrarian. Moreover, it also provides decision-making reference which helps investors develop effective investment strategy.

  9. Fractal design concepts for stretchable electronics.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jonathan A; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Su, Yewang; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sung-Young; Zhang, Yihui; Liu, Zhuangjian; Cheng, Huanyu; Falgout, Leo; Bajema, Mike; Coleman, Todd; Gregoire, Dan; Larsen, Ryan J; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A

    2014-01-01

    Stretchable electronics provide a foundation for applications that exceed the scope of conventional wafer and circuit board technologies due to their unique capacity to integrate with soft materials and curvilinear surfaces. The range of possibilities is predicated on the development of device architectures that simultaneously offer advanced electronic function and compliant mechanics. Here we report that thin films of hard electronic materials patterned in deterministic fractal motifs and bonded to elastomers enable unusual mechanics with important implications in stretchable device design. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek and other fractal constructs to yield space-filling structures of electronic materials, including monocrystalline silicon, for electrophysiological sensors, precision monitors and actuators, and radio frequency antennas. These devices support conformal mounting on the skin and have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that fractal-based layouts represent important strategies for hard-soft materials integration.

  10. Fractal design concepts for stretchable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jonathan A.; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Su, Yewang; Hattori, Yoshiaki; Lee, Woosik; Jung, Sung-Young; Zhang, Yihui; Liu, Zhuangjian; Cheng, Huanyu; Falgout, Leo; Bajema, Mike; Coleman, Todd; Gregoire, Dan; Larsen, Ryan J.; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.

    2014-02-01

    Stretchable electronics provide a foundation for applications that exceed the scope of conventional wafer and circuit board technologies due to their unique capacity to integrate with soft materials and curvilinear surfaces. The range of possibilities is predicated on the development of device architectures that simultaneously offer advanced electronic function and compliant mechanics. Here we report that thin films of hard electronic materials patterned in deterministic fractal motifs and bonded to elastomers enable unusual mechanics with important implications in stretchable device design. In particular, we demonstrate the utility of Peano, Greek cross, Vicsek and other fractal constructs to yield space-filling structures of electronic materials, including monocrystalline silicon, for electrophysiological sensors, precision monitors and actuators, and radio frequency antennas. These devices support conformal mounting on the skin and have unique properties such as invisibility under magnetic resonance imaging. The results suggest that fractal-based layouts represent important strategies for hard-soft materials integration.

  11. Is the co-seismic slip distribution fractal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milliner, Christopher; Sammis, Charles; Allam, Amir; Dolan, James

    2015-04-01

    Co-seismic along-strike slip heterogeneity is widely observed for many surface-rupturing earthquakes as revealed by field and high-resolution geodetic methods. However, this co-seismic slip variability is currently a poorly understood phenomenon. Key unanswered questions include: What are the characteristics and underlying causes of along-strike slip variability? Do the properties of slip variability change from fault-to-fault, along-strike or at different scales? We cross-correlate optical, pre- and post-event air photos using the program COSI-Corr to measure the near-field, surface deformation pattern of the 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in high-resolution. We produce the co-seismic slip profiles of both events from over 1,000 displacement measurements and observe consistent along-strike slip variability. Although the observed slip heterogeneity seems apparently complex and disordered, a spectral analysis reveals that the slip distributions are indeed self-affine fractal i.e., slip exhibits a consistent degree of irregularity at all observable length scales, with a 'short-memory' and is not random. We find a fractal dimension of 1.58 and 1.75 for the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes, respectively, indicating that slip is more heterogeneous for the Hector Mine event. Fractal slip is consistent with both dynamic and quasi-static numerical simulations that use non-planar faults, which in turn causes heterogeneous along-strike stress, and we attribute the observed fractal slip to fault surfaces of fractal roughness. As fault surfaces are known to smooth over geologic time due to abrasional wear and fracturing, we also test whether the fractal properties of slip distributions alters between earthquakes from immature to mature fault systems. We will present results that test this hypothesis by using the optical image correlation technique to measure historic, co-seismic slip distributions of earthquakes from structurally mature, large

  12. Launching the chaotic realm of iso-fractals: A short remark

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    O'Schmidt, Nathan; Katebi, Reza; Corda, Christian

    In this brief note, we introduce the new, emerging sub-discipline of iso-fractals by highlighting and discussing the preliminary results of recent works. First, we note the abundance of fractal, chaotic, non-linear, and self-similar structures in nature while emphasizing the importance of studying such systems because fractal geometry is the language of chaos. Second, we outline the iso-fractal generalization of the Mandelbrot set to exemplify the newly generated Mandelbrot iso-sets. Third, we present the cutting-edge notion of dynamic iso-spaces and explain how a mathematical space can be iso-topically lifted with iso-unit functions that (continuously or discretely) change; in the discrete casemore » examples, we mention that iteratively generated sequences like Fibonacci’s numbers and (the complex moduli of) Mandelbrot’s numbers can supply a deterministic chain of iso-units to construct an ordered series of (magnified and/or de-magnified) iso-spaces that are locally iso-morphic. Fourth, we consider the initiation of iso-fractals with Inopin’s holographic ring (IHR) topology and fractional statistics for 2D and 3D iso-spaces. In total, the reviewed iso-fractal results are a significant improvement over traditional fractals because the application of Santilli’s iso-mathematics arms us an extra degree of freedom for attacking problems in chaos. Finally, we conclude by proposing some questions and ideas for future research work.« less

  13. Fractal Analyses of High-Resolution Cloud Droplet Measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinowski, Szymon P.; Leclerc, Monique Y.; Baumgardner, Darrel G.

    1994-02-01

    Fractal analyses of individual cloud droplet distributions using aircraft measurements along one-dimensional horizontal cross sections through clouds are performed. Box counting and cluster analyses are used to determine spatial scales of inhomogeneity of cloud droplet spacing. These analyses reveal that droplet spatial distributions do not exhibit a fractal behavior. A high variability in local droplet concentration in cloud volumes undergoing mixing was found. In these regions, thin filaments of cloudy air with droplet concentration close to those observed in cloud cores were found. Results suggest that these filaments may be anisotropic. Additional box counting analyses performed for various classes of cloud droplet diameters indicate that large and small droplets are similarly distributed, except for the larger characteristic spacing of large droplets.A cloud-clear air interface defined by a certain threshold of total droplet count (TDC) was investigated. There are indications that this interface is a convoluted surface of a fractal nature, at least in actively developing cumuliform clouds. In contrast, TDC in the cloud interior does not have fractal or multifractal properties. Finally a random Cantor set (RCS) was introduced as a model of a fractal process with an ill-defined internal scale. A uniform measure associated with the RCS after several generations was introduced to simulate the TDC records. Comparison of the model with real TDC records indicates similar properties of both types of data series.

  14. On the fractal morphology of combustion-generated soot aggregates

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Koylu, U.O.

    1995-12-31

    The fractal properties of soot aggregates were investigated using ex-situ and in-situ experimental methods as well as computer simulations. Ex-situ experiments involved thermophoretic sampling and analysis by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), while in-situ measurements employed angular static light scattering and data inversion based on Rayleigh-Debye-Gans (RDG) approximation. Computer simulations used a sequential algorithm which mimics mass fractal-like structures. So from a variety of hydrocarbon-fueled laminar and turbulent nonpremixed flame environments were considered in the present study. The TEM analysis of projected soot images sampled from fuel-rich conditions of buoyant and weakly-buoyant laminar flames indicated that the fractal dimension of sootmore » was relatively independent of position in flames, fuel type and flame condition. These measurements yielded an average fractal dimension of 1.8, although other structure parameters such as the primary particle diameters and number of primary particles in aggregates had wide range of values. Fractal prefactor (lacunarity) was also measured for soot sampled from the fuel-lean conditions of turbulent flames, considering the actual morphology by tilting the samples during TEM analysis. These measurements yielded a fractal dimension of 1.65 and a lacunarity of 8.5, with experimental uncertainties (95% confidence) of 0.08 and 0.5, respectively. Relationships between the actual and projected structure properties of soot were also developed by combining TEM observations with numerical simulations. Practical approximate formulae were suggested to find radius of gyration of an aggregate from its maximum dimension, and number of primary particles in an aggregate from projected area. Finally, the fractal dimension and lacunarity of soot were obtained using light scattering for the same conditions of the above TEM measurements.« less

  15. Parameterization of single-scattering properties of snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, P.; Kokhanovsky, A.; Guyot, G.; Jourdan, O.; Nousiainen, T.

    2015-02-01

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in many radiative transfer applications, single-scattering properties of snow have been based on the assumption of spherical grains. More recently, second-generation Koch fractals have been employed. While they produce a relatively flat phase function typical of deformed non-spherical particles, this is still a rather ad-hoc choice. Here, angular scattering measurements for blowing snow conducted during the CLimate IMpacts of Short-Lived pollutants In the Polar region (CLIMSLIP) campaign at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, are used to construct a reference phase function for snow. Based on this phase function, an optimized habit combination (OHC) consisting of severely rough (SR) droxtals, aggregates of SR plates and strongly distorted Koch fractals is selected. The single-scattering properties of snow are then computed for the OHC as a function of wavelength λ and snow grain volume-to-projected area equivalent radius rvp. Parameterization equations are developed for λ = 0.199-2.7 μm and rvp = 10-2000 μm, which express the single-scattering co-albedo β, the asymmetry parameter g and the phase function P11 as functions of the size parameter and the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index. The parameterizations are analytic and simple to use in radiative transfer models. Compared to the reference values computed for the OHC, the accuracy of the parameterization is very high for β and g. This is also true for the phase function parameterization, except for strongly absorbing cases (β > 0.3). Finally, we consider snow albedo and reflected radiances for the suggested snow optics parameterization, making comparisons to spheres and distorted Koch fractals.

  16. Parameterization of single-scattering properties of snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räisänen, P.; Kokhanovsky, A.; Guyot, G.; Jourdan, O.; Nousiainen, T.

    2015-06-01

    Snow consists of non-spherical grains of various shapes and sizes. Still, in many radiative transfer applications, single-scattering properties of snow have been based on the assumption of spherical grains. More recently, second-generation Koch fractals have been employed. While they produce a relatively flat phase function typical of deformed non-spherical particles, this is still a rather ad hoc choice. Here, angular scattering measurements for blowing snow conducted during the CLimate IMpacts of Short-Lived pollutants In the Polar region (CLIMSLIP) campaign at Ny Ålesund, Svalbard, are used to construct a reference phase function for snow. Based on this phase function, an optimized habit combination (OHC) consisting of severely rough (SR) droxtals, aggregates of SR plates and strongly distorted Koch fractals is selected. The single-scattering properties of snow are then computed for the OHC as a function of wavelength λ and snow grain volume-to-projected area equivalent radius rvp. Parameterization equations are developed for λ = 0.199-2.7 μm and rvp = 10-2000 μm, which express the single-scattering co-albedo β, the asymmetry parameter g and the phase function P11 as functions of the size parameter and the real and imaginary parts of the refractive index. The parameterizations are analytic and simple to use in radiative transfer models. Compared to the reference values computed for the OHC, the accuracy of the parameterization is very high for β and g. This is also true for the phase function parameterization, except for strongly absorbing cases (β > 0.3). Finally, we consider snow albedo and reflected radiances for the suggested snow optics parameterization, making comparisons to spheres and distorted Koch fractals.

  17. [Recent progress of research and applications of fractal and its theories in medicine].

    PubMed

    Cai, Congbo; Wang, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Fractal, a mathematics concept, is used to describe an image of self-similarity and scale invariance. Some organisms have been discovered with the fractal characteristics, such as cerebral cortex surface, retinal vessel structure, cardiovascular network, and trabecular bone, etc. It has been preliminarily confirmed that the three-dimensional structure of cells cultured in vitro could be significantly enhanced by bionic fractal surface. Moreover, fractal theory in clinical research will help early diagnosis and treatment of diseases, reducing the patient's pain and suffering. The development process of diseases in the human body can be expressed by the fractal theories parameter. It is of considerable significance to retrospectively review the preparation and application of fractal surface and its diagnostic value in medicine. This paper gives an application of fractal and its theories in the medical science, based on the research achievements in our laboratory.

  18. Fractal markets: Liquidity and investors on different time horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da-Ye; Nishimura, Yusaku; Men, Ming

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new agent-based model to study the source of liquidity and the “emergent” phenomenon in financial market with fractal structure. The model rests on fractal market hypothesis and agents with different time horizons of investments. What is interesting is that though the agent-based model reveals that the interaction between these heterogeneous agents affects the stability and liquidity of the financial market the real world market lacks detailed data to bring it to light since it is difficult to identify and distinguish the investors with different time horizons in the empirical approach. results show that in a relatively short period of time fractal market provides liquidity from investors with different horizons and the market gains stability when the market structure changes from uniformity to diversification. In the real world the fractal structure with the finite of horizons can only stabilize the market within limits. With the finite maximum horizons, the greater diversity of the investors and the fractal structure will not necessarily bring more stability to the market which might come with greater fluctuation in large time scale.

  19. A comparison of the fractal and JPEG algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, K.-M.; Shahshahani, M.

    1991-01-01

    A proprietary fractal image compression algorithm and the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) industry standard algorithm for image compression are compared. In every case, the JPEG algorithm was superior to the fractal method at a given compression ratio according to a root mean square criterion and a peak signal to noise criterion.

  20. a Fractal Permeability Model Coupling Boundary-Layer Effect for Tight Oil Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fuyong; Liu, Zhichao; Jiao, Liang; Wang, Congle; Guo, Hu

    A fractal permeability model coupling non-flowing boundary-layer effect for tight oil reservoirs was proposed. Firstly, pore structures of tight formations were characterized with fractal theory. Then, with the empirical equation of boundary-layer thickness, Hagen-Poiseuille equation and fractal theory, a fractal torturous capillary tube model coupled with boundary-layer effect was developed, and verified with experimental data. Finally, the parameters influencing effective liquid permeability were quantitatively investigated. The research results show that effective liquid permeability of tight formations is not only decided by pore structures, but also affected by boundary-layer distributions, and effective liquid permeability is the function of fluid type, fluid viscosity, pressure gradient, fractal dimension, tortuosity fractal dimension, minimum pore radius and maximum pore radius. For the tight formations dominated with nanoscale pores, boundary-layer effect can significantly reduce effective liquid permeability, especially under low pressure gradient.

  1. Characterisation of human non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy using the fractal analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Călugăru, Dan Mihai; Lupaşcu, Carmen Alina

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate and quantify changes in the branching patterns of the retina vascular network in diabetes using the fractal analysis method. METHODS This was a clinic-based prospective study of 172 participants managed at the Ophthalmological Clinic of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between January 2012 and December 2013. A set of 172 segmented and skeletonized human retinal images, corresponding to both normal (24 images) and pathological (148 images) states of the retina were examined. An automatic unsupervised method for retinal vessel segmentation was applied before fractal analysis. The fractal analyses of the retinal digital images were performed using the fractal analysis software ImageJ. Statistical analyses were performed for these groups using Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and GraphPad InStat software. RESULTS It was found that subtle changes in the vascular network geometry of the human retina are influenced by diabetic retinopathy (DR) and can be estimated using the fractal geometry. The average of fractal dimensions D for the normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions) is slightly lower than the corresponding values of mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR) images (segmented and skeletonized versions). The average of fractal dimensions D for the normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions) is higher than the corresponding values of moderate NPDR images (segmented and skeletonized versions). The lowest values were found for the corresponding values of severe NPDR images (segmented and skeletonized versions). CONCLUSION The fractal analysis of fundus photographs may be used for a more complete undeTrstanding of the early and basic pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes. The architecture of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes can be quantitative quantified by means of the fractal dimension. Microvascular abnormalities on retinal imaging may elucidate early mechanistic pathways for microvascular complications and distinguish patients with DR from

  2. Characterisation of human non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy using the fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Călugăru, Dan Mihai; Lupaşcu, Carmen Alina

    2015-01-01

    To investigate and quantify changes in the branching patterns of the retina vascular network in diabetes using the fractal analysis method. This was a clinic-based prospective study of 172 participants managed at the Ophthalmological Clinic of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between January 2012 and December 2013. A set of 172 segmented and skeletonized human retinal images, corresponding to both normal (24 images) and pathological (148 images) states of the retina were examined. An automatic unsupervised method for retinal vessel segmentation was applied before fractal analysis. The fractal analyses of the retinal digital images were performed using the fractal analysis software ImageJ. Statistical analyses were performed for these groups using Microsoft Office Excel 2003 and GraphPad InStat software. It was found that subtle changes in the vascular network geometry of the human retina are influenced by diabetic retinopathy (DR) and can be estimated using the fractal geometry. The average of fractal dimensions D for the normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions) is slightly lower than the corresponding values of mild non-proliferative DR (NPDR) images (segmented and skeletonized versions). The average of fractal dimensions D for the normal images (segmented and skeletonized versions) is higher than the corresponding values of moderate NPDR images (segmented and skeletonized versions). The lowest values were found for the corresponding values of severe NPDR images (segmented and skeletonized versions). The fractal analysis of fundus photographs may be used for a more complete undeTrstanding of the early and basic pathophysiological mechanisms of diabetes. The architecture of the retinal microvasculature in diabetes can be quantitative quantified by means of the fractal dimension. Microvascular abnormalities on retinal imaging may elucidate early mechanistic pathways for microvascular complications and distinguish patients with DR from healthy individuals.

  3. A fractal growth model: Exploring the connection pattern of hubs in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongyan; Wang, Xingyuan; Huang, Penghe

    2017-04-01

    Fractal is ubiquitous in many real-world networks. Previous researches showed that the strong disassortativity between the hub-nodes on all length scales was the key principle that gave rise to the fractal architecture of networks. Although fractal property emerged in some models, there were few researches about the fractal growth model and quantitative analyses about the strength of the disassortativity for fractal model. In this paper, we proposed a novel inverse renormalization method, named Box-based Preferential Attachment (BPA), to build the fractal growth models in which the Preferential Attachment was performed at box level. The proposed models provided a new framework that demonstrated small-world-fractal transition. Also, we firstly demonstrated the statistical characteristic of connection patterns of the hubs in fractal networks. The experimental results showed that, given proper growing scale and added edges, the proposed models could clearly show pure small-world or pure fractal or both of them. It also showed that the hub connection ratio showed normal distribution in many real-world networks. At last, the comparisons of connection pattern between the proposed models and the biological and technical networks were performed. The results gave useful reference for exploring the growth principle and for modeling the connection patterns for real-world networks.

  4. A fractal analysis of quaternary, Cenozoic-Mesozoic, and Late Pennsylvanian sea level changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsui, Albert T.; Rust, Kelly A.; Klein, George D.

    1993-01-01

    Sea level changes are related to both climatic variations and tectonic movements. The fractal dimensions of several sea level curves were compared to a modern climatic fractal dimension of 1.26 established for annual precipitation records. A similar fractal dimension (1.22) based on delta(O-18/O-16) in deep-sea sediments has been suggested to characterize climatic change during the past 2 m.y. Our analysis indicates that sea level changes over the past 150,000 to 250,000 years also exhibit comparable fractal dimensions. Sea level changes for periods longer than about 30 m.y. are found to produce fractal dimensions closer to unity and Missourian (Late Pennsylvanian) sea level changes yield a fractal dimension of 1.41. The fact that these sea level curves all possess fractal dimensions less than 1.5 indicates that sea level changes exhibit nonperiodic, long-run persistence. The different fractal dimensions calculated for the various time periods could be the result of a characteristic overprinting of the sediment recored by prevailing processes during deposition. For example, during the Quaternary, glacio-eustatic sea level changes correlate well with the present climatic signature. During the Missourian, however, mechanisms such as plate reorganization may have dominated, resulting in a significantly different fractal dimension.

  5. Heart failure gene therapy: closer to reality. Professor Walter Koch speaks to Christine Forder, commissioning editor.

    PubMed

    Koch, Walter J

    2009-03-01

    Professor Walter Koch is currently a Director at the Center for Translational Medicine and Vice Chairman for Research in the Department of Medicine at Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, PA, USA. Professor Koch started his career as a Research Associate at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. His work is based around heart failure and the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of signaling through cardiovascular adrenergic receptors, the study of G-proteincoupled receptor function and signaling, and heart failure gene therapy. His current studies are investigating into the use of novel viral-mediated myocardial gene delivery for use in congestive heart failure, with an aim at developing reproducible surgical means of gene therapy. He is also involved in research to understand novel molecular signaling mechanisms responsible for reversible cardiac injury and potential repair.

  6. Numerical study of electromagnetic scattering from one-dimensional nonlinear fractal sea surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Tao; He, Chao; William, Perrie; Kuang, Hai-Lan; Zou, Guang-Hui; Chen, Wei

    2010-02-01

    In recent years, linear fractal sea surface models have been developed for the sea surface in order to establish an electromagnetic backscattering model. Unfortunately, the sea surface is always nonlinear, particularly at high sea states. We present a nonlinear fractal sea surface model and derive an electromagnetic backscattering model. Using this model, we numerically calculate the normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of a nonlinear sea surface. Comparing the averaged NRCS between linear and nonlinear fractal models, we show that the NRCS of a linear fractal sea surface underestimates the NRCS of the real sea surface, especially for sea states with high fractal dimensions, and for dominant ocean surface gravity waves that are either very short or extremely long.

  7. The fractal heart — embracing mathematics in the cardiology clinic

    PubMed Central

    Captur, Gabriella; Karperien, Audrey L.; Hughes, Alun D.; Francis, Darrel P.; Moon, James C.

    2017-01-01

    For clinicians grappling with quantifying the complex spatial and temporal patterns of cardiac structure and function (such as myocardial trabeculae, coronary microvascular anatomy, tissue perfusion, myocyte histology, electrical conduction, heart rate, and blood-pressure variability), fractal analysis is a powerful, but still underused, mathematical tool. In this Perspectives article, we explain some fundamental principles of fractal geometry and place it in a familiar medical setting. We summarize studies in the cardiovascular sciences in which fractal methods have successfully been used to investigate disease mechanisms, and suggest potential future clinical roles in cardiac imaging and time series measurements. We believe that clinical researchers can deploy innovative fractal solutions to common cardiac problems that might ultimately translate into advancements for patient care. PMID:27708281

  8. Analysis of fractal dimensions of rat bones from film and digital images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pornprasertsuk, S.; Ludlow, J. B.; Webber, R. L.; Tyndall, D. A.; Yamauchi, M.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: (1) To compare the effect of two different intra-oral image receptors on estimates of fractal dimension; and (2) to determine the variations in fractal dimensions between the femur, tibia and humerus of the rat and between their proximal, middle and distal regions. METHODS: The left femur, tibia and humerus from 24 4-6-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were radiographed using intra-oral film and a charge-coupled device (CCD). Films were digitized at a pixel density comparable to the CCD using a flat-bed scanner. Square regions of interest were selected from proximal, middle, and distal regions of each bone. Fractal dimensions were estimated from the slope of regression lines fitted to plots of log power against log spatial frequency. RESULTS: The fractal dimensions estimates from digitized films were significantly greater than those produced from the CCD (P=0.0008). Estimated fractal dimensions of three types of bone were not significantly different (P=0.0544); however, the three regions of bones were significantly different (P=0.0239). The fractal dimensions estimated from radiographs of the proximal and distal regions of the bones were lower than comparable estimates obtained from the middle region. CONCLUSIONS: Different types of image receptors significantly affect estimates of fractal dimension. There was no difference in the fractal dimensions of the different bones but the three regions differed significantly.

  9. Universal characteristics of fractal fluctuations in prime number distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvam, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    The frequency of occurrence of prime numbers at unit number spacing intervals exhibits self-similar fractal fluctuations concomitant with inverse power law form for power spectrum generic to dynamical systems in nature such as fluid flows, stock market fluctuations and population dynamics. The physics of long-range correlations exhibited by fractals is not yet identified. A recently developed general systems theory visualizes the eddy continuum underlying fractals to result from the growth of large eddies as the integrated mean of enclosed small scale eddies, thereby generating a hierarchy of eddy circulations or an inter-connected network with associated long-range correlations. The model predictions are as follows: (1) The probability distribution and power spectrum of fractals follow the same inverse power law which is a function of the golden mean. The predicted inverse power law distribution is very close to the statistical normal distribution for fluctuations within two standard deviations from the mean of the distribution. (2) Fractals signify quantum-like chaos since variance spectrum represents probability density distribution, a characteristic of quantum systems such as electron or photon. (3) Fractal fluctuations of frequency distribution of prime numbers signify spontaneous organization of underlying continuum number field into the ordered pattern of the quasiperiodic Penrose tiling pattern. The model predictions are in agreement with the probability distributions and power spectra for different sets of frequency of occurrence of prime numbers at unit number interval for successive 1000 numbers. Prime numbers in the first 10 million numbers were used for the study.

  10. A tale of two fractals: The Hofstadter butterfly and the integral Apollonian gaskets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satija, Indubala I.

    2016-11-01

    This paper unveils a mapping between a quantum fractal that describes a physical phenomena, and an abstract geometrical fractal. The quantum fractal is the Hofstadter butterfly discovered in 1976 in an iconic condensed matter problem of electrons moving in a two-dimensional lattice in a transverse magnetic field. The geometric fractal is the integer Apollonian gasket characterized in terms of a 300 BC problem of mutually tangent circles. Both of these fractals are made up of integers. In the Hofstadter butterfly, these integers encode the topological quantum numbers of quantum Hall conductivity. In the Apollonian gaskets an infinite number of mutually tangent circles are nested inside each other, where each circle has integer curvature. The mapping between these two fractals reveals a hidden D3 symmetry embedded in the kaleidoscopic images that describe the asymptotic scaling properties of the butterfly. This paper also serves as a mini review of these fractals, emphasizing their hierarchical aspects in terms of Farey fractions.

  11. Applications of Fractal Analytical Techniques in the Estimation of Operational Scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, Charles W.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2000-01-01

    The observational scale and the resolution of remotely sensed imagery are essential considerations in the interpretation process. Many atmospheric, hydrologic, and other natural and human-influenced spatial phenomena are inherently scale dependent and are governed by different physical processes at different spatial domains. This spatial and operational heterogeneity constrains the ability to compare interpretations of phenomena and processes observed in higher spatial resolution imagery to similar interpretations obtained from lower resolution imagery. This is a particularly acute problem, since longterm global change investigations will require high spatial resolution Earth Observing System (EOS), Landsat 7, or commercial satellite data to be combined with lower resolution imagery from older sensors such as Landsat TM and MSS. Fractal analysis is a useful technique for identifying the effects of scale changes on remotely sensed imagery. The fractal dimension of an image is a non-integer value between two and three which indicates the degree of complexity in the texture and shapes depicted in the image. A true fractal surface exhibits self-similarity, a property of curves or surfaces where each part is indistinguishable from the whole, or where the form of the curve or surface is invariant with respect to scale. Theoretically, if the digital numbers of a remotely sensed image resemble an ideal fractal surface, then due to the self-similarity property, the fractal dimension of the image will not vary with scale and resolution, and the slope of the fractal dimension-resolution relationship would be zero. Most geographical phenomena, however, are not self-similar at all scales, but they can be modeled by a stochastic fractal in which the scaling properties of the image exhibit patterns that can be described by statistics such as area-perimeter ratios and autocovariances. Stochastic fractal sets relax the self-similarity assumption and measure many scales and

  12. [Tuberculosis 110 years after the Nobel Prize awarded to Koch].

    PubMed

    Ritacco, Viviana; Kantor, Isabel N

    2015-01-01

    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1905 to Robert Koch "for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis (TB)". He discovered the causal agent of TB, described the four principles that since then have guided research in communicable diseases and also prepared the old tuberculin, a bacillary extract that failed as a healing element but allowed the early diagnosis of TB infection and promoted the understanding of cellular immunity. After his death, the most conspicuous achievements against TB were the BCG vaccine, and the discovery of streptomycin, the antibiotic that launched the era of the effective treatment of TB. Drug-resistance soon appeared. In Argentina, studies on drug resistance began in the 60s. In the 70s, shortened anti-TB drug schemes were introduced consisting in two-month treatment with four drugs, followed by four months with two drugs. The incidence of TB decreased worldwide, but the immune depression associated with awarded together with the misuse of anti-TB drugs allowed the emergence of multidrug resistance and extensive resistance, with the emergence of nosocomial outbreaks worldwide, including Argentina. New rapid diagnostic methods based on molecular biology were developed and also new drugs, but the treatment of multidrug resistant and extensively resistant TB is still difficult and expensive. TB research has marked several milestones in medical sciences, including the monumental Koch postulates, the tuberculin skin test that laid the basis for understanding cell-mediated immunity, the first design of randomized clinical trials and the use of combined multi-drug treatments.

  13. Temporal fractals in seabird foraging behaviour: diving through the scales of time

    PubMed Central

    MacIntosh, Andrew J. J.; Pelletier, Laure; Chiaradia, Andre; Kato, Akiko; Ropert-Coudert, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Animal behaviour exhibits fractal structure in space and time. Fractal properties in animal space-use have been explored extensively under the Lévy flight foraging hypothesis, but studies of behaviour change itself through time are rarer, have typically used shorter sequences generated in the laboratory, and generally lack critical assessment of their results. We thus performed an in-depth analysis of fractal time in binary dive sequences collected via bio-logging from free-ranging little penguins (Eudyptula minor) across full-day foraging trips (216 data points; 4 orders of temporal magnitude). Results from 4 fractal methods show that dive sequences are long-range dependent and persistent across ca. 2 orders of magnitude. This fractal structure correlated with trip length and time spent underwater, but individual traits had little effect. Fractal time is a fundamental characteristic of penguin foraging behaviour, and its investigation is thus a promising avenue for research on interactions between animals and their environments. PMID:23703258

  14. Fractal symmetry of protein interior: what have we learned?

    PubMed

    Banerji, Anirban; Ghosh, Indira

    2011-08-01

    The application of fractal dimension-based constructs to probe the protein interior dates back to the development of the concept of fractal dimension itself. Numerous approaches have been tried and tested over a course of (almost) 30 years with the aim of elucidating the various facets of symmetry of self-similarity prevalent in the protein interior. In the last 5 years especially, there has been a startling upsurge of research that innovatively stretches the limits of fractal-based studies to present an array of unexpected results on the biophysical properties of protein interior. In this article, we introduce readers to the fundamentals of fractals, reviewing the commonality (and the lack of it) between these approaches before exploring the patterns in the results that they produced. Clustering the approaches in major schools of protein self-similarity studies, we describe the evolution of fractal dimension-based methodologies. The genealogy of approaches (and results) presented here portrays a clear picture of the contemporary state of fractal-based studies in the context of the protein interior. To underline the utility of fractal dimension-based measures further, we have performed a correlation dimension analysis on all of the available non-redundant protein structures, both at the level of an individual protein and at the level of structural domains. In this investigation, we were able to separately quantify the self-similar symmetries in spatial correlation patterns amongst peptide-dipole units, charged amino acids, residues with the π-electron cloud and hydrophobic amino acids. The results revealed that electrostatic environments in the interiors of proteins belonging to 'α/α toroid' (all-α class) and 'PLP-dependent transferase-like' domains (α/β class) are highly conducive. In contrast, the interiors of 'zinc finger design' ('designed proteins') and 'knottins' ('small proteins') were identified as folds with the least conducive electrostatic

  15. Fractals in the neurosciences, Part II: clinical applications and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Di Ieva, Antonio; Esteban, Francisco J; Grizzi, Fabio; Klonowski, Wlodzimierz; Martín-Landrove, Miguel

    2015-02-01

    It has been ascertained that the human brain is a complex system studied at multiple scales, from neurons and microcircuits to macronetworks. The brain is characterized by a hierarchical organization that gives rise to its highly topological and functional complexity. Over the last decades, fractal geometry has been shown as a universal tool for the analysis and quantification of the geometric complexity of natural objects, including the brain. The fractal dimension has been identified as a quantitative parameter for the evaluation of the roughness of neural structures, the estimation of time series, and the description of patterns, thus able to discriminate different states of the brain in its entire physiopathological spectrum. Fractal-based computational analyses have been applied to the neurosciences, particularly in the field of clinical neurosciences including neuroimaging and neuroradiology, neurology and neurosurgery, psychiatry and psychology, and neuro-oncology and neuropathology. After a review of the basic concepts of fractal analysis and its main applications to the basic neurosciences in part I of this series, here, we review the main applications of fractals to the clinical neurosciences for a holistic approach towards a fractal geometry model of the brain. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Noninvasive fractal biomarker of clock neurotransmitter disturbance in humans with dementia

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kun; Harper, David G.; Shea, Steven A.; Stopa, Edward G.; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2013-01-01

    Human motor activity has a robust, intrinsic fractal structure with similar patterns from minutes to hours. The fractal activity patterns appear to be physiologically important because the patterns persist under different environmental conditions but are significantly altered/reduced with aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we report that dementia patients, known to have disrupted circadian rhythmicity, also have disrupted fractal activity patterns and that the disruption is more pronounced in patients with more amyloid plaques (a marker of AD severity). Moreover, the degree of fractal activity disruption is strongly associated with vasopressinergic and neurotensinergic neurons (two major circadian neurotransmitters) in postmortem suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and can better predict changes of the two neurotransmitters than traditional circadian measures. These findings suggest that the SCN impacts human activity regulation at multiple time scales and that disrupted fractal activity may serve as a non-invasive biomarker of SCN neurodegeneration in dementia. PMID:23863985

  17. Analysis of Fractional Flow for Transient Two-Phase Flow in Fractal Porous Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ting; Duan, Yonggang; Fang, Quantang; Dai, Xiaolu; Wu, Jinsui

    2016-03-01

    Prediction of fractional flow in fractal porous medium is important for reservoir engineering and chemical engineering as well as hydrology. A physical conceptual fractional flow model of transient two-phase flow is developed in fractal porous medium based on the fractal characteristics of pore-size distribution and on the approximation that porous medium consist of a bundle of tortuous capillaries. The analytical expression for fractional flow for wetting phase is presented, and the proposed expression is the function of structural parameters (such as tortuosity fractal dimension, pore fractal dimension, maximum and minimum diameters of capillaries) and fluid properties (such as contact angle, viscosity and interfacial tension) in fractal porous medium. The sensitive parameters that influence fractional flow and its derivative are formulated, and their impacts on fractional flow are discussed.

  18. On fractal properties of arterial trees.

    PubMed

    Zamir, M

    1999-04-21

    The question of fractal properties of arterial trees is considered in light of data from the extensive tree structure of the right coronary artery of a human heart. Because of the highly non-uniform structure of this tree, the study focuses on the purely geometrical rather than statistical aspects of fractal properties. The large number of arterial bifurcations comprising the tree were found to have a mixed degree of asymmetry at all levels of the tree, including the depth of the tree where it has been generally supposed that they would be symmetrical. Cross-sectional area ratios of daughter to parent vessels were also found to be highly mixed at all levels, having values both above and below 1.0, rather than consistently above as has been generally supposed in the past. Calculated values of the power law index which describes the theoretical relation between the diameters of the three vessel segments at an arterial bifurcation were found to range far beyond the two values associated with the cube and square laws, and not clearly favoring one or the other. On the whole the tree structure was found to have what we have termed "pseudo-fractal" properties, in the sense that vessels of different calibers displayed the same branching pattern but with a range of values of the branching parameters. The results suggest that a higher degree of fractal character, one in which the branching parameters are constant throughout the tree structure, is unlikely to be attained in non-uniform vascular structures. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Fractal and Multifractal Analysis of Human Gait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; del Río Correa, J. L.; Angulo-Brown, F.

    2003-09-01

    We carried out a fractal and multifractal analysis of human gait time series of young and old individuals, and adults with three illnesses that affect the march: The Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We obtained cumulative plots of events, the correlation function, the Hurst exponent and the Higuchi's fractal dimension of these time series and found that these fractal markers could be a factor to characterize the march, since we obtained different values of these quantities for youths and adults and they are different also for healthy and ill persons and the most anomalous values belong to ill persons. In other physiological signals there is complexity lost related with the age and the illness, in the case of the march the opposite occurs. The multifractal analysis could be also a useful tool to understand the dynamics of these and other complex systems.

  20. Fractal analysis of narwhal space use patterns.

    PubMed

    Laidre, Kristin L; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads P; Logsdon, Miles L; Hobbs, Roderick C; Dietz, Rune; VanBlaricom, Glenn R

    2004-01-01

    Quantifying animal movement in response to a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment is critical to understanding the structural and functional landscape influences on population viability. Generalities of landscape structure can easily be extended to the marine environment, as marine predators inhabit a patchy, dynamic system, which influences animal choice and behavior. An innovative use of the fractal measure of complexity, indexing the linearity of movement paths over replicate temporal scales, was applied to satellite tracking data collected from narwhals (Monodon monoceros) (n = 20) in West Greenland and the eastern Canadian high Arctic. Daily movements of individuals were obtained using polar orbiting satellites via the ARGOS data location and collection system. Geographic positions were filtered to obtain a daily good quality position for each whale. The length of total pathway was measured over seven different temporal length scales (step lengths), ranging from one day to one week, and a seasonal mean was calculated. Fractal dimension (D) was significantly different between seasons, highest during summer (D = 1.61, SE 0.04) and winter (D = 1.69, SE 0.06) when whales made convoluted movements in focal areas. Fractal dimension was lowest during fall (D = 1.34, SE 0.03) when whales were migrating south ahead of the forming sea ice. There were no significant effects of size category or sex on fractal dimension by season. The greater linearity of movement during the migration period suggests individuals do not intensively forage on patchy resources until they arrive at summer or winter sites. The highly convoluted movements observed during summer and winter suggest foraging or searching efforts in localized areas. Significant differences between the fractal dimensions on two separate wintering grounds in Baffin Bay suggest differential movement patterns in response to the dynamics of sea ice.

  1. Fractal characterization and wettability of ion treated silicon surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, R. P.; Kumar, Tanuj; Baranwal, V.; Vandana, Kumar, Manvendra; Priya, P. K.; Pandey, S. N.; Mittal, A. K.

    2017-02-01

    Fractal characterization of surface morphology can be useful as a tool for tailoring the wetting properties of solid surfaces. In this work, rippled surfaces of Si (100) are grown using 200 keV Ar+ ion beam irradiation at different ion doses. Relationship between fractal and wetting properties of these surfaces are explored. The height-height correlation function extracted from atomic force microscopic images, demonstrates an increase in roughness exponent with an increase in ion doses. A steep variation in contact angle values is found for low fractal dimensions. Roughness exponent and fractal dimensions are found correlated with the static water contact angle measurement. It is observed that after a crossover of the roughness exponent, the surface morphology has a rippled structure. Larger values of interface width indicate the larger ripples on the surface. The contact angle of water drops on such surfaces is observed to be lowest. Autocorrelation function is used for the measurement of ripple wavelength.

  2. Fractal and Multifractal Models Applied to Porous Media - Editorial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Given the current high level of interest in the use of fractal geometry to characterize natural porous media, a special issue of the Vadose Zone Journal was organized in order to expose established fractal analysis techniques and cutting-edge new developments to a wider Earth science audience. The ...

  3. Fractality and the law of the wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haosen H. A.; Yang, X. I. A.

    2018-05-01

    Fluid motions in the inertial range of isotropic turbulence are fractal, with their space-filling capacity slightly below regular three-dimensional objects, which is a consequence of the energy cascade. Besides the energy cascade, the other often encountered cascading process is the momentum cascade in wall-bounded flows. Despite the long-existing analogy between the two processes, many of the thoroughly investigated aspects of the energy cascade have so far received little attention in studies of the momentum counterpart, e.g., the possibility of the momentum-transferring scales in the logarithmic region being fractal has not been considered. In this work, this possibility is pursued, and we discuss one of its implications. Following the same dimensional arguments that lead to the D =2.33 fractal dimension of wrinkled surfaces in isotropic turbulence, we show that the large-scale momentum-carrying eddies may also be fractal and non-space-filling, which then leads to the power-law scaling of the mean velocity profile. The logarithmic law of the wall, on the other hand, corresponds to space-filling eddies, as suggested by Townsend [The Structure of Turbulent Shear Flow (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1980)]. Because the space-filling capacity is an integral geometric quantity, the analysis presented in this work provides us with a low-order quantity, with which, one would be able to distinguish between the logarithmic law and the power law.

  4. A New Fractal Model of Chromosome and DNA Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouallegue, K.

    Dynamic chromosome structure remains unknown. Can fractals and chaos be used as new tools to model, identify and generate a structure of chromosomes?Fractals and chaos offer a rich environment for exploring and modeling the complexity of nature. In a sense, fractal geometry is used to describe, model, and analyze the complex forms found in nature. Fractals have also been widely not only in biology but also in medicine. To this effect, a fractal is considered an object that displays self-similarity under magnification and can be constructed using a simple motif (an image repeated on ever-reduced scales).It is worth noting that the problem of identifying a chromosome has become a challenge to find out which one of the models it belongs to. Nevertheless, the several different models (a hierarchical coiling, a folded fiber, and radial loop) have been proposed for mitotic chromosome but have not reached a dynamic model yet.This paper is an attempt to solve topological problems involved in the model of chromosome and DNA processes. By combining the fractal Julia process and the numerical dynamical system, we have finally found out four main points. First, we have developed not only a model of chromosome but also a model of mitosis and one of meiosis. Equally important, we have identified the centromere position through the numerical model captured below. More importantly, in this paper, we have discovered the processes of the cell divisions of both mitosis and meiosis. All in all, the results show that this work could have a strong impact on the welfare of humanity and can lead to a cure of genetic diseases.

  5. Vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space and its applications to fractal media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Vasily E.

    2015-02-01

    We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for the case of non-integer dimensional space. The first and second orders operations such as gradient, divergence, the scalar and vector Laplace operators for non-integer dimensional space are defined. For simplification we consider scalar and vector fields that are independent of angles. We formulate a generalization of vector calculus for rotationally covariant scalar and vector functions. This generalization allows us to describe fractal media and materials in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. As examples of application of the suggested calculus, we consider elasticity of fractal materials (fractal hollow ball and fractal cylindrical pipe with pressure inside and outside), steady distribution of heat in fractal media, electric field of fractal charged cylinder. We solve the correspondent equations for non-integer dimensional space models.

  6. Navigation performance in virtual environments varies with fractal dimension of landscape.

    PubMed

    Juliani, Arthur W; Bies, Alexander J; Boydston, Cooper R; Taylor, Richard P; Sereno, Margaret E

    2016-09-01

    Fractal geometry has been used to describe natural and built environments, but has yet to be studied in navigational research. In order to establish a relationship between the fractal dimension (D) of a natural environment and humans' ability to navigate such spaces, we conducted two experiments using virtual environments that simulate the fractal properties of nature. In Experiment 1, participants completed a goal-driven search task either with or without a map in landscapes that varied in D. In Experiment 2, participants completed a map-reading and location-judgment task in separate sets of fractal landscapes. In both experiments, task performance was highest at the low-to-mid range of D, which was previously reported as most preferred and discriminable in studies of fractal aesthetics and discrimination, respectively, supporting a theory of visual fluency. The applicability of these findings to architecture, urban planning, and the general design of constructed spaces is discussed.

  7. Complex Patterns in Financial Time Series Through HIGUCHI’S Fractal Dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grace Elizabeth Rani, T. G.; Jayalalitha, G.

    2016-11-01

    This paper analyzes the complexity of stock exchanges through fractal theory. Closing price indices of four stock exchanges with different industry sectors are selected. Degree of complexity is assessed through Higuchi’s fractal dimension. Various window sizes are considered in evaluating the fractal dimension. It is inferred that the data considered as a whole represents random walk for all the four indices. Analysis of financial data through windowing procedure exhibits multi-fractality. Attempts to apply moving averages to reduce noise in the data revealed lower estimates of fractal dimension, which was verified using fractional Brownian motion. A change in the normalization factor in Higuchi’s algorithm did improve the results. It is quintessential to focus on rural development to realize a standard and steady growth of economy. Tools must be devised to settle the issues in this regard. Micro level institutions are necessary for the economic growth of a country like India, which would induce a sporadic development in the present global economical scenario.

  8. Fractal scaling in bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) echolocation: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perisho, Shaun T.; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G.; Hajnal, Alen; Houser, Dorian; Kuczaj, Stan A., II

    2016-02-01

    Fractal scaling patterns, which entail a power-law relationship between magnitude of fluctuations in a variable and the scale at which the variable is measured, have been found in many aspects of human behavior. These findings have led to advances in behavioral models (e.g. providing empirical support for cascade-driven theories of cognition) and have had practical medical applications (e.g. providing new methods for early diagnosis of medical conditions). In the present paper, fractal analysis is used to investigate whether similar fractal scaling patterns exist in inter-click interval and peak-peak amplitude measurements of bottlenose dolphin click trains. Several echolocation recordings taken from two male bottlenose dolphins were analyzed using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis and Higuchi's (1988) method for determination of fractal dimension. Both animals were found to exhibit fractal scaling patterns near what is consistent with persistent long range correlations. These findings suggest that recent advances in human cognition and medicine may have important parallel applications to echolocation as well.

  9. Fuzzy fractals, chaos, and noise

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zardecki, A.

    1997-05-01

    To distinguish between chaotic and noisy processes, the authors analyze one- and two-dimensional chaotic mappings, supplemented by the additive noise terms. The predictive power of a fuzzy rule-based system allows one to distinguish ergodic and chaotic time series: in an ergodic series the likelihood of finding large numbers is small compared to the likelihood of finding them in a chaotic series. In the case of two dimensions, they consider the fractal fuzzy sets whose {alpha}-cuts are fractals, arising in the context of a quadratic mapping in the extended complex plane. In an example provided by the Julia set, the conceptmore » of Hausdorff dimension enables one to decide in favor of chaotic or noisy evolution.« less

  10. Fractal Measure and Microscopic Modeling of Osseointegration.

    PubMed

    Santos, Leonardo Cavalcanti Bezerra; Carvalho, Alessandra Albuquerque; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Neto, Paulo Jose; Stosic, Tatijana; Stosic, Borko

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the process of osseointegration on titanium implant surfaces with different physicochemical treatments subjected to a simulated corporal fluid submersion was evaluated using the concept of fractal dimension. It was found that different treatments led to rather different calcium phosphate crystal growth patterns, with fractal dimension ranging from 1.68 to 1.93. The observed crystal patterns may be explained by a general deposition, diffusion, and aggregation growth mechanism, where diffusing particle sticking probability plays a fundamental role.

  11. Fractal pharmacokinetics of the drug mibefradil in the liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuite, J.; Marsh, R.; Tuszyński, J.

    2002-08-01

    We explore the ramifications of the fractal geometry of the key organ for drug elimination, the liver, on pharmacokinetic data analysis. A formalism is developed for the use of a combination of well-stirred Euclidean and fractal compartments in the body. Perturbation analysis is carried out to obtain analytical solutions for the drug concentration time evolution. These results are then fitted to experimental data collected from clinically instrumented dogs [see, A. Skerjanec et al., J. Pharm. Sci. 85, 189 (1995)] using the drug mibefradil. The thus obtained spectral fractal dimension has a range of values that is consistent with the value found in independently performed ultrasound experiments on the liver.

  12. Relationship between the anomalous diffusion and the fractal dimension of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhokh, Alexey; Trypolskyi, Andrey; Strizhak, Peter

    2018-03-01

    In this letter, we provide an experimental study highlighting a relation between the anomalous diffusion and the fractal dimension of the environment using the methanol anomalous transport through the porous solid pellets with various pores geometries and different chemical compositions. The anomalous diffusion exponent was derived from the non-integer order of the time-fractional diffusion equation that describes the methanol anomalous transport through the solid media. The surface fractal dimension was estimated from the nitrogen adsorption isotherms using the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill method. Our study shows that decreasing the fractal dimension leads to increasing the anomalous diffusion exponent, whereas the anomalous diffusion constant is independent on the fractal dimension. We show that the obtained results are in a good agreement with the anomalous diffusion model on a fractal mesh.

  13. New 5-adic Cantor sets and fractal string.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashish; Rani, Mamta; Chugh, Renu

    2013-01-01

    In the year (1879-1884), George Cantor coined few problems and consequences in the field of set theory. One of them was the Cantor ternary set as a classical example of fractals. In this paper, 5-adic Cantor one-fifth set as an example of fractal string have been introduced. Moreover, the applications of 5-adic Cantor one-fifth set in string theory have also been studied.

  14. REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: KOCH MEMBRANE SYSTEMS, HF-82-35-PMPW™ ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two Koch Membrane Systems HF-82-35-PMPW ultrafiltration membrane cartridges were tested for removal of viruses, bacteria, and protozoan cysts at NSF’s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. The ETV testing was conducted as part of a series of evaluations of the Expeditiona...

  15. A simple method for estimating the size of nuclei on fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    Determining the size of nuclei on complex surfaces remains a big challenge in aspects of biological, material and chemical engineering. Here the author reported a simple method to estimate the size of the nuclei in contact with complex (fractal) surfaces. The established approach was based on the assumptions of contact area proportionality for determining nucleation density and the scaling congruence between nuclei and surfaces for identifying contact regimes. It showed three different regimes governing the equations for estimating the nucleation site density. Nuclei in the size large enough could eliminate the effect of fractal structure. Nuclei in the size small enough could lead to the independence of nucleation site density on fractal parameters. Only when nuclei match the fractal scales, the nucleation site density is associated with the fractal parameters and the size of the nuclei in a coupling pattern. The method was validated by the experimental data reported in the literature. The method may provide an effective way to estimate the size of nuclei on fractal surfaces, through which a number of promising applications in relative fields can be envisioned.

  16. Aqueous synthesis of LiFePO4 with Fractal Granularity.

    PubMed

    Cabán-Huertas, Zahilia; Ayyad, Omar; Dubal, Deepak P; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2016-06-03

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) electrodes with fractal granularity are reported. They were made from a starting material prepared in water by a low cost, easy and environmentally friendly hydrothermal method, thus avoiding the use of organic solvents. Our method leads to pure olivine phase, free of the impurities commonly found after other water-based syntheses. The fractal structures consisted of nanoparticles grown into larger micro-sized formations which in turn agglomerate leading to high tap density electrodes, which is beneficial for energy density. These intricate structures could be easily and effectively coated with a thin and uniform carbon layer for increased conductivity, as it is well established for simpler microstructures. Materials and electrodes were studied by means of XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, XPS, Raman and TGA. Last but not least, lithium transport through fractal LiFePO4 electrodes was investigated based upon fractal theory. These water-made fractal electrodes lead to high-performance lithium cells (even at high rates) tested by CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge, their performance is comparable to state of the art (but less environmentally friendly) electrodes.

  17. Aqueous synthesis of LiFePO4 with Fractal Granularity

    PubMed Central

    Cabán-Huertas, Zahilia; Ayyad, Omar; Dubal, Deepak P.; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) electrodes with fractal granularity are reported. They were made from a starting material prepared in water by a low cost, easy and environmentally friendly hydrothermal method, thus avoiding the use of organic solvents. Our method leads to pure olivine phase, free of the impurities commonly found after other water-based syntheses. The fractal structures consisted of nanoparticles grown into larger micro-sized formations which in turn agglomerate leading to high tap density electrodes, which is beneficial for energy density. These intricate structures could be easily and effectively coated with a thin and uniform carbon layer for increased conductivity, as it is well established for simpler microstructures. Materials and electrodes were studied by means of XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, XPS, Raman and TGA. Last but not least, lithium transport through fractal LiFePO4 electrodes was investigated based upon fractal theory. These water-made fractal electrodes lead to high-performance lithium cells (even at high rates) tested by CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge, their performance is comparable to state of the art (but less environmentally friendly) electrodes. PMID:27256504

  18. Aqueous synthesis of LiFePO4 with Fractal Granularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabán-Huertas, Zahilia; Ayyad, Omar; Dubal, Deepak P.; Gómez-Romero, Pedro

    2016-06-01

    Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) electrodes with fractal granularity are reported. They were made from a starting material prepared in water by a low cost, easy and environmentally friendly hydrothermal method, thus avoiding the use of organic solvents. Our method leads to pure olivine phase, free of the impurities commonly found after other water-based syntheses. The fractal structures consisted of nanoparticles grown into larger micro-sized formations which in turn agglomerate leading to high tap density electrodes, which is beneficial for energy density. These intricate structures could be easily and effectively coated with a thin and uniform carbon layer for increased conductivity, as it is well established for simpler microstructures. Materials and electrodes were studied by means of XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, XPS, Raman and TGA. Last but not least, lithium transport through fractal LiFePO4 electrodes was investigated based upon fractal theory. These water-made fractal electrodes lead to high-performance lithium cells (even at high rates) tested by CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge, their performance is comparable to state of the art (but less environmentally friendly) electrodes.

  19. Electrical conductivity modeling in fractal non-saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W.; Cai, J.; Hu, X.; Han, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The variety of electrical conductivity in non-saturated conditions is important to study electric conduction in natural sedimentary rocks. The electrical conductivity in completely saturated porous media is a porosity-function representing the complex connected behavior of single conducting phases (pore fluid). For partially saturated conditions, the electrical conductivity becomes even more complicated since the connectedness of pore. Archie's second law is an empirical electrical conductivity-porosity and -saturation model that has been used to predict the formation factor of non-saturated porous rock. However, the physical interpretation of its parameters, e.g., the cementation exponent m and the saturation exponent n, remains questionable. On basis of our previous work, we combine the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model to build an electrical conductivity model in non-saturated porous media. Our theoretical porosity- and saturation-dependent models contain endmember properties, such as fluid electrical conductivities, pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension (representing the complex degree of electrical flowing path). We find the presented model with non-saturation-dependent electrical conductivity datasets indicate excellent match between theory and experiments. This means the value of pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension change from medium to medium and depends not only on geometrical properties of pore structure but also characteristics of electrical current flowing in the non-saturated porous media.

  20. Fractal geometry in an expanding, one-dimensional, Newtonian universe.

    PubMed

    Miller, Bruce N; Rouet, Jean-Louis; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel

    2007-09-01

    Observations of galaxies over large distances reveal the possibility of a fractal distribution of their positions. The source of fractal behavior is the lack of a length scale in the two body gravitational interaction. However, even with new, larger, sample sizes from recent surveys, it is difficult to extract information concerning fractal properties with confidence. Similarly, three-dimensional N-body simulations with a billion particles only provide a thousand particles per dimension, far too small for accurate conclusions. With one-dimensional models these limitations can be overcome by carrying out simulations with on the order of a quarter of a million particles without compromising the computation of the gravitational force. Here the multifractal properties of two of these models that incorporate different features of the dynamical equations governing the evolution of a matter dominated universe are compared. For each model at least two scaling regions are identified. By employing criteria from dynamical systems theory it is shown that only one of them can be geometrically significant. The results share important similarities with galaxy observations, such as hierarchical clustering and apparent bifractal geometry. They also provide insights concerning possible constraints on length and time scales for fractal structure. They clearly demonstrate that fractal geometry evolves in the mu (position, velocity) space. The observed patterns are simply a shadow (projection) of higher-dimensional structure.

  1. Fractal structure of the interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.

    1985-01-01

    Under some conditions, time series of the interplanetary magnetic field strength and components have the properties of fractal curves. Magnetic field measurements made near 8.5 AU by Voyager 2 from June 5 to August 24, 1981 were self-similar over time scales from approximately 20 sec to approximately 3 x 100,000 sec, and the fractal dimension of the time series of the strength and components of the magnetic field was D = 5/3, corresponding to a power spectrum P(f) approximately f sup -5/3. Since the Kolmogorov spectrum for homogeneous, isotropic, stationary turbulence is also f sup -5/3, the Voyager 2 measurements are consistent with the observation of an inertial range of turbulence extending over approximately four decades in frequency. Interaction regions probably contributed most of the power in this interval. As an example, one interaction region is discussed in which the magnetic field had a fractal dimension D = 5/3.

  2. Fractality of sensations and the brain health: the theory linking neurodegenerative disorder with distortion of spatial and temporal scale-invariance and fractal complexity of the visible world

    PubMed Central

    Zueva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    The theory that ties normal functioning and pathology of the brain and visual system with the spatial–temporal structure of the visual and other sensory stimuli is described for the first time in the present study. The deficit of fractal complexity of environmental influences can lead to the distortion of fractal complexity in the visual pathways of the brain and abnormalities of development or aging. The use of fractal light stimuli and fractal stimuli of other modalities can help to restore the functions of the brain, particularly in the elderly and in patients with neurodegenerative disorders or amblyopia. Non-linear dynamics of these physiological processes have a strong base of evidence, which is seen in the impaired fractal regulation of rhythmic activity in aged and diseased brains. From birth to old age, we live in a non-linear world, in which objects and processes with the properties of fractality and non-linearity surround us. Against this background, the evolution of man took place and all periods of life unfolded. Works of art created by man may also have fractal properties. The positive influence of music on cognitive functions is well-known. Insufficiency of sensory experience is believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of amblyopia and age-dependent diseases. The brain is very plastic in its early development, and the plasticity decreases throughout life. However, several studies showed the possibility to reactivate the adult’s neuroplasticity in a variety of ways. We propose that a non-linear structure of sensory information on many spatial and temporal scales is crucial to the brain health and fractal regulation of physiological rhythms. Theoretical substantiation of the author’s theory is presented. Possible applications and the future research that can experimentally confirm or refute the theoretical concept are considered. PMID:26236232

  3. Assessment of disintegrant efficacy with fractal dimensions from real-time MRI.

    PubMed

    Quodbach, Julian; Moussavi, Amir; Tammer, Roland; Frahm, Jens; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2014-11-20

    An efficient disintegrant is capable of breaking up a tablet in the smallest possible particles in the shortest time. Until now, comparative data on the efficacy of different disintegrants is based on dissolution studies or the disintegration time. Extending these approaches, this study introduces a method, which defines the evolution of fractal dimensions of tablets as surrogate parameter for the available surface area. Fractal dimensions are a measure for the tortuosity of a line, in this case the upper surface of a disintegrating tablet. High-resolution real-time MRI was used to record videos of disintegrating tablets. The acquired video images were processed to depict the upper surface of the tablets and a box-counting algorithm was used to estimate the fractal dimensions. The influence of six different disintegrants, of different relative tablet density, and increasing disintegrant concentration was investigated to evaluate the performance of the novel method. Changing relative densities hardly affect the progression of fractal dimensions, whereas an increase in disintegrant concentration causes increasing fractal dimensions during disintegration, which are also reached quicker. Different disintegrants display only minor differences in the maximal fractal dimension, yet the kinetic in which the maximum is reached allows a differentiation and classification of disintegrants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fractal fluctuations in spatiotemporal variables when walking on a self-paced treadmill.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin-Seung; Kang, Dong-Won; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Tack, Gye-Rae

    2017-12-08

    This study investigated the fractal dynamic properties of stride time (ST), stride length (SL) and stride speed (SS) during walking on a self-paced treadmill (STM) in which the belt speed is automatically controlled by the walking speed. Twelve healthy young subjects participated in the study. The subjects walked at their preferred walking speed under four conditions: STM, STM with a metronome (STM+met), fixed-speed (conventional) treadmill (FTM), and FTM with a metronome (FTM+met). To compare the fractal dynamics between conditions, the mean, variability, and fractal dynamics of ST, SL, and SS were compared. Moreover, the relationship among the variables was examined under each walking condition using three types of surrogates. The mean values of all variables did not differ between the two treadmills, and the variability of all variables was generally larger for STM than for FTM. The use of a metronome resulted in a decrease in variability in ST and SS for all conditions. The fractal dynamic characteristics of SS were maintained with STM, in contrast to FTM, and only the fractal dynamic characteristics of ST disappeared when using a metronome. In addition, the fractal dynamic patterns of the cross-correlated surrogate results were identical to those of all variables for the two treadmills. In terms of the fractal dynamic properties, STM walking was generally closer to overground walking than FTM walking. Although further research is needed, the present results will be useful in research on gait fractal dynamics and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The fractal geometry of Hartree-Fock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theel, Friethjof; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin

    2017-12-01

    The Hartree-Fock method is an important approximation for the ground-state electronic wave function of atoms and molecules so that its usage is widespread in computational chemistry and physics. The Hartree-Fock method is an iterative procedure in which the electronic wave functions of the occupied orbitals are determined. The set of functions found in one step builds the basis for the next iteration step. In this work, we interpret the Hartree-Fock method as a dynamical system since dynamical systems are iterations where iteration steps represent the time development of the system, as encountered in the theory of fractals. The focus is put on the convergence behavior of the dynamical system as a function of a suitable control parameter. In our case, a complex parameter λ controls the strength of the electron-electron interaction. An investigation of the convergence behavior depending on the parameter λ is performed for helium, neon, and argon. We observe fractal structures in the complex λ-plane, which resemble the well-known Mandelbrot set, determine their fractal dimension, and find that with increasing nuclear charge, the fragmentation increases as well.

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: PAINT OVERSPRAY ARRESTOR, KOCH FILTER CORPORATION MULTI-SAK 6FZ159-S

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of March 19-23, 1999, tests of Koch Filter Corporation's Multi-Sak 6FZ159-S paint overspray arrestor (POA) as part of an evaluation of POAs by EPA's Air Pollution Control Technology (APCT) Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Program. The basic per...

  7. Prediction of pork quality parameters by applying fractals and data mining on MRI.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Daniel; Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Caro, Andrés; Amigo, José Manuel; Dahl, Anders B; ErsbØll, Bjarne K; Antequera, Teresa

    2017-09-01

    This work firstly investigates the use of MRI, fractal algorithms and data mining techniques to determine pork quality parameters non-destructively. The main objective was to evaluate the capability of fractal algorithms (Classical Fractal algorithm, CFA; Fractal Texture Algorithm, FTA and One Point Fractal Texture Algorithm, OPFTA) to analyse MRI in order to predict quality parameters of loin. In addition, the effect of the sequence acquisition of MRI (Gradient echo, GE; Spin echo, SE and Turbo 3D, T3D) and the predictive technique of data mining (Isotonic regression, IR and Multiple linear regression, MLR) were analysed. Both fractal algorithm, FTA and OPFTA are appropriate to analyse MRI of loins. The sequence acquisition, the fractal algorithm and the data mining technique seems to influence on the prediction results. For most physico-chemical parameters, prediction equations with moderate to excellent correlation coefficients were achieved by using the following combinations of acquisition sequences of MRI, fractal algorithms and data mining techniques: SE-FTA-MLR, SE-OPFTA-IR, GE-OPFTA-MLR, SE-OPFTA-MLR, with the last one offering the best prediction results. Thus, SE-OPFTA-MLR could be proposed as an alternative technique to determine physico-chemical traits of fresh and dry-cured loins in a non-destructive way with high accuracy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Fractal Theory for Permeability Prediction, Venezuelan and USA Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldana, Milagrosa; Altamiranda, Dignorah; Cabrera, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Inferring petrophysical parameters such as permeability, porosity, water saturation, capillary pressure, etc, from the analysis of well logs or other available core data has always been of critical importance in the oil industry. Permeability in particular, which is considered to be a complex parameter, has been inferred using both empirical and theoretical techniques. The main goal of this work is to predict permeability values on different wells using Fractal Theory, based on a method proposed by Pape et al. (1999). This approach uses the relationship between permeability and the geometric form of the pore space of the rock. This method is based on the modified equation of Kozeny-Carman and a fractal pattern, which allows determining permeability as a function of the cementation exponent, porosity and the fractal dimension. Data from wells located in Venezuela and the United States of America are analyzed. Employing data of porosity and permeability obtained from core samples, and applying the Fractal Theory method, we calculated the prediction equations for each well. At the beginning, this was achieved by training with 50% of the data available for each well. Afterwards, these equations were tested inferring over 100% of the data to analyze possible trends in their distribution. This procedure gave excellent results in all the wells in spite of their geographic distance, generating permeability models with the potential to accurately predict permeability logs in the remaining parts of the well for which there are no core samples, using even porority logs. Additionally, empirical models were used to determine permeability and the results were compared with those obtained by applying the fractal method. The results indicated that, although there are empirical equations that give a proper adjustment, the prediction results obtained using fractal theory give a better fit to the core reference data.

  9. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction.

  10. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction. PMID:26091207

  11. Evolving random fractal Cantor superlattices for the infrared using a genetic algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Bossard, Jeremy A.; Lin, Lan; Werner, Douglas H.

    2016-01-01

    Ordered and chaotic superlattices have been identified in Nature that give rise to a variety of colours reflected by the skin of various organisms. In particular, organisms such as silvery fish possess superlattices that reflect a broad range of light from the visible to the UV. Such superlattices have previously been identified as ‘chaotic’, but we propose that apparent ‘chaotic’ natural structures, which have been previously modelled as completely random structures, should have an underlying fractal geometry. Fractal geometry, often described as the geometry of Nature, can be used to mimic structures found in Nature, but deterministic fractals produce structures that are too ‘perfect’ to appear natural. Introducing variability into fractals produces structures that appear more natural. We suggest that the ‘chaotic’ (purely random) superlattices identified in Nature are more accurately modelled by multi-generator fractals. Furthermore, we introduce fractal random Cantor bars as a candidate for generating both ordered and ‘chaotic’ superlattices, such as the ones found in silvery fish. A genetic algorithm is used to evolve optimal fractal random Cantor bars with multiple generators targeting several desired optical functions in the mid-infrared and the near-infrared. We present optimized superlattices demonstrating broadband reflection as well as single and multiple pass bands in the near-infrared regime. PMID:26763335

  12. [Modeling continuous scaling of NDVI based on fractal theory].

    PubMed

    Luan, Hai-Jun; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Yu, Tao; Hu, Xin-Li; Huang, Yan; Du, Ling-Tong; Zhao, Li-Min; Wei, Xi; Han, Jie; Zhang, Zhou-Wei; Li, Shao-Peng

    2013-07-01

    Scale effect was one of the very important scientific problems of remote sensing. The scale effect of quantitative remote sensing can be used to study retrievals' relationship between different-resolution images, and its research became an effective way to confront the challenges, such as validation of quantitative remote sensing products et al. Traditional up-scaling methods cannot describe scale changing features of retrievals on entire series of scales; meanwhile, they are faced with serious parameters correction issues because of imaging parameters' variation of different sensors, such as geometrical correction, spectral correction, etc. Utilizing single sensor image, fractal methodology was utilized to solve these problems. Taking NDVI (computed by land surface radiance) as example and based on Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) image, a scheme was proposed to model continuous scaling of retrievals. Then the experimental results indicated that: (a) For NDVI, scale effect existed, and it could be described by fractal model of continuous scaling; (2) The fractal method was suitable for validation of NDVI. All of these proved that fractal was an effective methodology of studying scaling of quantitative remote sensing.

  13. Evolution of fractality in space plasmas of interest to geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, Víctor; Domínguez, Macarena; Alejandro Valdivia, Juan; Good, Simon; Nigro, Giuseppina; Carbone, Vincenzo

    2018-03-01

    We studied the temporal evolution of fractality for geomagnetic activity, by calculating fractal dimensions from the Dst data and from a magnetohydrodynamic shell model for turbulent magnetized plasma, which may be a useful model to study geomagnetic activity under solar wind forcing. We show that the shell model is able to reproduce the relationship between the fractal dimension and the occurrence of dissipative events, but only in a certain region of viscosity and resistivity values. We also present preliminary results of the application of these ideas to the study of the magnetic field time series in the solar wind during magnetic clouds, which suggest that it is possible, by means of the fractal dimension, to characterize the complexity of the magnetic cloud structure.

  14. Self-organized network of fractal-shaped components coupled through statistical interaction.

    PubMed

    Ugajin, R

    2001-09-01

    A dissipative dynamics is introduced to generate self-organized networks of interacting objects, which we call coupled-fractal networks. The growth model is constructed based on a growth hypothesis in which the growth rate of each object is a product of the probability of receiving source materials from faraway and the probability of receiving adhesives from other grown objects, where each object grows to be a random fractal if isolated, but connects with others if glued. The network is governed by the statistical interaction between fractal-shaped components, which can only be identified in a statistical manner over ensembles. This interaction is investigated using the degree of correlation between fractal-shaped components, enabling us to determine whether it is attractive or repulsive.

  15. Jupiter Fractal Art

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-10

    See Jupiter's Great Red Spot as you've never seen it before in this new Jovian work of art. Artist Mik Petter created this unique, digital artwork using data from the JunoCam imager on NASA's Juno spacecraft. The art form, known as fractals, uses mathematical formulas to create art with an infinite variety of form, detail, color and light. The tumultuous atmospheric zones in and around the Great Red Spot are highlighted by the author's use of colorful fractals. Vibrant colors of various tints and hues, combined with the almost organic-seeming shapes, make this image seem to be a colorized and crowded petri dish of microorganisms, or a close-up view of microscopic and wildly-painted seashells. The original JunoCam image was taken on July 10, 2017 at 7:10 p.m. PDT (10:10 p.m. EDT), as the Juno spacecraft performed its seventh close flyby of Jupiter. The spacecraft captured the image from about 8,648 miles (13,917 kilometers) above the tops of the clouds of the planet at a latitude of -32.6 degrees. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21777

  16. A user-friendly modified pore-solid fractal model

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dian-yuan; Zhao, Ying; Feng, Hao; Si, Bing-cheng; Hill, Robert Lee

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate a range of calculation points on water retention curves (WRC) instead of the singularity point at air-entry suction in the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model, which additionally considered the hysteresis effect based on the PSF theory. The modified pore-solid fractal (M-PSF) model was tested using 26 soil samples from Yangling on the Loess Plateau in China and 54 soil samples from the Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Database. The derivation results showed that the M-PSF model is user-friendly and flexible for a wide range of calculation point options. This model theoretically describes the primary differences between the soil moisture desorption and the adsorption processes by the fractal dimensions. The M-PSF model demonstrated good performance particularly at the calculation points corresponding to the suctions from 100 cm to 1000 cm. Furthermore, the M-PSF model, used the fractal dimension of the particle size distribution, exhibited an accepted performance of WRC predictions for different textured soils when the suction values were ≥100 cm. To fully understand the function of hysteresis in the PSF theory, the role of allowable and accessible pores must be examined. PMID:27996013

  17. Fractal-Based Analysis of the Influence of Music on Human Respiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reza Namazi, H.

    An important challenge in respiration related studies is to investigate the influence of external stimuli on human respiration. Auditory stimulus is an important type of stimuli that influences human respiration. However, no one discovered any trend, which relates the characteristics of the auditory stimuli to the characteristics of the respiratory signal. In this paper, we investigate the correlation between auditory stimuli and respiratory signal from fractal point of view. We found out that the fractal structure of respiratory signal is correlated with the fractal structure of the applied music. Based on the obtained results, the music with greater fractal dimension will result in respiratory signal with smaller fractal dimension. In order to verify this result, we benefit from approximate entropy. The results show the respiratory signal will have smaller approximate entropy by choosing the music with smaller approximate entropy. The method of analysis could be further investigated to analyze the variations of different physiological time series due to the various types of stimuli when the complexity is the main concern.

  18. A fractal analysis of pathogen detection by biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doke, Atul M.; Sadana, Ajit

    2006-05-01

    A fractal analysis is presented for the detection of pathogens such as Franscisela tularensis, and Yersinia pestis (the bacterium that causes plague) using a CANARY (cellular analysis and notification of antigens risks and yields) biosensor (Rider et al., 2003). In general, the binding and dissociation rate coefficients may be adequately described by either a single- or a dual-fractal analysis. An attempt is made to relate the binding rate coefficient to the degree of heterogeneity (fractal dimension value) present on the biosensor surface. Binding and dissociation rate coefficient values obtained are presented. The kinetics aspects along with the affinity values presented are of interest, and should along with the rate coefficients presented for the binding and the dissociation phase be of significant interest in help designing better biosensors for an application area that is bound to gain increasing importance in the future.

  19. Spatial analysis of cities using Renyi entropy and fractal parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanguang; Feng, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The spatial distributions of cities fall into two groups: one is the simple distribution with characteristic scale (e.g. exponential distribution), and the other is the complex distribution without characteristic scale (e.g. power-law distribution). The latter belongs to scale-free distributions, which can be modeled with fractal geometry. However, fractal dimension is not suitable for the former distribution. In contrast, spatial entropy can be used to measure any types of urban distributions. This paper is devoted to generalizing multifractal parameters by means of dual relation between Euclidean and fractal geometries. The main method is mathematical derivation and empirical analysis, and the theoretical foundation is the discovery that the normalized fractal dimension is equal to the normalized entropy. Based on this finding, a set of useful spatial indexes termed dummy multifractal parameters are defined for geographical analysis. These indexes can be employed to describe both the simple distributions and complex distributions. The dummy multifractal indexes are applied to the population density distribution of Hangzhou city, China. The calculation results reveal the feature of spatio-temporal evolution of Hangzhou's urban morphology. This study indicates that fractal dimension and spatial entropy can be combined to produce a new methodology for spatial analysis of city development.

  20. Fractal properties and denoising of lidar signals from cirrus clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, J. C.; Driesenaar, M. L.; Lerou, R. J. L.

    2000-02-01

    Airborne lidar signals of cirrus clouds are analyzed to determine the cloud structure. Climate modeling and numerical weather prediction benefit from accurate modeling of cirrus clouds. Airborne lidar measurements of the European Lidar in Space Technology Experiment (ELITE) campaign were analyzed by combining shots to obtain the backscatter at constant altitude. The signal at high altitude was analyzed for horizontal structure of cirrus clouds. The power spectrum and the structure function show straight lines on a double logarithmic plot. This behavior is characteristic for a Brownian fractal. Wavelet analysis using the Haar wavelet confirms the fractal aspects. It is shown that the horizontal structure of cirrus can be described by a fractal with a dimension of 1.8 over length scales that vary 4 orders of magnitude. We use the fractal properties in a new denoising method. Denoising is required for future lidar measurements from space that have a low signal to noise ratio. Our wavelet denoising is based on the Haar wavelet and uses the statistical fractal properties of cirrus clouds in a method based on the maximum a posteriori (MAP) probability. This denoising based on wavelets is tested on airborne lidar signals from ELITE using added Gaussian noise. Superior results with respect to averaging are obtained.

  1. Site preparation treatments and nutrient loss following complete harvest csing the Nicholson-Koch mobile chipper

    Treesearch

    R. Gordon; James H. Miller; C. Brewer

    1981-01-01

    Site disturbance, vegetation control, and nutrient loss were assessed following complete biomass harvesting of a pine plantation by the Nicholson-Koch mobile chipper. Thirty-two percent of the soil area was significantly compacted to a 10 cm depth. Litter zone material showed a two-fold increase due to chips lost during harvest. Herbicide treatments (Tordon 10K and...

  2. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Transient Visual Evoked Potentials: Optimisation and Applications.

    PubMed

    Boon, Mei Ying; Henry, Bruce Ian; Chu, Byoung Sun; Basahi, Nour; Suttle, Catherine May; Luu, Chi; Leung, Harry; Hing, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) provides a time series signal response to an external visual stimulus at the location of the visual cortex. The major VEP signal components, peak latency and amplitude, may be affected by disease processes. Additionally, the VEP contains fine detailed and non-periodic structure, of presently unclear relevance to normal function, which may be quantified using the fractal dimension. The purpose of this study is to provide a systematic investigation of the key parameters in the measurement of the fractal dimension of VEPs, to develop an optimal analysis protocol for application. VEP time series were mathematically transformed using delay time, τ, and embedding dimension, m, parameters. The fractal dimension of the transformed data was obtained from a scaling analysis based on straight line fits to the numbers of pairs of points with separation less than r versus log(r) in the transformed space. Optimal τ, m, and scaling analysis were obtained by comparing the consistency of results using different sampling frequencies. The optimised method was then piloted on samples of normal and abnormal VEPs. Consistent fractal dimension estimates were obtained using τ = 4 ms, designating the fractal dimension = D2 of the time series based on embedding dimension m = 7 (for 3606 Hz and 5000 Hz), m = 6 (for 1803 Hz) and m = 5 (for 1000Hz), and estimating D2 for each embedding dimension as the steepest slope of the linear scaling region in the plot of log(C(r)) vs log(r) provided the scaling region occurred within the middle third of the plot. Piloting revealed that fractal dimensions were higher from the sampled abnormal than normal achromatic VEPs in adults (p = 0.02). Variances of fractal dimension were higher from the abnormal than normal chromatic VEPs in children (p = 0.01). A useful analysis protocol to assess the fractal dimension of transformed VEPs has been developed.

  3. Improving the signal subtle feature extraction performance based on dual improved fractal box dimension eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Jingchao; Han, Hui; Ying, Yulong

    2018-05-01

    Because of the limitations of the traditional fractal box-counting dimension algorithm in subtle feature extraction of radiation source signals, a dual improved generalized fractal box-counting dimension eigenvector algorithm is proposed. First, the radiation source signal was preprocessed, and a Hilbert transform was performed to obtain the instantaneous amplitude of the signal. Then, the improved fractal box-counting dimension of the signal instantaneous amplitude was extracted as the first eigenvector. At the same time, the improved fractal box-counting dimension of the signal without the Hilbert transform was extracted as the second eigenvector. Finally, the dual improved fractal box-counting dimension eigenvectors formed the multi-dimensional eigenvectors as signal subtle features, which were used for radiation source signal recognition by the grey relation algorithm. The experimental results show that, compared with the traditional fractal box-counting dimension algorithm and the single improved fractal box-counting dimension algorithm, the proposed dual improved fractal box-counting dimension algorithm can better extract the signal subtle distribution characteristics under different reconstruction phase space, and has a better recognition effect with good real-time performance.

  4. A fractal model for nuclear organization: current evidence and biological implications

    PubMed Central

    Bancaud, Aurélien; Lavelle, Christophe; Huet, Sébastien; Ellenberg, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin is a multiscale structure on which transcription, replication, recombination and repair of the genome occur. To fully understand any of these processes at the molecular level under physiological conditions, a clear picture of the polymorphic and dynamic organization of chromatin in the eukaryotic nucleus is required. Recent studies indicate that a fractal model of chromatin architecture is consistent with both the reaction-diffusion properties of chromatin interacting proteins and with structural data on chromatin interminglement. In this study, we provide a critical overview of the experimental evidence that support a fractal organization of chromatin. On this basis, we discuss the functional implications of a fractal chromatin model for biological processes and propose future experiments to probe chromatin organization further that should allow to strongly support or invalidate the fractal hypothesis. PMID:22790985

  5. Terahertz response of fractal meta-atoms based on concentric rectangular square resonators

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Song, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Zhenyu, E-mail: zyzhao@shnu.edu.cn; Shi, Wangzhou

    We investigate the terahertz electromagnetic responses of fractal meta-atoms (MAs) induced by different mode coupling mechanisms. Two types of MAs based on concentric rectangular square (CRS) resonators are presented: independent CRS (I-CRS) and junctional-CRS (J-CRS). In I-CRS, each resonator works as an independent dipole so as to result in the multiple resonance modes when the fractal level is above 1. In J-CRS, however, the generated layer is rotated by π/2 radius to the adjacent CRS in one MA. The multiple resonance modes are coupled into a single mode resonance. The fractal level increasing induces resonance modes redshift in I-CRS whilemore » blueshift in J-CRS. When the fractal level is below 4, the mode Q factor of J-CRS is in between the two modes of I-CRS; when the fractal level is 4 or above, the mode Q factor of J-CRS exceeds the two modes of I-CRS. Furthermore, the modulation depth (MD) decreases in I-CRS while it increases in J-CRS with the increase in fractal levels. The surface currents analysis reveals that the capacitive coupling of modes in I-CRS results in the modes redshift, while the conductive coupling of modes in J-CRS induces the mode blueshift. A high Q mode with large MD can be achieved via conductive coupling between the resonators of different scales in a fractal MA.« less

  6. On the Gompertzian growth in the fractal space-time.

    PubMed

    Molski, Marcin; Konarski, Jerzy

    2008-06-01

    An analytical approach to determination of time-dependent temporal fractal dimension b(t)(t) and scaling factor a(t)(t) for the Gompertzian growth in the fractal space-time is presented. The derived formulae take into account the proper boundary conditions and permit a calculation of the mean values b(t)(t) and a(t)(t) at any period of time. The formulae derived have been tested on experimental data obtained by Schrek for the Brown-Pearce rabbit's tumor growth. The results obtained confirm a possibility of successful mapping of the experimental Gompertz curve onto the fractal power-law scaling function y(t)=a(t)tb(t) and support a thesis that Gompertzian growth is a self-similar and allometric process of a holistic nature.

  7. Fractal analysis of Xylella fastidiosa biofilm formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, A. L. D.; Lorite, G. S.; Rodrigues, C. M.; Souza, A. A.; Cotta, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    We have investigated the growth process of Xylella fastidiosa biofilms inoculated on a glass. The size and the distance between biofilms were analyzed by optical images; a fractal analysis was carried out using scaling concepts and atomic force microscopy images. We observed that different biofilms show similar fractal characteristics, although morphological variations can be identified for different biofilm stages. Two types of structural patterns are suggested from the observed fractal dimensions Df. In the initial and final stages of biofilm formation, Df is 2.73±0.06 and 2.68±0.06, respectively, while in the maturation stage, Df=2.57±0.08. These values suggest that the biofilm growth can be understood as an Eden model in the former case, while diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) seems to dominate the maturation stage. Changes in the correlation length parallel to the surface were also observed; these results were correlated with the biofilm matrix formation, which can hinder nutrient diffusion and thus create conditions to drive DLA growth.

  8. A conservation law, entropy principle and quantization of fractal dimensions in hadron interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zborovský, I.

    2018-04-01

    Fractal self-similarity of hadron interactions demonstrated by the z-scaling of inclusive spectra is studied. The scaling regularity reflects fractal structure of the colliding hadrons (or nuclei) and takes into account general features of fragmentation processes expressed by fractal dimensions. The self-similarity variable z is a function of the momentum fractions x1 and x2 of the colliding objects carried by the interacting hadron constituents and depends on the momentum fractions ya and yb of the scattered and recoil constituents carried by the inclusive particle and its recoil counterpart, respectively. Based on entropy principle, new properties of the z-scaling concept are found. They are conservation of fractal cumulativity in hadron interactions and quantization of fractal dimensions characterizing hadron structure and fragmentation processes at a constituent level.

  9. [Lithology feature extraction of CASI hyperspectral data based on fractal signal algorithm].

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao; Chen, Jian-Ping; Cui, Jing; Wen, Bo-Tao

    2014-05-01

    Hyperspectral data is characterized by combination of image and spectrum and large data volume dimension reduction is the main research direction. Band selection and feature extraction is the primary method used for this objective. In the present article, the authors tested methods applied for the lithology feature extraction from hyperspectral data. Based on the self-similarity of hyperspectral data, the authors explored the application of fractal algorithm to lithology feature extraction from CASI hyperspectral data. The "carpet method" was corrected and then applied to calculate the fractal value of every pixel in the hyperspectral data. The results show that fractal information highlights the exposed bedrock lithology better than the original hyperspectral data The fractal signal and characterized scale are influenced by the spectral curve shape, the initial scale selection and iteration step. At present, research on the fractal signal of spectral curve is rare, implying the necessity of further quantitative analysis and investigation of its physical implications.

  10. Chaos, Fractals and Their Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. Michael T.

    2016-12-01

    This paper gives an up-to-date account of chaos and fractals, in a popular pictorial style for the general scientific reader. A brief historical account covers the development of the subject from Newton’s laws of motion to the astronomy of Poincaré and the weather forecasting of Lorenz. Emphasis is given to the important underlying concepts, embracing the fractal properties of coastlines and the logistics of population dynamics. A wide variety of applications include: NASA’s discovery and use of zero-fuel chaotic “superhighways” between the planets; erratic chaotic solutions generated by Euler’s method in mathematics; atomic force microscopy; spontaneous pattern formation in chemical and biological systems; impact mechanics in offshore engineering and the chatter of cutting tools; controlling chaotic heartbeats. Reference is made to a number of interactive simulations and movies accessible on the web.

  11. Species groups in the genus Atrocrates Koch, 1956 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Pedinini).

    PubMed

    Iwan, Dariusz

    2016-10-18

    The genus Atrocrates Koch, 1956 belongs to the trigonopoid evolutionary lineage of the subtribe Platynotina, which consists of endemic South African genera. In the present paper, a division of Atrocrates based on the structure of mentum, pronotum, male mid tibiae, elytral humeri into the following species groups is proposed: bellamyi (10 species), bisinuatus (5), capensis (3), coconatae (5), evestigator (4), formosus (2), galbasi (2), occultator (2). An illustrated key to all of the above mentioned species groups is included. Moreover, two news species A. galbasi sp. nov. and A. matthewsi sp. nov. from Southern Africa are diagnosed, described and illustrated.

  12. Fractal planetary rings: Energy inequalities and random field model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyarenko, Anatoliy; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

    2017-12-01

    This study is motivated by a recent observation, based on photographs from the Cassini mission, that Saturn’s rings have a fractal structure in radial direction. Accordingly, two questions are considered: (1) What Newtonian mechanics argument in support of such a fractal structure of planetary rings is possible? (2) What kinematics model of such fractal rings can be formulated? Both challenges are based on taking planetary rings’ spatial structure as being statistically stationary in time and statistically isotropic in space, but statistically nonstationary in space. An answer to the first challenge is given through an energy analysis of circular rings having a self-generated, noninteger-dimensional mass distribution [V. E. Tarasov, Int. J. Mod Phys. B 19, 4103 (2005)]. The second issue is approached by taking the random field of angular velocity vector of a rotating particle of the ring as a random section of a special vector bundle. Using the theory of group representations, we prove that such a field is completely determined by a sequence of continuous positive-definite matrix-valued functions defined on the Cartesian square F2 of the radial cross-section F of the rings, where F is a fat fractal.

  13. Classical evolution of fractal measures on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, N. G.; Diakonos, F. K.; Saridakis, E. N.; Tsolias, G. A.

    2007-04-01

    We consider the classical evolution of a lattice of nonlinear coupled oscillators for a special case of initial conditions resembling the equilibrium state of a macroscopic thermal system at the critical point. The displacements of the oscillators define initially a fractal measure on the lattice associated with the scaling properties of the order parameter fluctuations in the corresponding critical system. Assuming a sudden symmetry breaking (quench), leading to a change in the equilibrium position of each oscillator, we investigate in some detail the deformation of the initial fractal geometry as time evolves. In particular, we show that traces of the critical fractal measure can be sustained for large times, and we extract the properties of the chain that determine the associated time scales. Our analysis applies generally to critical systems for which, after a slow developing phase where equilibrium conditions are justified, a rapid evolution, induced by a sudden symmetry breaking, emerges on time scales much shorter than the corresponding relaxation or observation time. In particular, it can be used in the fireball evolution in a heavy-ion collision experiment, where the QCD critical point emerges, or in the study of evolving fractals of astrophysical and cosmological scales, and may lead to determination of the initial critical properties of the Universe through observations in the symmetry-broken phase.

  14. Can fractal objects operate as efficient inline mixers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laizet, Sylvain; Vassilicos, John; Turbulence, Mixing; Flow Control Group Team

    2011-11-01

    Recently, Hurst & Vassilicos, PoF 2007, Seoud & Vassilicos, PoF 2007, Mazellier & Vassilicos, PoF, 2010 used different multiscale grids to generate turbulence in a wind tunnel and have shown that complex multiscale boundary/initial conditions can drastically influence the behaviour of a turbulent flow, but that the detailled specific nature of the multiscale geometry matters too. Multiscale (fractal) objects can be designed to be immersed in any fluid flow where there is a need to control and design the turbulence generated by the object. Different types of multiscale objects can be designed as different types of energy-efficient mixers with varying degrees of high turbulent intensities, small pressure drop and downstream distance from the grid where the turbulence is most vigorous. Here, we present a 3D DNS study of the stirring and mixing of a passive scalar by turbulence generated with either a fractal square grid or a regular grid in the presence of a mean scalar gradient. The results show that: (1) there is a linear increase for the passive scalar variance for both grids, (2) the passive scalar variance is ten times bigger for the fractal grid, (3) the passive scalar flux is constant after the production region for both grids, (4) the passive scalar flux is enhanced by an order of magnitude for the fractal grid. We acknowledge support from EPSRC, UK.

  15. Fulfilling Koch's postulates in glycoscience: HCELL, GPS and translational glycobiology.

    PubMed

    Sackstein, Robert

    2016-06-01

    Glycoscience-based research that is performed expressly to address medical necessity and improve patient outcomes is called "translational glycobiology". In the 19th century, Robert Koch proposed a set of postulates to rigorously establish causality in microbial pathogenesis, and these postulates can be reshaped to guide knowledge into how naturally-expressed glycoconjugates direct molecular processes critical to human well-being. Studies in the 1990s indicated that E-selectin, an endothelial lectin that binds sialofucosylated carbohydrate determinants, is constitutively expressed on marrow microvessels, and investigations in my laboratory indicated that human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) uniquely express high levels of a specialized glycoform of CD44 called "hematopoietic cell E-/L-selectin ligand" (HCELL) that functions as a highly potent E-selectin ligand. To assess the role of HCELL in directing HSC migration to marrow, a method called "glycosyltransferase-programmed stereosubstitution" (GPS) was developed to custom-modify CD44 glycans to enforce HCELL expression on viable cell surfaces. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are devoid of E-selectin ligands, but GPS-based glycoengineering of CD44 on MSCs licenses homing of these cells to marrow in vivo, providing direct evidence that HCELL serves as a "bone marrow homing receptor". This review will discuss the molecular basis of cell migration in historical context, will describe the discovery of HCELL and its function as the bone marrow homing receptor, and will inform on how glycoengineering of CD44 serves as a model for adapting Koch's postulates to elucidate the key roles that glycoconjugates play in human biology and for realizing the immense impact of translational glycobiology in clinical medicine. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Surface Fractal Analysis for Estimating the Fracture Energy Absorption of Nanoparticle Reinforced Composites

    PubMed Central

    Pramanik, Brahmananda; Tadepalli, Tezeswi; Mantena, P. Raju

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the fractal dimensions of failure surfaces of vinyl ester based nanocomposites are estimated using two classical methods, Vertical Section Method (VSM) and Slit Island Method (SIM), based on the processing of 3D digital microscopic images. Self-affine fractal geometry has been observed in the experimentally obtained failure surfaces of graphite platelet reinforced nanocomposites subjected to quasi-static uniaxial tensile and low velocity punch-shear loading. Fracture energy and fracture toughness are estimated analytically from the surface fractal dimensionality. Sensitivity studies show an exponential dependency of fracture energy and fracture toughness on the fractal dimensionality. Contribution of fracture energy to the total energy absorption of these nanoparticle reinforced composites is demonstrated. For the graphite platelet reinforced nanocomposites investigated, surface fractal analysis has depicted the probable ductile or brittle fracture propagation mechanism, depending upon the rate of loading. PMID:28817017

  17. a Fractal Analysis for Net Present Value of Multi-Stage Hydraulic Fractured Horizontal Well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Hong-Lin; Zhang, Ji-Jun; Tan, Xiao-Hua; Li, Xiao-Ping; Zhao, Jia-Hui

    Because of the low permeability, multi-stage hydraulic fractured horizontal wells (MHFHWs) occupy a dominant position among production wells in tight gas reservoir. However, net present value (NPV) estimation method for MHFHW in tight gas reservoirs often ignores the effect of heterogeneity in microscopic pore structure. Apart from that, a new fractal model is presented for NPV of MHFHW, based on the fractal expressions of formation parameters. First, with the aid of apparent permeability model, a pseudo pressure expression considering both reservoir fractal features and slippage effect is derived, contributing to establish the productivity model. Secondly, economic assessment method is built based on the fractal productivity model, in order to obtain the NPV of MHFHW. Thirdly, the type curves are illustrated and the influences of different fractal parameters are discussed. The pore fractal dimensions Df and the capillary tortuosity fractal dimensions DT have significant effects on the NPV of an MHFHW. Finally, the proposed model in this paper provides a new methodology for analyzing and predicting the NPV of an MHFHW and may be conducive to a better understanding of the optimal design of MHFHW.

  18. Fractal Simulations of African Design in Pre-College Computing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eglash, Ron; Krishnamoorthy, Mukkai; Sanchez, Jason; Woodbridge, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of fractal simulations of African design in a high school computing class. Fractal patterns--repetitions of shape at multiple scales--are a common feature in many aspects of African design. In African architecture we often see circular houses grouped in circular complexes, or rectangular houses in rectangular…

  19. Fractality and growth of He bubbles in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajita, Shin; Ito, Atsushi M.; Ohno, Noriyasu

    2017-08-01

    Pinholes are formed on surfaces of metals by the exposure to helium plasmas, and they are regarded as the initial process of the growth of fuzzy nanostructures. In this study, number density of the pinholes is investigated in detail from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of tungsten and tantalum exposed to the helium plasmas. A power law relation was identified between the number density and the size of pinholes. From the slope and the region where the power law was satisfied, the fractal dimension D and smin, which characterize the SEM images, are deduced. Parametric dependences and material dependence of D and smin are revealed. To explain the fractality, simple Monte-Carlo simulations including random walks of He atoms and absorption on bubble was introduced. It is shown that the initial position of the random walk is one of the key factors to deduce the fractality. The results indicated that new nucleations of bubbles are necessary to reproduce the number-density distribution of bubbles.

  20. Fractal analysis on human dynamics of library loans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Chao; Guo, Jin-Li; Zha, Yi-Long

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, the fractal characteristic of human behaviors is investigated from the perspective of time series constructed with the amount of library loans. The values of the Hurst exponent and length of non-periodic cycle calculated through rescaled range analysis indicate that the time series of human behaviors and their sub-series are fractal with self-similarity and long-range dependence. Then the time series are converted into complex networks by the visibility algorithm. The topological properties of the networks such as scale-free property and small-world effect imply that there is a close relationship among the numbers of repetitious behaviors performed by people during certain periods of time. Our work implies that there is intrinsic regularity in the human collective repetitious behaviors. The conclusions may be helpful to develop some new approaches to investigate the fractal feature and mechanism of human dynamics, and provide some references for the management and forecast of human collective behaviors.

  1. Monte Carlo Sampling in Fractal Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitão, Jorge C.; Lopes, J. M. Viana Parente; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2013-05-01

    We design a random walk to explore fractal landscapes such as those describing chaotic transients in dynamical systems. We show that the random walk moves efficiently only when its step length depends on the height of the landscape via the largest Lyapunov exponent of the chaotic system. We propose a generalization of the Wang-Landau algorithm which constructs not only the density of states (transient time distribution) but also the correct step length. As a result, we obtain a flat-histogram Monte Carlo method which samples fractal landscapes in polynomial time, a dramatic improvement over the exponential scaling of traditional uniform-sampling methods. Our results are not limited by the dimensionality of the landscape and are confirmed numerically in chaotic systems with up to 30 dimensions.

  2. Fractal dimension of spatially extended systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torcini, A.; Politi, A.; Puccioni, G. P.; D'Alessandro, G.

    1991-10-01

    Properties of the invariant measure are numerically investigated in 1D chains of diffusively coupled maps. The coarse-grained fractal dimension is carefully computed in various embedding spaces, observing an extremely slow convergence towards the asymptotic value. This is in contrast with previous simulations, where the analysis of an insufficient number of points led the authors to underestimate the increase of fractal dimension with increasing the dimension of the embedding space. Orthogonal decomposition is also performed confirming that the slow convergence is intrinsically related to local nonlinear properties of the invariant measure. Finally, the Kaplan-Yorke conjecture is tested for short chains, showing that, despite the noninvertibility of the dynamical system, a good agreement is found between Lyapunov dimension and information dimension.

  3. An Application Programming Interface for Synthetic Snowflake Particle Structure and Scattering Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammers, Matthew; Kuo, Kwo-Sen

    2017-01-01

    The work by Kuo and colleagues on growing synthetic snowflakes and calculating their single-scattering properties has demonstrated great potential to improve the retrievals of snowfall. To grant colleagues flexible and targeted access to their large collection of sizes and shapes at fifteen (15) microwave frequencies, we have developed a web-based Application Programming Interface (API) integrated with NASA Goddard's Precipitation Processing System (PPS) Group. It is our hope that the API will enable convenient programmatic utilization of the database. To help users better understand the API's capabilities, we have developed an interactive web interface called the OpenSSP API Query Builder, which implements an intuitive system of mechanisms for selecting shapes, sizes, and frequencies to generate queries, with which the API can then extract and return data from the database. The Query Builder also allows for the specification of normalized particle size distributions by setting pertinent parameters, with which the API can also return mean geometric and scattering properties for each size bin. Additionally, the Query Builder interface enables downloading of raw scattering and particle structure data packages. This presentation will describe some of the challenges and successes associated with developing such an API. Examples of its usage will be shown both through downloading output and pulling it into a spreadsheet, as well as querying the API programmatically and working with the output in code.

  4. Fractal geometry of music.

    PubMed Central

    Hsü, K J; Hsü, A J

    1990-01-01

    Music critics have compared Bach's music to the precision of mathematics. What "mathematics" and what "precision" are the questions for a curious scientist. The purpose of this short note is to suggest that the mathematics is, at least in part, Mandelbrot's fractal geometry and the precision is the deviation from a log-log linear plot. PMID:11607061

  5. An application of geostatistics and fractal geometry for reservoir characterization

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Aasum, Y.; Kelkar, M.G.; Gupta, S.P.

    1991-03-01

    This paper presents an application of geostatistics and fractal geometry concepts for 2D characterization of rock properties (k and {phi}) in a dolomitic, layered-cake reservoir. The results indicate that lack of closely spaced data yield effectively random distributions of properties. Further, incorporation of geology reduces uncertainties in fractal interpolation of wellbore properties.

  6. Space-coiling fractal metamaterial with multi-bandgaps on subwavelength scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man, Xianfeng; Liu, Tingting; Xia, Baizhan; Luo, Zhen; Xie, Longxiang; Liu, Jian

    2018-06-01

    Acoustic metamaterials are remarkably different from conventional materials, as they can flexibly manipulate and control the propagation of sound waves. Unlike the locally resonant metamaterials introduced in earlier studies, we designed an ultraslow artificial structure with a sound speed much lower than that in air. In this paper, the space-coiling approach is proposed for achieving artificial metamaterial for extremely low-frequency airborne sound. In addition, the self-similar fractal technique is utilized for designing space-coiling Mie-resonance-based metamaterials (MRMMs) to obtain a band-dispersive spectrum. The band structures of two-dimensional (2D) acoustic metamaterials with different fractal levels are illustrated using the finite element method. The low-frequency bandgap can easily be formed, and multi-bandgap properties are observed in high-level fractals. Furthermore, the designed MRMMs with higher order fractal space coiling shows a good robustness against irregular arrangement. Besides, the proposed artificial structure was found to modify and control the radiation field arbitrarily. Thus, this work provides useful guidelines for the design of acoustic filtering devices and acoustic wavefront shaping applications on the subwavelength scale.

  7. Characterization of branch complexity by fractal analyses and detect plant functional adaptations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The comparison between complexity in the sense of space occupancy (box-counting fractal dimension Dc and information dimension DI ) and heterogeneity in the sense of space distribution (average evenness index and evenness variation coefficient JCV) were investigated in mathematical fractal objects and natural branch ¯ J structures. In general, increased fractal dimension was paired with low heterogeneity. Comparisons between branch architecture in Anthyllis cytisoides under different slope exposure and grazing impact revealed that branches were more complex and more homogeneously distributed for plants on northern exposures than southern, while grazing had no impact during a wet year. Developmental instability was also investigated by the statistical noise of the allometric relation between internode length and node order. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that fractal dimension of branch structure can be used to analyze the structural organization of plants, especially if we consider not only fractal dimension but also shoot distribution within the canopy (lacunarity). These indexes together with developmental instability analyses are good indicators of growth responses to the environment.

  8. Fractal structure of sequential behaviour patterns: an indicator of stress

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alados, C.L.; Escos, J.M; Emlen, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    The detection of stress arising from parasitic infection bySarcoptes scabieisand from pregnancy is explored, using a fractal analysis of head lifting behaviour and feeding–non-feeding activity sequences in female Spanish ibex,Capra pyrenaica, under natural conditions. Because organisms under stress increase their metabolic rate and, in consequence, energy consumption, it follows that stress will, generally, lead to a reduction in complexity (fractal dimension) of exploratory behaviour. In the present study the fractal dimension of the three measures of complexity used declined with stress, both from pregnancy and from parasitic infection. This observation provides a new and effective way to assess the general state of animals’ health in the field, without the need for capture and handling.

  9. Fractal Risk Assessment of ISS Propulsion Module in Meteoroid and Orbital Debris Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mog, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    A unique and innovative risk assessment of the International Space Station (ISS) Propulsion Module is conducted using fractal modeling of the Module's response to the meteoroid and orbital debris environments. Both the environment models and structural failure modes due to the resultant hypervelocity impact phenomenology, as well as Module geometry, are investigated for fractal applicability. The fractal risk assessment methodology could produce a greatly simplified alternative to current methodologies, such as BUMPER analyses, while maintaining or increasing the number of complex scenarios that can be assessed. As a minimum, this innovative fractal approach will provide an independent assessment of existing methodologies in a unique way.

  10. Archaeon and archaeal virus diversity classification via sequence entropy and fractal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremberger, George, Jr.; Gallardo, Victor; Espinoza, Carola; Holden, Todd; Gadura, N.; Cheung, E.; Schneider, P.; Lieberman, D.; Cheung, T.

    2010-09-01

    Archaea are important potential candidates in astrobiology as their metabolism includes solar, inorganic and organic energy sources. Archaeal viruses would also be expected to be present in a sustainable archaeal exobiological community. Genetic sequence Shannon entropy and fractal dimension can be used to establish a two-dimensional measure for classification and phylogenetic study of these organisms. A sequence fractal dimension can be calculated from a numerical series consisting of the atomic numbers of each nucleotide. Archaeal 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA sequences were studied. Outliers in the 16S rRNA fractal dimension and entropy plot were found to be halophilic archaea. Positive correlation (R-square ~ 0.75, N = 18) was observed between fractal dimension and entropy across the studied species. The 16S ribosomal RNA sequence entropy correlates with the 23S ribosomal RNA sequence entropy across species with R-square 0.93, N = 18. Entropy values correspond positively with branch lengths of a published phylogeny. The studied archaeal virus sequences have high fractal dimensions of 2.02 or more. A comparison of selected extremophile sequences with archaeal sequences from the Humboldt Marine Ecosystem database (Wood-Hull Oceanography Institute, MIT) suggests the presence of continuous sequence expression as inferred from distributions of entropy and fractal dimension, consistent with the diversity expected in an exobiological archaeal community.

  11. Comparison of Pore Fractal Characteristics Between Marine and Continental Shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Yao, Yanbin; Liu, Dameng; Cai, Yidong; Cai, Jianchao

    Fractal characterization offers a quantitative evaluation on the heterogeneity of pore structure which greatly affects gas adsorption and transportation in shales. To compare the fractal characteristics between marine and continental shales, nine samples from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi formation in the Sichuan basin and nine from the Middle Jurassic Dameigou formation in the Qaidam basin were collected. Reservoir properties and fractal dimensions were characterized for all the collected samples. In this study, fractal dimensions were originated from the Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) model with N2 adsorption data. Compared to continental shale, marine shale has greater values of quartz content, porosity, specific surface area and total pore volume but lower level of clay minerals content, permeability, average pore diameter and methane adsorption capacity. The quartz in marine shale is mostly associated with biogenic origin, while that in continental shale is mainly due to terrigenous debris. The N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms exhibit that marine shale has fewer inkbottle-shaped pores but more plate-like and slit-shaped pores than continental shale. Two fractal dimensions (D1 and D2) were obtained at P/Po of 0-0.5 and 0.5-1. The dimension D2 is commonly greater than D1, suggesting that larger pores (diameter >˜ 4nm) have more complex structures than small pores (diameter <˜ 4nm). The fractal dimensions (both D1 and D2) positively correlate to clay minerals content, specific surface area and methane adsorption capacity, but have negative relationships with porosity, permeability and average pore diameter. The fractal dimensions increase proportionally with the increasing quartz content in marine shale but have no obvious correlation with that in continental shale. The dimension D1 is correlative to the TOC content and permeability of marine shale at a similar degree with dimension D2, while the dimension D1 is more sensitive to those of continental shale than

  12. Nontrivial paths and periodic orbits of the T-fractal billiard table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapidus, Michel L.; Miller, Robyn L.; Niemeyer, Robert G.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce and prove numerous new results about the orbits of the T-fractal billiard. Specifically, in section 3, we give a variety of sufficient conditions for the existence of a sequence of compatible periodic orbits. In section 4, we examine the limiting behavior of particular sequences of compatible periodic orbits. Additionally, sufficient conditions for the existence of particular nontrivial paths are given in section 4. The proofs of two results of Lapidus and Niemeyer (2013 The current state of fractal billiards Fractal Geometry and Dynamical Systems in Pure and Applied Mathematics II: Fractals in Applied Mathematics (Contemporary Mathematics vol 601) ed D Carfi et al (Providence, RI: American Mathematical Society) pp 251-88 (e-print: arXiv:math.DS.1210.0282v2, 2013) appear here for the first time, as well. In section 5, an orbit with an irrational initial direction reaches an elusive point in a way that yields a nontrivial path of finite length, yet, by our convention, constitutes a singular orbit of the fractal billiard table. The existence of such an orbit seems to indicate that the classification of orbits may not be so straightforward. A discussion of our results and directions for future research is then given in section 6.

  13. Effect of Fractal Dimension on the Strain Behavior of Particulate Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altun, Selim; Sezer, Alper; Goktepe, A. Burak

    2016-12-01

    In this study, the influence of several fractal identifiers of granular materials on dynamic behavior of a flexible pavement structure as a particulate stratum is considered. Using experimental results and numerical methods as well, 15 different grain-shaped sands obtained from 5 different sources were analyzed as pavement base course materials. Image analyses were carried out by use of a stereomicroscope on 15 different samples to obtain quantitative particle shape information. Furthermore, triaxial compression tests were conducted to determine stress-strain and shear strength parameters of sands. Additionally, the dynamic response of the particulate media to standard traffic loads was computed using finite element modeling (FEM) technique. Using area-perimeter, line divider and box counting methods, over a hundred grains for each sand type were subjected to fractal analysis. Relationships among fractal dimension descriptors and dynamic strain levels were established for assessment of importance of shape descriptors of sands at various scales on the dynamic behavior. In this context, the advantage of fractal geometry concept to describe irregular and fractured shapes was used to characterize the sands used as base course materials. Results indicated that fractal identifiers can be preferred to analyze the effect of shape properties of sands on dynamic behavior of pavement base layers.

  14. Microtopographic Inspection and Fractal Analysis of Skin Neoplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Manuel F. M.; Hipolito, Alberto Valencia; Gutierrez, Gustavo Fidel; Chanona, Jorge; Gallegos, Eva Ramón

    2008-04-01

    Early detection of skin cancer is fundamental to a successful treatment. Changes in the shape, including the relief, of skin lesions are an indicator of a possible malignity. Optical microtopographic inspection of skin lesions can be used to identify diagnostic patterns of benign and malign skin' lesions. Statistical parameters like the mean roughness (Ra) may allow the discrimination between different types of lesions and degree of malignity. Fractal analysis of bi-dimensional and 3D images of skin lesions can validate or complement that assessment by calculation of its fractal dimensions (FD). On the study herein reported the microtopographic inspection of the skin lesions were performed using the optical triangulation based microtopographer developed at the Physics Department of the University of Minho, MICROTOP.03.MFC. The patients that participated in this research work were men and women older than 15 years with the clinical and histopathology diagnoses of: melanoma, basocellular carcinoma, epidermoide carcinoma, actinic keratosis, keratoacantosis and benign nevus. Latex impressions of the lesions were taken and microtopographically analyzed. Characteristic information for each type of studied lesion was obtained. For melanoma it was observed that on the average these tumors present an increased roughness of around 67 percent compared to the roughness of the healthy skin. This feature allows the distinction from other tumors as basocellular carcinoma (were the roughness increase was in the average of 49 percent) and benign lesions as the epidermoide cyst (37 percent) or the seborrhea keratosis (4 percent). Tumor size and roughness are directly proportional to the grade of malignality. The characterization of the fractal geometry of 2D (histological slides) and 3D images of skin lesions was performed by obtaining its FD evaluated by means of the Box counting method. Results obtained showed that the average fractal dimension of histological slide images (FDh

  15. Experimental criteria for the determination of fractal parameters of premixed turbulent flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, I. G.; Cheng, Robert K.; Talbot, L.

    1992-10-01

    The influence of spatial resolution, digitization noise, the number of records used for averaging, and the method of analysis on the determination of the fractal parameters of a high Damköhler number, methane/air, premixed, turbulent stagnation-point flame are investigated in this paper. The flow exit velocity was 5 m/s and the turbulent Reynolds number was 70 based on a integral scale of 3 mm and a turbulent intensity of 7%. The light source was a copper vapor laser which delivered 20 nsecs, 5 mJ pulses at 4 kHz and the tomographic cross-sections of the flame were recorded by a high speed movie camera. The spatial resolution of the images is 155 × 121 μm/pixel with a field of view of 50 × 65 mm. The stepping caliper technique for obtaining the fractal parameters is found to give the clearest indication of the cutoffs and the effects of noise. It is necessary to ensemble average the results from more than 25 statistically independent images to reduce sufficiently the scatter in the fractal parameters. The effects of reduced spatial resolution on fractal plots are estimated by artificial degradation of the resolution of the digitized flame boundaries. The effect of pixel resolution, an apparent increase in flame length below the inner scale rolloff, appears in the fractal plots when the measurent scale is less than approximately twice the pixel resolution. Although a clearer determination of fractal parameters is obtained by local averaging of the flame boundaries which removes digitization noise, at low spatial resolution this technique can reduce the fractal dimension. The degree of fractal isotropy of the flame surface can have a significant effect on the estimation of the flame surface area and hence burning rate from two-dimensional images. To estimate this isotropy a determination of the outer cutoff is required and three-dimensional measurements are probably also necessary.

  16. The generalized 20/80 law using probabilistic fractals applied to petroleum field size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Fractal properties of the Pareto probability distribution are used to generalize "the 20/80 law." The 20/80 law is a heuristic law that has evolved over the years into the following rule of thumb for many populations: 20 percent of the population accounts for 80 percent of the total value. The general p100/q100 law in probabilistic form is defined with q as a function of p, where p is the population proportion and q is the proportion of total value. Using the Pareto distribution, the p100/q100 law in fractal form is derived with the parameter q being a fractal, where q unexpectedly possesses the scale invariance property. The 20/80 law is a special case of the p100/q100 law in fractal form. The p100/q100 law in fractal form is applied to petroleum fieldsize data to obtain p and q such that p100% of the oil fields greater than any specified scale or size in a geologic play account for q100% of the total oil of the fields. The theoretical percentages of total resources of oil using the fractal q are extremely close to the empirical percentages from the data using the statistic q. Also, the empirical scale invariance property of the statistic q for the petroleum fieldsize data is in excellent agreement with the theoretical scale invariance property of the fractal q. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  17. Improved visibility graph fractality with application for the diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadlou, Mehran; Adeli, Hojjat; Adeli, Amir

    2012-10-01

    Recently, the visibility graph (VG) algorithm was proposed for mapping a time series to a graph to study complexity and fractality of the time series through investigation of the complexity of its graph. The visibility graph algorithm converts a fractal time series to a scale-free graph. VG has been used for the investigation of fractality in the dynamic behavior of both artificial and natural complex systems. However, robustness and performance of the power of scale-freeness of VG (PSVG) as an effective method for measuring fractality has not been investigated. Since noise is unavoidable in real life time series, the robustness of a fractality measure is of paramount importance. To improve the accuracy and robustness of PSVG to noise for measurement of fractality of time series in biological time-series, an improved PSVG is presented in this paper. The proposed method is evaluated using two examples: a synthetic benchmark time series and a complicated real life Electroencephalograms (EEG)-based diagnostic problem, that is distinguishing autistic children from non-autistic children. It is shown that the proposed improved PSVG is less sensitive to noise and therefore more robust compared with PSVG. Further, it is shown that using improved PSVG in the wavelet-chaos neural network model of Adeli and c-workers in place of the Katz fractality dimension results in a more accurate diagnosis of autism, a complicated neurological and psychiatric disorder.

  18. Noteworthy fractal features and transport properties of Cantor tartans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balankin, Alexander S.; Golmankhaneh, Alireza K.; Patiño-Ortiz, Julián; Patiño-Ortiz, Miguel

    2018-06-01

    This Letter is focused on the impact of fractal topology on the transport processes governed by different kinds of random walks on Cantor tartans. We establish that the spectral dimension of the infinitely ramified Cantor tartan ds is equal to its fractal (self-similarity) dimension D. Consequently, the random walk on the Cantor tartan leads to a normal diffusion. On the other hand, the fractal geometry of Cantor tartans allows for a natural definition of power-law distributions of the waiting times and step lengths of random walkers. These distributions are Lévy stable if D > 1.5. Accordingly, we found that the random walk with rests leads to sub-diffusion, whereas the Lévy walk leads to ballistic diffusion. The Lévy walk with rests leads to super-diffusion, if D >√{ 3 }, or sub-diffusion, if 1.5 < D <√{ 3 }.

  19. Fractal modeling of fluidic leakage through metal sealing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xiaoqian; Huang, Yiyong; Chen, Yong

    2018-04-01

    This paper investigates the fluidic leak rate through metal sealing surfaces by developing fractal models for the contact process and leakage process. An improved model is established to describe the seal-contact interface of two metal rough surface. The contact model divides the deformed regions by classifying the asperities of different characteristic lengths into the elastic, elastic-plastic and plastic regimes. Using the improved contact model, the leakage channel under the contact surface is mathematically modeled based on the fractal theory. The leakage model obtains the leak rate using the fluid transport theory in porous media, considering that the pores-forming percolation channels can be treated as a combination of filled tortuous capillaries. The effects of fractal structure, surface material and gasket size on the contact process and leakage process are analyzed through numerical simulations for sealed ring gaskets.

  20. Fractal Stiffening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, David William (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A structural support having fractal-stiffening and method of fabricating the support is presented where an optimized location of at least three nodes is predetermined prior to fabricating the structural support where a first set of webs is formed on one side of the support and joined to the nodes to form a first pocket region. A second set of webs is formed within the first pocket region forming a second pocket region where the height of the first set of webs extending orthogonally from the side of the support is greater than the second set of webs extending orthogonally from the support.

  1. Long-range (fractal) correlations in the LEDA database.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Nella, H.; Montuori, M.; Paturel, G.; Pietronero, L.; Sylos Labini, F.

    1996-04-01

    All the recent redshift surveys show highly irregular patterns of galaxies on scales of hundreds of megaparsecs such as chains, walls and cells. One of the most powerful catalog of galaxies is represented by the LEDA database that contains more than 36,000 galaxies with redshift. We study the correlation properties of such a sample finding that galaxy distribution shows well defined fractal nature up to R_S_~150h^-1^Mpc with fractal dimension D~2. We test the consistency of these results versus the incompleteness in the sample.

  2. Time Series Analysis OF SAR Image Fractal Maps: The Somma-Vesuvio Volcanic Complex Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pepe, Antonio; De Luca, Claudio; Di Martino, Gerardo; Iodice, Antonio; Manzo, Mariarosaria; Pepe, Susi; Riccio, Daniele; Ruello, Giuseppe; Sansosti, Eugenio; Zinno, Ivana

    2016-04-01

    The fractal dimension is a significant geophysical parameter describing natural surfaces representing the distribution of the roughness over different spatial scale; in case of volcanic structures, it has been related to the specific nature of materials and to the effects of active geodynamic processes. In this work, we present the analysis of the temporal behavior of the fractal dimension estimates generated from multi-pass SAR images relevant to the Somma-Vesuvio volcanic complex (South Italy). To this aim, we consider a Cosmo-SkyMed data-set of 42 stripmap images acquired from ascending orbits between October 2009 and December 2012. Starting from these images, we generate a three-dimensional stack composed by the corresponding fractal maps (ordered according to the acquisition dates), after a proper co-registration. The time-series of the pixel-by-pixel estimated fractal dimension values show that, over invariant natural areas, the fractal dimension values do not reveal significant changes; on the contrary, over urban areas, it correctly assumes values outside the natural surfaces fractality range and show strong fluctuations. As a final result of our analysis, we generate a fractal map that includes only the areas where the fractal dimension is considered reliable and stable (i.e., whose standard deviation computed over the time series is reasonably small). The so-obtained fractal dimension map is then used to identify areas that are homogeneous from a fractal viewpoint. Indeed, the analysis of this map reveals the presence of two distinctive landscape units corresponding to the Mt. Vesuvio and Gran Cono. The comparison with the (simplified) geological map clearly shows the presence in these two areas of volcanic products of different age. The presented fractal dimension map analysis demonstrates the ability to get a figure about the evolution degree of the monitored volcanic edifice and can be profitably extended in the future to other volcanic systems with

  3. Fabrication of Multscale Fractal-Like Structures by Controlling Fluid Interface Instability

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Tanveer ul; Gandhi, Prasanna S.

    2016-01-01

    Nature, in quest for the best designs has shaped its vital systems into fractal geometries. Effectual way of spontaneous fabrication of scalable, ordered fractal-like structures by controlling Saffman-Taylor instability in a lifted Hele-Shaw cell is deployed here. In lifted Hele-Shaw cell uncontrolled penetration of low-viscosity fluid into its high-viscosity counterpart is known to develop irregular, non-repeatable, normally short-lived, branched patterns. We propose and characterize experimentally anisotropies in a form of spatially distributed pits on the cell plates to control initiation and further penetration of non-splitting fingers. The proposed control over shielding mechanism yields recipes for fabrication of families of ordered fractal-like patterns of multiple generations. As an example, we demonstrate and characterize fabrication of a Cayley tree fractal-like pattern. The patterns, in addition, are retained permanently by employing UV/thermally curable fluids. The proposed technique thus establishes solid foundation for bio-mimicking natural structures spanning multiple-scales for scientific and engineering use. PMID:27849003

  4. Fabrication of Multscale Fractal-Like Structures by Controlling Fluid Interface Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Tanveer Ul; Gandhi, Prasanna S.

    2016-11-01

    Nature, in quest for the best designs has shaped its vital systems into fractal geometries. Effectual way of spontaneous fabrication of scalable, ordered fractal-like structures by controlling Saffman-Taylor instability in a lifted Hele-Shaw cell is deployed here. In lifted Hele-Shaw cell uncontrolled penetration of low-viscosity fluid into its high-viscosity counterpart is known to develop irregular, non-repeatable, normally short-lived, branched patterns. We propose and characterize experimentally anisotropies in a form of spatially distributed pits on the cell plates to control initiation and further penetration of non-splitting fingers. The proposed control over shielding mechanism yields recipes for fabrication of families of ordered fractal-like patterns of multiple generations. As an example, we demonstrate and characterize fabrication of a Cayley tree fractal-like pattern. The patterns, in addition, are retained permanently by employing UV/thermally curable fluids. The proposed technique thus establishes solid foundation for bio-mimicking natural structures spanning multiple-scales for scientific and engineering use.

  5. Diagnostics of multi-fractality of magnetized plasma inside coronal holes and quiet sun areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna

    Turbulent and multi-fractal properties of magnetized plasma in solar Coronal Holes (CHs) and Quiet Sun (QS) photosphere were explored using high-resolution magnetograms measured with the New Solar Telescope (NST) at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO, USA), Hinode/SOT and SDO/HMI instruments. Distribution functions of size and magnetic flux measured for small-scale magnetic elements follow the log-normal law, which implies multi-fractal organization of the magnetic field and the absence of a unique power law for all scales. The magnetograms show multi-fractality in CHs on scales 400 - 10000 km, which becomes better pronounced as the spatial resolution of data improves. Photospheric granulation measured with NST exhibits multi-fractal properties on very small scales of 50 - 600 km. While multi-fractal nature of solar active regions is well known, newly established multi-fractality of weakest magnetic fields on the solar surface, i.e., in CHs and QS, leads us to a conclusion that the entire variety of solar magnetic fields is generated by a unique nonlinear dynamical process.

  6. Pitfalls in Fractal Time Series Analysis: fMRI BOLD as an Exemplary Case

    PubMed Central

    Eke, Andras; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Mukli, Peter; Nagy, Zoltan

    2012-01-01

    This article will be positioned on our previous work demonstrating the importance of adhering to a carefully selected set of criteria when choosing the suitable method from those available ensuring its adequate performance when applied to real temporal signals, such as fMRI BOLD, to evaluate one important facet of their behavior, fractality. Earlier, we have reviewed on a range of monofractal tools and evaluated their performance. Given the advance in the fractal field, in this article we will discuss the most widely used implementations of multifractal analyses, too. Our recommended flowchart for the fractal characterization of spontaneous, low frequency fluctuations in fMRI BOLD will be used as the framework for this article to make certain that it will provide a hands-on experience for the reader in handling the perplexed issues of fractal analysis. The reason why this particular signal modality and its fractal analysis has been chosen was due to its high impact on today’s neuroscience given it had powerfully emerged as a new way of interpreting the complex functioning of the brain (see “intrinsic activity”). The reader will first be presented with the basic concepts of mono and multifractal time series analyses, followed by some of the most relevant implementations, characterization by numerical approaches. The notion of the dichotomy of fractional Gaussian noise and fractional Brownian motion signal classes and their impact on fractal time series analyses will be thoroughly discussed as the central theme of our application strategy. Sources of pitfalls and way how to avoid them will be identified followed by a demonstration on fractal studies of fMRI BOLD taken from the literature and that of our own in an attempt to consolidate the best practice in fractal analysis of empirical fMRI BOLD signals mapped throughout the brain as an exemplary case of potentially wide interest. PMID:23227008

  7. Fractal Tempo Fluctuation and Pulse Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, Summer K.; Large, Edward W.; Fink, Philip W.

    2010-01-01

    WE INVESTIGATED PEOPLES’ ABILITY TO ADAPT TO THE fluctuating tempi of music performance. In Experiment 1, four pieces from different musical styles were chosen, and performances were recorded from a skilled pianist who was instructed to play with natural expression. Spectral and rescaled range analyses on interbeat interval time-series revealed long-range (1/f type) serial correlations and fractal scaling in each piece. Stimuli for Experiment 2 included two of the performances from Experiment 1, with mechanical versions serving as controls. Participants tapped the beat at ¼- and ⅛-note metrical levels, successfully adapting to large tempo fluctuations in both performances. Participants predicted the structured tempo fluctuations, with superior performance at the ¼-note level. Thus, listeners may exploit long-range correlations and fractal scaling to predict tempo changes in music. PMID:25190901

  8. Fractals, malware, and data models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Potter, Andrew N.; Williams, Deborah; Handley, James W.

    2012-06-01

    We examine the hypothesis that the decision boundary between malware and non-malware is fractal. We introduce a novel encoding method derived from text mining for converting disassembled programs first into opstrings and then filter these into a reduced opcode alphabet. These opcodes are enumerated and encoded into real floating point number format and used for characterizing frequency of occurrence and distribution properties of malware functions to compare with non-malware functions. We use the concept of invariant moments to characterize the highly non-Gaussian structure of the opcode distributions. We then derive Data Model based classifiers from identified features and interpolate and extrapolate the parameter sample space for the derived Data Models. This is done to examine the nature of the parameter space classification boundary between families of malware and the general non-malware category. Preliminary results strongly support the fractal boundary hypothesis, and a summary of our methods and results are presented here.

  9. Performance assessment of methods for estimation of fractal dimension from scanning electron microscope images.

    PubMed

    Risović, Dubravko; Pavlović, Zivko

    2013-01-01

    Processing of gray scale images in order to determine the corresponding fractal dimension is very important due to widespread use of imaging technologies and application of fractal analysis in many areas of science, technology, and medicine. To this end, many methods for estimation of fractal dimension from gray scale images have been developed and routinely used. Unfortunately different methods (dimension estimators) often yield significantly different results in a manner that makes interpretation difficult. Here, we report results of comparative assessment of performance of several most frequently used algorithms/methods for estimation of fractal dimension. To that purpose, we have used scanning electron microscope images of aluminum oxide surfaces with different fractal dimensions. The performance of algorithms/methods was evaluated using the statistical Z-score approach. The differences between performances of six various methods are discussed and further compared with results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on the same samples. The analysis of results shows that the performance of investigated algorithms varies considerably and that systematically erroneous fractal dimensions could be estimated using certain methods. The differential cube counting, triangulation, and box counting algorithms showed satisfactory performance in the whole investigated range of fractal dimensions. Difference statistic is proved to be less reliable generating 4% of unsatisfactory results. The performances of the Power spectrum, Partitioning and EIS were unsatisfactory in 29%, 38%, and 75% of estimations, respectively. The results of this study should be useful and provide guidelines to researchers using/attempting fractal analysis of images obtained by scanning microscopy or atomic force microscopy. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy characterization based on fractal features: Evaluation on a publicly available dataset.

    PubMed

    Orlando, José Ignacio; van Keer, Karel; Barbosa Breda, João; Manterola, Hugo Luis; Blaschko, Matthew B; Clausse, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most widespread causes of preventable blindness in the world. The most dangerous stage of this condition is proliferative DR (PDR), in which the risk of vision loss is high and treatments are less effective. Fractal features of the retinal vasculature have been previously explored as potential biomarkers of DR, yet the current literature is inconclusive with respect to their correlation with PDR. In this study, we experimentally assess their discrimination ability to recognize PDR cases. A statistical analysis of the viability of using three reference fractal characterization schemes - namely box, information, and correlation dimensions - to identify patients with PDR is presented. These descriptors are also evaluated as input features for training ℓ1 and ℓ2 regularized logistic regression classifiers, to estimate their performance. Our results on MESSIDOR, a public dataset of 1200 fundus photographs, indicate that patients with PDR are more likely to exhibit a higher fractal dimension than healthy subjects or patients with mild levels of DR (P≤1.3×10-2). Moreover, a supervised classifier trained with both fractal measurements and red lesion-based features reports an area under the ROC curve of 0.93 for PDR screening and 0.96 for detecting patients with optic disc neovascularizations. The fractal dimension of the vasculature increases with the level of DR. Furthermore, PDR screening using multiscale fractal measurements is more feasible than using their derived fractal dimensions. Code and further resources are provided at https://github.com/ignaciorlando/fundus-fractal-analysis. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  11. A Lossless hybrid wavelet-fractal compression for welding radiographic images.

    PubMed

    Mekhalfa, Faiza; Avanaki, Mohammad R N; Berkani, Daoud

    2016-01-01

    In this work a lossless wavelet-fractal image coder is proposed. The process starts by compressing and decompressing the original image using wavelet transformation and fractal coding algorithm. The decompressed image is removed from the original one to obtain a residual image which is coded by using Huffman algorithm. Simulation results show that with the proposed scheme, we achieve an infinite peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) with higher compression ratio compared to typical lossless method. Moreover, the use of wavelet transform speeds up the fractal compression algorithm by reducing the size of the domain pool. The compression results of several welding radiographic images using the proposed scheme are evaluated quantitatively and compared with the results of Huffman coding algorithm.

  12. Association between stride time fractality and gait adaptability during unperturbed and asymmetric walking.

    PubMed

    Ducharme, Scott W; Liddy, Joshua J; Haddad, Jeffrey M; Busa, Michael A; Claxton, Laura J; van Emmerik, Richard E A

    2018-04-01

    Human locomotion is an inherently complex activity that requires the coordination and control of neurophysiological and biomechanical degrees of freedom across various spatiotemporal scales. Locomotor patterns must constantly be altered in the face of changing environmental or task demands, such as heterogeneous terrains or obstacles. Variability in stride times occurring at short time scales (e.g., 5-10 strides) is statistically correlated to larger fluctuations occurring over longer time scales (e.g., 50-100 strides). This relationship, known as fractal dynamics, is thought to represent the adaptive capacity of the locomotor system. However, this has not been tested empirically. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine if stride time fractality during steady state walking associated with the ability of individuals to adapt their gait patterns when locomotor speed and symmetry are altered. Fifteen healthy adults walked on a split-belt treadmill at preferred speed, half of preferred speed, and with one leg at preferred speed and the other at half speed (2:1 ratio asymmetric walking). The asymmetric belt speed condition induced gait asymmetries that required adaptation of locomotor patterns. The slow speed manipulation was chosen in order to determine the impact of gait speed on stride time fractal dynamics. Detrended fluctuation analysis was used to quantify the correlation structure, i.e., fractality, of stride times. Cross-correlation analysis was used to measure the deviation from intended anti-phasing between legs as a measure of gait adaptation. Results revealed no association between unperturbed walking fractal dynamics and gait adaptability performance. However, there was a quadratic relationship between perturbed, asymmetric walking fractal dynamics and adaptive performance during split-belt walking, whereby individuals who exhibited fractal scaling exponents that deviated from 1/f performed the poorest. Compared to steady state preferred walking

  13. Fractal dimension analysis of weight-bearing bones of rats during skeletal unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pornprasertsuk, S.; Ludlow, J. B.; Webber, R. L.; Tyndall, D. A.; Sanhueza, A. I.; Yamauchi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Fractal analysis was used to quantify changes in trabecular bone induced through the use of a rat tail-suspension model to simulate microgravity-induced osteopenia. Fractal dimensions were estimated from digitized radiographs obtained from tail-suspended and ambulatory rats. Fifty 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups of 24 ambulatory (control) and 26 suspended (test) animals. Rats of both groups were killed after periods of 1, 4, and 8 weeks. Femurs and tibiae were removed and radiographed with standard intraoral films and digitized using a flatbed scanner. Square regions of interest were cropped at proximal, middle, and distal areas of each bone. Fractal dimensions were estimated from slopes of regression lines fitted to circularly averaged plots of log power vs. log spatial frequency. The results showed that the computed fractal dimensions were significantly greater for images of trabecular bones from tail-suspended groups than for ambulatory groups (p < 0.01) at 1 week. Periods between 1 and 4 weeks likewise yielded significantly different estimates (p < 0.05), consistent with an increase in bone loss. In the tibiae, the proximal regions of the suspended group produced significantly greater fractal dimensions than other regions (p < 0.05), which suggests they were more susceptible to unloading. The data are consistent with other studies demonstrating osteopenia in microgravity environments and the regional response to skeletal unloading. Thus, fractal analysis could be a useful technique to evaluate the structural changes of bone.

  14. The Twinkling Fractal Theory of the Glass Transition: Applications to Soft Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wool, Richard

    2012-02-01

    The Twinkling Fractal Theory (TFT) of the glass transition has recently been demonstrated experimentally [J.F. Stanzione et al., J. Non Cryst. Sol., (2011, 357,311]. The hard to-soft matter transition is characterized by the presence of solid fractal clusters with liquid-like pools that are dynamically interchanging via their anharmonic intermolecular potentials with Boltzmann energy populations with a characteristic temperature dependent vibrational density of states g(φ) ˜ φ^df . The twinkling fractal frequencies φ cover a range of 10^12 Hz to 10-10Hz and the fractal solid clusters of size R have a lifetime τ ˜ R^Df/df, where the fractal dimension Df 2.4 and the fracton dimension df = 4/3. Here we explore its application to a number of soft matter issues. These include (a) Confinement effects on Tg reduction in thin films of thickness h, where by virtue of large cluster exclusion, δTg ˜ 1/h^Df/df; (b) Tg gradients near bulk surfaces, where the smaller clusters on the surface have a faster relaxation time; (c) Effect of twinkling surfaces on cell growth, where at T Tg + 20 C, there exists a twinkling fractal range that leads to bell-shaped enhancement of cell growth and chemical up-regulation via the twinkling surfaces ``communicating `` with the cells through their vibrations; and (d) adhesion above and below Tg where topological fluctuations associated with g(φ) promotes the development of nano-nails at the interface.

  15. Fractal dimension of microbead assemblies used for protein detection.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Ariel; Commiskey, Patrick; Lazaridis, Filippos; Argyrakis, Panos; Kopelman, Raoul

    2014-11-10

    We use fractal analysis to calculate the protein concentration in a rotating magnetic assembly of microbeads of size 1 μm, which has optimized parameters of sedimentation, binding sites and magnetic volume. We utilize the original Forrest-Witten method, but due to the relatively small number of bead particles, which is of the order of 500, we use a large number of origins and also a large number of algorithm iterations. We find a value of the fractal dimension in the range 1.70-1.90, as a function of the thrombin concentration, which plays the role of binding the microbeads together. This is in good agreement with previous results from magnetorotation studies. The calculation of the fractal dimension using multiple points of reference can be used for any assembly with a relatively small number of particles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Fractal serpentine-shaped design for stretchable wireless strain sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wentao; Cheng, Xiao; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Hailiang

    2018-07-01

    Stretchable sensors have been widely applied to biological fields due to their unique capacity to integrate with soft materials and curvilinear surfaces. The article presents the fractal serpentine-shaped design for stretchable wireless strain sensor which is operating around 1.6 GHz. The wireless passive LC sensor is formed by a fractal serpentine-shaped inductor coil and a concentric coplanar capacitor. The inductance of the fractal serpentine-shaped coil varies with the deformation of the wireless sensor, and the resonance frequency also varies with the applied strain of the wireless sensor embedded in soft substrate. The 40% stretchability of wireless sensor is verified by finite element analysis (FEA). Strain response of the stretchable wireless sensor has been characterized by experiments and demonstrates high strain responsivity about 6.74 MHz/1%. The stretchable wireless sensor has the potential to be used in biological and wearable applications.

  17. Excitation of Terahertz Charge Transfer Plasmons in Metallic Fractal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadivand, Arash; Gerislioglu, Burak; Sinha, Raju; Vabbina, Phani Kiran; Karabiyik, Mustafa; Pala, Nezih

    2017-08-01

    There have been extensive researches on terahertz (THz) plasmonic structures supporting resonant modes to demonstrate nano and microscale devices with high efficiency and responsivity as well as frequency selectivity. Here, using antisymmetric plasmonic fractal Y-shaped (FYS) structures as building blocks, we introduce a highly tunable four-member fractal assembly to support charge transfer plasmons (CTPs) and classical dipolar resonant modes with significant absorption cross section in the THz domain. We first present that the unique geometrical nature of the FYS system and corresponding spectral response allow for supporting intensified dipolar plasmonic modes under polarised light exposure in a standalone structure. In addition to classical dipolar mode, for the very first time, we demonstrated CTPs in the THz domain due to the direct shuttling of the charges across the metallic fractal microantenna which led to sharp resonant absorption peaks. Using both numerical and experimental studies, we have investigated and confirmed the excitation of the CTP modes and highly tunable spectral response of the proposed plasmonic fractal structure. This understanding opens new and promising horizons for tightly integrated THz devices with high efficiency and functionality.

  18. Down syndrome's brain dynamics: analysis of fractality in resting state.

    PubMed

    Hemmati, Sahel; Ahmadlou, Mehran; Gharib, Masoud; Vameghi, Roshanak; Sajedi, Firoozeh

    2013-08-01

    To the best knowledge of the authors there is no study on nonlinear brain dynamics of down syndrome (DS) patients, whereas brain is a highly complex and nonlinear system. In this study, fractal dimension of EEG, as a key characteristic of brain dynamics, showing irregularity and complexity of brain dynamics, was used for evaluation of the dynamical changes in the DS brain. The results showed higher fractality of the DS brain in almost all regions compared to the normal brain, which indicates less centrality and higher irregular or random functioning of the DS brain regions. Also, laterality analysis of the frontal lobe showed that the normal brain had a right frontal laterality of complexity whereas the DS brain had an inverse pattern (left frontal laterality). Furthermore, the high accuracy of 95.8 % obtained by enhanced probabilistic neural network classifier showed the potential of nonlinear dynamic analysis of the brain for diagnosis of DS patients. Moreover, the results showed that the higher EEG fractality in DS is associated with the higher fractality in the low frequencies (delta and theta), in broad regions of the brain, and the high frequencies (beta and gamma), majorly in the frontal regions.

  19. Winter precipitation particle size distribution measurement by Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Gwo-Jong; Kleinkort, Cameron; Bringi, V. N.; Notaroš, Branislav M.

    2017-12-01

    From the radar meteorology viewpoint, the most important properties for quantitative precipitation estimation of winter events are 3D shape, size, and mass of precipitation particles, as well as the particle size distribution (PSD). In order to measure these properties precisely, optical instruments may be the best choice. The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) is a relatively new instrument equipped with three high-resolution cameras to capture the winter precipitation particle images from three non-parallel angles, in addition to measuring the particle fall speed using two pairs of infrared motion sensors. However, the results from the MASC so far are usually presented as monthly or seasonally, and particle sizes are given as histograms, no previous studies have used the MASC for a single storm study, and no researchers use MASC to measure the PSD. We propose the methodology for obtaining the winter precipitation PSD measured by the MASC, and present and discuss the development, implementation, and application of the new technique for PSD computation based on MASC images. Overall, this is the first study of the MASC-based PSD. We present PSD MASC experiments and results for segments of two snow events to demonstrate the performance of our PSD algorithm. The results show that the self-consistency of the MASC measured single-camera PSDs is good. To cross-validate PSD measurements, we compare MASC mean PSD (averaged over three cameras) with the collocated 2D Video Disdrometer, and observe good agreements of the two sets of results.

  20. Population density and phenology of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) is linked to sulfur-induced outbreaks of this pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is a worldwide pest of numerous agronomic and horticultural plants. Sulfur fungicides are known to induce outbreaks of this pest on several crops, although mechanisms associated with sulfur-induced mite outbreaks are largely unknown. Studies were...

  1. A spectrum fractal feature classification algorithm for agriculture crops with hyper spectrum image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Junying

    2011-11-01

    A fractal dimension feature analysis method in spectrum domain for hyper spectrum image is proposed for agriculture crops classification. Firstly, a fractal dimension calculation algorithm in spectrum domain is presented together with the fast fractal dimension value calculation algorithm using the step measurement method. Secondly, the hyper spectrum image classification algorithm and flowchart is presented based on fractal dimension feature analysis in spectrum domain. Finally, the experiment result of the agricultural crops classification with FCL1 hyper spectrum image set with the proposed method and SAM (spectral angle mapper). The experiment results show it can obtain better classification result than the traditional SAM feature analysis which can fulfill use the spectrum information of hyper spectrum image to realize precision agricultural crops classification.

  2. The fractal architecture of cytoplasmic organization: scaling, kinetics and emergence in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Aon, Miguel Antonio; O'Rourke, Brian; Cortassa, Sonia

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we highlight the links between fractals and scaling in cells and explore the kinetic consequences for biochemical reactions operating in fractal media. Based on the proposal that the cytoskeletal architecture is organized as a percolation lattice, with clusters emerging as fractal forms, the analysis of kinetics in percolation clusters is especially emphasized. A key consequence of this spatiotemporal cytoplasmic organization is that enzyme reactions following Michaelis-Menten or allosteric type kinetics exhibit higher rates in fractal media (for short times and at lower substrate concentrations) at the percolation threshold than in Euclidean media. As a result, considerably faster and higher amplification of enzymatic activity is obtained. Finally, we describe some of the properties bestowed by cytoskeletal organization and dynamics on metabolic networks.

  3. Anti-proliferative and apoptosis inducing potential of hydroalcoholic Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch extract on human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-Mb-468.

    PubMed

    Galavi, Hamid Reza; Saravani, Ramin; Shahraki, Ali; Ashtiani, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch contains a variety of components such as flavonoid. The previous studies showed that flavonoid has anti-cancer properties. The aim of the present study was to determine the anti-proliferative and apoptosis-inducing potential of hydroalcoholic Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch extract (HAWE) on MCF-7 and MDA-Mb-468 human breast carcinoma cell lines. The anti-proliferative activity of HAWE was evaluated using MTT, flowcytometry by annexin V/PI double staining, and caspase-3 activity. The results of MTT showed that the ED50 of MCF-7 and MDA-Mb-468 was 25μg/ml of HAWE, 48h after treatment. Flowcytometry by annexin V/PI showed that HAWE induced late apoptosis in MCF-7 and early apoptosis in MDA-Mb-468. In addition, the caspase-3 colorimetric method showed that caspase-3 increased in the MDA-Mb-468 after treatment with HAWE. This study found that the hydroalcoholic extract of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch induced apoptosis in both the MCF-7 and MDA-Mb-468 human breast carcinoma cell lines.

  4. Fractality of pulsatile flow in speckle images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemati, M.; Kenjeres, S.; Urbach, H. P.; Bhattacharya, N.

    2016-05-01

    The scattering of coherent light from a system with underlying flow can be used to yield essential information about dynamics of the process. In the case of pulsatile flow, there is a rapid change in the properties of the speckle images. This can be studied using the standard laser speckle contrast and also the fractality of images. In this paper, we report the results of experiments performed to study pulsatile flow with speckle images, under different experimental configurations to verify the robustness of the techniques for applications. In order to study flow under various levels of complexity, the measurements were done for three in-vitro phantoms and two in-vivo situations. The pumping mechanisms were varied ranging from mechanical pumps to the human heart for the in vivo case. The speckle images were analyzed using the techniques of fractal dimension and speckle contrast analysis. The results of these techniques for the various experimental scenarios were compared. The fractal dimension is a more sensitive measure to capture the complexity of the signal though it was observed that it is also extremely sensitive to the properties of the scattering medium and cannot recover the signal for thicker diffusers in comparison to speckle contrast.

  5. Interfacial contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dayi; Xia, Ying; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Hong, Jie; Ma, Yanhong

    2017-10-09

    In this work we describe a theoretical model that predicts the interfacial contact stiffness of fractal rough surfaces by considering the effects of elastic and plastic deformations of the fractal asperities. We also develop an original test rig that simulates dovetail joints for turbo machinery blades, which can fine tune the normal contact load existing between the contacting surfaces of the blade root. The interfacial contact stiffness is obtained through an inverse identification method in which finite element simulations are fitted to the experimental results. Excellent agreement is observed between the contact stiffness predicted by the theoretical model and by the analogous experimental results. We demonstrate that the contact stiffness is a power law function of the normal contact load with an exponent α within the whole range of fractal dimension D(1 < D < 2). We also show that for 1 < D < 1.5 the Pohrt-Popov behavior (α = 1/(3 - D)) is valid, however for 1.5 < D < 2, the exponent α is different and equal to 2(D - 1)/D. The diversity between the model developed in the work and the Pohrt-Popov one is explained in detail.

  6. Fractal Patterns of Neural Activity Exist within the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Require Extrinsic Network Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Kun; Meijer, Johanna H.; Shea, Steven A.; vanderLeest, Henk Tjebbe; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Houben, Thijs; van Oosterhout, Floor; Deboer, Tom; Scheer, Frank A. J. L.

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian central circadian pacemaker (the suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) contains thousands of neurons that are coupled through a complex network of interactions. In addition to the established role of the SCN in generating rhythms of ∼24 hours in many physiological functions, the SCN was recently shown to be necessary for normal self-similar/fractal organization of motor activity and heart rate over a wide range of time scales—from minutes to 24 hours. To test whether the neural network within the SCN is sufficient to generate such fractal patterns, we studied multi-unit neural activity of in vivo and in vitro SCNs in rodents. In vivo SCN-neural activity exhibited fractal patterns that are virtually identical in mice and rats and are similar to those in motor activity at time scales from minutes up to 10 hours. In addition, these patterns remained unchanged when the main afferent signal to the SCN, namely light, was removed. However, the fractal patterns of SCN-neural activity are not autonomous within the SCN as these patterns completely broke down in the isolated in vitro SCN despite persistence of circadian rhythmicity. Thus, SCN-neural activity is fractal in the intact organism and these fractal patterns require network interactions between the SCN and extra-SCN nodes. Such a fractal control network could underlie the fractal regulation observed in many physiological functions that involve the SCN, including motor control and heart rate regulation. PMID:23185285

  7. Evidence of diffusive fractal aggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles by femtosecond laser ablation at ambient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celardo, G. L.; Archetti, D.; Ferrini, G.; Gavioli, L.; Pingue, P.; Cavaliere, E.

    2017-01-01

    The specific mechanisms which lead to the formation of fractal nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition remain elusive despite intense research efforts, motivated mainly by the technological interest in obtaining tailored nanostructures with simple and scalable production methods. Here we focus on fractal nanostructures of titanium dioxide, TiO2, a strategic material for many applications, obtained by femtosecond laser ablation at ambient conditions. We compare a theoretical model of fractal formation with experimental data. The comparison of theory and experiment confirms that fractal aggregates are formed after landing of the ablated material on the substrate surface by a simple diffusive mechanism. We model the fractal formation through extensive Monte Carlo simulations based on a set of minimal assumptions: TiO2 nanoparticles arrive already formed on the substrate, then they diffuse in a size/mass independent way and stick irreversibly upon touching, thus forming fractal clusters. Despite its simplicity, our model explains the main features of the fractal structures arising from the complex interaction of large TiO2 nanoparticles with different substrates. Indeed our model is able to reproduce both the fractal dimensions and the area distributions of the nanostructures for different densities of the ablated material. Finally we discuss the role of the thermal conductivity of the substrate and the laser fluence on the properties of the fractal nanostructures. Our results represent an advancement towards controlling the production of fractal nanostructures by pulsed laser deposition.

  8. [Features of fractal dynamics EEG of alpha-rhythm in patients with neurotic and neurosis-like disorders].

    PubMed

    Shul'ts, E V; Baburin, I N; Karavaeva, T A; Karvasarskiĭ, B D; Slezin, V B

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-five patients with neurotic and neurosis-like disorders and 20 healthy controls, aged 17-64 years, have been examined. The basic research method was electroencephalography (EEG) with the fractal analysis of alpha power fluctuations. In patients, the changes in the fractal structure were of the same direction: the decrease of fractal indexes of low-frequency fluctuations and the increase of fractal indexes of mid-frequency fluctuations. Patients with neurosis-like disorders, in comparison to those with neurotic disorders, were characterized by more expressed (quantitative) changes in fractal structures of more extended character. It suggests the presence of deeper pathological changes in patients with neurosis-like disorders.

  9. [Fractal research of neurite growth in immunofluorescent images].

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Wang, Huinan

    2008-12-01

    Fractal dimension has been widely used in medical images processing and analysis. The neurite growth of cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was detected by fluorescent immunocytochemistry treated with nerve regeneration factor (0.1, 0.5, 2.0 mg/L). A novel method based on triangular prism surface area (TPSA) was introduced and adopted to calculate the fractal dimension of the two-dimensional immunofluorescent images. Experimental results demonstrate that this method is easy to understand and convenient to operate, and the quantititve results are concordant with the observational findings under microscope. This method can be guidelines for analyzing and deciding experimental results.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics, fractals, cardiac physiology and sudden death

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, Ary L.

    1987-01-01

    The authors propose a diametrically opposite viewpoint to the generally accepted tendency of equating healthy function with order and disease with chaos. With regard to the question of sudden cardiac death and chaos, it is suggested that certain features of dynamical chaos related to fractal structure and fractal dynamics may be important organizing principles in normal physiology and that certain pathologies, including ventricular fibrillation, represent a class of 'pathological periodicities'. Some laboratory work bearing on the relation of nonlinear analysis to physiological and pathophysiological data is briefly reviewed, with tentative theories and models described in reference to the mechanism of ventricular fibrillation.

  11. Super Water-Repellent Fractal Surfaces of a Photochromic Diarylethene Induced by UV Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, Norikazu; Minami, Takayuki; Mayama, Hiroyuki; Takata, Atsushi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Yokojima, Satoshi; Tsujii, Kaoru; Uchida, Kingo

    2008-09-01

    Photochromic diarylethene forms super water-repellent surfaces upon irradiation with UV light. Microfibril-like crystals grow on the solid diarylethene surface after UV irradiation, and the contact angle of water on the surface becomes larger with increasing surface roughness with time. The fractal analysis was made by the box-counting method for the rough surfaces. There are three regions in the roughness size having the fractal dimension of ca. 2.4 (size of roughness smaller than 5 µm), of ca. 2.2 (size of roughness between 5-40 µm), and of ca. 2.0 (size of roughness larger than 40 µm). The fractal dimension of ca. 2.4 was due to the fibril-like structures generated gradually by UV irradiation on diarylethene surfaces accompanied with an increase in the contact angle. The surface structure with larger fractal dimension mainly contributes to realizing the super water-repellency of the diarylethene surfaces. This mechanism of spontaneous formation of fractal surfaces is similar to that for triglyceride and alkylketene dimer waxes.

  12. Fractal Properties of Some Machined Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, T. R.; Rosén, B.-G.

    Many surface profiles are self-affine fractals defined by fractal dimension D and topothesy Λ. Traditionally these parameters are derived laboriously from the slope and intercept of the profile's structure function. Recently a quicker and more convenient derivation from standard roughness parameters has been suggested. Based on this derivation, it is shown that D and Λ depend on two dimensionless numbers: the ratio of the mean peak spacing to the rms roughness, and the ratio of the mean local peak spacing to the sampling interval. Using this approach, values of D and Λ are calculated for 125 profiles produced by polishing, plateau honing and various single-point machining processes. Different processes are shown to occupy different regions in D-Λ space, and polished surfaces show a relationship between D and Λ which is independent of the surface material.

  13. An Evaluation of Fractal Surface Measurement Methods for Characterizing Landscape Complexity from Remote-Sensing Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Nina Siu-Ngan; Qiu, Hong-Lie; Quattrochi, Dale A.; Emerson, Charles W.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The rapid increase in digital data volumes from new and existing sensors necessitates the need for efficient analytical tools for extracting information. We developed an integrated software package called ICAMS (Image Characterization and Modeling System) to provide specialized spatial analytical functions for interpreting remote sensing data. This paper evaluates the three fractal dimension measurement methods: isarithm, variogram, and triangular prism, along with the spatial autocorrelation measurement methods Moran's I and Geary's C, that have been implemented in ICAMS. A modified triangular prism method was proposed and implemented. Results from analyzing 25 simulated surfaces having known fractal dimensions show that both the isarithm and triangular prism methods can accurately measure a range of fractal surfaces. The triangular prism method is most accurate at estimating the fractal dimension of higher spatial complexity, but it is sensitive to contrast stretching. The variogram method is a comparatively poor estimator for all of the surfaces, particularly those with higher fractal dimensions. Similar to the fractal techniques, the spatial autocorrelation techniques are found to be useful to measure complex images but not images with low dimensionality. These fractal measurement methods can be applied directly to unclassified images and could serve as a tool for change detection and data mining.

  14. Simultaneous estimation of deterministic and fractal stochastic components in non-stationary time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Constantino A.; Otero, Abraham; Félix, Paulo; Presedo, Jesús; Márquez, David G.

    2018-07-01

    In the past few decades, it has been recognized that 1 / f fluctuations are ubiquitous in nature. The most widely used mathematical models to capture the long-term memory properties of 1 / f fluctuations have been stochastic fractal models. However, physical systems do not usually consist of just stochastic fractal dynamics, but they often also show some degree of deterministic behavior. The present paper proposes a model based on fractal stochastic and deterministic components that can provide a valuable basis for the study of complex systems with long-term correlations. The fractal stochastic component is assumed to be a fractional Brownian motion process and the deterministic component is assumed to be a band-limited signal. We also provide a method that, under the assumptions of this model, is able to characterize the fractal stochastic component and to provide an estimate of the deterministic components present in a given time series. The method is based on a Bayesian wavelet shrinkage procedure that exploits the self-similar properties of the fractal processes in the wavelet domain. This method has been validated over simulated signals and over real signals with economical and biological origin. Real examples illustrate how our model may be useful for exploring the deterministic-stochastic duality of complex systems, and uncovering interesting patterns present in time series.

  15. [A method to estimate the short-term fractal dimension of heart rate variability based on wavelet transform].

    PubMed

    Zhonggang, Liang; Hong, Yan

    2006-10-01

    A new method of calculating fractal dimension of short-term heart rate variability signals is presented. The method is based on wavelet transform and filter banks. The implementation of the method is: First of all we pick-up the fractal component from HRV signals using wavelet transform. Next, we estimate the power spectrum distribution of fractal component using auto-regressive model, and we estimate parameter 7 using the least square method. Finally according to formula D = 2- (gamma-1)/2 estimate fractal dimension of HRV signal. To validate the stability and reliability of the proposed method, using fractional brown movement simulate 24 fractal signals that fractal value is 1.6 to validate, the result shows that the method has stability and reliability.

  16. Fractal spectral triples on Kellendonk's C∗-algebra of a substitution tiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mampusti, Michael; Whittaker, Michael F.

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a new class of noncommutative spectral triples on Kellendonk's C∗-algebra associated with a nonperiodic substitution tiling. These spectral triples are constructed from fractal trees on tilings, which define a geodesic distance between any two tiles in the tiling. Since fractals typically have infinite Euclidean length, the geodesic distance is defined using Perron-Frobenius theory, and is self-similar with scaling factor given by the Perron-Frobenius eigenvalue. We show that each spectral triple is θ-summable, and respects the hierarchy of the substitution system. To elucidate our results, we construct a fractal tree on the Penrose tiling, and explicitly show how it gives rise to a collection of spectral triples.

  17. Fractal dynamics of heartbeat time series of young persons with metabolic syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Alonso-Martínez, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Martínez-Hernández, G.

    2012-10-01

    Many physiological systems have been in recent years quantitatively characterized using fractal analysis. We applied it to study heart variability of young subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS); we examined the RR time series (time between two R waves in ECG) with the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) method, the Higuchi's fractal dimension method and the multifractal analysis to detect the possible presence of heart problems. The results show that although the young persons have MS, the majority do not present alterations in the heart dynamics. However, there were cases where the fractal parameter values differed significantly from the healthy people values.

  18. Fat fractal scaling of drainage networks from a random spatial network model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karlinger, Michael R.; Troutman, Brent M.

    1992-01-01

    An alternative quantification of the scaling properties of river channel networks is explored using a spatial network model. Whereas scaling descriptions of drainage networks previously have been presented using a fractal analysis primarily of the channel lengths, we illustrate the scaling of the surface area of the channels defining the network pattern with an exponent which is independent of the fractal dimension but not of the fractal nature of the network. The methodology presented is a fat fractal analysis in which the drainage basin minus the channel area is considered the fat fractal. Random channel networks within a fixed basin area are generated on grids of different scales. The sample channel networks generated by the model have a common outlet of fixed width and a rule of upstream channel narrowing specified by a diameter branching exponent using hydraulic and geomorphologic principles. Scaling exponents are computed for each sample network on a given grid size and are regressed against network magnitude. Results indicate that the size of the exponents are related to magnitude of the networks and generally decrease as network magnitude increases. Cases showing differences in scaling exponents with like magnitudes suggest a direction of future work regarding other topologic basin characteristics as potential explanatory variables.

  19. Ocean manganese nodules as stromatolite with a fractal like-signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akai, Junji; Akiyama, Shigeki; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Akai, Kurumi

    Deep-sea manganese (Mn) nodules are problematic in terms of factors such as their characteristic form and genesis. There are many reports of bacterial species from manganese nodules. However, the genesis of these nodules has not been fully confirmed. Samples, mainly from the Clarion Clipperton Fracture zone in the Pacific Ocean, were examined by mineralogical methods and X-ray CT. Thin sections of these samples showed columnar stromatolite structures with rhythmic bands. Mineralized bacteria were observed by SEM and TEM. Surface morphology could be described as having a fractal-like nature. The fractal characteristics of spherical to dome-like forms were fundamentally composed of at least four ranks. The 4th order form corresponds to the stromatolite dome top shapes. Similar granular domain units and porous characteristics in manganese nodules were clearly observed by X-ray CT sections. Mathematical simulation based on fractal models reproduced similar morphological characteristics to the natural samples. So, we arrived at the concluding hypothesis that manganese nodules are aggregated stromatolite with fractal-like characteristics. Furthermore, we discussed the possibility that the nature of the layer manganese oxide minerals as the major component of the nodule and associated Fe-oxyhydroxide minerals may become an absorber/scavenger of strategic heavy metals and also toxic metals in the environments.

  20. Synthesis of the advances in and application of fractal characteristic of traffic flow.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Fractals are irregular geometric objects that exhibit finite details at all scales, and once magnified, their basic structures remain the same regardless of the scale of magnification. Fractal theory has been successfully applied in different fields ...

  1. Synthesis of the advance in and application of fractal characteristics of traffic flow.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Fractals are irregular geometric objects that exhibit finite details at all scales, and once magnified, their basic structures remain the same regardless of the scale of magnification. Fractal theory has been successfully applied in different fields ...

  2. Characterization of Atrophic Changes in the Cerebral Cortex Using Fractal Dimensional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    George, Anuh T.; Jeon, Tina; Hynan, Linda S.; Youn, Teddy S.; Kennedy, David N.; Dickerson, Bradford

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to apply a modified fractal analysis technique to high-resolution T1 weighted magnetic resonance images in order to quantify the alterations in the shape of the cerebral cortex that occur in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Images were selected from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database (Control N=15, Mild-Moderate AD N=15). The images were segmented using a semi-automated analysis program. Four coronal and three axial profiles of the cerebral cortical ribbon were created. The fractal dimensions (Df) of the cortical ribbons were then computed using a box-counting algorithm. The mean Df of the cortical ribbons from AD patients were lower than age-matched controls on six of seven profiles. The fractal measure has regional variability which reflects local differences in brain structure. Fractal dimension is complementary to volumetric measures and may assist in identifying disease state or disease progression. PMID:20740072

  3. Fractal based modelling and analysis of electromyography (EMG) to identify subtle actions.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2007-01-01

    The paper reports the use of fractal theory and fractal dimension to study the non-linear properties of surface electromyogram (sEMG) and to use these properties to classify subtle hand actions. The paper reports identifying a new feature of the fractal dimension, the bias that has been found to be useful in modelling the muscle activity and of sEMG. Experimental results demonstrate that the feature set consisting of bias values and fractal dimension of the recordings is suitable for classification of sEMG against the different hand gestures. The scatter plots demonstrate the presence of simple relationships of these features against the four hand gestures. The results indicate that there is small inter-experimental variation but large inter-subject variation. This may be due to differences in the size and shape of muscles for different subjects. The possible applications of this research include use in developing prosthetic hands, controlling machines and computers.

  4. The Fractal Self at Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks-Tarlow, Terry

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author draws on contemporary science to illuminate the relationship between early play experiences, processes of self-development, and the later emergence of the fractal self. She argues that orientation within social space is a primary function of early play and developmentally a two-step process. With other people and with…

  5. Dynamics of Fractal Cluster Gels with Embedded Active Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szakasits, Megan E.; Zhang, Wenxuan; Solomon, Michael J.

    2017-08-01

    We find that embedded active colloids increase the ensemble-averaged mean squared displacement of particles in otherwise passively fluctuating fractal cluster gels. The enhancement in dynamics occurs by a mechanism in which the active colloids contribute to the average dynamics both directly through their own active motion and indirectly through their excitation of neighboring passive colloids in the fractal network. Fractal cluster gels are synthesized by addition of magnesium chloride to an initially stable suspension of 1.0 μ m polystyrene colloids in which a dilute concentration of platinum coated Janus colloids has been dispersed. The Janus colloids are thereby incorporated into the fractal network. We measure the ensemble-averaged mean squared displacement of all colloids in the gel before and after the addition of hydrogen peroxide, a fuel that drives diffusiophoretic motion of the Janus particles. The gel mean squared displacement increases by up to a factor of 3 for an active to passive particle ratio of 1 ∶20 and inputted active energy—defined based on the hydrogen peroxide's effect on colloid swim speed and run length—that is up to 9.5 times thermal energy, on a per particle basis. We model the enhancement in gel particle dynamics as the sum of a direct contribution from the displacement of the Janus particles themselves and an indirect contribution from the strain field that the active colloids induce in the surrounding passive particles.

  6. Bifurcation and Fractal of the Coupled Logistic Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Luo, Chao

    The nature of the fixed points of the coupled Logistic map is researched, and the boundary equation of the first bifurcation of the coupled Logistic map in the parameter space is given out. Using the quantitative criterion and rule of system chaos, i.e., phase graph, bifurcation graph, power spectra, the computation of the fractal dimension, and the Lyapunov exponent, the paper reveals the general characteristics of the coupled Logistic map transforming from regularity to chaos, the following conclusions are shown: (1) chaotic patterns of the coupled Logistic map may emerge out of double-periodic bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation, respectively; (2) during the process of double-period bifurcation, the system exhibits self-similarity and scale transform invariability in both the parameter space and the phase space. From the research of the attraction basin and Mandelbrot-Julia set of the coupled Logistic map, the following conclusions are indicated: (1) the boundary between periodic and quasiperiodic regions is fractal, and that indicates the impossibility to predict the moving result of the points in the phase plane; (2) the structures of the Mandelbrot-Julia sets are determined by the control parameters, and their boundaries have the fractal characteristic.

  7. Collisions of ideal gas molecules with a rough/fractal surface. A computational study.

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Tomasz

    2007-02-01

    The frequency of collisions of ideal gas molecules (argon) with a rough surface has been studied. The rough/fractal surface was created using random deposition technique. By applying various depositions, the roughness of the surface was controlled and, as a measure of the irregularity, the fractal dimensions of the surfaces were determined. The surfaces were next immersed in argon (under pressures 2 x 10(3) to 2 x 10(5) Pa) and the numbers of collisions with these surfaces were counted. The calculations were carried out using a simplified molecular dynamics simulation technique (only hard core repulsions were assumed). As a result, it was stated that the frequency of collisions is a linear function of pressure for all fractal dimensions studied (D = 2, ..., 2.5). The frequency per unit pressure is quite complex function of the fractal dimension; however, the changes of that frequency with the fractal dimension are not strong. It was found that the frequency of collisions is controlled by the number of weakly folded sites on the surfaces and there is some mapping between the shape of adsorption energy distribution functions and this number of weakly folded sites. The results for the rough/fractal surfaces were compared with the prediction given by the Langmuir-Hertz equation (valid for smooth surface), generally the departure from the Langmuir-Hertz equation is not higher than 48% for the studied systems (i.e. for the surfaces created using the random deposition technique).

  8. Fractal mechanisms in the electrophysiology of the heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberger, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical concept of fractals provides insights into complex anatomic branching structures that lack a characteristic (single) length scale, and certain complex physiologic processes, such as heart rate regulation, that lack a single time scale. Heart rate control is perturbed by alterations in neuro-autonomic function in a number of important clinical syndromes, including sudden cardiac death, congestive failure, cocaine intoxication, fetal distress, space sickness and physiologic aging. These conditions are associated with a loss of the normal fractal complexity of interbeat interval dynamics. Such changes, which may not be detectable using conventional statistics, can be quantified using new methods derived from "chaos theory.".

  9. Assessment of the spatial pattern of colorectal tumour perfusion estimated at perfusion CT using two-dimensional fractal analysis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Vicky; Sanghera, Bal; Wellsted, David M; Sundin, Josefin; Halligan, Steve

    2009-06-01

    The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of fractal analysis for assessing the spatial pattern of colorectal tumour perfusion at dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (perfusion CT). Twenty patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent a 65-s perfusion CT study from which a perfusion parametric map was generated using validated commercial software. The tumour was identified by an experienced radiologist, segmented via thresholding and fractal analysis applied using in-house software: fractal dimension, abundance and lacunarity were assessed for the entire outlined tumour and for selected representative areas within the tumour of low and high perfusion. Comparison was made with ten patients with normal colons, processed in a similar manner, using two-way mixed analysis of variance with statistical significance at the 5% level. Fractal values were higher in cancer than normal colon (p < or = 0.001): mean (SD) 1.71 (0.07) versus 1.61 (0.07) for fractal dimension and 7.82 (0.62) and 6.89 (0.47) for fractal abundance. Fractal values were lower in 'high' than 'low' perfusion areas. Lacunarity curves were shifted to the right for cancer compared with normal colon. In conclusion, colorectal cancer mapped by perfusion CT demonstrates fractal properties. Fractal analysis is feasible, potentially providing a quantitative measure of the spatial pattern of tumour perfusion.

  10. The Generalization of Rook Number r2 for the Fractal Chessboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeetha, R.; Jayalalitha, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we develop a generalized formula of r 2, the number of ways of placing two non-attacking Rooks for the Fractal Chessboard which is defined as a board that grows progressively in a consistent manner using a 2 × 2 chessboard to its sides and corners. The board is disintegrated into small sub boards based on their position in the whole Fractal Chessboard (FC). The board is disintegrated into sub boards based on their position in the whole board FC. By finding the value of r 2 for each of these sub boards and adding them, the r 2 value of the whole board FC is obtained. Finally the r 2 value is generalized the Fractal Chessboard at any iteration I ≥ 4 .

  11. Describing soil surface microrelief by crossover length and fractal dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Miranda, J. G. V.; Paz González, A.

    2007-05-01

    Accurate description of soil surface topography is essential because different tillage tools produce different soil surface roughness conditions, which in turn affects many processes across the soil surface boundary. Advantages of fractal analysis in soil microrelief assessment have been recognised but the use of fractal indices in practice remains challenging. There is also little information on how soil surface roughness decays under natural rainfall conditions. The objectives of this work were to investigate the decay of initial surface roughness induced by natural rainfall under different soil tillage systems and to compare the performances of a classical statistical index and fractal microrelief indices. Field experiments were performed on an Oxisol at Campinas, São Paulo State (Brazil). Six tillage treatments, namely, disc harrow, disc plow, chisel plow, disc harrow + disc level, disc plow + disc level and chisel plow + disc level were tested. Measurements were made four times, firstly just after tillage and subsequently with increasing amounts of natural rainfall. Duplicated measurements were taken per treatment and date, yielding a total of 48 experimental surfaces. The sampling scheme was a square grid with 25×25 mm point spacing and the plot size was 1350×1350 mm, so that each data set consisted of 3025 individual elevation points. Statistical and fractal indices were calculated both for oriented and random roughness conditions, i.e. after height reading have been corrected for slope and for slope and tillage tool marks. The main drawback of the standard statistical index random roughness, RR, lies in its no spatial nature. The fractal approach requires two indices, fractal dimension, D, which describes how roughness changes with scale, and crossover length, l, specifying the variance of surface microrelief at a reference scale. Fractal parameters D and l, were estimated by two independent self-affine models, semivariogram (SMV) and local root mean

  12. Emerging of fractal geometry on surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Woodworth, C.D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation. PMID:25844044

  13. Selective modulation of cell response on engineered fractal silicon substrates

    PubMed Central

    Gentile, Francesco; Medda, Rebecca; Cheng, Ling; Battista, Edmondo; Scopelliti, Pasquale E.; Milani, Paolo; Cavalcanti-Adam, Elisabetta A.; Decuzzi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    A plethora of work has been dedicated to the analysis of cell behavior on substrates with ordered topographical features. However, the natural cell microenvironment is characterized by biomechanical cues organized over multiple scales. Here, randomly rough, self-affinefractal surfaces are generated out of silicon,where roughness Ra and fractal dimension Df are independently controlled. The proliferation rates, the formation of adhesion structures, and the morphology of 3T3 murine fibroblasts are monitored over six different substrates. The proliferation rate is maximized on surfaces with moderate roughness (Ra ~ 40 nm) and large fractal dimension (Df ~ 2.4); whereas adhesion structures are wider and more stable on substrates with higher roughness (Ra ~ 50 nm) and lower fractal dimension (Df ~ 2.2). Higher proliferation occurson substrates exhibiting densely packed and sharp peaks, whereas more regular ridges favor adhesion. These results suggest that randomly roughtopographies can selectively modulate cell behavior. PMID:23492898

  14. Effect of fractal silver electrodes on charge collection and light distribution in semiconducting organic polymer films

    DOE PAGES

    Chamousis, Rachel L.; Chang, Lilian; Watterson, William J.; ...

    2014-08-21

    Living organisms use fractal structures to optimize material and energy transport across regions of differing size scales. Here we test the effect of fractal silver electrodes on light distribution and charge collection in organic semiconducting polymer films made of P3HT and PCBM. The semiconducting polymers were deposited onto electrochemically grown fractal silver structures (5000 nm × 500 nm; fractal dimension of 1.71) with PEDOT:PSS as hole-selective interlayer. The fractal silver electrodes appear black due to increased horizontal light scattering, which is shown to improve light absorption in the polymer. According to surface photovoltage spectroscopy, fractal silver electrodes outperform the flatmore » electrodes when the BHJ film thickness is large (>400 nm, 0.4 V photovoltage). Photocurrents of up to 200 microamperes cm -2 are generated from the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photoelectrodes under 435 nm LED (10–20 mW cm -2) illumination in acetonitrile solution containing 0.005 M ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate as the electron acceptor. In conclusion, the low IPCE values (0.3–0.7%) are due to slow electron transfer to ferrocenium ion and due to shunting along the large metal–polymer interface. Overall, this work provides an initial assessment of the potential of fractal electrodes for organic photovoltaic cells.« less

  15. An "ASYMPTOTIC FRACTAL" Approach to the Morphology of Malignant Cell Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Gabriel; Rippin, John W.

    To investigate quantitatively nuclear membrane irregularity, 672 nuclei from 10 cases of oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) and normal cells from oral mucosa were studied in transmission electron micrographs. The nuclei were photographed at ×1400 magnification and transferred to computer memory (1 pixel = 35 nm). The perimeter of the profiles was analysed using the "yardstick method" of fractal dimension estimation, and the log-log plot of ruler size vs. boundary length demonstrated that there exists a significant effect of resolution on length measurement. However, this effect seems to disappear at higher resolutions. As this observation is compatible with the concept of asymptotic fractal, we estimated the parameters c, L and Bm from the asymptotic fractal formula Br = Bm {1 + (r / L)c}-1 , where Br is the boundary length measured with a ruler of size r, Bm is the maximum boundary for r → 0, L is a constant, and c = asymptotic fractal dimension minus topological dimension (D - Dt) for r → ∞. Analyses of variance showed c to be significantly higher in the normal than malignant cases (P < 0.001), but log(L) and Bm to be significantly higher in the malignant cases (P < 0.001). A multivariate linear discrimination analysis on c, log(L) and Bm re-classified 76.6% of the cells correctly (84.8% of the normal and 67.5% of the tumor). Furthermore, this shows that asymptotic fractal analysis applied to nuclear profiles has great potential for shape quantification in diagnosis of oral cancer.

  16. Evolutionary and Cognitive Motivations for Fractal Art in Art and Design Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joye, Yannick

    2005-01-01

    Humans are endowed with cognitive modules specialised in processing information about the class of natural things. Due to their naturalness, fractal art and design can contribute to developing these modules, and trigger affective responses that are associated with certain natural objects. It is argued that exposure to fractals in an art and design…

  17. Detection and classification of Breast Cancer in Wavelet Sub-bands of Fractal Segmented Cancerous Zones.

    PubMed

    Shirazinodeh, Alireza; Noubari, Hossein Ahmadi; Rabbani, Hossein; Dehnavi, Alireza Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on wavelet transform and fractal modeling applied on mammograms for the detection of cancerous tissues indicate that microcalcifications and masses can be utilized for the study of the morphology and diagnosis of cancerous cases. It is shown that the use of fractal modeling, as applied to a given image, can clearly discern cancerous zones from noncancerous areas. In this paper, for fractal modeling, the original image is first segmented into appropriate fractal boxes followed by identifying the fractal dimension of each windowed section using a computationally efficient two-dimensional box-counting algorithm. Furthermore, using appropriate wavelet sub-bands and image Reconstruction based on modified wavelet coefficients, it is shown that it is possible to arrive at enhanced features for detection of cancerous zones. In this paper, we have attempted to benefit from the advantages of both fractals and wavelets by introducing a new algorithm. By using a new algorithm named F1W2, the original image is first segmented into appropriate fractal boxes, and the fractal dimension of each windowed section is extracted. Following from that, by applying a maximum level threshold on fractal dimensions matrix, the best-segmented boxes are selected. In the next step, the segmented Cancerous zones which are candidates are then decomposed by utilizing standard orthogonal wavelet transform and db2 wavelet in three different resolution levels, and after nullifying wavelet coefficients of the image at the first scale and low frequency band of the third scale, the modified reconstructed image is successfully utilized for detection of breast cancer regions by applying an appropriate threshold. For detection of cancerous zones, our simulations indicate the accuracy of 90.9% for masses and 88.99% for microcalcifications detection results using the F1W2 method. For classification of detected mictocalcification into benign and malignant cases, eight features are identified and

  18. The correlation of fractal structures in the photospheric and the coronal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Georgoulis, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Anastasiadis, A.; Strintzi, D.; Moussas, X.

    2009-10-01

    Context: This work examines the relation between the fractal properties of the photospheric magnetic patterns and those of the coronal magnetic fields in solar active regions. Aims: We investigate whether there is any correlation between the fractal dimensions of the photospheric structures and the magnetic discontinuities formed in the corona. Methods: To investigate the connection between the photospheric and coronal complexity, we used a nonlinear force-free extrapolation method that reconstructs the 3d magnetic fields using 2d observed vector magnetograms as boundary conditions. We then located the magnetic discontinuities, which are considered as spatial proxies of reconnection-related instabilities. These discontinuities form well-defined volumes, called here unstable volumes. We calculated the fractal dimensions of these unstable volumes and compared them to the fractal dimensions of the boundary vector magnetograms. Results: Our results show no correlation between the fractal dimensions of the observed 2d photospheric structures and the extrapolated unstable volumes in the corona, when nonlinear force-free extrapolation is used. This result is independent of efforts to (1) bring the photospheric magnetic fields closer to a nonlinear force-free equilibrium and (2) omit the lower part of the modeled magnetic field volume that is almost completely filled by unstable volumes. A significant correlation between the fractal dimensions of the photospheric and coronal magnetic features is only observed at the zero level (lower limit) of approximation of a current-free (potential) magnetic field extrapolation. Conclusions: We conclude that the complicated transition from photospheric non-force-free fields to coronal force-free ones hampers any direct correlation between the fractal dimensions of the 2d photospheric patterns and their 3d counterparts in the corona at the nonlinear force-free limit, which can be considered as a second level of approximation in this

  19. An Explanation for the Arctic Sea Ice Melt Pond Fractal Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovic, P.; Abbot, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    As Arctic sea ice melts during the summer, pools of melt water form on its surface. This decreases the ice's albedo, which signifcantly impacts its subsequent evolution. Understanding this process is essential for buiding accurate sea ice models in GCMs and using them to forecast future changes in sea ice. A feature of melt ponds that helps determine their impact on ice albedo is that they often form complex geometric shapes. One characteristic of their shape, the fractal dimension of the pond boundaries, D, has been shown to transition between the two fundamental limits of D = 1 and D = 2 at some critical pond size. Here, we provide an explanation for this behavior. First, using aerial photographs taken during the SHEBA mission, we show how this fractal transition curve changes with time, and show that there is a qualitative difference in the pond shape as ice transitions from impermeable to permeable. While ice is impermeable, the maximum fractal dimension is less than 2, whereas after it becomes permeable, the maximum fractal dimension becomes very close to 2. We then show how the fractal dimension of the boundary of a collection of overlapping circles placed randomly on a plane also transitions from D = 1 to D = 2 at a size equal to the average size of a single circle. We, therefore, conclude that this transition is a simple geometric consequence of regular shapes connecting. The one physical parameter that can be extracted from the fractal transition curve is the length scale at which transition occurs. Previously, this length scale has been associated with the typical size of snow dunes created on the ice surface during winter. We provide an alternative explanation by noting that the flexural wavelength of the ice poses a fundamental limit on the size of melt ponds on permeable ice. If this is true, melt ponds could be used as a proxy for ice thickness. Finally, we provide some remarks on how to observationally distinguish between the two ideas for what

  20. Entanglement and area law with a fractal boundary in a topologically ordered phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamma, Alioscia; Lidar, Daniel A.; Severini, Simone

    2010-01-01

    Quantum systems with short-range interactions are known to respect an area law for the entanglement entropy: The von Neumann entropy S associated to a bipartition scales with the boundary p between the two parts. Here we study the case in which the boundary is a fractal. We consider the topologically ordered phase of the toric code with a magnetic field. When the field vanishes it is possible to analytically compute the entanglement entropy for both regular and fractal bipartitions (A,B) of the system and this yields an upper bound for the entire topological phase. When the A-B boundary is regular we have S/p=1 for large p. When the boundary is a fractal of the Hausdorff dimension D, we show that the entanglement between the two parts scales as S/p=γ⩽1/D, and γ depends on the fractal considered.

  1. A system framework of inter-enterprise machining quality control based on fractal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liping; Qin, Yongtao; Yao, Yiyong; Yan, Peng

    2014-03-01

    In order to meet the quality control requirement of dynamic and complicated product machining processes among enterprises, a system framework of inter-enterprise machining quality control based on fractal was proposed. In this system framework, the fractal-specific characteristic of inter-enterprise machining quality control function was analysed, and the model of inter-enterprise machining quality control was constructed by the nature of fractal structures. Furthermore, the goal-driven strategy of inter-enterprise quality control and the dynamic organisation strategy of inter-enterprise quality improvement were constructed by the characteristic analysis on this model. In addition, the architecture of inter-enterprise machining quality control based on fractal was established by means of Web service. Finally, a case study for application was presented. The result showed that the proposed method was available, and could provide guidance for quality control and support for product reliability in inter-enterprise machining processes.

  2. PIV Measurements of the Near-Wake behind a Fractal Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Kunlun; Meneveau, Charles; Katz, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    An experimental study of turbulent flow in the wake of a fractal-like tree has been carried out. Fractals provide the opportunity to study the interactions of flow with complicated, multiple-scale objects, yet whose geometric construction rules are simple. We consider a pre-fractal tree with five generations, with three branches and scale- reduction factor 1/2 at each generation. Its similarity fractal dimension is Ds˜1.585. Experiments are carried out in a water tunnel with the ability of index- matching, although current measurements do not utilize this capability yet. The incoming velocity profile is designed to mimic the velocity profile in a forest canopy. PIV measurements are carried out on 14 horizontal planes parallel to the bottom surface. Drag forces are measured using a load cell. Mean velocity and turbulence quantities are reported at various heights in the wake. Mean vorticity contours on the upper planes show signatures of the smaller branches, although the wakes from the smallest two branches are not visible in the data possibly due to rapid mixing. Interestingly, their signatures can be observed from the elevated spectra at small scales. Momentum deficit in the wake profiles and drag forces are compared. The results from this experiment also serve as database against which to compare computer simulations and models.

  3. Electronic shot noise in fractal conductors.

    PubMed

    Groth, C W; Tworzydło, J; Beenakker, C W J

    2008-05-02

    By solving a master equation in the Sierpiński lattice and in a planar random-resistor network, we determine the scaling with size L of the shot noise power P due to elastic scattering in a fractal conductor. We find a power-law scaling P proportional, variantL;{d_{f}-2-alpha}, with an exponent depending on the fractal dimension d_{f} and the anomalous diffusion exponent alpha. This is the same scaling as the time-averaged current I[over ], which implies that the Fano factor F=P/2eI[over ] is scale-independent. We obtain a value of F=1/3 for anomalous diffusion that is the same as for normal diffusion, even if there is no smallest length scale below which the normal diffusion equation holds. The fact that F remains fixed at 1/3 as one crosses the percolation threshold in a random-resistor network may explain recent measurements of a doping-independent Fano factor in a graphene flake.

  4. A stress sensitivity model for the permeability of porous media based on bi-dispersed fractal theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, X.-H.; Liu, C.-Y.; Li, X.-P.; Wang, H.-Q.; Deng, H.

    A stress sensitivity model for the permeability of porous media based on bidispersed fractal theory is established, considering the change of the flow path, the fractal geometry approach and the mechanics of porous media. It is noted that the two fractal parameters of the porous media construction perform differently when the stress changes. The tortuosity fractal dimension of solid cluster DcTσ become bigger with an increase of stress. However, the pore fractal dimension of solid cluster Dcfσ and capillary bundle Dpfσ remains the same with an increase of stress. The definition of normalized permeability is introduced for the analyzation of the impacts of stress sensitivity on permeability. The normalized permeability is related to solid cluster tortuosity dimension, pore fractal dimension, solid cluster maximum diameter, Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio. Every parameter has clear physical meaning without the use of empirical constants. Predictions of permeability of the model is accordant with the obtained experimental data. Thus, the proposed model can precisely depict the flow of fluid in porous media under stress.

  5. Fractal growth of platinum electrodeposits revealed by in situ electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifen; Wen, Jianguo; Sheng, Huaping; Miller, Dean J

    2016-10-06

    Fractals are commonly observed in nature and elucidating the mechanisms of fractal-related growth is a compelling issue for both fundamental science and technology. Here we report an in situ electron microscopy study of dynamic fractal growth of platinum during electrodeposition in a miniaturized electrochemical cell at varying growth conditions. Highly dendritic growth - either dense branching or ramified islands - are formed at the solid-electrolyte interface. We show how the diffusion length of ions in the electrolyte influences morphology selection and how instability induced by initial surface roughness, combined with local enhancement of electric field, gives rise to non-uniform branched deposition as a result of nucleation/growth at preferred locations. Comparing the growth behavior under these different conditions provides new insight into the fundamental mechanisms of platinum nucleation.

  6. Do-It-Yourself Fractal Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Janet; Willard, Teri; McDaniel, Mandy

    2017-01-01

    In the set of fractal activities described in this article, students will accomplish much more than just creating a fun set of cards that simply resemble an art project. Goals of this activity, designed for an algebra 1 class, are to encourage students to generate data, look for and analyze patterns, and create their own models--all from a set of…

  7. Fractal patterns formed by growth of radial viscous fingers*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praud, Olivier

    2004-03-01

    We examine fractal patterns formed by the injection of air into oil in a thin (0.13 mm) layer contained between two cylindrical glass plates of 288 mm diameter (a Hele-Shaw cell) [1]. The resultant radially grown patterns are similar to those formed in Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA), but the relation between the continuum limit of DLA and continuum (Laplacian) growth remains an open question. Our viscous fingering patterns in the limit of very high pressure difference reach an asymptotic state in which they exhibit a fractal dimension of 1.70± 0.02, in good agreement with a calculation of the fractal dimension of a DLA cluster, 1.713± 0.003 [2]. The generalized dimensions are also computed and show that the observed pattern is self-similar with Dq = 1.70 for all q. Further, the probability density function of shielding angles suggests the existence of a critical angle close to 75 degrees. This result is in accord with numerical and analytical evidence of a critical angle in DLA [3]. Thus fractal viscous fingering patterns and Diffusion Limited Aggregation clusters have a similar geometrical structure. *Work conducted in collaboration with H.L. Swinney, M.G. Moore and Eran Sharon [1] E. Sharon, M. G. Moore, W. D. McCormick, and H. L. Swinney, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 205504 (2003). [2] B.Davidovitch et A. Levermann and I. Procaccia, Phys. Rev. E 62, 5919 (2000). [3] D. A. Kessler et al., Phys. Rev. E 57, 6913 (1998).

  8. Using Disney's "Frozen" to Motivate Mathematics: Bringing Fractals into the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatek-Jimenez, Katrina; Phelps, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    The movie "Frozen" took the world by storm and this global popularity of the movie and its music can be harnessed by teachers of mathematics. This article builds on the "frozen fractal" lyric from "Let It Go" to incorporate fractal geometry into primary mathematics classrooms.

  9. Influence of yield on in vitro accumulation of aflatoxins in pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) nutmeats.

    PubMed Central

    McMeans, J L

    1983-01-01

    Pecans were harvested from trees (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) in November of 1977 through 1979. Kernel meals from high-, medium-, and low-yielding trees were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aspergillus parasiticus and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. Significant differences in aflatoxin accumulation were found among the three substrates, with a direct correlation between high aflatoxin concentration and tree yield. PMID:6830223

  10. Influence of yield on in vitro accumulation of aflatoxins in pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) nutmeats.

    PubMed

    McMeans, J L

    1983-02-01

    Pecans were harvested from trees (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) in November of 1977 through 1979. Kernel meals from high-, medium-, and low-yielding trees were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aspergillus parasiticus and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. Significant differences in aflatoxin accumulation were found among the three substrates, with a direct correlation between high aflatoxin concentration and tree yield.

  11. Analysis of Geographical Distribution Patterns in Plants Using Fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, A.; Ayad, G.; Padulosi, S.; Hodgkin, T.; Martin, A.; Gonzalez-Andujar, J. L.; Brown, A. H. D.

    Geographical distribution patterns in plants have been observed since primeval times and have been used by plant explorers to trace the origin of plants species. These patterns embody the effects of fundamental law-like processes. Diversity in plants has also been found to be proportionate with the area, and this scaling behavior is also known as fractal behavior. In the present study, we use fractal geometry to analyze the distribution patterns of wild taxa of cowpea with the objective to locate where their diversity would be the highest to aid in the planning of targeted explorations and conservation measures.

  12. Investigations into Novel Multi-Band Antenna Designs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    endeavouring to modify the designs to incorporate dual polarisation , building the antennas, as well as experimental work that will use the manufactured...based on the Koch, Minkowski and Hilbert curves. The merit in this approach is that non -Euclidean designs (i.e. fractals) are compared with Euclidean... polarisation . A number of possible changes to the current design need to be explored towards achieving the above objectives. Some of the suggested

  13. On the question of fractal packing structure in metallic glasses

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ding, Jun; Asta, Mark; Ritchie, Robert O.

    2017-07-25

    This work addresses the long-standing debate over fractal models of packing structure in metallic glasses (MGs). Through detailed fractal and percolation analyses of MG structures, derived from simulations spanning a range of compositions and quenching rates, we conclude that there is no fractal atomic-level structure associated with the packing of all atoms or solute-centered clusters. The results are in contradiction with conclusions derived from previous studies based on analyses of shifts in radial distribution function and structure factor peaks associated with volume changes induced by pressure and compositional variations. Here in this paper, the interpretation of such shifts is shownmore » to be challenged by the heterogeneous nature of MG structure and deformation at the atomic scale. Moreover, our analysis in the present work illustrates clearly the percolation theory applied to MGs, for example, the percolation threshold and characteristics of percolation clusters formed by subsets of atoms, which can have important consequences for structure–property relationships in these amorphous materials.« less

  14. Exsanguinated blood volume estimation using fractal analysis of digital images.

    PubMed

    Sant, Sonia P; Fairgrieve, Scott I

    2012-05-01

    The estimation of bloodstain volume using fractal analysis of digital images of passive blood stains is presented. Binary digital photos of bloodstains of known volumes (ranging from 1 to 7 mL), dispersed in a defined area, were subjected to image analysis using FracLac V. 2.0 for ImageJ. The box-counting method was used to generate a fractal dimension for each trial. A positive correlation between the generated fractal number and the volume of blood was found (R(2) = 0.99). Regression equations were produced to estimate the volume of blood in blind trials. An error rate ranging from 78% for 1 mL to 7% for 6 mL demonstrated that as the volume increases so does the accuracy of the volume estimation. This method used in the preliminary study proved that bloodstain patterns may be deconstructed into mathematical parameters, thus removing the subjective element inherent in other methods of volume estimation. © 2012 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A fractal nature for polymerized laminin.

    PubMed

    Hochman-Mendez, Camila; Cantini, Marco; Moratal, David; Salmeron-Sanchez, Manuel; Coelho-Sampaio, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Polylaminin (polyLM) is a non-covalent acid-induced nano- and micro-structured polymer of the protein laminin displaying distinguished biological properties. Polylaminin stimulates neuritogenesis beyond the levels achieved by ordinary laminin and has been shown to promote axonal regeneration in animal models of spinal cord injury. Here we used confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize its three-dimensional structure. Renderization of confocal optical slices of immunostained polyLM revealed the aspect of a loose flocculated meshwork, which was homogeneously stained by the antibody. On the other hand, an ordinary matrix obtained upon adsorption of laminin in neutral pH (LM) was constituted of bulky protein aggregates whose interior was not accessible to the same anti-laminin antibody. SEM and AFM analyses revealed that the seed unit of polyLM was a flat polygon formed in solution whereas the seed structure of LM was highly heterogeneous, intercalating rod-like, spherical and thin spread lamellar deposits. As polyLM was visualized at progressively increasing magnifications, we observed that the morphology of the polymer was alike independently of the magnification used for the observation. A search for the Hausdorff dimension in images of the two matrices showed that polyLM, but not LM, presented fractal dimensions of 1.55, 1.62 and 1.70 after 1, 8 and 12 hours of adsorption, respectively. Data in the present work suggest that the intrinsic fractal nature of polymerized laminin can be the structural basis for the fractal-like organization of basement membranes in the neurogenic niches of the central nervous system.

  16. Fractal topography and subsurface water flows from fluvial bedforms to the continental shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worman, A.; Packman, A.I.; Marklund, L.; Harvey, J.W.; Stone, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    Surface-subsurface flow interactions are critical to a wide range of geochemical and ecological processes and to the fate of contaminants in freshwater environments. Fractal scaling relationships have been found in distributions of both land surface topography and solute efflux from watersheds, but the linkage between those observations has not been realized. We show that the fractal nature of the land surface in fluvial and glacial systems produces fractal distributions of recharge, discharge, and associated subsurface flow patterns. Interfacial flux tends to be dominated by small-scale features while the flux through deeper subsurface flow paths tends to be controlled by larger-scale features. This scaling behavior holds at all scales, from small fluvial bedforms (tens of centimeters) to the continental landscape (hundreds of kilometers). The fractal nature of surface-subsurface water fluxes yields a single scale-independent distribution of subsurface water residence times for both near-surface fluvial systems and deeper hydrogeological flows. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Nonlinear stochastic interacting dynamics and complexity of financial gasket fractal-like lattice percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Jun

    2018-05-01

    A novel nonlinear stochastic interacting price dynamics is proposed and investigated by the bond percolation on Sierpinski gasket fractal-like lattice, aim to make a new approach to reproduce and study the complexity dynamics of real security markets. Fractal-like lattices correspond to finite graphs with vertices and edges, which are similar to fractals, and Sierpinski gasket is a well-known example of fractals. Fractional ordinal array entropy and fractional ordinal array complexity are introduced to analyze the complexity behaviors of financial signals. To deeper comprehend the fluctuation characteristics of the stochastic price evolution, the complexity analysis of random logarithmic returns and volatility are preformed, including power-law distribution, fractional sample entropy and fractional ordinal array complexity. For further verifying the rationality and validity of the developed stochastic price evolution, the actual security market dataset are also studied with the same statistical methods for comparison. The empirical results show that this stochastic price dynamics can reconstruct complexity behaviors of the actual security markets to some extent.

  18. Synthesis of the advances in and application of fractal characteristic of traffic flow : [summary].

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2013-07-01

    Fractals are geometric objects that are self-similar, meaning that their basic structure remains the same regardless of the scale of magnification. Self-similarity is readily seen in nature, for example, in trees, coastlines, clouds, etc. fractal...

  19. Toward a Time-Domain Fractal Lightning Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, C.; Carlson, B. E.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Cohen, M.; Lauben, D.; Inan, U. S.

    2010-12-01

    Electromagnetic simulations of lightning are useful for prediction of lightning properties and exploration of the underlying physical behavior. Fractal lightning models predict the spatial structure of the discharge, but thus far do not provide much information about discharge behavior in time and therefore cannot predict electromagnetic wave emissions or current characteristics. Here we develop a time-domain fractal lightning simulation from Maxwell's equations, the method of moments with the thin wire approximation, an adaptive time-stepping scheme, and a simplified electrical model of the lightning channel. The model predicts current pulse structure and electromagnetic wave emissions and can be used to simulate the entire duration of a lightning discharge. The model can be used to explore the electrical characteristics of the lightning channel, the temporal development of the discharge, and the effects of these characteristics on observable electromagnetic wave emissions.

  20. Reengineering through natural structures: the fractal factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sihn, Wilfried

    1995-08-01

    Many branches of European industry have had to recognize that their lead in the world market has been caught up with, particularly through Asian competition. In many cases a deficit of up to 30% in costs and productivity already exists. The reasons are rigid, Tayloristic company structures. The companies are not in a position to react flexibly to constantly changing environmental conditions. This article illustrates the methods of the `fractal company' which are necessary to solve the structure crisis. The fractal company distinguishes itself through its dynamics and its vitality, as well as its independent reaction to the changing circumstances. The developed methods, procedures, and framework conditions such as company structuring, human networking, hierarchy formation, and models for renumeration and working time are explained. They are based on practical examples from IPA's work with the automobile industry, their suppliers, and the engineering industry.

  1. Efficient RF energy harvesting by using a fractal structured rectenna system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sechang; Ramasamy, Mouli; Varadan, Vijay K.

    2014-04-01

    A rectenna system delivers, collects, and converts RF energy into direct current to power the electronic devices or recharge batteries. It consists of an antenna for receiving RF power, an input filter for processing energy and impedance matching, a rectifier, an output filter, and a load resistor. However, the conventional rectenna systems have drawback in terms of power generation, as the single resonant frequency of an antenna can generate only low power compared to multiple resonant frequencies. A multi band rectenna system is an optimal solution to generate more power. This paper proposes the design of a novel rectenna system, which involves developing a multi band rectenna with a fractal structured antenna to facilitate an increase in energy harvesting from various sources like Wi-Fi, TV signals, mobile networks and other ambient sources, eliminating the limitation of a single band technique. The usage of fractal antennas effects certain prominent advantages in terms of size and multiple resonances. Even though, a fractal antenna incorporates multiple resonances, controlling the resonant frequencies is an important aspect to generate power from the various desired RF sources. Hence, this paper also describes the design parameters of the fractal antenna and the methods to control the multi band frequency.

  2. Fractal dimension based damage identification incorporating multi-task sparse Bayesian learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yong; Li, Hui; Wu, Stephen; Yang, Yongchao

    2018-07-01

    Sensitivity to damage and robustness to noise are critical requirements for the effectiveness of structural damage detection. In this study, a two-stage damage identification method based on the fractal dimension analysis and multi-task Bayesian learning is presented. The Higuchi’s fractal dimension (HFD) based damage index is first proposed, directly examining the time-frequency characteristic of local free vibration data of structures based on the irregularity sensitivity and noise robustness analysis of HFD. Katz’s fractal dimension is then presented to analyze the abrupt irregularity change of the spatial curve of the displacement mode shape along the structure. At the second stage, the multi-task sparse Bayesian learning technique is employed to infer the final damage localization vector, which borrow the dependent strength of the two fractal dimension based damage indication information and also incorporate the prior knowledge that structural damage occurs at a limited number of locations in a structure in the absence of its collapse. To validate the capability of the proposed method, a steel beam and a bridge, named Yonghe Bridge, are analyzed as illustrative examples. The damage identification results demonstrate that the proposed method is capable of localizing single and multiple damages regardless of its severity, and show superior robustness under heavy noise as well.

  3. Fractal scaling of apparent soil moisture estimated from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumbrera, Ramiro; Tarquis, Ana M.; Gascó, Gabriel; Millán, Humberto

    2012-07-01

    SummaryImage analysis could be a useful tool for investigating the spatial patterns of apparent soil moisture at multiple resolutions. The objectives of the present work were (i) to define apparent soil moisture patterns from vertical planes of Vertisol pit images and (ii) to describe the scaling of apparent soil moisture distribution using fractal parameters. Twelve soil pits (0.70 m long × 0.60 m width × 0.30 m depth) were excavated on a bare Mazic Pellic Vertisol. Six of them were excavated in April/2011 and six pits were established in May/2011 after 3 days of a moderate rainfall event. Digital photographs were taken from each Vertisol pit using a Kodak™ digital camera. The mean image size was 1600 × 945 pixels with one physical pixel ≈373 μm of the photographed soil pit. Each soil image was analyzed using two fractal scaling exponents, box counting (capacity) dimension (DBC) and interface fractal dimension (Di), and three prefractal scaling coefficients, the total number of boxes intercepting the foreground pattern at a unit scale (A), fractal lacunarity at the unit scale (Λ1) and Shannon entropy at the unit scale (S1). All the scaling parameters identified significant differences between both sets of spatial patterns. Fractal lacunarity was the best discriminator between apparent soil moisture patterns. Soil image interpretation with fractal exponents and prefractal coefficients can be incorporated within a site-specific agriculture toolbox. While fractal exponents convey information on space filling characteristics of the pattern, prefractal coefficients represent the investigated soil property as seen through a higher resolution microscope. In spite of some computational and practical limitations, image analysis of apparent soil moisture patterns could be used in connection with traditional soil moisture sampling, which always renders punctual estimates.

  4. Wavelet detection of singularities in the presence of fractal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, Steven E.; Gohel, Yogesh J.; Szu, Harold H.

    1997-04-01

    Here we detect singularities with generalized quadrature processing using the recently developed Hermitian Hat wavelet. Our intended application is radar target detection for the optimal fuzzing of ship self-defense munitions. We first develop a wavelet-based fractal noise model to represent sea clutter. We then investigate wavelet shrinkage as a way to reduce and smooth the noise before attempting wavelet detection. Finally, we use the complex phase of the Hermitian Hat wavelet to detect a simulated target singularity in the presence of our fractal noise.

  5. Correlation of Fractal Dimension Values with Implant Insertion Torque and Resonance Frequency Values at Implant Recipient Sites.

    PubMed

    Suer, Berkay Tolga; Yaman, Zekai; Buyuksarac, Bora

    2016-01-01

    Fractal analysis is a mathematical method used to describe the internal architecture of complex structures such as trabecular bone. Fractal analysis of panoramic radiographs of implant recipient sites could help to predict the quality of the bone prior to implant placement. This study investigated the correlations between the fractal dimension values obtained from panoramic radiographs and the insertion torque and resonance frequency values of mandibular implants. Thirty patients who received a total of 55 implants of the same brand, diameter, and length in the mandibular premolar and molar regions were included in the study. The same surgical procedures were applied to each patient, and the insertion torque and resonance frequency values were recorded for each implant at the time of placement. The radiographic fractal dimensions of the alveolar bone in the implant recipient area were calculated from preoperative panoramic radiographs using a box-counting algorithm. The insertion torque and resonance frequency values were compared with the fractal dimension values using the Spearman test. All implants were successful, and none were lost during the follow-up period. Linear correlations were observed between the fractal dimension and resonance frequency, between the fractal dimension and insertion torque, and between resonance frequency and insertion torque. These results suggest that the noninvasive measurement of the fractal dimension from panoramic radiographs might help to predict the bone quality, and thus the primary stability of dental implants, before implant surgery.

  6. Fractal analysis of mandibular trabecular bone: optimal tile sizes for the tile counting method.

    PubMed

    Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Baik, Jee-Seon; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sun-Bok; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2011-06-01

    This study was performed to determine the optimal tile size for the fractal dimension of the mandibular trabecular bone using a tile counting method. Digital intraoral radiographic images were obtained at the mandibular angle, molar, premolar, and incisor regions of 29 human dry mandibles. After preprocessing, the parameters representing morphometric characteristics of the trabecular bone were calculated. The fractal dimensions of the processed images were analyzed in various tile sizes by the tile counting method. The optimal range of tile size was 0.132 mm to 0.396 mm for the fractal dimension using the tile counting method. The sizes were closely related to the morphometric parameters. The fractal dimension of mandibular trabecular bone, as calculated with the tile counting method, can be best characterized with a range of tile sizes from 0.132 to 0.396 mm.

  7. Emergence of fractal geometry on the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during progression towards cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, M. E.; Guz, N. V.; Woodworth, C. D.; Sokolov, I.

    2015-03-01

    Despite considerable advances in understanding the molecular nature of cancer, many biophysical aspects of malignant development are still unclear. Here we study physical alterations of the surface of human cervical epithelial cells during stepwise in vitro development of cancer (from normal to immortal (premalignant), to malignant). We use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that development of cancer is associated with emergence of simple fractal geometry on the cell surface. Contrary to the previously expected correlation between cancer and fractals, we find that fractal geometry occurs only at a limited period of development when immortal cells become cancerous; further cancer progression demonstrates deviation from fractal. Because of the connection between fractal behaviour and chaos (or far from equilibrium behaviour), these results suggest that chaotic behaviour coincides with the cancer transformation of the immortalization stage of cancer development, whereas further cancer progression recovers determinism of processes responsible for cell surface formation.

  8. Effects of Anisotropy on Scalar Field Ghost Dark Energy and the Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Fractal Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najafi, A.; Hossienkhani, H.

    2017-10-01

    Since the fractal cosmology has been created in early universe, therefore their models were mostly isotropic. The majority of previous studies had been based on FRW universe, while in the early universe, the best model for describing fractal cosmology is actually the anisotropic universe. Therefore in this work, by assuming the anisotropic universe, the cosmological implications of ghost and generalized ghost dark energy models with dark matter in fractal cosmology has been discussed. Moreover, the different kinds of dark energy models such as quintessence and tachyon field, with the generalized ghost dark energy in fractal universe has been investigated. In addition, we have reconstructed the Hubble parameter, H, the energy density, ρ, the deceleration parameter, q, the equations of state parameter, {ω }{{}D}, for both ghost and generalized ghost dark energy models. This correspondence allows us to reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of a fractal canonical scalar field according to the evolution of generalized ghost dark energy density. Eventually, thermodynamics of the cosmological apparent horizon in fractal cosmology was investigated and the validity of the Generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSLT) have been examined in an anisotropic universe. The results show the influence of the anisotropy on the GSLT of thermodynamics in a fractal cosmology.

  9. Visual tool for estimating the fractal dimension of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossu, I. V.; Besliu, C.; Rusu, M. V.; Jipa, Al.; Bordeianu, C. C.; Felea, D.

    2009-10-01

    This work presents a new Visual Basic 6.0 application for estimating the fractal dimension of images, based on an optimized version of the box-counting algorithm. Following the attempt to separate the real information from "noise", we considered also the family of all band-pass filters with the same band-width (specified as parameter). The fractal dimension can be thus represented as a function of the pixel color code. The program was used for the study of paintings cracks, as an additional tool which can help the critic to decide if an artistic work is original or not. Program summaryProgram title: Fractal Analysis v01 Catalogue identifier: AEEG_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEEG_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 29 690 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 967 319 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MS Visual Basic 6.0 Computer: PC Operating system: MS Windows 98 or later RAM: 30M Classification: 14 Nature of problem: Estimating the fractal dimension of images. Solution method: Optimized implementation of the box-counting algorithm. Use of a band-pass filter for separating the real information from "noise". User friendly graphical interface. Restrictions: Although various file-types can be used, the application was mainly conceived for the 8-bit grayscale, windows bitmap file format. Running time: In a first approximation, the algorithm is linear.

  10. Fractal Analysis of Permeability of Unsaturated Fractured Rocks

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Guoping; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lili

    2013-01-01

    A physical conceptual model for water retention in fractured rocks is derived while taking into account the effect of pore size distribution and tortuosity of capillaries. The formula of calculating relative hydraulic conductivity of fractured rock is given based on fractal theory. It is an issue to choose an appropriate capillary pressure-saturation curve in the research of unsaturated fractured mass. The geometric pattern of the fracture bulk is described based on the fractal distribution of tortuosity. The resulting water content expression is then used to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the fractured medium based on the well-known model of Burdine. It is found that for large enough ranges of fracture apertures the new constitutive model converges to the empirical Brooks-Corey model. PMID:23690746

  11. Fractal analysis of permeability of unsaturated fractured rocks.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Guoping; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lili

    2013-01-01

    A physical conceptual model for water retention in fractured rocks is derived while taking into account the effect of pore size distribution and tortuosity of capillaries. The formula of calculating relative hydraulic conductivity of fractured rock is given based on fractal theory. It is an issue to choose an appropriate capillary pressure-saturation curve in the research of unsaturated fractured mass. The geometric pattern of the fracture bulk is described based on the fractal distribution of tortuosity. The resulting water content expression is then used to estimate the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of the fractured medium based on the well-known model of Burdine. It is found that for large enough ranges of fracture apertures the new constitutive model converges to the empirical Brooks-Corey model.

  12. Fractal analysis: A new tool in transient volcanic ash plume characterization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournigand, Pierre-Yves; Peña Fernandez, Juan Jose; Taddeucci, Jacopo; Perugini, Diego; Sesterhenn, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Transient volcanic plumes are time-dependent features generated by unstable eruptive sources. They represent a threat to human health and infrastructures, and a challenge to characterize due to their intrinsic instability. Plumes have been investigated through physical (e.g. visible, thermal, UV, radar imagery), experimental and numerical studies in order to provide new insights about their dynamics and better anticipate their behavior. It has been shown experimentally that plume dynamics is strongly dependent to source conditions and that plume shape evolution holds key to retrieve these conditions. In this study, a shape evolution analysis is performed on thermal high-speed videos of volcanic plumes from three different volcanoes Sakurajima (Japan), Stromboli (Italy) and Fuego (Guatemala), recorded with a FLIR SC655 thermal camera during several field campaigns between 2012 and 2016. To complete this dataset, three numerical gas-jet simulations at different Reynolds number (2000, 5000 and 10000) have been used in order to set reference values to the natural cases. Turbulent flow shapes are well known to feature scale-invariant structures and a high degree of complexity. For this reason we characterized the bi-dimensional shape of natural and synthetic plumes by using a fractal descriptor. Such method has been applied in other studies on experimental turbulent jets as well as on atmospheric clouds and have shown promising results. At each time-step plume contour has been manually outlined and measured using the box-counting method. This method consists in covering the image with squares of variable sizes and counting the number of squares containing the plume outline. The negative slope of the number of squares in function of their size in a log-log plot gives the fractal dimension of the plume at a given time. Preliminary results show an increase over time of the fractal dimension for natural volcanic plume as well as for the numerically simulated ones, but at

  13. Fractal dynamics in physiology: Alterations with disease and aging

    PubMed Central

    Goldberger, Ary L.; Amaral, Luis A. N.; Hausdorff, Jeffrey M.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Peng, C.-K.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2002-01-01

    According to classical concepts of physiologic control, healthy systems are self-regulated to reduce variability and maintain physiologic constancy. Contrary to the predictions of homeostasis, however, the output of a wide variety of systems, such as the normal human heartbeat, fluctuates in a complex manner, even under resting conditions. Scaling techniques adapted from statistical physics reveal the presence of long-range, power-law correlations, as part of multifractal cascades operating over a wide range of time scales. These scaling properties suggest that the nonlinear regulatory systems are operating far from equilibrium, and that maintaining constancy is not the goal of physiologic control. In contrast, for subjects at high risk of sudden death (including those with heart failure), fractal organization, along with certain nonlinear interactions, breaks down. Application of fractal analysis may provide new approaches to assessing cardiac risk and forecasting sudden cardiac death, as well as to monitoring the aging process. Similar approaches show promise in assessing other regulatory systems, such as human gait control in health and disease. Elucidating the fractal and nonlinear mechanisms involved in physiologic control and complex signaling networks is emerging as a major challenge in the postgenomic era. PMID:11875196

  14. Single-Image Super-Resolution Based on Rational Fractal Interpolation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunfeng; Fan, Qinglan; Bao, Fangxun; Liu, Yifang; Zhang, Caiming

    2018-08-01

    This paper presents a novel single-image super-resolution (SR) procedure, which upscales a given low-resolution (LR) input image to a high-resolution image while preserving the textural and structural information. First, we construct a new type of bivariate rational fractal interpolation model and investigate its analytical properties. This model has different forms of expression with various values of the scaling factors and shape parameters; thus, it can be employed to better describe image features than current interpolation schemes. Furthermore, this model combines the advantages of rational interpolation and fractal interpolation, and its effectiveness is validated through theoretical analysis. Second, we develop a single-image SR algorithm based on the proposed model. The LR input image is divided into texture and non-texture regions, and then, the image is interpolated according to the characteristics of the local structure. Specifically, in the texture region, the scaling factor calculation is the critical step. We present a method to accurately calculate scaling factors based on local fractal analysis. Extensive experiments and comparisons with the other state-of-the-art methods show that our algorithm achieves competitive performance, with finer details and sharper edges.

  15. Stochastic Erosion of Fractal Structure in Nonlinear Dynamical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, S.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the effects of stochastic noise on the Lorenz-63 model in the chaotic regime to demonstrate a set of general issues arising in the interpretation of data from nonlinear dynamical systems typical in geophysics. The model is forced using both additive and multiplicative, white and colored noise and it is shown that, through a suitable choice of the noise intensity, both additive and multiplicative noise can produce similar dynamics. We use a recently developed measure, histogram distance, to show the similarity between the dynamics produced by additive and multiplicative forcing. This phenomenon, in a nonlinear fractal structure with chaotic dynamics can be explained by understanding how noise affects the Unstable Periodic Orbits (UPOs) of the system. For delta-correlated noise, the UPOs erode the fractal structure. In the presence of memory in the noise forcing, the time scale of the noise starts to interact with the period of some UPO and, depending on the noise intensity, stochastic resonance may be observed. This also explains the mixing in dissipative dynamical systems in presence of white noise; as the fractal structure is smoothed, the decay of correlations is enhanced, and hence the rate of mixing increases with noise intensity.

  16. Fractal dimension of interfaces in Edwards-Anderson spin glasses for up to six space dimensions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenlong; Moore, M A; Katzgraber, Helmut G

    2018-03-01

    The fractal dimension of domain walls produced by changing the boundary conditions from periodic to antiperiodic in one spatial direction is studied using both the strong-disorder renormalization group algorithm and the greedy algorithm for the Edwards-Anderson Ising spin-glass model for up to six space dimensions. We find that for five or fewer space dimensions, the fractal dimension is lower than the space dimension. This means that interfaces are not space filling, thus implying that replica symmetry breaking is absent in space dimensions fewer than six. However, the fractal dimension approaches the space dimension in six dimensions, indicating that replica symmetry breaking occurs above six dimensions. In two space dimensions, the strong-disorder renormalization group results for the fractal dimension are in good agreement with essentially exact numerical results, but the small difference is significant. We discuss the origin of this close agreement. For the greedy algorithm there is analytical expectation that the fractal dimension is equal to the space dimension in six dimensions and our numerical results are consistent with this expectation.

  17. Are fractal dimensions of the spatial distribution of mineral deposits meaningful?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, G.L.

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that the spatial distribution of mineral deposits is bifractal. An implication of this property is that the number of deposits in a permissive area is a function of the shape of the area. This is because the fractal density functions of deposits are dependent on the distance from known deposits. A long thin permissive area with most of the deposits in one end, such as the Alaskan porphyry permissive area, has a major portion of the area far from known deposits and consequently a low density of deposits associated with most of the permissive area. On the other hand, a more equi-dimensioned permissive area, such as the Arizona porphyry permissive area, has a more uniform density of deposits. Another implication of the fractal distribution is that the Poisson assumption typically used for estimating deposit numbers is invalid. Based on datasets of mineral deposits classified by type as inputs, the distributions of many different deposit types are found to have characteristically two fractal dimensions over separate non-overlapping spatial scales in the range of 5-1000 km. In particular, one typically observes a local dimension at spatial scales less than 30-60 km, and a regional dimension at larger spatial scales. The deposit type, geologic setting, and sample size influence the fractal dimensions. The consequence of the geologic setting can be diminished by using deposits classified by type. The crossover point between the two fractal domains is proportional to the median size of the deposit type. A plot of the crossover points for porphyry copper deposits from different geologic domains against median deposit sizes defines linear relationships and identifies regions that are significantly underexplored. Plots of the fractal dimension can also be used to define density functions from which the number of undiscovered deposits can be estimated. This density function is only dependent on the distribution of deposits and is independent of the

  18. The Fractal Behavior of Crystal Distribution of la Gloria Pluton, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, F. J.; Payacán, I. J.; Pasten, D.; Aravena, A.; Gelman, S. E.; Bachmann, O.; Parada, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    We utilize fractal analysis to study the spatial distributions of crystals in a 10 Ma granitic intrusion (La Gloria pluton) located in the central Chilean Andes. Previous work determined the crystal size distribution (CSD) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) tensors throughout this pluton. Using orthogonal thin sections oriented along the AMS tensor axes, we have applied fractal analysis in three magmatic crystal families: plagioclase, ferromagnesian minerals (biotite and amphibole), and Fe-Ti oxides (magnetite with minor ilmenite). We find that plagioclase and ferromagnesian minerals have a Semi-logarithmic CSD (S-CSD), given by: log(n/n0)= -L/C (1) where n [mm-4], n0 [mm-4], L [mm] and C [mm] are crystal density, intercept (nucleation density; L=0), size of crystals (three axes) and characteristic length, respectively. In contrast, Fe-Ti oxides have a Fractal CSD (F-CSD, power law size distribution), given by: log(n)= - Dn log(L) + n1 (2) where Dn and n1 [log(mm-4)] are a non-dimensional proportionality constant and the logarithm of the initial crystallization density (n1 = log(n(L=1 mm))), respectively. Finally, we calculate the fractal dimension (D0) by applying the box-counting method on each crystal thin section image, using: log(N) = -D0 log(ɛ) (3) where N and ɛ are the number of boxes occupied by minerals and the length of the square box, respectively. Results indicate that D0 values (eq. 3) are well defined for all minerals, and are higher for plagioclase than for ferromagnesian minerals and lowest for Fe-Ti oxides. D0 values are correlated with n0 and -1/C for S-CSD (eq. 1), and with n1 values for F-CSD (eq. 2). These correlations between fractal dimensions with CSD parameters suggest crystal growth follows a fractal behaviour in magmatic systems. Fractal behaviour of CSD means that the spatial distribution of crystals follows an all-scale pattern as part of a self-organized magmatic system. We interpret S-CSD of plagioclase and

  19. Interaction of side-by-side fluidic harvesters in fractal grid-generated turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferko, Kevin; Lachendro, David; Chiappazzi, Nick; Danesh-Yazdi, Amir H.

    2018-03-01

    While the vast majority of the literature in energy harvesting is dedicated to resonant harvesters, non-resonant harvesters, especially those that use turbulence-induced vibration to generate energy, have not been studied in as much detail. This is especially true for grid-generated turbulence. In this paper, the interaction of two side-by-side fluidic harvesters from a passive fractal grid-generated turbulent flow is considered. The fractal grid has been shown to significantly increase the turbulence generated in the flow which is the source of the vibration of the piezoelectric beams. In this experimental study, the influence of four parameters has been investigated: Beam lengths and configurations, mean flow velocity, distance from the grid and gap between the two beams. Experimental results show that the piezoelectric harvesters in fractal grid turbulence are capable of producing at least the same amount of power as those placed in passive rectangular grids with a larger pressure loss, allowing for a potentially significant increase in the efficiency of the energy conversion process, even though more experiments are required to study the behavior of the beams in homogeneous, fractal grid-generated turbulence.

  20. Absorption and scattering by fractal aggregates and by their equivalent coated spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandilian, Razmig; Heng, Ri-Liang; Pilon, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that the absorption and scattering cross-sections and the asymmetry factor of randomly oriented fractal aggregates of spherical monomers can be rapidly estimated as those of coated spheres with equivalent volume and average projected area. This was established for fractal aggregates with fractal dimension ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 and composed of up to 1000 monodisperse or polydisperse monomers with a wide range of size parameter and relative complex index of refraction. This equivalent coated sphere approximation was able to capture the effects of both multiple scattering and shading among constituent monomers on the integral radiation characteristics of the aggregates. It was shown to be superior to the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation and to the equivalent coated sphere approximation proposed by Latimer. However, the scattering matrix element ratios of equivalent coated spheres featured large angular oscillations caused by internal reflection in the coating which were not observed in those of the corresponding fractal aggregates. Finally, the scattering phase function and the scattering matrix elements of aggregates with large monomer size parameter were found to have unique features that could be used in remote sensing applications.

  1. Plant Identification Based on Leaf Midrib Cross-Section Images Using Fractal Descriptors.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Núbia Rosa; Florindo, João Batista; Gómez, María Cecilia; Rossatto, Davi Rodrigo; Kolb, Rosana Marta; Bruno, Odemir Martinez

    2015-01-01

    The correct identification of plants is a common necessity not only to researchers but also to the lay public. Recently, computational methods have been employed to facilitate this task, however, there are few studies front of the wide diversity of plants occurring in the world. This study proposes to analyse images obtained from cross-sections of leaf midrib using fractal descriptors. These descriptors are obtained from the fractal dimension of the object computed at a range of scales. In this way, they provide rich information regarding the spatial distribution of the analysed structure and, as a consequence, they measure the multiscale morphology of the object of interest. In Biology, such morphology is of great importance because it is related to evolutionary aspects and is successfully employed to characterize and discriminate among different biological structures. Here, the fractal descriptors are used to identify the species of plants based on the image of their leaves. A large number of samples are examined, being 606 leaf samples of 50 species from Brazilian flora. The results are compared to other imaging methods in the literature and demonstrate that fractal descriptors are precise and reliable in the taxonomic process of plant species identification.

  2. Investigation of diamond wheel topography in Elliptical Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding (EUAG) of monocrystal sapphire using fractal analysis method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuyan; Zhao, Wenxiang; Liang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xibin; Zhou, Tianfeng; Wu, Yongbo; Jiao, Li

    2018-03-01

    The wear behaviors of grinding wheel have significant influence on the work-surface topography. However, a comprehensive and quantitative method is lacking for evaluating the wear conditions of grinding wheel. In this paper, a fractal analysis method is used to investigate the wear behavior of resin-bonded diamond wheel in Elliptical Ultrasonic Assisted Grinding (EUAG) of monocrystal sapphire, and a series of experiments on EUAG and conventional grinding (CG) are performed. The results show that the fractal dimension of grinding wheel topography is highly correlated to the wear behavior, i.e., grain fracture, grain pullout, and wheel loading. An increase in cutting edge density on the wheel surface results in an increase of the fractal dimension, but an increase in the grain pullout and wheel loading results in a decrease in the fractal dimension. The wheel topography in EUAG has a higher fractal dimension than that in CG before 60 passes due to better self-sharpening behavior, and then has a smaller fractal dimension because of more serious wheel loadings after 60 passes. By angle-dependent distribution analysis of profile fractal dimensions, the wheel surface topography is transformed from isotropic to anisotropic. These indicated that the fractal analysis method could be further used in monitoring of a grinding wheel performance in EUAG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Polymer Self-Assembly into Unique Fractal Nanostructures in Solution by a One-Shot Synthetic Procedure.

    PubMed

    Shin, Suyong; Gu, Ming-Long; Yu, Chin-Yang; Jeon, Jongseol; Lee, Eunji; Choi, Tae-Lim

    2018-01-10

    A fractal nanostructure having a high surface area is potentially useful in sensors, catalysts, functional coatings, and biomedical and electronic applications. Preparation of fractal nanostructures on solid substrates has been reported using various inorganic or organic compounds. However, achieving such a process using polymers in solution has been extremely challenging. Here, we report a simple one-shot preparation of polymer fractal nanostructures in solution via an unprecedented assembly mechanism controlled by polymerization and self-assembly kinetics. This was possible only because one monomer was significantly more reactive than the other, thereby easily forming a diblock copolymer microstructure. Then, the second insoluble block containing poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) without any side chains spontaneously underwent self-assembly during polymerization by an in situ nanoparticlization of conjugated polymers (INCP) method. The formation of fractal structures in solution was confirmed by various imaging techniques such as atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and cryogenic TEM. The diffusion-limited aggregation theory was adopted to explain the branching patterns of the fractal nanostructures according to the changes in polymerization conditions such as the monomer concentration and the presence of additives. Finally, after detailed kinetic analyses, we proposed a plausible mechanism for the formation of unique fractal nanostructures, where the gradual formation and continuous growth of micelles in a chain-growth-like manner were accounted for.

  4. Rheological and fractal characteristics of unconditioned and conditioned water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Dong, Y J; Wang, Y L; Feng, J

    2011-07-01

    The rheological and fractal characteristics of raw (unconditioned) and conditioned water treatment residuals (WTRs) were investigated in this study. Variations in morphology, size, and image fractal dimensions of the flocs/aggregates in these WTR systems with increasing polymer doses were analyzed. The results showed that when the raw WTRs were conditioned with the polymer CZ8688, the optimum polymer dosage was observed at 24 kg/ton dry sludge. The average diameter of irregularly shaped flocs/aggregates in the WTR suspensions increased from 42.54 μm to several hundred micrometers with increasing polymer doses. Furthermore, the aggregates in the conditioned WTR system displayed boundary/surface and mass fractals. At the optimum polymer dosage, the aggregates formed had a volumetric average diameter of about 820.7 μm, with a one-dimensional fractal dimension of 1.01 and a mass fractal dimension of 2.74 on the basis of the image analysis. Rheological tests indicated that the conditioned WTRs at the optimum polymer dosage showed higher levels of shear-thinning behavior than the raw WTRs. Variations in the limiting viscosity (η(∞)) of conditioned WTRs with sludge content could be described by a linear equation, which were different from the often-observed empirical exponential relationship for most municipal sludge. With increasing temperature, the η(∞) of the raw WTRs decreased more rapidly than that of the raw WTRs. Good fitting results for the relationships between lgη(∞)∼T using the Arrhenius equation indicate that the WTRs had a much higher activation energy for viscosity of about 17.86-26.91 J/mol compared with that of anaerobic granular sludge (2.51 J/mol) (Mu and Yu, 2006). In addition, the Bingham plastic model adequately described the rheological behavior of the conditioned WTRs, whereas the rheology of the raw WTRs fit the Herschel-Bulkley model well at only certain sludge contents. Considering the good power-law relationships between the

  5. Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties and Fractal Dimension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogan, Harry A.

    1996-01-01

    Countermeasures for reducing bone loss and muscle atrophy due to extended exposure to the microgravity environment of space are continuing to be developed and improved. An important component of this effort is finite element modeling of the lower extremity and spinal column. These models will permit analysis and evaluation specific to each individual and thereby provide more efficient and effective exercise protocols. Inflight countermeasures and post-flight rehabilitation can then be customized and targeted on a case-by-case basis. Recent Summer Faculty Fellowship participants have focused upon finite element mesh generation, muscle force estimation, and fractal calculations of trabecular bone microstructure. Methods have been developed for generating the three-dimensional geometry of the femur from serial section magnetic resonance images (MRI). The use of MRI as an imaging modality avoids excessive exposure to radiation associated with X-ray based methods. These images can also detect trabecular bone microstructure and architecture. The goal of the current research is to determine the degree to which the fractal dimension of trabecular architecture can be used to predict the mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. The elastic modulus and the ultimate strength (or strain) can then be estimated from non-invasive, non-radiating imaging and incorporated into the finite element models to more accurately represent the bone tissue of each individual of interest. Trabecular bone specimens from the proximal tibia are being studied in this first phase of the work. Detailed protocols and procedures have been developed for carrying test specimens through all of the steps of a multi-faceted test program. The test program begins with MRI and X-ray imaging of the whole bones before excising a smaller workpiece from the proximal tibia region. High resolution MRI scans are then made and the piece further cut into slabs (roughly 1 cm thick). The slabs are X-rayed again

  6. Fractal analysis of mandibular trabecular bone: optimal tile sizes for the tile counting method

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Baik, Jee-Seon; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul; Lee, Sun-Bok; Lee, Seung-Pyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to determine the optimal tile size for the fractal dimension of the mandibular trabecular bone using a tile counting method. Materials and Methods Digital intraoral radiographic images were obtained at the mandibular angle, molar, premolar, and incisor regions of 29 human dry mandibles. After preprocessing, the parameters representing morphometric characteristics of the trabecular bone were calculated. The fractal dimensions of the processed images were analyzed in various tile sizes by the tile counting method. Results The optimal range of tile size was 0.132 mm to 0.396 mm for the fractal dimension using the tile counting method. The sizes were closely related to the morphometric parameters. Conclusion The fractal dimension of mandibular trabecular bone, as calculated with the tile counting method, can be best characterized with a range of tile sizes from 0.132 to 0.396 mm. PMID:21977478

  7. Fractal based observables to probe jet substructure of quarks and gluons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davighi, Joe; Harris, Philip

    2018-04-01

    New jet observables are defined which characterize both fractal and scale-dependent contributions to the distribution of hadrons in a jet. These infrared safe observables, named Extended Fractal Observables (EFOs), have been applied to quark-gluon discrimination to demonstrate their potential utility. The EFOs are found to be individually discriminating and only weakly correlated to variables used in existing discriminators. Consequently, their inclusion improves discriminator performance, as here demonstrated with particle level simulation from the parton shower.

  8. Fractal dendrite-based electrically conductive composites for laser-scribed flexible circuits

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng; Cui, Xiaoya; Zhang, Zhexu; Chiang, Sum Wai; Lin, Wei; Duan, Huan; Li, Jia; Kang, Feiyu; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Fractal metallic dendrites have been drawing more attentions recently, yet they have rarely been explored in electronic printing or packaging applications because of the great challenges in large-scale synthesis and limited understanding in such applications. Here we demonstrate a controllable synthesis of fractal Ag micro-dendrites at the hundred-gram scale. When used as the fillers for isotropically electrically conductive composites (ECCs), the unique three-dimensional fractal geometrical configuration and low-temperature sintering characteristic render the Ag micro dendrites with an ultra-low electrical percolation threshold of 0.97 vol% (8 wt%). The ultra-low percolation threshold and self-limited fusing ability may address some critical challenges in current interconnect technology for microelectronics. For example, only half of the laser-scribe energy is needed to pattern fine circuit lines printed using the present ECCs, showing great potential for wiring ultrathin circuits for high performance flexible electronics. PMID:26333352

  9. Fractal patterns of fracture in sandwich composite materials under biaxial tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jing; Yao, Xuefeng; Qi, Jia

    1996-04-01

    The paper presents a successful experiment to generate a fractal pattern of branching cracks in a brittle material sandwiched in ductile plates. A glass sheet bonded between two polycarbonate plates was heated at different levels of temperatures and the stress field due to the difference of thermal coefficients of the materials was solved by combining the results from isochromatic fringes and thermal stress analysis. At a critical degree of temperature, a crack was initiated at a point and soon produced crack branches to release the stored energy. A tree—like fractal patterns of the branch cracks was then developed with the growth of the branches that subsequently produced more branches on their ways of propagation. The fractal dimension of the fracture pattern was evaluated and the mechanism of the fragmentation was analyzed with the help of the residual stress field of isochromatic and isoclinic patterns.

  10. A fractal model of effective stress of porous media and the analysis of influence factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Zhao, Huan; Li, Siqi; Sun, Wenfeng; Wang, Lei; Li, Bing

    2018-03-01

    The basic concept of effective stress describes the characteristics of fluid and solid interaction in porous media. In this paper, based on the theory of fractal geometry, a fractal model was built to analyze the relationship between the microstructure and the effective stress of porous media. From the microscopic point of view, the influence of effective stress on pore structure of porous media was demonstrated. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that: (i) the fractal model of effective stress can be used to describe the relationship between effective stress and the microstructure of porous media; (ii) a linear increase in the effective stress leads to exponential increases in fractal dimension, porosity and pore number of the porous media, and causes a decreasing trend in the average pore radius.

  11. Modeling fractal cities using the correlated percolation model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makse, Hernán A.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    1996-03-01

    Cities grow in a way that might be expected to resemble the growth of two-dimensional aggregates of particles, and this has led to recent attempts to model urban growth using ideas from the statistical physics of clusters. In particular, the model of diffusion limited aggregation (DLA) has been invoked to rationalize the apparently fractal nature of urban morphologies(M. Batty and P. Longley, Fractal Cities) (Academic, San Diego, 1994). The DLA model predicts that there should exist only one large fractal cluster, which is almost perfectly screened from incoming 'development units' (representing, for example, people, capital or resources), so that almost all of the cluster growth takes place at the tips of the cluster's branches. We show that an alternative model(H. A. Makse, S. Havlin, H. E. Stanley, Nature 377), 608 (1995), in which development units are correlated rather than being added to the cluster at random, is better able to reproduce the observed morphology of cities and the area distribution of sub-clusters ('towns') in an urban system, and can also describe urban growth dynamics. Our physical model, which corresponds to the correlated percolation model in the presence of a density gradient, is motivated by the fact that in urban areas development attracts further development. The model offers the possibility of predicting the global properties (such as scaling behavior) of urban morphologies.

  12. Lévy processes on a generalized fractal comb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandev, Trifce; Iomin, Alexander; Méndez, Vicenç

    2016-09-01

    Comb geometry, constituted of a backbone and fingers, is one of the most simple paradigm of a two-dimensional structure, where anomalous diffusion can be realized in the framework of Markov processes. However, the intrinsic properties of the structure can destroy this Markovian transport. These effects can be described by the memory and spatial kernels. In particular, the fractal structure of the fingers, which is controlled by the spatial kernel in both the real and the Fourier spaces, leads to the Lévy processes (Lévy flights) and superdiffusion. This generalization of the fractional diffusion is described by the Riesz space fractional derivative. In the framework of this generalized fractal comb model, Lévy processes are considered, and exact solutions for the probability distribution functions are obtained in terms of the Fox H-function for a variety of the memory kernels, and the rate of the superdiffusive spreading is studied by calculating the fractional moments. For a special form of the memory kernels, we also observed a competition between long rests and long jumps. Finally, we considered the fractal structure of the fingers controlled by a Weierstrass function, which leads to the power-law kernel in the Fourier space. This is a special case, when the second moment exists for superdiffusion in this competition between long rests and long jumps.

  13. Thin-film fractal nanostructures formed by electrical breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadtaev, P. O.; Bobkov, A. A.; Borodzyulya, V. F.; Lamkin, I. A.; Mihailov, I. I.; Moshnikov, V. A.; Permyakov, N. V.; Solomonov, A. V.; Sudar, N. T.; Tarasov, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    This is a study of the fractal micro- and nanostructures formation caused by the electrical breakdown of the indium-tin oxide (ITO) covered with various organic coatings. The samples were created by covering a glass substrate with a 1 to 10um-thick layer of indium-tin oxide. Some of the samples were then coated with organic layers of polycarbonate, poly(methyl methacrylate) and others. In order to create high local electrical field densities a special setup based on a eutectic GaIn liquid needle was created: it allowed for the contact area of 60um in diameter and application of the step voltage swept from 20 to 300 volts. The setup also contained a spectrometer for measuring the spectra of the breakdown optical effects. The results showed that the destruction of ITO led to the formation of the spiral fractal nanostructures, parameters of which depended on the thickness of the layer and the presence of the organic cover. In case of the latter, polymer coating was shown to visualize and zoom the topography of the nanostructures which might be used as a method of “polymer photography” for such fractal formations. The analysis of the spectra showed their dependence on the parameters of the structures which proves the possibility of conducting optical diagnostics of the created structures.

  14. Topographic and Roughness Characteristics of the Vastitas Borealis Formation on Mars Described by Fractal Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garneau, S.; Plaut, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    The surface roughness of the Vastitas Borealis Formation on Mars was analyzed with fractal statistics. Root mean square slopes and fractal dimensions were calculated for 74 topographic profiles. Results have implications for radar scattering models.

  15. Hands-On Fractals and the Unexpected in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluchoff, Alan

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a hands-on project in which unusual fractal images are produced using only a photocopy machine and office supplies. The resulting images are an example of the contraction mapping principle.

  16. Control of Tetranychus urticae Koch by extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Moneim, M R Afify; Fatma, S Ali; Turky, A F

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the acaricidal activity of extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus against Tetranychus urticae (T. urticae) Koch. Extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus with different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%, 3.0% and 4.0%) were used to control T. urticae Koch. The results showed that chamomile (Chamomilla recutita) represented the most potent efficient acaricidal agent against Tetranychus followed by marjoram (Marjorana hortensis) and Eucalyptus. The LC50 values of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus for adults were 0.65, 1.84 and 2.18, respectively and for eggs 1.17, 6.26 and 7.33, respectively. Activities of enzymes including glutathione-S-transferase, esterase (α-esterase and β-esterase) and alkaline phosphatase in susceptible mites were determined and activities of enzymes involved in the resistance of acaricides were proved. Protease enzyme was significantly decreased at LC50 of both chamomile and marjoram compared with positive control. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) proved that the major compositions of Chamomilla recutita are α-bisabolol oxide A (35.251%), and trans-β-farersene (7.758%), while the main components of Marjorana hortensis are terpinene-4-ol (23.860%), p-cymene (23.404%) and sabinene (10.904%). It can be concluded that extracts of three essential oils of chamomile, marjoram and Eucalyptus possess acaricidal activity against T. urticae.

  17. The museum of unnatural form: a visual and tactile experience of fractals.

    PubMed

    Della-Bosca, D; Taylor, R P

    2009-01-01

    A remarkable computer technology is revolutionizing the world of design, allowing intricate patterns to be created with mathematical precision and then 'printed' as physical objects. Contour crafting is a fabrication process capable of assembling physical structures the sizes of houses, firing the imagination of a new generation of architects and artists (Khoshnevisat, 2008). Daniel Della-Bosca has jumped at this opportunity to create the 'Museum of Unnatural Form' at Griffith University. Della-Bosca's museum is populated with fractals sculptures - his own versions of nature's complex objects - that have been printed with the new technology. His sculptures bridge the historical divide in fractal studies between the abstract images of mathematics and the physical objects of Nature (Mandelbrot, 1982). Four of his fractal images will be featured on the cover of NDPLS in 2009.

  18. A physically based connection between fractional calculus and fractal geometry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Butera, Salvatore, E-mail: sg.butera@gmail.com; Di Paola, Mario, E-mail: mario.dipaola@unipa.it

    2014-11-15

    We show a relation between fractional calculus and fractals, based only on physical and geometrical considerations. The link has been found in the physical origins of the power-laws, ruling the evolution of many natural phenomena, whose long memory and hereditary properties are mathematically modelled by differential operators of non integer order. Dealing with the relevant example of a viscous fluid seeping through a fractal shaped porous medium, we show that, once a physical phenomenon or process takes place on an underlying fractal geometry, then a power-law naturally comes up in ruling its evolution, whose order is related to the anomalousmore » dimension of such geometry, as well as to the model used to describe the physics involved. By linearizing the non linear dependence of the response of the system at hand to a proper forcing action then, exploiting the Boltzmann superposition principle, a fractional differential equation is found, describing the dynamics of the system itself. The order of such equation is again related to the anomalous dimension of the underlying geometry.« less

  19. Diagnosis of Lung Cancer by Fractal Analysis of Damaged DNA

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Kiminezhadmalaie, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Cancer starts when cells in a part of the body start to grow out of control. In fact cells become cancer cells because of DNA damage. A DNA walk of a genome represents how the frequency of each nucleotide of a pairing nucleotide couple changes locally. In this research in order to study the cancer genes, DNA walk plots of genomes of patients with lung cancer were generated using a program written in MATLAB language. The data so obtained was checked for fractal property by computing the fractal dimension using a program written in MATLAB. Also, the correlation of damaged DNA was studied using the Hurst exponent measure. We have found that the damaged DNA sequences are exhibiting higher degree of fractality and less correlation compared with normal DNA sequences. So we confirmed this method can be used for early detection of lung cancer. The method introduced in this research not only is useful for diagnosis of lung cancer but also can be applied for detection and growth analysis of different types of cancers. PMID:26539245

  20. The Development of a High School Poetry Writing Program from Selected Writings of Erik Erikson, Kenneth Koch, and Theodore Roethke.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Albert Luck, Jr.

    In this study, a program for teaching poetry writing in secondary schools is derived from Kenneth Koch's and Theodore Roethke's ideas, and from Erik Erikson's model of adolescent human processes. A review of related literature defines three major approaches to the teaching of poetry writing: models, activities, and models and activities combined.…