Science.gov

Sample records for kodiak island alaska

  1. First Regional Super ESPC: Success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Federal Energy Management Program

    2001-05-16

    This case study about energy saving performance contacts (ESPCs) presents an overview of how the Coast Guard at Kodiak Island, Alaska, established an ESPC contract and the benefits derived from it. The Federal Energy Management Program instituted these special contracts to help federal agencies finance energy-saving projects at their facilities.

  2. Reconnaissance geologic map of Kodiak Island and adjacent islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.

    2013-01-01

    Kodiak Island and its adjacent islands, located on the west side of the Gulf of Alaska, contain one of the largest areas of exposure of the flysch and melange of the Chugach terrane of southern Alaska. However, in the past 25 years, only detailed mapping covering small areas in the archipelago has been done. This map and its associated digital files (Wilson and others, 2005) present the best available mapping compiled in an integrated fashion. The map and associated digital files represent part of a systematic effort to release geologic map data for the United States in a uniform manner. The geologic data have been compiled from a wide variety of sources, ranging from state and regional geologic maps to large-scale field mapping. The map data are presented for use at a nominal scale of 1:500,000, although individual datasets (see Wilson and others, 2005) may contain data suitable for use at larger scales.

  3. First regional super ESPC a success on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Epstein, K.

    2000-12-23

    The Coast Guard military base on Kodiak Island, Alaska, is the largest Coast Guard base in the world. By taking a leadership role in a pilot program to streamline Federal financing and procurement for energy saving projects, the Coast Guard is saving more than $220,000 a year in energy costs at this base. Using the Super ESPC (Energy Savings Performance Contracting) program, the Coast Guard was able to quickly contract with an experienced contractor with energy savings expertise. Working with ERI, one of FEMP's (Federal Energy Management Program) approved energy services contractors, the Coast Guard determined areas of potential energy savings and designed a retrofit to upgrade inefficient equipment and infrastructure. When energy-efficient modifications are complete, the base will be 30% more cost effective.

  4. Estimates of brown bear abundance on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V.G.; Smith, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    During 1987-94 we used capture-mark-resight (CMR) methodology and rates of observation (bears/hour and bears/100 km2) of unmarked brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) during intensive aerial surveys (IAS) to estimate abundance of brown bears on Kodiak Island and to establish a baseline for monitoring population trends. CMR estimates were obtained on 3 study areas; density ranged from 216-234 bears/1,000 km2 for independent animals and 292-342 bears/1,000 km2 including dependent offspring. Rates of observation during IAS ranged from 1.4-5.4 independent bears/hour and 2.9-18.0 independent bears/100 km2. Density estimates for independent bears on each IAS area were obtained by dividing mean number of bears observed during replicate surveys by estimated sightability (based on CMR-derived sightability in areas with similar habitat. Brown bear abundance on 21 geographic units of Kodiak Island and 3 nearby islands was estimated by extrapolation from CMR and IAS data using comparisons of habitat characteristics and sport harvest information. Population estimates for independent and total bears were 1,800 and 2,600. The CMR and IAS procedures offer alternative means, depending on management objective and available resources, of measuring population trend of brown bears on Kodiak Island.

  5. Cub adoption by brown bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, V.; Smith, R.

    1993-01-01

    We report three cases where female Brown Bears (Ursus arctos middendorffi) with new (1 winter season. The adoptions occurred in a sampling of 104 litters produced by 89 different females on Kodiak Island, Alaska during 1982-1990. A maximum of six cubs were reared from litters that probably would have produced 3-4 subadults if the adoptions had not taken place.

  6. Crustal Deformation and the Seismic Cycle Across the Kodiak Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Carver, Gary; Cohen, Steven; King, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The Kodiak Islands are located approximately 120 to 250 km from the Alaska-Aleutian Trench - and are within the southern extent of the 1964 Prince William Sound (M(sub w) = 9.2) earthquake rupture zone. Here we report new campaign GPS results (1993-2001) from northern Kodiak Island. The rate and orientation of the horizontal velocities, relative to a fixed North America, range from 25.3 plus or minus 1.4 mm/yr at N32.9 deg. W plus or minus 2.5 to 8.5 plus or minus 1.0 mm/yr at N59.7 deg. W plus or minus 6.5 deg. In addition to the northern Kodiak data, we analyzed data from three southern Kodiak Island stations. The inland stations from both the northern and southern networks indicate a counterclockwise rotation of the velocity vectors. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the difference between the Pacific-North American plate motion and the orientation of the down going slab would lead to 4-8 mm/yr of left-lateral slip above the unlocked, down-dip portion of the main thrust zone. The northern and southern Kodiak geodetic data are consistent with a model that includes the viscoelastic response to (1) a downgoing Pacific plate interface that is locked at shallow depths, (2) local coseismic slip in the 1964 earthquake, and (3) interseismic creep down dip from the seismogenic zone. Based on the pre-1964 and post-1944 earthquake history, as well as the pattern of interseismic earthquakes across the plate boundary zone, we hypothesize that in southern Kodiak some strain is released in moderate to large earthquakes between the occurrences of great earthquakes like the 1964 event.

  7. Status and distribution of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris along the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak and Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madison, Erica N.; Piatt, John F.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Romano, Marc D.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Nelson, S. Kim; Williams, Jeffrey C.; DeGange, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is adapted for life in glacial-marine ecosystems, being concentrated in the belt of glaciated fjords in the northern Gulf of Alaska from Glacier Bay to Cook Inlet. Most of the remaining birds are scattered along coasts of the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, where they reside in protected bays and inlets, often in proximity to remnant glaciers or recently deglaciated landscapes. We summarize existing information on Kittlitz's Murrelet in this mainly unglaciated region, extending from Kodiak Island in the east to the Near Islands in the west. From recent surveys, we estimated that ~2400 Kittlitz's Murrelets were found in several large embayments along the Alaska Peninsula, where adjacent ice fields feed silt-laden water into the bays. On Kodiak Island, where only remnants of ice remain today, observations of Kittlitz's Murrelets at sea were uncommon. The species has been observed historically around the entire Kodiak Archipelago, however, and dozens of nest sites were found in recent years. We found Kittlitz's Murrelets at only a few islands in the Aleutian chain, notably those with long complex shorelines, high mountains and remnant glaciers. The largest population (~1600 birds) of Kittlitz's Murrelet outside the Gulf of Alaska was found at Unalaska Island, which also supports the greatest concentration of glacial ice in the Aleutian Islands. Significant populations were found at Atka (~1100 birds), Attu (~800) and Adak (~200) islands. Smaller numbers have been reported from Unimak, Umnak, Amlia, Kanaga, Tanaga, Kiska islands, and Agattu Island, where dozens of nest sites have been located in recent years. Most of those islands have not been thoroughly surveyed, and significant pockets of Kittlitz's Murrelets may yet be discovered. Our estimate of ~6000 Kittlitz's Murrelets along the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands is also likely to be conservative because of the survey protocols we employed (i.e. early

  8. Crustal Deformation and the Seismic Cycle across the Kodiak Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, Jeanne; Carver, G.; Cohen, Steven C.; King, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The Kodiak Islands are located approximately 130 to 250 km from the Alaska-Aleutian Trench where the Pacific plate is underthrusting the North American plate at a rate of about 57 mm/yr. The southern extent of the 1964 Prince William Sound (${M-w}$ = 9.2) earthquake rupture occurred offshore and beneath the eastern portion of the Kodiak Islands. Here we report GPS results (1993-2001) from northern Kodiak Island that span the transition between the 1964 uplift region along the eastern coast and the region of coseismic subsidence further inland. The horizontal velocity vectors range from 22.9 $\\pm$ 2.2 mm/yr at N26.3$\\deg$W $\\pm$ 2.5$\\deg$, about 150 km from the trench, to 5.9 $\\pm$ 1.3 mm/yr at N65.9$\\deg$W $\\pm$ 6.6$\\deg$, about 190 km from the trench. Near the northeastern coast of Kodiak the velocity vector above the shallow, locked main thrust zone is between the orientation of PCFC-NOAM plate motion (N22$/deg$W) and the trench-normal (N3O$\\deg$W). Further west, our geodetic results suggest the accumulation of shear strain that will be released eventually as left-lateral motion on upper plate faults such as the Kodiak Island fault. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the difference between the Pacific-North American plate motion and the orientation of the down going slab would lead to 4-8 mm/yr of left-lateral slip. Short-term geodetic uplift rates range from 2 - 14 mm/yr, with the maximum uplift located near the axis of maximum subsidence during the 1964 earthquake. We evaluated alternate interseismic models for Kodiak to test the importance of various mechanisms responsible for crustal deformation rates. These models are based on the plate interface slip history inferred from earlier modeling of coseismic and post-seismic geodetic results. The horizontal (trench perpendicular) and vertical deformation rates across Kodiak are consistent with a model that includes the viscoelastic response to : (1) a downgoing Pacific plate interface

  9. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part II: Kodiak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei; Salo, Sigrid

    2016-10-01

    Frequent gap winds, defined here as offshore-directed flow channeled through mountain gaps, have been observed near Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). Gap winds from the Iliamna Lake gap were investigated using QuikSCAT wind data. The influence of these wind events on the regional ocean was examined using satellite and in situ data combined with Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model runs. Gap winds influence the entire shelf width (> 200 km) northeast of Kodiak Island and extend an additional ~150 km off-shelf. Due to strong gradients in the along-shelf direction, they can result in vertical velocities in the ocean of over 20 m d-1 due to Ekman pumping. The wind events also disrupt flow of the Alaska Coastal Current (ACC), resulting in decreased flow down Shelikof Strait and increased velocities on the outer shelf. This disruption of the ACC has implications for freshwater transport into the Bering Sea. The oceanographic response to gap winds may influence the survival of larval fishes as Arrowtooth Flounder recruitment is negatively correlated with the interannual frequency of gap-wind events, and Pacific Cod recruitment is positively correlated. The frequency of offshore directed winds exhibits a strong seasonal cycle averaging ~7 days per month during winter and ~2 days per month during summer. Interannual variability is correlated with the Pacific North America Index and shows a linear trend, increasing by 1.35 days per year. An accompanying paper discusses part I of our study (Ladd and Cheng, 2016) focusing on gap-wind events flowing out of Cross Sound in the eastern GOA.

  10. Late Holocene coastal stratigraphy of Sitkinak Island reveals Aleutian-Alaska megathrust earthquakes and tsunamis southwest of Kodiak Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, A. R.; Briggs, R. W.; Kemp, A.; Haeussler, P. J.; Engelhart, S. E.; Dura, T.; Angster, S. J.; Bradley, L.

    2012-12-01

    Uncertainty in earthquake and tsunami prehistory of the Aleutian-Alaska megathrust westward of central Kodiak Island limit assessments of southern Alaska's earthquake hazard and forecasts of potentially damaging tsunamis along much of North America's west coast. Sitkinak Island, one of the Trinity Islands off the southwest tip of Kodiak Island, lies at the western end of the rupture zone of the 1964 Mw9.2 earthquake. Plafker reports that a rancher on the north coast of Sitkinak Island observed ~0.6 m of shoreline uplift immediately following the 1964 earthquake, and the island is now subsiding at about 3 mm/yr (PBO GPS). Although a high tsunami in 1788 caused the relocation of the first Russian settlement on southwestern Kodiak Island, the eastern extent of the megathrust rupture accompanying the tsunami is uncertain. Interpretation of GPS observations from the Shumagin Islands, 380 km southwest of Kodiak Island, suggests an entirely to partially creeping megathrust in that region. Here we report the first stratigraphic evidence of tsunami inundation and land-level change during prehistoric earthquakes west of central Kodiak Island. Beneath tidal and freshwater marshes around a lagoon on the south coast of Sitkinak Island, 27 cores and tidal outcrops reveal the deposits of four to six tsunamis in 2200 years and two to four abrupt changes in lithology that may correspond with coseismic uplift and subsidence over the past millennia. A 2- to 45-mm-thick bed of clean to peaty sand in sequences of tidal sediment and freshwater peat, identified in more than one-half the cores as far inland as 1.5 km, was probably deposited by the 1788 tsunami. A 14C age on Scirpus seeds, double 137Cs peaks at 2 cm and 7 cm depths (Chernobyl and 1963?), a consistent decline in 210Pb values, and our assumption of an exponential compaction rate for freshwater peat, point to a late 18th century age for the sand bed. Initial 14C ages suggest that two similar extensive sandy beds, identified

  11. High resolution dating of moraines on Kodiak Island, Alaska links Atlantic and North Pacific climatic changes during the late glacial

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, D.H. . Alaska Quaternary Center)

    1992-01-01

    Much less is known about the paleoclimate and paleoceanography of the North Pacific than the North Atlantic despite the North Pacific's important role in the global ocean-climate system. Kodiak Island lies in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska astride the eastern end of the Aleutian Low. On southwestern Kodiak Island, coastal bluffs section a series of moraines, kettle ponds, and bogs formed between 15 and 9 ka BP. Distinctive tephras from volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula provide time-lines within the stratigraphy. Deformation events recorded in sediment stacks from basins within glaciotectonic landforms allows precise dating of glacial events. An ice cap occupied the Kodiak archipelago during the last glaciation. Three glacial advances of the southwestern margin of this ice cap occurred after 15 ka BP. At 13.4 ka, piedmont ice lobes formed large push moraines extending into Shelikof Strait during the Low Cape Advance. The less-extensive Tundra Advance culminated between 12 and 11.7 ka BP followed by glacier retreat then readvance to form the prominent Olga Moraine system between 11 and 10 ka BP. The timing of the Tundra and Olga Advances correlates closely with that of the Older and Younger Dryas cold episodes in northwestern Europe suggesting that these climatic oscillations were synchronous throughout the northern hemisphere.

  12. Cold Reversal on Kodiak Island, Alaska, Correlated with the European Younger Dryas by Using Variations of Atmospheric C-14 Content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Bonani, Georges; Boden, Per; Peteet, Dorothy M.; Mann, Daniel H.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution AMS (accelerator-mass-spectrometer) radiocarbon dating was performed on late-glacial macrofossils in lake sediments from Kodiak Island, Alaska, and on shells in marine sediments from southwest Sweden. In both records, a dramatic drop in radiocarbon ages equivalent to a rise in the atmospheric C-14 by approximately 70%. coincides with the beginning of the cold period at 11000 yr B.P. (C-14 age). Thus our results show that a close correlation between climatic records around the globe is possible by using a global signature of changes in atmospheric C-14 content.

  13. Life on the Edge: Holocene Tephra Stratigraphy of Tanginak Anchorage, Sitkalidak Island, Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, E.; Bourgeois, J.; Fitzhugh, J. B.

    2004-12-01

    Geologic hazards associated with volcanism in the North Pacific have profound if usually temporary effects on the environment and human populations. Ash falls associated with these events are often preserved across large areas providing time specific markers. In the past century, volcanic activity and its effects in the North Pacific have been recorded, but much of the Holocene volcanic record in the Alaskan region is still being investigated. The Kodiak Archipelago, while not volcanic itself, is located near both Aleutian and Alaskan peninsula volcanoes. However, little has been published about the Holocene tephrochronology of the Kodiak region. This study focuses on the area around Tanginak Spring Site (KOD481). Located on Sitkalidak Island it is the earliest known human occupation in the Kodiak archipelago. We are documenting Holocene environmental changes on Sitkalidak Island and relating these changes to the archaeological record. As part of this work, we will establish a local tephrochronology using stratigraphy and geochemistry which will allow us to better correlate sedimentary changes across large areas as well as study human interaction with ashfall events. Herein we report a preliminary tephrochronology in peat excavations on Sitkalidak Island dating back to the earliest Holocene. Dates are radiocarbon years BP on peat directly below tephra. Marker tephra present in our reference sections are Katmai 1912, light gray (historic?), medium gray (3370), medium gray (3720), beige 1 (4340), apricot (5390), beige 3 (6790), black (9280), and white (11,520). Geochemical and petrographic analysis will help to determine with which volcanic events these tephra are associated. Establishing a local tephrochronology is important not only for local correlation but also to ascertain the tephra stratigraphy of the Kodiak Archipelago and beyond. The frequency of tephra in Tanginak Anchorage sections suggests that tephra will be a very useful stratigraphic tool in this

  14. A Characterization of the Terrestrial Environment of Kodiak Island, Alaska for the Design, Development and Operation of Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawlins, Michael A.; Johnson, Dale L.; Batts, Glen W.

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative characterization of the terrestrial environment is an important component in the success of a launch vehicle program. Environmental factors such as winds, atmospheric thermodynamics, precipitation, fog, and cloud characteristics are among many parameters that must be accurately defined for flight success. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently coordinating weather support and performing analysis for the launch of a NASA payload from a new facility located at Kodiak Island, Alaska in late 2001 (NASA, 1999). Following the first launch from the Kodiak Launch Complex, an Air Force intercontinental ballistic missile on November 5, 1999, the site's developer, the Alaska Aerospace Development Corporation (AADC), is hoping to acquire a sizable share of the many launches that will occur over the next decade. One such customer is NASA, which is planning to launch the Vegetation Canopy Lidar satellite aboard an Athena I rocket, the first planned mission to low earth orbit from the new facility. To support this launch, a statistical model of the atmospheric and surface environment for Kodiak Island, AK has been produced from rawinsonde and surface-based meteorological observations for use as an input to future launch vehicle design and/or operations. In this study, the creation of a "reference atmosphere" from rawinsonde observations is described along with comparisons between the reference atmosphere and existing model representations for Kodiak. Meteorological conditions that might result in a delay on launch day (cloud cover, visibility, precipitation, etc.) are also explored and described through probabilities of launch by month and hour of day. This atmospheric "mission analysis" is also useful during the early stages of a vehicle program, when consideration of the climatic characteristics of a location can be factored into vehicle designs. To be most beneficial, terrestrial environment definitions should a) be available at

  15. Mechanisms of population genetic heterogeneity among molting common mergansers on Kodiak Island, Alaska: implications for assessments of migratory connectivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearce, John M.; Zwiefelhofer, Denny; Maryanski, Nate

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying population genetic heterogeneity within nonbreeding aggregations can inform our understanding of patterns of site fidelity, migratory connectivity, and gene flow between breeding and nonbreeding areas. However, characterizing mechanisms that contribute to heterogeneity, such as migration and dispersal, is required before site fidelity and migratory connectivity can be assessed accurately. We studied nonbreeding groups of Common Mergansers (Mergus merganser) molting on Kodiak Island, Alaska, from 2005 to 2007, using banding data to assess rates of recapture, mitochondrial (mt) DNA to determine natal area, and nuclear microsatellite genotypes to assess dispersal. Using baseline information from differentiated mtDNA haplogroups across North America, we were able to assign individuals to natal regions and document population genetic heterogeneity within and among molting groups. Band-recovery and DNA data suggest that both migration from and dispersal among natal areas contribute to admixed groups of males molting on Kodiak Island. A lack of differentiation in the Common Merganser's nuclear, bi-parentally inherited DNA, observed across North America, implies that dispersal can mislead genetic assessments of migratory connectivity and assignments of nonbreeding individuals to breeding areas. Thus multiple and independent data types are required to account for such behaviors before accurate assessments of migratory connectivity can be made.

  16. Intermediate to felsic middle crust in the accreted Talkeetna arc, the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island, Alaska: An analogue for low-velocity middle crust in modern arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rioux, Matthew; Mattinson, James; Hacker, Bradley; Kelemen, Peter; Blusztajn, Jurek; HanghøJ, Karen; Gehrels, George

    2010-06-01

    Seismic profiles of several modern arcs have identified thick, low-velocity midcrustal layers (Vp = 6.0-6.5 km/s) that are interpreted to represent intermediate to felsic plutonic crust. The presence of this silicic crust is surprising given the mafic composition of most primitive mantle melts and could have important implications for the chemical evolution and bulk composition of arcs. However, direct studies of the middle crust are limited by the restricted plutonic exposures in modern arcs. The accreted Talkeetna arc, south central Alaska, exposes a faulted crustal section from residual subarc mantle to subaerial volcanic rocks of a Jurassic intraoceanic arc and is an ideal place to study the intrusive middle crust. Previous research on the arc, which has provided insight into a range of arc processes, has principally focused on western exposures of the arc in the Chugach Mountains. We present new U-Pb zircon dates, radiogenic isotope data, and whole-rock geochemical analyses that provide the first high-precision data on large intermediate to felsic plutonic exposures on Kodiak Island and the Alaska Peninsula. A single chemical abrasion-thermal ionization mass spectrometry analysis from the Afognak pluton yielded an age of 212.87 ± 0.19 Ma, indicating that the plutonic exposures on Kodiak Island represent the earliest preserved record of Talkeetna arc magmatism. Nine new dates from the extensive Jurassic batholith on the Alaska Peninsula range from 183.5 to 164.1 Ma and require a northward shift in the Talkeetna arc magmatic axis following initial emplacement of the Kodiak plutons, paralleling the development of arc magmatism in the Chugach and Talkeetna mountains. Radiogenic isotope data from the Alaska Peninsula and the Kodiak archipelago range from ɛNd(t) = 5.2 to 9.0 and 87Sr/86Srint = 0.703515 to 0.703947 and are similar to age-corrected data from modern intraoceanic arcs, suggesting that the evolved Alaska Peninsula plutons formed by extensive

  17. Benthic marine debris, with an emphasis on fishery-related items, surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, N.A.; Ribic, C.A.; Vining, I.

    1999-01-01

    Composition and abundance of benthic marine debris were investigated during three bottom trawl surveys in inlet and offshore locations surrounding Kodiak Island, Alaska, 1994-1996. Debris items were primarily plastic and metal regardless of trawl location. Plastic bait jars, fishing line, and crab pots were the most common fishery-related debris items and were encountered in large amounts in inlets (20-25 items km-2), but were less abundant outside of inlets (4.5-11 items km-2). Overall density of debris was also significantly greater in inlets than outside of inlets. Plastic debris densities in inlets ranged 22-31.5 items km-2, 7.8-18.8 items km-2 outside of inlets. Trawls in inlets contained almost as much metal debris as plastic debris. Density of metal debris ranged from 21.2 to 23.7 items km-2 in inlets, a maximum of 2.7 items km-2 outside of inlets. Inlets around the town of Kodiak had the highest densities of fishery-related and total benthic debris. Differences in benthic debris density between inlets and outside of inlets and differences by area may be due to differences in fishing activity and water circulation patterns. At the current reduced levels of fishing activity, however, yearly monitoring of benthic debris appears unnecessary. Copyright (C) 1999.

  18. Testis and antler dysgenesis in sitka black-tailed deer on Kodiak Island, Alaska: Sequela of environmental endocrine disruption?

    PubMed

    Veeramachaneni, D N Rao; Amann, Rupert P; Jacobson, James P

    2006-04-01

    It had been observed that many male Sitka black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus sitkensis) on Kodiak Island, Alaska, had abnormal antlers, were cryptorchid, and presented no evidence of hypospadias. We sought to better understand the problem and investigated 171 male deer for phenotypic aberrations and 12 for detailed testicular histopathology. For the low-lying Aliulik Peninsula (AP), 61 of 94 deer were bilateral cryptorchids (BCOs); 70% of these had abnormal antlers. Elsewhere on the Kodiak Archipelago, only 5 of 65 deer were BCOs. All 11 abdominal testes examined had no spermatogenesis but contained abnormalities including carcinoma in situ-like cells, possible precursors of seminoma; Sertoli cell, Leydig cell, and stromal cell tumors; carcinoma and adenoma of rete testis; and microlithiasis or calcifications. Cysts also were evident within the excurrent ducts. Two of 10 scrotal testes contained similar abnormalities, although spermatogenesis was ongoing. We cannot rule out that these abnormalities are linked sequelae of a mutation(s) in a founder animal, followed by transmission over many years and causing high prevalence only on the AP. However, based on lesions observed, we hypothesize that it is more likely that this testis-antler dysgenesis resulted from continuing exposure of pregnant females to an estrogenic environmental agent(s), thereby transforming testicular cells, affecting development of primordial antler pedicles, and blocking transabdominal descent of fetal testes. A browse (e.g., kelp) favored by deer in this locale might carry the putative estrogenic agent(s).

  19. Pillar Mountain Landslide, Kodiak, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Slater, Willard H.

    1978-01-01

    Pillar Mountain landslide on the southeast face of Pillar Mountain is about 915 m (3,000 ft) southwest of the city of Kodiak, Alaska. The landslide is about 520 m (1,700 ft) wide at its base and extends approximately from sea level to an altitude of about 343 m (1,125 ft). The slide developed on an ancient and apparently inactive landslide. Renewed movement was first detected on December 5, 1971, following removal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of material from the base of the slope. Although movement of the landslide has decreased since December, 1971, movement continues and the possibility exists that it could increase as a result of an earthquake, water saturation of the landslide mass, or other causes. In the most extreme case, as much as 3.8 to 7.6 million m (5-10 million ) of debris could fall into the sea at Inner Anchorage. If this took place suddenly, it could generate a wave comparable in height to the tsunami that damaged Kodiak during the Alaskan Earthquake of 1964. Therefore, we believe that the Pillar landslide is a potential hazard to the city of Kodiak and its environs that merits a thorough investigation and evaluation.

  20. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  1. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  2. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  3. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  4. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to...

  5. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  6. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the communities of Kodiak and nearby islands: Chapter F in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben; Plafker, George

    1967-01-01

    The great earthquake (Richter magnitude of 8.4–8.5) that struck south-central Alaska at 5:36 p.m., Alaska standard time, on March 27, 1964 (03:36, March 28, Greenwich mean time), was felt in every community on Kodiak Island and the nearby islands. It was the most severe earthquake to strike this part of Alaska in modern time, and took the lives of 18 persons in the area by drowning; this includes two in Kodiak and three at Kaguyak. Property damage and loss of income to the communities is estimated at more than $45 million. The largest community, Kodiak, had the greatest loss from the earthquake. Damage was caused chiefly by 5.6 feet of tectonic subsidence and a train of 10 seismic sea waves that inundated the low-lying areas of the town. The seismic sea waves destroyed all but one of the docking facilities and more than 215 structures; many other structures were severely damaged. The waves struck the town during the evening hours of March 27 and early morning hours of March 28. They moved from the southwest and northeast: and reached their maximum height of 20–30 feet above mean lower low water at Shahafka Cove between 11:00 and 11:45 p.m., March 27. The violently destructive seismic sea waves not only severely damaged homes, shops, and naval-station structures but also temporarily crippled the fishing industry in Kodiak by destroying the processing plants and most of the fishing vessels. The waves scoured out 10 feet of sediments in the channel between Kodiak Island and Near Island and exposed bedrock. This bedrock presented a major post-earthquake construction problem because no sediments remained into which piles could be driven for foundations of waterfront facilities. Because of tectonic subsidence, high tides now flood Mission and Potatopatch Lakes which, before the earthquake, had not been subject to tidal action. The subsidence also accelerated erosion of the unconsolidated sediments along the shoreline in the city of Kodiak. Seismic shaking lasted 4

  7. Geologic effects of the March 1964 earthquake and associated seismic sea waves on Kodiak and nearby islands, Alaska: Chapter D in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George; Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1966-01-01

    Kodiak Island and the nearby islands constitute a mountainous landmass with an aggregate area of 4,900 square miles that lies at the western border of the Gulf of Alaska and from 20 to 40 miles off the Alaskan mainland. Igneous and metamorphic rocks underlie most of the area except for a narrow belt of moderately to poorly indurated rocks bordering the Gulf of Alaska coast and local accumulations of unconsolidated alluvial and marine deposits along the streams and coast. The area is relatively undeveloped and is sparsely inhabited. About 4,800 of the 5,700 permanent residents in the area live in the city of Kodiak or at the Kodiak Naval Station. The great earthquake, which occurred on March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. Alaska standard time (March 28,1964, 0336 Greenwich mean time), and had a Richter magnitude of 8.4-8.5, was the most severe earthquake felt on Kodiak Island and its nearby islands in modern times. Although the epicenter lies in Prince William Sound 250 miles northeast of Kodiak—the principal city of the area—the areal distribution of the thousands of aftershocks that followed it, the local tectonic deformation, and the estimated source area of the subsequent seismic sea wave, all suggest that the Kodiak group of islands lay immediately adjacent to, and northwest of, the focal region from which the elastic seismic energy was radiated. The duration of strong ground motion in the area was estimated at 2½ minutes. Locally, the tremors were preceded by sounds audible to the human ear and were reportedly accompanied in several places by visible ground waves. Intensity and felt duration of the shocks during the main earthquake and aftershock sequence varied markedly within the area and were strongly influenced by the local geologic environment. Estimated Mercalli intensities in most areas underlain by unconsolidated Quaternary deposits ranged from VIII to as high as IX. In contrast, intensities in areas of upper Tertiary rock ranged from VII to VIII, and in

  8. Water resources of the Kodiak-Shelikof subregion, south-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Stanley H.; Madison, R.J.; Zenone, Chester

    1978-01-01

    Hydrologic data for the Kodiak-Shelikof subregion of south-central Alaska are summarized to provide a basis for planning water resources development, identifying water problems and evaluating existing water quality and availability. Average annual precipitation, measured at a few coastal locations in this maritime climatic zone, ranges from 23 to 127 inches. Mean annual runoff for the Kodiak Island group ranges from 4 to 8 cfs/sq mi. A maximum instantaneous runoff of 457 cfs/sq mi has been determined from a small basin on Kodiak Island. Lowest measured stream discharges range from no flow to 0.91 cfs/sq mi. Surface water is the primary source of water supplies for the city of Kodiak and other communities. The geology of the subregion is characterized by metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanic rocks with only a thin mantle of unconsolidated material. A few small, alluvium-filled coastal valleys offer the most favorable conditions for ground-water development, but moderate yields (50-100 gal/min) have been obtained from wells in fractured bedrock. Water in streams and lakes generally has a dissolved-solids concentration less than 60 mg/L, and the water varies from a calcium-bicarbonate type to a sodium-chloride type. The chemical composition of ground waters has a dilute calcium-bicarbonate type in unconsolidated materials and a sodium-bicarbonate type in bedrock. The dissolved solids in the groundwater ranges from 170 to 250 mg/L. (Woodard-USGS)

  9. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kodiak Island Closure Status for Vessels Using Non-pelagic Trawl Gear 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA...

  13. Eocene Underplating Along the Kodiak Shelf, Alaska: Implications and Regional Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Tim

    1986-06-01

    Structural geology and geophysical data from the Kodiak Shelf suggest that the Mesozoic rocks exposed on the shelf are structurally underlain (at about 12 km depth) by several kms of Eocene age strata. Kinematic data from the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene Ghost Rocks Formation indicate that this formation and probably all of the Kodiak Islands, were uplifted vertically to nearly their present elevations. Landward tilting and imbrication are not indicated. The age of uplift is indicated by a regional, angular unconformity of Early Eocene to Early Oligocene age that separates deep-sea rocks from shallow water to non-marine rocks. The uplift of the accretionary prism is believed to have been caused by underplating of an Eocene sedimentary sequence because (1) a band of seismic reflections that occur 12 to 20 km beneath the shelf is interpreted as the top of the underplated material and (2) an obductively offscraped sequence of Eocene deep-sea rocks crops out on the seaward side of the Kodiak Shelf, suggesting that a thick trench-fill sequence may have been present prior to uplift of the prism. The underplated material is interpreted to be part of either a previously unrecognized turbidite fan of Early Eocene age or a proximal equivalent of the Zodiac fan of Late Eocene to Early Oligocene age. Other possible on-land remnants of the underplated material may be present in Prince William Sound (the Montague belt), the Gulf of Alaska (lower sections of the Yakutat block) and in the Coast Ranges of Oregon and Washington. The large volume of underplated material beneath the Kodiak shelf suggests that underplating may be the dominant process in the growth of convergent margins.

  14. Subducting plate geology in three great earthquake ruptures of the western Alaska margin, Kodiak to Unimak

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Weinrebe, Wilhelm

    2012-01-01

    Three destructive earthquakes along the Alaska subduction zone sourced transoceanic tsunamis during the past 70 years. Since it is reasoned that past rupture areas might again source tsunamis in the future, we studied potential asperities and barriers in the subduction zone by examining Quaternary Gulf of Alaska plate history, geophysical data, and morphology. We relate the aftershock areas to subducting lower plate relief and dissimilar materials in the seismogenic zone in the 1964 Kodiak and adjacent 1938 Semidi Islands earthquake segments. In the 1946 Unimak earthquake segment, the exposed lower plate seafloor lacks major relief that might organize great earthquake rupture. However, the upper plate contains a deep transverse-trending basin and basement ridges associated with the Eocene continental Alaska convergent margin transition to the Aleutian island arc. These upper plate features are sufficiently large to have affected rupture propagation. In addition, massive slope failure in the Unimak area may explain the local 42-m-high 1946 tsunami runup. Although Quaternary geologic and tectonic processes included accretion to form a frontal prism, the study of seismic images, samples, and continental slope physiography shows a previous history of tectonic erosion. Implied asperities and barriers in the seismogenic zone could organize future great earthquake rupture.

  15. Toxic elements and organochlorines in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), Kodiak, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Calkins, D.G.; Coon, N.C.

    1992-01-01

    Marine and estuarine habitats near urban or industrialized regions are vulnerable to contaminated runoff. Harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), which occur throughout much of the northern hemisphere, are useful mammalian biomonitors because they feed, reproduce, and rest near or on shore and are high-level trophic consumers. They have often been monitored for contaminants in Europe (Wagemann and Muir 1984). To date, no studies have been reported on contaminants in harbor seals from industrialized areas of Alaska. In the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska's largest urban and industrial city, harbor seals are sedentary and limited to coastal waters; some movements have been documented but there is no evidence of extensive migrations. Although some harbor seals in the Kodiak Archipelago move up to 100 km along the shore, strong fidelity to specific haulout sites is more common (Pitcher and Calkins 1979). These seals eat mainly non-migratory fishes and octopi. Harbor seal numbers have declined substantially from unknown causes in the southern part of the Kodiak Archipelago. The Alaska Department of Fish and Game (ADF&G) suggested that the decline is a trend for the entire Kodiak region and other Alaskan waters. Contaminants have been suggested as a possible reason for the precipitous decline of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the region (Braham et al. 1980), and were suspected in the decline of harbor seals. In this study, harbor seals were sampled from throughout the Kodiak Archipelago to determine concentrations of certain metals, metalloids, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides, and to determine if these concentrations varied by sex or accumulated with age. All seals were collected within 75 km of Cook Inlet, an estuary next to Anchorage. The targeted elements or compounds were known to be toxic to a wide spectrum of organisms (e.g., MARC 1980; Eisler 1986).

  16. Overview of surface-water resources at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak, Alaska, 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Solin, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrologic data at a U.S. Coast Guard Support Center on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were collected from 1987 though 1989 to determine hydrologic conditions and if contamination of soils, ground water, or surface water has occurred. This report summarizes the surface-water-discharge data collected during the study and estimates peak, average, and low-flow values for Buskin River near its mouth. Water-discharge measurements were made at least once at 48 sites on streams in or near the Center. Discharges were measured in the Buskin River near its mouth five times during 1987-89 and ranged from 27 to 367 cubic feet per second. Tributaries of Buskin River below Buskin Lake that had discharges greater than 1 cubic foot per second include Bear Creek, Alder Creek, Magazine Creek, Devils Creek and an outlet from Lake Louise. Streams having flows generally greater than 0.1 cubic foot per second but less than 1 cubic foot per second include an unnamed tributary to Buskin River, an unnamed tributary to Lake Catherine and a drainage channel at Kodiak airport. Most other streams flowing into Buskin River, and all streams on Nyman Peninsula, usually had little or no flow except during periods of rainfall or snowmelt. During a low-flow period in February 1989, discharge measurements in Buskin River and its tributaries indicate that three reaches of Buskin River below Buskin Lake lost water to the ground-water system, whereas two reaches gained water; the net gain in streamflow attributed to ground-water inflow at a location near the mouth was estimated to be 2.2 cubic feet per second. The 100-year peak flow for Buskin River near its mouth was estimated to be 4,460 cubic feet per second. Average discharge was estimated to be 125 cubic feet per second and the 7-day 10-year low flow was estimated to be 5.8 cubic feet per second.

  17. 50 CFR Figure 5 to Part 679 - Kodiak Island Type 1, 2, and 3 Nonpelagic Trawl Closure Status and Marmot Bay Tanner Crab...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kodiak Island Type 1, 2, and 3 Nonpelagic Trawl Closure Status and Marmot Bay Tanner Crab Protection Area 5 Figure 5 to Part 679 Wildlife and... to Part 679—Kodiak Island Type 1, 2, and 3 Nonpelagic Trawl Closure Status and Marmot Bay Tanner...

  18. Body proportions of circumpolar peoples as evidenced from skeletal data: Ipiutak and Tigara (Point Hope) versus Kodiak Island Inuit.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Trenton W; Hilton, Charles E

    2010-06-01

    Given the well-documented fact that human body proportions covary with climate (presumably due to the action of selection), one would expect that the Ipiutak and Tigara Inuit samples from Point Hope, Alaska, would be characterized by an extremely cold-adapted body shape. Comparison of the Point Hope Inuit samples to a large (n > 900) sample of European and European-derived, African and African-derived, and Native American skeletons (including Koniag Inuit from Kodiak Island, Alaska) confirms that the Point Hope Inuit evince a cold-adapted body form, but analyses also reveal some unexpected results. For example, one might suspect that the Point Hope samples would show a more cold-adapted body form than the Koniag, given their more extreme environment, but this is not the case. Additionally, univariate analyses seldom show the Inuit samples to be more cold-adapted in body shape than Europeans, and multivariate cluster analyses that include a myriad of body shape variables such as femoral head diameter, bi-iliac breadth, and limb segment lengths fail to effectively separate the Inuit samples from Europeans. In fact, in terms of body shape, the European and the Inuit samples tend to be cold-adapted and tend to be separated in multivariate space from the more tropically adapted Africans, especially those groups from south of the Sahara.

  19. Hydrologic and water-quality data for U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak, Alaska, 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glass, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Hydrologic and water-quality data were collected at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak on Kodiak Island, Alaska, to determine regional ground-water conditions and if contamination of soils, ground water, or surface water has occurred. Eighteen areas of possible contamination were identified. Ground-water levels, surface- water stages, surface-water discharges, and results of field and laboratory analyses of soil and water samples are presented in tabular form. Many quality-assurance samples had detectable concentrations of methylene chloride and 1,2-dichloroethane, which may be due to sampling or laboratory contamination. Concentrations were as great as 5.9 micrograms per liter for methylene chloride and 2.6 micrograms per liter for 1,2-dichloroethane. Excluding 1,2-dichloroethane, most soil, ground-water, and surface-water samples contained no detectable concentrations of the organic constituents that were analyzed. Chemical analyses were performed on two lake-bed-material samples and more than 100 soil samples. The median lead concentration was 9.8 milligrams per kilogram. Concentrations of tetrachloroethene were as great as 1.1 milligram per kilogram in soils near a laundry. Water samples were collected from 101 wells. The maximum benzene concentration detected in ground water was 78 micrograms per liter from a well at the air station near a site where aviation fuel was spilled. Wells near a laundry yielded water having concentrations of tetrachloroethene as great as 3,000 micrograms per liter, and vinyl chloride as great as 440 micrograms per liter. A well in a former aviation gasoline storage area yielded water with a concentration of trichloroethene as great as 66 micrograms per liter. Water samples were collected from 59 sites on streams, lakes, or ponds. Surface-water samples had much lower concen- trations of organic compounds; the highest concentration of benzene was 2.2 micrograms per liter in a stream near a former aviation-fuel storage area and

  20. Kodiak seamount not flat-topped.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E L; von Huene, R E

    1966-12-01

    Earlier surveys in the Aleutian Trench southeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska, indicated that Kodiak Seamount had a flat top and was a tablemount or guyot. This seamount is of special significance because it has been supposed that its surface was eroded at the same time as those of a line of guyots to the southeast. If so, its present position in the axis of the Aleutian Trench indicates that the line of guyots was formed before the trench. A two-part survey in 1965 showed that Kodiak Seamount is not flat-topped, and should be eliminated from the category of guyots. Reflection profiling records indicate that the seamount was formed before the adjacent sediments were deposited, and that the small trough, or moat, on the south side is a depositional feature probably formed by a scouring effect or by the acceleration of turbidity currents around the base of the mount.

  1. Kodiak seamount not flat-topped.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, E L; von Huene, R E

    1966-12-01

    Earlier surveys in the Aleutian Trench southeast of Kodiak Island, Alaska, indicated that Kodiak Seamount had a flat top and was a tablemount or guyot. This seamount is of special significance because it has been supposed that its surface was eroded at the same time as those of a line of guyots to the southeast. If so, its present position in the axis of the Aleutian Trench indicates that the line of guyots was formed before the trench. A two-part survey in 1965 showed that Kodiak Seamount is not flat-topped, and should be eliminated from the category of guyots. Reflection profiling records indicate that the seamount was formed before the adjacent sediments were deposited, and that the small trough, or moat, on the south side is a depositional feature probably formed by a scouring effect or by the acceleration of turbidity currents around the base of the mount. PMID:17770303

  2. Clay mineralogy, fine-grained sediment dispersal, and inferred current patterns, lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Bouma, A.H.; Hampton, M.A.; Robin, Ross C.

    1979-01-01

    Because lower Cook Inlet and Kodiak shelf are being explored and developed for their petroleum resources, it is essential for environmental reasons to understand the sediment dispersal routes and current patterns. The Susitna River flows into upper Cook Inlet and is the source of clay minerals in Holocene deposits found in western lower Cook Inlet. The Copper River, in the northern Gulf of Alaska, provides clay minerals to the Kodiak shelf and southeastern lower Cook Inlet. In addition, crosion of local bedrock outcrops on the shelf produces some clays that are deposited on the Kodiak shelf. Current patterns can be inferred from the clay-mineral distribution pattern. This is true even if the clay-size fraction is a minor sediment component, and in areas where coarse-grained relict deposits occur. Some potential dangers from offshore petroleum development include: (1) rapid and complete mixing of Cook Inlet waters, (2) adsorption of pollutants by clay deposited in quiet bays, and (3) ion-exchange and adsorption of chemical pollutants on clays that are part of the suspended sediment load in lower Cook Inlet. ?? 1979.

  3. Dredged trachyte and basalt from kodiak seamount and the adjacent aleutian trench, alaska.

    PubMed

    Forbes, R B; Hoskin, C M

    1969-10-24

    Blocky fragments of aegirine-augite trachyte (with accompanying icerafted gravels.) were recovered from the upper slopes of Kodiak Seamount in several dredge hauls. An alkali basalt pillow segment was also dredged from a moatlike depression, at a depth of 5000 meters, near the west base of the seamount. These retrievals confirm the volcanic origin of Kodiak Seamount and further support the view of Engel, Engel, and Havens that the higher elevations of seamounts are composed of alkali basalts or related variants.

  4. Abundance, trends and distribution of baleen whales off Western Alaska and the central Aleutian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Laake, Jeffrey L.; Wade, Paul R.

    2006-11-01

    Large whales were extensively hunted in coastal waters off Alaska, but current distribution, population sizes and trends are poorly known. Line transect surveys were conducted in coastal waters of the Aleutian Islands and the Alaska Peninsula in the summer of 2001-2003. Abundances of three species were estimated by conventional and multiple covariate distance sampling (MCDS) methods. Time series of abundance estimates were used to derive rates of increase for fin whales ( Balaenoptera physalus) and humpback whales ( Megaptera novaeangliae). Fin whales occurred primarily from the Kenai Peninsula to the Shumagin Islands, but were abundant only near the Semidi Islands and Kodiak. Humpback whales were found from the Kenai Peninsula to Umnak Island and were more abundant near Kodiak, the Shumagin Islands and north of Unimak Pass. Minke whales ( B. acutorostrata) occurred primarily in the Aleutian Islands, with a few sightings south of the Alaska Peninsula and near Kodiak Island. Humpback whales were observed in large numbers in their former whaling grounds. In contrast, high densities of fin whales were not observed around the eastern Aleutian Islands, where whaling occurred. Average abundance estimates (95% CI) for fin, humpback and minke whales were 1652 (1142-2389), 2644 (1899-3680), and 1233 (656-2315), respectively. Annual rates of increase were estimated at 4.8% (95% CI=4.1-5.4%) for fin and 6.6% (5.2-8.6%) for humpback whales. This study provides the first estimate of the rate of increase of fin whales in the North Pacific Ocean. The estimated trends are consistent with those of other recovering baleen whales. There were no sightings of blue or North Pacific right whales, indicating the continued depleted status of these species.

  5. Dredged trachyte and basalt from kodiak seamount and the adjacent aleutian trench, alaska.

    PubMed

    Forbes, R B; Hoskin, C M

    1969-10-24

    Blocky fragments of aegirine-augite trachyte (with accompanying icerafted gravels.) were recovered from the upper slopes of Kodiak Seamount in several dredge hauls. An alkali basalt pillow segment was also dredged from a moatlike depression, at a depth of 5000 meters, near the west base of the seamount. These retrievals confirm the volcanic origin of Kodiak Seamount and further support the view of Engel, Engel, and Havens that the higher elevations of seamounts are composed of alkali basalts or related variants. PMID:17731907

  6. Description of wells drilled at the U.S. Coast Guard Support Center Kodiak, Alaska, 1988-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S Coast Guard, in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, is conducting environmental studies at its Support Center in Kodiak, Alaska, to determine if hazardous materials have been spilled or disposed of at the facility. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a hydrologic evaluation of the Support Center to assess the extent of possible ground-water, surface-water, and soil contamination resulting from the handling of hazardous materials. This report describes the borehole and monitoring-well drilling program conducted on the Support Center by the U.S. Geological Survey. It contains maps and diagrams depicting well locations, logs, and construction details, as well as soil-sampling information for 121 boreholes, of which 102 were completed as water-quality monitoring wells.

  7. Geology of a cretaceous subduction complex, Western Chicagoof Island, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, J. E., Jr.

    1981-08-01

    The geology of the Chugach terrane on Chichagof and Baranof Islands in southeastern Alaska is described and mapped in detail. The Goon Dip Greenstone and the Whitestripe Marble are pre-Late Jurassic in age and possibly correlate with Triassic rocks in the Wrangell Mountains. The Kelp Bay Group is a chaotic metasedimentary and metavolcanic terrane correlative with Lower Cretaceous complexes in the Chugach Mountains and adjacent islands. The Ford Arm Formation consists mainly of flyschoid rocks continuous with Upper Cretaceous rocks of the Valdez Group in the Chugach Mountains and correlative with the Kodiak and Shumagin Formations in southwest Alaska. The Sitka Graywacke consists mainly of massive sandstone petrographically similar to the Ford Arm Formation. The occurrence, geochemistry, and petrology of metavolcanic rocks from Chichagof Island indicate that basaltic ocean floor volcanism was contemporaneous with deposition of continental sediment.

  8. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  9. Perspective View of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a perspective view of Umnak Island, one of Alaska's Aleutian Islands. The active Okmok volcano appears in the center of the island.

    The image was created by draping a Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image over a digital elevation mosaic derived from Airsar data.

    This work was conducted as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Shaded Relief Mosaic of Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is a shaded relief mosaic of Umnak Island in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    It was created with Airsar data that was geocoded and combined into this mosaic as part of a NASA-funded Alaska Digital Elevation Model Project at the Alaska Synthetic Aperture Radar Facility (ASF) at the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute in Fairbanks, Alaska.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  11. Uplift and subsidence reveal a nonpersistent megathrust rupture boundary (Sitkinak Island, Alaska)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Briggs, Richard W.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Dura, Tina; Kemp, Andrew C.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Corbett, D. Reide; Angster, Stephen J.; Bradley, Lee-Ann

    2014-01-01

    We report stratigraphic evidence of land-level change and tsunami inundation along the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust during prehistoric and historical earthquakes west of Kodiak Island. On Sitkinak Island, cores and tidal outcrops fringing a lagoon reveal five sharp lithologic contacts that record coseismic land-level change. Radiocarbon dates, 137Cs profiles, CT scans, and microfossil assemblages are consistent with rapid uplift ca. 290-0, 520-300, and 1050-790 cal yr BP, and subsidence in AD 1964 and ca. 640-510 cal yr BP. Radiocarbon, 137Cs, and 210Pb ages bracketing a sand bed traced 1.5 km inland and evidence for sudden uplift are consistent with Russian accounts of an earthquake and tsunami in AD 1788. The mixed uplift and subsidence record suggests that Sitkinak Island sits above a non-persistent boundary near the southwestern limit of the AD 1964 Mw 9.2 megathrust rupture.

  12. The development of folds and cleavages in slate belts by underplating in accretionary complexes: A comparison of the Kodiak Formation, Alaska and the Calaveras Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Scott R.; Sample, James C.

    1988-08-01

    The development of folds and cleavages in slate and graywacke belts is commonly attributed to arc-continent or continent-continent collisions. However, the Kodiak Formation of southern Alaska and the Calaveras Complex of the western Sierra Nevada, California, are two slate and graywacke belts in which folds and slaty cleavages developed during simple underthrusting and underplating within accretionary wedges. The Maastrichtian Kodiak Formation is composed dominantly of coherent turbidites but includes lesser pebbly mudstone, minor conglomerate, and rare chert. The Kodiak Formation is part of a large accretionary complex that youngs in age seaward, but bedding tops generally show landward younging. A progression of structures has been determined by crosscutting relationships and includes (1) syndeformational depositional features; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; (4) crenulations and crenulation cleavage; (5) late brittle thrust faults; and (6) right-lateral strike-slip faults. Broken formation, slaty cleavage, thrust faults, and folds developed during underthrusting and underplating within an accretionary wedge. Crenulations and brittle thrust faults are related to subsequent intrawedge shortening. Based on peak metamorphism in the uppermost zeolite to prehnite-pumpellyite facies, underplating occurred at a minimum depth of 10 km. The Calaveras Complex is composed of argillite, chert, graywacke, pebbly mudstone, limestone, and volcanic rocks. Its age of deposition has a maximum range from Permian to Early Jurassic. Overall, the unit appears to young westward, but local facing indicators show eastward younging of individual blocks. The sequence of structures developed in the Calaveras Complex is (1) syn-depositional olistostromes; (2) broken formation; (3) slaty cleavage, folds, and thrust faults; and (4) younger Jura-Triassic folds and crenulation cleavages. Broken formation and slaty cleavage developed during underthrusting and

  13. Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Though it's not quite spring, waters in the Gulf of Alaska (right) appear to be blooming with plant life in this true-color MODIS image from March 4, 2002. East of the Alaska Peninsula (bottom center), blue-green swirls surround Kodiak Island. These colors are the result of light reflecting off chlorophyll and other pigments in tiny marine plants called phytoplankton. The bloom extends southward and clear dividing line can be seen west to east, where the bloom disappears over the deeper waters of the Aleutian Trench. North in Cook Inlet, large amounts of red clay sediment are turning the water brown. To the east, more colorful swirls stretch out from Prince William Sound, and may be a mixture of clay sediment from the Copper River and phytoplankton. Arcing across the top left of the image, the snow-covered Brooks Range towers over Alaska's North Slope. Frozen rivers trace white ribbons across the winter landscape. The mighty Yukon River traverses the entire state, beginning at the right edge of the image (a little way down from the top) running all the way over to the Bering Sea, still locked in ice. In the high-resolution image, the circular, snow-filled calderas of two volcanoes are apparent along the Alaska Peninsula. In Bristol Bay (to the west of the Peninsula) and in a couple of the semi-clear areas in the Bering Sea, it appears that there may be an ice algae bloom along the sharp ice edge (see high resolution image for better details). Ground-based observations from the area have revealed that an under-ice bloom often starts as early as February in this region and then seeds the more typical spring bloom later in the season.

  14. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Tracey; Gill, Verena A; Tuomi, Pam; Monson, Daniel; Burdin, Alexander; Conrad, Patricia A; Dunn, J Lawrence; Field, Cara; Johnson, Christine; Jessup, David A; Bodkin, James; Doroff, Angela M

    2011-07-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (<5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in naïve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virus to otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak, Alaska, USA, since the 1990 s.

  15. Assessment of clinical pathology and pathogen exposure in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) bordering the threatened population in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, T.; Gill, V.A.; Tuomi, P.; Monson, D.; Burdin, A.; Conrad, P.A.; Dunn, J.L.; Field, C.; Johnson, Chad; Jessup, David A.; Bodkin, J.; Doroff, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) abundance has decreased dramatically over portions of southwest Alaska, USA, since the mid-1980s, and this stock is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In contrast, adjacent populations in south central Alaska, USA, and Russia have been stable to increasing during the same period. Sea otters bordering the area classified in the recent decline were live-captured during 2004-2006 at Bering Island, Russia, and the Kodiak Archipelago, Alaska, USA, to evaluate differences in general health and current exposure status to marine and terrestrial pathogens. Although body condition was lower in animals captured at Bering Island, Russia, than it was at Kodiak, USA, clinical pathology values did not reveal differences in general health between the two regions. Low prevalences of antibodies (,5%) were found in Kodiak, USA, and on Bering Island, Russia, to Toxoplasmagondii, Sarcocystis neurona, and Leptospira interrogans. Exposure to phocine herpesvirus-1 was found in both Kodiak, USA (15.2%), and Bering Island, Russia (2.3%). Antibodies to Brucella spp. were found in 28% of the otters tested on Bering Island, Russia, compared with only 2.7% of the samples from Kodiak, USA. Prevalence of exposure to Phocine distemper virus (PDV) was 41% in Kodiak, USA, but 0% on Bering Island, Russia. Archived sera from southwest and south-central Alaska dating back to 1989 were negative for PDV, indicating exposure occurred in sea otters in Kodiak, USA, in recent years. Because PDV can be highly pathogenic in nai{dotless}??ve and susceptible marine mammal populations, tissues should be examined to explore the contribution of this virusto otter deaths. Our results reveal an increase in exposure to pathogens in sea otters in Kodiak,Alaska, USA, since the 1990s. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2011.

  16. The role of silica redistribution in the evolution of slip instabilities along subduction interfaces: Constraints from the Kodiak accretionary complex, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Donald M.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2014-12-01

    Quartz veins from a subhorizontal shear zone in the Kodiak accretionary complex in southwest Alaska record cycles of cracking and sealing contemporaneous with simple shear, and analysis of the vein array in the context of silica dissolution, diffusion, and precipitation leads to the conclusion that the time needed to seal after a fracture event overlaps with the time scales associated with the recurrence of slip instabilities along active megathrusts. The central belt of the Kodiak accretionary complex is interpreted as a shear zone developed adjacent to a paleo-decollement that was active in the Late Cretaceous based on large strain magnitudes, recumbent isoclinal folds, and regional cleavage patterns that depict rotation of the steep cleavage that characterizes most of the Kodiak Formation into the horizontal fabrics of the central belt. Within this regional shear zone, crack-seal veins composed of quartz with phyllosilicate inclusion bands are spaced at less than a cm but en echelon vein arrays are spaced at 500 cm. These arrays indicate top-to-the southeast shear on southeast dipping brittle-ductile shear zones. Vein textures indicate cracking and sealing of thin veins in the matrix, but thicker veins in en echelon sets record initial cracking and sealing followed by periodic collapse of fracture porosity at a frequency that is lower than the frequency of crack-seal cycles. Silica depletion zones in the wall rock adjacent to veins indicate local transport of silica by diffusion. By combining the maximum time in which diffusion could dominate over advection with the time needed to precipitate the quartz associated with one crack-seal band, we show that a reasonable range of ΔP, or pressure difference between matrix and crack, can produce crack seal bands in less than 10 days. This time frame is less than the recurrence of earthquakes, and similar to the duration of some slow earthquakes in nature. Therefore, silica redistribution could play a role in modulating

  17. Amchitka Island, Alaska, special sampling project 1997

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-28

    This 1997 special sampling project represents a special radiobiological sampling effort to augment the 1996 Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Program (LTHMP) for Amchitka Island in Alaska. Lying in the western portion of the Aleutian Islands arc, near the International Date Line, Amchitka Island is one of the southernmost islands of the Rat Island Chain. Between 1965 and 1971, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission conducted three underground nuclear tests on Amchitka Island. In 1996, Greenpeace collected biota samples and speculated that several long-lived, man-made radionuclides detected (i.e., americium-241, plutonium-239 and -240, beryllium-7, and cesium-137) leaked into the surface environment from underground cavities created during the testing. The nuclides of interest are detected at extremely low concentrations throughout the environment. The objectives of this special sampling project were to scientifically refute the Greenpeace conclusions that the underground cavities were leaking contaminants to the surface. This was achieved by first confirming the presence of these radionuclides in the Amchitka Island surface environment and, second, if the radionuclides were present, determining if the source is the underground cavity or worldwide fallout. This special sampling and analysis determined that the only nonfallout-related radionuclide detected was a low level of tritium from the Long Shot test, which had been previously documented. The tritium contamination is monitored and continues a decreasing trend due to radioactive decay and dilution.

  18. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  19. Radiometric ages of kodiak seamount and giacomini guyot, gulf of alaska: implications for circum-pacific tectonics.

    PubMed

    Turner, D L; Forbes, R B; Naeser, C W

    1973-11-01

    Kodiak Seamount and Giacomini Guyot have been dated at 22.6 +/- 1.1 and 19.9 +/- 1.0 [2sigma (standard deviation)] x 10(6) years, respectively. Concordant whole-rock and plagioclase potassium-argon dates and fission-track apatite ages demonstrate that significant quantities of excess radiogenic (40)Ar are not present in the dated samples. These seamounts are the northwesternmost edifices of the Pratt-Welker chain, which cuts obliquely across magnetic anomaly patterns in an older northeastern Pacific sea floor. The older of the two dated seamounts is in the Aleutian Trench, apparently about to be subducted. If one assumes that seamounts are generated by plate motion over a fixed hot spot in the mantle, a Pacific-plate motion of 6.6 centimeters per year during early Miocene time may be calculated.

  20. Radiometric ages of Kodiak Seamount and Giacomini Guyot, Gulf of Alaska: Implications for circum-pacific tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, D.L.; Forbes, R.B.; Naeser, C.W.

    1973-01-01

    Kodiak Seamount and Giacomini Guyot have been dated at 22.6 ??1.1 and 19.9 ??1.0 [2?? (standard deviation)] X 106 years, respectively. Concordant whole-rock and plagioclase potassium-argon dates and fission-track apatite ages demonstrate that significant quantities of excess radiogenic 40Ar are not present in the dated samples. These seamounts are the northwesternmost edifices of the Pratt-Welker chain, which cuts obliquely across magnetic anomaly patterns in an older northeastern Pacific sea floor. The older of the two dated seamounts is in the Aleutian Trench, apparently about to be subducted. If one assumes that seamounts are generated by plate motion over a fixed hot spot in the mantle, a Pacific-plate motion of 6.6 centimeters per year during early Miocene time may be calculated.

  1. Geologic map of Saint Lawrence Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, William W.; Wilson, Frederic H.; Taylor, Theresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Saint Lawrence Island is located in the northern Bering Sea, 190 km southwest of the tip of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, and 75 km southeast of the Chukotsk Peninsula, Russia (see index map, map sheet). It lies on a broad, shallow-water continental shelf that extends from western Alaska to northeastern Russia. The island is situated on a northwest-trending structural uplift exposing rocks as old as Paleozoic above sea level. The submerged shelf between the Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island is covered mainly with Cenozoic deposits (Dundo and Egiazarov, 1982). Northeast of the island, the shelf is underlain by a large structural depression, the Norton Basin, which contains as much as 6.5 km of Cenozoic strata (Grim and McManus, 1970; Fisher and others, 1982). Sparse test-well data indicate that the Cenozoic strata are underlain by Paleozoic and Proterozoic rocks, similar to those exposed on the Seward Peninsula (Turner and others, 1983). Saint Lawrence Island is 160 km long in an east-west direction and from 15 km to 55 km wide in a north-south direction. The east end of the island consists largely of a wave-cut platform, which has been elevated as much as 30 m above sea level. Isolated upland areas composed largely of granitic plutons rise as much as 550 m above the wave-cut platform. The central part of the island is dominated by the Kookooligit Mountains, a large Quaternary shield volcano that extends over an area of 850 km2 and rises to an elevation of 630 m. The west end of the island is composed of the Poovoot Range, a group of barren, rubble-covered hills as high as 450 m that extend from Boxer Bay on the southwest coast to Taphook Mountain on the north coast. The Poovoot Range is flanked on the southeast by the Putgut Plateau, a nearly flat, lake-dotted plain that stands 30?60 m above sea level. The west end of the island is marked by uplands underlain by the Sevuokuk pluton (unit Kg), a long narrow granite body that extends from Gambell on the

  2. Geologic Map of Baranof Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Himmelberg, Glen R.; Zumsteg, Cathy L.; Layer, Paul W.; Friedman, Richard M.; Roeske, Sarah M.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2015-01-01

    This map updates the geology of Baranof Island based on fieldwork, petrographic analyses, paleontologic ages, and isotopic ages. These new data provide constraints on depositional and metamorphic ages of lithostratigraphic rock units and the timing of structures that separate them. Kinematic analyses and thermobarometric calculations provide insights on the regional tectonic processes that affected the rocks on Baranof Island. The rocks on Baranof Island are components of a Paleozoic to Early Tertiary oceanic volcanic arc complex, including sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on and adjacent to the arc complex, deformed, and accreted. The arc complex consists of greenschist to amphibolite facies Paleozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks overlain by lower-grade Triassic metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks and intruded by Jurassic calc-alkaline plutons. The Paleozoic rocks correlate well in age and lithology with rocks of the Sicker and Buttle Lake Groups of the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island and differ from rocks of the Skolai Group that constitute basement to type-Wrangellia in the Wrangell Mountains. The Jurassic intrusive rocks are correlative with plutons that intrude the Wrangellia terrane on Vancouver Island but are lacking in the Wrangell Mountains. The rocks accreted beneath the arc complex are referred to as the Baranof Accretionary Complex in this report and are correlated with the Chugach Accretionary Complex of southern and southeastern Alaska and with the Pacific Rim Complex on Vancouver Island. Stratigraphic correlations between upper- and lower-plate rocks on Baranof Island and western Chichagof Island with rocks on Haida Gwaii and Vancouver Island, in addition to correlative ages of intrusive rocks and restorations of the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte, Chatham Strait, and Peril Strait Faults that define the Baranof-Chichagof block, suggest Baranof Island was near Vancouver Island at the time of initiation of arc

  3. The role of ridge subduction in determining the geochemistry and Nd–Sr–Pb isotopic evolution of the Kodiak batholith in southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Bradley, Dwight C.; Farris, David W.; Foley, Nora K.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    The Paleocene Kodiak batholith, part of the Sanak–Baranof belt of Tertiary near-trench intrusive rocks, forms an elongate body (~ 150 km long) that transects Kodiak Island from SW to NE. The batholith consists of three zones (Southern, Central, and Northern) of kyanite-, muscovite-, and garnet-bearing biotite tonalite and granodiorite and less abundant granite that intruded an accretionary prism (Kodiak Formation, and Ghost Rocks Formation). Small and likely coeval bodies (Northern, Western, and Eastern satellite groups) of quartz gabbro, diorite, tonalite, granodiorite, and leucogranite flank the batholith. The batholith is calc-alkalic, has an aluminum saturation index of > 1.1, FeOt/(FeOt + MgO) ~ 0.65 (at SiO2 = 65 wt.%), and increases in SiO2 (~ 61 wt.%–73 wt.%) and decreases in TiO2 (~ 0.9 wt.%–0.3 wt.%) from SW to NE. As a group, the granitic rocks have light REE-enriched chondrite-normalized patterns with small or no negative Eu anomalies, primitive mantle-normalized negative anomalies for Nb and Ti, and positive anomalies for Pb. Small to large negative anomalies for Th are also distinctive. The quartz gabbros and diorites are generally characterized by generally flat to light REE chondrite-normalized patterns (no Eu anomalies), and mantle-normalized negative anomalies for Nb, Ti, and P. Pb isotopic compositions (206Pb/204Pb = 18.850–18.960; 207Pb/204Pb = 15.575–15.694; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.350–39.039) are intermediate between depleted mantle and average continental crust. The Southern zone and a portion of the Central zone are characterized by negative εNd values of − 3.7 to − 0.3 and TDM ages ranging from ~ 838 Ma to 1011 Ma. Other granitic rocks from the Central and Northern zones have higher εNd values of − 0.4 to + 4.7 and younger TDM ages of ~ 450 to 797 Ma. Granitic and mafic plutons from the Eastern satellites show a wide range of εNdvalues of − 2.7 to + 6.4, and TDM ages from 204 Ma to

  4. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1703 - Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ammunition Island, Port Valdez... Ammunition Island, Port Valdez, Alaska. (a) Location. The waters within the following boundaries is a safety zone—the area within a radius of 1330 yards of Ammunition Island, centered on latitude 61°07′28″...

  9. Vegetation of eastern Unalaska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Schofield, Wilfred B.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Daniëls, Fred J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Plant communities of Unalaska Island in the eastern Aleutian Islands of western Alaska, and their relationship to environmental variables, were studied using a combined Braun-Blanquet and multivariate approach. Seventy relevés represented the range of structural and compositional variation in the matrix of vegetation and landform zonation. Eleven major community types were distinguished within six physiognomic–ecological groups: I. Dry coastal meadows: Honckenya peploides beach meadow, Leymus mollis dune meadow. II. Mesic meadows: Athyrium filix-femina – Aconitum maximum meadow, Athyrium filix-femina – Calamagrostis nutkaensis meadow, Erigeron peregrinus – Thelypteris quelpaertensis meadow. III. Wet snowbed meadow: Carex nigricans snowbed meadow. IV. Heath: Linnaea borealis – Empetrum nigrum heath, Phyllodoce aleutica heath, Vaccinium uliginosum – Thamnolia vermicularis fellfield. V. Mire: Carex pluriflora – Plantago macrocarpa mire. VI. Deciduous shrub thicket: Salix barclayi – Athyrium filix-femina thicket. These were interpreted as a complex gradient primarily influenced by soil moisture, elevation, and pH. Phytogeographical and syntaxonomical analysis of the plant communities indicated that the dry coastal meadows, most of the heaths, and the mire vegetation belonged, respectively, to the widespread classes Honckenyo–Elymetea, Loiseleurio–Vaccinietea, and Scheuchzerio–Caricetea, characterized by their circumpolar and widespread species. Amphi-Beringian species were likely diagnostic of amphi-Beringian syntaxa, many of these yet to be described.

  10. Geomagnetic polarity epochs: Nunivak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1967-01-01

    New paleomagnetic and potassium-argon dating measurements have been made of basalt flows from Nunivak Island, Alaska, with the following results. (1) The best estimate of the age of the Brunhes/Matuyama polarity epoch boundary is found to be 0.694 m.y. (2) The best estimate of the age of the Gauss/Gilbert boundary is 3.32 m.y. (3) Three normally magnetized flows with ages from 0.93 to 0.88 m.y. are in accord with previous estimates of the age and duration of the Jaramillo normal event. (4) One normally magnetized flow with an age of 1.65 ?? 0.09 m.y. supplies additional evidence for the Gilsa?? normal event. (5) Two new normal events are identified within the Gilbert reversed epoch, the "Cochiti normal event" with an age of 3.7 m.y. and the "Nunivak normal event" with an age of 4.1 m.y. ?? 1967.

  11. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  12. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  13. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  14. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  15. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to...

  16. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Perspective View of Okmok Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (#2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This perspective view shows the caldera of the Okmok volcano in Alaska's Aleutian Islands.

    The shaded relief was generated from and draped over an Airsar-derived digital elevation mosaic.

    Airsar collected the Alaska data as part of its PacRim 2000 Mission, which took the instrument to French Polynesia, American and Western Samoa, Fiji, New Zealand, Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia, Philippines, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan, Northern Marianas, Guam, Palau, Hawaii and Alaska. Airsar, part of NASA's Airborne Science Program, is managed for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise by JPL. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Alaska: A frontier divided

    SciTech Connect

    O'Dell, R. )

    1986-09-01

    The superlatives surrounding Alaska are legion. Within the borders of the 49th US state are some of the world's greatest concentrations of waterfowl, bald eagles, fur seals, walrus, sea lions, otters, and the famous Kodiak brown bear. Alaska features the highest peak of North America, the 20,320-foot Mount McKinley, and the longest archipelago of small islands, the Aleutians. The state holds the greatest percentage of protected wilderness per capita in the world. The expanse of some Alaskan glaciers dwarfs entire countries. Like the periodic advance and retreat of its glaciers, Alaska appears with some regularity on the national US agenda. It last achieved prominence when President Jimmy Carter signed the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act in 1980. Since then the conflict between environmental protection and economic development has been played out throughout the state, and Congress is expected to turn to Alaskan issues again in its next sessions.

  19. Lichens from Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Stephen S.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Thomson, J.W.; Daniels, F.J.A.; Schofield, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    One hundred eighty-eight taxa of lichens are reported from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands of southwestern Alaska. Wide-ranging arctic-alpine and boreal species dominate the lichens; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. The lichen component of Empetrum nigrum dwarf shrub heath, the dominant vegetation type, was analyzed to identify the most frequently occurring lichens within this community.

  20. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  1. Sea water intrusion model of Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Wheatcraft, S.W.

    1995-09-01

    During the 1960s and 1970s, Amchitka Island, Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests, referred to as Milrow, Long Shot and Cannikin. Amchitka Island is located in the western part of the Aleutian Island chain, Alaska. The groundwater systems affected by the three underground nuclear tests at Amchitka Island are essentially unmonitored because all of the current monitoring wells are too shallow and not appropriately placed to detect migration from the cavities. The dynamics of the island`s fresh water-sea water hydrologic system will control contaminant migration from the three event cavities, with migration expected in the direction of the Bering Sea from Long shot and Cannikin and the Pacific Ocean from Milrow. The hydrogeologic setting (actively flowing groundwater system to maintain a freshwater lens) suggests a significant possibility for relatively rapid contaminant migration from these sites, but also presents an opportunity to use projected flowpaths to a monitoring advantage. The purpose of this investigation is to develop a conceptual model of the Amchitka groundwater system and to produce computer model simulations that reflect the boundary conditions and hydraulic properties of the groundwater system. The simulations will be used to assess the validity of the proposed conceptual model and highlight the uncertainties in hydraulic properties of the aquifer. The uncertainties will be quantified by sensitivity analyses on various model parameters. Within the limitations of the conceptual model and the computer simulations, conclusions will be drawn regarding potential radionuclide migration from the three underground nuclear tests.

  2. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  3. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  4. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  5. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  6. 36 CFR 228.80 - Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. 228.80 Section 228.80 Parks, Forests, and Public... Operations within Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments, Alaska. (a) Mineral activities on valid mining claims in the Misty Fjords and Admiralty Island National Monuments must be conducted...

  7. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    SciTech Connect

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological and

  8. Rhynchelmis aleutensis n. sp. (Clitellata: Lumbriculidae) from Adak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fend, S.V.

    2005-01-01

    A new lumbriculid worm, Rhynchelmis aleutensis, is described from streams on Adak Island, Alaska. The new species does not resemble other Alaskan or Siberian Rhynchelmis species. The paired spermathecal diverticula and the morphology of the male pores and atria suggest that it is more closely related to a species group known only from the western United States, south of Canada. The latter group has been associated with Sutroa Eisen, 1888. Copyright ?? 2005 Magnolia Press.

  9. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Smith, Jody L.; Anne, V.; Johnson, J.

    2010-01-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ???12,900??cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400??cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (???12,900??cal yr BP) was pine woodland (Pinus contorta) with alder (Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ???12,240??cal yr BP, Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ???11,200??cal yr BP, mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ???10,180??cal yr BP, when western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ???7100??cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars (Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  10. Postglacial vegetation history of Mitkof Island, Alexander Archipelago, southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ager, Thomas A.; Carrara, Paul E.; Smith, Jane L.; Anne, Victoria; Johnson, Joni

    2010-03-01

    An AMS radiocarbon-dated pollen record from a peat deposit on Mitkof Island, southeastern Alaska provides a vegetation history spanning ˜12,900 cal yr BP to the present. Late Wisconsin glaciers covered the entire island; deglaciation occurred > 15,400 cal yr BP. The earliest known vegetation to develop on the island (˜12,900 cal yr BP) was pine woodland ( Pinus contorta) with alder ( Alnus), sedges (Cyperaceae) and ferns (Polypodiaceae type). By ˜12,240 cal yr BP, Sitka spruce ( Picea sitchensis) began to colonize the island while pine woodland declined. By ˜11,200 cal yr BP, mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana) began to spread across the island. Sitka spruce-mountain hemlock forests dominated the lowland landscapes of the island until ˜10,180 cal yr BP, when western hemlock ( Tsuga heterophylla) began to colonize, and soon became the dominant tree species. Rising percentages of pine, sedge, and sphagnum after ˜7100 cal yr BP may reflect an expansion of peat bog habitats as regional climate began to shift to cooler, wetter conditions. A decline in alders at that time suggests that coastal forests had spread into the island's uplands, replacing large areas of alder thickets. Cedars ( Chamaecyparis nootkatensis, Thuja plicata) appeared on Mitkof Island during the late Holocene.

  11. Risk assessment Barter Island radar installation, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-05

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIS) during the summer of 1993. The presence of chemical contamination in the soil, sediments, and surface water at the installation was evaluated and reported in the Barter Island Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) United States Air Force 1994a. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessment. The primary contaminants of concern at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks. The general location of the Barter Island radar installation is shown in Figure 1-1. The 14 sites investigated and the types of samples collected at each site are presented in Table 1-1. The purpose of the risk assessment is to evaluate the human and ecological health risks that may be associated with chemicals released to the environment at the 14 sites investigated during the RIs. The risk assessment characterizes the probability that measured concentrations of hazardous chemical substances will cause adverse effects in humans or the environment in the absence of remediation. The risk assessment will be used to determine if remediation (site cleanup) is necessary and also to rank sites for remedial action. Additionally, it will be used as a model for the risk assessment to be performed at the other DEW Line installations (Bullen Point, Oliktok Point, Point Lonely, Barrow Point, Wainwright, and Point Lay) and the Cape Lisburne radar installation. pg18. JMD.

  12. Ordovician "sphinctozoan" sponges from Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Karl, S.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Baichtal, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    A faunule of silicified hypercalcified "sphinctozoan" sponges has been recovered from a clast of Upper Ordovician limestone out of the Early Devonian Karheen Formation on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Included in the faunule are abundant examples of the new genus Girtyocoeliana, represented by Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby and Potter), and Corymbospongia adnata Rigby and Potter, along with rare Corymbospongia amplia n. sp., and Girtyocoelia(?) sp., plus common Amblysiphonella sp. 1 and rare Amblysiphonella(?) sp. 2. The assemblage is similar to that from Ordovician clasts from the eastern Klamath Mountains of northern California. This indicates that the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska is related paleogeographically to the lithologically and paleontologically similar terrane of the eastern Klamath Mountains. This lithology and fossil assemblage of the clast cannot be tied to any currently known local rock units on Prince of Wales Island. Other clasts in the conglomerate appear to have been locally derived, so it is inferred that the limestone clasts were also locally derived, indicating the presence of a previously undocumented Ordovician limestone unit on northern Prince of Wales Island

  13. Geologic map of Mount Gareloi, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an effort to both monitor and study all historically active volcanoes in Alaska, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) undertook a field program at Mount Gareloi in the summer of 2003. During a month-long period, seismic networks were installed at Mount Gareloi and the neighboring Tanaga volcanic cluster. During this time, we undertook the first geologic field study of the volcano since Robert Coats visited Gareloi Island for four days in 1946. Understanding the geology of this relatively small island is important from a hazards perspective, because Mount Gareloi lies beneath a heavily trafficked air route between North America and Asia and has frequently erupted airborne ash since 1760. At least two landslides from the island have deposited debris on the sea floor; thus, landslide-generated tsunamis are also a potential hazard. Since seismic instruments were installed in 2003, they have detected small but consistent seismic signals from beneath Mount Gareloi's edifice, suggesting an active hydrothermal system. Mount Gareloi is also important from the standpoint of understanding subduction-related volcanism, because it lies in the western portion of the volcanically active arc, where subduction is oblique to the arc front. Understanding the compositional evolution of Mount Gareloi fills a spatial gap in along-arc studies.

  14. 75 FR 81210 - Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska; Wrangell Island Project Environmental Impact Statement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Forest Service Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska; Wrangell Island Project Environmental Impact Statement...) for the Wrangell Island Project located on Wrangell Island, part of the Wrangell Ranger District of... to: SWCA, 317 Forest Park Drive, Ketchikan, AK 99901, Attn: Wrangell Island Project EIS. Comments...

  15. Social indicators study of Alaskan Coastal Villages I. Key informant summaries. Volume 2. Schedule B regions (Bristol Bay, Kodiak, Bering Straits). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brelsford, T.; Fienup-Riordan, A.; Jorgensen, J.; McNabb, S.; Petrivelli, P.

    1992-08-01

    The focus of this report is on Alaska Natives--Inupiaq and Yupik Eskimos, Athabascans, and Aleuts--for two important reasons: (1) Alaska Natives are numerically dominant populations in rural areas closest to potential offshore oil development sites and (2) their economic adjustments are most vulnerable to potential impacts from such development. This report is divided into Schedules A, B, and C. Comprising Schedules A and B are the study areas originally identified by Minerals Management Service for this study (North Slope, NANA, Bering Straits, Calista, Bristol Bay, Aleutian-Pribilof Islands, and Kodiak regions). Schedule C is comprised of communities that were added subsequent to the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989 in the Prince William Sound and Cook Inlet regions. One aim of this study was to document the attitudes and belief systems or ideologies about quality of life and well-being in the coastal, rural portions of Alaska.

  16. Quaternary Uplift History of Wingham Island, South-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, James B.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Pavlis, Terry L.

    2009-01-01

    Marine terraces cut into Pleistocene deposits on Wingham Island in the Gulf of Alaska provide new constraints on the position of sea level, ice thickness and total glacioisostatic rebound at the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. A radiocarbon age of 13.9 +- 0.15 ka on the most prominent terrace is coincident with the end of meltwater pulse 1A, possibly suggestive of a link between changes in relative sea level and terrace formation. Isostatic modeling suggests a local ice thickness of 600 to 700 m with high (~10 cm/yr) initial rates of postglacial rebound. In addition to the unique ties to meltwater pulse 1A, the timing of emergence for Wingham Island following the Last Glacial Maximum has implications for the early migration of humans into North America.

  17. Evolution of a North Slope barrier island (Narwhal Island, North Arctic Alaska) 1955- 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravens, T. M.; Lee, W. J.

    2007-12-01

    In 1955, Narwhal island was a 4 km long and 30 to 200 m wide barrier island, located at 145 30' W; 70 24' N, about 20 km offshore of the North Slope coast by Foggy Island Bay and near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. According to available aerial photography, by 1979, the island had been breached in 4 locations creating a five island chain. By 1984, the chain consisted of 3 pieces indicating a reformation process. In subsequent years, the chain appears to have gone through a couple more cycles of breakup and reformation. The island is subject to wind waves, sea-ice impacts, and storm surges. Preliminary GIS analysis and recent GPS surveys indicate that, in the past 50 years, the western end of the island had migrated about 200 m to the west consistent with the direction of sea-ice movement and consistent with the frequent east winds during the summer (open water) period. The rate of migration is consistent with the findings of earlier studies. In addition to the island's westward migration, the northern (seaward) side of the island has retreated landward by about 5 m/year during the past decade. Here, the details of the GIS and GPS work are described. In addition, a preliminary wave (SWAN) and sediment transport model is presented that explains the morphodynamic changes. Considering continued sea ice retreat consequent to global warming, we speculate about future morphodynamic changes.

  18. Bringing High Rate, Low Latency Data From Unimak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaux, K.; Jackson, M.; Mencin, D.; Gallaher, W.; Smith, S.; Bohnenstiehl, K.; Borsa, A.; Enders, M.; Coyle, B.; Paskievitch, J.; Read, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the NSF-funded EarthScope project, completed the installation of a fourteen GPS stations, eight tiltmeters, one webcam, and one digital broadband seismometer on Unimak Island, Alaska in August, 2008. PBO collaborated with the USGS, who provided engineering support for this project. Combined with the USGS operated seismic network, the Unimak Island network is a state of the art scientific network. The primary data communications goal of the project was to design and implement a robust data communications network capable of downloading 15-sec daily GPS files and to test the streaming of 1- Hz GPS data at a select set of GPS stations on Unimak Island. As part of the permitting agreement with the landowner, PBO co-located the GPS stations with existing USGS seismic stations. The high-speed radio link deployed allowed the USGS to test the feasibility of broadband seismometer installations on Unimak Island. This collaboration with the USGS was another successful joint operation between PBO and the USGS. The technical and logistical challenges involved in the project as well as some preliminary results of the data communications system will be presented. These challenges include complicated logistics, bad weather, complex network geometries with multiple radio repeaters, long distance RF transmission over water, hardware bandwidth limitations, power limitations, space limitations, as well as working in bear country on an incredibly remote and active volcano.

  19. Water-resources reconnaissance of the southeastern part of St Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feulner, Alvin John

    1980-01-01

    A hydrologic reconnaissance of the southeastern part of St. Paul Island, Pribilof Islands, Alaska, was made in August 1979 to determine if sufficient freshwater is available for a proposed harbor and fish-processing facility. Only three wells were being used in 1979, two by the community of St. Paul and one by the Coast Guard Loran facility. All wells are in the southeastern part of the island. The island has no established surface drainage, and no springs were found on the eastern part of the island during the survey. Drainage of ground-water from the island is assumed to be by seepage through the sandy deposits along the east coast and possibly by undersea discharge elsewhere on the island. On the basis of present well yields, amount of freshwater inferred to be present below the water table, and potential recharge from precipitation, it is concluded that it should be possible to design a well field in the southeastern part of the island that could yield more than a million gallons per day without danger of inducing saline water into the well field. The water is of good chemical quality. (USGS)

  20. Microscopic analysis of feather and hair fragments associated with human mummified remains from Kagamil Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.; Frohlich, Bruno; Harper, Albert B.; Gilberg, Rolf

    2002-01-01

    Human mummified remains of 34 different infant and adult individuals from Kagamil Island, Alaska, are accessioned in the Department of Anthropology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Kagamil Island is one of the small islands in the Island of Four Mountains group of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska and is well known for the mummy caves located on the southwest coast of the island. The Kagamil mummy holdings at the Smithsonian represent one of the largest, best documented and preserved collections of this type. Although these specimens are stored in ideal conditions, many small feather and hair fragments have become loose or disassociated from the actual mummies over the years. This preliminary investigation of fragmentary fiber material retrieved from these artifacts is the first attempt to identify bird and mammal species associated with the mummified remains of the Kagamil Island, Alaska collection and is part of the ongoing research connected with these artifacts.

  1. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., or the Virgin Islands. (a) When is an increased mortgage limit permitted for these areas? For Alaska, Guam, Hawaii or the Virgin Islands, the Commissioner may increase the maximum mortgage amount...

  2. 2010 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Herrick, Julie; Girina, O.A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, Jim

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at 12 volcanic centers in Alaska during 2010. The most notable volcanic activity consisted of intermittent ash emissions from long-active Cleveland volcano in the Aleutian Islands. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of an ongoing collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  3. A burial cave in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Dixie; Lefèvre, Christine; Corbett, Debra; Crockford, Susan

    2003-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, the Western Aleutians Archaeological and Paleobiological Project (WAAPP) team located a cave in the Near Islands, Alaska. Near the entrance of the cave, the team identified work areas and sleeping/sitting areas surrounded by cultural debris and animal bones. Human burials were found in the cave interior. In 2000, with permission from The Aleut Corporation, archaeologists revisited the site. Current research suggests three distinct occupations or uses for this cave. Aleuts buried their dead in shallow graves at the rear of the cave circa 1,200 to 800 years ago. Aleuts used the front of the cave as a temporary hunting camp as early as 390 years ago. Finally, Japanese and American military debris and graffiti reveal that the cave was visited during and after World War II. Russian trappers may have also taken shelter there 150 to 200 years ago. This is the first report of Aleut cave burials west of the Delarof Islands in the central Aleutians.

  4. 75 FR 38940 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... BSAI (75 FR 11778, March 12, 2010). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(i), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  5. Cyclicity in Silurian island-arc carbonates, Alexander terrane, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Kittredge, L.E.; Soja, C.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Silurian carbonates from Alaska (Alexander terrane) record the evolution of a submarine platform during waning volcanism in an island arc. A detailed stratigraphic analysis of a 47 meter-thick sequence revealed the existence of cyclically repeated limestones: coral-stromatoporoid wackestones alternate with oncoid packstones and bioturbated, silty lime mudstones. The coral-stromatoporoid deposits are characterized by a low-diversity assemblage of dendroid corals, massive stromatoporoids, Atrypoidea brachiopods, and rare occurrences of biostromes associated with Solenopora, high-spired gastropods, and crinoids. Oncoids typically are 2-6 mm in diameter and form massive, meter-thick units. Coated grains are symmetrically developed, have a shell or algal nucleus, and are also a minor component of coral-stromatoporoid beds. These lithologic units form seven, shallowing-upwards cycles (parasequences) that range in thickness from 3-9 meters. Coral-stomatoporoid wackestones form the base of each cycle and grade upwards into oncoid packstones with silty, lime mudstones at the top. This succession of lithofacies within each cycle reflects an increase in energy levels from relatively deeper water environments to relatively shallower ones. The lack of abrasion in the corals and stromatoporoids suggests predominantly quiet-water conditions in shallow subtidal areas affected by periodic turbulence. Comparison with correlative sections in Alaska and lack of correspondence with global sea level curves suggest that the primary cause of cyclicity was tectonic perturbations with secondary eustatic effects. Cyclic deposition in peri/subtidal sites was terminated by rapid drowning of the carbonate platform during late Silurian orogenesis.

  6. Geology and geochemistry of the Geyser Bight Geothermal Area, Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nye, C.J. . Geophysical Inst. Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairbanks, AK . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Motyka, R.J. . Div. of Geological and Geophysical Surveys); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. (Alaska Dept. of Natural Resources, Fairba

    1990-10-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area is located on Umnak Island in the central Aleutian Islands. It contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs and fumaroles in Alaska, and is only documented site in Alaska with geysers. The zone of hot springs and fumaroles lies at the head of Geyser Creek, 5 km up a broad, flat, alluvial valley from Geyser Bight. At present central Umnak is remote and undeveloped. This report describes results of a combined program of geologic mapping, K-Ar dating, detailed description of hot springs, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic and plutonic rock units, and chemistry of geothermal fluids. Our mapping documents the presence of plutonic rock much closer to the area of hotsprings and fumaroles than previously known, thus increasing the probability that plutonic rock may host the geothermal system. K-Ar dating of 23 samples provides a time framework for the eruptive history of volcanic rocks as well as a plutonic cooling age.

  7. SURFACE REMEDIATION IN THE ALEUTIAN ISLANDS: A CASE STUDY OF AMCHITKA ISLAND, ALASKA

    SciTech Connect

    Giblin, M. O.; Stahl, D. C.; Bechtel, J. A.

    2002-02-25

    Amchitka Island, Alaska, was at one time an integral player in the nation's defense program. Located in the North Pacific Ocean in the Aleutian Island archipelago, the island was intermittently inhabited by several key government agencies, including the U.S. Army, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor agency to the U.S. Department of Energy), and the U.S. Navy. Since 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has conducted extensive investigations on Amchitka to determine the nature and extent of contamination resulting from historic nuclear testing. The uninhabited island was the site of three high-yield nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. These test locations are now part of the DOE's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's Environmental Management Program. In the summer of 2001, the DOE launched a large-scale remediation effort on Amchitka to perform agreed-upon corrective actions to the surface of the island. Due to the lack of resources available on Amchitka and logistical difficulties with conducting work at such a remote location, the DOE partnered with the Navy and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to share certain specified costs and resources. Attempting to negotiate the partnerships while organizing and implementing the surface remediation on Amchitka proved to be a challenging endeavor. The DOE was faced with unexpected changes in Navy and USACE scope of work, accelerations in schedules, and risks associated with construction costs at such a remote location. Unfavorable weather conditions also proved to be a constant factor, often slowing the progress of work. The Amchitka Island remediation project experience has allowed the DOE to gain valuable insights into how to anticipate and mitigate potential problems associated with future remediation projects. These lessons learned will help the DOE in conducting future work more efficiently, and can also serve as a guide for other agencies performing similar work.

  8. Marine geology of the Near Islands Shelf, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scruton, Philip Challacombe

    1953-01-01

    During the summer of 1950 on the insular shelf surrounding the Near Islands, Alaska, 193 oceanographic stations were occupied from aboard the U. S. Geological Survey vessel EIDER. Bottom character and temperature observations were made at these stations. The composition and size distribution characteristics of the bottom samples have been determined. Components of terrigenous origin are angular to subangular sand and silt and angular to well rounded granules, pebbles, and cobbles, all composed of little-altered fragments of the fine grained insular rocks. Components of marine origin are the skeletons of Foraminifera, diatoms, and sponges and the broken shells of a few species of mollusks and of one echinoid species. A chart, based also on the study of approximately 600 USC&GS bottom notations, was prepared to show the distribution of these components of the sediments. Bed rock is exposed on most of the shelf; where sediment occurs terrigenous components are generally most important near shore, whereas marine components are more important seaward of the islands. Studies of the Foraminifera fauna and the diatom flora (identified by K. E. Lohman) and the few mollusks of quantitative importance show these organisms to be forms characteristic of cold or deep water or occurring in a wide range of temperature conditions. The Foraminifera exhibit depth zonation which seems to be controlled in part by temperature and in part by depth or some other variable which is a function of depth. Sphericity and roundness studies made on pebbles from the shelf, the beaches, and the fluvio-glacial deposits together with shelf topographic features and Foraminifera from sediment deposited before ice wastage was complete suggest the shelf was not subjected to prolonged surf action during the post-glacial rise of sea level. To aid in interpreting the sediments and their distribution several subaerial and marine environmental factors were investigated. Those factors found to be of most

  9. Modern salt-marsh and tidal-flat foraminifera from Sitkinak and Simeonof Islands, southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemp, Andrew C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Culver, Stephen J.; Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard W.; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe the modern distribution of salt-marsh and tidal-flat foraminifera from Sitkinak Island (Trinity Islands) and Simeonof Island (Shumagin Islands), Alaska, to begin development of a dataset for later use in reconstructing relative sea-level changes caused by great earthquakes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone. Dead foraminifera were enumerated from a total of 58 surface-sediment samples collected along three intertidal transects around a coastal lagoon on Sitkinak Island and two intertidal transects on Simeonof Island. Two distinctive assemblages of salt-marsh foraminifera were recognized on Sitkinak Island. Miliammina fusca dominated low-marsh settings and Balticammina pseudomacrescens dominated the high marsh. These two species make up >98% of individuals. On Simeonof Island, 93% of individuals in high-marsh settings above mean high water were B. pseudomacrescens. The tidal flat on Simeonof Island was dominated by Cibicides lobatulus (60% of individuals), but the lower limit of this species is subtidal and was not sampled. These results indicate that uplift or subsidence caused by repeated earthquakes along the Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone could be reconstructed in coastal sediments using alternating assemblages of near monospecific B. pseudomacrescens and low-marsh or tidal-flat foraminifera.

  10. Palaeomagnetism of lower cretaceous tuffs from Yukon-Kuskokwim delta region, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Globerman, B.R.; Coe, R.S.; Hoare, J.M.; Decker, J.

    1983-01-01

    During the past decade, the prescient arguments1-3 for the allochthoneity of large portions of southern Alaska have been corroborated by detailed geological and palaeomagnetic studies in south-central Alaska 4-9 the Alaska Peninsula10, Kodiak Island11,12 and the Prince William Sound area13 (Fig. 1). These investigations have demonstrated sizeable northward displacements for rocks of late Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and early Tertiary age in those regions, with northward motion at times culminating in collision of the allochthonous terranes against the backstop of 'nuclear' Alaska14,15. A fundamental question is which parts of Alaska underwent significantly less latitudinal translation relative to the 'stable' North American continent, thereby serving as the 'accretionary nucleus' into which the displaced 'microplates'16 were eventually incorporated17,18? Here we present new palaeomagnetic results from tuffs and associated volcaniclastic rocks of early Cretaceous age from the Yukon-Kuskokwin delta region in western Alaska. These rocks were probably overprinted during the Cretaceous long normal polarity interval, although a remagnetization event as recent as Palaeocene cannot be ruled out. This overprint direction is not appreciably discordant from the expected late Cretaceous direction for cratonal North America. The implied absence of appreciable northward displacement for this region is consistent with the general late Mesozoic-early Tertiary tectonic pattern for Alaska, based on more definitive studies: little to no poleward displacement for central Alaska, though substantially more northward drift for the 'southern Alaska terranes' (comprising Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Prince William Sound area, and Matunuska Valley) since late Cretaceous to Palaeocene time. ?? 1983 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. The urban heat island in winter at Barrow, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Nelson, Frederick E.; Klene, Anna E.; Bell, Julianne H.

    2003-12-01

    The village of Barrow, Alaska, is the northernmost settlement in the USA and the largest native community in the Arctic. The population has grown from about 300 residents in 1900 to more than 4600 in 2000. In recent decades, a general increase of mean annual and mean winter air temperature has been recorded near the centre of the village, and a concurrent trend of progressively earlier snowmelt in the village has been documented. Satellite observations and data from a nearby climate observatory indicate a corresponding but much weaker snowmelt trend in the surrounding regions of relatively undisturbed tundra. Because the region is underlain by ice-rich permafrost, there is concern that early snowmelt will increase the thickness of the thawed layer in summer and threaten the structural stability of roads, buildings, and pipelines. Here, we demonstrate the existence of a strong urban heat island (UHI) during winter. Data loggers (54) were installed in the 150 km2 study area to monitor hourly air and soil temperature, and daily spatial averages were calculated using the six or seven warmest and coldest sites. During winter (December 2001-March 2002), the urban area averaged 2.2 °C warmer than the hinterland. The strength of the UHI increased as the wind velocity decreased, reaching an average value of 3.2 °C under calm (<2 m s-1) conditions and maximum single-day magnitude of 6 °C. UHI magnitude generally increased with decreasing air temperature in winter, reflecting the input of anthropogenic heat to maintain interior building temperatures. On a daily basis, the UHI reached its peak intensity in the late evening and early morning. There was a strong positive relation between monthly UHI magnitude and natural gas production/use. Integrated over the period September-May, there was a 9% reduction in accumulated freezing degree days in the urban area. The evidence suggests that urbanization has contributed to early snowmelt in the village.

  12. 50 CFR Figure 6 to Subpart E of... - Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and Non-Rural Areas 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300 Wildlife and Fisheries INTERNATIONAL..., Subpt. E, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Subpart E of Part 300—Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands Rural and...

  13. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Program, the western Aleutian Islands red king crab and Pribilof Islands red and blue king crab fisheries have failed to open, and the Saint Matthew Island blue king crab fishery has only been open during the... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program AGENCY:...

  14. Emplacement of the Kodiak batholith and slab-window migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farris, David W.; Haeussler, P.; Friedman, R.; Paterson, S.R.; Saltus, R.W.; Ayuso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Kodiak batholith is one of the largest, most elongate intrusive bodies in the forearc Sanak-Baranof plutonic belt located in southern Alaska. This belt is interpreted to have formed during the subduction of an oceanic spreading center and the associated migration of a slab window. Individual plutons of the Kodiak batholith track the location and evolution of the underlying slab window. Six U/Pb zircon ages from the axis of the batholith exhibit a northeastward-decreasing age progression of 59.2 ± 0.2 Ma at the southwest end to 58.4 ± 0.2 Ma at the northeast tip. The trench-parallel rate of age progression is within error of the average slab-window migration rate for the entire Sanak-Baranof belt (~19 cm/yr). Structural relationships, U/Pb ages, and a model of new gravity data indicate that magma from the Kodiak batholith ascended 5-10 km as a northeastward-younging series of 1-8-km-diameter viscoelastic diapirs. Individual plutons ascended by multiple emplacement mechanisms including downward flow, collapse of wall rock, stoping, and diking. Stokes flow xenolith calculations suggest ascent rates of 5-100 m/yr and an effective magmatic viscosity of 107-108 Pa s. Pre-existing structural or lithologic heterogeneities did not dominantly control the location of the main batholith. Instead, its location was determined by migration of the slab window at depth. 

  15. Avian mortality associated with a volcanic gas seep at Kiska Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bond, Alexander L.; Evans, William C.; Jones, Ian L.

    2012-01-01

    We identified natural pits associated with avian mortality at the base of Kiska Volcano in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska in 2007. Living, moribund, and dead birds were regularly found at low spots in a canyon between two lava flows during 2001–2006, but the phenomenon was attributed to natural trapping and starvation of fledgling seabirds (mostly Least Auklets, Aethia pusilla) at a colony site with >1 million birds present. However, 302 birds of eight species, including passerines, were found dead at the site during 2007–2010, suggesting additional factors were involved. Most carcasses showed no signs of injury and concentrations of dead birds had accumulated in a few distinctive low pits in the canyon. Gas samples from these locations showed elevated CO2 concentrations in late 2010. Analysis of carcasses indicated no evidence of blunt trauma or internal bleeding. Volcanic gases accumulating at these poorly ventilated sites may have caused the observed mortality, but are temporally variable. Most auklets breeding in the Aleutian Islands do so in recent lava flows that provide breeding habitat; our study documents a cost of this unusual habitat selection.

  16. Magmatic and tectonic modification of convergent margins: An example from southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, David W.

    Southern Alaska is an excellent natural laboratory to study forearc/arc subduction zone magmatism and tectonics. Understanding these processes are important to understanding the evolution and modification of continental crust. This thesis focuses on the Kodiak Islands, but also examines larger-scale features throughout southern Alaska and cordilleran tectonics. Kodiak Island intrusive rocks differ in character across the Border Ranges fault system (BRF). North of the BRF is the tilted Triassic-Jurassic Talkeetna island arc. This arc section exposes ultramafic mantle through mid to upper crustal plutonic and volcanic rocks all of which are geochemically related, despite being fault-bounded blocks. South of the BRF lie Paleocene intrusive rocks related to eastward spreadingridge subduction migration. These rocks are distributed in two belts: the Kodiak batholith and the trenchward belt. The Kodiak batholith is composed of granitic plutons emplaced as a series of intermingled, 1-8 km wide, viscoelastic diapirs that ascended by downward transport of aureole rocks through and around the magmatic column, and range in age from 59.2-58.4+/-0.2 Ma (SW-NE). These plutons formed from equilibrium crystallization of an argillite/graywacke derived magma, and contain fractally fragmented meta-sedimentary xenoliths. Trenchward belt rocks lie south of the Contact fault and are composed of small gabbroic to granitic plutons, dikes and pillows that range in age from 62.6+/-0.6-60.15+/-0.86 Ma (SW-NE). They formed by assimilation fractional crystallization of MORB with an argillite assimilant. Trenchward belt rocks intruded when a spreading ridge first entered the accretionary prism, whereas the Kodiak batholith formed when a slab window opened at 15-20 km depth. Age differences between the two Paleocene magmatic belts are explained by oblique ridge subduction and Contact fault displacement. The Kodiak batholith is part of the 2100 km Sanak-Baranof belt of forearc magmatism. Along

  17. 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

  18. 77 FR 16519 - Tongass National Forest Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska; Wrangell Island Project Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... environmental impact Statement was published in the Federal Register (77 FR 14727) on March 13, 2012 concerning... Forest Service Tongass National Forest Wrangell Ranger District; Alaska; Wrangell Island Project Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of Intent to prepare...

  19. 24 CFR 203.29 - Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eligible mortgages in Alaska, Guam, Hawaii, or the Virgin Islands. 203.29 Section 203.29 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING...

  20. Further ecological and shoreline stability reconnaissance surveys of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.S.; Strand, J.A.; Ecker, R.M.

    1987-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island was performed to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and marine plant resources occurring at three proposed alternate pier sites on the west side of Back Island. Additionally, a limited survey of terrestrial vegetation was conducted in the vicinity of one of the proposed alternate pier sites to describe the littoral community and to list the dominant plant species found there. Finally, a reconnaissance survey of the shoreline of Back Island was conducted to evaluate potential changes in shoreline stability resulting from construction of onshore portions of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC).

  1. 78 FR 24362 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... the final 2013 and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian... for Greenland turbot in the Aleutian Islands subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  2. Reconnaissance of intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Behm Canal, Southeast Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Strand, J.A.; Young, J.S.

    1986-09-01

    A diver reconnaissance of the intertidal and subtidal zones of Back Island, Southeast Alaska, was performed May 20-22, 1986. The specific objectives were to catalog potentially vulnerable shellfish, other invertebrates, and plant resources, and to identify potential herring spawning sites. This effort was designed to supplement the existing ecological data base for Back Island that would be used during the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documentation process. A NEPA document will be prepared that describes the site environment and assesses impacts from the proposed construction and operation of the Southeast Alaska Acoustic Measurement Facility (SEAFAC). Nine diver transects were established around Back Island. Particular attention was devoted to proposed locations for the pier and float facilities and range-operations and shore-power cable run-ups.

  3. Adak Island, Alaska, Microearthquake survey: Preliminary Hypocenter Determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, Arthur L.; Avramenko, Walter

    1982-11-05

    Microearthquakes, defined as shocks having magnitudes less than 4, are commonly recorded in the vicinity of geothermal manifestations and volcanism. They have been mapped from producing geothermal fields as well as those not yet developed, in such places as Iceland, El Salvador, Japan, Kenya and the US. Microearthquakes have been recorded at several geothermal sites in the Imperial Valley and Coso Hot Springs, California; Kilbourne Hole, New Mexico; Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming; and The Geysers, California, where there is debate over whether or not the seismicity is induced by steam production. Seismicity occurs around active volcanoes, but appears reduced directly over zones of high temperature or magma, where the depth of the brittle fracture zone is shallow, as over Yellowstone caldera. In areas of active hydrothermalism, regional stress is likely to be relieved by low-level seismicity rather than occasional large ruptures, owing to the high temperatures, presence of fluids, and crustal weakening due to alteration and fracturing. Active faulting maintains the permeability of the system, which in its absence, might otherwise seal. on the microscopic scale, pore-fluid pressures rise as a result of heating, resulting in the decrease of effective pressure at the pore-mineral boundary. When this effective pressure becomes less than the rock's tensile strength, the pore ruptures; and if it intersects a through-going fracture under hydrostatic pressure can result in a shock detectable on seismographs at the surface. Such a mechanism might also account for the swarms of very small events seen in a number of geothermal areas. A microearthquake survey was conducted on Adak Island, Alaska for the purpose of identifying seismicity associated with a possible geothermal reservoir. During 30 days of recording in September and October 1982, 190 seismic events were recorded on two or more stations of a nine-station network. Of the total, 33 were of local origin, and of

  4. Origins of cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, elucidated from genome-wide SNP genotypes.

    PubMed

    Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Kantanen, J; Millbrooke, A; Schnabel, R D; Alexander, L J; MacNeil, M D

    2016-06-01

    Feral livestock may harbor genetic variation of commercial, scientific, historical or esthetic value. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. The island is now part of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge and Federal wildlife managers want grazing to cease, presumably leading to demise of the cattle. Here we characterize the cattle of Chirikof Island relative to extant breeds and discern their origins. Our analyses support the inference that Yakut cattle from Russia arrived first on Chirikof Island, then ~120 years ago the first European taurine cattle were introduced to the island, and finally a large wave of Hereford cattle were introduced on average 40 years ago. In addition, this mixture of European and East-Asian cattle is unique compared with other North American breeds and we find evidence that natural selection in the relatively harsh environment of Chirikof Island has further impacted their genetic architecture. These results provide an objective basis for decisions regarding conservation of the Chirikof Island cattle. PMID:26860198

  5. Origins of cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, elucidated from genome-wide SNP genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Decker, J E; Taylor, J F; Kantanen, J; Millbrooke, A; Schnabel, R D; Alexander, L J; MacNeil, M D

    2016-01-01

    Feral livestock may harbor genetic variation of commercial, scientific, historical or esthetic value. The origins and uniqueness of feral cattle on Chirikof Island, Alaska, are uncertain. The island is now part of the Alaska Maritime Wildlife Refuge and Federal wildlife managers want grazing to cease, presumably leading to demise of the cattle. Here we characterize the cattle of Chirikof Island relative to extant breeds and discern their origins. Our analyses support the inference that Yakut cattle from Russia arrived first on Chirikof Island, then ~120 years ago the first European taurine cattle were introduced to the island, and finally a large wave of Hereford cattle were introduced on average 40 years ago. In addition, this mixture of European and East-Asian cattle is unique compared with other North American breeds and we find evidence that natural selection in the relatively harsh environment of Chirikof Island has further impacted their genetic architecture. These results provide an objective basis for decisions regarding conservation of the Chirikof Island cattle. PMID:26860198

  6. Specification of Tectonic Tsunami Sources Along the Eastern Aleutian Island Arc and Alaska Peninsula for Inundation Mapping and Hazard Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimani, E.; Nicolsky, D.; Freymueller, J. T.; Koehler, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Alaska Earthquake Information Center conducts tsunami inundation mapping for coastal communities in Alaska along several segments of the Aleutian Megathrust, each having a unique seismic history and tsunami generation potential. Accurate identification and characterization of potential tsunami sources is a critical component of our project. As demonstrated by the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami, correct estimation of the maximum size event for a given segment of the subduction zone is particularly important. In that event, unexpectedly large slip occurred approximately updip of the epicenter of the main shock, based on seafloor GPS and seafloor pressure gage observations, generating a much larger tsunami than anticipated. This emphasizes the importance of the detailed knowledge of the region-specific subduction processes, and using the most up-to-date geophysical data and research models that define the magnitude range of possible future tsunami events. Our study area extends from the eastern half of the 1957 rupture zone to Kodiak Island, covering the 1946 and 1938 rupture areas, the Shumagin gap, and the western part of the 1964 rupture area. We propose a strategy for generating worst-case credible tsunami scenarios for locations that have a short or nonexistent paleoseismic/paleotsunami record, and in some cases lack modern seismic and GPS data. The potential tsunami scenarios are built based on a discretized plate interface model fit to the Slab 1.0 model geometry. We employ estimates of slip deficit along the Aleutian Megathrust from GPS campaign surveys, the Slab 1.0 interface surface, empirical magnitude-slip relationships, and a numerical code that distributes slip among the subfault elements, calculates coseismic deformations and solves the shallow water equations of tsunami propagation and runup. We define hypothetical asperities along the megathrust and in down-dip direction, and perform a set of sensitivity model runs to identify coseismic deformation

  7. Elemental and organochlorine residues in bald eagles from Adak Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Stout, Jordan H; Trust, Kimberly A

    2002-07-01

    Adak Island is a remote island in the Aleutian Island archipelago of Alaska (USA) and home to various military activities since World War II. To assess the contaminant burden of one of Adak Island's top predators, livers and kidneys were collected from 26 bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) carcasses between 1993 and 1998 for elemental and organochlorine analyses. Mean cadmium, chromium, mercury, and selenium concentrations were consistent with levels observed in other avian studies and were below toxic thresholds. However, elevated concentrations of chromium and mercury in some individuals may warrant concern. Furthermore, although mean polychlorinated biphenyl and pp'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations were below acute toxic thresholds, they were surprisingly high given Adak Island's remote location.

  8. 76 FR 55276 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... of the BSAI (76 FR 11139, March 1, 2011) and an apportionment from the non-specified reserve of groundfish (76 FR 17360, March 29, 2011). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Octopus in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands AGENCY: National Marine...

  9. Gene flow between insular, coastal and interior populations of brown bears in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Paetkau, D; Shields, G F; Strobeck, C

    1998-10-01

    The brown bears of coastal Alaska have been recently regarded as comprising from one to three distinct genetic groups. We sampled brown bears from each of the regions for which hypotheses of genetic uniqueness have been made, including the bears of the Kodiak Archipelago and the bears of Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands in southeast Alaska. These samples were analysed with a suite of nuclear microsatellite markers. The 'big brown bears' of coastal Alaska were found to be part of the continuous continental distribution of brown bears, and not genetically isolated from the physically smaller 'grizzly bears' of the interior. By contrast, Kodiak brown bears appear to have experienced little or no genetic exchange with continental populations in recent generations. The bears of the ABC Islands, which have previously been shown to undergo little or no female-mediated gene flow with mainland populations, were found not to be genetically isolated from mainland bears. The data from the four insular populations indicate that female and male dispersal can be reduced or eliminated by water barriers of 2-4 km and 7 km in width, respectively.

  10. A new population of Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) on Adak Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Talbot, S. S.

    2002-01-01

    We report and describe a new population of the endangered Aleutian shield fern (Polystichum aleuticum C. Christens.) discovered on Mount Reed, Adak Island, Alaska. The new population is located at a lower elevation than the other known populations, placing the species' known elevational range between 338 m and 525 m. The discovery of this population is significant because it increases the total number of known populations and individuals for the species.

  11. Four new species of Haplosclerida (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Four new species of Haplosclerida are described from the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Callyspongia mucosa n.sp., Cladocroce infundibulum n. sp., Cladocroce attu n. sp. and Cladocroce kiska n. sp. The new species are described and compared to congeners of the region. This is the northernmost record of the genus Callyspongia and the first record of the subgenus Callyspongia from the North Pacific Ocean. To accommodate Cladocroce kiska in its genus the definition has to be broadened to allow sigmas.

  12. Kodiak shoreline oiling assessment of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill, 1995. Restoration project. Final report. Restoration project 95027

    SciTech Connect

    Gibeaut, J.C.; Piper, E.; Munson, D.

    1996-04-01

    A shoreline survey team visited 24 sites in the Kodiak archipelago that had shoreline oiling in 1990 and 1991 to determine the persistence of that oiling through the summer of 1995. The survey team concentrated on Shuyak and northwest Afognak Island, selected areas between Sturgeon Head and Chief Cove (Spiridon Bay) on the Shelikof Straight coast of Kodiak Island, and seven sites of community concern near the village of Larson Bay inside Uyak Bay. Surveyors found no oil at sites south of Chief Cove, trace amounts at Chief Cove, and only widely spaced trace amounts at the sites on Shuyak Island. The area of shoreline affected with any amount of oil decreased by 75% within specific locations that were surveyed in 1990 or 1991 and resurveyed in 1995. Shoreline oil in Kodiak is not persisting as in PWS largely due to the lack of recalcitrant subsurface oil. Kodiak shorelines were initially affected by oil that had been floating for at least seven days. Other important reasons for the lack of shoreline oil in the Kodiak region include the patchy distribution of initial oiling and the overall high-wave energy settings of shorelines in the spill`s path.

  13. 75 FR 43147 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2010/2011 crab fishing year so...

  14. 76 FR 43658 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2011/2012 crab fishing year so...

  15. 77 FR 44216 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... recovery under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2012/2013 crab fishing year....

  16. 78 FR 46577 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Cost Recovery Program AGENCY: National... under the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program. This action is intended to provide holders of crab allocations with the fee percentage for the 2013/2014 crab fishing year so...

  17. 76 FR 44297 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources... Fishery Management Plan for Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP) and the CR Program to... the amendment is available for public review and comment. The king and Tanner crab fisheries in...

  18. 77 FR 74161 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Program. Regulations implementing these amendments were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Allocating Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crab Fishery Resources... Management Plan for Bering Sea/ Aleutian Islands King and Tanner Crabs (FMP) to NMFS for review. If...

  19. The Geyser Bight geothermal area, Umnak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J. ); Nye, C.J. Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK . Geophysical Inst.); Turner, D.L. . Geophysical Inst.); Liss, S.A. )

    1993-08-01

    The Geyser Bight geothermal area contains one of the hottest and most extensive areas of thermal springs in Alaska, and is the only site in the state with geysers. Heat for the geothermal system is derived from crustal magma associated with Mt. Recheshnoi volcano. Successive injections of magma have probably heated the crust to near its minimum melting point and produced the only high-SiO[sub 2] rhyolites in the oceanic part of the Aleutian arc. At least two hydrothermal reservoirs are postulated to underlie the geothermal area and have temperatures of 165 and 200 C, respectively, as estimated by geothermometry. Sulfate-water isotope geothermometers suggest a deeper reservoir with a temperature of 265 C. The thermal spring waters have relatively low concentrations of Cl (600 ppm) but are rich in B (60 ppm) and As (6 ppm). The As/Cl ratio is among the highest reported for geothermal waters. 41 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Long-term observations of Alaska Coastal Current in the northern Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stabeno, Phyllis J.; Bell, Shaun; Cheng, Wei; Danielson, Seth; Kachel, Nancy B.; Mordy, Calvin W.

    2016-10-01

    The Alaska Coastal Current is a continuous, well-defined system extending for ~1700 km along the coast of Alaska from Seward, Alaska to Samalga Pass in the Aleutian Islands. The currents in this region are examined using data collected at >20 mooring sites and from >400 satellite-tracked drifters. While not continuous, the mooring data span a 30 year period (1984-2014). Using current meter data collected at a dozen mooring sites spread over four lines (Seward, Gore Point, Kennedy and Stevenson Entrances, and the exit to Shelikof Strait) total transport was calculated. Transport was significantly correlated with alongshore winds, although the correlation at the Seward Line was weak. The largest mean transport in the Alaska Coastal Current occurred at Gore Point (1.4×106 m3 s-1 in winter and 0.6×106 m3 s-1 in summer), with the transport at the exit to Shelikof Strait (1.3×106 m3 s-1 in winter and 0.6×106 m3 s-1 in summer) only slightly less. The transport was modified at the Seward Line in late summer and fall by frontal undulations associated with strong river discharge that enters onto the shelf at that time of year. The interaction of the Alaska Coastal Current and tidal currents with shallow banks in the vicinity of Kodiak Archipeligo and in Kennedy-Stevenson Entrance results in mixing and prolonged primary production throughout the summer.

  1. The annual migration cycle of emperor geese in Western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Schmutz, J.A.; Ely, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Most emperor geese (Chen canagica) nest in a narrow coastal region of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, but their winter distribution extends more than 3000 km from Kodiak Island, Alaska, to the Commander Islands, Russia. We marked 53 adult female emperor geese with satellite transmitters on the YKD in 1999, 2002, and 2003 to examine whether chronology of migration or use of seasonal habitats differed among birds that wintered in different regions. Females that migrated relatively short distances (650-1010 km) between the YKD and winter sites on the south side of the Alaska Peninsula bypassed autumn staging areas on the Bering Sea coast of the Alaska Peninsula or used them for shorter periods (mean = 57 days) than birds that made longer migrations (1600-2640 km) to the western Aleutian Islands (mean = 97 days). Alaska Peninsula migrants spent more days at winter sites (mean =172 days, 95% CI: 129-214 days) than western Aleutian Island migrants (mean = 91 days, 95% CI: 83-99 days). Birds that migrated 930-1610 km to the eastern Aleutian Islands spent intermediate intervals at fall staging (mean = 77 days) and wintering areas (mean = 108 days, 95% CI: 95-119 days). Return dates to the YKD did not differ among birds that wintered in different regions. Coastal staging areas on the Alaska Peninsula may be especially important in autumn to prepare Aleutian migrants physiologically for long-distance migration to winter sites, and in spring to enable emperor geese that migrate different distances to reach comparable levels of condition before nesting. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  2. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  3. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Russell W.; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Choy, Kyungcheol; Culleton, Brendan J.; Davies, Lauren J.; Hritz, Carrie; Kapp, Joshua D.; Newsom, Lee A.; Rawcliffe, Ruth; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Wang, Yue; Williams, John W.; Wooller, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    Relict woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) populations survived on several small Beringian islands for thousands of years after mainland populations went extinct. Here we present multiproxy paleoenvironmental records to investigate the timing, causes, and consequences of mammoth disappearance from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Five independent indicators of extinction show that mammoths survived on St. Paul until 5,600 ± 100 y ago. Vegetation composition remained stable during the extinction window, and there is no evidence of human presence on the island before 1787 CE, suggesting that these factors were not extinction drivers. Instead, the extinction coincided with declining freshwater resources and drier climates between 7,850 and 5,600 y ago, as inferred from sedimentary magnetic susceptibility, oxygen isotopes, and diatom and cladoceran assemblages in a sediment core from a freshwater lake on the island, and stable nitrogen isotopes from mammoth remains. Contrary to other extinction models for the St. Paul mammoth population, this evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change. Degradation of water quality by intensified mammoth activity around the lake likely exacerbated the situation. The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions, highlighting freshwater limitation as an overlooked extinction driver and underscoring the vulnerability of small island populations to environmental change, even in the absence of human influence. PMID:27482085

  4. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Graham, Russell W; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Choy, Kyungcheol; Culleton, Brendan J; Davies, Lauren J; Froese, Duane; Heintzman, Peter D; Hritz, Carrie; Kapp, Joshua D; Newsom, Lee A; Rawcliffe, Ruth; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Yue; Williams, John W; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-08-16

    Relict woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) populations survived on several small Beringian islands for thousands of years after mainland populations went extinct. Here we present multiproxy paleoenvironmental records to investigate the timing, causes, and consequences of mammoth disappearance from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Five independent indicators of extinction show that mammoths survived on St. Paul until 5,600 ± 100 y ago. Vegetation composition remained stable during the extinction window, and there is no evidence of human presence on the island before 1787 CE, suggesting that these factors were not extinction drivers. Instead, the extinction coincided with declining freshwater resources and drier climates between 7,850 and 5,600 y ago, as inferred from sedimentary magnetic susceptibility, oxygen isotopes, and diatom and cladoceran assemblages in a sediment core from a freshwater lake on the island, and stable nitrogen isotopes from mammoth remains. Contrary to other extinction models for the St. Paul mammoth population, this evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change. Degradation of water quality by intensified mammoth activity around the lake likely exacerbated the situation. The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions, highlighting freshwater limitation as an overlooked extinction driver and underscoring the vulnerability of small island populations to environmental change, even in the absence of human influence.

  5. Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Graham, Russell W; Belmecheri, Soumaya; Choy, Kyungcheol; Culleton, Brendan J; Davies, Lauren J; Froese, Duane; Heintzman, Peter D; Hritz, Carrie; Kapp, Joshua D; Newsom, Lee A; Rawcliffe, Ruth; Saulnier-Talbot, Émilie; Shapiro, Beth; Wang, Yue; Williams, John W; Wooller, Matthew J

    2016-08-16

    Relict woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) populations survived on several small Beringian islands for thousands of years after mainland populations went extinct. Here we present multiproxy paleoenvironmental records to investigate the timing, causes, and consequences of mammoth disappearance from St. Paul Island, Alaska. Five independent indicators of extinction show that mammoths survived on St. Paul until 5,600 ± 100 y ago. Vegetation composition remained stable during the extinction window, and there is no evidence of human presence on the island before 1787 CE, suggesting that these factors were not extinction drivers. Instead, the extinction coincided with declining freshwater resources and drier climates between 7,850 and 5,600 y ago, as inferred from sedimentary magnetic susceptibility, oxygen isotopes, and diatom and cladoceran assemblages in a sediment core from a freshwater lake on the island, and stable nitrogen isotopes from mammoth remains. Contrary to other extinction models for the St. Paul mammoth population, this evidence indicates that this mammoth population died out because of the synergistic effects of shrinking island area and freshwater scarcity caused by rising sea levels and regional climate change. Degradation of water quality by intensified mammoth activity around the lake likely exacerbated the situation. The St. Paul mammoth demise is now one of the best-dated prehistoric extinctions, highlighting freshwater limitation as an overlooked extinction driver and underscoring the vulnerability of small island populations to environmental change, even in the absence of human influence. PMID:27482085

  6. Striated boulder pavements within glaciomarine diamicts of the Yakataga Formation, Middleton Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Eyles, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The presence of striated boulder pavements in glacial sequences is often cited as evidence of transport and deposition by grounded glacier ice. However, recent reports show that striated pavements also form in non-glacial environments by the abrasion of boulder lag surfaces by floating glacier and seasonal ice. Several striated boulder pavements are identified within Early Pleistocene upper Yakataga Formation sediments exposed on Middleton Island close to the southern edge of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf. The sequence is dominated by thick stratiform units of massive and stratified diamict formed by the settling of fine-grained sands and muds from suspension together with ice-rafted debris. Boulder pavements outcrop as extensive planar horizons within the diamicts, can be traced for several kilometers along strike and consist of single lines of clasts with faceted upper surfaces showing consistently oriented striation directions. Clasts are not preferentially aligned, however, and do not have the characteristic bullet shape of boulders transported at a glacier base and deposited by lodgement processes. Striated boulder pavements on Middleton Island appear to have formed as boulder lag surfaces generated by wave and tidal current reworking of diamict on relatively shallow banks. Lags were then overridden and abraded by a grounding ice shelf. The glacially-abraded boulder pavements on Middleton Island record the repeated expansion of a continuous ice shelf to the edge of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf during the Early Pleistocene.

  7. Genetic differentiation of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris in the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birt, T.P.; Mackinnon, D.; Piatt, J.F.; Friesen, V.L.

    2011-01-01

    Information about the distribution of genetic variation within and among local populations of the Kittlitz's Murrelet Brachyramphus brevirostris is needed for effective conservation of this rare and declining species. We compared variation in a 429 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial control region and 11 microsatellite loci among 53 Kittlitz's Murrelets from three sites in the western Aleutian Islands (Attu Island) and Gulf of Alaska (Glacier Bay and Kachemak Bay). We found that birds in these two regions differ genetically in three assessments: (1) global and pairwise indices of genetic differentiation were significantly greater than zero, (2) mitochondrial haplotypes differed by a minimum of nine substitutions, and (3) molecular assignments indicated little gene flow between regions. The data suggest that birds in these regions have been genetically isolated for an extended period. We conclude that Kittlitz's Murrelets from Attu Island and from the Gulf of Alaska represent separate evolutionarily significant units, and should be treated as such for conservation. Genetic data for Kittlitz's Murrelets from the remainder of the breeding range are urgently needed.

  8. Preliminary results of microearthquake survey, Northern Adak Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Mackelprang, Claron E.

    1982-01-01

    Nine MEQ-800 portable seismic systems were emplaced and recordings taken during the 30 day period between September 5 to October 4, 1982. During this interval 190 events were correlated on two or more stations by Mincomp. Twenty four of these, seen on four or more stations and considered to be local in origin, yielded, according to Mincomp, reasonable hypocenters and origin times using a homogeneous earth model having a velocity of 5 km/sec. A plot of these hypocenters showed much of the microearthquake activity recorded during the survey to be located beneath Mt. Adagdak. This is different from the events located by the Butler and Keller (1974) microearthquake survey which placed hypocenters beneath the sea in Andrew Bay north and northwest of Mt. Adagdak. Butler and Keller did project a fault plane to the surface which would project southwest through Mt. Adagdak and Andrew Bay Volcano. ESL hypocenter locations using the layered earth model show many of the identified events to occur on the northeast corner of the island at focal depths of 8-10 km. It is not obvious that the observed events are related to a single active fault. If so, the fault must be at a low dip angle as shown by the least-squares-fit to the data on Figure 3. Alternatively, the majority of the events occurring within a fairly restrictive range of focal depths may be more indicative of a magma chamber and the movement of magma. Further interpretation of the microearthquake data obtained during 1982 is, however, outside the scope of this report. The relatively small error ellipses for hypocenter locations, compared to the distribution of hypocenters shown on Plates V and VI lead us to question the validity of the projection of all hypocenters to define a single fault location and orientation. It is apparent that two or more structures could be indicated by the present data and that these structures intersect near the north end of Adak island. The occurrence of most events in a narrow depth range

  9. Shoreline impacts in the Gulf of Alaska region following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    SciTech Connect

    Gilfillan, E.S.; Page, D.S.; Suchanek, T.H.; Boehm, P.D.; Harner, E.J.; Sloan, N.A.

    1995-12-31

    Forty-eight sites in the Gulf of Alaska region (GOA-Kodiak Island, Kenai Peninsula, and Alaska Peninsula) were sampled in July/August 1989 to assess the impact of the March 24, 1989, Exxon Valdez oil spill on shoreline chemistry and biological communities hundreds of miles from the spill origin. In a 1990 companion study, 5 of the Kensai sites and 13 of the Kodiak and Alaska Peninsula sites were sampled 16 months after the spill. Oiling levels at each site were estimated visually and/or quantified by chemical analysis. The chemical analyses were performed on sediment and/or rock wipe samples collected with the biological samples. Additional sediment samples were collected for laboratory amphipod toxicity tests. Mussels were also collected and analyzed for hydrocarbon content to assess hydrocarbon bioavailability. Biological investigations at these GOA sites focused on intertidal infauna, epifauna, and macroalgae by means of a variety of common ecological techniques. For rock sites the percentage of hard substratum covered by biota was quantified. At each site, up to 5 biological samples (scrapes of rock surfaces or sediment cores) were collected intertidally along each of 3 transects, spanning tide levels from the high intertidal to mean-lowest-low-water (zero tidal datum). Organisms (down to 1.0 mm in size) from these samples were sorted and identified. Community parameters including organism abundance, species richness, and Shannon diversity were calculated for each sample. 43 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus), from Alaska, 1988 to 1991.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Zarnke, R L; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Mendes, E

    1995-10-01

    We tested 644 serum samples from 480 grizzly bears and 40 black bears from Alaska (USA), collected between 1988 and 1991, for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using a commercially available latex agglutination test (LAT). A titer > or = 64 was considered positive. Serum antibody prevalence for T. gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) was 18% (87 of 480). Prevalence ranged from 9% (seven of 77) on Kodiak Island to 28% (15 of 54) in northern Alaska. Prevalence was directly correlated to age. No grizzly bears < 2-year-old had T. gondii antibody. High antibody titers were found mainly in grizzly bears captured north of the Arctic Circle. Antibody prevalence in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Interior Alaska was 15% (six of 40), similar to the prevalence in grizzly bears from the same area (13%; five of 40).

  11. Hair methylmercury levels of mummies of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Egeland, G.M. Ponce, Rafael Bloom, Nicolas S. Knecht, Rick Loring, Stephen Middaugh, John P.

    2009-04-15

    Ancient human hair specimens can shed light on the extent of pre-historic exposures to methylmercury and provide valuable comparison data with current-day exposures, particularly for Indigenous Peoples who continue to rely upon local traditional food resources. Human hair from ancient Aleutian Island Native remains were tested for total and methylmercury (Hg, MeHg) and were radiocarbon dated. The remains were approximately 500 years old (1450 A.D.). For four adults, the mean and median total hair mercury concentration was 5.8 ppm (SD=0.9). In contrast, MeHg concentrations were lower with a mean of 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and a median of 0.54 ppm (0.12-3.86). For the five infants, the mean and median MeHg level was 1.2 ppm (SD=1.8) and 0.20 ppm (0.007-4.61), respectively. Segmental analyses showed variations in MeHg concentrations in 1-cm segments, consistent with fluctuations in naturally occurring exposure to mercury through dietary sources. The levels are comparable to or lower than those found in fish and marine mammal-eating populations today who rely far less on subsistence food than pre-historic humans. The findings are, therefore, compatible with increased anthropogenic release of trace metals during the past several centuries.

  12. Description of Caurinus tlagu, new species, from Prince of Wales Island, Alaska (Mecoptera, Boreidae, Caurininae)

    PubMed Central

    Sikes, Derek S.; Stockbridge, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the cryptic, minute, wingless, and enigmatic taxon Caurinus, and the second for the subfamily Caurininae,is described from Prince of Wales Island in the Alexander Archipelago, Alaska. It is distinguished from its only congener, Caurinus dectes Russell, 1979b, which occurs 1,059 km southeast in Oregon and Washington, based on external morphology and sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase II. These two species are probably evolutionary relicts – the only known members of a clade dating to the Late Jurassic or older. PMID:23878513

  13. Insights into Magma Evolution in the Islands of the Four Mountains, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, A. A.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.

    2015-12-01

    The Islands of the Four Mountains (IFM) is a group of small volcanoes in the central region of Alaska's Aleutian island arc. There are few studies of this remote group of islands despite their rich archeological history and diverse eruptive histories. This study focuses on silicic deposits from the IFM to shed light on the area's history of large explosive eruptions and the IFM's chemical relationship to the rest of the central Aleutian Islands. This study applies whole rock geochemistry, detailed petrographic analysis, and electron microprobe analysis to samples of volcanic deposits from Tana, Cleveland, Carlisle, and Herbert volcanoes, including the first documented ignimbrite deposit in the IFM, found on northern Tana. The IFM lavas range from basaltic to dacitic and follow typical island arc and calc-alkaline chemical trends, providing evidence of high aqueous fluid input to the mantle wedge, as well as varying levels of influence from subducted sediments. Tana, the largest (~12 km2) and most siliceous of the IFM volcanoes, expresses anomalies in K and Rb concentrations that may aid in the refinement of the continental-oceanic crust boundary location along the Aleutian arc. Plagioclase phenocryst disequilibrium textures and compositions provide evidence of mixing and recharge in the IFM magma chambers. Multiple plagioclase phenocryst populations, euhedral pyroxene crystals in disequilibrium with the melt, and angular xenolithic clasts in the Tana ignimbrite suggest a rapid mixing and heating event that triggered its large explosive eruption during the Pleistocene.

  14. Reconnaissance for uranium and thorium in Alaska, 1954

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matzko, John J.; Bates, Robert G.

    1957-01-01

    During 1954 reconnaissance investigations to locate minable deposits of uranium and thorium in Alaska were unsuccessful. Areas examined, from which prospectors had submitted radioactive samples, include Cap Yakataga, Kodiak Island, and Shirley Lake. Unconcentrated gravels from the beach at Cape Yakataga average about 0.001 percent equivalent uranium. Uranothorianite has been identified by X-ray diffraction data and is the principal source of radioactivity in the Cape Yakataga beach sands studied; but the zircon, monazite, and uranothorite are also radioactive. The black, opaque uranothorianite generally occurs as minute euhedral cubs, the majority of which will pass through a 100-mesh screen. The bedrock source of the radioactive samples from Kodiak Island was not found; the maximum radioactivity of samples from the Shirley Lake area was equivalent to about 0.02 percent uranium. Radiometric traverses of the 460-foot level of the Garnet shaft of the Nixon Fork mine in the Nixon Fork mining district indicated a maximum of 0.15 mr/hr. In the Hot Springs district, drill hole concentrates of gravels examined contained a maximum of 0.03 percent equivalent uranium. A radioactivity anomaly noted during the Survey's airborne reconnaissance of portions of the Territory during 1954 is located in the Fairhaven district. A ground check disclosed that the radioactivity was due to accessory minerals in the granitic rock.

  15. Stock structure of sea otters (Enhydra Lutris Kenyoni) in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorbics, C.S.; Bodkin, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Sea otters in Alaska are recognized as a single subspecies (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) and currently managed as a single, interbreeding population. However, geographic and behavioral mechanisms undoubtably constrain sea otter movements on much smaller scales. This paper applies the phylogeographic method (Dizon et al. 1992) and considers distribution, population response, phenotype and genotype data to identify stocks of sea otters within Alaska. The evidence for separate stock identity is genotypic (all stocks), phenotypic (Southcentral and Southwest stocks), and geographic distribution (Southeast stock), whereas population response data are equivocal (all stocks). Differences in genotype frequencies and the presence of unique genotypes among areas indicate restricted gene flow. Genetic exchange may be limited by little or no movement across proposed stock boundaries and discontinuities in distribution at proposed stock boundaries. Skull size differences (phenotypic) between Southwest and Southcentral Alaska populations further support stock separation. Population response information was equivocal in either supporting or refuting stock identity. On the basis of this review, we suggest the following: (1) a Southeast stock extending from Dixon Entrance to Cape Yakataga; (2) a Southcentral stock extending from Cape Yakataga to Cape Douglas including Prince William Sound and Kenai peninsula coast; and (3) a Southwest stock including Alaska Peninsula coast, the Aleutians to Attu Island, Barren, Kodiak, Pribilof Islands, and Bristol Bay.

  16. Peatland records of dust deposition from Middleton Island, Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, C. M.; Crusius, J.; Schroth, A. W.; Nichols, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.; Kenna, T. C.; Giosan, L.; Eglinton, T. I.; Gassó, S.

    2011-12-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient that limits the growth of phytoplankton in much of the global ocean. In the Gulf of Alaska (GoA), we have a limited knowledge of the processes that transport iron, and in particular, the role eolian dust plays in delivering iron to the ocean surface. In order to better understand both modern and past mechanisms of dust deposition in the GoA, we examine satellite, NCEP reanalysis, and meteorological station data as well as geochemical data from peat cores collected from Middleton Island (59.43°N, 146.34°W). Widespread dust events have been observed in MODIS satellite imagery emanating from exposed floodplains within the Copper River valley and adjacent glaciated river valleys in southcentral Alaska (AK). Dust events are common in the fall when high pressure in the AK interior and low pressure in the central GoA establish a tight pressure gradient that drives anomalously strong northerly winds. Low river levels and limited snow coverage expose fine-grained glacial sediments that are entrained by winds. MODIS imagery indicates dust reaches beyond the continental shelf, and in many instances, dust plumes have been observed passing over Middleton Island (100 km SSW of the Copper River delta). To better constrain dust deposition from southcentral AK on geologic timescales, we collected cores from an extensive peat bog on Middleton Island, located at the edge of the continental shelf. X-ray imagery, bulk density, magnetic susceptibility, loss on ignition, and profiling XRF data indicate significant variations in inorganic or clastic components within the organic peat matrix. Because these cores were collected near the island's topographic high point, we infer that all inorganic constituents are likely delivered as dust, with potential secondary contributions from volcanic ash. We will present a well-dated, high-resolution scanning XRF profile that spans the last 5200 years and records downcore variations in terrigenous material that

  17. Hindcast storm events in the Bering Sea for the St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet Regions, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, Li H.; McCall, Robert T.; van Rooijen, Arnold; Norris, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study provides viable estimates of historical storm-induced water levels in the coastal communities of Gambell and Savoonga situated on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea, as well as Unalakleet located at the head of Norton Sound on the western coast of Alaska. Gambell, Savoonga, and Unalakleet are small Native Villages that are regularly impacted by coastal storms but where little quantitative information about these storms exists. The closest continuous water-level gauge is at Nome, located more than 200 kilometers from both St. Lawrence Island and Unalakleet. In this study, storms are identified and quantified using historical atmospheric and sea-ice data and then used as boundary conditions for a suite of numerical models. The work includes storm-surge (temporary rise in water levels due to persistent strong winds and low atmospheric pressures) modeling in the Bering Strait region, as well as modeling of wave runup along specified sections of the coast in Gambell and Unalakleet. Modeled historical water levels are used to develop return periods of storm surge and storm surge plus wave runup at key locations in each community. It is anticipated that the results will fill some of the data void regarding coastal flood data in western Alaska and be used for production of coastal vulnerability maps and community planning efforts.

  18. Coxiella burnetii in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) placentas from St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Kersh, Gilbert J; Spraker, Terry; Patyk, Kelly A; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Massung, Robert F; Gelatt, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The decline in the number of northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) pups on St. Paul Island, Alaska, has led to multidisciplinary research, including investigation into issues of reproductive health and success. Given the recent identification of Coxiella burnetii in the placenta of two other marine mammal species, NFS placentas were collected from Reef rookery on St. Paul Island, Alaska, during the 2010 pupping season, examined histologically, and tested for C. burnetii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of 146 placentas examined, gram-negative intratrophoblastic bacteria that were positive for C. burnetii on immunohistochemistry were observed in 5 (3%) placentas. Placental infection was usually devoid of associated inflammation or significant ancillary pathology. One hundred nine (75%) of the placentas were positive for C. burnetii on PCR. C. burnetii is globally distributed and persists for long periods in the environment, providing ample opportunity for exposure of many species. The significance of this finding for the declining fur seal population, potential human exposure and infection, and impact on other sympatric marine mammal or terrestrial species is unclear; further investigation into the epidemiology of Coxiella in the marine ecosystem is warranted.

  19. Continuous uplift near the seaward edge of the Prince William Sound megathrust: Middleton Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Plafker, George; Svarc, Jerry L.; Lisowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Middleton Island, located at the seaward edge of the continental shelf 50 km from the base of the inner wall of the Aleutian Trench, affords an opportunity to make land-based measurements of uplift near the toe of the Prince William Sound megathrust, site of the 1964, M = 9.2, Alaska earthquake. Leveling surveys (1973–1993) on Middleton Island indicate roughly uniform tilting (~1 µrad/a down to the northwest) of the island, and GPS surveys (1993–2012) show an uplift rate of 14 mm/a of the island relative to fixed North America. The data are consistent with a combined (coseismic and postseismic) uplift (in meters) due to the 1964 earthquake as a function of time τ (years after the earthquake) u(τ) = (3.5 + 1.21 log10 [1 + 1.67 τ]) H(τ) where 3.5 is the coseismic uplift and H(τ) is 0 for τ < 0 and 1 otherwise. The current uplift on Middleton Island is attributed to continuous slip on a fault splaying off from the megathrust, and the long-term uplift is the superposition of the effects of past earthquakes, each earthquake being similar to the 1964 event. Then, the predicted uplift at time t due to a sequence of earthquakes at times tiwould be . From studies of strandlines associated with the uplifted terraces on Middleton Island, Plafker et al. (1992) estimated the occurrence times of the last six earthquakes and measured the present-day elevations of those strandlines. The predicted uplift is in rough agreement with those measurements. About half of the predicted uplift is due to postseismic relaxation from previous earthquakes.

  20. Paleogene geology and chronology of southwestern Umnak Island, Aleutian Islands, Alaska ( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLean, H.; Hein, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    A slightly deformed marine sedimentary sequence reflecting volcanic arc sedimentation from late Eocene to early Oligocene is intruded by hypabyssal quartz diorite sills and small plutons with apparent ages of about 30 Ma, ie, middle Oligocene. Chemical data from igneous rocks exhibit calc-alkaline and tholeiitic volcanic arc differentiation trends. The fossil ages and radiometric dates from SW Umnak Island are similar to those reported from other central and E Aleutian islands, and indicate uniformity in the chronology and tectonic development of the archipelago during the Paleogene. Paleomagnetic data suggest possible northward movement but remain equivocal and more work is indicated. -after Authors

  1. Phytosociological study of the dwarf shrub heath of Simeonof Wilderness, Shumagin Islands, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, F.J.A.; Talbot, S. S.; Looman, Talbot S.; Schofield, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    The maritime dwarf shrub heath vegetation of the Northern Pacific, Simeonof Island, Shumagin Islands, Southwestern Alaska, was studied according to the Braun-Blanquet approach. Based on 30 releve??s of 16 m2 that include vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens, two new associations could be described belonging to the class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea (order Rhododendro-Vaccinietalia): Rubo-Empetretum nigri and Carici-Empetretum nigri. The wind-sheltered Rubo-Empetretum nigri (alliance Phyllodoco-Vaccinion) mainly occurs in the lowlands on level terrain or sloping sites at lower foot slopes of mountains on deeper, mesic soil; this association is the zonal vegetation of the lowlands. Boreal, widespread and amphi-Beringian species are prominent in the distribution-type spectrum of the vascular plants. Two variants of Rubo-Empetretum nigri are described. A Geranium erianthum variant occurs on south-facing slopes and is rich in vascular plants species. A Plagiothecium undulatum variant is restricted to northern exposures and is rich in bryophytes and lichens. A Carici-Empetretum nigri (alliance Loiseleurio-Diapension) occurs on shallow soil on wind exposed sites at higher elevations in the mountains. It is very rich in lichen species of arctic-alpine distribution. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) suggests that altitude, nutrient content of the soil and exposition are the most important differential ecological factors. Soil depth, total carbon and nitrogen content, plant available phosphorus and all other measured cation contents are higher in Rubo-Empetretum than in Carici-Empetretum. Literature comparisons confirm the occurrence of both associations in other areas on the Southwest Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. Presumably both associations have an amphi-Beringian distribution. The syntaxonomy of boreal-montane dwarf shrub heaths and synecological aspects are briefly discussed. ?? 2004 Gebru??der Borntraeger.

  2. 75 FR 38430 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... and 2011 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). In... specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (75 FR 11788, March 12, 2010). The harvest specification for the 2010... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Aleutian Islands Subarea of the Bering Sea and...

  3. 77 FR 44172 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... tons (mt) by the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish of the BSAI (77 FR 10669... biological catch in the final 2012 and 2013 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (77 FR 10669... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Squid in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY:...

  4. 75 FR 56485 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48298), with a public comment period that closed August 25, 2010. One... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations to remove the...

  5. 75 FR 7205 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... final rule implementing the Crab Rationalization Program (Program) was published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR... fishery would be caused in the time it would take to follow standard rulemaking procedures (62 FR 44421... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Emergency...

  6. 75 FR 48298 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program; Recordkeeping... removes the Crab Rationalization Program requirements for catcher/processors to weigh all offloaded crab... INFORMATION CONTACT: Patsy A. Bearden, 907-586-7228. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS manages the U.S....

  7. 75 FR 21600 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XW07 Groundfish Fisheries of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Area and the Gulf of Alaska; King and Tanner Crab Fisheries in the Bering...

  8. Tsunami recurrence in the eastern Alaska-Aleutian arc: A Holocene stratigraphic record from Chirikof Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Alan R.; Briggs, Richard; Dura, Tina; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Bradley, Lee-Ann; Forman, S.L.; Vane, Christopher H.; Kelley, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    cannot estimate source earthquake locations or magnitudes for most tsunami-deposited beds. We infer that no more than 3 of the 23 possible tsunamis beds at both sites were deposited following upper plate faulting or submarine landslides independent of megathrust earthquakes. If so, the Semidi segment of the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust near Chirikof Island probably sent high tsunamis southward every 180–270 yr for at least the past 3500 yr.                   

  9. Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Bruce Albert

    2014-05-07

    The Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association was awarded a U.S. Department of Energy Tribal Energy Program grant (DE-EE0005624) for the Feasibility of Tidal and Ocean Current Energy in False Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (Project). The goal of the Project was to perform a feasibility study to determine if a tidal energy project would be a viable means to generate electricity and heat to meet long-term fossil fuel use reduction goals, specifically to produce at least 30% of the electrical and heating needs of the tribally-owned buildings in False Pass. The Project Team included the Aleut Region organizations comprised of the Aleutian Pribilof Island Association (APIA), and Aleutian Pribilof Island Community Development Association (APICDA); the University of Alaska Anchorage, ORPC Alaska a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), City of False Pass, Benthic GeoScience, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The following Project objectives were completed: collected existing bathymetric, tidal, and ocean current data to develop a basic model of current circulation at False Pass, measured current velocities at two sites for a full lunar cycle to establish the viability of the current resource, collected data on transmission infrastructure, electrical loads, and electrical generation at False Pass, performed economic analysis based on current costs of energy and amount of energy anticipated from and costs associated with the tidal energy project conceptual design and scoped environmental issues. Utilizing circulation modeling, the Project Team identified two target sites with strong potential for robust tidal energy resources in Isanotski Strait and another nearer the City of False Pass. In addition, the Project Team completed a survey of the electrical infrastructure, which identified likely sites of interconnection and clarified required transmission distances from the tidal energy resources. Based on resource and electrical data

  10. The 2008 Eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska: Reconnaissance Observations and Preliminary Physical Volcanology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Schneider, D. J.; Prejean, S. G.

    2008-12-01

    The August 7, 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano was the first documented historical eruption of this small (3 x 3 km) island volcano with a 1 km2 lake filled crater in the central Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Reports of previous Kasatochi eruptions are unconfirmed and lacking in detail and little is known about the eruptive history. Three explosively-generated ash plumes reaching altitudes of 15 to 20 km were observed in satellite data and were preceded by some of the most intense seismicity yet recorded by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) seismic network. Eruptive products on Kasatochi Island observed on August 22 and 23 consist of pumice-bearing, lithic-rich pyroclastic-flow deposits overlain by a 1-2 m thick sequence of fine- grained pyroclastic-surge, and -fall deposits all exposed at the coastline. These deposits completely blanket Kasatochi Island to a depth of many meters. Pyroclastic flows entered the sea and extended the coastline 300-400 m beyond prominent wave cut cliffs and sea stacks. Tide gauge data from Adak Island, 80 km to the west, indicate a small tsunami with maximum water amplitude of 20 cm, was initiated during the eruption. Kasatochi volcano lacks a real-time seismic monitoring network. Seismic activity was detected by AVO instruments on Great Sitkin Island 40 km to the west, and thus the timing of eruptive events is approximate. The eruption began explosively at 2201 UTC on August 7, and was followed by at least two additional strong eruptive bursts at 0150 UTC and 0435 UTC, August 8. Satellite data show a significant ash cloud associated with the 0435 UTC event followed by at least 14 hours of continuous ash emission. The lack of a strong ash signature in satellite data suggest that the first two plumes were ash poor. Satellite data also show a large emission of SO2 that entered the stratosphere. Correlation of eruptive periods with deposits on the island is not yet possible, but it appears that pyroclastic flows were emplaced during

  11. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Akutan Volcano east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Power, John A.; Richter, Donlad H.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is a 1100-meter-high stratovolcano on Akutan Island in the east-central Aleutian Islands of southwestern Alaska. The volcano is located about 1238 kilometers southwest of Anchorage and about 56 kilometers east of Dutch Harbor/Unalaska. Eruptive activity has occurred at least 27 times since historical observations were recorded beginning in the late 1700?s. Recent eruptions produced only small amounts of fine volcanic ash that fell primarily on the upper flanks of the volcano. Small amounts of ash fell on the Akutan Harbor area during eruptions in 1911, 1948, 1987, and 1989. Plumes of volcanic ash are the primary hazard associated with eruptions of Akutan Volcano and are a major hazard to all aircraft using the airfield at Dutch Harbor or approaching Akutan Island. Eruptions similar to historical Akutan eruptions should be anticipated in the future. Although unlikely, eruptions larger than those of historical time could generate significant amounts of volcanic ash, fallout, pyroclastic flows, and lahars that would be hazardous to life and property on all sectors of the volcano and other parts of the island, but especially in the major valleys that head on the volcano flanks. During a large eruption an ash cloud could be produced that may be hazardous to aircraft using the airfield at Cold Bay and the airspace downwind from the volcano. In the event of a large eruption, volcanic ash fallout could be relatively thick over parts of Akutan Island and volcanic bombs could strike areas more than 10 kilometers from the volcano.

  12. Surface sedimentary units of the Gulf of Alaska continental shelf: Montague Island to Yakutat Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    1977-01-01

    Four major sedimentary units occur on the sea floor of the continental shelf in the northern Gulf of Alaska. These units, defined on the basis of seismic and sedimentologic data, are: (1) Holocene sediments, (2) Holocene mind moraines, C3) Quaternary glacial marine sediments, and (4) Tertiary and Pleistocene lithified deposits. A wedge of Holocene fine sand to clayey silt covers most of the inner shelf, reaching maximum thicknesses of about 350 m seaward of the Copper River and about 200 m seaward of Icy Bay. Holocene end moraines are found at the mouth of Icy Bay, south of Bering Glacier, and at the mouth of Yakutat Bay. Quaternary glacial marine sediments are found in a narrow arc that borders, on the north and west side of Tart Bank and in a large arc 20 km or more offshore that parallels the shoreline between Kayak Island and Yakutat Bay. Tertiary or Pleistocene stratified sedimentary rocks, which in profile commonly are folded, faulted, and truncated, crop out on Tarr Bank, offshore of Montague Island, and in several localities southeast and southwest of Cape Yakataga. The lack of Holocene cover on Tarr Bank and Middleton, Kayak and Montague Island platforms may be due to the scouring action of swift bottom currents and large storm waves. West of Kayak Island the Copper River is the primary source of Holocene sediment. East of Kayak Island the major sediment sources are streams draining the larger ice fields, notably, the Malaspina and Bering Glaciers. Transport of bottom and suspended sediment is predominantly to the west. If deglaciation of the shelf was completed by 10,000 years B.P., maximum rates of accumulation of Holocene sediment on the inner shelf may be as high as 10-35 m per 1,000 years.

  13. August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska-resetting an Island Landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, W.E.; Nye, C.J.; Waythomas, C.F.; Neal, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    Kasatochi Island, the subaerial portion of a small volcano in the western Aleutian volcanic arc, erupted on 7-8 August 2008. Pyroclastic flows and surges swept the island repeatedly and buried most of it and the near-shore zone in decimeters to tens of meters of deposits. Several key seabird rookeries in taluses were rendered useless. The eruption lasted for about 24 hours and included two initial explosive pulses and pauses over a 6-hr period that produced ash-poor eruption clouds, a 10-hr period of continuous ash-rich emissions initiated by an explosive pulse and punctuated by two others, and a final 8-hr period of waning ash emissions. The deposits of the eruption include a basal muddy tephra that probably reflects initial eruptions through the shallow crater lake, a sequence of pumiceous and lithic-rich pyroclastic deposits produced by flow, surge, and fall processes during a period of energetic explosive eruption, and a fine-grained upper mantle of pyroclastic-fall and -surge deposits that probably reflects the waning eruptive stage as lake and ground water again gained access to the erupting magma. An eruption with similar impact on the island's environment had not occurred for at least several centuries. Since the 2008 eruption, the volcano has remained quiet other than emission of volcanic gases. Erosion and deposition are rapidly altering slopes and beaches. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  14. Preliminary Volcano-Hazard Assessment for Gareloi Volcano, Gareloi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2008-01-01

    Gareloi Volcano (178.794 degrees W and 51.790 degrees N) is located on Gareloi Island in the Delarof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands, about 2,000 kilometers west-southwest of Anchorage and about 150 kilometers west of Adak, the westernmost community in Alaska. This small (about 8x10 kilometer) volcano has been one of the most active in the Aleutians since its discovery by the Bering expedition in the 1740s, though because of its remote location, observations have been scant and many smaller eruptions may have gone unrecorded. Eruptions of Gareloi commonly produce ash clouds and lava flows. Scars on the flanks of the volcano and debris-avalanche deposits on the adjacent seafloor indicate that the volcano has produced large landslides in the past, possibly causing tsunamis. Such events are infrequent, occurring at most every few thousand years. The primary hazard from Gareloi is airborne clouds of ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize and describe the major volcanic hazards associated with Gareloi.

  15. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Potential U.S. Department of Energy Site Responsibilities

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-01-22

    This historical records review report concerns the activities of the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) at Amchitka Island, Alaska, over a period extending from 1942 to 1993. The report focuses on AEC activities resulting in known or suspected contamination of the island environment by nonradiological hazardous or toxic materials as discerned through historical records. In addition, the information from historical records was augmented by an August 1998 sampling event. Both the records review and sampling were conducted by IT Corporation on behalf of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the predecessor agency to the AEC. The intent of this investigation was to identify all potentially contaminated sites for which DOE may be responsible, wholly or partially, including all official sites of concern as recognized by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Additionally, potential data gaps that the DOE will need to fill to support the ecological and human health risk assessments performed were identified. A review of the available historical information regarding AEC's activities on Amchitka Island indicates that the DOE is potentially responsible for 11 sites identified by USFWS and an additional 10 sites that are not included in the USFWS database of sites of potential concern.

  16. Activity patterns and time budgets of the declining sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gelatt, Thomas S.; Siniff, Donald B.; Estes, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Time budgets of predators may reflect population status if time spent foraging varies with local prey abun- dance. We assumed that the sea otter (Enhydra lutris) population at Amchitka Island, Alaska, USA, had been at equilibrium since the early 1960s and collected time budgets of otters to be used to represent future conditions of currently expanding sea otter populations. We used radiotelemetry to monitor activity-time budgets of otters from August 1992 to March 1994. Sea otter activity was directly linked to sex, age, weather condition, season, and time of day. Sea otters differed in percent time foraging among cohorts but not within cohorts. Percent time foraging ranged from 21% for females with very young (≤ 3weeks of age) dependent pups to 52% for females with old (≥10 weeks of age) pups. Otters foraged more and hauled out more as local sea conditions worsened. Adult males spent less time foraging during winter and spring, consistent with seasonal changes in prey selection. Time spent for- aging was similar to that reported for otters in California and an established population in Prince William Sound, Alaska, but greater than that of otters in recently established populations in Oregon and Alaska. Despite current evidence indicating that the population was in decline during our study, we were unable to recognize this change using time budgets. Our results illustrate the importance of stratifying analyses of activity patterns by age and sex cohorts and the complexity inherent in comparisons of behavioral data between different populations relying on distinct prey bases.

  17. Alternatives Analysis Amchitka Island Mud Pit Cap Repair, Amchitka, Alaska January 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Darr, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) manages the Nevada Offsites program, which includes a series of reclaimed drilling mud impoundments on Amchitka Island, Alaska (Figure 1). Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc. is the Legacy Management Support contractor (the Contractor) for LM. The Contractor has procured Tetra Tech, Inc. to provide engineering support to the Amchitka mud pit reclamation project. The mud pit caps were damaged during a 7.9-magnitude earthquake that occurred in 2014. The goals of the current project are to investigate conditions at the mud pit impoundments, identify feasible alternatives for repair of the cover systems and the contents, and estimate relative costs of repair alternatives. This report presents descriptions of the sites and past investigations, existing conditions, summaries of various repair/mitigation alternatives, and direct, unburdened, order-of-magnitude (-15% to +50%) associated costs.

  18. Hydrocarbons in oil residues on beaches of islands of Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Carlson, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    Aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons were measured on oil residues from beaches on six islands in Prince William Sound, Alaska. In addition to altered products from the Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, we also found, at two widely separated locations, residues that are similar to each other but chemically distinct from the spilled oil. Terpanes, steranes, monoaromatic steranes, and carbon isotopic compositions of total extracts were most useful in correlating the altered products of the spilled oil. These same parameters revealed that the two non-Valdez samples are likely residues of oil originally produced in California. The results indicate that oil residues currently on the beaches of this estuary have at least two quite different origins.

  19. Persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider carcasses on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, A.C.; Flint, P.L.

    1997-01-01

    Following an oil spill off St Paul Island, Alaska in February 1996, persistence rates and detection probabilities of oiled king eider (Somateria spectabilis) carcasses were estimated using the Cormack-Jolly-Seber model. Carcass persistence rates varied by day, beach type and sex, while detection probabilities varied by day and beach type. Scavenging, wave action and weather influenced carcass persistence. The patterns of persistence differed on rock and sand beaches and female carcasses had a different persistence function than males. Weather, primarily snow storms, and degree of carcass scavenging, diminished carcass detectability. Detection probabilities on rock beaches were lower and more variable than on sand beaches. The combination of persistence rates and detection probabilities can be used to improve techniques of estimating total mortality.

  20. Silurian sponges and some associated fossils from the Heceta Limestone, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rigby, J.K.; Rohr, D.M.; Blodgett, R.B.; Britt, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    A small faunule of hypercalcified agelasiid demosponges has been recovered from outcrops of the Silurian Heceta Formation on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Included are abundant Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby and Potter, 1986), of the Girtyocoeliidae Finks and Rigby, 2004; fragments of Alaskaspongiella laminosa n. gen. and sp., Polyplacospongia nodosa n. gen. and sp., and Monolaminospongia gigantia n. gen. and sp., of the Auriculospongiidae Termier and Termier, 1977, and Cladospongia alaskensis n. gen. and sp., Virgulaspongia uniforma n. gen. and sp., and Stipespongia laminata n. gen. and sp. of the Preperonidellidae Finks and Rigby, 2004. Also included are a few fossils of uncertain taxonomic placement, including Turbospongia biperforata n. gen. and sp., along with a small, chambered, tubular fragment and several porous tubular stems that may be additional poriferans. Some isolated octactine-based heteractinid spicules were also recovered from the etched residues. Copyright ?? 2008, The Paleontological Society.

  1. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-10-27

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida.

  2. Maps showing aeromagnetic survey and geologic interpretation of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Case, J.E.; Cox, D.P.; Detra, D.E.; Detterman, R.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey over part of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, on the southern Alaska Peninsula, was flown in 1977 as part of the Alaska mineral resource assessment program (AMRAP). Maps at scales 1:250,000 and 1:63,360 have been released on open-file (U.s. Geological Survey, 1978a, 1978b). This report includes the aeromagnetic map superimposed on the topographic base (sheet 1) and an interpretation map superimposed on the topographic and simplified geologic base (sheet 2). This discussion provides an interpretation of the aeromagnetic data with respect to regional geology, occurrence of ore deposits and prospects, and potential oil and gas resources. The survey was flown along northwest-southeast lines, spaced about 1.6 km apart, at a nominal elevation of about 300 m above the land surface. A proton-precession magnetometer was used for the survey, and the resulting digital data were computer contoured at intervals of 10 and 50 gammas (sheet 1). The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) of 1965, updated to 1977, was removed from the total field data.

  3. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for the Tanaga volcanic cluster, Tanaga Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coombs, Michelle L.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Browne, Brandon L.

    2007-01-01

    Summary of Volcano Hazards at Tanaga Volcanic Cluster The Tanaga volcanic cluster lies on the northwest part of Tanaga Island, about 100 kilometers west of Adak, Alaska, and 2,025 kilometers southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. The cluster consists of three volcanoes-from west to east, they are Sajaka, Tanaga, and Takawangha. All three volcanoes have erupted in the last 1,000 years, producing lava flows and tephra (ash) deposits. A much less frequent, but potentially more hazardous phenomenon, is volcanic edifice collapse into the sea, which likely happens only on a timescale of every few thousands of years, at most. Parts of the volcanic bedrock near Takawangha have been altered by hydrothermal activity and are prone to slope failure, but such events only present a local hazard. Given the volcanic cluster's remote location, the primary hazard from the Tanaga volcanoes is airborne ash that could affect aircraft. In this report, we summarize the major volcanic hazards associated with the Tanaga volcanic cluster.

  4. New species of sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae) from the Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Lehnert, Helmut; Stone, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Ten new species of demosponges, assigned to the orders Poecilosclerida, Axinellida and Dictyoceratida, discovered in the Gulf of Alaska and along the Aleutian Island Archipelago are described and compared to relevant congeners. Poecilosclerida include Cornulum globosum n. sp., Megaciella lobata n. sp., M. triangulata n. sp., Artemisina clavata n. sp., A. flabellata n. sp., Coelosphaera (Histodermion) kigushimkada n. sp., Stelodoryx mucosa n. sp. and S. siphofuscus n. sp. Axinellida is represented by Raspailia (Hymeraphiopsis) fruticosa n. sp. and Dictyoceratida is represented by Dysidea kenkriegeri n. sp. The genus Cornulum is modified to allow for smooth tylotes. We report several noteworthy biogeographical observations. We describe only the third species within the subgenus Histodermion and the first from the Indo-Pacific Region. Additionally, the subgenus Hymerhaphiopsis was previously represented by only a single species from Antarctica. We also report the first record of a dictyoceratid species from Alaska. The new collections further highlight the richness of the sponge fauna from the region, particularly for the Poecilosclerida. PMID:26624419

  5. Reconnaissance Geologic Map of the Duncan Canal-Zarembo Island Area, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Susan M.; Haeussler, Peter J.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    1999-01-01

    The geologic map of the Duncan Canal-Zarembo Island area is the result of a multidisciplinary investigation of an area where an airborne geophysical survey was flown in the spring of 1997. The area was chosen for the geophysical survey because of its high mineral potential, a conclusion of the Petersburg Mineral Resource Assessment Project, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1978 to 1982. The City of Wrangell, in southeastern Alaska, the Bureau of Land Management, and the State of Alaska provided funding for the airborne geophysical survey. The geophysical data from the airborne survey were released in September 1997. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted field investigations in the spring and fall of 1998 to identify and understand the sources of the geophysical anomalies from the airborne survey. This geologic map updates the geologic maps of the same area published by David A. Brew at 1:63,360 (Brew, 1997a-m; Brew and Koch, 1997). This update is based on 3 weeks of field work, new fossil collections, and the geophysical maps released by the State of Alaska ( DGGS, Staff, and others, 1997a-o). Geologic data from outcrops, fossil ages, radiometric ages, and geochemical signatures were used to identify lithostratigraphic units. Where exposure is poor, geophysical characteristics were used to help control the boundaries of these units. No unit boundaries were drawn based on geophysics alone. The 7200 Hertz resistivity maps (DGGS, Staff, and others, 1997k-o) were particularly helpful for controlling unit boundaries, because different stratigraphic units have distinctive characteristic conductive signatures (Karl and others, 1998). Increased knowledge of unit ages, unit structure, and unit distribution, led to improved understanding of the nature of unit contacts. Northwest- to southwest-directed thrust faults, particularly on Kupreanof Island, are new discovery. Truncated faults and map patterns suggest there were at least 2 generations of thrusting, and

  6. Analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP from the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Van Trump, G. Jr.; Motooka, J.M.; Erlich, O.; Tompkins, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological report is presented detailing analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP from the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska.

  7. Surface faults on Montague Island associated with the 1964 Alaska earthquake: Chapter G in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafter, George

    1967-01-01

    Two reverse faults on southwestern Montague Island in Prince William Sound were reactivated during the earthquake of March 27, 1964. New fault scarps, fissures, cracks, and flexures appeared in bedrock and unconsolidated surficial deposits along or near the fault traces. Average strike of the faults is between N. 37° E. and N. 47° E.; they dip northwest at angles ranging from 50° to 85°. The dominant motion was dip slip; the blocks northwest of the reactivated faults were relatively upthrown, and both blocks were upthrown relative to sea level. No other earthquake faults have been found on land. The Patton Bay fault on land is a complex system of en echelon strands marked by a series of spectacular landslides along the scarp and (or) by a zone of fissures and flexures on the upthrown block that locally is as much as 3,000 feet wide. The fault can be traced on land for 22 miles, and it has been mapped on the sea floor to the southwest of Montague Island an additional 17 miles. The maximum measured vertical component of slip is 20 to 23 feet and the maximum indicated dip slip is about 26 feet. A left-lateral strike-slip component of less than 2 feet occurs near the southern end of the fault on land where its strike changes from northeast to north. Indirect evidence from the seismic sea waves and aftershocks associated with the earthquake, and from the distribution of submarine scarps, suggests that the faulting on and near Montague Island occurred at the northeastern end of a reactivated submarine fault system that may extend discontinuously for more than 300 miles from Montague Island to the area offshore of the southeast coast of Kodiak Island. The Hanning Bay fault is a minor rupture only 4 miles long that is marked by an exceptionally well defined almost continuous scarp. The maximum measured vertical component of slip is 16⅓ feet near the midpoint, and the indicated dip slip is about 20 feet. There is a maximum left-lateral strike-slip component of one

  8. 2009 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Girina, Olga A.; Chibisova, Marina; Rybin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, volcanic unrest, and reports of unusual activity at or near eight separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2009. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Redoubt Volcano, one of three active volcanoes on the western side of Cook Inlet and near south-central Alaska's population and commerce centers, which comprise about 62 percent of the State's population of 710,213 (2010 census). AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at ten volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  9. Organochlorine and metal contaminants in traditional foods from St. Lawrence Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Minholz, Judith L; Byrne, Sam; Waghiyi, Vi; Gologergen, Jesse; Kava, Jane; Apatiki, Morgan; Ungott, Eddie; Miller, Pamela K; Arnason, John G; Carpenter, David O

    2011-01-01

    Marine mammals (bowhead whale, walrus, and various seals) constitute the major component of the diet of the Yupik people of St. Lawrence Island, Alaska. St. Lawrence Island residents have higher serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) than in the general U.S. population. In order to determine potential sources, traditional food samples were collected from 2004 to 2009 and analyzed for PCBs, three chlorinated pesticides, and seven heavy metals (mercury, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and lead). Concentrations of PCB in rendered oils (193-421 ppb) and blubber (73-317 ppb) from all marine mammal samples were at levels that trigger advisories for severely restricted consumption, using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) fish consumption advisories. Concentrations of pesticides were lower, but were still elevated. The highest PCB concentrations were found in polar bear (445 ppb) and the lowest in reindeer adipose tissue (2 ppb). Marine mammal and polar bear meat in general have PCB concentrations that were 1-5% of those in rendered oils or adipose tissue. PCB concentrations in organs were higher than meat. Concentrations of metals in oils and meats from all species were relatively low, but increased levels of mercury, cadmium, copper, and zinc were present in some liver and kidney samples. Mercury and arsenic were found in lipid-rich samples, indicating organometals. These results show that the source of the elevated concentrations of these contaminants in the Yupik population is primarily from consumption of marine mammal blubber and rendered oils. PMID:21797772

  10. Transient volcano deformation sources imaged with interferometric synthetic aperture radar: Application to Seguam Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masterlark, Timothy; Lu, Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Thirty interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images, spanning various intervals during 1992–2000, document coeruptive and posteruptive deformation of the 1992–1993 eruption on Seguam Island, Alaska. A procedure that combines standard damped least squares inverse methods and collective surfaces, identifies three dominant amorphous clusters of deformation point sources. Predictions generated from these three point source clusters account for both the spatial and temporal complexity of the deformation patterns of the InSAR data. Regularized time series of source strength attribute a distinctive transient behavior to each of the three source clusters. A model that combines magma influx, thermoelastic relaxation, poroelastic effects, and petrologic data accounts for the transient, interrelated behavior of the source clusters and the observed deformation. Basaltic magma pulses, which flow into a storage chamber residing in the lower crust, drive this deformational system. A portion of a magma pulse is injected into the upper crust and remains in storage during both coeruption and posteruption intervals. This injected magma degasses and the volatile products accumulate in a shallow poroelastic storage chamber. During the eruption, another portion of the magma pulse is transported directly to the surface via a conduit roughly centered beneath Pyre Peak on the west side of the island. A small amount of this magma remains in storage during the eruption, and posteruption thermoelastic contraction ensues. This model, made possible by the excellent spatial and temporal coverage of the InSAR data, reveals a relatively simple system of interrelated predictable processes driven by magma dynamics.

  11. Multiple strains of Coxiella burnetii are present in the environment of St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C; Savage, K; Williams, M; Dickerson, B; Kondas, A V; Fitzpatrick, K A; Guerrero, J L; Spraker, T; Kersh, G J

    2013-08-01

    In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified at a high prevalence in the placentas of Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected at a single rookery on St. Paul Island Alaska; an area of the United States where the agent was not known to be present. As contamination was hypothesized as a potential cause of false positives, but nothing was known about environmental C. burnetii in the region, an environmental survey was conducted to look for the prevalence and distribution of the organism on the island. While environmental prevalence was low, two strains of the organism were identified using PCR targeting the COM1 and IS1111 genes. The two strains are consistent with the organism that has been increasingly identified in marine mammals as well as a strain type more commonly found in terrestrial environments and associated with disease in humans and terrestrial animals. Further work is needed to elucidate information regarding the ecology of this organism in this region, particularly in association with the coastal environment. PMID:22747976

  12. Multiple strains of Coxiella burnetii are present in the environment of St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Colleen; Savage, Kate; Williams, Michael; Dickerson, Bobette; Kondas, Ashley V.; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A.; Guerrero, Juan Leon; Spraker, Terry; Kersh, Gilbert J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In 2010, Coxiella burnetii was identified at a high prevalence in the placentas of Northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) collected at a single rookery on St. Paul Island Alaska; an area of the United States where the agent was not known to be present. As contamination was hypothesized as a potential cause of false positives, but nothing was known about environmental C. burnetii in the region, an environmental survey was conducted to look for the prevalence and distribution of the organism on the island. While environmental prevalence was low, two strains of the organism were identified using PCR targeting the COM1 and IS1111 genes. The two strains are consistent with the organism that has been increasingly identified in marine mammals as well as a strain type more commonly found in terrestrial environments and associated with disease in humans and terrestrial animals. Further work is needed to elucidate information regarding the ecology of this organism in this region, particularly in association with the coastal environment. PMID:22747976

  13. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended. PMID:24803576

  14. Brucella placentitis and seroprevalence in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) of the Pribilof Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen G; Tiller, Rebekah; Mathis, Demetrius; Stoddard, Robyn; Kersh, Gilbert J; Dickerson, Bobette; Gelatt, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Brucella species infect a wide range of hosts with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations. In mammals, one of the most significant consequences of Brucella infection is reproductive failure. There is evidence of Brucella exposure in many species of marine mammals, but the outcome of infection is often challenging to determine. The eastern Pacific stock of northern fur seals (NFSs, Callorhinus ursinus) has declined significantly, spawning research into potential causes for this trend, including investigation into reproductive health. The objective of the current study was to determine if NFSs on St. Paul Island, Alaska have evidence of Brucella exposure or infection. Archived DNA extracted from placentas (n = 119) and serum (n = 40) samples were available for testing by insertion sequence (IS) 711 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT), respectively. As well, placental tissue was available for histologic examination. Six (5%) placentas were positive by PCR, and a single animal had severe placentitis. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis profiles were highly clustered and closely related to other Brucella pinnipedialis isolates. A single animal was positive on BMAT, and 12 animals had titers within the borderline range; 1 borderline animal was positive by PCR on serum. The findings suggest that NFSs on the Pribilof Islands are exposed to Brucella and that the organism has the ability to cause severe placental disease. Given the population trend of the NFS, and the zoonotic nature of this pathogen, further investigation into the epidemiology of this disease is recommended.

  15. Scientific research, stakeholders, and policy: continuing dialogue during research on radionuclides on Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Powers, Charles W; Kosson, David S; Halverson, John; Siekaniec, Gregory; Morkill, Anne; Patrick, Robert; Duffy, Lawrence K; Barnes, David

    2007-10-01

    It is increasingly clear that a wide range of stakeholders should be included in the problem formulation phase of research aimed at solving environmental problems; indeed the inclusion of stakeholders at this stage has been formalized as an integral part of ecological risk assessment. In this paper, we advocate the additional inclusion of stakeholders in the refinement of research methods and protocols and in the execution of the research, rather than just at the final communication and reporting phase. We use a large study of potential radionuclide levels in marine biota around Amchitka Island as a case study. Amchitka Island, in the Aleutian Island Chain of Alaska, was the site of three underground nuclear tests (1965-1971). The overall objective of the biological component of the study was to collect a range of marine biota for radionuclide analysis that could provide data for assessing current food safety and provide a baseline for developing a plan to monitor human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Stakeholders, including regulators (State of Alaska), resource trustees (US Fish and Wildlife Service, State of Alaska), representatives of the Aleut and Pribilof Island communities, the Department of Energy (DOE), and others, were essential for plan development. While these stakeholders were included in the initial problem formulation and approved science plan, we also included them in the refinement of protocols, selection of bioindicators, selection of a reference site, choice of methods of collection, and in the execution of the study itself. Meetings with stakeholders resulted in adding (or deleting) bioindicator species and tissues, prioritizing target species, refining sampling methods, and recruiting collection personnel. Some species were added because they were important subsistence foods for the Aleuts, and others were added because they were ecological equivalents to replace species deleted because of low population numbers. Two major refinements that

  16. Investigating Geothermal Activity, Volcanic Systems, and Deep Tectonic Tremor on Akutan Island, Alaska, with Array Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, M. M.; Prejean, S. G.; Ghosh, A.; Power, J. A.; Thurber, C. H.

    2012-12-01

    In addition to hosting one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian Arc, Akutan Island, Alaska, is the site of a significant geothermal resource within Hot Springs Bay Valley (HSBV). We deployed 15 broadband (30 s to 50 Hz) seismometers in and around HSBV during July 2012 as part of an effort to establish a baseline for background seismic activity in HSBV prior to geothermal production on the island. The stations recorded data on-site and were retrieved in early September 2012. Additional targets for the array include the tracking of deep tectonic tremor known to occur within the Aleutian subduction zone and the characterization of volcano-tectonic (VT) and deep long period (DLP) earthquakes from Akutan Volcano. Because 13 of the stations in the array sit within an area roughly 1.5 km by 1.5 km, we plan to apply methods based on stacking and beamforming to analyze the waveforms of extended signals lacking clear phase arrivals (e.g., tremor). The average spacing of the seismometers, roughly 350 m, provides sensitivity to frequencies between 2-8 Hz. The stacking process also increases the signal-to-noise ratio of small amplitude signals propagating across the array (e.g., naturally occurring geothermal seismicity). As of August 2012, several episodes of tectonic tremor have been detected in the vicinity of Akutan Island during the array deployment based on recordings from nearby permanent stations operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). This is the first small-aperture array deployed in the Aleutian Islands and the results should serve as a guide for future array deployments along the Aleutian Arc as part of the upcoming EarthScope and GeoPRISMS push into Alaska. We demonstrate the power of array methods based on stacking at Akutan Volcano using a sequence of DLP earthquakes from June 11, 2012 that were recorded on the permanent AVO stations. We locate and characterize the lowest frequency portion of the signals at 0.5 Hz. At these low frequencies, the

  17. Kodiak Star: A Success in Partnership

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skrobot, Garrett L.

    2008-01-01

    The Kodiak Star Mission was very challenging and offers significant lesson for future missions. A multinational fully integrated team had the opportunity to perform a truly first of a kind mission from a new launch complex with a unique manifest of experimental spacecraft. The integration goal of 10-months was met utilizing quick identification of the issues, and determining innovative ways to solve the problems

  18. Bathymetric gradients within a Paleozoic Island Arc, southeastern Alaska (Alexander Terrane)

    SciTech Connect

    Soja, C.M. )

    1990-05-01

    Early to Late Silurian (Wenlock-Ludlow) limestones belonging to the Heceta Formation reflect bathymetric gradients within the ancient island arc exposed in the Alexander terrane of southeastern Alaska. These rocks record the earliest occurrence of widespread carbonate deposition in the region and represent the earliest foundation for shallow-water platform development within the arc. The excellent preservation of platform, platform margin, and slope deposits contrasts with the poor preservation of many marine sediments that originated within other island arcs. Hence, these limestones provide important insights into the styles, processes, and bathymetry of carbonate deposition in island arcs. Carbonate depositional sites within the arc extended laterally from nearshore intertidal and relatively shallow subtidal zones of a marine platform, to the seaward margins of a rimmed shelf, and into deeper subtidal areas of a slope environment. Fossiliferous deposits that originated on the platform comprise a diversity of shelly benthos, including corals and stromatoporoids in growth position. Dasycladacean algae, oncoids, and Amphipora also indicate shallow-water conditions. Organic buildups and reefs were constructed by cyanobacteria, massive stromatoporoids, corals, and algae at the platform margin. Deposition beyond the seaward edge of the shelf is evident from the carbonate turbidites that consist of skeletal debris of shallow-water derivation and an absence of coarse siliciclastic detritus. Sedimentation and resedimentation along a bathymetric gradient within the arc is especially well illustrated by the carbonate breccias that are enclosed within these deep subtidal sediments. They comprise detached stromatolites and clasts of shallow-water origin that were derived from the platform and its margin during periodic slumping of the shelf edge.

  19. The influence of wind and ice on spring walrus hunting success on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntington, Henry P.; Noongwook, George; Bond, Nicholas A.; Benter, Bradley; Snyder, Jonathan A.; Zhang, Jinlun

    2013-10-01

    St. Lawrence Island Yupik hunters on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, take hundreds of Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) each year. The harvest and associated effort (hunting trips taken), however, are variable from year to year and also from day to day, influenced by physical environmental factors among other variables. We used data from 1996 to 2010 to construct generalized additive models (GAMs) to examine several relationships among the variables. Physical factors explained 18% of the variability in harvest in Savoonga and 25% of the variability in effort; the corresponding figures for Gambell were 24% and 32%. Effort alone explained 63% of the harvest in Savoonga and 59% in Gambell. Physical factors played a relatively smaller role in determining hunting efficiency (walrus taken per hunting trip), explaining 15% of the variability in efficiency in Savoonga and 22% in Gambell, suggesting that physical factors play a larger role in determining whether to hunt than in the outcome of the hunt once undertaken. Combining physical factors with effort explained 70% of the harvest variability in Savoonga and 66% in Gambell. Although these results indicate that other factors (e.g. fuel prices, socioeconomic conditions) collectively cause a greater share of variability in harvest and effort than ice and wind, at least as indicated by the measures used as predictors in the GAMs, they also suggest that environmental change is also likely to influence future harvest levels, and that climate models that yield appropriately scaled data on ice and wind around St. Lawrence Island may be of use in determining the magnitude and direction of those influences.

  20. Organochlorine contaminants in fishes from coastal waters west of Amukta Pass, Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Miles, A Keith; Ricca, Mark A; Anthony, Robert G; Estes, James A

    2009-08-01

    Organochlorines were examined in liver and stable isotopes in muscle of fishes from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, in relation to islands or locations affected by military occupation. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), and rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus) were collected from nearshore waters at contemporary (decommissioned) and historical (World War II) military locations, as well as at reference locations. Total (Sigma) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated the suite of organochlorine groups (SigmaDDTs, Sigmachlordane cyclodienes, Sigmaother cyclodienes, and Sigmachlorinated benzenes and cyclohexanes) detected in fishes at all locations, followed by SigmaDDTs and Sigmachlordanes; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'DDE) composed 52 to 66% of SigmaDDTs by species. Organochlorine concentrations were higher or similar in cod compared to halibut and lowest in greenling; they were among the highest for fishes in Arctic or near Arctic waters. Organochlorine group concentrations varied among species and locations, but SigmaPCB concentrations in all species were consistently higher at military locations than at reference locations. Moreover, all organochlorine group concentrations were higher in halibut from military locations than those from reference locations. A wide range of molecular weight organochlorines was detected at all locations, which implied regional or long-range transport and deposition, as well as local point-source contamination. Furthermore, a preponderance of higher-chlorinated PCB congeners in fishes from contemporary military islands implied recent exposure. Concentrations in all organochlorine groups increased with delta15N enrichment in fishes, and analyses of residual variation provided further evidence of different sources of SigmaPCBs and p,p'DDE among species and locations.

  1. Quantification of total mercury in liver and heart tissue of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from Alaska USA

    SciTech Connect

    Marino, Kady B.; Hoover-Miller, Anne; Conlon, Suzanne; Prewitt, Jill; O'Shea, Stephen K.

    2011-11-15

    This study quantified the Hg levels in the liver (n=98) and heart (n=43) tissues of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) (n=102) harvested from Prince William Sound and Kodiak Island Alaska. Mercury tissue dry weight (dw) concentrations in the liver ranged from 1.7 to 393 ppm dw, and in the heart from 0.19 to 4.99 ppm dw. Results of this study indicate liver and heart tissues' Hg ppm dw concentrations significantly increase with age. Male Harbor Seals bioaccumulated Hg in both their liver and heart tissues at a significantly faster rate than females. The liver Hg bioaccumulation rates between the harvest locations Kodiak Island and Prince William Sound were not found to be significantly different. On adsorption Hg is transported throughout the Harbor Seal's body with the partition coefficient higher for the liver than the heart. No significant differences in the bio-distribution (liver:heart Hg ppm dw ratios (n=38)) values were found with respect to either age, sex or geographic harvest location. In this study the age at which Hg liver and heart bioaccumulation levels become significantly distinct in male and female Harbor Seals were identified through a Tukey's analysis. Of notably concern to human health was a male Harbor Seal's liver tissue harvested from Kodiak Island region. Mercury accumulation in this sample tissue was determined through a Q-test to be an outlier, having far higher Hg concentrarion (liver 392 Hg ppm dw) than the general population sampled. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury accumulation in the liver and heart of seals exceed food safety guidelines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation rate is greater in males than females with age. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Liver mercury accumulation is greater than in the heart tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mercury determination by USA EPA Method 7473 using thermal decomposition.

  2. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  3. Science, policy, and stakeholders: developing a consensus science plan for Amchitka Island, Aleutians, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, David S; Powers, Charles W; Friedlander, Barry; Eichelberger, John; Barnes, David; Duffy, Lawrence K; Jewett, Stephen C; Volz, Conrad D

    2005-05-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of radioactive waste and disposal of land no longer needed for nuclear material production or related national security missions. The task of characterizing the hazards and risks from radionuclides is necessary for assuring the protection of health of humans and the environment. This is a particularly daunting task for those sites that had underground testing of nuclear weapons, where the radioactive contamination is currently inaccessible. Herein we report on the development of a Science Plan to characterize the physical and biological marine environment around Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska, where three underground nuclear tests were conducted (1965-1971). Information on the ecology, geology, and current radionuclide levels in biota, water, and sediment is necessary for evaluating possible current contamination and to serve as a baseline for developing a plan to ensure human and ecosystem health in perpetuity. Other information required includes identifying the location of the salt water/fresh water interface where migration to the ocean might occur in the future and determining groundwater recharge balances, as well as assessing other physical/geological features of Amchitka near the test sites. The Science Plan is needed to address the confusing and conflicting information available to the public about radionuclide risks from underground nuclear blasts in the late 1960s and early 1970s, as well as the potential for volcanic or seismic activity to disrupt shot cavities or accelerate migration of radionuclides into the sea. Developing a Science Plan involved agreement among regulators and other stakeholders, assignment of the task to the Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, and development of a consensus Science Plan that dealt with contentious scientific issues. Involvement of the regulators (State of Alaska), resource

  4. 2007 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Neal, Christina A.; Dixon, James P.; Malik, Nataliya; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2007. The year was highlighted by the eruption of Pavlof, one of Alaska's most frequently active volcanoes. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the autumn of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of steam and volcanic gas into 2007. Redoubt Volcano showed the first signs of the unrest that would unfold in 2008-09. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  5. 2006 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Manevich, Alexander; Rybin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near nine separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2006. A significant explosive eruption at Augustine Volcano in Cook Inlet marked the first eruption within several hundred kilometers of principal population centers in Alaska since 1992. Glaciated Fourpeaked Mountain, a volcano thought to have been inactive in the Holocene, produced a phreatic eruption in the fall of 2006 and continued to emit copious amounts of volcanic gas into 2007. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication and monitoring of multiple eruptions at seven volcanoes in Russia as part of its collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  6. Characterizing Morphology and Erosional Trends of Permafrost Bluffs, Barter Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, A.; Erikson, L. H.; Jones, B.; Richmond, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    Recession of coastal permafrost bluffs along portions of the North Slope of Alaska are highly variable, and recent studies have found increased retreat rates since the early 2000s along the western Beaufort Sea coastline, yet the mechanisms and processes driving the increased retreat rates remain poorly understood. The Native village of Kaktovik and adjacent U.S. Air Force radar site are situated on Barter Island and bound by an eroding coastal bluff where attempts to control bluff erosion with shore protection structures were undertaken more than a decade ago. In an effort to gain insight into the physical controls driving or limiting bluff recession in this region, a suite of field data was collected in August 2010 to characterize the beaches, bluffs, and nearshore setting. Data collected at 13 transect locations along the 3 km section of coastal bluffs include general bluff morphology and stratigraphy, detailed surveys of bluff edge and bluff face morphology, sediment grain size of the fronting beach, water/ice content and sediment grain size of the massive ice within the bluffs, and nearshore bathymetry. The bluffs here range in height from a few meters to more than ten meters and consist of a very complex sequence of material ranging from dense marine clay at the base, sands and gravel thought to be of fluvial origin, massive units of sand of unknown origin, massive ice which has recently been interpreted as buried glacial ice, wedge ice, thermokarst cave ice, aeolian silts and sands, and peat. At one site, thermistor arrays were installed to evaluate temperature gradients in response to solar radiation and heat flux transfers through characteristic bluff material. Aerial lidar DEMs obtained in 2009 (USGS) revealed a rise in bluff elevation across the central portion of the island where field observations of bluff stratigraphy showed multi-layered stratification. At the lower elevation outer flanks the exposed bluff face consisted of homogenous layers of sandy

  7. Alaska High School Students Integrate Forest Ecology, Glacial Landscape Dynamics, and Human Maritime History in a Field Mapping Course at Cape Decision Lighthouse, Kuiu Island, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, C. L.; Carstensen, R.; Domke, L.; Donohoe, S.; Clark, A.; Cordero, D.; Otsea, C.; Hakala, M.; Parks, R.; Lanwermeyer, S.; Discover Design Research (Ddr)

    2010-12-01

    Alaskan 10th and 11th graders earned college credit at Cape Decision Lighthouse as part of a 12-day, summer field research experience. Students and faculty flew to the southern tip of Kuiu Island located 388 km south of Juneau. Kuiu is the largest uninhabited island in southeastern Alaska. This field-based, introduction-to-research course was designed to engage students in the sciences and give them skills in technology, engineering, and mathematics. Two faculty, a forest naturalist and a geologist, introduced the students to the use of hand held GPS receivers, GIS map making, field note-taking and documentary photography, increment borer use, and soil studies techniques. Daily surveys across the region, provided onsite opportunities for the faculty to introduce the high schoolers to the many dimensions of forest ecology and plant succession. Students collected tree cores using increment borers to determine “release dates” providing clues to past wind disturbance. They discovered the influence of landscape change on the forest by digging soil pits and through guided interpretation of bedrock outcrops. The students learned about glacially influenced hydrology in forested wetlands during peat bog hikes. They developed an eye for geomorphic features along coastal traverses, which helped them to understand the influences of uplift through faulting and isostatic rebound in this tectonically active and once glaciated area. They surveyed forest patches to distinguish between regions of declining yellow-cedar from wind-disturbed spruce forests. The students encountered large volumes of primarily plastic marine debris, now stratified by density and wave energy, throughout the southern Kuiu intertidal zone. They traced pre-European Alaska Native subsistence use of the area, 19th and 20th century Alaska Territorial Maritime history, and learned about the 21st century radio tracking of over 10,000 commercial vessels by the Marine Exchange of Alaska from its many stations

  8. Six large tsunamis in the past ~1700 years at Stardust Bay, Sedanka Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, R. C.; Carver, G. A.; Bender, A. M.; Briggs, R. W.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Koehler, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Two great earthquakes in 1946 (Unimak Island, Mw 8.1) and 1957 (Andreanof Islands, Mw 8.6) ruptured parts of the central Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone, generating deadly pan-Pacific tsunamis that hit Hawaii. Here, we provide the first estimates of recurrence intervals of such destructive Aleutian-born tsunamis from evidence for tsunami inundation at Stardust Bay on the Pacific coast of Sedanka Island, ~25 km southeast of Dutch Harbor, Alaska. We used soil augers, outcrops and shallow pits to map 6 continuous sand deposits across four depositional environments in a ~500-m-wide, 35-hectare valley. Successive sandy deposits mantled the crests of beach ridges, buried peat formed in freshwater wetlands and upland muskeg, and accumulated to form unusual terrace remnants along the valley's inland margin. Dark, basaltic tephras interbedded in peat underlying two of the sands guided stratigraphic correlation across the study area. Thin, peaty horizons separate the six gray sand beds that can be distinguished from black tephra deposits by their compositions, which consist of subangular volcanic lithics similar to Stardust Bay beach sand. The youngest sand, often the thinnest (<1-13 cm) of the six deposits, underlies drift logs scattered across the landscape at elevations up to 18.5 m and as far as 800 m inland, which provide minimum limits on inundation for the most recent tsunami. The older sands vary in thickness from 6-50 cm and often have rounded gravel at the bases of multiple, normally-graded sand beds, some of which contain ripped-up mud or peat clasts. The sheet-like sand beds blanket topography, thinning over beach ridges and thickening in swales and bogs. Although marine foraminifera are absent in the sandy and peaty deposits in the valley, we infer a tsunami origin for the sand beds, based on their physical properties. The activity of 210Pb and 137Cs in organic-rich sediment above and below the youngest sand bed suggest it predates 1963, consistent with

  9. Seasonal to Decadal Change of Arctic Coastal Bluffs, Barter Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, B. M.; Gibbs, A.; Erikson, L. H.; Beitch, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Warming air and sea temperatures in the Arctic are leading to elevated levels of permafrost thaw and longer periods of ice-free conditions during the summer months which can lead to increased coastal exposure to storm surge and wave impacts. Using recently collected time-lapse photography, historical maps and imagery, and DEM's derived from airborne lidar and aerial photography using structure from motion (SfM) algorithms, we document coastal bluff change along a 5 km stretch of coast on Barter Island in NE Alaska during a single summer and over several decades. Time-lapse cameras installed during the summers of 2014 and 2015 on the coastal bluffs are used to create an archive of hourly air temperature and pressure, bluff morphology, and sea conditions allowing us to document individual bluff failure events and conditions at the time of failure. The historical rates of bluff retreat are derived from 1947 T-sheet maps, various periods of satellite imagery, aerial orthophoto mosaics, and more recently acquired lidar and SfM DEM data. Coastal change rates at 50 m transect spacing have been calculated over a seven decade time span. We combine these results with elevation models and bluff geology to estimate overall volume change and sediment contribution to the nearshore. These combined datasets are used to better understand the timing and processes of arctic coastal retreat.

  10. The cestode community in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmina, Tetiana A.; Hernández-Orts, Jesús S.; Lyons, Eugene T.; Spraker, Terry R.; Kornyushyn, Vadym V.; Kuchta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    The diversity and ecology of cestodes from the northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus (NFS), were examined using newly collected material from 756 humanely harvested subadult males between 2011 and 2014. NFSs were collected from five different haul-outs on St. Paul Island, Alaska. A total of 14,660 tapeworms were collected with a prevalence of 98.5% and intensity up to 107 cestodes per host (mean intensity 19.7 ± 16.5 SD). Three species of tapeworms were found: Adenocephalus pacificus (Diphyllobothriidea) was the most prevalent (prevalence 97.4%), followed by Diplogonoporus tetrapterus (49.7%), and 5 immature specimens of Anophryocephalus cf. ochotensis (Tetrabothriidea) (0.5%). Most of the cestodes found in the NFS were immature (69.7%). However, only 0.9% of cestodes were in larval (plerocercoid) stages. The species composition, prevalence and intensity of cestodes from these NFSs were not statistically different between the five separate haul-outs. Significant increases in the intensity of NFS infections were observed during the study period. PMID:26101743

  11. Magma mixing and mingling on Deer, Niblack, and Etolin Islands, southeastern Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Lindline, J.; Crawford, W.A.; Crawford, M.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-03-01

    Intimately associated 20 m.a. hornblende-biotite granites and olivine gabbro norites occur on Etolin, Niblack and Deer Islands, southwest of Wrangell, Alaska. The field relationships suggest multiple injections of mafic and felsic phases within this igneous complex. Ellipsoidal to angular mafic magmatic enclaves occur in the granite, ranging in number from sparse to tightly packed swarms. Slightly curved decimeter sized rafts of fine grained mafic enclaves comprise a frozen fountain of mafic magma in the felsic host. Course-grained felsic dikes containing gabbroic zenoliths and ubiquitous fine-grained mafic pillows exhibiting sharp and sutured chilled borders intrude the layered gabbro. Synplutonic northeast trending fine-grained mafic and fine-grained felsic dikes mutually cross-cut the felsic pillow-bearing dikes. The granite consists of green hornblende, dark brown biotite, plagioclase and quartz. The mafic mineral assemblage changes from olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and plagioclase in the gabbro through intermediate-grained phases containing altered clinopyroxene, brown hornblende, red-brown biotite, plagioclase and quartz. The increase in proportion of hydrous mafic minerals from the gabbro to the fine-grained mafic enclaves and changes in pleochroic colors of biotite and hornblende from the intermediate-grained phases to the fine-grained mafic enclaves suggest chemical interaction between the mafic enclaves and their felsic host.

  12. Simulation of Beach Hydraulics for Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, B.; Boufadel, M. C.; Bobo, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated beach hydraulics in a gravel beach on Smith Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska that was previously polluted with the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989. The beach contains Heavy Oil Residue (HOR) in the lower intertidal zone. The slope of the beach decreases in the seaward direction. Measurements of water pressure and salinity were analyzed and simulated using the model SUTRA (Saturated-Unsaturated Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model). The results indicated that the beach consists of two layers with contrasting hydraulic properties: an upper layer with a high hydraulic conductivity, on the order of a few centimeter per second and a lower layer whose hydraulic conductivity is around three orders of magnitude lower. The lingering of oil in the lower intertidal zone is probably due to the decrease in slope in that region, which resulted in small flow in that region that brings nutrients and oxygen to the oil. Thus, it is likely that the oil has not degraded due to stochiometric limitation rather than kinetic limitation.

  13. 2008 Volcanic activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.; Dixon, James P.; Cameron, Cheryl E.; Nuzhdaev, Anton A.; Chibisova, Marina

    2011-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest or suspected unrest at seven separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2008. Significant explosive eruptions at Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes in July and August dominated Observatory operations in the summer and autumn. AVO maintained 24-hour staffing at the Anchorage facility from July 12 through August 28. Minor eruptive activity continued at Veniaminof and Cleveland Volcanoes. Observed volcanic unrest at Cook Inlet's Redoubt Volcano presaged a significant eruption in the spring of 2009. AVO staff also participated in hazard communication regarding eruptions or unrest at nine volcanoes in Russia as part of a collaborative role in the Kamchatka and Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Teams.

  14. High Performance Residential Housing Units at U.S. Coast Guard Base Kodiak: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, R.; Hickey, J.

    2013-10-01

    The United States Coast Guard (USCG) constructs residential housing throughout the country using a basic template that must meet the minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver criteria or better for the units. In Kodiak, Alaska, USCG is procuring between 24 and 100 residential multi-family housing units. Priorities for the Kodiak project were to reduce overall energyconsumption by at least 20% over existing units, improve envelope construction, and evaluate space heating options. USCG is challenged with maintaining similar existing units that have complicated residential diesel boilers. Additionally, fuel and material costs are high in Kodiak. While USCG has worked to optimize the performance of the housing units with principles of improved buildingenvelope, the engineers realize there are still opportunities for improvement, especially within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and different envelope measures. USCG staff also desires to balance higher upfront project costs for significantly reduced life-cycle costs of the residential units that have an expected lifetime of 50 or more years. To answer thesequestions, this analysis used the residential modeling tool BEoptE+ to examine potential energy- saving opportunities for the climate. The results suggest criteria for achieving optimized housing performance at the lowest cost. USCG will integrate the criteria into their procurement process. To achieve greater than 50% energy savings, USCG will need to specify full 2x 6 wood stud R-21 insulationwith two 2 inches of exterior foam, R-38 ceiling insulation or even wall insulation in the crawl space, and R-49 fiberglass batts in a the vented attic. The air barrier should be improved to ensure a tight envelope with minimal infiltration to the goal of 2.0 ACH50. With the implementation of an air source heat pump for space heating requirements, the combination of HVAC and envelope savings inthe residential unit can save

  15. Characterization of geometry, properties and coupling of the Alaska subduction zone by means of reflection images and traveltime tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehn, Harold; Nedimović, Mladen; Shillington, Donna; Li, Jiyao; Bécel, Anne; Delescluse, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, the Alaska Langseth Experiment to Understand the megaThrust (ALEUT) program acquired a total length of ~3700 km of deep penetrating multi-channel seismic (MCS) reflection lines as well as two coincident 350 km-long profiles of wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) refraction data south west of Kodiak Island in the Gulf of Alaska. The investigated region of the Alaska Subduction Zone encompasses segments that have ruptured in megathrust earthquakes in the past, and segments, that are suspected to be less coupled, and therefore have a lower probability for great earthquakes to occur. Kodiak asperity ruptured during the Good Friday earthquake of 1964 (M9.2), Semidi Segment ruptured last time in a great earthquake in 1938 (M8.3), and Shumagin Gap has not been ruptured by a major earthquake for at least 150 years and is considered to slip freely. The coupling degree of imaged section of the plate interface appears to at places vary strongly over a remarkably short distance of just tens of kilometers. We present new seismic reflection images that resulted from analyzing profiles crossing the northeastern half of the study area, from the middle of the Semidi Segment to the southwestern tip of the Kodiak Asperity. We also discuss the methodology used to analyze the collected controlled source seismic data and the results obtained. Processing steps for MCS data include amplitude compensation for spherical spreading, noise removal with the LIFT method, surface consistent amplitude balancing, multiple attenuation with both SRME method and radon transformation, predictive deconvolution and Kirchhoff time migration. The formed reflection images complete the picture on the subducting plate geometry in the study area as a whole and allow us to make an attempt to estimate both the downdip limit of the seismogenic zone and the lateral variations in subduction coupling by means of evaluating the seismic reflection signature of the interplate interface. Reflection images

  16. Stratigraphic framework of Holocene volcaniclastic deposits, Akutan Volcano, east-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Akutan Volcano is one of the most active volcanoes in the Aleutian arc, but until recently little was known about its history and eruptive character. Following a brief but sustained period of intense seismic activity in March 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory began investigating the geology of the volcano and evaluating potential volcanic hazards that could affect residents of Akutan Island. During these studies new information was obtained about the Holocene eruptive history of the volcano on the basis of stratigraphic studies of volcaniclastic deposits and radiocarbon dating of associated buried soils and peat. A black, scoria-bearing, lapilli tephra, informally named the 'Akutan tephra,' is up to 2 m thick and is found over most of the island, primarily east of the volcano summit. Six radiocarbon ages on the humic fraction of soil A-horizons beneath the tephra indicate that the Akutan tephra was erupted approximately 1611 years B.P. At several locations the Akutan tephra is within a conformable stratigraphic sequence of pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits that are all part of the same eruptive sequence. The thickness, widespread distribution, and conformable stratigraphic association with overlying pyroclastic-flow and lahar deposits indicate that the Akutan tephra likely records a major eruption of Akutan Volcano that may have formed the present summit caldera. Noncohesive lahar and pyroclastic-flow deposits that predate the Akutan tephra occur in the major valleys that head on the volcano and are evidence for six to eight earlier Holocene eruptions. These eruptions were strombolian to subplinian events that generated limited amounts of tephra and small pyroclastic flows that extended only a few kilometers from the vent. The pyroclastic flows melted snow and ice on the volcano flanks and formed lahars that traveled several kilometers down broad, formerly glaciated valleys, reaching the coast as thin, watery, hyperconcentrated flows or water floods. Slightly

  17. Radionuclide concentrations in benthic invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jewett, Stephen C

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 13 radionuclides (137Cs, 129I, 60Co, 152Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 241Am, 238Pu, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U) were examined in seven species of invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska, using gamma spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear test (1965-1971), and we tested the null hypotheses that there were no differences in radionuclide concentrations between Amchitka and the reference site (Kiska) and there were no differences among species. The only radionuclides where composite samples were above the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. Green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus), giant chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri), plate limpets (Tectura scutum) and giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) were only tested for 137Cs; octopus was the only species with detectable levels of 137Cs (0.262 +/- 0.029 Bq/kg, wet weight). Only rock jingle (Pododesmus macroschisma), blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) were analyzed for the actinides. There were no interspecific differences in 241Am and 239,240Pu, and almost no samples above the MDA for 238Pu and 236U. Horse mussels had significantly higher concentrations of 234U (0.844 +/- 0.804 Bq/kg) and 238U (0.730 +/- 0.646) than the other species (both isotopes are naturally occurring). There were no differences in actinide concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. In general, radionuclides in invertebrates from Amchitka were similar to those from uncontaminated sites in the Northern Hemisphere, and below those from the contaminated Irish Sea. There is a clear research need for authors to report the concentrations of radionuclides by species, rather than simply as 'shellfish', for comparative purposes in determining geographical patterns, understanding possible effects, and for

  18. Radionuclide concentrations in benthic invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jewett, Stephen C

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 13 radionuclides (137Cs, 129I, 60Co, 152Eu, 90Sr, 99Tc, 241Am, 238Pu, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, 238U) were examined in seven species of invertebrates from Amchitka and Kiska Islands, in the Aleutian Chain of Alaska, using gamma spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and alpha spectroscopy. Amchitka Island was the site of three underground nuclear test (1965-1971), and we tested the null hypotheses that there were no differences in radionuclide concentrations between Amchitka and the reference site (Kiska) and there were no differences among species. The only radionuclides where composite samples were above the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA) were 137Cs, 241Am, 239,249Pu, 234U, 235U, 236U, and 238U. Green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus polyacanthus), giant chiton (Cryptochiton stelleri), plate limpets (Tectura scutum) and giant Pacific octopus (Enteroctopus dofleini) were only tested for 137Cs; octopus was the only species with detectable levels of 137Cs (0.262 +/- 0.029 Bq/kg, wet weight). Only rock jingle (Pododesmus macroschisma), blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) were analyzed for the actinides. There were no interspecific differences in 241Am and 239,240Pu, and almost no samples above the MDA for 238Pu and 236U. Horse mussels had significantly higher concentrations of 234U (0.844 +/- 0.804 Bq/kg) and 238U (0.730 +/- 0.646) than the other species (both isotopes are naturally occurring). There were no differences in actinide concentrations between Amchitka and Kiska. In general, radionuclides in invertebrates from Amchitka were similar to those from uncontaminated sites in the Northern Hemisphere, and below those from the contaminated Irish Sea. There is a clear research need for authors to report the concentrations of radionuclides by species, rather than simply as 'shellfish', for comparative purposes in determining geographical patterns, understanding possible effects, and for

  19. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species. PMID:25325089

  20. Examining the uncertain origin and management role of martens on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Moss, Wynne E; Manlick, Philip J; Fountain, Emily D; Kirby, Rebecca; Sultaire, Sean M; Perrig, Paula L; Mendoza, Jorge E; Pokallus, John W; Heaton, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    Conservation biologists are generally united in efforts to curtail the spread of non-native species globally. However, the colonization history of a species is not always certain, and whether a species is considered non-native or native depends on the conservation benchmark. Such ambiguities have led to inconsistent management. Within the Tongass National Forest of Alaska, the status of American marten (Martes americana) on the largest, most biologically diverse and deforested island, Prince of Wales (POW), is unclear. Ten martens were released to POW in the early 1930s, and it was generally believed to be the founding event, although this has been questioned. The uncertainty surrounding when and how martens colonized POW complicates management, especially because martens were selected as a design species for the Tongass. To explore the history of martens of POW we reviewed other plausible routes of colonization; genetically and isotopically analyzed putative marten fossils deposited in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene to verify marten occupancy of POW; and used contemporary genetic data from martens on POW and the mainland in coalescent simulations to identify the probable source of the present-day marten population on POW. We found evidence for multiple routes of colonization by forest-associated mammals beginning in the Holocene, which were likely used by American martens to naturally colonize POW. Although we cannot rule out human-assisted movement of martens by Alaskan Natives or fur trappers, we suggest that martens be managed for persistence on POW. More generally, our findings illustrate the difficulty of labeling species as non-native or native, even when genetic and paleo-ecological data are available, and support the notion that community resilience or species invasiveness should be prioritized when making management decisions rather than more subjective and less certain conservation benchmarks. PMID:25855043

  1. New glass sponges (Porifera: Hexactinellida) from deep waters of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Reiswig, Henry M; Stone, Robert P

    2013-01-01

    Hexactinellida from deep-water communities of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, are described. They were mostly collected by the remotely operated vehicle 'Jason II' from 494–2311 m depths during a 2004 RV 'Roger Revelle' expedition, but one shallow-water species collected with a shrimp trawl from 155 m in the same area is included. The excellent condition of the ROV-collected specimens enabled valuable redescription of some species previously known only from badly damaged specimens. New taxa include one new genus and eight new species in five families. Farreidae consist of two new species, Farrea aleutiana and F. aspondyla. Euretidae consists of only Pinulasma fistulosum n. gen., n. sp. Tretodictyidae include only Tretodictyum amchitkensis n. sp. Euplectellidae consists of only the widespread species Regadrella okinoseana Ijima, reported here over 3,700 km from its closest previously known occurrence. The most diverse family, Rossellidae, consists of Aulosaccus ijimai (Schulze), Aulosaccus schulzei Ijima, Bathydorus sp. (young stage not determinable to species), Caulophacus (Caulophacus) adakensis n. sp., Acanthascus koltuni n. sp., Staurocalyptus psilosus n. sp., Staurocalyptus tylotus n. sp. and Rhabdocalyptus mirabilis Schulze. We present argument for reinstatement of the abolished rossellid subfamily Acanthascinae and return of the subgenera  Staurocalyptus Ijima and Rhabdocalyptus Schulze to their previous generic status. These fauna provides important complexity to the hard substrate communities that likely serve as nursery areas for the young stages of commercially important fish and crab species, refuge from predation for both young and adult stages, and also as a focal source of prey for juvenile and adult stages of those same species.

  2. Examining the uncertain origin and management role of martens on Prince of Wales Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Pauli, Jonathan N; Moss, Wynne E; Manlick, Philip J; Fountain, Emily D; Kirby, Rebecca; Sultaire, Sean M; Perrig, Paula L; Mendoza, Jorge E; Pokallus, John W; Heaton, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    Conservation biologists are generally united in efforts to curtail the spread of non-native species globally. However, the colonization history of a species is not always certain, and whether a species is considered non-native or native depends on the conservation benchmark. Such ambiguities have led to inconsistent management. Within the Tongass National Forest of Alaska, the status of American marten (Martes americana) on the largest, most biologically diverse and deforested island, Prince of Wales (POW), is unclear. Ten martens were released to POW in the early 1930s, and it was generally believed to be the founding event, although this has been questioned. The uncertainty surrounding when and how martens colonized POW complicates management, especially because martens were selected as a design species for the Tongass. To explore the history of martens of POW we reviewed other plausible routes of colonization; genetically and isotopically analyzed putative marten fossils deposited in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene to verify marten occupancy of POW; and used contemporary genetic data from martens on POW and the mainland in coalescent simulations to identify the probable source of the present-day marten population on POW. We found evidence for multiple routes of colonization by forest-associated mammals beginning in the Holocene, which were likely used by American martens to naturally colonize POW. Although we cannot rule out human-assisted movement of martens by Alaskan Natives or fur trappers, we suggest that martens be managed for persistence on POW. More generally, our findings illustrate the difficulty of labeling species as non-native or native, even when genetic and paleo-ecological data are available, and support the notion that community resilience or species invasiveness should be prioritized when making management decisions rather than more subjective and less certain conservation benchmarks.

  3. Inter-decadal patterns of population and dietary change in sea otters at Amchitka Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watt, J.; Siniff, D.B.; Estes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    After having been hunted to near-extinction in the Pacific maritime fur trade, the sea otter population at Amchitka Island, Alaska increased from very low numbers in the early 1900s to near equilibrium density by the 1940s. The population persisted at or near equilibrium through the 1980s, but declined sharply in the 1990s in apparent response to increased killer whale predation. Sea otter diet and foraging behavior were studied at Amchitka from August 1992 to March 1994 and the data compared with similar information obtained during several earlier periods. In contrast with dietary patterns in the 1960s and 1970s, when the sea otter population was at or near equilibrium density and kelp-forest fishes were the dietary mainstay, these fishes were rarely eaten in the 1990s. Benthic invertebrates, particularly sea urchins, dominated the otter's diet from early summer to midwinter, then decreased in importance during late winter and spring when numerous Pacific smooth lumpsuckers (a large and easily captured oceanic fish) were eaten. The occurrence of spawning lumpsuckers in coastal waters apparently is episodic on a scale of years to decades. The otters' recent dietary shift away from kelp-forest fishes is probably a response to the increased availability of lumpsuckers and sea urchins (both high-preference prey). Additionally, increased urchin densities have reduced kelp beds, thus further reducing the availability of kelp-forest fishes. Our findings suggest that dietary patterns reflect changes in population status and show how an ecosystem normally under top-down control and limited by coastal zone processes can be significantly perturbed by exogenous events.

  4. Fatal paralytic shellfish poisoning in Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) nestlings, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Lance, Ellen W.; Corcoran, Robin; Piatt, John; Bodenstein, Barbara; Frame, Elizabeth; Lawonn, James

    2014-01-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is an acute toxic illness in humans resulting from ingestion of shellfish contaminated with a suite of neurotoxins (saxitoxins) produced by marine dinoflagellates, most commonly in the genus Alexandrium. Poisoning also has been sporadically suspected and, less often, documented in marine wildlife, often in association with an outbreak in humans. Kittlitz's Murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small, rare seabird of the Northern Pacific with a declining population. From 2008 to 2012, as part of a breeding ecology study, multiple Kittlitz's Murrelet nests on Kodiak Island, Alaska, were monitored by remote cameras. During the 2011 and 2012 breeding seasons, nestlings from several sites died during mild weather conditions. Remote camera observations revealed that the nestlings died shortly after consuming sand lance (Ammodytes hexapterus), a fish species known to biomagnify saxitoxin. High levels of saxitoxin were subsequently documented in crop content in 87% of nestling carcasses. Marine bird deaths from PSP may be underreported.

  5. A late quaternary record of eolian silt deposition in a maar lake, St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Ager, T.A.; Been, J.; Bradbury, J.P.; Dean, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent stratigraphic studies in central Alaska have yielded the unexpected finding that there is little evidence for full-glacial (late Wisconsin) loess deposition. Because the loess record of western Alaska is poorly exposed and not well known, we analyzed a core from Zagoskin Lake, a maar lake on St. Michael Island, to determine if a full-glacial eolian record could be found in that region. Particle size and geochemical data indicate that the mineral fraction of the lake sediments is not derived from the local basalt and is probably eolian. Silt deposition took place from at least the latter part of the mid-Wisconsin interstadial period through the Holocene, based on radiocarbon dating. Based on the locations of likely loess sources, eolian silt in western Alaska was probably deflated by northeasterly winds from glaciofluvial sediments. If last-glacial winds that deposited loess were indeed from the northeast, this reconstruction is in conflict with a model-derived reconstruction of paleowinds in Alaska. Mass accumulation rates in Zagoskin Lake were higher during the Pleistocene than during the Holocene. In addition, more eolian sediment is recorded in the lake sediments than as loess on the adjacent landscape. The thinner loess record on land may be due to the sparse, herb tundra vegetation that dominated the landscape in full-glacial time. Herb tundra would have been an inefficient loess trap compared to forest or even shrub tundra due to its low roughness height. The lack of abundant, full-glacial, eolian silt deposition in the loess stratigraphic record of central Alaska may be due, therefore, to a mimimal ability of the landscape to trap loess, rather than a lack of available eolian sediment. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Climate program "stone soup": Assessing climate change vulnerabilities in the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littell, J. S.; Poe, A.; van Pelt, T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is already affecting the Bering Sea and Aleutian Island region of Alaska. Past and present marine research across a broad spectrum of disciplines is shedding light on what sectors of the ecosystem and the human dimension will be most impacted. In a grassroots approach to extend existing research efforts, leveraging recently completed downscaled climate projections for the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands region, we convened a team of 30 researchers-- with expertise ranging from anthropology to zooplankton to marine mammals-- to assess climate projections in the context of their expertise. This Aleutian-Bering Climate Vulnerability Assessment (ABCVA) began with researchers working in five teams to evaluate the vulnerabilities of key species and ecosystem services relative to projected changes in climate. Each team identified initial vulnerabilities for their focal species or services, and made recommendations for further research and information needs that would help managers and communities better understand the implications of the changing climate in this region. Those draft recommendations were shared during two focused, public sessions held within two hub communities for the Bering and Aleutian region: Unalaska and St. Paul. Qualitative insights about local concerns and observations relative to climate change were collected during these sessions, to be compared to the recommendations being made by the ABCVA team of researchers. Finally, we used a Structured Decision Making process to prioritize the recommendations of participating scientists, and integrate the insights shared during our community sessions. This work brought together residents, stakeholders, scientists, and natural resource managers to collaboratively identify priorities for addressing current and expected future impacts of climate change. Recommendations from this project will be incorporated into future research efforts of the Aleutian and Bering Sea Islands Landscape Conservation

  7. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ???30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (???30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and minor dwarf birch (Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ???30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca. 11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs (Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce (Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill. PMID:22933448

  9. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Schamber, J.L.; Trust, K.A.; Miles, A.K.; Henderson, J.D.; Wilson, B.W.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  10. Chronic hydrocarbon exposure of harlequin ducks in areas affected by the Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Flint, Paul L; Schamber, Jason L; Trust, Kimberly A; Miles, A Keith; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2012-12-01

    We evaluated chronic exposure of harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) to hydrocarbons associated with the 2004 M/V Selendang Ayu oil spill at Unalaska Island, Alaska. We measured levels of hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) in liver biopsy samples as an indicator of hydrocarbon exposure in three oiled bays and one reference bay in 2005, 2006, and 2008. Median EROD activity in ducks from oiled bays was significantly higher than in the reference bay in seven of nine pairwise comparisons. These results indicated that harlequin ducks were exposed to lingering hydrocarbons more than three years after the spill.

  11. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kaler, Robb S A; Kenney, Leah A; Bond, Alexander L; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2014-05-15

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands. PMID:24656750

  12. Mercury concentrations in breast feathers of three upper trophic level marine predators from the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaler, Robb S.A.; Kenney, Leah A.; Bond, Alexander L.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element distributed globally through atmospheric transport. Agattu Island, located in the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska, has no history of point-sources of Hg contamination. We provide baseline levels of total mercury (THg) concentrations in breast feathers of three birds that breed on the island. Geometric mean THg concentrations in feathers of fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata; 6703 ± 1635, ng/g fresh weight [fw]) were higher than all other species, including snowy owl (Bubo scandiacus; 2105 ± 1631, ng/g fw), a raptor with a diet composed largely of storm-petrels at Agattu Island. There were no significant differences in mean THg concentrations of breast feathers among adult Kittlitz’s murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris; 1658 ± 1276, ng/g fw) and chicks (1475 ± 671, ng/g fw) and snowy owls. The observed THg concentrations in fork-tailed storm-petrel feathers emphasizes the need for further study of Hg pollution in the western Aleutian Islands.

  13. Volcanic ash in surficial sediments of the Kodiak shelf - An indicator of sediment dispersal patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, M.A.; Bouma, A.H.; Frost, T.P.; Colburn, I.P.

    1979-01-01

    Surficial sediments of the Kodiak shelf, Gulf of Alaska, contain various amounts of volcanic ash whose physical properties indicate that it originated from the 1912 Katmai eruption. The distribution of ash is related to the shelf physiography and represents redistribution by oceanic circulation rather than the original depositional pattern from the volcanic event. The ash distribution can be used, in conjunction with the distribution of grain sizes, as an indicator of present-day sediment dispersal patterns on the shelf. No significant modern input of sediment is occurring on the Kodiak shelf, which is mostly covered by Pleistocene glacial deposits. Coarse-grained sediments on flat portions of shallow banks apparently are being winnowed, with the removed ash-rich fine material being deposited in shallow depressions on the banks and in three of the four major troughs that cut transversely across the shelf. The other major trough seems to be experiencing a relatively high-energy current regime, with little deposition of fine material. ?? 1979.

  14. The recent marine sedimentary record of Baranof Island, Southeast Alaska - implications for paleoclimate reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, J. A.; Finney, B. P.; Jaeger, J. M.; Stoner, J. S.; Norris, R. D.; Hangsterfer, A.

    2011-12-01

    Modern and paleoclimate studies suggest a correlation between Pacific decadal climate variability and marine ecosystem productivity, but are generally limited by either short periods of observation or low temporal resolution. Long, annually resolved paleoclimate time-series data are thus critical for assessing this correlation and understanding the full range of Pacific climate variability and its impacts. Baranof Island is located in the Alexander Archipelago of Southeast Alaska, and contains many temperate ice-free fjords with shallow sills that enhance organic matter preservation by restricting oxygenation of bottom waters. Multicore samples EW0408-32MC and 43MC were recovered from two fjords on Baranof Island, and analyzed to determine how recent sedimentation patterns relate to the instrument record as a first step towards reconstructing high-latitude Pacific climate at annual timescales. A combination of radiometric 137Cs and excess 210Pb geochronometry, 3D computerized tomography (CT), and high-resolution Avaatech scanning XRF geochemical analyses were used to investigate this relationship. Scanning XRF data were collected every 2 mm on core 32MC, while 43MC was measured at 0.2 mm intervals. Core 32MC is composed of a diffusely laminated to bioturbated clay with a maximum apparent steady-state sedimentation rate of ~5±1 mm/yr, while core 43MC is a strongly laminated diatom ooze with a maximum apparent sedimentation rate of ~6±0.5 mm/yr. Using conservative estimates of accumulation to assess basal ages of the cores yields approximately ~AD 1930 for 32MC, and ~AD 1900 for 43MC. Scanning XRF centered natural log-ratio transformed [clr] element intensities indicate 32MC is controlled by a balance between detrital (Al, Si, K, Ti, Fe, and Ca) and biogenic components (S and Br), and isolated peaks in clr Ca data correspond with CT-visible shell debris. Core 43MC is more complex, with both XRF and CT scans indicating four distinct lithologies: (i) millimeter

  15. Amchitka Mud Pit Sites 2006 Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Report, Amchitka Island, Alaska, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2006-09-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA/NSO) remediated six areas associated with Amchitka mud pit release sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. This included the construction of seven closure caps. To ensure the integrity and effectiveness of remedial action, the mud pit sites are to be inspected every five years as part of DOE's long-term monitoring and surveillance program. In August of 2006, the closure caps were inspected in accordance with the ''Post-Closure Monitoring and Inspection Plan for Amchitka Island Mud Pit Release Sites'' (Rev. 0, November 2005). This post-closure monitoring report provides the 2006 cap inspection results.

  16. A drift experiment to assess the influence of wind on recovery of oiled seabirds on St Paul Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Fowler, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    We used wooden blocks to estimate the proportion of oiled seabird carcasses that were likely to be recovered on beaches of St Paul Island, Alaska following a near-shore oil spill. We released a total of 302 blocks 6 km north of the island in 1997 at the site of a 17 II 1996 oil spill. We used a paired design and released half the blocks when the winds were onshore and released the second half when the winds were offshore. We systematically searched beaches after the second release to recover blocks. We recovered 93 of 152 (61%) blocks released when winds were onshore but only 1 of 150 (0.7%) blocks released when winds were offshore. Given that winds following the 1996 spill were offshore, we conclude that most birds killed at sea following the 1996 spill were likely not recovered on beaches.

  17. Origin of lithological zoning in Alaskan-type complexes: Studies from the Duke Island and Annette Island Complexes in southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakurta, J.; Ripley, E.; Li, C.; Stifter, E.

    2011-12-01

    Alaskan-type complexes are small, cone-shaped, ultramafic to mafic, alkaline igneous intrusive bodies which commonly occur in linear groups along the trends of major orogenic belts and subduction zones as in southeastern Alaska and the Ural Mountains in Russia. Many of these complexes are characterized by nearly concentric lithological zoning from dunite in the core followed by successive zones of wehrlite, olivine clinopyroxenite and more silicic rocks towards the rim. The Duke Island and Annette Island Complexes are two Alaskan-type complexes located in the southern tip of the Alaskan panhandle. The former is characterized by multiple lithological zones with a distorted concentric arrangement, but the latter is a single intrusion of dunite, without any noticeable development of concentric zonal structures. Both complexes have been modeled to be the products of crystal accumulation from a differentiating parental magma with the composition of picrite or ankaramite. The compositions of the residual liquids are andesitic and this is consistent with the view that the Alaskan-type complexes represent magma reservoirs for andesitic eruptions of subduction zone volcanoes. Structural and petrological relationships between the lithological units at the Duke Island Complex indicate multiple magmatic inputs from an underlying staging magma chamber in a dynamic flow through system. Evidence of magmatic differentiation is observed at the level of the intrusion and also at the level of the staging magma chamber. Conversely, the dunite unit at Annette Island is a product of rapid magmatic uplift and relatively insignificant magmatic differentiation. The spectacular development of grain-size layering and magmatic flow structures at Duke Island and on a limited scale at Annette Island clearly indicate crystallization in a dynamic magma chamber environment.

  18. Hazard communication by the Alaska Volcano Observatory Concerning the 2008 Eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi Volcanoes, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adleman, J. N.; Cameron, C. E.; Neal, T. A.; Shipman, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    The significant explosive eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi volcanoes in 2008 tested the hazard communication systems at the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) including a rigorous test of the new format for written notices of volcanic activity. AVO's Anchorage-based Operations facility (Ops) at the USGS Alaska Science Center serves as the hub of AVO's eruption response. From July 12 through August 28, 2008 Ops was staffed around the clock (24/7). Among other duties, Ops staff engaged in communicating with the public, media, and other responding federal and state agencies and issued Volcanic Activity Notices (VAN) and Volcano Observatory Notifications for Aviation (VONA), recently established and standardized products to announce eruptions, significant activity, and alert level and color code changes. In addition to routine phone communications with local, national and international media, on July 22, AVO held a local press conference in Ops to share observations and distribute video footage collected by AVO staff on board a U.S. Coast Guard flight over Okmok. On July 27, AVO staff gave a public presentation on the Okmok eruption in Unalaska, AK, 65 miles northeast of Okmok volcano and also spoke with local public safety and industry officials, observers and volunteer ash collectors. AVO's activity statements, photographs, and selected data streams were posted in near real time on the AVO public website. Over the six-week 24/7 period, AVO staff logged and answered approximately 300 phone calls in Ops and approximately 120 emails to the webmaster. Roughly half the logged calls were received from interagency cooperators including NOAA National Weather Service's Alaska Aviation Weather Unit and the Center Weather Service Unit, both in Anchorage. A significant number of the public contacts were from mariners reporting near real-time observations and photos of both eruptions, as well as the eruption of nearby Cleveland Volcano on July 21. As during the 2006 eruption of

  19. The Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany geologic and mineral-resource maps of the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles, southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.; Plafker, George; Goldfarb, R.J.; Case, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    report summarizes recent results of integrated geological, geochemical, and geophysical field and laboratory studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the Cordova and Middleton Island 1?x3 ? quadrangles of coastal southern Alaska. Published open-file reports and maps accompanied by descriptive and interpretative texts, tables, diagrams, and pertinent references provide background information for a mineral-resource assessment of the two quadrangles. Mines in the Cordova and Middleton Island quadrangles produced copper and byproduct gold and silver in the first three decades of the 20th century. The quadrangles may contain potentially significant undiscovered resources of precious and base metals (gold, silver, copper, zinc, and lead) in veins and massive sulfide deposits hosted by Cretaceous and Paleogene sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Resources of manganese also may be present in the Paleogene rocks; uranium resources may be present in Eocene granitic rocks; and placer gold may be present in beach sands near the mouth of the Copper River, in alluvial sands within the canyons of the Copper River, and in smaller alluvial deposits underlain by rocks of the Valdez Group. Significant coal resources are present in the Bering River area, but difficult access and structural complexities have discouraged development. Investigation of numerous oil and gas seeps near Katalla in the eastern part of the area led to the discovery of a small, shallow field from which oil was produced between 1902 and 1933. The field has been inactive since, and subsequent exploration and drilling onshore near Katalla in the 1960's and offshore near Middleton Island on the outer continental shelf in the 1970's and 1980's was not successful.

  20. Long term volcano monitoring by using advanced Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry technique: A case study at Unimak Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, W.; Meyer, F. J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Lu, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Unimak Island, the largest island in the eastern Aleutians of Alaska, is home to three major active volcanoes: Shishaldin, Fisher, and Westdahl. Shishaldin and Westdahl erupted within the past 2 decades and Fisher has shown persistent hydrothermal activity (Mann and Freymueller, 2003). Therefore, Unimak Island is of particular interest to geoscientists. Surface deformation on Unimak Island has been studied in several previous efforts. Lu et al. (2000, 2003) applied conventional InSAR techniques to study surface inflation at Westdahl during 1991 and 2000. Mann and Freymueller (2003) used GPS measurements to analyze inflation at Westdahl and subsidence at Fisher during 1998-2001. Moran et al., ( 2006) reported that Shishaldin, the most active volcano in the island , experienced no significant deformation during the 1993 to 2003 period bracketing two eruptions. In this paper, we present deformation measurements at Unimak Islank during 2003-2010 using advanced persistent scatterer InSAR (PSI). Due to the non-urban setting in a subarctic environment and the limited data acquisition, the number of images usable for PSI processing is limited to about 1-3 acquisitions per year. The relatively smaller image stack and the irregular acquisition distribution in time pose challenges in the PSI time-series processing. Therefore, we have developed a modified PSI technique that integrates external atmospheric information from numerical weather predication models to assist in the removal of atmospheric artifacts [1]. Deformation modeling based on PSI results will be also presented. Our new results will be combined with previous findings to address the magma plumbing system at Unimak Island. 1) W. Gong, F. J. Meyer (2012): Optimized filter design for irregular acquired data stack in Persistent Scatterers Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry, Proceeding of Geosciences and Remote Sensing Symposium (IGARSS), 2012 IEEE International, Munich, Germany.

  1. 76 FR 3089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region Bering Sea & Aleutian Islands Crab Permits AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  2. 76 FR 3090 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Region; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Arbitration AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... extension of a currently approved collection. The Crab Rationalization Program allocates Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab resources among harvesters, processors, and coastal communities through...

  3. Reconnaissance engineering geology of the Metlakatla area, Annette Island, Alaska, with emphasis on evaluation of earthquakes and other geologic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yehle, Lynn A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to study the engineering geology of most larger Alaska coastal communities and to evaluate their earthquake and other geologic hazards was started following the 1964 Alaska earthquake; this report about the Metlakatla area, Annette Island, is a product of that program. Field-study methods were of a reconnaissance nature, and thus the interpretations in the report are tentative. Landscape of the Metlakatla Peninsula, on which the city of Metlakatla is located, is characterized by a muskeg-covered terrane of very low relief. In contrast, most of the rest of Annette Island is composed of mountainous terrane with steep valleys and numerous lakes. During the Pleistocene Epoch the Metlakatla area was presumably covered by ice several times; glaciers smoothed the present Metlakatla Peninsula and deeply eroded valleys on the rest. of Annette Island. The last major deglaciation was completed probably before 10,000 years ago. Rebound of the earth's crust, believed to be related to glacial melting, has caused land emergence at Metlakatla of at least 50 ft (15 m) and probably more than 200 ft (61 m) relative to present sea level. Bedrock in the Metlakatla area is composed chiefly of hard metamorphic rocks: greenschist and greenstone with minor hornfels and schist. Strike and dip of beds are generally variable and minor offsets are common. Bedrock is of late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic age. Six types of surficial geologic materials of Quaternary age were recognized: firm diamicton, emerged shore, modern shore and delta, and alluvial deposits, very soft muskeg and other organic deposits, and firm to soft artificial fill. A combination map unit is composed of bedrock or diamicton. Geologic structure in southeastern Alaska is complex because, since at least early Paleozoic time, there have been several cycles of tectonic deformation that affected different parts of the region. Southeastern Alaska is transected by numerous faults and possible faults that attest to major

  4. Facies patterns and conodont biogeography in Arctic Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands: Evidence against juxtaposition of these areas during early Paleozoic time

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.; Bradley, D.C.; De Freitas, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Differences in lithofacies and biofacies suggest that lower Paleozoic rocks now exposed in Arctic Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands did not form as part of a single depositional system. Lithologic contrasts are noted in shallow- and deep-water strata and are especially marked in Ordovician and Silurian rocks. A widespread intraplatform basin of Early and Middle Ordovician age in northern Alaska has no counterpart in the Canadian Arctic, and the regional drowning and backstepping of the Silurian shelf margin in Canada has no known parallel in northern Alaska. Lower Paleozoic basinal facies in northern Alaska are chiefly siliciclastic, whereas resedimented carbonates are volumetrically important in Canada. Micro- and macrofossil assemblages from northern Alaska contain elements typical of both Siberian and Laurentian biotic provinces; coeval Canadian Arctic assemblages contain Laurentian forms but lack Siberian species. Siberian affinities in northern Alaskan biotas persist from at least Middle Cambrian through Mississippian time and appear to decrease in intensity from present-day west to east. Our lithologic and biogeographic data are most compatible with the hypothesis that northern Alaska-Chukotka formed a discrete tectonic block situated between Siberia and Laurentia in early Paleozoic time. If Arctic Alaska was juxtaposed with the Canadian Arctic prior to opening of the Canada basin, biotic constraints suggest that such juxtaposition took place no earlier than late Paleozoic time.

  5. Sedimentary depositional environments in the Gulf of Alaska from GLORIA Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, P.R.; Bruns, T.R.; Stevenson, A.J.; Mann, D.M. ); Huggett, Q. ); Wormly, U.K.; Dobson, M. )

    1990-05-01

    GLORIA side-scan images provide new insight to the morphology and sedimentology of the Gulf of Alaska and show that tectonism strongly influences downslope and abyssal plain sediment transport. Along the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte transform margin south of Cross Sound short, chute-like canyons cross the slope to submarine-fan channels. At least one canyon is offset by strike-slip motion along the fault Fan channels coalesce to form two deep-sea turbidite channels (Mukluk and Horizon) that extend 1,000 km southward to the Tufts Abyssal Plain. From Cross Sound to Pamplona Spur, dendritic gulley systems and short chutes cross the slope into tributary channels that merge into major channels. Tributary channels from Cross Sound to Alsek Valley form the Chirikov channel system which bends westward and ends in turbidite fans south of the Kodiak-Bowie Seamount chain. A probable ancestral Chirikov channel carried sediment westward to the Aleutian Trench, Channels from Alsek Valley to Pamplona Spur coalesce 280 km seaward of the slope to form the Surveyor Channel which meanders across the abyssal plain 500 km to the Aleutian trench. Between Pamplona Spur and Middleton Island, dendritic slope canyons reach the eastern end of the Aleutian Trench sediment moves southwestward along the trench. Southwest of Middleton Island, discontinuous trench-parallel subduction ridges change slope drainage from a dendritic to trellised pattern as sediment is forced to flow around the ridges to the Aleutian Trench. At least two small fans have been constructed on the trench floor. Southwest of Kodiak Island, subduction ridges create mid-slope basins that trap modern sediment.

  6. Irruptive dynamics of introduced caribou on Adak Island, Alaska: an evaluation of Riney-Caughley model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Miles, A. Keith

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian herbivores introduced to islands without predators are predicted to undergo irruptive population and spatial dynamics, but only a few well-documented case studies support this paradigm. We used the Riney-Caughley model as a framework to test predictions of irruptive population growth and spatial expansion of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) introduced to Adak Island in the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska in 1958 and 1959. We utilized a time series of spatially explicit counts conducted on this population intermittently over a 54-year period. Population size increased from 23 released animals to approximately 2900 animals in 2012. Population dynamics were characterized by two distinct periods of irruptive growth separated by a long time period of relative stability, and the catalyst for the initial irruption was more likely related to annual variation in hunting pressure than weather conditions. An unexpected pattern resembling logistic population growth occurred between the peak of the second irruption in 2005 and the next survey conducted seven years later in 2012. Model simulations indicated that an increase in reported harvest alone could not explain the deceleration in population growth, yet high levels of unreported harvest combined with increasing density-dependent feedbacks on fecundity and survival were the most plausible explanation for the observed population trend. No studies of introduced island Rangifer have measured a time series of spatial use to the extent described in this study. Spatial use patterns during the post-calving season strongly supported Riney-Caughley model predictions, whereby high-density core areas expanded outwardly as population size increased. During the calving season, caribou displayed marked site fidelity across the full range of population densities despite availability of other suitable habitats for calving. Finally, dispersal and reproduction on neighboring Kagalaska Island represented a new dispersal front

  7. Common murre restoration monitoring in the Barren Islands, Alaska, 1993. Restoration project 93049. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roseneau, D.G.; Kettle, A.B.; Byrd, G.V.

    1995-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the second year of common murre (Uria aalge) restoration monitoring work conducted in the northern Gulf of Alaska for the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Trustee Council. Information on population numbers, nesting chronology, and productivity of murres were collected by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) biologists at the injured East of Amatuli Island - Light Rock and Nord Island - Northwest Islet colonies in the Barren Islands during the 1993 breeding season. These data are presented and statistically compared with information reported in the 1989-1992 FWS murre damage assessment and restoration studies.

  8. A Detailed Geochemical Study of Island Arc Crust: The Talkeetna Arc Section, South-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, A. R.; Debari, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Clift, P. D.; Blusztajn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Talkeetna arc section in south-central Alaska is recognized as the exposed upper mantle and crust of an accreted, Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic island arc. Detailed geochemical studies of layered gabbronorite from the middle and lower crust of this arc and a diverse suite of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the middle and upper crust provide crucial data for understanding arc magma evolution. We also present new data on parental magma compositions for the arc. The deepest level of the arc section consists of residual mantle and ultramafic cumulates adjacent to garnet gabbro and basal gabbronorite interlayered with pyroxenite. The middle crust is primarily layered gabbronorite, ranging from anorthosite to pyroxenite in composition, and is the most widespread plutonic lithology. The upper mid crust is a heterogenous assemblage of dioritic to tonalitic rocks mixed with gabbro and intruded by abundant mafic dikes and chilled pillows. The upper crust of the arc is comprised of volcanic rocks of the Talkeetna Formation ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Most of these volcanic rocks have evolved compositions (<5% MgO, Mg# <60) and overlap the composition of intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks (<3.5% MgO, Mg# <45). However, several chilled mafic rocks and one basalt have primitive characteristics (>8% MgO, Mg# >60). Ion microprobe analyses of clinopyroxene in mid-crustal layered gabbronorites have parallel REE patterns with positive-sloping LREE segments (La/Sm(N)=0.05-0.17; mean 0.11) and flat HREE segments (5-25xchondrite; mean 10xchondrite). Liquids in REE equilibrium with the clinopyroxene in these gabbronorite cumulates were calculated in order to constrain parental magmas. These calculated liquids(La/Sm(N)=0.77-1.83; mean 1.26) all fall within the range of dike and volcanic rock(La/Sm(N)=0.78-2.12; mean 1.23) compositions. However, three lavas out of the 44 we have analyzed show strong HREE depletion, which is not observed in any of the liquid compositions

  9. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups. PMID:23307383

  10. Novel polyomaviral infection in the placenta of a northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) on the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Colleen; Goldstein, Tracey; Hearne, Carol; Gelatt, Tom; Spraker, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Viruses of the family Polyomaviridae infect a wide variety of avian and mammalian hosts with a broad spectrum of outcomes including asymptomatic infection, acute systemic disease, and tumor induction. In 2010, intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were identified in trophoblasts of a single northern fur seal (NFS; Callorhinus ursinus) placenta from a presumed healthy birth on St. Paul Island, Alaska. On transmission electron microscopy, virions were approximately 40 nm in diameter and were arranged in paracrystalline arrays within the nucleus. The tissue was positive for the polyomaviral major capsid gene (VP1) by PCR, and the sequenced product revealed a novel Orthopolyomavirus. Twenty-nine additional NFS placentas, devoid of viral inclusions on histologic examination, were tested for polyomavirus by PCR; all were negative. The significance of this novel virus for the infected animal is unknown, but the virus does not appear to be very prevalent within the placentas from newborn northern fur seal pups.

  11. The Alaskan Mineral Resource Assessment Program; background information to accompany folio of geologic and resources maps of the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.; Case, J.E.; Cox, D.P.; Detra, D.E.; Miller, T.P.; Wilson, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles (1:250,000) are a part of the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. This circular and a companion folio of maps represent results of integrated field and laboratory studies by an interdisciplinary team on geology, geophysics, geochemistry, mineral resources, geochronology, and energy resources to provide a modern assessment of the mineral and energy resources of the quadrangles. The maps contain descriptive text, explanatory material, tables and diagrams, and pertinent references. This circular provides the background data for the mineral and energy resource assessment and integrates the component maps. A comprehensive bibliography cites both specific and general references relevant to the geology and resources of the quadrangles.

  12. An overview of paleogene molluscan biostratigraphy and paleoecology of the Gulf of Alaska region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.; McCoy, S.

    1984-01-01

    Paleogene marine strata in the Gulf of Alaska region occur in three geographic areas and may be characterized by their molluscan faunal composition and paleoecology: a western area consisting of the Alaska Peninsula, Kodiak Island, and adjacent islands; a central area encompassing Prince William Sound; and an eastern area extending from the mouth of the Copper River to Icy Point in the Lituya district. Strata in the western area include the Ghost Rocks, Narrow Cape (in part), Sitkalidak, Stepovak, Belkofski, and Tolstoi Formations; in the central area Paleogene strata are assigned entirely to the Orca Group; Paleogene strata in the eastern area include the Kulthieth and Poul Creek Formations and several coeval units. Environments ranging from marginal marine to bathyal and from subtropical to cool-temperate are inferred for the various molluscan faunas. Sediments range from interbedded coal and marine sands to deep-water turbidites. The known Paleogene molluscan faunas of these three southern Alaskan areas permit recognition of biostratigraphic schemes within each area, preliminary correlations between faunas of the three areas, and more general correlations with faunas of the Pacific Northwest, the Far Eastern U.S.S.R., and northern Japan. ?? 1984.

  13. FASTSAT is a Different Kind of Satellite

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Fast, Affordable, Science and Technology Satellite -- FASTSAT -- is a microsatellite in the 200 to 400 pound class range will launch from Kodiak Launch Complex, Kodiak Island, Alaska, on Nov. 1...

  14. A geological and geophysical study of the gold-silver vein system of Unga Island, Southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, James R., (Edited By)

    1999-01-01

    Overview of the CD-ROM Contents: The topic of this CD-ROM is the geologic framework of gold-silver vein deposits on Unga Island, in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska. The core of the publication is a new geologic map at a scale of 1:63,360 and aeromagnetic and electromagnetic survey data acquired by industry over the area of mineralization. Both the geologic map as well as a preliminary interpretation of the geophysical data--which are included by permission of the owner--are aimed towards deciphering the relations among volcanism, tectonism, and mineralization. Data and discussions are organized in seven chapters, titles of which are outlined in the table of contents. The chapters consist of viewable text and figure images; postscript versions of the frontispiece figures and all chapter figures are included on the CD-ROM as well. The geologic map is a large viewable figure (Plate 1) that accompanies chapter 2. The map was constructed in ARC and its component coverages are provided in the folder 'Geology' for users who may wish to modify the geologic data or add their own data.

  15. Serologic surveillance of pathogens in a declining harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA and a reference site.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Holcomb, Darce; Ballweber, Lora R; Gende, Scott M; Blundell, Gail; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-10-01

    The harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, has declined by over 70% since 1992. The reasons for this decline are not known. We examined serum antibodies and feces for evidence of exposure to multiple pathogens in this population. We also studied harbor seals from a reference site on Kodiak Island. In 2007, we found antibodies against Leptospira spp. in 31% of specimens from harbor seals in Glacier Bay, but no detectable serum antibodies in samples from Kodiak. In 2008, no samples had detectable antibodies against Leptospira spp. No serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, morbilliviruses, or presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal samples were detected. However, Giardia was found in 6% of the fecal samples from Glacier Bay. Our results indicate that the harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park could be immunologically naïve to distemper viruses and therefore vulnerable to these pathogens. Given the relatively low prevalence of antibodies and low titers, pathogens likely are not the reason for the harbor seal decline in Glacier Bay. PMID:22102671

  16. Serologic surveillance of pathogens in a declining harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, USA and a reference site.

    PubMed

    Hueffer, Karsten; Holcomb, Darce; Ballweber, Lora R; Gende, Scott M; Blundell, Gail; O'Hara, Todd M

    2011-10-01

    The harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park, Alaska, has declined by over 70% since 1992. The reasons for this decline are not known. We examined serum antibodies and feces for evidence of exposure to multiple pathogens in this population. We also studied harbor seals from a reference site on Kodiak Island. In 2007, we found antibodies against Leptospira spp. in 31% of specimens from harbor seals in Glacier Bay, but no detectable serum antibodies in samples from Kodiak. In 2008, no samples had detectable antibodies against Leptospira spp. No serum antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, morbilliviruses, or presence of Cryptosporidium in fecal samples were detected. However, Giardia was found in 6% of the fecal samples from Glacier Bay. Our results indicate that the harbor seal population in Glacier Bay National Park could be immunologically naïve to distemper viruses and therefore vulnerable to these pathogens. Given the relatively low prevalence of antibodies and low titers, pathogens likely are not the reason for the harbor seal decline in Glacier Bay.

  17. Pacific Basin Tsunami Hazards Associated with Mass Flows in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Watts, P.; Shi, F.; Kirby, J. T.

    2007-12-01

    The Aleutian Islands are a chain of volcanic islands formed by an intra-oceanic subduction zone. This area consists of a submerged chain of mountains, volcanic islands, and submarine canyons, surrounded by a low- relief continental shelf above about 1000-2000 m water depth. Part of the island chain is fragmented into a series of fault-bounded blocks, tens to hundreds of km in length, and separated from one another by distinctive fault- controlled canyons that are roughly normal to the arc axis. The canyons are geomorphically low areas between the higher relief blocks and are natural regions for the accumulation and conveyance of sediment derived from glacial and volcanic processes. The volcanic islands in the region include a number of historically active volcanoes and some possess geological evidence for large-scale sector collapse into the sea. The physical setting of the Aleutian Islands indicates that mass flows of unconsolidated debris that originate either as submarine mass flows or as subaerial debris avalanches entering the sea may be potential tsunami sources. Large scale mass-flow deposits have not been identified on the seafloor south of the Aleutian Islands, primarily because the area has never been mapped or examined at the resolution required to identify such features. Extensive submarine landslide deposits and debris flows are known on the north side of the arc and are common in similar settings elsewhere and thus they likely exist on the trench slope south of the Aleutian Islands. We suggest that tsunamigenic mass flows are a plausible geologic process in the Aleutian Islands and that the tsunamis produced by such flows may be large enough to cross the Pacific Ocean basin. To test this hypothesis we present a series of numerical simulations of submarine mass-flow initiated tsunamis from eight different source areas. We consider four submarine mass flows originating in submarine canyons and four flows that evolve from submarine landslides. The flows

  18. Late Glacial-Holocene Pollen-Based Vegetation History from Pass Lake, Prince of Wales Island, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ager, Thomas A.; Rosenbaum, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    A radiocarbon-dated history of vegetation development since late Wisconsin deglaciation has been reconstructed from pollen evidence preserved in a sediment core from Pass Lake on Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska. The shallow lake is in the south-central part of the island and occupies a low pass that was filled by glacial ice of local origin during the late Wisconsin glaciation. The oldest pollen assemblages indicate that pine woodland (Pinus contorta) had developed in the area by ~13,715 cal yr B.P. An abrupt decline in the pine population, coinciding with expansion of alder (Alnus) and ferns (mostly Polypodiaceae) began ~12,875 yr B.P., and may have been a response to colder, drier climates during the Younger Dryas climatic interval. Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) began to colonize central Prince of Wales Island by ~11,920 yr B.P. and was soon followed by Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). Pollen of western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla) began to appear in Pass Lake sediments soon after 11,200 yr B.P. The abundance of western hemlock pollen in the Pass Lake core during most of the Holocene appears to be the result of wind transport from trees growing at lower altitudes on the island. The late Holocene pollen record from Pass Lake is incomplete because of one or more unconformities, but the available record suggests that a vegetation change occurred during the late Holocene. Increases in pollen percentages of pine, cedar (probably yellow cedar, Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), and heaths (Ericales) suggest an expansion of muskeg vegetation occurred in the area during the late Holocene. This vegetation change may be related to the onset of cooler, wetter climates that began as early as ~3,774 yr B.P. in the region. This vegetation history provides the first radiocarbon-dated Late Glacial-Holocene terrestrial paleoecological framework for Prince of Wales Island. An analysis of magnetic properties of core sediments from Pass Lake suggests that unconformities

  19. Persistent organochlorine pesticide exposure related to a formerly used defense site on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: data from sentinel fish and human sera

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Samuel; Miller, Pamela; Waghiyi, Viola; Buck, C. Loren; von Hippel, Frank A.; Carpenter, David O.

    2015-01-01

    St. Lawrence Island, Alaska is the largest island in the Bering Sea, located 60 km from Siberia. The island is home to approximately 1600 St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents who live a subsistence lifestyle. Two formerly used defense sites (FUDS) exist on the island, one of which, Northeast Cape, has been the subject of a $123 million cleanup effort. Environmental monitoring demonstrates localized soil and watershed contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and arsenic. This study examined whether the Northeast Cape FUDS is a source of exposure to OC pesticides. A total of 71 serum samples were collected during site remediation from volunteers that represented three geographic regions of the island. Additionally, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were collected from Northeast Cape after remediation to assess continuing presence of OC pesticides. Chlordane compounds, DDT compounds, mirex and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the most prevalent and present at the highest concentrations in both fish tissues and human serum samples. After controlling for age and sex, activities near the Northeast Cape FUDS were associated with an increase in serum HCB as compared to residents of the farthest village from the site. Positive but non-significant relationships for sum-chlordane and sum-DDT were also found. Organochlorine concentrations in fish samples did not show clear geographic trends, but appear elevated compared to other sites in Alaska. Taken together, the results suggest that contamination of the local environment at the Northeast Cape FUDS may increase exposure to select persistent OC pesticides. PMID:26262441

  20. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticide Exposure Related to a Formerly Used Defense Site on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska: Data from Sentinel Fish and Human Sera.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Samuel; Miller, Pamela; Waghiyi, Viola; Buck, C Loren; von Hippel, Frank A; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, is the largest island in the Bering Sea, located 60 km from Siberia. The island is home to approximately 1600 St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents who live a subsistence way of life. Two formerly used defense sites (FUDS) exist on the island, one of which, Northeast Cape, has been the subject of a $123 million cleanup effort. Environmental monitoring demonstrates localized soil and watershed contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, mercury, and arsenic. This study examined whether the Northeast Cape FUDS is a source of exposure to OC pesticides. In total, 71 serum samples were collected during site remediation from volunteers who represented three geographic regions of the island. In addition, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were collected from Northeast Cape after remediation to assess continuing presence of OC pesticides. Chlordane compounds, DDT compounds, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the most prevalent and present at the highest concentrations in both fish tissues and human serum samples. After controlling for age and gender, activities near the Northeast Cape FUDS were associated with an increase in serum HCB as compared to residents of the farthest village from the site. Positive but nonsignificant relationships for sum-chlordane and sum-DDT were also found. Organochlorine concentrations in fish samples did not show clear geographic trends, but appear elevated compared to other sites in Alaska. Taken together, data suggest that contamination of the local environment at the Northeast Cape FUDS may increase exposure to select persistent OC pesticides. PMID:26262441

  1. MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS OF A RESIDENT FRESHWATER FORAGE FISH AT ADAK ISLAND, ALEUTIAN ARCHIPELAGO, ALASKA

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Leah A.; von Hippel, Frank A.; Willacker, James J.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2015-01-01

    The Aleutian Archipelago is an isolated arc of over 300 volcanic islands stretching 1,600 km across the interface of the Bering Sea and North Pacific Ocean. Although remote, some Aleutian Islands were heavily impacted by military activities from World War II until recently and were exposed to anthropogenic contaminants, including mercury (Hg). Mercury is also delivered to these islands via global atmospheric transport, prevailing ocean currents, and biotransport by migratory species. Mercury contamination of freshwater ecosystems is poorly understood in this region. Total Hg (THg) concentrations were measured in threespine stickleback fish (Gasterosteus aculeatus) collected from eight lakes at Adak Island, an island in the center of the archipelago with a long military history. Mean THg concentrations for fish whole-body homogenates for all lakes ranged from 0.314 to 0.560 mg/kg dry weight. Stickleback collected from seabird-associated lakes had significantly higher concentrations of THg compared to non-seabird lakes, including all military lakes. The δ13C stable isotope ratios of stickleback collected from seabird lakes suggest an input of marine-derived nutrients and/or marine-derived Hg. PMID:22912068

  2. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p′-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p′-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health

  3. Erosion and deposition on a beach raised by the 1964 earthquake, Montague Island, Alaska: Chapter H in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkby, M.J.; Kirkby, Anne V.

    1969-01-01

    During the 1964 Alaska earthquake, tectonic deformation uplifted the southern end of Montague Island as much as 33 feet or more. The uplifted shoreline is rapidly being modified by subaerial and marine processes. The new raised beach is formed in bedrock, sand, gravel, and deltaic bay-head deposits, and the effect of each erosional process was measured in each material. Fieldwork was concentrated in two areas—MacLeod Harbor on the northwest side and Patton Bay on the southeast side of Montague Island. In the unconsolidated deltaic deposits of MacLeod Harbor, 97 percent of the erosion up to June 1965, 15 months after the earthquake, was fluvial, 2.2 percent was by rainwash, and only 0.8 percent was marine; 52 percent of the total available raised beach material had already been removed. The volume removed by stream erosion was proportional to low-flow discharge raised to the power of 0.75 to 0.95, and this volume increased as the bed material became finer. Stream response to the relative fall in base level was very rapid, most of the downcutting in unconsolidated materials occurring within 48 hours of the uplift for streams with low flows greater than 10 cubic feet per second. Since then, erosion by these streams has been predominantly lateral. Streams with lower discharges, in unconsolidated materials, still had knickpoints after 15 months. No response to uplift could be detected in stream courses above the former preearthquake sea level. Where the raised beach is in bedrock, it is being destroyed principally by marine action but at such a low rate that no appreciable erosion of bedrock was found 15 months after the earthquake. A dated rock platform raised earlier has eroded at a mean rate of 0.49 foot per year. In this area the factor limiting the rate of erosion was rock resistance rather than the transporting capacity of the waves. The break in slope between the top of the raised beach and the former seacliff is being obliterated by debris which is

  4. Little late Holocene strain accumulation and release on the Aleutian megathrust below the Shumagin Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Briggs, Richard W.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Koehler, Richard D.; Barnhart, William D.

    2014-01-01

    Can a predominantly creeping segment of a subduction zone generate a great (M > 8) earthquake? Despite Russian accounts of strong shaking and high tsunamis in 1788, geodetic observations above the Aleutian megathrust indicate creeping subduction across the Shumagin Islands segment, a well-known seismic gap. Seeking evidence for prehistoric great earthquakes, we investigated Simeonof Island, the archipelago's easternmost island, and found no evidence for uplifted marine terraces or subsided shorelines. Instead, we found freshwater peat blanketing lowlands, and organic-rich silt and tephra draping higher glacially smoothed bedrock. Basal peat ages place glacier retreat prior to 10.4 ka and imply slowly rising (<0.2 m/ka) relative sea level since ~3.4 ka. Storms rather than tsunamis probably deposited thin, discontinuous deposits in coastal sites. If rupture of the megathrust beneath Simeonof Island produced great earthquakes in the late Holocene, then coseismic uplift or subsidence was too small (≤0.3 m) to perturb the onshore geologic record.

  5. Focused rock uplift above the subduction décollement at Montague and Hinchinbrook Islands, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferguson, Kelly M; Armstrong, Phillip A; Arkle Jeanette C,; Haeussler, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Megathrust splay fault systems in accretionary prisms have been identified as conduits for long-term plate motion and significant coseismic slip during subduction earthquakes. These fault systems are important because of their role in generating tsunamis, but rarely are emergent above sea level where their long-term (million year) history can be studied. We present 32 apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) and 27 apatite fission-track (AFT) ages from rocks along an emergent megathrust splay fault system in the Prince William Sound region of Alaska above the shallowly subducting Yakutat microplate. The data show focused exhumation along the Patton Bay megathrust splay fault system since 3–2 Ma. Most AHe ages are younger than 5 Ma; some are as young as 1.1 Ma. AHe ages are youngest at the southwest end of Montague Island, where maximum fault displacement occurred on the Hanning Bay and Patton Bay faults and the highest shoreline uplift occurred during the 1964 earthquake. AFT ages range from ca. 20 to 5 Ma. Age changes across the Montague Strait fault, north of Montague Island, suggest that this fault may be a major structural boundary that acts as backstop to deformation and may be the westward mechanical continuation of the Bagley fault system backstop in the Saint Elias orogen. The regional pattern of ages and corresponding cooling and exhumation rates indicate that the Montague and Hinchinbrook Island splay faults, though separated by only a few kilometers, accommodate kilometer-scale exhumation above a shallowly subducting plate at million year time scales. This long-term pattern of exhumation also reflects short-term seismogenic uplift patterns formed during the 1964 earthquake. The increase in rock uplift and exhumation rate ca. 3–2 Ma is coincident with increased glacial erosion that, in combination with the fault-bounded, narrow width of the islands, has limited topographic development. Increased exhumation starting ca. 3–2 Ma is interpreted to be due to rock uplift

  6. The 7-8 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Volcano, central Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Scott, William E.; Prejean, Stephanie G.; Schneider, David J.; Izbekov, Pavel; Nye, Christopher J.

    2010-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano in the central Aleutian Islands erupted unexpectedly on 7-8 August 2008. Kasatochi has received little study by volcanologists and has had no confirmed historical eruptions. The island is an important nesting area for seabirds and a long-term biological study site of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. After a notably energetic preeruptive earthquake swarm, the volcano erupted violently in a series of explosive events beginning in the early afternoon of 7 August. Each event produced ash-gas plumes that reached 14-18 km above sea level. The volcanic plume contained large amounts of SO2 and was tracked around the globe by satellite observations. The cumulative volcanic cloud interfered with air travel across the North Pacific, causing many flight cancelations that affected thousands of travelers. Visits to the volcano in 2008-2009 indicated that the eruption generated pyroclastic flows and surges that swept all flanks of the island, accumulated several tens of meters of pyroclastic debris, and increased the diameter of the island by about 800 m. Pyroclastic flow deposits contain abundant accidental lithic debris derived from the inner walls of the Kasatochi crater. Juvenile material is crystal-rich silicic andesite that ranges from slightly pumiceous to frothy pumice. Fine-grained pyroclastic surge and fall deposits with accretionary lapilli cover the lithic-rich pyroclastic flow deposits and mark a change in eruptive style from episodic explosive activity to more continuous ash emission with smaller intermittent explosions. Pyroclastic deposits completely cover the island, but wave erosion and gully development on the flanks have begun to modify the surface mantle of volcanic deposits.

  7. Biochemical monitoring of water after the Cannikin event, Amchitka Island, Alaska, August 1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ballance, Wilbur C.

    1973-01-01

    Radiochemical data from the Amchitka Island study area were obtained from water samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during August 1973. Tritium determinations were made on 86 samples collected and gross alpha and gross beta/gamma determinations were made on 38 samples. The range of data for these samples was equal or less than the range of values obtained before the Cannikin event.

  8. Limited effects of a keystone species: Trends of sea otters and kelp forests at the Semichi Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konar, B.

    2000-01-01

    Sea otters are well known as a keystone species because of their ability to transform sea urchin-dominated communities into kelp-dominated communities by preying on sea urchins and thus reducing the intensity of herbivory. After being locally extinct for more than a century, sea otters re-colonized the Semichi Islands in the Aleutian Archipelago, Alaska in the early 1990s. Here, otter populations increased to about 400 individuals by 1994, but rapidly declined to about 100 by 1997. Roughly 7 yr after initial otter re-colonization, there were only marginal changes in sea urchin biomass, mean maximum test size, and kelp density. These small changes may be the first steps in the cascading effects on community structure typically found with the invasion of a keystone species. However, no wholesale change in community structure occurred following re-colonization and growth of the sea otter population. Instead, this study describes a transition state and identifies factors such as keystone species density and residence time that can be important in dictating the degree to which otter effects are manifested.

  9. Silicate melt removal and sulfide liquid retention in ultramafic rocks of the Duke Island Complex, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2014-10-01

    Magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization occurs within olivine clinopyroxenite, hornblende-bearing clinopyroxenite, and magnetite-hornblende-rich rocks in the Ural-Alaskan-Type Duke Island Complex in Southeast Alaska. The addition of large amounts of sulfur from country rocks occurred during fractional crystallization of the parental magma when clinopyroxene was becoming a liquidus mineral. Textural interfaces between sulfide and silicate minerals are strongly interlobate, and differ significantly from net-textures that are developed in many Ni-Cu-PGE deposits. Sulfide-free olivine clinopyroxenite is an adcumulate; residual liquid was efficiently expelled from the accumulating crystal pile. A significant interstitial liquid component is observable only in the form of interstitial sulfide in the S-rich rocks. Rounded sulfide inclusions and blebby to vermicular sulfide-silicate intergrowths indicate that silicate crystallization occurred under conditions of sulfide saturation. The presence of dense sulfide liquid inhibited the growth of silicate minerals and led to the development of interlobate grain boundaries. Strong, localized wetting of sulfide liquids on crystallizing silicates, and downward percolation of sulfide liquid through a crystallizing mush may have contributed to the evolution of these textures. Residual silicate liquid was removed from the system due to a combination of buoyant advection and compaction, but dense sulfide liquid remained.

  10. Unexpectedly high diversity of Monoporella (Bryozoa: Cheilostomata) in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska: taxonomy and distribution of six new species.

    PubMed

    Dick, Matthew H

    2008-01-01

    The cheilostome bryozoan genus Monoporella is poorly resolved taxonomically; only four Recent species have been formally described, though several undescribed species have been reported in the literature. The literature indicates no more than five species in the genus occurring in any local region of the world, with one to three species in most regions where the genus has been reported. I examined bryozoans from 52 trawl catches in the western and western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and found specimens of Monoporella in 12 of these samples. Study of these specimens by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed six new species that are described herein: M. flexibila, M. elongata, M. gigantea, M. ellefsoni, M. seastormi, and M. aleutica. Two of the species have erect colony morphologies, a condition not previously reported in Monoporella. The species diversity of Monoporella appears to be greater in the Aleutians than in any other part of the world adequately surveyed. I discuss whether this apparent high diversity is an artifact due to insufficient sampling in the deep shelf zone, and present two hypotheses to explain this high diversity should it prove not to be an artifact: 1) the present high local diversity represents a relict of past high diversity occurring broadly around the North Pacific rim; and 2) a local radiation of Monoporella occurred in the Aleutian archipelago.

  11. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Pamela K.; Waghiyi, Viola; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Byrne, Samuel Carter; Kava, Jane; Gologergen, Jesse; Eckstein, Lorraine; Scrudato, Ronald; Chiarenzelli, Jeff; Carpenter, David O.; Seguinot-Medina, Samarys

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI), Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR) studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a) a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d) 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e) a study of traditional foods. Results Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012, a series of exposure

  12. Initial assessment of the hydrothermal resources of the Summer Bay region on Unalaska Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reeder, J.W.

    1981-10-01

    As the result of geologic investigations and shallow exploratory drilling, a potentially developable warm-water artesian aquifer was found in shallow unconsolidated deposits near the Summer Bay warm spring, which is located near the Unalaska community on Unalaska Island. The actual water source for the warm spring and the warm-water aquifer is not well understood, but the source is probably directly related to deep N. 50/sup 0/W fractures. Magma is suspected to exist in such fractures at great depths in this region.

  13. Geochemical investigation of the hydrothermal system on Akutan Island, Alaska, July 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, D.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Revesz, Kinga; Huebner, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the geochemistry of the hot springs on Akutan Island in detail for the first time since the early 1980s. Springs in four discrete groups (A-D) along Hot Springs Creek showed generally higher temperatures and substantially higher Na, Ca, and Cl concentrations than previously reported, and total hot-spring discharge has also increased markedly. The springs now account for a heat output of ~29 MW, about an order of magnitude more than in 1981. Gas samples from the hot springs and from a fumarolic area on the flank of Akutan Volcano show high 3He/4He ratios (>6.4 RA) after correction for air contamination and reveal a common magmatic heat source. Hot-spring gases are unusually rich in N2, Ar, and CH4, suggesting that the water has boiled and lost CO2 during upflow beneath the flank fumarole field. Gas geothermometry calculations applied to the flank fumarole field implies temperatures of 200–240 °C for the reservoir, and Na-K-Ca geothermometry implies temperatures near 180 °C for the outflow waters that feed the hot springs. The results of our study confirm the existence of a substantial geothermal resource on the island.

  14. Geology, geochemistry, and genesis of the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit, Admiralty Island, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Johnson, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    In 1996, a memorandum of understanding was signed by representatives of the U.S. Geological Survey and Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to initiate a cooperative applied research project focused on the Greens Creek massive sulfide deposit in southeastern Alaska. The goals of the project were consistent with the mandate of the U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Resources Program to maintain a leading role in national mineral deposits research and with the need of Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company to further development of the Greens Creek deposit and similar deposits in Alaska and elsewhere. The memorandum enumerated four main research priorities: (1) characterization of protoliths for the wall rocks, and elucidation of their alteration histories, (2) determination of the ore mineralogy and paragenesis, including metal residences and metal zonation within the deposit, (3) determination of the ages of events important to ore formation using both geochronology and paleontology, and (4) development of computer models that would allow the deposit and its host rocks to be examined in detail in three dimensions. The work was carried out by numerous scientists of diverse expertise over a period of several years. The written results, which are contained in this Professional Paper, are presented by 21 authors: 13 from the U.S. Geological Survey, 4 from Kennecott Greens Creek Mining Company, 2 from academia, and 2 from consultants. The Greens Creek deposit (global resource of 24.2 million tons at an average grade of 13.9 percent zinc, 5.1 percent lead, 0.15 troy ounce per ton gold, and 19.2 troy ounces per ton silver at zero cutoff) formed in latest Triassic time during a brief period of rifting of the Alexander terrane. The deposit exhibits a range of syngenetic, diagenetic, and epigenetic features that are typical of volcanogenic (VMS), sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), and Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) genetic models. In the earliest stages of rifting, formation of

  15. Gabbroic and Peridotitic Enclaves from the 2008 Kasatochi Eruption, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kentner, A.; Nadin, E. S.; Izbekov, P. E.; Nye, C. J.; Neill, O. K.

    2012-12-01

    Kasatochi volcano of the Andreanof Islands in the western Aleutian Arc violently erupted over a two day period from August 7-8, 2008. The eruption involved multiple explosive events generating pyroclastic flows, which included abundant mafic and ultramafic enclaves that have since weathered out and accumulated in talus along the coast. These and other mafic enclaves sampled by modern island arc lavas provide insight into subduction magmatism because they emerge from a section of the subduction system that is less likely than shallower zones to be modified by magmatic processes such as mixing, assimilation, or fractionation. We present new whole rock, clinopyroxene, amphibole, plagioclase, and melt compositions from Kasatochi enclaves of the 2008 eruption. The highly crystalline (~40 vol. % phenocryst content), medium-K basaltic andesite host rock contains ~52-55 wt. % SiO2 and 0.6-0.9 wt. % K2O, and is composed of plagioclase, ortho- and clinopyroxene, amphibole, and Ti-magnetite in a microlite-rich groundmass. Upon eruption, this magma sampled two distinct enclave populations: gabbro and peridotite. The gabbro has abundant amphibole (mostly magnesio-hastingsite) and plagioclase with minor clinopyroxene, olivine, and magnetite, while the peridotite is composed of olivine with minor amounts of clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene. There is little textural variation amongst the peridotitic samples collected, but the gabbroic samples vary from layered to massive and cover a range in grain size from fine-grained to pegmatitic. The layered gabbros display centimeter-scale bands of alternating plagioclase- and amphibole-rich layers, with a strong preferential alignment of the amphibole grains. The coarser-grained samples are very friable, with ~10% pore space; disaggregation of these upon host-magma ascent likely formed the amphibole and plagioclase xenocrysts in the andesitic host. Based on the textural and compositional differences, we divide the enclaves into four groups

  16. Vegetation and Mammuthus primigenius extinction history on St Paul Island, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Newsom, L.; Belmecheri, S.; Culleton, B.; Williams, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    St. Paul Island, AK, part of the Pribilofs, is an island remnant of the Bering Land Bridge, a possible coastal Picea refugium at the last glacial maximum, and a Holocene refugium for Mammuthus primigenius. A prior pollen record from Lake Hill indicates that St. Paul was predominantly herb tundra during the last glacial maximum followed by a shrub tundra in the early Holocene (Colinvaux, 1980). Subsequently, three radiocarbon dates on bones from Qagnax Cave indicate a last appearance of Mammuthus primigenius of 6.5 ka on St. Paul (Veltre et al. 2008). In March 2013, our team retrieved a 13.5 m composite core from Lake Hill to refine the extinction timing chronology, assess environmental change during the extinction interval, and test hypotheses about vegetation-megafauna feedback. This paper reports the results from modern botanical survey and analyses of fossil pollen, Sporormiella and other coprophilous spores, anchored by a new radiocarbon chronology consisting of seven AMS dates. Presently, bryophytes, Equisetum, Poaceae, Juncaceae, Salix and Viola commonly occur at the lake margin, accompanied increasingly by sedge meadow taxa with greater distance from the water's edge, especially Cyperaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae, Lupinus, Rubus and Valeriana. Sporormiella is consistently present in low abundances (2%, ~700 grains/cm3) in the late glacial and early Holocene until a drop to zero at 6,050 yr BP, remaining absent during the middle and late Holocene when it reappears at 1904 AD. The timing of Sporormiella decline and reappearance match well to the youngest mammoth bone date and the historic reintroduction of reindeer (1911 AD) on St. Paul Island. After 11 ka, major pollen types include Apiaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix, with lower abundances of Betula, Alnus and Ericaceae, consistent with herb tundra with some shrubs. Degraded Picea pollen grains are found at 12,240 yr BP in very low concentrations (223 grains/cm3), indicating long

  17. Serological survey of selected canine viral pathogens and zoonoses in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska.

    PubMed

    Chomel, B B; Kasten, R W; Chappuis, G; Soulier, M; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-12-01

    Between 1988 and 1991, 644 serum samples were collected from 480 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and 40 black bears (Ursus americanus) from Alaska, United States of America, and were tested for selected canine viral infections and zoonoses. Antibody prevalence in grizzly bears was 0% for parvovirus, 8.3% (40/480) for distemper, 14% (68/480) for infectious hepatitis, 16.5% (79/480) for brucellosis, 19% (93/480) for tularaemia and 47% (225/478) for trichinellosis. In black bears, prevalence ranged from 0% for distemper and parvovirus to 27.5% for trichinellosis and 32% for tularaemia. Antibody prevalence for brucellosis (2.5%) and tularaemia (32%) were identical for grizzly bears and black bears from the geographical area of interior Alaska. Links between differences in prevalence and the origin of the grizzly bears were observed. Antibodies to canine distemper virus and infectious hepatitis virus were mainly detected in grizzly bears from Kodiak Island and the Alaskan Peninsula. Brucellosis antibodies were prevalent in grizzly bears from western and northern Alaska, whereas tularaemia antibodies were detected in grizzly bears from interior Alaska and the Arctic. There was a strong gradient for antibodies to Trichinella spp. from southern to northern Alaska. For most diseases, antibody prevalence increased with age. However, for several infections, no antibodies were detected in grizzly bears aged from 0 to 2 years, in contrast to the presence of those infections in black bears. Grizzly bears served as excellent sentinels for surveillance of zoonotic infections in wildlife in Alaska.

  18. Volcanic and tectonic deformation on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Arc, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, DöRte; Freymueller, Jeffrey

    2003-02-01

    GPS measurements on Unimak Island in the eastern Aleutian arc between 1998 and 2001 show deformation of Westdahl volcano and Fisher caldera. Westdahl is inflating, with the best fit point source located at 7.2-1.2+ 2.3 km depth and a volume change rate of 6.7-1.8+ 3.3 × 106 m3 yr-1. The GPS data indicate that inflation may have slowed down slightly compared with interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) observations between 1993 and 1998. The accumulated subsurface volume increase during the GPS and InSAR observation period (1993-2001), ˜70 × 106 m3, already accounts for at least 15% more than the erupted volume from the last eruption in 1991-1992. Fisher caldera shows subsidence and contraction across the caldera center. The data are fit best with a rectangular dislocation source at a shallow depth. It is 14 km long and 0.5 km wide, dips 80° to the NW, and strikes N35°E, with rather large uncertainties for most of these parameters. Its volume decrease is 2.0 × 106 m3yr-1. The main mechanisms to explain the subsidence and contraction are degassing and contractional cooling of a shallow magma body and depressurization of Fisher's hydrothermal system, possibly triggered by an earthquake in 1999. At the 95% confidence level, no significant strain accumulation due to subduction is observed across the entire island. The low coupling across the rupture zone of the 1946 earthquake is a strong argument for the idea that the earthquake and tsunami did not result from a purely double-couple (earthquake) source.

  19. Ecological, morphological, and molecular studies of Acanthocheilonema odendhali (Nematoda: Filarioidea) in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Kuzmin, Y I; Tkach, V V; Spraker, T R; Lyons, E T

    2013-09-01

    Studies of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) infection by the filariid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali were carried out in 2011-2012 on St. Paul Island, Pribilof Archipelago, Alaska. Skins of 502 humanely harvested northern fur seals from haul-out areas of five rookeries, Polovina (n = 122), Morjovi (n = 54), Zapadni (n = 72), Lukanin (n = 109), and Gorbatch (n = 145), were examined. A. odendhali was found in 18% of northern fur seals. The prevalence of infection ranged from 12.5% up to 22.9% on different haul-out areas on the island. The mean intensity of infection was 1.3 (range 1-7). Detailed morphological examination of collected specimens was performed using light microscopy. Several characters were added to the morphological description of the species, among them lateral thickening of the body cuticle, especially prominent in males, variations in number and position of genital papillae in males, transverse striation of the cuticle, and terminal dilation on tail end in microfilariae. The adult specimens studied had a shorter esophagus than type specimens from the California sea lion described by Perry (1967). Comparison of partial sequences of the mitochondrial cox1 gene from specimens collected from five sampling sites on St. Paul Island and a specimen from the type host and territory in California showed no significant differences and strongly supported conspecificity of the material from Alaska with A. odendhali. PMID:23760875

  20. Effects of silvicultultural modifications of temperate rainforest on breeding and wintering bird communities, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dellasala, Dominick A.; Hagar, Joan C.; Engel, Kathleen A.; McComb, W.C.; Fairbanks, Randal L.; Campbell, Ellen G.

    1996-01-01

    We inventoried breeding and wintering bird communities in four treatments of temperate rainforest on Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska during 1991-1992 and 1992-1993. The four forest treatments sampled included: (1) young growth (20 years) originating from clearcut logging with no silvicultural modification (non-modified), (2) young growth (20 years) precommercially thinned along uniformly-spaced thinning grids (thinned), (3) young growth (20 years) with gaps in the overstory canopy created by felling trees in 0.05-ha openings (gapped), and (4) virgin old growth (2 150 years). Of 16 common breeding bird species observed, six showed significant responses to young-growth modifications. One species was more abundant and two species were less abundant in thinned sites, while one species was more abundant and two species were less abundant in gapped sites than at least one of the other treatments. None of the three common wintering species of birds observed was influenced by young-growth modification. Breeding bird communities, in general, were less similar between young- and old-growth treatments than among young-growth treatments. Three of the 16 common breeding bird species were more abundant in old growth than each of the young-growth treatments and one uncommon species was detected almost exclusivelyi n old growth duringb oth the breedinga nd wintering seasonsF. our other breeding bird species were more abundant in young-growth treatments than in old growth. Higher use of old growth by wintering birds was related to winter severity. To enhance habitat for wintering and breeding birds we recommend: (1) thinning young growth along variablespaced grids to create additional canopy layers and improve snow-intercept properties of young growth for canopy-foraging birds, (2) retention of old-growth clumps in clearcuts for bird species associated with old-growth structure, and (3) long-term conservation of oldgrowth temperate rainforest for breeding and wintering

  1. Modeling the impacts of bottom trawling and the subsequent recovery rates of sponges and corals in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooper, Christopher N.; Wilkins, Mark E.; Rose, Craig S.; Coon, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    The abundance of some marine fish species are correlated to the abundance of habitat-forming benthic organisms such as sponges and corals. A concern for fisheries management agencies is the recovery of these benthic invertebrates from removal or mortality from bottom trawling and other commercial fisheries activities. Using a logistic model, observations of available substrate and data from bottom trawl surveys of the Aleutian Islands, Alaska, we estimated recovery rates of sponges and corals following removal. The model predicted the observed sponge and coral catch in bottom trawl surveys relatively accurately ( R2=0.38 and 0.46). For sponges, the results show that intrinsic growth rates were slow ( r=0.107 yr -1). Results show that intrinsic growth rates of corals were also slow ( r=0.062 yr -1). The best models for corals and sponges were models that did not include the impacts of commercial fishing removals. Subsequent recovery times for both taxa were also predicted to be slow. Mortality of 67% of the initial sponge biomass would recover to 80% of the original biomass after 20 years, while mortality of 67% of the coral biomass would recover to 80% of the original biomass after 34 years. The modeled recovery times were consistent with previous studies in estimating that recovery times were of the order of decades, however improved data from directed studies would no doubt improve parameter estimates and reduce the uncertainty in the model results. Given their role as a major ecosystem component and potential habitat for marine fish, damage and removal of sponges and corals must be considered when estimating the impacts of commercial bottom trawling on the seafloor.

  2. SAR-based Estimation of Glacial Extent and Velocity Fields on Isanotski Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, D.; Lee, A.; Parker, O. P.; Pressler, Y.; Guo, S.; Osmanoglu, B.; Schmidt, C.

    2012-12-01

    Global studies show that Earth's glaciers are losing mass at increasing rates, creating a challenge for communities that rely on them as natural resources. Field observation of glacial environments is limited by cost and inaccessibility. Optical remote sensing is often precluded by cloud cover and seasonal darkness. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) overcomes these obstacles by using microwave-frequency electromagnetic radiation to provide high resolution information on large spatial scales and in remote, atmospherically obscured environments. SAR is capable of penetrating clouds, operating in darkness, and discriminating between targets with ambiguous spectral signatures. This study evaluated the efficacy of two SAR Earth observation methods on small (< 7 km2) glaciers in rugged topography. The glaciers chosen for this study lie on Isanotski Volcano in Unimak Island, Aleutian Archipelago, USA. The local community on the island, the City of False Pass, relies on glacial melt for drinking water and hydropower. Two methods were used: (1) velocity field estimation based on Repeat Image Feature Tracking (RIFT) and (2) glacial boundary delineation based on interferometric coherence mapping. NASA Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) single-polarized power images and JAXA Advanced Land Observing Satellite Phased Array type L-band SAR (ALOS PALSAR) single-look complex images were analyzed over the period 2008-2011. UAVSAR image pairs were coregistered to sub-pixel accuracy and processed with the Coregistration of Optically Sensed Images and Correlation (COSI-Corr) feature tracking module to derive glacial velocity field estimates. Maximum glacier velocities ranged from 28.9 meters/year to 58.3 meters/year. Glacial boundaries were determined from interferometric coherence of ALOS PALSAR data and subsequently refined with masking operations based on terrain slope and segment size. Accuracy was assessed against hand-digitized outlines from high resolution UAVSAR power images

  3. Plutonium concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in biota collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska: recent measurements using ICP-SFMS.

    PubMed

    Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V; Dasher, Douglas

    2013-10-01

    Three underground nuclear tests, including the Unites States' largest, were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Monitoring of the radiological environment around the island is challenging because of its remote location. In 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) became responsible for the long term maintenance and surveillance of the Amchitka site. The first DOE LM environmental survey occurred in 2011 and is part of a cycle of activities that will occur every 5 years. The University of Alaska Fairbanks, a participant in the 2011 study, provided the lichen (Cladonia spp.), freshwater moss (Fontinalis neomexicanus), kelp (Eualaria fistulosa) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) samples from Amchitka Island and Adak Island (a control site). These samples were analyzed for (239)Pu and (240)Pu concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Plutonium concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were generally consistent with previous terrestrial and marine studies in the region. The ((239)+)(240)Pu levels (mBq kg(-1), dry weight) ranged from 3.79 to 57.1 for lichen, 167-700 for kelp, 27.9-148 for horse mussel, and 560-573 for moss. Lichen from Adak Island had higher Pu concentrations than Amchitka Island, the difference was likely the result of the higher precipitation at Adak compared to Amchitka. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher in marine samples compared to terrestrial and freshwater samples (t-test, p < 0.001); lichen and moss averaged 0.184 ± 0.007, similar to the integrated global fallout ratio, whereas kelp and mussel (soft tissue) averaged 0.226 ± 0.003. These observations provide supporting evidence that a large input of isotopically heavier Pu occurred into the North Pacific Ocean, likely from the Marshall Island high yield nuclear tests, but other potential sources, such as the Kamchatka Peninsula Rybachiy Naval Base and

  4. Plutonium concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in biota collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska: recent measurements using ICP-SFMS.

    PubMed

    Bu, Kaixuan; Cizdziel, James V; Dasher, Douglas

    2013-10-01

    Three underground nuclear tests, including the Unites States' largest, were conducted on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Monitoring of the radiological environment around the island is challenging because of its remote location. In 2008, the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) became responsible for the long term maintenance and surveillance of the Amchitka site. The first DOE LM environmental survey occurred in 2011 and is part of a cycle of activities that will occur every 5 years. The University of Alaska Fairbanks, a participant in the 2011 study, provided the lichen (Cladonia spp.), freshwater moss (Fontinalis neomexicanus), kelp (Eualaria fistulosa) and horse mussel (Modiolus modiolus) samples from Amchitka Island and Adak Island (a control site). These samples were analyzed for (239)Pu and (240)Pu concentration and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio using inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). Plutonium concentrations and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were generally consistent with previous terrestrial and marine studies in the region. The ((239)+)(240)Pu levels (mBq kg(-1), dry weight) ranged from 3.79 to 57.1 for lichen, 167-700 for kelp, 27.9-148 for horse mussel, and 560-573 for moss. Lichen from Adak Island had higher Pu concentrations than Amchitka Island, the difference was likely the result of the higher precipitation at Adak compared to Amchitka. The (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were significantly higher in marine samples compared to terrestrial and freshwater samples (t-test, p < 0.001); lichen and moss averaged 0.184 ± 0.007, similar to the integrated global fallout ratio, whereas kelp and mussel (soft tissue) averaged 0.226 ± 0.003. These observations provide supporting evidence that a large input of isotopically heavier Pu occurred into the North Pacific Ocean, likely from the Marshall Island high yield nuclear tests, but other potential sources, such as the Kamchatka Peninsula Rybachiy Naval Base and

  5. Alaska earthquake source for the SAFRR tsunami scenario: Chapter B in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirby, Stephen; Scholl, David; von Huene, Roland; Wells, Ray

    2013-01-01

    Tsunami modeling has shown that tsunami sources located along the Alaska Peninsula segment of the Aleutian-Alaska subduction zone have the greatest impacts on southern California shorelines by raising the highest tsunami waves for a given source seismic moment. The most probable sector for a Mw ~ 9 source within this subduction segment is between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands in what we call the Semidi subduction sector; these bounds represent the southwestern limit of the 1964 Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake rupture and the northeastern edge of the Shumagin sector that recent Global Positioning System (GPS) observations indicate is currently creeping. Geological and geophysical features in the Semidi sector that are thought to be relevant to the potential for large magnitude, long-rupture-runout interplate thrust earthquakes are remarkably similar to those in northeastern Japan, where the destructive Mw 9.1 tsunamigenic earthquake of 11 March 2011 occurred. In this report we propose and justify the selection of a tsunami source seaward of the Alaska Peninsula for use in the Tsunami Scenario that is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Science Application for Risk Reduction (SAFRR) Project. This tsunami source should have the potential to raise damaging tsunami waves on the California coast, especially at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. Accordingly, we have summarized and abstracted slip distribution from the source literature on the 2011 event, the best characterized for any subduction earthquake, and applied this synoptic slip distribution to the similar megathrust geometry of the Semidi sector. The resulting slip model has an average slip of 18.6 m and a moment magnitude of Mw = 9.1. The 2011 Tohoku earthquake was not anticipated, despite Japan having the best seismic and geodetic networks in the world and the best historical record in the world over the past 1,500 years. What was lacking was adequate paleogeologic data on prehistoric earthquakes

  6. Pre-settlement processes of northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) in relation to interannual variability in the Gulf of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedewa, Erin J.; Miller, Jessica A.; Hurst, Thomas P.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the effects of climate variability on growth dynamics and timing of early life history events in marine fishes can provide insights into survival, recruitment and productivity. We examined interannual variation in indicators of larval growth rates, size at hatch and metamorphosis, and the timing of metamorphosis of northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra) over 5 years in two nurseries at Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA. Variation in early life characteristics was quantified using laboratory-validated otolith structural analysis and related to water temperature and spring bloom dynamics in the Gulf of Alaska. Overall, results indicated that temperature contributed more to interannual variation in northern rock sole growth, size and phenology patterns than phytoplankton dynamics. Size at hatch was positively related to winter-spring spawning temperatures. Larval growth metrics were generally consistent with thermal effects as temperatures above 4 °C appear necessary, but are not sufficient to support rapid growth. Reflecting the cumulative effects of temperature, the timing of metamorphosis was related to both seasonal and interannual variation in temperature with earlier dates of metamorphosis in warmer years. Conversely, fish size at metamorphosis was similar across years, suggesting that the competency to metamorphose is related to attainment of a minimum size. These results demonstrate the important role of temperature in regulating early life history phenology of northern rock sole and suggest that temperature-driven phenological shifts may also influence the time of spawning and hatching.

  7. Surface deformation associated with the March 1996 earthquake swarm at Akutan Island, Alaska, revealed by C-band ERS and L-band JERS radar interferometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lu, Zhiming; Wicks, C.; Kwoun, O.; Power, J.A.; Dzurisin, D.

    2005-01-01

    In March 1996, an intense earthquake swarm beneath Akutan Island, Alaska, was accompanied by extensive ground cracking but no eruption of Akutan volcano. Radar interferograms produced from L-band JERS-1 and C-band ERS-1/2 images show uplift associated with the swarm by as much as 60 cm on the western part of the island. The JERS-1 interferogram has greater coherence, especially in areas with loose surface material or thick vegetation. It also shows subsidence of similar magnitude on the eastern part of the island and displacements along faults reactivated during the swarm. The axis of uplift and subsidence strikes about N70??W, which is roughly parallel to a zone of fresh cracks on the northwest flank of the volcano, to normal faults that cut the island and to the inferred maximum compressive stress direction. A common feature of models that fit the deformation is the emplacement of a shallow dike along this trend beneath the northwest flank of the volcano. Both before and after the swarm, the northwest flank was uplifted 5-20 mm/year relative to the southwest flank, probably by magma intrusion. The zone of fresh cracks subsided about 20 mm during 1996-1997 and at lesser rates thereafter, possibly because of cooling and degassing of the intrusion. ?? 2005 CASI.

  8. Acanthocephalans in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) and a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) on St. Paul Island, Alaska: species, prevalence, and biodiversity in four fur seal subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, T A; Lisitsyna, O I; Lyons, E T; Spraker, T R; Tolliver, S C

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring studies of acanthocephalans in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) (NFSs) and a harbor seal (Phoca vitulina Linnaeus, 1758) were performed on St. Paul Island, Alaska, in July-August 2011. Gastrointestinal tracts of 105 humanely harvested NFS subadult males (SAMs) (3-4 years old) were collected during the annual Aleut subsistence harvest at four haul-out areas (HOAS): Lukanin (n = 26 NFSs), Polovina (n = 28), Gorbatch (n = 30), and Morzhovyi (n = 21). One gastrointestinal tract collected from a harbor seal (about 3-4 years old) found dead at Morzhovyi HOAS was also examined. The total prevalence of infection in NFSs with acanthocephalans was 29.52 % with variations from 7.69 % to 47.62 % between the four different HOAS. Eight acanthocephalan species of two genera-Corynosoma Lühe, 1904 (Corynosoma strumosum, Corynosoma alaskensis, Corynosoma cameroni, Corynosoma semerme, Corynosoma similis, Corynosoma validum, and Corynosoma villosum), and Bolbosoma Porta, 1908 (Bolbosoma nipponicum)-were found in the NFSs and a harbor seal. This is a new record of C. alaskensis for the NFSs. Short biological notes of the species found are presented. Differences in species composition as well as in prevalence of acanthocephalans parasitizing NFSs were observed in subpopulations from four different HOAS on St. Paul Island. The highest biodiversity of acanthocephalans and infection were found in subpopulations on Polovina and Morzhovyj HOAS, the lowest was on Lukanin HOAS. From 3.2 % (for C. validum) to 19.4 % (for C. villosum) of NFSs were infected by one acanthocephalan species; two species were found in 22.6 %; three in 9.7 %; and four in 3.2 %. Further studies of NFS parasites are necessary to follow the trends in parasitic infection rates and diversity in NFS population on the Pribilov Islands and for monitoring the influence of various ecological factors on NFS populations in Alaska.

  9. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Remedial investigation and feasibility study. Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Volume 1 (includes appendices a through c). Revision 1. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-05

    This report presents the findings of Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies at sites located at the Barter Island radar installation in northern Alaska. The sites were characterized based on sampling and analyses conducted during Remedial Investigation activities performed during August and September 1993.

  10. Geochemical and Sulfur-Isotopic Signatures of Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Deposits on Prince of Wales Island and Vicinity, Southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Karl, Susan M.; Gemery, Pamela A.; Bittenbender, Peter E.; Ridley, W. Ian

    2007-01-01

    Stratabound volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits on Prince of Wales Island and vicinity, southeastern Alaska, occur in two volcanosedimentary sequences of Late Proterozoic through Cambrian and of Ordovician through Early Silurian age. This study presents geochemical data on sulfide-rich samples, in situ laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) of sulfide minerals, and sulfur-isotopic analyses of sulfides and sulfates (barite) for identifying and distinguishing between primary sea-floor signatures and later regional metamorphic overprints. These datasets are also used here in an attempt to discriminate the VMS deposits in the older Wales Group from those in the younger Moira Sound unit (new informal name). The Wales Group and its contained VMS deposits have been multiply deformed and metamorphosed from greenschist to amphibolite grade, whereas the Moira Sound unit and related VMS deposits are less deformed and generally less metamorphosed (lower to middle greenschist grade). Variations in the sulfide mineral assemblages and textures of the VMS deposits in both sequences reflect a combination of processes, including primary sea-floor mineralization and sub-sea-floor zone refining, followed by metamorphic recrystallization. Very coarse grained (>1 cm diam) sulfide minerals and abundant pyrrhotite are restricted to VMS deposits in a small area of the Wales Group, at Khayyam and Stumble-On, which record high-grade metamorphism of the sulfides. Geochemical and sulfur-isotopic data distinguish the VMS deposits in the Wales Group from those in the Moira Sound unit. Although base- and precious-metal contents vary widely in sulfide-rich samples from both sequences, samples from the Moira Sound generally have proportionately higher Ag contents relative to base metals and Au. In situ LA-ICP-MS analysis of trace elements in the sulfide minerals suggests that primary sea-floor hydrothermal signatures are preserved in some samples (for

  11. Update on the prevalence of the hookworm, Uncinaria lucasi, in northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus) on St. Paul Island, Alaska, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Eugene T; Kuzmina, Tetiana A; Tolliver, Sharon C; Spraker, Terry R

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hookworms (Uncinaria lucasi Stiles, 1901) was determined in the northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus Linnaeus, 1758) on St. Paul Island (SPI), Alaska in July and August, 2011. Three of 61 (4.9%) dead pups harbored 1 to 13 adult hookworms each in their intestines. Parasitic larvae (L(3)) of hookworms were recovered from the blubber of 4 of 133 (3%) of subadult males (SAMs) examined. One parasitic L(3) was detected from each infected SAM. Adult U. lucasi (n = 3) were found in the intestine of 1 of 105 SAMs examined (0.95%). This is the first documented finding of adult U. lucasi in SAMs of the northern fur seals. Continued low prevalence of hookworms the last several years parallels the tremendous decline in the number of fur seals on SPI over a similar time period.

  12. Diel vertical migration of adult Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Nichol, D G; Kotwicki, S; Zimmermann, M

    2013-07-01

    The diel vertical migration (DVM) of Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus was examined using depth and temperature data from 250 recaptured archival tags deployed on G. macrocephalus in the eastern Bering Sea and in the Gulf of Alaska near Kodiak Island. DVM of two types, deeper during daytime (type I) and deeper during night-time (type II), occurred frequently (15-40% of all days) in G. macrocephalus released at all sites. Most individuals displayed both diel types, with each type of behaviour lasting up to 58 contiguous days, and day and night depth differences averaging c. 8 m. Despite high among-individual variability, the occurrence of DVM varied significantly with the release site, season (i.e. day-of-year) and bottom depth, with the trend in seasonal occurrence nearly opposite for type I compared to type II DVM. No significance could be attributed to G. macrocephalus fork length, sex or ambient (tag) temperature. Trends in the magnitude of G. macrocephalus depth change were observed, with increased movement often occurring during night-time, dawn and dusk, and at release sites where the bathymetry was more complex. Both type I and type II DVMs were attributed to foraging on prey species that also undergo DVM, and increased vertical movements of G. macrocephalus during crepuscular and night-time periods were attributed to more active foraging during dim-light conditions when G. macrocephalus can potentially exploit a sensory advantage over some of their prey.

  13. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (eschichtius robustus) stranded in Alaska, Washington, and California, USA. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Stein, J.E.; Tilbury, K.L.; Meador, J.P.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    The concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethanes (DDTs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl) ethenes (DDEs), and chlordanes, and essential (e.g., zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g., mercury, lead) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991. The stranding sites ranged from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, Alaska, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, Washington, and San Francisco Bay, California, with the majority of the sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. Similar to concentrations in tissues, no significant differences were observed in concentrations of elements in stomach contents between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at the more pristine sites. The lack of data from apparently healthy gray whales limits the assessment of whether the levels of anthropogenic contaminants found in tissues may have deleterious effects on the health of gray whales.

  14. Shipboard surveys of endangered cetaceans in the northwestern Gulf of Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brueggeman, J.J.; Green, G.A.; Tressler, R.W.; Chapman, D.G.

    1988-10-01

    Shipboard surveys were conducted during June-July 1987 along 2,034 nmi of trackline south of the Alaska Peninsula to determine the abundance and distribution of endangered whales and other marine mammals. There were 150 observations of humpback whales, 122 of finback whales, 351 of Dall porpoises, 101 of killer whales, 12 of minke whales, 3 of harbor porpoises, and 170 of pinnipeds and sea otters. Humpbacks were primarily associated with the 50- and 100-fathom isobaths, particularly near the Shelikof Strait submarine canyon and some banks. Humpbacks and finbacks were observed on one occasion feeding together, but their distribution generally did not overlap. The other species were widespread in the study area except for killer whales, which were observed together east of Kodiak Island. Abundance was estimated for humpbacks at 1,247 (+ or - 392 SE) and finbacks at 1,257 (+ or - 563 SE). Sample sizes were too small to estiamte abundance for the other species. These results are similar to those developed for this area in 1985.

  15. Gap winds and their effects on regional oceanography Part I: Cross Sound, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladd, Carol; Cheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Gap-wind events flowing from Cross Sound in the eastern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) were examined using QuikSCAT wind data. The average duration of an event is 3.6 days with the longest event recorded in the QuikSCAT dataset being 12 days. Daily offshore directed winds with speeds >10 m s-1 are more common during the winter months (October-March), averaging 20.0 days per year, and less common during the summer (April - September), averaging 2.8 days per year. Interannual variability in the frequency of gap-wind events is correlated with El Niño. During gap-wind events, the spatial scales of high off-shore directed winds (>10 m s-1) reach almost 200 km off-shore and 225 km along the shelf break, suggesting that the winds directly influence both the shelf (20-65 km wide) and the off-shore waters. A model experiment suggests that a gap-wind event can result in eddy formation and changes in circulation and water properties. Increased entrainment of water from below the mixed layer due to the gap-wind event implies that mixed-layer nitrate concentrations could increase on the order of 5-10 μmole/l, potentially enhancing primary production in the region. An accompanying paper discusses part II of our study (Ladd et al., 2016) focusing on gap-wind events in the western GOA around Kodiak Island.

  16. 77 FR 20339 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... NOAA-NMFS-2011- 0147 in the keyword search. Locate the document you wish to comment on from the... action may be obtained from http://www.regulations.gov or from the Alaska Region Web site at http... final rule published in 2007 and was fully effective starting with the 2008 fishing year (72 FR...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  18. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  19. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  20. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  1. 33 CFR 334.1290 - In Bering Sea, Shemya Island Area, Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Alaska; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1290 Section...; meteorological rocket launching facility, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a) The danger zone. An arc of a...) Rockets will normally be launched one each day Monday through Friday between 9 a.m. and 3 p.m....

  2. 78 FR 68390 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... is not repeated here (78 FR 33243, June 4, 2013). The Council recommended the CQE Program for the GOA... implementing rules were published November 9, 1993 (58 FR 59375), and fishing under the IFQ Program began on... of the Gulf of Alaska (GOA FMP)), and NMFS implemented the program in 2004 (69 FR 23681, April...

  3. Map of Distribution of Bottom Sediments on the Continental Shelf, Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, Kevin R.; Carlson, Paul R.; Hampton, Monty A.; Marlow, Michael S.; Barnes, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    floor structures. Sea-floor sediment on shallow banks is eroded by seasonal wave-generated currents. The winnowing action of the large storm waves results in concentrations of gravel over broad segments of the Kodiak shelf. Northeastern Gulf of Alaska -- Tectonic framework studies demonstrate that rocks of distant origin (Yakutat terrane) are currently attached to and moving with the Pacific Plate, as it collides with and is subducted beneath southern Alaska. This collision process has led to pronounced structural deformation of the continental margin and adjacent southern Alaska. Consequences include rapidly rising mountains and high fluvial and glacial sedimentation rates on the adjacent margin and ocean floor. The northeastern Gulf of Alaska shelf also has concentrations of winnowed (lag) gravel on Tarr Bank and on the outer shelf southeast of Yakutat Bay. Between Kayak Island and Yakutat Bay the outer shelf consists of pebbly mud (diamict). This diamict is a product of glacial marine sedimentation during the Pleistocene and is present today as a relict sediment. A prograding wedge of Holocene sediment consisting of nearshore sand grading seaward into clayey silt and silty clay covers the relict pebbly mud to mid-shelf and beyond. Shelf and slope channel systems transport glacially derived sediment across the continental margin into Surveyor Channel, an abyssal fan and channel system that reaches over 1,000 km to the Aleutian Trench.

  4. Dynamics of the recovery of damaged tundra vegetation: preliminary results of revegetation experiments of maritime tundra with Elymus mollis on Adak Island, Alaska. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Amundsen, C C; McCord, R A

    1982-08-01

    The vegetation of the central Aleutian Islands, Alaska is maritime tundra (Amundsen, 1977). While maritime tundra is not characterized by the presence of permafrost, the soil temperatures remain low (5 to 7/sup 0/C) year-round (Williams, 1980). The low soil temperature, a high level of soil moisture, and a low level of incident solar radiation are thought to delay the development of the vegetation. Natural revegetation of natural or man made open areas is relatively slow. Disturbed areas from World War II military activity are not completely revegetated after almost 40 years. Because of the windy and wet climate of the region, exposed soil is unstable and subject to extensive freeze-thaw action and erosion. Insults to the vegetation, both marine and aeolian, are common. Successful reproduction by seed is uncommon among species of this flora. The primary means of reproduction appears to be by vegetative propagules which are usually fragments of the shoot and rhizome. While the transport of the fragments by wind and water aids in the dispersal of the propagules, the same action often removes these fragments from open areas. This later activity further delays the revegetation of open and disturbed areas. Elymus mollis Trin. is the most successful major native species found to date as it fragments due to wind and water action and transplants easily. Transplanting experiments with sprigs of Elymus mollis Trin. have been conducted on Adak Island, Alaska since 1977. Preliminary results indicate that Elymus mollis may be transplanted for revegetation with a survival rate of at least 90 percent. Experiments were set up in 1979 to determine appropriate planting density, sprig rhizome length, and best time of year for transplanting. Preliminary results for these experiments are reported here.

  5. Kodiak: An Implementation Framework for Branch and Bound Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Andrew P.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Narkawicz, Anthony J.; Markevicius, Mantas

    2015-01-01

    Recursive branch and bound algorithms are often used to refine and isolate solutions to several classes of global optimization problems. A rigorous computation framework for the solution of systems of equations and inequalities involving nonlinear real arithmetic over hyper-rectangular variable and parameter domains is presented. It is derived from a generic branch and bound algorithm that has been formally verified, and utilizes self-validating enclosure methods, namely interval arithmetic and, for polynomials and rational functions, Bernstein expansion. Since bounds computed by these enclosure methods are sound, this approach may be used reliably in software verification tools. Advantage is taken of the partial derivatives of the constraint functions involved in the system, firstly to reduce the branching factor by the use of bisection heuristics and secondly to permit the computation of bifurcation sets for systems of ordinary differential equations. The associated software development, Kodiak, is presented, along with examples of three different branch and bound problem types it implements.

  6. Rock uplift at the transition from flat-slab to normal subduction: The Kenai Mountains, Southeast Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Joshua D.; Spotila, James A.; Owen, Lewis A.; Buscher, Jamie T.

    2016-03-01

    The process of flat-slab subduction results in complex deformation of overlying forearcs, yet how this deformation decays with distance away from the zone of underthrusting is not well understood. In south central Alaska, flat-slab subduction of the Yakutat microplate drives shortening and rock uplift in a broad coastal orogenic belt. Defined limits of the zone of underthrusting allow testing how orogenesis responds to the transition from flat-slab to normal subduction. To better understand forearc deformation across this transition, apatite (U-Th)/He low temperature thermochronometry is used to quantify the exhumation history of the Kenai Mountains that are within this transition zone. Measured ages in the northern Kenai Mountains vary from 10-20 Ma and merge with the exhumation pattern in the Chugach Mountains to the northeast, where high exhumation occurs due to flat-slab-related deformation. In the southern Kenai Mountains, however, ages increase to 30-50 Ma across a transition near Seward, Alaska, above the zone from flat-slab to normal subduction. These ages are relatively old in comparison to ages determined in other studies in southern Alaska and suggest minimal exhumation. Furthermore, transitions in topographic expression of the coastal orogen also occur at the margin of Yakutat underthrusting. These observations suggest that either deformation associated with flat-slab subduction requires tens of kilometers to decay with distance away from the zone of underthrusting, or that orogenesis in the Kenai Mountains is driven by a distinct tectonic cause. A potential driver of deformation is underplating of thick sediments, specifically the Surveyor Submarine Fan, along the Aleutian Megathrust, analogous to the tectonic mechanism responsible for the emergence of the Kodiak Island forearc. If correct, this may represent a recent tectonic transition in the region, given the minimal exhumation of the rugged Kenai Mountains despite the presence of an erosion

  7. Evidence for shallow megathrust slip across the Unalaska seismic gap during the great 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolsky, D. J.; Freymueller, J. T.; Witter, R. C.; Suleimani, E. N.; Koehler, R. D.

    2016-10-01

    We reassess the slip distribution of the 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake in the eastern part of the aftershock zone where published slip models infer little or no slip. Eyewitness reports, tide gauge data, and geological evidence for 9-23 m tsunami runups imply seafloor deformation offshore Unalaska Island in 1957, in contrast with previous studies that labeled the area a seismic gap. Here we simulate tsunami dynamics for a suite of deformation models that vary in depth and amount of megathrust slip. Tsunami simulations show that a shallow (5-15 km deep) rupture with 20 m of slip most closely reproduces the 1957 Dutch Harbor marigram and nearby >18 m runup at Sedanka Island marked by stranded drift logs. Slip models >20 km deep predict waves that arrive too soon. Our results imply that shallow slip on the megathrust in 1957 extended east into an area that presently creeps.

  8. Evidence for shallow megathrust slip across the Unalaska seismic gap during the great 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake, eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolsky, D. J.; Freymueller, J.T.; Witter, R.C.; Suleimani, E. N.; Koehler, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    We reassess the slip distribution of the 1957 Andreanof Islands earthquake in the eastern part of the aftershock zone where published slip models infer little or no slip. Eyewitness reports, tide gauge data, and geological evidence for 9–23 m tsunami runups imply seafloor deformation offshore Unalaska Island in 1957, in contrast with previous studies that labeled the area a seismic gap. Here, we simulate tsunami dynamics for a suite of deformation models that vary in depth and amount of megathrust slip. Tsunami simulations show that a shallow (5–15 km deep) rupture with ~20 m of slip most closely reproduces the 1957 Dutch Harbor marigram and nearby >18 m runup at Sedanka Island marked by stranded drift logs. Models that place slip >20 km predict waves that arrive too soon. Our results imply that shallow slip on the megathrust in 1957 extended east into an area that presently creeps.

  9. A Stratigraphic, Granulometric, and Textural Comparison of recent pyroclastic density current deposits exposed at West Island and Burr Point, Augustine Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, C. A.; Browne, B. L.

    2011-12-01

    Augustine Volcano (Alaska) is the most active volcano in the eastern Aleutian Islands, with 6 violent eruptions over the past 200 years and at least 12 catastrophic debris-avalanche deposits over the past ~2,000 years. The frequency and destructive nature of these eruptions combined with the proximity of Augustine Volcano to commercial ports and populated areas represents a significant hazard to the Cook Inlet region of Alaska. The focus of this study examines the relationship between debris-avalanche events and the subsequent emplacement of pyroclastic density currents by comparing the stratigraphic, granulometric, and petrographic characteristics of pyroclastic deposits emplaced following the 1883 A.D. Burr Point debris-avalanche and those emplaced following the ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island debris-avalanche. Data from this study combines grain size and componentry analysis of pyroclastic deposits with density, textural, and compositional analysis of juvenile clasts contained in the pyroclastic deposits. The 1883 A.D. Burr Point pyroclastic unit immediately overlies the 1883 debris avalanche deposit and underlies the 1912 Katmai ash. It ranges in thickness from 4 to 48 cm and consists of fine to medium sand-sized particles and coarser fragments of andesite. In places, this unit is normally graded and exhibits cross-bedding. Many of these samples are fines-enriched, with sorting coefficients ranging from -0.1 to 1.9 and median grain size ranging from 0.1 to 2.4 mm. The ~370 14C yr B.P. West Island pyroclastic unit is sandwiched between the underlying West Island debris-avalanche deposit and the overlying 1912 Katmai Ash deposit, and at times a fine-grained gray ash originating from the 1883 eruption. West Island pyroclastic deposit is sand to coarse-sand-sized and either normally graded or massive with sorting coefficients ranging from 0.9 to 2.8 and median grain sizes ranging from 0.4 to 2.6 mm. Some samples display a bimodal distribution of grain sizes, while

  10. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-05-02

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) activity concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 {+-} 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 {+-} 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004).

  11. Modeling connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska: Are there any linkages to the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parada, Carolina; Hinckley, Sarah; Horne, John; Mazur, Michael; Hermann, Albert; Curchister, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the connectivity of walleye pollock in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA) and linkages to the Bering Sea (BS) and Aleutian Island (AL) regions. We used a spatially-explicit Individual-based model (IBM) coupled to 6 years of a hydrodynamic model that simulates the early life history of walleye pollock in the GOA (eggs to age-0 juveniles). The processes modeled included growth, movement, mortality, feeding and the bioenergetics component for larvae and juveniles. Simulations were set to release particles on the 1st of the month (February to May) in fourteen historical spawning areas in the GOA up to the 1st of September each year. Model results reproduced the link between the Shelikof Strait spawning area and the Shumagin nursery region for March and April spawners, besides other Potential Nursery Areas (PNAs) found in the GOA. A prominent finding of this study was the appearance of the BS as important PNAs for several GOA spawning grounds, which is supported by a consistent flow into the BS through Unimak Pass. The simulations showed the highest density of simulated surviving pollock in the western Bering Sea (WBS) region with the lowest coefficients of variation of the whole domain. Three spawning sectors were defined, which aggregate multiple spawning areas in the eastern (EGOA), central (CGOA) and western Gulf of Alaska (WGOA). A connectivity matrix showed strong retention within the CGOA (25.9%) and EGOA (23.8%), but not in the WGOA (7.2%). Within the GOA, the highest connectivity is observed from EGOA to CGOA (57.8%) followed by the connection from CGOA to WGOA (24.3%). Overall, one of the most prominent connections was from WGOA to WBS (62.8%), followed by a connection from CGOA to WBS (29.2%). In addition, scenarios of shifting spawning locations and nursery sectors of GOA, BS and AL are explored and implications for walleye pollock stock structure hypotheses are discussed.

  12. Alaska Humans Factors Safety Study: The Southern Coastal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Reynard, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    At the request of the Alaska Air Carriers Association, researchers from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System, at NASA Ames Research Center, conducted a study on aspects of safety in Alaskan Part 135 air taxi operations. An interview form on human factors safety issues was created by a representative team from the FAA-Alaska, NTSB-Alaska, NASA-ASRS, and representatives of the Alaska Air Carriers Association which was subsequently used in the interviews of pilots and managers. Because of the climate and operational differences, the study was broken into two geographical areas, the southern coastal areas and the northern portion of the state. This presentation addresses the southern coastal areas, specifically: Anchorage, Dillingham, King Salmon, Kodiak, Cold Bay, Juneau, and Ketchikan. The interview questions dealt with many of the potential pressures on pilots and managers associated with the daily air taxi operations in Alaska. The impact of the environmental factors such as the lack of available communication, navigation and weather information systems was evaluated. The results of this study will be used by government and industry working in Alaska. These findings will contribute important information on specific Alaska safety issues for eventual incorporation into training materials and policies that will help to assure the safe conduct of air taxi flights in Alaska.

  13. Summary of reconnaissance for radioactive deposits in Alaska, 1945-1954, and an appraisal of Alaskan uranium possibilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedow, Helmuth

    1956-01-01

    In the period 1945-1954 over 100 investigations for radioactive source materials were made in Alaska. The nature of these investigations ranged from field examinations of individual prospects or the laboratory analysis of significantly radioactive samples submitted by prospectors to reconnaissance studies of large districts. In this period no deposits of uranium or thorium that would warrant commercial exploitation were discovered. The investigations, however, disclosed that radioactive materials occur in widely scattered areas of Alaska and in widely diverse environments. Many igneous rocks throughout Alaska are weakly radioactive because of uranium- and thorium-bearing accessory minerals, such as allanite, apatite, monazite, sphene, xenotime, and zircon; more rarely the radioactivity of these rocks is due to thorianite or thorite and their uranoan varieties. The felsic rocks, for example, granites and syenites, are generally more radioactive than the mafic igneous rocks. Pegmatites, locally, have also proved to be radioactive, but they have little commercial significance. No primary uranium oxide minerals have been found yet in Alaskan vein deposits, except, perhaps, for a mineral tentatively identified as pitchblende in the Hyder district of southeastern Alaska. However, certain occurrences of secondary uranium minerals, chiefly those of the uranite group, on the Seward Peninsula, in the Russian Mountains, and in the vicinity of Kodiak suggest that pitchblende-type ores may occur at depth beneath zones of alteration. Thorite-bearing veins have been discovered on Prince of Wales Island in southeastern Alaska. Although no deposits or carnotite-type minerals have been found in Alaska, several samples containing such minerals have been submitted by Alaskan prospectors. Efforts to locate the deposits from which these minerals were obtained have been unsuccessful, but review of available geologic data suggests that several Alaskan areas are potentially favorable for

  14. Tectonics of the March 27, 1964, Alaska earthquake: Chapter I in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: regional effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafker, George

    1969-01-01

    The March 27, 1964, earthquake was accomp anied by crustal deformation-including warping, horizontal distortion, and faulting-over probably more than 110,000 square miles of land and sea bottom in south-central Alaska. Regional uplift and subsidence occurred mainly in two nearly parallel elongate zones, together about 600 miles long and as much as 250 miles wide, that lie along the continental margin. From the earthquake epicenter in northern Prince William Sound, the deformation extends eastward 190 miles almost to long 142° and southwestward slightly more than 400 miles to about long 155°. It extends across the two zones from the chain of active volcanoes in the Aleutian Range and Wrangell Mountains probably to the Aleutian Trench axis. Uplift that averages 6 feet over broad areas occurred mainly along the coast of the Gulf of Alaska, on the adjacent Continental Shelf, and probably on the continental slope. This uplift attained a measured maximum on land of 38 feet in a northwest-trending narrow belt less than 10 miles wide that is exposed on Montague Island in southwestern Prince William Sound. Two earthquake faults exposed on Montague Island are subsidiary northwest-dipping reverse faults along which the northwest blocks were relatively displaced a maximum of 26 feet, and both blocks were upthrown relative to sea level. From Montague Island, the faults and related belt of maximum uplift may extend southwestward on the Continental Shelf to the vicinity of the Kodiak group of islands. To the north and northwest of the zone of uplift, subsidence forms a broad asymmetrical downwarp centered over the Kodiak-Kenai-Chugach Mountains that averages 2½ feet and attains a measured maximum of 7½ feet along the southwest coast of the Kenai Peninsula. Maximum indicated uplift in the Alaska and Aleutian Ranges to the north of the zone of subsidence was l½ feet. Retriangulation over roughly 25,000 square miles of the deformed region in and around Prince William Sound

  15. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical survey of the geothermal resources at Hot Springs Bay Valley, Akutan Island, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Wescott, E.M.; Turner, D.L.; Swanson, S.E.; Romick, J.D.; Moorman, M.A.; Poreda, R.J.; Witte, W.; Petzinger, B.; Allely, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive survey was conducted of the geothermal resource potential of Hot Springs Bay Valley on Akutan Island. A topographic base map was constructed, geologic mapping, geophysical and geochemical surveys were conducted, and the thermal waters and fumarolic gases were analyzed for major and minor element species and stable isotope composition. (ACR)

  16. 76 FR 47155 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... the data and information produced represent the best available science, and provide recommendations... conduct a peer review of the agency's economic data collection program for the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands... Ventures, Inc., provides independent peer reviews of NMFS's fisheries stock assessments and other...

  17. 76 FR 13593 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    .... Vessels that meet these criteria subsequently will be referred to as ``non-AFA crab vessels.'' The CR... Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program (CR Program). Regulations implementing Amendments 18 and 19 were published on March 2, 2005 (70 FR 10174), and are located at 50 CFR part...

  18. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  19. A potential record of slow slip earthquakes from the Kodiak Accretionary Complex and the role of silica redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Slow slip earthquakes are observed along both accretionary and nonaccretionary subduction zones with continuous GPS networks, so one would expect that deeply exhumed paleo-decollements in ancient accretionary complexes would carry a record of these events in the form of fault fabrics, microstructures, or veins. One potential example is within the Central Belt of the Late Cretaceous Kodiak Formation, a 10's of meters thick, subhorizontal paleo-decollement zone from the Kodiak accretionary complex in southwest Alaska that is exposed for over 100 km along strike in a regional culmination in the Kodiak archipelago. Here, the main criteria that are likely necessary for slow slip earthquakes are satisfied: 1) proximity to the downdip transition from velocity weakening to velocity strengthening, 2) low effective stresses driven by high fluid pressures related to the onset of dehydration reactions in low permeability rocks, 3) dilation, with hundreds of events of cracking and crack closure, and 4) a regime of simple shear. The central belt is pervasively veined at the scale of mm's, but there are larger veins organized into en echelon sets that lie in seaward dipping arrays regularly spaced at ~0.5 m with small vugs in many cases. There are two types of microstructures in these veins that represent different crack closure mechanisms: crack seal bands and collapse residues. All the early, closely spaced veins close only by sealing (continuous crack seal bands of metamorphic chlorite grown from the seeds on the crack wall), but the center of the larger veins in en echelon sets show a temporal transition from continuous crack seal bands, to discontinuous crack seal bands, to inclusion free growth of euhedral crystals, with bands of collapse residues of dissolved wall rock. Crack seal bands indicate ~10 microns as the median crack aperture, with a large tail in the distribution toward larger values. Fluid inclusion trails that track the crack displacement path systematically

  20. Post-eruption legacy effects and their implications for long-term recovery of the vegetation on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Walker, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the vegetation of Kasatochi Island, central Aleutian Islands, to provide a general field assessment regarding the survival of plants, lichens, and fungi following a destructive volcanic eruption that occurred in 2008. Plant community data were analyzed using multivariate methods to explore the relationship between pre- and post-eruption plant cover; 5 major vegetation types were identified: Honckenya peploides beach, Festuca rubra cliff shelf, Lupinus nootkatensisFestuca rubra meadow, Leymus mollis bluff ridge (and beach), and Aleuria aurantia lower slope barrens. Our study provided a very unusual glimpse into the early stages of plant primary succession on a remote island where most of the vegetation was destroyed. Plants that apparently survived the eruption dominated early plant communities. Not surprisingly, the most diverse post-eruption community most closely resembled a widespread pre-eruption type. Microhabitats where early plant communities were found were distinct and apparently crucial in determining plant survival. Comparison with volcanic events in related boreal regions indicated some post-eruption pattern similarities. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  1. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Harwell, Mark A.; Gentile, John H.; Johnson, Charles B.; Garshelis, David L.; Parker, Keith R.

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001–2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  2. A Quantitative Ecological Risk Assessment of the Toxicological Risks from Exxon Valdez Subsurface Oil Residues to Sea Otters at Northern Knight Island, Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Harwell, Mark A; Gentile, John H; Johnson, Charles B; Garshelis, David L; Parker, Keith R

    2010-07-01

    A comprehensive, quantitative risk assessment is presented of the toxicological risks from buried Exxon Valdez subsurface oil residues (SSOR) to a subpopulation of sea otters (Enhydra lutris) at Northern Knight Island (NKI) in Prince William Sound, Alaska, as it has been asserted that this subpopulation of sea otters may be experiencing adverse effects from the SSOR. The central questions in this study are: could the risk to NKI sea otters from exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in SSOR, as characterized in 2001-2003, result in individual health effects, and, if so, could that exposure cause subpopulation-level effects? We follow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) risk paradigm by: (a) identifying potential routes of exposure to PAHs from SSOR; (b) developing a quantitative simulation model of exposures using the best available scientific information; (c) developing scenarios based on calculated probabilities of sea otter exposures to SSOR; (d) simulating exposures for 500,000 modeled sea otters and extracting the 99.9% quantile most highly exposed individuals; and (e) comparing projected exposures to chronic toxicity reference values. Results indicate that, even under conservative assumptions in the model, maximum-exposed sea otters would not receive a dose of PAHs sufficient to cause any health effects; consequently, no plausible toxicological risk exists from SSOR to the sea otter subpopulation at NKI. PMID:20862194

  3. Petrogenesis of basaltic volcanic rocks from the Pribilof Islands, Alaska, by melting of metasomatically enriched depleted lithosphere, crystallization differentiation, and magma mixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chang, J.M.; Feeley, T.C.; Deraps, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    The Pribilof Islands, Alaska, are located in the Bering Sea in a continental intraplate setting. In this study we examine the petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks from St. Paul (0??54-0??003 Ma) and St. George (2??8-1??4 Ma) Islands, the two largest Pribilof Islands. Rocks from St. George can be divided into three groups: group 1 is a high-MgO, low-SiO. 2 suite composed primarily of basanites; group 2 is a high-MgO, high-SiO 2 suite consisting predominantly of alkali basalts; group 3 is an intermediate- to low-MgO suite that includes plagioclase-phyric subalkali basalts and hawaiites. Major and trace element geochemistry suggests that groups 1 and 2 formed by small-degree partial melting of amphibole-bearing to amphibole-free garnet peridotite. Group 1 rocks were the earliest melts produced from the most hydrous parts of the mantle, as they show the strongest geochemical signature of amphibole in their source. The suite of rocks from St. Paul ranges from 14??4 to 4??2 wt % MgO at relatively constant SiO 2 contents (43??1-47??3 wt %). The most primitive St. Paul rocks are modeled as mixtures between magmas with compositions similar to groups 1 and 2 from St. George Island, which subsequently fractionated olivine, clinopyroxene, and spinel to form more evolved rocks. Plagioclase-phyric group 3 rocks from St. George are modeled as mixtures between an evolved melt similar to the evolved magmas on St. Paul and a fractionated group 2 end-member from St. George. Mantle potential temperatures estimated for primitive basanites and alkali basalts are ???1400??C and are similar to those of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORB). Similarly, 87Sr/. 86Sr and 143Nd/. 144Nd values for all rocks are MORB-like, in the range of 0??702704-0??703035 and 0??513026-0??513109, respectively. 208Pb/. 204Pb vs 206Pb/. 204Pb values lie near the MORB end-member but show a linear trend towards HIMU (high time-integrated 238U/. 204Pb). Despite isotopic similarities to MORB, many of the major and

  4. Dynamic deformation of Seguam Island, Alaska, 1992-2008, from multi-interferogram InSAR processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Lu, Zhong; Won, Joong-Sun; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    We generated a time-series of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images to study ground surface deformation at Seguam Island from 1992 to 2008. We used the small baseline subset (SBAS) technique to reduce artifacts associated with baseline uncertainties and atmospheric delay anomalies, and processed images from two adjacent tracks to validate our results. Seguam Island comprises the remnants of two late Quaternary calderas, one in the western caldera of the island and one in the eastern part of the island. The western caldera subsided at a constant rate of ~ 1.6 cm/yr throughout the study period, while the eastern caldera experienced alternating periods of subsidence and uplift: ~ 5 cm/year uplift during January 1993-October 1993 (stage 1), ~ 1.6 cm/year subsidence during October 1993-November 1998 (stage 2), ~ 2.0 cm/year uplift during November 1998-September 2000 (stage 3), ~ 1.4 cm/year subsidence during September 2000-November 2005 (stage 4), and ~ 0.8 cm/year uplift during November 2005-July 2007 (stage 5). Source modeling indicates a deflationary source less than 2 km below sea level (BSL) beneath the western caldera and two sources beneath the eastern caldera: an inflationary source 2.5-6.0 km BSL and a deflationary source less than 2 km BSL. We suggest that uplift of the eastern caldera is driven by episodic intrusions of basaltic magma into a poroelastic reservoir 2.5-6.0 km BSL beneath the caldera. Cooling and degassing of the reservoir between intrusions result in steady subsidence of the overlying surface. Although we found no evidence of magma intrusion beneath the western caldera during the study period, it is the site (Pyre Peak) of all historical eruptions on the island and therefore cooling and degassing of intrusions presumably contributes to subsidence there as well. Another likely subsidence mechanism in the western caldera is thermoelastic contraction of lava flows emplaced near Pyre Peak during several

  5. Dynamic deformation of Seguam Island, Alaska, 1992--2008, from multi-interferogram InSAR processing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Chang-Wook; Lu, Zhong; Won, Joong-Sun; Jung, Hyung-Sup; Dzurisin, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We generated a time-series of ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) images to study ground surface deformation at Seguam Island from 1992 to 2008. We used the small baseline subset (SBAS) technique to reduce artifacts associated with baseline uncertainties and atmospheric delay anomalies, and processed images from two adjacent tracks to validate our results. Seguam Island comprises the remnants of two late Quaternary calderas, one in the western caldera of the island and one in the eastern part of the island. The western caldera subsided at a constant rate of ~ 1.6 cm/yr throughout the study period, while the eastern caldera experienced alternating periods of subsidence and uplift: ~ 5 cm/year uplift during January 1993–October 1993 (stage 1), ~ 1.6 cm/year subsidence during October 1993–November 1998 (stage 2), ~ 2.0 cm/year uplift during November 1998–September 2000 (stage 3), ~ 1.4 cm/year subsidence during September 2000–November 2005 (stage 4), and ~ 0.8 cm/year uplift during November 2005– July 2007 (stage 5). Source modeling indicates a deflationary source less than 2 km below sea level (BSL) beneath the western caldera and two sources beneath the eastern caldera: an inflationary source 2.5–6.0 km BSL and a deflationary source less than 2 km BSL. We suggest that uplift of the eastern caldera is driven by episodic intrusions of basaltic magma into a poroelastic reservoir 2.5–6.0 km BSL beneath the caldera. Cooling and degassing of the reservoir between intrusions results in steady subsidence of the overlying surface. Although we found no evidence of magma intrusion beneath the western caldera during the study period, it is the site (Pyre Peak) of all historical eruptions on the island and therefore cooling and degassing of intrusions presumably contributes to subsidence there as well. Another likely subsidence mechanism in the western caldera is thermoelastic contraction of lava flows emplaced near Pyre Peak during

  6. Monitoring the natural attenuation of petroleum in ground water at the former naval complex, Operable Unit A, Adak Island, Alaska, May and June 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Simonds, F.W.; Defawe, Rose

    2005-01-01

    During May and June 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey installed monitoring wells and collected data to characterize the effectiveness of natural attenuation processes for remediating petroleum-contaminated ground water at Operable Unit A of the former Naval complex on Adak Island, Alaska. In addition, the evidence for petroleum biodegradation in ground water was evaluated at selected petroleum sites, plans for future natural attenuation monitoring were suggested for the selected petroleum sites, and the natural attenuation monitoring strategy for the Downtown area of Adak Island was reviewed and refinements were suggested. U.S. Geological Survey personnel measured water levels and collected ground-water samples from about 100 temporary boreholes and 50 monitoring wells. Most samples were analyzed on-site for concentrations of selected petroleum compounds and natural attenuation parameters such as dissolved oxygen, ferrous iron, and carbon dioxide. The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the data on-site, selected new monitoring well locations, and installed, developed, and sampled 10 monitoring wells. The review and suggestions for the natural attenuation monitoring strategy focused on how to better achieve monitoring objectives specified in the Record of Decision for Adak Island petroleum sites. To achieve the monitoring objective of verifying that natural attenuation is occurring, the monitoring plans for each monitored natural attenuation site need to include sampling of at least one strategically placed well at the downgradient margin of the contaminant plume margin, preferably where contaminant concentrations are detectable but less than the cleanup level. Collection of natural attenuation parameter data and sampling background wells is no longer needed to achieve the monitoring objective of demonstrating the occurrence of natural attenuation. To achieve the objective of monitoring locations where chemical concentrations exceed specified cleanup levels, at least

  7. Characterization of pyroclastic deposits and pre-eruptive soils following the 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, B.; Michaelson, G.; Ping, C.-L.; Plumlee, G.; Hageman, P.

    2010-01-01

    The 78 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi Island volcano blanketed the island in newly generated pyroclastic deposits and deposited ash into the ocean and onto nearby islands. Concentrations of water soluble Fe, Cu, and Zn determined from a 1:20 deionized water leachate of the ash were sufficient to provide short-term fertilization of the surface ocean. The 2008 pyroclastic deposits were thicker in concavities at bases of steeper slopes and thinner on steep slopes and ridge crests. By summer 2009, secondary erosion had exposed the pre-eruption soils along gulley walls and in gully bottoms on the southern and eastern slopes, respectively. Topographic and microtopographic position altered the depositional patterns of the pyroclastic flows and resulted in pre-eruption soils being buried by as little as 1 m of ash. The different erosion patterns gave rise to three surfaces on which future ecosystems will likely develop: largely pre-eruptive soils; fresh pyroclastic deposits influenced by shallowly buried, pre-eruptive soil; and thick (>1 m) pyroclastic deposits. As expected, the chemical composition differed between the pyroclastic deposits and the pre-eruptive soils. Pre-eruptive soils hold stocks of C and N important for establishing biota that are lacking in the fresh pyroclastic deposits. The pyroclastic deposits are a source for P and K but have negligible nutrient holding capacity, making these elements vulnerable to leaching loss. Consequently, the pre-eruption soils may also represent an important long-term P and K source. ?? 2010 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  8. 75 FR 16635 - Refuge Specific Regulations; Public Use; Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... habitats in their natural diversity including, but not limited to, Kodiak brown bears, salmonoids, sea otters, sea lions and other marine mammals and migratory birds; (ii) to fulfill the international treaty... through September 30 [60 FR 37308, July 19, 1995; 50 CFR 36.39(j)]. The O'Malley River area has...

  9. Patterns of faunal extinction and paleoclimatic change from mid-Holocene mammoth and polar bear remains, Pribilof Islands, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltre, Douglas W.; Yesner, David R.; Crossen, Kristine J.; Graham, Russell W.; Coltrain, Joan B.

    2008-07-01

    Qagnaxˆ Cave, a lava tube cave on St. Paul Island in the Pribilofs, has recently produced a mid-Holocene vertebrate faunal assemblage including woolly mammoth, polar bear, caribou, and Arctic fox. Several dates on the mammoth remains converge on 5700 14C yr BP. These dates, ~ 2300 yr younger than mammoth dates previously published from the Pribilof Islands, make these the youngest remains of proboscideans, and of non-extinct Quaternary megafauna, recovered from North America. Persistence of mammoths on the Pribilofs is most parsimoniously explained by the isolation of the Pribilofs and the lack of human presence in pre-Russian contact times, but an additional factor may have been the local existence of high-quality forage in the form of grasses enriched by nutrients derived from local Holocene tephras. This interpretation is reinforced by stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values obtained from the mammoth remains. The endpoint of mammoth survival in the Pribilofs is unknown, but maybe coterminous with the arrival of polar bears whose remains in the cave date to the Neoglacial cold period of ~ 4500 to 3500 14C yr BP. The polar bear record corroborates a widespread cooling of the Bering Sea region at that time.

  10. On-site monitoring of construction of Terror Lake hydroelectric project, Kodiak, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hosking, H.

    1984-09-01

    The report describes the effort by the Fish and Wildlife Service to monitor the construction of the first hydroelectric project built on national wildlife refuge lands under license by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. Recommendations are offered for use in planning other projects. Fish and wildlife species of concern included brown bears, Sitka black-tailed deer, mountain goats, raptors (including bald eagles), and several species of salmonid fish. Construction practices relating to erosion control, contaminant management, culvert placement, and siting of project structures are covered.

  11. Oceanic Pb-isotopic sources of proterozoic and paleozoic volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits on Prince of Wales Island and vicinity, southeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Karl, Susan M.; Slack, John F.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Bittenbender, Peter E.; Wandless, Gregory A.; Colvin, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits on Prince of Wales Island and vicinity in southeastern Alaska are associated with Late Proterozoic through Cambrian volcanosedimentary rocks of the Wales Group and with Ordovician through Early Silurian felsic volcanic rocks of the Moira Sound unit (new informal name). The massive sulfide deposits in the Wales Group include the Big Harbor, Copper City, Corbin, Keete Inlet, Khayyam, Ruby Tuesday, and Stumble-On deposits, and those in the Moira Sound unit include the Barrier Islands, Moira Copper, Niblack, and Nichols Bay deposits. Pb-isotopic signatures were determined on sulfide minerals (galena, pyrite, chalcopyrite, pyrrhotite, and sphalerite) to constrain metal sources of the massive sulfides and for comparison with data for other deposits in the region. Except for the Ruby Tuesday deposit, galena is relatively rare in most of these deposits. Pb-isotopic signatures distinguish the mainly Cu+Zn±Ag±Au massive sulfide deposits in the Wales Group from the Zn+Cu±Ag±Au massive sulfide deposits in the Moira Sound unit. Among the older group of deposits, the Khayyam deposit has the widest variation in Pb-isotopic ratios (206Pb/204Pb=17.169–18.021, 207Pb/204Pb=15.341–15.499, 208Pb/204Pb=36.546–37.817); data for the other massive sulfide deposits in the Wales Group overlap the isotopic variations in the Khayyam deposit. Pb-isotopic ratios for both groups of deposits are lower than those on the average crustal Pbevolution curve (µ=9.74), attesting to a large mantle influence in the Pb source. All the deposits show no evidence for Pb evolution primarily in the upper or lower continental crust. Samples from the younger group of deposits have scattered Pb-isotopic compositions and plot as a broad band on uranogenic and thorogenic Pb diagrams. Data for these deposits overlap the trend for massive sulfide deposits in the Wales Group but extend to significantly more radiogenic Pb-isotopic values. Pb-isotopic ratios of

  12. Seismic Fault Zone Rocks from a Subduction Megathrust (Kodiak Is., AK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meneghini, F.; di Toro, G.; Moore, C. J.; Rowe, C. D.

    2008-12-01

    Subduction megathrusts nucleate some of the largest earthquakes on Earth, including the 1964 Mw9.2 Alaskan earthquake. We describe the fault zone and the fault rocks from the thickest slipping zone ever described in subduction complexes. The aim is to discriminate (microstructurally and chemically) fault rocks produced during seismic slip and to reconstruct the seismic cycle in the fault zone. In the ancient analogue of the active Alaskan subduction complex, cropping out in Kodiak Island, decimeter- thick cohesive black-colored layers are at the core of 10's of meters thick foliated cataclasites. The cataclasites are part of a melange regarded as a paleo-decollement active at 12 - 14 km in depth and 230 - 260 ° C. Each black layer is traced continuously for tens of meters along a single outcrop, and, through structural correlations, across 2 km of section along strike. The black rocks features a complex layering of glass-looking and granular-looking layers. "Glassy" and "granular" layers textures are composed of sub-rounded grains (< 100 micron) of quartz and albite floating in an ultrafine matrix (< 4 micron). In the matrix of glassy-looking layers, tabular microlites of albite are common, showing an oscillatory zoning typical of magmatic rocks that is absent in the cataclasites. "Granular" layers, are more tightly packed, less sorted, enriched in crushed feldspar microlites and depleted in phyllosilicates with respect to the "glassy" layers. XRF and XRPD analyses suggest chemical fractionation between the foliated cataclasites and the black rocks (e.g. enrichment in Na in the black rocks). Crosscutting relationships between granular- and glassy-like layers occur. Alternatively, flow and intrusion structures between the two layers are observed, suggesting that they flowed and deformed in a ductile fashion. Based on these observations, we hypothesize that the black rocks (1) are the result of frictional melting (glassy-looking layers) and fluidization (granular

  13. A community engagement process identifies environmental priorities to prevent early childhood obesity: the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) program for remote underserved populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands, Hawaii and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie Kainoa; DeBaryshe, Barbara; Bersamin, Andrea; Nigg, Claudio; Leon Guerrero, Rachael; Rojas, Gena; Areta, Aufa'i Apulu Ropeti; Vargo, Agnes; Belyeu-Camacho, Tayna; Castro, Rose; Luick, Bret; Novotny, Rachel

    2014-12-01

    Underserved minority populations in the US Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI), Hawaii, and Alaska display disproportionate rates of childhood obesity. The region's unique circumstance should be taken into account when designing obesity prevention interventions. The purpose of this paper is to (a), describe the community engagement process (CEP) used by the Children's Healthy Living (CHL) Program for remote underserved minority populations in the USAPI, Hawaii, and Alaska (b) report community-identified priorities for an environmental intervention addressing early childhood (ages 2-8 years) obesity, and (c) share lessons learned in the CEP. Four communities in each of five CHL jurisdictions (Alaska, American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, Hawai'i) were selected to participate in the community-randomized matched-pair trial. Over 900 community members including parents, teachers, and community leaders participated in the CEP over a 14 month period. The CEP was used to identify environmental intervention priorities to address six behavioral outcomes: increasing fruit/vegetable consumption, water intake, physical activity and sleep; and decreasing screen time and intake of sugar sweetened beverages. Community members were engaged through Local Advisory Committees, key informant interviews and participatory community meetings. Community-identified priorities centered on policy development; role modeling; enhancing access to healthy food, clean water, and physical activity venues; and healthy living education. Through the CEP, CHL identified culturally appropriate priorities for intervention that were also consistent with the literature on effective obesity prevention practices. Results of the CEP will guide the CHL intervention design and implementation. The CHL CEP may serve as a model for other underserved minority island populations.

  14. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeglin, Lydia H.; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (< 0.2%C). When normalized by OM levels, post-eruptive surfaces with OM inputs had the highest β-glucosidase, phosphatase, NAGase and cellobiohydrolase activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance.

  15. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Lydia H; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (< 0.2%C). When normalized by OM levels, post-eruptive surfaces with OM inputs had the highest β-glucosidase, phosphatase, NAGase and cellobiohydrolase activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance. PMID:26032670

  16. HLA genes of Aleutian Islanders living between Alaska (USA) and Kamchatka (Russia) suggest a possible southern Siberia origin.

    PubMed

    Moscoso, Juan; Crawford, Michael H; Vicario, Jose L; Zlojutro, Mark; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Reguera, Raquel; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2008-02-01

    Aleuts HLA profile has been compared with that of neighboring and worldwide populations. Thirteen thousand one hundred and sixty-four chromosomes have been used for this study. Computer programs have obtained HLA allele frequencies, genetic distances between populations, NJ relatedness dendrograms, correspondence analysis and most frequent HLA extended haplotypes. Aleuts have inhabited Aleutian Islands since about 9000 years BP according to fossil and genetic (mtDNA) records. They are genetically different to Eskimo, Amerindian and Na-Dene speakers according to their HLA profile; this correlates with cultural and anthropological Aleut distinctiveness. No typical Amerindian HLA alleles have been found in a significant frequency. Their HLA relatedness to Saami (or Lapps, northern Scandinavians), Finns and Pomors (North-West Russia) indicates an ancient possible origin from the Baikal Lake Area (southern Siberia) around the present day Buryat peopling area; other origins are not discarded. Aleuts characteristic HLA profile may influence future transplantation programs in the region and be useful to study diseases linked to HLA epidemiology.

  17. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3 Section... ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing is the... four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1) Annette Island at 55 degrees...

  18. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations.

    The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  19. Crustal Deformation in Southcentral Alaska: The 1964 Prince William Sound Earthquake Subduction Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    2003-01-01

    This article, for Advances in Geophysics, is a summary of crustal deformation studies in southcentral Alaska. In 1964, southcentral Alaska was struck by the largest earthquake (moment magnitude 9.2) occurring in historical times in North America and the second largest earthquake occurring in the world during the past century. Conventional and space-based geodetic measurements have revealed a complex temporal-spatial pattern of crustal movement. Numerical models suggest that ongoing convergence between the North America and Pacific Plates, viscoelastic rebound, aseismic creep along the tectonic plate interface, and variable plate coupling all play important roles in controlling both the surface and subsurface movements. The geodetic data sets include tide-gauge observations that in some cases provide records back to the decades preceding the earthquake, leveling data that span a few decades around the earthquake, VLBI data from the late 1980s, and GPS data since the mid-1990s. Geologic data provide additional estimates of vertical movements and a chronology of large seismic events. Some of the important features that are revealed by the ensemble of studies that are reviewed in this paper include: (1) Crustal uplift in the region that subsided by up 2 m at the time of the earthquake is as much as 1 m since the earthquake. In the Turnagain Arm and Kenai Peninsula regions of southcentral Alaska, uplift rates in the immediate aftermath of the earthquake reached 150 mm/yr , but this rapid uplift decayed rapidly after the first few years following the earthquake. (2) At some other locales, notably those away the middle of the coseismic rupture zone, postseismic uplift rates were initially slower but the rates decay over a longer time interval. At Kodiak Island, for example, the uplift rates have been decreasing at a rate of about 7mm/yr per decade. At yet other locations, the uplift rates have shown little time dependence so far, but are thought not to be sustainable

  20. Sediment geochemistry as potential sea-level indicators to assess coseismic vertical displacements above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, A. M.; Witter, R. C.; Munk, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Nearly the entire 4000-km-long Alaska-Aleutian megathrust has ruptured in large or great (Mw ≥8) earthquakes in the past 100 years, yet paleoseismic records of earlier events are only documented east of Kodiak Is. in the region of the 1964 Alaska earthquake. The Mw 9.2 1964 earthquake dropped the coast along Cook Inlet and Turnagain Arm by ≤1.8 m and raised shore platforms around Prince William Sound by ≤3 m. Evidence of sudden (coseismic) vertical displacements during megathrust earthquakes are archived in coastal sediments as sharp stratigraphic contacts that record rapid relative sea-level (RSL) changes. We use geochemical analyses of coastal sediments to detect sudden RSL changes at 2 sites above the Alaska-Aleutian megathrust. One site on Knik Arm near Anchorage subsided ~0.6 m during the 1964 earthquake. The other site overlies the Shumagin Islands segment of the megathrust, without rupture since before 1903. Relative to terrestrial sources of sediment, marine sources should be enriched in δ13C, δ15N, and have higher C:N, and Cl- concentrations. Our analyses will test whether these geochemical proxies can provide evidence for sudden RSL change across stratigraphic contacts that record coseismic uplift or subsidence. Coseismic subsidence should be represented by contacts that place sediment with enriched δ13C, δ15N signatures, elevated C:N and Cl- concentrations over sediment with lower values of these geochemical proxies and the reverse for coseismic uplift. A 1-2 m tall, ~0.5-km-long bluff along Knik Arm exposes three buried wetland soils overlain by gray mud. The soils become faint and pinch out to the northeast near a large tidal channel. Other studies of similar buried soils at adjacent sites suggest the youngest soil at Knik Arm subsided in 1964. 14C analyses of plant fossils in two older soils will provide age estimates for earlier events. We will apply the proposed geochemical methods to 20 samples collected along a forested upland to tidal

  1. Diverse Approaches USED to Characterize the Earthquake and Tsunami Hazards Along the Southern Alaska Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeussler, P. J.; Witter, R. C.; Liberty, L. M.; Brothers, D. S.; Briggs, R. W.; Armstrong, P. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Parsons, T.; Ryan, H. F.; Lee, H. J.; Roland, E. C.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are the principal geohazards of southern Alaska. The entire margin has ruptured in megathrust earthquakes, including the M9.2 1964 event, and these earthquakes have launched deadly local and trans-Pacific tsunamis. Tsunamis have been by far the largest killer in these earthquakes. Moreover, the subduction zone displays a range in locking behavior from completely locked beneath Prince William Sound, to ­­­­nearly freely slipping beneath the Shumagin Islands. Characterizing earthquake-related tsunami sources requires a diverse set of methods, and we discuss several examples. One important source for tsunamis is from megathrust splay faults. The Patton Bay splay fault system ruptured during the 1964 earthquake and generated a tsunami that impacted coastlines tens of minutes after the earthquake. A combination of multibeam mapping, high-resolution and crustal-scale seismic data, thermochronology, and detrital zircon geochronology show focused exhumation along this splay fault system for the last 2-3 Ma. Moreover, this long term pattern of exhumation mimics the pattern of uplift in 1964. Submarine landslides are another example of a tsunami source. Numerous devastating slides were triggered by the 1964 earthquake. Multibeam bathymetry, bathymetry difference maps, high-resolution seismic data, and records of paleotsunamis in coastal marshes reveal a long history of submarine landsliding in the coastal fjords of Alaska. The Little Ice Age appears to have had a significant influence on the submarine landslides in the 1964 earthquake through increased sediment production, transport to fjord margins, and, locally, compaction by glacier advances. Glacial retreat before 1964 gave rise to over-steepened slopes susceptible to dynamic failure. Numerous blocks in the submarine landslides were particularly effective in generating high tsunami run up. Finally, regional tectonic displacements of the seafloor have launched trans-Pacific tsunamis. Coastal

  2. Geophysical interpretation of U, Th, and rare earth element mineralization of the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeast Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, Anne E.; Stoeser, Douglas B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    A prospectivity map for rare earth element (REE) mineralization at the Bokan Mountain peralkaline granite complex, Prince of Wales Island, southeastern Alaska, was calculated from high-resolution airborne gamma-ray data. The map displays areas with similar radioelement concentrations as those over the Dotson REE-vein-dike system, which is characterized by moderately high %K, eU, and eTh (%K, percent potassium; eU, equivalent parts per million uranium; and eTh, equivalent parts per million thorium). Gamma-ray concentrations of rocks that share a similar range as those over the Dotson zone are inferred to locate high concentrations of REE-bearing minerals. An approximately 1300-m-long prospective tract corresponds to shallowly exposed locations of the Dotson zone. Prospective areas of REE mineralization also occur in continuous swaths along the outer edge of the pluton, over known but undeveloped REE occurrences, and within discrete regions in the older Paleozoic country rocks. Detailed mineralogical examinations of samples from the Dotson zone provide a means to understand the possible causes of the airborne Th and U anomalies and their relation to REE minerals. Thorium is sited primarily in thorite. Uranium also occurs in thorite and in a complex suite of ±Ti±Nb±Y oxide minerals, which include fergusonite, polycrase, and aeschynite. These oxides, along with Y-silicates, are the chief heavy REE (HREE)-bearing minerals. Hence, the eU anomalies, in particular, may indicate other occurrences of similar HREE-enrichment. Uranium and Th chemistry along the Dotson zone showed elevated U and total REEs east of the Camp Creek fault, which suggested the potential for increased HREEs based on their association with U-oxide minerals. A uranium prospectivity map, based on signatures present over the Ross-Adams mine area, was characterized by extremely high radioelement values. Known uranium deposits were identified in the U-prospectivity map, but the largest tract occurs

  3. 2011 volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, Robert G.; Maharrey, J. Zebulon; Neal, Christina A.

    2014-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, and volcanic unrest at or near three separate volcanic centers in Alaska during 2011. The year was highlighted by the unrest and eruption of Cleveland Volcano in the central Aleutian Islands. AVO annual summaries no longer report on activity at Russian volcanoes.

  4. Effects of the earthquake of March 27, 1964, on the Alaska highway system: Chapter C in The Alaska earthquake, March 27, 1964: effects on transportation, communications, and utilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kachadoorian, Reuben

    1968-01-01

    damaged by seismic shaking. Lateral displacement of sediments toward a free face, which placed the bridges in compression, was the chief cause for the damage. This type of failure was extensive and widespread throughout the highway system. The chief engineering characteristics responsible for the type and intensity of damage include (1) thickness of roadway fills, (2) type of pile bents and masonry piers, (3) the weight ratio between the substructure and superstructure, and (4) the tie between the substructure and superstructure. The thicker the roadway fills, the more severe the damage. Wood piles did not break as extensively as piles constructed of three railroad rails welded together. Bridges that had relatively heavy superstructures, for example those with concrete decks on wood piles, were more severely damaged than those with all-wood or concrete decks or concrete piers. Failure first occurred at the tie between the superstructure and the substructure; the poorer this tie, the sooner the failure. Seismic sea waves destroyed 12 bridges on the Chiniak Highway on Kodiak Island, one bridge on Point Whitshed road near Cordova, and about 14 miles of roadway. The combination of regional tectonic subsidence and local subsidence and compaction of sediments caused inundation of many miles of highway by high tides, especially around Turnagain Arm. Total subsidence in some places amounted to more than 13 feet.

  5. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1)...

  6. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1)...

  7. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1)...

  8. 25 CFR 241.3 - Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. 241.3... FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.3 Commercial fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definition. Commercial fishing... salmon fishing at any four of the following sites in the Annette Islands Reserve, Alaska: (1)...

  9. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  10. Flatfish-habitat associations in Alaska nursery grounds: Use of continuous video records for multi-scale spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, Allan W.; Spencer, Mara L.; Ryer, Clifford H.

    2007-02-01

    Flatfish distributions have traditionally been described in terms of depth, temperature, and sediment characteristics, but other environmental variables may be important depending upon spatial scale. Surveys for age-0 northern rock sole ( Lepidopsetta polyxystra) were conducted in five near-shore nursery sites at Kodiak Island, Alaska, using a towed camera sled integrated with navigational data. The continuous record of fish density and habitat features made possible a spatially comprehensive analysis of fish-habitat associations at several spatial scales, ranging from tens of kilometres to less than 1 m. A combination of multivariate statistical interpretation and geographic information systems (GIS) revealed that the distribution of juvenile rock sole was associated with environmental variables and spatial scales that are not normally detectable with usual flatfish— and habitat—sampling methods (i.e., trawls and grabs). Generalized additive models (GAM) incorporating habitat variables determined from video provided large improvements over models using only the traditional variables such as depth and sediment type. At the broadest (regional) scale of analysis, combinations of sediment composition, surface bedform, temperature, and density of worm tubes provided the best model for rock sole density. Within-nursery variation in fish density was modelled best with depth, habitat structural complexity created by emergent fauna and macroalgae, and worm tube density. At the microhabitat scale (< 1 m), there was little evidence of direct contact between rock sole and structures such as shell or algae. Rather, they were loosely associated on a scale tens of metres. This study showed that spatially comprehensive surveys can be conducted with towed camera systems and without the need for sediment grab samples. This approach yields detailed habitat information for fishes and the opportunity for landscape analysis of spatial patterns that will be important in conserving

  11. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Decision document for no further response action planned: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, December 1995-May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-05-03

    This Decision Document discusses the selection of no further action as the recommended action for nine sites located at the Barter Island radar installation. The United States Air Force (Air Force) completed a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study and a Risk Assessment for the 14 sites located at the Barter Island installation (U.S. Air Force 1996a,b). Based on the findings of these activities, nine sites are recommended for no further action.

  12. UNIT, ALASKA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. THE UNIT IS PRESENTED IN OUTLINE FORM. THE FIRST SECTION DEALS PRINCIPALLY WITH THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF ALASKA. DISCUSSED ARE (1) THE SIZE, (2) THE MAJOR LAND REGIONS, (3) THE MOUNTAINS, VOLCANOES, GLACIERS, AND RIVERS, (4) THE NATURAL RESOURCES, AND (5) THE CLIMATE. THE…

  13. Metamorphic facies map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dusel-Bacon, C.; O-Rourke, E.F.; Reading, K.E.; Fitch, M.R.; Klute, M.A.

    1985-04-01

    A metamorphic-facies of Alaska has been compiled, following the facies-determination scheme of the Working Group for the Cartography of the Metamorphic Belts of the World. Regionally metamorphosed rocks are divided into facies series where P/T gradients are known and into facies groups where only T is known. Metamorphic rock units also are defined by known or bracketed age(s) of metamorphism. Five regional maps have been prepared at a scale of 1:1,000,000; these maps will provide the basis for a final colored version of the map at a scale of 1:2,500,000. The maps are being prepared by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys. Precambrian metamorphism has been documented on the Seward Peninsula, in the Baird Mountains and the northeastern Kuskokwim Mountains, and in southwestern Alaska. Pre-Ordovician metamorphism affected the rocks in central Alaska and on southern Prince of Wales Island. Mid-Paleozoic metamorphism probably affected the rocks in east-central Alaska. Most of the metamorphic belts in Alaska developed during Mesozoic or early Tertiary time in conjuction with accretion of many terranes. Examples are Jurassic metamorphism in east-central Alaska, Early Cretaceous metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range and along the rim of the Yukon-Kovyukuk basin, and late Cretaceous to early Tertiary metamorphism in the central Alaska Range. Regional thermal metamorphism was associated with multiple episodes of Cretaceous plutonism in southeastern Alaska and with early Tertiary plutonism in the Chugach Mountains. Where possible, metamorphism is related to tectonism. Meeting participants are encouraged to comment on the present version of the metamorphic facies map.

  14. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses. (a) Definition. The Annette Islands Reserve is defined as the Annette Islands in Alaska, as set...

  15. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses. (a) Definition. The Annette Islands Reserve is defined as the Annette Islands in Alaska, as set...

  16. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses. (a) Definition. The Annette Islands Reserve is defined as the Annette Islands in Alaska, as set...

  17. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery... WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses. (a) Definition. The Annette Islands Reserve is defined as the Annette Islands in Alaska, as set...

  18. United States Air Force 611th Air Support Group/Civil Engineering Squadron, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Risk assessment: Barter Island Radar Installation, Alaska. Final report, January 1995-January 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Karmi, S.; Madden, J.; Borsetti, R.

    1996-01-08

    This document contains the baseline human health risk assessment and the ecological risk assessment (ERA) for the Barter Island Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line radar installation. Fourteen sites at the Barter Island radar installation underwent remedial investigations (RIs) during the summer of 1993. The analytical data reported in the RI/FS form the basis for the human health and ecological risk assessments. The primary chemicals of concern (COCs) at the 14 sites are diesel and gasoline from past spills and/or leaks.

  19. Amchitka, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-15

    Amchitka Island is near the western end of the Aleutian Island chain and is the largest island in the Rat Island Group that is located about 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, and 870 miles east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The island is 42 miles long and 1 to 4 miles wide, with an area of approximately 74,240 acres. Elevations range from sea level to more than 1,100 feet above sea level. The coastline is rugged; sea cliffs and grassy slopes surround nearly the entire island. Vegetation on the island is low-growing, meadow-like tundra grasses at lower elevations. No trees grow on Amchitka. The lowest elevations are on the eastern third of the island and are characterized by numerous shallow lakes and heavily vegetated drainages. The central portion of the island has higher elevations and fewer lakes. The westernmost 3 miles of the island contains a windswept rocky plateau with sparse vegetation.

  20. Population estimation, productivity, and food habits of nesting seabirds at Cape Pierce and the Pribilof Islands, Bering Sea, Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, S.R.

    1985-12-01

    Seabird population counts on the Pribilof Islands during summer 1984 were lower than counts made in 1976 or 1982, and usually much lower than in 1976. Estimates of black-legged kittiwake productivity were very low in 1984 on St. George and St. Paul islands and at Cape Pierce. The study also proposes a strategy for monitoring regional trends in seabird populations, productivity, and feeding habits, and detecting effects from oil and gas industry activities.

  1. 78 FR 14185 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Kiliuda Bay, Kodiak Island, AK to Captains Bay, Unalaska Island, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... seabed, around the Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) KULLUK currently located.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM... meter radius of the MODU KULLUK, a large ocean-going drill vessel, while it is under tow from...

  2. Observations on Gulf of Alaska seamount chains by multi-beam sonar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smoot, N. Christian

    1985-06-01

    Geomorphic and age data are presented for the Dellwood, Denson, Dickins, Giacomini, and Ely seamounts, the Tsimshian Seachannel, and the southern Juan de Fuca Ridge with Brown Bear, Bear Cub, Grizzly Bear, and Cobb seamounts. Formational speculations extrapolated to a regional scale allow the strikes and outer limits of the seamount chains to be interpreted. Six of these chains are shown in the Gulf of Alaska, none of which conform to the Pratt-Welker or Kodiak-Bowie in the literature. Different strikes show the chains/plate to have rotated 23° about 17 m.y. ago. Morphology also shows that there are four less guyots in the Gulf than previously thought, and that, at least in the Gulf of Alaska, guyot heights do not necessarily reflect sealevel during erosion.

  3. Glaciers of North America - Glaciers of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    2008-01-01

    Glaciers cover about 75,000 km2 of Alaska, about 5 percent of the State. The glaciers are situated on 11 mountain ranges, 1 large island, an island chain, and 1 archipelago and range in elevation from more than 6,000 m to below sea level. Alaska's glaciers extend geographically from the far southeast at lat 55 deg 19'N., long 130 deg 05'W., about 100 kilometers east of Ketchikan, to the far southwest at Kiska Island at lat 52 deg 05'N., long 177 deg 35'E., in the Aleutian Islands, and as far north as lat 69 deg 20'N., long 143 deg 45'W., in the Brooks Range. During the 'Little Ice Age', Alaska's glaciers expanded significantly. The total area and volume of glaciers in Alaska continue to decrease, as they have been doing since the 18th century. Of the 153 1:250,000-scale topographic maps that cover the State of Alaska, 63 sheets show glaciers. Although the number of extant glaciers has never been systematically counted and is thus unknown, the total probably is greater than 100,000. Only about 600 glaciers (about 1 percent) have been officially named by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN). There are about 60 active and former tidewater glaciers in Alaska. Within the glacierized mountain ranges of southeastern Alaska and western Canada, 205 glaciers (75 percent in Alaska) have a history of surging. In the same region, at least 53 present and 7 former large ice-dammed lakes have produced jokulhlaups (glacier-outburst floods). Ice-capped volcanoes on mainland Alaska and in the Aleutian Islands have a potential for jokulhlaups caused by subglacier volcanic and geothermal activity. Because of the size of the area covered by glaciers and the lack of large-scale maps of the glacierized areas, satellite imagery and other satellite remote-sensing data are the only practical means of monitoring regional changes in the area and volume of Alaska's glaciers in response to short- and long-term changes in the maritime and continental climates of the State. A review of the

  4. Natural Science of Alaska Handbook. Revised. Anchorage School District Elementary Science Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Valerie Smith; Sumner, Jim

    This handbook is a collection of printed materials that are available to students about the geology, weather, plants, animals and people of Alaska. Topics included are: (1) "Alaska History Line"; (2) "Geography of Alaska" (including maps, rivers, and islands); (3) "Geologic Time"; (4) "Geology" (including plates, earthquake zones, permafrost, and…

  5. Impact on aviation operations of volcanic gas and ash clouds from the 2008 eruptions of Okmok and Kasatochi, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, M.; Schneider, D. J.; Ewert, J. W.; Targosz, S.

    2008-12-01

    The eruptions of Okmok in July 2008 and Kasatochi in August 2008 both produced sulfur dioxide clouds notable for their dispersion over the northern conterminous United States. An aircraft encounter with the Okmok volcanic cloud occurred near Kodiak Island on 15 July, and some other flights were diverted north of normal air routes, but the overall impact on aviation of the Kasatochi eruption was greater. The 7 August 2008 eruption of Kasatochi sent an impressive amount of sulfur dioxide gas into the atmosphere, about 1.5 megatons according to S. Carn (this session), an order of magnitude greater than from Okmok. Preliminary estimates of Kasatochi's erupted volume range between 0.1 and 0.25 cubic kilometers (dense rock equivalent), making it one of the largest North American eruptions in the past 25 years. As Kasatochi's cloud dispersed over the Gulf of Alaska, Canada, and the northern conterminous United States, widespread disruptions to aviation operations occurred. On 10 August 2008 the ash/gas cloud passed over the southeast coast of Alaska, resulting in flight cancellations between Anchorage and Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Denver, Los Angeles, and Vancouver BC and the stranding of a reported 6,000 passengers. The cancellations were primarily night flights, aa the airlines were concerned that pilots would not be able to visually identify the potentially hazardous volcanic cloud. As the cloud moved over Canada and parts of the United States, the area of sulfur dioxide detected by the satellite-borne Ozone Monitoring Instrument, while in accord with dispersion modeling by the Montreal Volcanic Ash Advisory Center, was much larger than the area of ash detected by the thermal infrared brightness-temperature-differencing (BTD) remote-sensing method. Concurrently, numerous pilot reports of sulfurous odors in the cockpit and visible brownish haze at cruise altitudes (the latter as late as two weeks after the eruption) suggested that sulfur dioxide gas had been

  6. 50 CFR 100.24 - Customary and traditional use determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the Bering Sea Area. Alaska Peninsula-Aleutian Islands Area Shrimp Dungeness, and Tanner crab Residents of the Alaska Peninsula-Aleutian Islands Area. Kodiak Area Shrimp, Dungeness, and Tanner crab... Area Shrimp, clams, Dungeness, king, and Tanner crab Residents of the Prince William Sound...

  7. Age determination of late Pleistocene marine transgression in western Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    Dating molluscs from sediments representing the Kotzebuan marine transgression in Alaska yields an average uranium-series age of 104,000 ?? 22,000 yrs B.P. This and other selected Pleistocene marine deposits of western Alaska are tentatively correlated with radiometrically dated units of eastern Baffin Island, Arctic Canada. ?? 1982.

  8. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  9. Alaska Open-file Report 144 Assessment of Thermal Springs Sites Aleutian Arc, Atka Island to Becherof Lake -- Preliminary Results and Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, R.J.; Moorman, M.A.; Liss, S.A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty of more than 30 thermal spring areas reported to exist in the Aleutian arc extending from Atka Island to Becherof Lake were investigated during July and August, 1980. Thermal activity of three of these sites had diminished substantially or no longer existed. At least seven more sites where thermal-spring activity is probable or certain were not visited because of their remoteness or because of time constraints. The existence of several other reported thermal spring sites could not be verified; these sites are considered questionable. On the basis of geothermometry, subsurface reservoir temperatures in excess of 150 C are estimated for 10 of the thermal spring sites investigated. These sites all occur in or near regions of Recent volcanism. Five of the sites are characterized by fumaroles and steaming ground, indicating the presence of at least a shallow vapor-dominated zone. Two, the Makushin Valley and Glacier Valley thermal areas, occur on the flanks of active Mukushin Volcano located on Unalaska Island, and may be connected to a common source of heat. Gas geothermometry suggests that the reservoir feeding the Kliuchef thermal field, located on the flanks of Kliuchef volcano of northeast Atka Island, may be as high as 239 C.

  10. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  11. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  12. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  13. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  14. 25 CFR 241.4 - Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve... INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.4 Subsistence and sport fishing, Annette Islands Reserve. (a) Definitions... State of Alaska. (b) Restrictions. Subsistence fishing within the Annette Islands Reserve shall be...

  15. Deep-sea fan deposition of the lower Tertiary Orca Group, eastern Prince William Sound, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winkler, Gary R.

    1976-01-01

    The Orca Group is a thick, complexly deformed, sparsely fossiliferous sequence of flysch-like sedimentary and tholeiitic volcanic rocks of middle or late Paleocene age that crops out over an area of. roughly 21,000 km2 in the Prince William Sound region and the adjacent Chugach Mountains. The Orca Group also probably underlies a large part of the Gulf of Alaska Tertiary province and the continental shelf south of the outcrop belt; coextensive rocks to the southwest on Kodiak Island are called the Ghost Rocks and Sitkalidak Formations. The Orca Group was pervasively faulted, tightly folded, and metamorphosed regionally to laumontite and prehnite-pumpellyite facies prior to, and perhaps concurrently with, intrusion of early Eocene granodiorite and quartz monzonite plutons. In eastern Prince William Sound, 95% of the Orca sedimentary rocks are interbedded feldspathic and lithofeldspathic sandstone, siltstone, and mudstone turbidites. Lithic components vary widely in abundance and composition, but labile sedimentary and volcanic grains dominate. A widespread yet minor amount of the mudstone is hemipelagic or pelagic, with scattered foraminifers. Pebbly mudstone with rounded clasts of exotic lithologies and locally conglomerate with angular blocks of deformed sandstone identical to the enclosing matrix are interbedded with the turbidites. Thick and thin tabular bodies of altered tholeiitic basalt are locally and regionally conformable with the sedimentary rocks, and constitute 15-20% of Orca outcrops in eastern Prince William Sound. The basalt consists chiefly of pillowed and nonpillowed flows, but also includes minor pillow breccia, tuff, and intrusive rocks. Nonvolcanic turbidites are interbedded with the basalt; lenticular bioclastic limestone, red and green mudstone, chert, and conglomerate locally overlie the basalt, but are supplanted upward by turbidites. From west to east, basalts within the Orca Group become increasingly fragmental and amygdaloidal. Such

  16. Arctic ice islands

    SciTech Connect

    Sackinger, W.M.; Jeffries, M.O.; Lu, M.C.; Li, F.C.

    1988-01-01

    The development of offshore oil and gas resources in the Arctic waters of Alaska requires offshore structures which successfully resist the lateral forces due to moving, drifting ice. Ice islands are floating, a tabular icebergs, up to 60 meters thick, of solid ice throughout their thickness. The ice islands are thus regarded as the strongest ice features in the Arctic; fixed offshore structures which can directly withstand the impact of ice islands are possible but in some locations may be so expensive as to make oilfield development uneconomic. The resolution of the ice island problem requires two research steps: (1) calculation of the probability of interaction between an ice island and an offshore structure in a given region; and (2) if the probability if sufficiently large, then the study of possible interactions between ice island and structure, to discover mitigative measures to deal with the moving ice island. The ice island research conducted during the 1983-1988 interval, which is summarized in this report, was concerned with the first step. Monte Carlo simulations of ice island generation and movement suggest that ice island lifetimes range from 0 to 70 years, and that 85% of the lifetimes are less then 35 years. The simulation shows a mean value of 18 ice islands present at any time in the Arctic Ocean, with a 90% probability of less than 30 ice islands. At this time, approximately 34 ice islands are known, from observations, to exist in the Arctic Ocean, not including the 10-meter thick class of ice islands. Return interval plots from the simulation show that coastal zones of the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas, already leased for oil development, have ice island recurrences of 10 to 100 years. This implies that the ice island hazard must be considered thoroughly, and appropriate safety measures adopted, when offshore oil production plans are formulated for the Alaskan Arctic offshore. 132 refs., 161 figs., 17 tabs.

  17. Asian & Pacific Islanders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... death was 79.6 years; how- ever, blacks, American Indian/ Alaska Natives, and Asian/Pacific Islanders had younger ... 2011 show that among low-income preschool children, American Indians/Alaskan Natives have an obesity rate of 17. ...

  18. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Nathan L; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-03-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

  19. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, Nathan L.; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M. Tim

    2015-01-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands.

  20. Testing the nutritional-limitation, predator-avoidance, and storm-avoidance hypotheses for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Nathan L; Konar, Brenda; Tinker, M Tim

    2015-03-01

    Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) inhabiting the Aleutian Islands have stabilized at low abundance levels following a decline and currently exhibit restricted habitat-utilization patterns. Possible explanations for restricted habitat use by sea otters can be classified into two fundamentally different processes, bottom-up and top-down forcing. Bottom-up hypotheses argue that changes in the availability or nutritional quality of prey resources have led to the selective use of habitats that support the highest quality prey. In contrast, top-down hypotheses argue that increases in predation pressure from killer whales have led to the selective use of habitats that provide the most effective refuge from killer whale predation. A third hypothesis suggests that current restricted habitat use is based on a need for protection from storms. We tested all three hypotheses for restricted habitat use by comparing currently used and historically used sea otter foraging locations for: (1) prey availability and quality, (2) structural habitat complexity, and (3) exposure to prevailing storms. Our findings suggest that current use is based on physical habitat complexity and not on prey availability, prey quality, or protection from storms, providing further evidence for killer whale predation as a cause for restricted sea otter habitat use in the Aleutian Islands. PMID:25416538

  1. Common murre abundance, phenology, and productivity on the Barren Islands, Alaska: The Exxon Valdez oil spill and long-term environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Boersma, P.D.; Parrish, J.K.; Kettle, A.B.

    1995-12-31

    Principally because of the paucity of prespill data on the Barren Islands murre population size and reproductive success, it is impossible to quantify any effect on the spill on these populations. Available prespill data (1976--1978) on the East Amatuli murre population size ranges from 19,000 to 61,000 birds. These data are not systematic, replicated counts but rather are estimates indicating a broad range within which the true attendance figure probably resided. The postspill attendance counts range from 31,041 to 37,128 (1990--1992). Comparisons between matched historical and 1990s photographs showed nearly identical attendance patterns, although there were significantly more murres in the 1990s photographs. Postspill attendance data from multiply censused areas suggest a recovery may have been taking place because of greater than expected annual increases (+25% from 1990 to 1991). Prespill data on reproductive activity of the murres nesting in the Barren Islands were collected from a single 5 x 5-m plot located in a dense, flat section of the East Amatuli Light Rock colony. Comparisons with similarly collected postspill data suggest that phenology, egg production, and chick production are extremely variable among years, although chicks were fledged in all years. Egg and chick production were highest in 1977 and 1991 and lowest in 1992. 72 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    PubMed Central

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  3. Alaska Resource Data File, Noatak Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grybeck, Donald J.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    This report gives descriptions of the mineral occurrences in the Noatak 1:250,000-scale quadrangle, Alaska. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska.

  4. Preliminary integrated geologic map databases for the United States: Digital data for the reconnaissance geologic map of the western Aleutian Islands, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The growth in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) has highlighted the need for digital geologic maps that have been attributed with information about age and lithology. Such maps can be conveniently used to generate derivative maps for manifold special purposes such as mineral-resource assessment, metallogenic studies, tectonic studies, and environmental research. This report is part of a series of integrated geologic map databases that cover the entire United States. Three national-scale geologic maps that portray most or all of the United States already exist; for the conterminous U.S., King and Beikman (1974a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:2,500,000, Beikman (1980) compiled a map for Alaska at 1:2,500,000 scale, and for the entire U.S., Reed and others (2005a,b) compiled a map at a scale of 1:5,000,000. A digital version of the King and Beikman map was published by Schruben and others (1994). Reed and Bush (2004) produced a digital version of the Reed and others (2005a) map for the conterminous U.S. The present series of maps is intended to provide the next step in increased detail. State geologic maps that range in scale from 1:100,000 to 1:1,000,000 are available for most of the country, and digital versions of these state maps are the basis of this product. The digital geologic maps presented here are in a standardized format as ARC/INFO Exportfiles/ and as ArcView shape files. Data tables that relate the map units to detailed lithologic and age information accompany these GIS files. The map is delivered as a set 1:250,000-scale quadrangle files. To the best of our ability, these quadrangle files are edge-matched with respect to geology. When the maps are merged, the combined attribute tables can be used directly with the merged maps to make derivative maps.

  5. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium lead, and selenium in feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from Prince William Sound and the Aleutian Islands of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Sullivan, Kelsey; Irons, David

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury and selenium were analyzed in the feathers of pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) from breeding colonies in Prince William Sound and in the Aleutian Islands (Amchitka, Kiska) to test the null hypothesis that there were no differences in metal levels as a function of location, gender, or whether the birds were from oiled or unoiled areas in Prince William Sound. Birds from locations with oil from the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill in the environment had higher levels of cadmium and lead than those from unoiled places in Prince William Sound, but otherwise there were no differences in metal levels in feathers. The feathers of pigeon guillemots from Prince William Sound had significantly higher levels of cadmium and manganese, but significantly lower levels of mercury than those from Amchitka or Kiska in the Aleutians. Amchitka had the lowest levels of chromium, and Kiska had the highest levels of selenium. There were few gender-related differences, although females had higher levels of mercury and selenium in their feathers than did males. The levels of most metals are below the known effects levels, except for mercury and selenium, which are high enough to potentially pose a risk to pigeon guillemots and to their predators. PMID:17765292

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) in the eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA.

    PubMed

    Miles, A Keith; Flint, Paul L; Trust, Kimberley A; Ricca, Mark A; Spring, Sarah E; Arrieta, Daniel E; Hollmen, Tuula; Wilson, Barry W

    2007-12-01

    Seaducks may be affected by harmful levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at seaports near the Arctic. As an indicator of exposure to PAHs, we measured hepatic enzyme 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) to determine cytochrome P4501A induction in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) from Unalaska, Popof, and Unga Islands (AK, USA) in 2002 and 2003. We measured PAHs and organic contaminants in seaduck prey samples and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in seaduck blood plasma to determine any relationship to EROD. Using Akaike's information criterion, species and site differences best explained EROD patterns: Activity was higher in Harlequin ducks than in Steller's eiders and higher at industrial than at nonindustrial sites. Site-specific concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels ([Mytilus trossilus] seaduck prey; PAH concentrations higher at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, than at other sites) also was important in defining EROD patterns. Organochlorine compounds rarely were detected in prey samples. No relationship was found between polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in avian blood and EROD, which further supported inferences derived from Akaike's information criterion. Congeners were highest in seaducks from a nonindustrial or reference site, contrary to PAH patterns. To assist in interpreting the field study, 15 captive Steller's eiders were dosed with a PAH known to induce cytochrome P4501A. Dosed, captive Steller's eiders had definitive induction, but results indicated that wild Steller's eiders were exposed to PAHs or other inducing compounds at levels greater than those used in laboratory studies. Concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels at or near Dutch Harbor (approximately 1,180-5,980 ng/g) approached those found at highly contaminated sites (approximately 4,100-7,500 ng/g).

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) in the Eastern Aleutian Islands, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Flint, P.L.; Trust, K.A.; Ricca, M.A.; Spring, S.E.; Arrieta, D.E.; Hollmen, T.; Wilson, B.W.

    2007-01-01

    Seaducks may be affected by harmful levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at seaports near the Arctic. As an indicator of exposure to PAHs, we measured hepatic enzyme 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD) to determine cytochrome P4501A induction in Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri) and Harlequin ducks (Histronicus histronicus) from Unalaska, Popof, and Unga Islands (AK, USA) in 2002 and 2003. We measured PAHs and organic contaminants in seaduck prey samples and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in seaduck blood plasma to determine any relationship to EROD. Using Akaike's information criterion, species and site differences best explained EROD patterns: Activity was higher in Harlequin ducks than in Steller's eiders and higher at industrial than at nonindustrial sites. Site-specific concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels ([Mytilus trossilus] seaduck prey; PAH concentrations higher at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, than at other sites) also was important in defining EROD patterns. Organochlorine compounds rarely were detected in prey samples. No relationship was found between polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in avian blood and EROD, which further supported inferences derived from Akaike's information criterion. Congeners were highest in seaducks from a nonindustrial or reference site, contrary to PAH patterns. To assist in interpreting the field study, 15 captive Steller's eiders were dosed with a PAH known to induce cytochrome P4501A. Dosed, captive Steller's eiders had definitive induction, but results indicated that wild Steller's eiders were exposed to PAHs or other inducing compounds at levels greater than those used in laboratory studies. Concentrations of PAHs in blue mussels at or near Dutch Harbor (∼1,180–5,980 ng/g) approached those found at highly contaminated sites (∼4,100–7,500 ng/g).

  8. Northern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Seasonal ice in the Beaufort Sea off Alaska's North Slope has begun its spring retreat. This true color MODIS image from March 18, 2002, shows the pack ice in the Chuckchi Sea (left) and Beaufort Sea (top) backing away from its winter position snug up against Alaska's coasts, beginning its retreat into the Arctic Ocean. While not as pronounced in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as other part of the Arctic, scientists studying Arctic sea ice over the course of the century have documented dramatic changes in the extent of Arctic sea ice. It retreats farther in the summer and does not advance as far in the winter than it did a half-century ago. Both global warming and natural variation in regional weather systems have been proposed as causes. Along the coastal plain of the North Slope, gray-brown tracks (see high-resolution image) hint at melting rivers. South of the North Slope, the rugged mountains of the Brooks Range make a coast-to-coast arc across the state. Coming in at the lower right of the image, the Yukon River traces a frozen white path westward across half the image before veering south and out of view. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  9. A biomonitoring plan for assessing potential radionuclide exposure using Amchitka Island in the Aleutian chain of Alaska as a case study.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Kosson, D S; Powers, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, the US and other nations were faced with a legacy of nuclear wastes. For some sites where hazardous nuclear wastes will remain in place, methods must be developed to protect human health and the environment. Biomonitoring is one method of assessing the status and trends of potential radionuclide exposure from nuclear waste sites, and of providing the public with early warning of any potential harmful exposure. Amchitka Island (51 degrees N lat, 179 degrees E long) was the site of three underground nuclear tests from 1965 to 1971. Following a substantive study of radionuclide levels in biota from the marine environment around Amchitka and a reference site, we developed a suite of bioindicators (with suggested isotopes) that can serve as a model for other sites contaminated with radionuclides. Although the species selection was site-specific, the methods can provide a framework for other sites. We selected bioindicators using five criteria: (1) occurrence at all three test shots (and reference site), (2) receptor groups (subsistence foods, commercial species, and food chain nodes), (3) species groups (plants, invertebrates, fish, and birds), (4) trophic levels, and (5) an accumulator of one or several radionuclides. Our major objective was to identify bioindicators that could serve for both human health and the ecosystem, and were abundant enough to collect adjacent to the three test sites and at the reference site. Site-specific information on both biota availability and isotope levels was essential in the final selection of bioindicators. Actinides bioaccumulated in algae and invertebrates, while radiocesium accumulated in higher trophic level birds and fish. Thus, unlike biomonitoring schemes developed for heavy metals or other contaminants, top-level predators are not sufficient to evaluate potential radionuclide exposure at Amchitka. The process described in this paper resulted in the selection of Fucus, Alaria fistulosa, blue

  10. Locational differences in heavy metals and metalloids in Pacific Blue Mussels Mytilus [edulis] trossulus from Adak Island in the Aleutian Chain, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2006-09-15

    Increasingly there is a need to implement biomonitoring plans that can be sustained cost-effectively, focusing on single widespread (or closely-related species) in different parts of the world to detect exposure, potential damage to the organisms themselves, and risk to their consumers, including humans. Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis and its relatives) have been widely used for environmental monitoring. One successful program that has achieved great coverage in time and space is "Mussel Watch", and related programs exist in several regions. In this paper we use the Pacific Blue Mussel Mytilus [edulis] trossulus collected from five locations on Adak Island in the Aleutian Chain to examine five heavy metals and two metalloids, to test for locational differences as a function of anthropogenic activities, and to consider potential human health risks. Until the late 1990s Adak hosted a large U.S. military base, with multiple areas of contamination, some of which have been remediated. In June 2004 we identified four presumably human-impacted sites and a presumed unimpacted reference site, the latter on Clam Lagoon Beach, about 3 km from former military activity. No single site had the highest level of more than two metals, and the reference site had the highest levels of chromium and manganese. We subsequently found historic records of a former landfill within 1 km of the reference site. All of the locational differences were less than an order of magnitude, the greatest difference between the highest and lowest values being 4.5 times for lead. The highest correlations were between mercury and arsenic, mercury and lead, arsenic and lead, and chromium and manganese. Shell length was a better indicator of metals' levels than soft body weight, but the relationships were weak. There was no significant correlation between body size or weight with arsenic, lead, or selenium levels. There is substantial comparative data on these metals in mussels. Our results from Adak are

  11. Crustal structure of Bristol Bay Region, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K.; McLean, H.; Marlow, M.S.

    1985-04-01

    Bristol Bay lies along the northern side of the Alaska Peninsula and extends nearly 600 km southwest from the Nushagak lowlands on the Alaska mainland to near Unimak Island. The bay is underlain by a sediment-filled crustal downwarp known as the north Aleutian basin (formerly Bristol basin) that dips southeast toward the Alaska Peninsula and is filled with more than 6 km of strata, dominantly of Cenozoic age. The thickest parts of the basin lie just north of the Alaska Peninsula and, near Port Mollar, are in fault contact with older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. These Mesozoic rocks form the southern structural boundary of the basin and extend as an accurate belt from at least Cook Inlet to Zhemchug Canyon (central Beringian margin). Offshore multichannel seismic-reflection, sonobuoy seismic-refraction, gravity, and magnetic data collected by the USGS in 1976 and 1982 indicate that the bedrock beneath the central and northern parts of the basin comprises layered, high-velocity, and highly magnetic rocks that are locally deformed. The deep bedrock horizons may be Mesozoic(.) sedimentary units that are underlain by igneous or metamorphic rocks and may correlate with similar rocks of mainland western Alaska and the Alaska Peninsula. Regional structural and geophysical trends for these deep horizons change from northeast-southwest to northwest-southeast beneath the inner Bering shelf and may indicate a major crustal suture along the northern basin edge.

  12. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  13. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  14. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  15. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  16. 50 CFR Table I to Part 36 - Summary Listing the National Wildlife Refuges in Alaska as established by the Alaska Lands Act...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Pub. L. 96-487, December 2, 1980 1. Alaska Maritime, including: Aleutian Island* Bering Sea* Bogoslof... Peninsula 3. Arctic, including: William O. Douglas* 4. Becharof** 5. Innoko 6. Izembek* 7. Kanuti 8....

  17. 1996 volcanic activity in Alaska and Kamchatka: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    During 1996, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity, anomalous seismicity, or suspected volcanic activity at 10 of the approximately 40 active volcanic centers in the state of Alaska. As part of a formal role in KVERT (the Kamchatkan Volcano Eruption Response Team), AVO staff also disseminated information about eruptions and other volcanic unrest at six volcanic centers on the Kamchatka Peninsula and in the Kurile Islands, Russia.

  18. USGS SAFRR Tsunami Scenario: Potential Impacts to the U.S. West Coast from a Plausible M9 Earthquake near the Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, S.; Jones, L. M.; Wilson, R. I.; Bahng, B.; Barberopoulou, A.; Borrero, J. C.; Brosnan, D.; Bwarie, J. T.; Geist, E. L.; Johnson, L. A.; Hansen, R. A.; Kirby, S. H.; Knight, E.; Knight, W. R.; Long, K.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K. M.; Mortensen, C. E.; Nicolsky, D.; Oglesby, D. D.; Perry, S. C.; Porter, K. A.; Real, C. R.; Ryan, K. J.; Suleimani, E. N.; Thio, H. K.; Titov, V. V.; Wein, A. M.; Whitmore, P.; Wood, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    inform decision makers. The SAFRR Tsunami Scenario is organized by a coordinating committee with several working groups, including Earthquake Source, Paleotsunami/Geology Field Work, Tsunami Modeling, Engineering and Physical Impacts, Ecological Impacts, Emergency Management and Education, Social Vulnerability, Economic and Business Impacts, and Policy. In addition, the tsunami scenario process is being assessed and evaluated by researchers from the Natural Hazards Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder. The source event, defined by the USGS' Tsunami Source Working Group, is an earthquake similar to the 2011 Tohoku event, but set in the Semidi subduction sector, between Kodiak Island and the Shumagin Islands off the Pacific coast of the Alaska Peninsula. The Semidi sector is probably late in its earthquake cycle and comparisons of the geology and tectonic settings between Tohoku and the Semidi sector suggest that this location is appropriate. Tsunami modeling and inundation results have been generated for many areas along the California coast and elsewhere, including current velocity modeling for the ports of Los Angeles, Long Beach, and San Diego, and Ventura Harbor. Work on impacts to Alaska and Hawaii will follow. Note: Costas Synolakis (USC) is also an author of this abstract.

  19. 76 FR 46889 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Avenue in the town of Hyder, Alaska and continues along the Hyder Causeway and trestle to Harbor Island....205, Highway Planning and Construction. The regulations implementing Executive Order 12372...

  20. 76 FR 12884 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National.... groundfish fisheries in the Exclusive Economic Zone of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area... 679 is amended as follows: PART 679--FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA 0 1....

  1. Alaska's Children, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Dorothy, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    These four issues of the "Alaska's Children" provide information on the activities of the Alaska Head Start State Collaboration Project and other Head Start activities. Legal and policy changes affecting the education of young children in Alaska are also discussed. The Spring 1997 issue includes articles on brain development and the "I Am Your…

  2. Alaska's Economy: What's Ahead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Review of Social and Economic Conditions, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This review describes Alaska's economic boom of the early 1980s, the current recession, and economic projections for the 1990s. Alaska's economy is largely influenced by oil prices, since petroleum revenues make up 80% of the state government's unrestricted general fund revenues. Expansive state spending was responsible for most of Alaska's…

  3. Alaska Natives & the Land.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Robert D.; And Others

    Pursuant to the Native land claims within Alaska, this compilation of background data and interpretive materials relevant to a fair resolution of the Alaska Native problem seeks to record data and information on the Native peoples; the land and resources of Alaska and their uses by the people in the past and present; land ownership; and future…

  4. Alaska Women: A Databook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Karen; Baker, Barbara

    This data book uses survey and census information to record social and economic changes of the past three decades and their effects upon the role of Alaska women in society. Results show Alaska women comprise 47% of the state population, an increase of 9% since 1950. Marriage continues as the predominant living arrangement for Alaska women,…

  5. Field surveying and topographic mapping in Alaska: 1947-83

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Robert C.

    1987-01-01

    This circular retraces surveying and topographic mapping by the Geological Survey in Alaska from 1947 to 1983 and describes camp life and some of the unusual happenings involved in working in virtually uninhabited country, adverse weather, and difficult terrain. A year-by-year recap of activities documents the transition from early small-scale mapping efforts to more accurate and detailed 1:63,360-scale mapping for Alaska except the Aleutian Islands and isolated islands in the Bering Sea. Recent 1:25,000-scale metric mapping and the preparation of orthophotographs and special mapping efforts for other Government agencies also are recounted.

  6. Sea Ice, Bristol Bay, Alaska, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This north looking view shows the coast of Alaska, north of the Aleutians, and the eastern margin of the Bering Sea (58.0N, 159.5W). Bristol Bay is apparent in the foreground and Nunivak Island can be seen just below the Earth's horizon, at a distance of about 300 nautical miles. Similar views, photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs.

  7. Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program. Final reports of principal investigators. Volume 67

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The contents of this study include the following: distribution, abundance, and biology of blue king and Korean hair crabs around the Pribilof Islands; distribution, abundance, and diversity of the epifaunal benthic organisms in Alitak and Ugak bays, Kodiak Island, Alaska; distribution and abundance of some epibenthic invertebrates of the northeastern Gulf of Alaska with notes on the feeding biology of selected species; reproductive success in Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) during long-term exposures to oil-contaminated sediments; and distribution and abundance of decapod larvae of the Kodiak shelf.

  8. Bryophytes from Tuxedni Wilderness area, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2002-01-01

    The bryoflora of two small maritime islands, Chisik and Duck Island (2,302 ha), comprising Tuxedni Wilderness in western lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, was examined to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. The field study was conducted from sites selected to represent the totality of environmental variation within Tuxedni Wilderness. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare the bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 286 bryophytes were identified: 230 mosses and 56 liverworts. Bryum miniatum, Dichodontium olympicum, and Orthotrichum pollens are new to Alaska. The annotated list of species for Tuxedni Wilderness expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Central Pacific Coast district. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Tuxedni Wilderness primarily includes taxa of boreal (61%), montane (13%), temperate (11%), arctic-alpine (7%), cosmopolitan (7%), distribution; 4% of the total moss flora are North America endemics. A brief summary of the botanical exploration of the general area is provided, as is a description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types of Chisik and Duck Islands.

  9. Alexander Archipelago, Southeastern Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    West of British Columbia, Canada, and south of the Yukon Territory, the southeastern coastline of Alaska trails off into the islands of the Alexander Archipelago. The area is rugged and contains many long, U-shaped, glaciated valleys, many of which terminate at tidewater. The Alexander Archipelago is home to Glacier Bay National Park. The large bay that has two forks on its northern end is Glacier Bay itself. The eastern fork is Muir inlet, into which runs the Muir glacier, named for the famous Scottish-born naturalist John Muir. Glacier Bay opens up into the Icy Strait. The large, solid white area to the west is Brady Icefield, which terminates at the southern end in Brady's Glacier. To locate more interesting features from Glacier Bay National Park, take a look at the park service map. As recently as two hundred years ago, a massive ice field extended into Icy Strait and filled the Glacier Bay. Since that time, the area has experienced rapid deglaciation, with many large glaciers retreating 40, 60, even 80 km. While temperatures have increased in the region, it is still unclear whether the rapid recession is part of the natural cycle of tidewater glaciers or is an indicator of longer-term climate change. For more on Glacier Bay and climate change, read an online paper by Dr. Dorothy Hall, a MODIS Associate Science Team Member. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Attu, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Attu, the westernmost Aleutian island, is nearly 1760 km from the Alaskan mainland and 1200 km northeast of the northernmost of the Japanese Kurile Islands. Attu is about 32 by 56 km in size, and is today the home of a small number of U. S. Coast Guard personnel operating a Loran station. The weather on Attu is typical of Aleutian weather in general...cloudy, rain, fog, and occasional high winds. The weather becomes progressively worse as you travel from the easternmost islands to the west. On Attu, five or six days a week are likely to be rainy, with hardly more than eight or ten clear days a year. The image was acquired July 4, 2000, covers an area of 31.2 by 61.1 km, and is centered near 52.8 degrees north latitude, 173 degrees east longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of

  11. Range expansion of nonindigenous caribou in the Aleutianarchipelago of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ricca, Mark A.; Weckerly, Floyd W.; Duarte, Adam; Williams, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) are nonindigenous to all but the eastern-most island of the Aleutian archipelago of Alaska. In 1958–1959, caribou were intentionally introduced to Adak Island in the central archipelago, and the population has at least tripled in recent years subsequent to the closure of a naval air facility. Although dispersal of caribou to adjacent islands has been suspected, no historical documentation has occurred to date. Herein, we report consistent detections of caribou sign on the adjacent island of Kagalaska over 2 summer field seasons (2010–2011), and visual detection of caribou on that island during the summer of 2011. Ecological impacts of caribou on Kagalaska are not strongly apparent at the present time and we do not know how many animals permanently occupy the island. However, establishment of a reproductively viable resident population on Kagalaska is worrisome and could set the stage for a step-wise invasion of additional nearby islands.

  12. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2016-03-01

    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  13. Os and S isotope studies of ultramafic rocks in the Duke Island Complex, Alaska: variable degrees of crustal contamination of magmas in an arc setting and implications for Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stifter, Eric C.; Ripley, Edward M.; Li, Chusi

    2016-10-01

    The Duke Island Complex is one of the several "Ural-Alaskan" intrusions of Cretaceous age that occur along the coast of SE Alaska. Significant quantities of magmatic Ni-Cu-PGE sulfide mineralization are locally found in the complex, primarily within olivine clinopyroxenites. Sulfide mineralization is Ni-poor, consistent with petrologic evidence which indicates that sulfide saturation was reached after extensive olivine crystallization. Olivine clinopyroxenites were intruded by magmas that produced sulfide-poor, adcumulate dunites. As part of a study to investigate the potential for Ni-rich sulfide mineralization in association with the dunites, a Re-Os and S isotope study of the dunites, as well as sulfide mineralization in the olivine clinopyroxenites, was initiated. Importantly, recent drilling in the complex identified the presence of sulfidic and carbonaceous country rocks that may have been involved in the contamination of magmas and generation of sulfide mineralization. γOs (110 Ma) values of two sulfidic country rocks are 1022 and 2011. δ34S values of the country rocks range from -2.6 to -16.1 ‰. 187Os/188Os ratios of sulfide minerals in the mineralization hosted by olivine clinopyroxenites are variable and high, with γOs (110 Ma) values between 151 and 2059. Extensive interaction with Re-rich sedimentary country rocks is indicated. In contrast, γOs (110 Ma) values of the dunites are significantly lower, ranging between 2 and 16. 187Os/188Os ratios increase with decreasing Os concentration. This inverse relation is similar to that shown by ultramafic rocks from several arc settings, as well as altered abyssal dunites and peridotites. The relation may be indicative of magma derivation from a sub-arc mantle that had experienced metasomatism via slab-derived fluids. Alternatively, the relation may be indicative of minor contamination of magma by crustal rocks with low Os concentrations but high 187Os/188Os ratios. A third alternative is that the low Os

  14. 1994 Volcanic activity in Alaska: summary of events and response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Christina A.; Doukas, Michael P.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    During 1994, the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptions, possible eruptions, or false alarms at nine volcanic centers-- Mount Sanford, Iliamna, the Katmai group, Kupreanof, Mount Veniaminof, Shishaldin, Makushin, Mount Cleveland and Kanaga (table 1). Of these volcanoes, AVO has a real time, continuously recording seismic network only at Iliamna, which is located in the Cook Inlet area of south-central Alaska (fig. 1). AVO has dial-up access to seismic data from a 5-station network in the general region of the Katmai group of volcanoes. The remaining unmonitored volcanoes are located in sparsely populated areas of the Wrangell Mountains, the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands (fig. 1). For these volcanoes, the AVO monitoring program relies chiefly on receipt of pilot reports, observations of local residents and analysis of satellite imagery.

  15. Beach ridges as paleoseismic indicators of abrupt coastal subsidence during subduction zone earthquakes, and implications for Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone paleoseismology, southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Engelhart, Simon E.; Briggs, Richard; Nelson, Alan R.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Corbett, D. Reide

    2015-01-01

    The Kenai section of the eastern Alaska-Aleutian subduction zone straddles two areas of high slip in the 1964 great Alaska earthquake and is the least studied of the three megathrust segments (Kodiak, Kenai, Prince William Sound) that ruptured in 1964. Investigation of two coastal sites in the eastern part of the Kenai segment, on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula, identified evidence for two subduction zone earthquakes that predate the 1964 earthquake. Both coastal sites provide paleoseismic data through inferred coseismic subsidence of wetlands and associated subsidence-induced erosion of beach ridges. At Verdant Cove, paleo-beach ridges record the paleoseismic history; whereas at Quicksand Cove, buried soils in drowned coastal wetlands are the primary indicators of paleoearthquake occurrence and age. The timing of submergence and death of trees mark the oldest earthquake at Verdant Cove that is consistent with the age of a well documented ∼900-year-ago subduction zone earthquake that ruptured the Prince William Sound segment of the megathrust to the east and the Kodiak segment to the west. Soils buried within the last 400–450 years mark the penultimate earthquake on the southeast coast of the Kenai Peninsula. The penultimate earthquake probably occurred before AD 1840 from its absence in Russian historical accounts. The penultimate subduction zone earthquake on the Kenai segment did not rupture in conjunction with the Prince William Sound to the northeast. Therefore the Kenai segment, which is presently creeping, can rupture independently of the adjacent Prince William Sound segment that is presently locked.

  16. Digital data for the geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    1999-01-01

    These digital databases are the result of the compilation and reinterpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000- and 1:63,360-scale mapping. The map area covers approximately 62,000 sq km (23,000 sq mi) in land area and encompasses much of 13 1:250,000-scale quadrangles on the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. The compilation was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment project (AMRAP), whose goal was create and assemble geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data in order to perform mineral resource assessments on a quadrangle, regional or statewide basis. The digital data here was created to assist in the completion of a regional mineral resource assessment of the Alaska Peninsula. Mapping on the Alaska Peninsula under AMRAP began in 1977 in the Chignik and Sutwik Island 1:250,000 quadrangles (Detterman and others, 1981). Continued mapping in the Ugashik, bristol bay, and northwestern Karluk quadrangles (Detterman and others, 1987) began in 1979, followed by the Mount Katmai, eastern Naknek, and northwestern Afognak quadrangles (Riehle and others, 1987; Riehle and others, 1993), the Port Moller, Stepovak bay, and Simeonof Island quadrangles (Wilson and others, 1995) beginning in 1983. Work in the Cold bay and False Pass quadrangles (Wilson and others, 1992 [Superceded by Wilson and others 1997, but not incorporated herein]) began in 1986. The reliability of the geologic mapping is variable, based, in part, on the field time spent in each area of the map, the available support, and the quality of the existing base maps. In addition, our developing understanding of the geology of the Alaska Peninsula required revision of earlier maps, such as the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles map (Detterman and others, 1981) to reflect this new knowledge. We have revised the stratigraphic nomenclature (Detterman and others, 1996) and our assignment of unit names to some rocks has been changed. All geologic maps on

  17. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  18. Village Library Project, Nome, Alaska. An Evaluation, 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Phyllis I.

    The adequacy of the Village Library Project, headquartered in Nome, Alaska, to meet the library service needs and desires of the people in 18 villages on Seward Peninsula, St. Lawrence Island, and Diomede is evaluated in this report. Sections are devoted to the goals of the evaluation, evaluation procedure, goals and objectives of the project,…

  19. Alaska's renewable energy potential.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-02-01

    This paper delivers a brief survey of renewable energy technologies applicable to Alaska's climate, latitude, geography, and geology. We first identify Alaska's natural renewable energy resources and which renewable energy technologies would be most productive. e survey the current state of renewable energy technologies and research efforts within the U.S. and, where appropriate, internationally. We also present information on the current state of Alaska's renewable energy assets, incentives, and commercial enterprises. Finally, we escribe places where research efforts at Sandia National Laboratories could assist the state of Alaska with its renewable energy technology investment efforts.

  20. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  1. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  2. Ocean Observing System Demonstrated in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoch, G. Carl; Chao, Yi

    2010-05-01

    To demonstrate the utility of an ocean observing and forecasting system with diverse practical applications—such as search and rescue, oil spill response (perhaps relevent to the current Gulf of Mexico oil spill), fisheries, and risk management—a unique field experiment was conducted in Prince William Sound, Alaska, in July and August 2009. The objective was to quantitatively evaluate the performance of numerical models developed for the sound with an array of fixed and mobile observation platforms (Figure 1). Prince William Sound was chosen for the demonstration because of historical efforts to monitor ocean circulation following the 1989 oil spill from the Exxon Valdez tanker. The sound, a highly crenulated embayment of about 10,000 square kilometers at approximately 60°N latitude along the northern coast of the Gulf of Alaska, includes about 6900 kilometers of shoreline, numerous islands and fjords, and an extensive system of tidewater glaciers descending from the highest coastal mountain range in North America. Hinchinbrook Entrance and Montague Strait are the two main deep water connections with the Gulf of Alaska. The economic base of communities in the region is almost entirely resource-dependent. For example, Cordova's economy is based on commercial fishing and Valdez's economy is supported primarily by the trans-Alaska oil pipeline terminal.

  3. 76 FR 21705 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Alaska; Catch Accounting in the Longline Catcher/Processor Pacific Cod Fishery AGENCY: National Marine... Islands to support different catch accounting methods for Pacific cod catch. NMFS is considering...

  4. 77 FR 40341 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Alaska; Notice of Public Workshop for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Economic Data Reports AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of public workshop. SUMMARY: NMFS and the Alaska Fishery Science Center (AFSC) will hold a...) Crab Economic Data Reports (EDR) currently required from catcher vessels, catcher/processors,...

  5. 78 FR 57097 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... GOA (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance with Sec. 679.20(d)(2), the Administrator, Alaska... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Sharks in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY: National...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting retention of sharks in the Bering Sea and...

  6. Alaska Library Directory, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Mary, Ed.

    This directory of Alaska's Libraries lists: members of the Alaska Library Association (AkLA) Executive Council and Committee Chairs; State Board of Education members; members of the Governor's Advisory Council on Libraries; school, academic and public libraries and their addresses, phone and fax numbers, and contact persons; personal,…

  7. Renewable Energy in Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-03-01

    This report examines the opportunities, challenges, and costs associated with renewable energy implementation in Alaska and provides strategies that position Alaska's accumulating knowledge in renewable energy development for export to the rapidly growing energy/electric markets of the developing world.

  8. Alaska geothermal bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Liss, S.A.; Motyka, R.J.; Nye, C.J.

    1987-05-01

    The Alaska geothermal bibliography lists all publications, through 1986, that discuss any facet of geothermal energy in Alaska. In addition, selected publications about geology, geophysics, hydrology, volcanology, etc., which discuss areas where geothermal resources are located are included, though the geothermal resource itself may not be mentioned. The bibliography contains 748 entries.

  9. Effects of the exxon valdez oil spill on fork-tailed storm-petrels breeding in the Barren Islands, Alaska. Bird study number 7. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimoto, M.; Byrd, G.V.

    1993-04-01

    We evaluated fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) at East Amatuli Island, Barren Islands, the largest storm-petrel breeding colony within the trajectory of the oil slick, to determine whether there was evidence of adverse effects, following the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill. Although we were unable to measure all possible indicators, we found insufficient evidence to conclude that there were significant adverse impacts to breeding storm-petrels in 1989.

  10. 25 CFR 241.2 - Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses. 241.2 Section 241.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH AND WILDLIFE INDIAN FISHING IN ALASKA § 241.2 Annette Islands Reserve; definition; exclusive fishery; licenses. (a) Definition. The Annette Islands...

  11. Ugiuvangmiut Quliapyuit = King Island Tales. Eskimo History and Legends from Bering Strait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lawrence D., Ed.

    The collection of native tales from King Island, Alaska, contains tales told originally in Inupiaq Eskimo by seven native elders. Introductory sections provide background information on the storytellers, King Island Village and its people, traditional life there, and the language of the King Islanders. The 25 tales are divided into groups: "The…

  12. Tectono-stratigraphic terrane map of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Nokleberg, W.J.; Brew, D.A.; Grantz, A.; Plafker, G.; Moore, T.E.; Patton, W.W. Jr. ); Mollstalcup, E.J. ); Miller, T.P. )

    1993-04-01

    A new terrane map compelled at a scale of 2.5 million is a comprehensive portrayal of the major tectono-stratigraphic terranes, pre-accretionary plutonic rocks, faults or sutures that bound terranes, and younger overlap sedimentary , volcanic, and plutonic assemblages of Alaska. Terranes are divided by tectonic affinity into cratonal, passive continental margin, metamorphosed continental margin, continental margin arc, island arc, oceanic crust, sea mount, ophiolite, accretionary wedge, subduction zone, turbidite basin, and metamorphic environments. Overlap assemblages consist of sequences of sedimentary, volcanic, and plutonic rocks that link or weld together adjacent terranes after emplacement, and provide important constraints on the timing of tectonic juxtaposition. Groups of terranes and overlap assemblages, with similar tectonic environments and geologic histories, can be correlated within Alaska and into the adjacent Canadian Cordillera. These groups include: (1) highly deformed and metamorphosed continental margin terranes (Seward, Coldfoot, Ruby, Yukon-Tanana, Kootenay) that are interpreted either as displaced fragments of the North American or other continental margins; (2) ophiolite terranes (Angayucham, Tozitna, Inoko, Seventymile, Slide Mountain) that are interpreted as remnants of one or more major, long-lived, Paleozoic and early Mesozoic oceanic basins; (3) Jurassic and Early Cretaceous island arc terranes (Koyukuk, Togiak, Nyac) that are interpreted as remnants of a discontinuous, short-lived, Mesoxoic island arc system; and (4) the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Kahiltna and Gravina-Nutzotin overlap assemblages that are interpreted as parts of a major arc and flysch sequence.

  13. 75 FR 69063 - Port Bailey Wild Enterprises, LLC; PB Energy, Inc.; Notice of Application for Transfer of License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... joint application for transfer of license for the Dry Spruce Bay Project No. 1432, located on the Dry Spruce Bay on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Applicants seek Commission approval to transfer the license for the Dry Spruce Bay Project from transferor to transferee. Applicants' Contact: Robert S. Shane II,...

  14. Lead shot poisoning of a Pacific loon in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, H.M.; Oyen, J.L.; Sileo, L.

    2004-01-01

    Lead poisoning, associated with ingestion of spent lead shot, was diagnosed in an adult female Pacific loon (Gavia pacifica) observed with partial paralysis on 13 June 2002 and found dead on 16 June 2002 on Kigigak Island, Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge, western Alaska, USA. A necropsy revealed three pellets of ingested lead shot in the loona??s gizzard and a lead liver concentration of 31 ppm wet weight, which was consistent with metallic lead poisoning. This is the first report of lead poisoning in a Pacific loon and is the only account of lead toxicosis associated with ingestion of lead shot in any loon species breeding in Alaska.

  15. Alaska marine ice atlas

    SciTech Connect

    LaBelle, J.C.; Wise, J.L.; Voelker, R.P.; Schulze, R.H.; Wohl, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive Atlas of Alaska marine ice is presented. It includes information on pack and landfast sea ice and calving tidewater glacier ice. It also gives information on ice and related environmental conditions collected over several years time and indicates the normal and extreme conditions that might be expected in Alaska coastal waters. Much of the information on ice conditions in Alaska coastal waters has emanated from research activities in outer continental shelf regions under assessment for oil and gas exploration and development potential. (DMC)

  16. 14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF GEAROPERATED WINDOWS ON SOUTH ELEVATION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EXTERIOR VIEW OF GEAR-OPERATED WINDOWS ON SOUTH ELEVATION OF STAIRS TAKEN FROM ROOF ABOVE SOUTH ENTRANCE - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  17. 17. LARGE WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL. THE PROTECTIVE WIRE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. LARGE WINDOWS ON NORTH WALL. THE PROTECTIVE WIRE ON THE INTERIOR CAN BE SEEN. THE WINDOWS HAVE BEEN BOARDED OVER THE EXTERIOR - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  18. 8. STREETSCAPE LOOKING AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. STREETSCAPE LOOKING AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE BUILDING (CLOSER VIEW THAN AK-47-Q-7). HANGER CAN BE SEEN IN THE BACKGROUND - Kodiak Naval Operating Base, Gymnasium, U.S. Coast Guard Station, Kodiak, Kodiak Island Borough, AK

  19. Libraries in Alaska: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/alaska.html Libraries in Alaska To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. Anchorage University of Alaska Anchorage Alaska Medical Library 3211 Providence Drive Anchorage, AK 99508-8176 907- ...

  20. 75 FR 53331 - Alaska Native Claims Selection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Interest to Hadohdleekaga, Incorporated, for the Native village of Hughes, Alaska, pursuant to the Alaska... Hughes, Alaska, and are located in: Kateel River Meridian, Alaska T. 9 N., R. 23 E., Sec. 5....

  1. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  2. Alaska telemedicine: growth through collaboration.

    PubMed

    Patricoski, Chris

    2004-12-01

    The last thirty years have brought the introduction and expansion of telecommunications to rural and remote Alaska. The intellectual and financial investment of earlier projects, the more recent AFHCAN Project and the Universal Service Administrative Company Rural Health Care Division (RHCD) has sparked a new era in telemedicine and telecommunication across Alaska. This spark has been flamed by the dedication and collaboration of leaders at he highest levels of organizations such as: AFHCAN member organizations, AFHCAN Office, Alaska Clinical Engineering Services, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership, Alaska Federal Health Care Partnership Office, Alaska Native health Board, Alaska Native Tribal health Consortium, Alaska Telehealth Advisory Council, AT&T Alascom, GCI Inc., Health care providers throughout the state of Alaska, Indian Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of U.S. Senator Ted Steens, State of Alaska, U.S. Department of Homeland Security--United States Coast Guard, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Defense--Air Force and Army, United States Department of Veterans Affairs, University of Alaska, and University of Alaska Anchorage. Alaska now has one of the largest telemedicine programs in the world. As Alaska moves system now in place become self-sustaining, and 2) collaborating with all stakeholders in promoting the growth of an integrated, state-wide telemedicine network.

  3. Canary Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  4. Methane and Other Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Aircraft in Alaska: 2009 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Patrick, L.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Oltmans, S. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, C. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Due to their huge potential impact on the Earth's warming, methane (CH4) emissions in the Arctic are currently widely-studied and debated in the carbon cycle community. Emissions from carbon stored in Arctic soil are projected to increase as the region warms and the permafrost thaws, creating a potent feedback mechanism for climate change. This year, NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) began multi-year aircraft measurements in Alaska, which, coupled with regional modeling of methane fluxes, will evaluate and quantify the effect of regional climate change on ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes. A crucial component of such regional modeling is the choice of background mixing ratio for a given atmospheric sample. A recent addition to the NOAA/GMD aircraft program provides valuable information on background mixing ratios for the Alaskan interior and provides insight into the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability as well as spatial and temporal context for the measurements being made during the CARVE campaigns. The NOAA/GMD aircraft program began new, ongoing greenhouse gas measurements in Alaska in 2009 (complementing existing ground stations at Barrow and Cold Bay, and a flask-only aircraft site outside of Fairbanks), through a collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard. Bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness flights on C-130 aircraft generally begin in Kodiak, continue to Barrow, and return back to Kodiak after altitude profiles over Kivalina and Galena. On-board measurements include continuous CO2, CH4, CO, and ozone, as well as 24 flask samples analyzed at NOAA for CO2, CH4, CO, and 50 additional gases. In addition to spanning a large geographic region, the measurements also span the entire growing season, from late March to late November each year. We will present data from 2009 - 2011, with a focus on Arctic CH4. The measurements provide us with additional understanding of the various influences on the seasonal cycles of CH4 and CO2

  5. Alaska looks HOT!

    SciTech Connect

    Belcher, J.

    1997-07-01

    Production in Alaska has been sluggish in recent years, with activity in the Prudhoe Bay region in the North Slope on a steady decline. Alaska North Slope (ANS) production topped out in 1988 at 2.037 MMbo/d, with 1.6 MMbo/d from Prudhoe Bay. This year operators expect to produce 788 Mbo/d from Prudhoe Bay, falling to 739 Mbo/d next year. ANS production as a whole should reach 1.3 MMbo/d this year, sliding to 1.29 MMbo/d in 1998. These declining numbers had industry officials and politicians talking about the early death of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System-the vital link between ANS crude and markets. But enhanced drilling technology coupled with a vastly improved relationship between the state government and industry have made development in Alaska more economical and attractive. Alaska`s Democratic Gov. Tommy Knowles is fond of telling industry {open_quotes}we`re open for business.{close_quotes} New discoveries on the North Slope and in the Cook Inlet are bringing a renewed sense of optimism to the Alaska exploration and production industry. Attempts by Congress to lift a moratorium on exploration and production activity in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) have been thwarted thus far, but momentum appears to be with proponents of ANWR drilling.

  6. Parasites of forage fishes in the vicinity of Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) habitat in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Moles, A; Heintz, R A

    2007-07-01

    Fish serve as intermediate hosts for a number of larval parasites that have the potential of maturing in marine mammals such as Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). We examined the prevalence of parasites from 229 fish collected between March and July 2002 near two islands used by Steller sea lions in Southeast Alaska and island habitats in the Aleutian Islands. Sea lion populations have remained steady in Southeast Alaska but have been declining over the last 30 yr in the Aleutian Islands. Even though the fish samples near the Southeast Alaska haul-outs were composed of numerous small species of fish and the Aleutian Islands catch was dominated by juveniles of commercially harvested species, the parasite fauna was similar at all locations. Eleven of the 20 parasite taxa identified were in their larval stage in the fish hosts, several of which have been described from mammalian final hosts. Four species of parasite were more prevalent in Southeast Alaska fish samples, and seven parasite species, including several larval forms capable of infecting marine mammals, were more prevalent in fish from the Aleutian Islands. Nevertheless, parasites available to Steller sea lions from common fish prey are not likely to be a major factor in the decline of this marine mammal species. PMID:17699075

  7. Population, reproduction and foraging of pigeon guillemots at Naked Island, Alaska, before and after the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Bird study number 9. Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, K.L.; Kuletz, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    Following the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, we studied pigeon guillemots (Cepphus columba) breeding just 30 km from the grounding site. The post-spill population was 43% less than the pre-spill population, but we could not attribute the entire decline to the spill because a decline in the PWS guillemot population may have predated the spill. However, relative declines in the population were greater along oiled shorelines, suggesting that the spill was responsible for some of the decline. The most likely explanation for the few effects observed is that oil was present on the surface waters of the study area for a relatively short period before the guillemots returned to begin their annual reproductive activities.

  8. Triggered tremor sweet spots in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, Joan; Prejean, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To better understand what controls fault slip along plate boundaries, we have exploited the abundance of seismic and geodetic data available from the richly varied tectonic environments composing Alaska. A search for tremor triggered by 11 large earthquakes throughout all of seismically monitored Alaska reveals two tremor “sweet spots”—regions where large-amplitude seismic waves repeatedly triggered tremor between 2006 and 2012. The two sweet spots locate in very different tectonic environments—one just trenchward and between the Aleutian islands of Unalaska and Akutan and the other in central mainland Alaska. The Unalaska/Akutan spot corroborates previous evidence that the region is ripe for tremor, perhaps because it is located where plate-interface frictional properties transition between stick-slip and stably sliding in both the dip direction and laterally. The mainland sweet spot coincides with a region of complex and uncertain plate interactions, and where no slow slip events or major crustal faults have been noted previously. Analyses showed that larger triggering wave amplitudes, and perhaps lower frequencies (<~0.03 Hz), may enhance the probability of triggering tremor. However, neither the maximum amplitude in the time domain or in a particular frequency band, nor the geometric relationship of the wavefield to the tremor source faults alone ensures a high probability of triggering. Triggered tremor at the two sweet spots also does not occur during slow slip events visually detectable in GPS data, although slow slip below the detection threshold may have facilitated tremor triggering.

  9. Volcanic ash plume identification using polarization lidar: Augustine eruption, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sassen, Kenneth; Zhu, Jiang; Webley, Peter W.; Dean, K.; Cobb, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    During mid January to early February 2006, a series of explosive eruptions occurred at the Augustine volcanic island off the southern coast of Alaska. By early February a plume of volcanic ash was transported northward into the interior of Alaska. Satellite imagery and Puff volcanic ash transport model predictions confirm that the aerosol plume passed over a polarization lidar (0.694 mm wavelength) site at the Arctic Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing at the University of Alaska Fairbanks. For the first time, lidar linear depolarization ratios of 0.10 – 0.15 were measured in a fresh tropospheric volcanic plume, demonstrating that the nonspherical glass and mineral particles typical of volcanic eruptions generate strong laser depolarization. Thus, polarization lidars can identify the volcanic ash plumes that pose a threat to jet air traffic from the ground, aircraft, or potentially from Earth orbit.

  10. Black brant from Alaska staging and wintering in Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derksen, Dirk V.; Bollinger, K.S.; Ward, David H.; Sedinger, J.S.; Miyabayashi, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Black brant (Branta bernicla nigricans) nest in colonies in arctic Canada, Alaska, and Russia (Derksen and Ward 1993, Sedinger et al. 1993). Virtually the entire population stages in fall at Izembek Lagoon near the tip of the Alaska Peninsula (Bellrose 1976) before southward migration (Dau 1992) to winter habitats in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, California, and Baja California (Subcommittee on Black Brant 1992). A small number of black brant winter in Japan, Korea, and China (Owen 1980). In Japan 3,000–5,000 brant of unknown origin stop over in fall, and a declining population (<1,000) of birds winter here, primarily in the northern islands (Brazil 1991, Miyabayashi et al. 1994). Here, we report sightings of brant in Japan that were marked in Alaska and propose a migration route based on historical and recent observations and weather patterns.

  11. Alaska Resource Data File: Chignik quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilcher, Steven H.

    2000-01-01

    Descriptions of the mineral occurrences can be found in the report. See U.S. Geological Survey (1996) for a description of the information content of each field in the records. The data presented here are maintained as part of a statewide database on mines, prospects and mineral occurrences throughout Alaska. There is a website from which you can obtain the data for this report in text and Filemaker Pro formats

  12. Crustal Uplift in the Southcentral Alaska Subduction Zones: A New Analysis and Interpretation of Tide Gauge Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Steven C.; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.

    1999-01-01

    We have examined the sea level height tide records at seven tide gauge sites in the region of southcentral Alaska that were affected by the 1964 Prince William Sound earthquake to determine the history of crustal uplift subsequent to the earthquake. There is considerable variation in the behavior depending on the location of the site relative to the 1964 rupture. At Seward, on the eastern side of the Kenai Peninsula we find a slow uplift that is consistent with elastic strain accumulation while at Seldovia and Nikiski on the western side of the Kenai we find a persistent rapid uplift of about 1 cm/yr that most likely represents a long term transient response to the earthquake, but which cannot be sustained over the expected recurrence interval for a great earthquake of several hundred years. Further to the southwest, at Kodiak, we find evidence that the rate of uplift, which is still several mm/yr, has slowed significantly over the past three and a half decades. To the east of the Kenai Peninsula we find subsidence at Cordova and an uncertain behavior at Valdez. At both of these sites there is a mathematically significant time-dependence to the uplift behavior, but the data confirming this time dependence are not as convincing as at Kodiak. At Anchorage, to the north there is little evidence of vertical motion since the earthquake. We compare these long term tide gauge records to recent GPS observations. In general there is reasonable consistency except at Anchorage and Cordova where the GPS measurement indicate somewhat more rapid uplift and subsidence, respectively.

  13. 78 FR 54591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... under Sec. 679.20(d)(1)(iii) on May 1, 2013 (78 FR 24361, April 25, 2013). NMFS has determined that as... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area AGENCY... Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Management Area...

  14. 78 FR 24361 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... and 2014 harvest specifications for groundfish in the BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013). In accordance... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Greenland Turbot in the Bering Sea Subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands... for Greenland turbot in the Bering Sea subarea of the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands management...

  15. 78 FR 25426 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; American Fisheries Act, Amendment 80 Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...NMFS announces two workshops to solicit input from participants in the pollock fishery in the Bering Sea authorized under the American Fisheries Act (AFA), the Aleutian Islands pollock fishery, the Amendment 80 trawl fisheries in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands, and the Western Alaska Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program. The workshops will address (1) The applicability of cost......

  16. Paleozoic tectonic history of the Arctic basin north of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churkin, M.

    1969-01-01

    The geology of the margin of the Canada Basin, together with geophysical data, leads me to reject the continental subsidence theory for the origin of the deep Canada Basin. Instead, the Canada Basin is, I believe, a true and probably very ancient ocean basin floored by oceanic crust and rimmed by an early Paleozoic geosynclinal belt. In the Upper Devonian, uplifts in this circumarctic geosyncline, accompanied by granitic intrusion, produced a wedge of coarse clastic sediments (exogeosyncline) that spread southward onto adjoining areas of Alaska, Canada, and Siberia. In both northern Alaska and the Canadian Arctic Islands, thick sequences of upper Paleozoic and younger strata were deposited unconformably on the rocks of the early Paleozoic geosyncline, showing a similarity in tectonic history between the areas. The Paleozoic history of the southern rim of the Canada Basin resembles that of other mobile belts bordering North America. The movement of the floor of the Arctic Ocean against the continental crust of North America (sea-floor spreading) would provide a mechanism to account for the long history of orogenic activity along the basin margin. The sharp bend in the structural elements of southern Alaska (the Alaska orocline) has been cited as evidence of clockwise rotation of the Arctic Islands of Canada from Alaska and the Soviet Arctic to their present position during the Mesozoic. However, the geologic and geophysical evidence available indicates that the Arctic basin has a longer history, extending into the Paleozoic, and that this bend in Alaskan structures may have been largely caused by spreading of the Pacific sea floor against the continental margin in the Gulf of Alaska.

  17. Preliminary volcano-hazard assessment for Kanaga Volcano, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waythomas, Christopher F.; Miller, Thomas P.; Nye, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    Kanaga Volcano is a steep-sided, symmetrical, cone-shaped, 1307 meter high, andesitic stratovolcano on the north end of Kanaga Island (51°55’ N latitude, 177°10’ W longitude) in the western Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Kanaga Island is an elongated, low-relief (except for the volcano) island, located about 35 kilometers west of the community of Adak on Adak Island and is part of the Andreanof Islands Group of islands. Kanaga Volcano is one of the 41 historically active volcanoes in Alaska and has erupted numerous times in the past 11,000 years, including at least 10 eruptions in the past 250 years (Miller and others, 1998). The most recent eruption occurred in 1993-95 and caused minor ash fall on Adak Island and produced blocky aa lava flows that reached the sea on the northwest and west sides of the volcano (Neal and others, 1995). The summit of the volcano is characterized by a small, circular crater about 200 meters in diameter and 50-70 meters deep. Several active fumaroles are present in the crater and around the crater rim. The flanking slopes of the volcano are steep (20-30 degrees) and consist mainly of blocky, linear to spoonshaped lava flows that formed during eruptions of late Holocene age (about the past 3,000 years). The modern cone sits within a circular caldera structure that formed by large-scale collapse of a preexisting volcano. Evidence for eruptions of this preexisting volcano mainly consists of lava flows exposed along Kanaton Ridge, indicating that this former volcanic center was predominantly effusive in character. In winter (October-April), Kanaga Volcano may be covered by substantial amounts of snow that would be a source of water for lahars (volcanic mudflows). In summer, much of the snowpack melts, leaving only a patchy distribution of snow on the volcano. Glacier ice is not present on the volcano or on other parts of Kanaga Island. Kanaga Island is uninhabited and is part of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, managed by

  18. Flood frequency in Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childers, J.M.

    1970-01-01

    Records of peak discharge at 183 sites were used to study flood frequency in Alaska. The vast size of Alaska, its great ranges of physiography, and the lack of data for much of the State precluded a comprehensive analysis of all flood determinants. Peak stream discharges, where gaging-station records were available, were analyzed for 2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, and 50-year average-recurrence intervals. A regional analysis of the flood characteristics by multiple-regression methods gave a set of equations that can be used to estimate floods of selected recurrence intervals up to 50 years for any site on any stream in Alaska. The equations relate floods to drainage-basin characteristics. The study indicates that in Alaska the 50-year flood can be estimated from 10-year gaging- station records with a standard error of 22 percent whereas the 50-year flood can be estimated from the regression equation with a standard error of 53 percent. Also, maximum known floods at more than 500 gaging stations and miscellaneous sites in Alaska were related to drainage-area size. An envelope curve of 500 cubic feet per second per square mile covered all but 2 floods in the State.

  19. Metamorphic facies map of Southeastern Alaska; distribution, facies, and ages of regionally metamorphosed rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Brew, D.A.; Douglass, S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Nearly all of the bedrock in Southeastern Alaska has been metamorphosed, much of it under medium-grade conditions during metamorphic episodes that were associated with widespread plutonism. The oldest metamorphisms affected probable arc rocks near southern Prince of Wales Island and occurred during early and middle Paleozoic orogenies. The predominant period of metamorphism and associated plutonism occurred during Early Cretaceous to early Tertiary time and resulted in the development of the Coast plutonic-metamorphic complex that extends along the inboard half of Southeastern Alaska. Middle Tertiary regional thermal metamorphism affected a large part of Baranof Island.

  20. Record of Decision for Amchitka Surface Closure, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    2008-08-01

    This Record of Decision has been prepared to document the remedial actions taken on Amchitka Island to stabilize contaminants associated with drilling mud pits generated as a result of nuclear testing operations conducted on the island. This document has been prepared in accordance with the recommended outline in the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation guidance on decision documentation under the Site Cleanup Rules (18 AAC 75.325-18 AAC 75.390) (ADEC 1999). It also describes the decision-making process used to establish the remedial action plans and defines the associated human health and ecological risks for the remediation.

  1. Southeastern Alaska tectonostratigraphic terranes revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Brew, D.A.; Ford, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    The presence of only three major tectonostratigraphic terranes (TSTs) in southeastern Alaska and northwestern British Columbia (Chugach, Wrangell, and Alexander) is indicated by critical analysis of available age, stratigraphic, and structural data. A possible fourth TST (Stikine) is probably an equivalent of part or all of the Alexander. The Yakutat block belongs to the Chugach TST, and both are closely linked to the Wrangell and Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs; the Gravina TST is an overlap assemblage. THe Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs is subdivided on the basis of age and facies. The subterranes within it share common substrates and represent large-scale facies changes in a long-lived island-arc environment. The Taku TSTs is the metamorphic equivalent of the upper part (Permian and Upper Triassic) of the Alexander(-Stikine) TSTs with some fossil evidence preserved that indicates the age of protoliths. Similarly, the Tracy Arm TST is the metamorphic equivalent of (1) the lower (Ordovician to Carboniferous) Alexander TST without any such fossil evidence and (2) the upper (Permian to Triassic) Alexander(-Stikine) with some newly discovered fossil evidence. Evidence for the ages of juxtaposition of the TSTs is limited. The Chugach TST deformed against the Wrangell and Alexander TSTs in late Cretaceous. Gravina rocks were deformed at the time and also earlier. The Wrangell TST was stitched to the Alexander(-Stikine) by middle Cretaceous plutons but may have arrived before its Late Jurassic plutons were emplaced. The Alexander(-Stikine) and Cache Creek TSTs were juxtaposed before Late Triassic.

  2. USGS Alaska State Mosaic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska State Mosaic consists of portions of scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 (MRLC 2001) collection. The 172 selected scenes have been geometrically and radiometrically aligned to produce a seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the State. The scenes were acquired between July 1999 and September 2002, resampled to 120-meter pixels, and cropped to the State boundary. They were reprojected into a standard Alaska Albers projection with the U.S. National Elevation Dataset (NED) used to correct for relief.

  3. Alaska Glaciers and Rivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image on October 7, 2007, showing the Alaska Mountains of south-central Alaska already coated with snow. Purple shadows hang in the lee of the peaks, giving the snow-clad land a crumpled appearance. White gives way to brown on the right side of the image where the mountains yield to the lower-elevation Susitna River Valley. The river itself cuts a silver, winding path through deep green forests and brown wetlands and tundra. Extending from the river valley, are smaller rivers that originated in the Alaska Mountains. The source of these rivers is evident in the image. Smooth white tongues of ice extend into the river valleys, the remnants of the glaciers that carved the valleys into the land. Most of the water flowing into the Gulf of Alaska from the Susitna River comes from these mountain glaciers. Glacier melt also feeds glacier lakes, only one of which is large enough to be visible in this image. Immediately left of the Kahiltna River, the aquamarine waters of Chelatna Lake stand out starkly against the brown and white landscape.

  4. Alaska Mathematics Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Department of Education & Early Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    High academic standards are an important first step in ensuring that all Alaska's students have the tools they need for success. These standards reflect the collaborative work of Alaskan educators and national experts from the nonprofit National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment. Further, they are informed by public…

  5. Suicide in Northwest Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Robert

    1983-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 the Alaskan Native suicide rate (90.9 per 100,000) in Northwest Alaska was more than seven times the national average. Alienation, loss of family, low income, alcohol abuse, high unemployment, and more education were factors related to suicidal behavior. Average age for suicidal behavior was 22.5. (Author/MH)

  6. Alaska's Young Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Marilyn R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes Edgecumbe Enterprises, a four-year-old fish exporting venture run by Mt. Edgecumbe High School in Sitka, Alaska, and the students' meeting with business leaders in Tokyo, Japan. The young entrepreneurs spent two weeks studying the Japanese marketing structure. (JOW)

  7. Seismology Outreach in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardine, L.; Tape, C.; West, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Despite residing in a state with 75% of North American earthquakes and three of the top 15 ever recorded, most Alaskans have limited knowledge about the science of earthquakes. To many, earthquakes are just part of everyday life, and to others, they are barely noticed until a large event happens, and often ignored even then. Alaskans are rugged, resilient people with both strong independence and tight community bonds. Rural villages in Alaska, most of which are inaccessible by road, are underrepresented in outreach efforts. Their remote locations and difficulty of access make outreach fiscally challenging. Teacher retention and small student bodies limit exposure to science and hinder student success in college. The arrival of EarthScope's Transportable Array, the 50th anniversary of the Great Alaska Earthquake, targeted projects with large outreach components, and increased community interest in earthquake knowledge have provided opportunities to spread information across Alaska. We have found that performing hands-on demonstrations, identifying seismological relevance toward career opportunities in Alaska (such as natural resource exploration), and engaging residents through place-based experience have increased the public's interest and awareness of our active home.

  8. Current Ethnomusicology in Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Thomas F.

    The systematic study of Eskimo, Indian, and Aleut musical sound and behavior in Alaska, though conceded to be an important part of white efforts to foster understanding between different cultural groups and to maintain the native cultural heritage, has received little attention from Alaskan educators. Most existing ethnomusical studies lack one or…

  9. Alaska's Cold Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brune, Jeff; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explores the unique features of Alaska's Arctic ecosystem, with a focus on the special adaptations of plants and animals that enable them to survive in a stressful climate. Reviews the challenges facing public and private land managers who seek to conserve this ecosystem while accommodating growing demands for development. Includes classroom…

  10. Venetie, Alaska energy assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Baca, Michael J.; Schenkman, Benjamin L.; Brainard, James Robert

    2013-07-01

    This report summarizes the Energy Assessment performed for Venetie, Alaska using the principals of an Energy Surety Microgrid (ESM) The report covers a brief overview of the principals of ESM, a site characterization of Venetie, a review of the consequence modeling, some preliminary recommendations, and a basic cost analysis.

  11. Galapagos Islands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image of the Galapagos Islands was acquired on March 12, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The Galapagos Islands, which are part of Ecuador, sit in the Pacific Ocean about 1000 km (620 miles) west of South America. As the three craters on the largest island (Isabela Island) suggest, the archipelago was created by volcanic eruptions, which took place millions of years ago. Unlike most remote islands in the Pacific, the Galapagos have gone relatively untouched by humans over the past few millennia. As a result, many unique species have continued to thrive on the islands. Over 95 percent of the islands' reptile species and nearly three quarters of its land bird species cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Two of the more well known are the Galapagos giant tortoise and marine iguanas. The unhindered evolutionary development of the islands' species inspired Charles Darwin to begin The Origin of Species eight years after his visit there. To preserve the unique wildlife on the islands, the Ecuadorian government made the entire archipelago a national park in 1959. Each year roughly 60,000 tourists visit these islands to experience what Darwin did over a century and a half ago. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Exxon Valdez oil spill: State/federal natural resource damage assessment final report. Effects of pink salmon (oncorhynchus gorbuscha) escapement level on egg retention, preemergent fry, and adult returns to the kodiak and chignik management areas caused by the Exxon Valdez oil spill. Fish/shellfish study numbers 7b and 8b. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-01

    As a result of the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill, commercial salmon fishing in and around the Kodiak and Chignik areas was severely restricted throughout the 1989 season. Consequently, pink salmon escapements for these areas greatly exceeded targeted escapement objectives. Investigations were conducted within the Kodiak and Chignik Management Areas during 1989 and 1990 to determine if negative impacts on future odd-year brood line pink salmon production occurred as a result of overescapement in 1989.

  13. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  14. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  15. 78 FR 6033 - Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Sitkalidak Island to Kiliuda Bay, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; MODU KULLUK; Sitkalidak Island to Kiliuda... currently located near Ocean Bay, Sitkalidak Island, Alaska with anticipated movement into Kiliuda...

  16. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  17. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  18. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  19. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  20. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  2. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  4. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  5. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  6. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  7. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  8. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  9. 50 CFR Table 23 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat Protection Areas 23 Table 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 23 Table 23 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Coral Habitat...

  10. 50 CFR Figure 8 to Part 679 - Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings Area 8 Figure 8 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 679—Aleutian Islands Chinook Salmon Savings...

  11. 50 CFR Table 46 to Part 679 - St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false St. Matthew Island Habitat Conservation Area 46 Table 46 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 46 Table 46 to Part 679—St. Matthew Island Habitat...

  12. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  13. 50 CFR Table 45 to Part 679 - St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 45 Table 45 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 45 Table 45 to Part 679—St. Lawrence Island Habitat...

  14. A Practical Grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Preliminary Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.

    The grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo language was written for college-level classes containing a mixture of Yupik speakers and non-speakers, and for students learning the language on their own. It uses only the Central Siberian Yupik dialect spoken on St. Lawrence Island (Alaska) and on a small portion of the Asian…

  15. A Practical Grammar of the St. Lawrence Island/Siberian Yupik Eskimo Language. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Steven A.

    This book deals with the Central Siberian Yupik Eskimo language as spoken on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska, an island near the Bering Strait and on the tip of the Asian mainland opposite Russia. This book has been used with college-level classes composed of a mixture of Yupik speakers and well-prepared non-speakers (people who have studied other,…

  16. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    MedlinePlus

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  17. Akpatok Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Akpatok Island lies in Ungava Bay in northern Quebec, Canada. Accessible only by air, Akpatok Island rises out of the water as sheer cliffs that soar 500 to 800 feet (150 to 243 m) above the sea surface. The island is an important sanctuary for cliff-nesting seabirds. Numerous ice floes around the island attract walrus and whales, making Akpatok a traditional hunting ground for native Inuit people. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 22, 2001. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch

  18. Sediment transport and fan deposition in the Gulf of Alaska: Effects of transform motion on deep sea sedimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, A.J.; Bruns, T.R.; Carlson, P.R. ); Dobson, M.R. )

    1990-06-01

    GLORIA side-scan sonar images and two channel seismic profiles recently collected in the Gulf of Alaska reveal a major site of late Miocene to Recent terrigenous sediment accumulation on the oceanic plate adjacent to the Fairweather-Queen Charlotte transform and the Yakutat Terrane. Sediment moving across this margin has formed several large channel dominated fan systems that blanket the entire gulf and spill westward onto the Tufts Abyssal Plain. The Surveyor Fan, fed by the glaciers of the Yakutat Terrane and insulated from transform sediment source offset by the Terrane, has maintained a single channel course over the entire life of the fan. The Chirikov and Baranof fans receive their sediment supply from glaciofluvial point sources along the SE Alaska margin, separated from the fans by an active transform. The fans show a southward younging of channel ages consistent with the sense of plate motion. Early (late Miocene) deposition within the gulf was limited to the structural basin between the continental margin and the Kodiak-Bowie seamount chain. The geometry of these early depositional systems is poorly known, but available data suggest their channels were oriented NW-SE. Subsequent establishment of a depositional slope between the margin and the seamount chain, coupled with the filling of the basin, led to a reorganization into SW-NE channel systems. The fan bodies of the Gulf of Alaska are members of a distinct class of fans that are characterized by long distributary channels which persist to near the fan limits. This type of fan morphology is most often attributed to a predominantly fine-grained sediment supply. This is difficult to reconcile with the obvious proximal glacial source for much of the sediment supplied to these fans.

  19. Educating medical students for Alaska.

    PubMed

    Fortuine, R; Dimino, M J

    1998-01-01

    Because Alaska does not have its own medical school, it has become part of WAMI (Washington, Alaska, Montana, Idaho), an educational agreement with the University of Washington School of Medicine (UWSM). Each year, 10 Alaskans are accepted into the entering class of UWSM and spend their first year at the University of Alaska Anchorage (UAA). UWSM third- and fourth-year medical students can obtain some of their clinical experience in Alaska. To meet the needs of Alaska, students are chosen based on academic and personal records, as well as the likelihood of their returning to Alaska for practice. To this end, over the last seven years 30% of accepted students have come from rural communities and 10% are Alaska Natives. The curriculum for the first year includes several sessions dedicated to Alaska health problems, cross-cultural issues, and Alaska's unique rural health care delivery system. Students do two preceptorships--one with a private primary care physician and one with a physician at the Alaska Native Medical Center. Additionally, students have the option to spend a week at a rural site to learn about the community's health care system. An Alaska track is being developed whereby an Alaskan UWSM student can do most of the third year in state via clerkships in family medicine, obstetrics/gynecology, psychiatry, internal medicine, and pediatrics. All UWSM students at the end of their first year can elect to participate for one month in the R/UOP (Rural/Underserved Opportunities Program), which includes several Alaska sites. The overall goals of these approaches are to educate UWSM students, especially Alaskans, about the state's health needs and health care system and to encourage UWSM graduates to practice in the state.

  20. Significant Alaska minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, M.S.; Bundtzen, T.K.

    1982-01-01

    Alaska ranks in the top four states in gold production. About 30.5 million troy oz have been produced from lode and placer deposits. Until 1930, Alaska was among the top 10 states in copper production; in 1981, Kennecott Copper Company had prospects of metal worth at least $7 billion. More than 85% of the 20 million oz of silver derived have been byproducts of copper mining. Nearly all lead production has been as a byproduct of gold milling. Molybdenum is a future Alaskan product; in 1987 production is scheduled to be about 12% of world demand. Uranium deposits discovered in the Southeast are small but of high grade and easily accessible; farther exploration depends on improvement of a depressed market. Little has been done with Alaskan iron and zinc, although large deposits of the latter were discovered. Alaskan jade has a market among craftspeople. A map of the mining districts is included. 2 figures, 1 table.