Sharma, Shakshi; Sharma, Nivedita; Handa, Shweta; Pathania, Shruti
In this study, Kodo millet grains were phytochemically investigated for their nutritional and antioxidant potential for their use as functional foods. Methanolic extracts of grains showed higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity. TLC studies of the extracted polyphenols from kodo millet showed the predominant presence of ferulic acid and cinnamic acid in the millet. Further quantification of these polyphenols was done by using HPLC, analysing ferulic acid and cinnamic acid. Antagonistic spectrum of the polyphenols extracted showed inhibition against four bacterial test indicators viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis proving its antimicrobial action. The grains of kodo millet grains taken under study were found to posses' high protein, carbohydrates, minerals, crude fibers, polyphenols and antioxidants thus can be used as a good source of nutrition with additional health benefits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sharma, Seema; Saxena, Dharmesh C; Riar, Charanjit S
A central composite rotatable design was applied to study the effects of soaking time, germination time and temperature on the responses; total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidant activity for the biochemical enhancement of bioactive components of Kodo millet. The optimum conditions for producing germinated Kodo millet flour of highest TPC (83.01mgGAE/100g), TFC (87.53mgRUE/g) and AoxA (91.34%), were soaking time (13.81h), germination temperature (38.75°C) and germination time (35.82h). Protein increased significantly form, 6.7 to 7.9%, dietary fibers from 35.30 to 38.34g/100g, minerals from 232.82 to 251.73mg/100g, GABA contents from 9.36 to 47.43mg/100g, whereas phytates and tannins decreased from 1.344 to 0.997mol/kg and 1.603 to 0.234mg/100g respectively, in optimized germinated Kodo millet sample. Six new bioactive compounds [n-propyl-9,12,15-octadecatrienoate (0.86%), pregan,20-one-2hydroxy,5,6,epox-15-methyl (3.45%), hexa-decanoicacid (8.19%), 9,O-ctadecenoicacid (5.00%), butyl-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoate (4.03%), hexadecanoicacid-methylester (1.43%)], synthesized as a result of germination under optimum conditions in the Kodo millet depicted the germination potential of millets as a source of valuable bioactive compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geetha, R; Mishra, H N; Srivastav, P P
Kodo millet-chickpea flour blend (70:30) was explored for development of directly expanded snack by twin-screw extrusion. Effect of process parameters like temperature (80-150 °C), screw speed (250-300 rpm) and feeder speed (15-30 rpm) on physical properties (expansion ratio, bulk density, hardness, crispiness) of extrudates were investigated and optimized using response surface methodology. Desirable crispy extrudates were obtained at higher screw speed 293 rpm, lower feeder speed 19 rpm, and medium to high temperature of 123 °C. Effect of extreme and intermediate process conditions on functional, proximate quality and colour of the extrudates were also evaluated.
Channabasava, Amareshappa; Lakshman, Huskur Chennarayappa; Muthukumar, Thangavelu
Fly ash is the residue produced during the combustion of coal, and its disposal is a major environmental concern worldwide. However, fly ash can ameliorate soils by improving their physical, chemical, and biological properties. Hence, we conducted a study to understand the mycorrhizoremediation of different levels of fly ash (2%, 4%, and 6%) by using kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum L.) inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Rhizophagus fasciculatus under greenhouse conditions. Fly ash amendment at a low level (2%) significantly enhanced AM colonization, spore number, plant growth, nutrient uptake, nutrient-use efficiencies and grain yield of kodo millet. Nevertheless, inoculation of soils amended with 2% fly ash with the AM fungus further enhanced the AM fungal, plant growth, nutrient uptake and yield parameters. Arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization decreased with increasing concentrations of fly ash amendment; however, such decrease was not linear. Our results also revealed a significantly higher plant growth, root/shoot ratios and nutrient contents in kodo millet shoots raised on 2% fly ash amendment and inoculated with the AM fungus at both harvests. Both fly ash amendment and AM fungus inoculation also significantly influenced the number of grains produced as well as the grain weight. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and fly ash amendment affected K, Ca, Mg, Na use efficiencies. Plant growth and nutrient parameters were strongly related to the extent of AM fungal colonization in the roots. These observations suggest that the inoculation of AM fungi along with low levels of fly ash amendment could be effectively used for the reclamation of low fertile or marginal soils and in turn fly ash could aid in crop production. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Vali Pasha, Kotwal; Ratnavathi, Chamarthy Venkata; Ajani, Jayanna; Raju, Dugyala; Manoj Kumar, Sriramoju; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao
Millets are a diverse group of small seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal foods. This communication details the proximate, mineral profile and antioxidant activity of six different small millets (Finger, Foxtail, Proso, Little, Barnyard and Kodo millets) and their 21 cultivars that are traditionally cultivated and consumed in the region of Ralayaseema, south India. The proximate analysis revealed that these millets are rich in protein, fat, ash (mineral), total dietary fibre and total phenols with appreciable antioxidant activity. However, starch and amylose content was comparatively lower as compared to major millet sorghum. ICP-MS analysis of small millets demonstrated that they are rich in minerals such as Ca, P, K, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Mo and Se. Finger and kodo millets were found to be nutritionally superior over other small millets. The results suggest that small millets have a potential to provide food security and can combat micronutrient malnutrition. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Asopa, Prem Prakash; Bhatt, Ritika; Sihag, Santosh; Kothari, S L; Kachhwaha, Sumita
Metal load is an abiotic stress that becomes stronger by continual industrial production, wastage, and long-range transport of contaminants. It deteriorates the conditions of agricultural soil that leads to lower growth of cereals as well as decreasing nutritional value of harvested grains. Cadmium (Cd) entry by food chain also affects the health of population. The present study is focused on finding out the superior cereal variety under increasing Cd regime. The plants were grown in increasing Cd levels (0-1000 µM) in the medium and were investigated on 15th day of the exposure. Various parameters like antioxidative enzymes and osmoprotectant levels were studied in both roots and shoots. Cd accumulation in plant organs was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Analysis of stress tolerance mechanisms through reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and better partitioning of Cd in roots indicated kodo millet to be more stress tolerant than wheat.
Takeda, Akinori; Tanaka, Noriyasu; Chiba, Toshio
In May 2008, the Japanese government launched the 'Emergency Project for Improvement of Medical Care and Quality of Life for People with Dementia' under the idea that it is necessary to build a society, without delay, where people can live life safely without anxiety even after being affected by dementia, where they can be supported by appropriate and integrated services of medical care, long-term care and community care. We would like to introduce our future dementia policy standing on the outcome of this project, which was published as a report on 10 July 2008. The measures for people with dementia in Japan have gradually achieved good results. For example, public understanding and awareness of dementia has increased through renaming the term for dementia in Japanese from 'Chiho' to 'Ninchi-sho' in 2004, and the comprehensive care system was founded focusing on the importance of providing community based long-term care while maintaining the person's familiar human relationships and residential circumstances. However, case reports show that there are yet some cases that fail to deliver appropriate treatment or long-term care service as a result of a lack of timely definite diagnosis in an early stage or a lack of coordination between medical care and long-term care. Therefore, the future dementia policy should be designed by envisaging the flow of the measures that would support the life of the person and his/her family, and improve their quality of life; starting with measures that link early notice of the patient, his/her family or neighbor to early diagnosis, and then measures to develop well-designed comprehensive care planning that provides appropriate medical and long-term care services through good coordination, while promoting research and development of diagnosis/treatment technology. In addition, in regard to early-onset dementia, comprehensive self-support measures including employment assistance should be promoted.
Balasubramanian, S; Viswanathan, R
Physical properties including 1000 kernel weight, bulk density, true density, porosity, angle of repose, coefficient of static friction, coefficient of internal friction and grain hardness were determined for foxtail millet, little millet, kodo millet, common millet, barnyard millet and finger millet in the moisture content range of 11.1 to 25% db. Thousand kernel weight increased from 2.3 to 6.1 g and angle of repose increased from 25.0 to 38.2°. Bulk density decreased from 868.1 to 477.1 kg/m(3) and true density from 1988.7 to 884.4 kg/m(3) for all minor millets when observed in the moisture range of 11.1 to 25%. Porosity decreased from 63.7 to 32.5%. Coefficient of static friction of minor millets against mild steel surface increased from 0.253 to 0.728 and coefficient of internal friction was in the range of 1.217 and 1.964 in the moisture range studied. Grain hardness decreased from 30.7 to 12.4 for all minor millets when moisture content was increased from 11.1 to 25% db.
Goron, Travis L.; Raizada, Manish N.
Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed “orphan cereals.” Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. PMID:25852710
Chandrasekara, Anoma; Shahidi, Fereidoon
Oxidative stress, caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), is responsible for modulating several pathological conditions and aging. Soluble and bound phenolic extracts of commonly consumed millets, namely, kodo, finger (Ravi), finger (local), foxtail, proso, little, and pearl, were investigated for their phenolic content and inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and ROS, namely, hydroxyl radical, peroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and singlet oxygen ((1)O(2)). Inhibition of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals was detrmined using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The peroxyl radical inhibitory activity was measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The scavenging of H(2)O(2), HOCl, and (1)O(2) was evaluated using colorimetric methods. The results were expressed as micromoles of ferulic acid equivalents (FAE) per gram of grain on a dry weight basis. In addition, major hydroxycinnamic acids were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry (MS). All millet varieties displayed effective radical and ROS inhibition activities, which generally positively correlated with phenolic contents, except for hydroxyl radical. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of ferulic and p-coumaric acids as major hydroxycinnamic acids in phenolic extract and responsible for the observed effects. Bound extracts of millet contributed 38-99% to ROS scavenging, depending on the variety and the test system employed. Hence, bound phenolics must be included in the evaluation of the antioxidant activity of millets and other cereals.
Cho, Dae Hyun; Wi, Jin Hee; Suh, Hae-Lip
Two new species of Parameiropsis are herein described that were identified from the Korean Deep Ocean Study (KODOS) in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, located in the eastern central Pacific. Parameiropsis kodosensis n. sp. is similar to P. magnus Itô, 1983 in two key respects: the presence of a distal seta on the syncoxa of the maxilliped, and the general features of its swimming legs. However, P. kodosensis can be differentiated from P. magnus by a higher length-to-width ratio of the caudal ramus (2.5:1 and 1:1 respectively), the setal number on the exp-3 of P1, and the exp and benp of P5 are separated in P. kodosensis, while they are fused in P. magnus. Parameiropsis tetraspinosa n. sp. resembles P. peruanus Becker, 1974 in the absence of a fused seta in the outermost spine on the endopod of antenna and the general features of the swimming legs. However, P. tetraspinosa can be distinguished from P. peruanus by a higher length-to-width ratio of the caudal ramus (3.9:1 and 2.3:1 respectively), the presence of a distal seta on the syncoxa of the maxilliped, and by its medially fused P5. In this study full descriptions and a comparison with previously described species are provided. Additionally, a key to females of Parameiropsis species is given.
Goron, Travis L; Raizada, Manish N
Small millets are nutrient-rich food sources traditionally grown and consumed by subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa. They include finger millet (Eleusine coracana), foxtail millet (Setaria italica), kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), barnyard millet (Echinochloa spp.), and little millet (Panicum sumatrense). Local farmers value the small millets for their nutritional and health benefits, tolerance to extreme stress including drought, and ability to grow under low nutrient input conditions, ideal in an era of climate change and steadily depleting natural resources. Little scientific attention has been paid to these crops, hence they have been termed "orphan cereals." Despite this challenge, an advantageous quality of the small millets is that they continue to be grown in remote regions of the world which has preserved their biodiversity, providing breeders with unique alleles for crop improvement. The purpose of this review, first, is to highlight the diverse traits of each small millet species that are valued by farmers and consumers which hold potential for selection, improvement or mechanistic study. For each species, the germplasm, genetic and genomic resources available will then be described as potential tools to exploit this biodiversity. The review will conclude with noting current trends and gaps in the literature and make recommendations on how to better preserve and utilize diversity within these species to accelerate a New Green Revolution for subsistence farmers in Asia and Africa.
Gonzalez, F. I.; Leveque, R. J.; Waagan, K.; Adams, L.; Lin, G.
.I., E.L. Geist, B. Jaffe, U. Kânoglu, H. Mofjeld, C.E. Synolakis, V.V Titov, D. Arcas, D. Bellomo, D. Carlton, T. Horning, J. Johnson, J. Newman, T. Parsons, R. Peters, C. Peterson, G .Priest, A. Venturato, J. Weber, F. Wong, and A. Yalciner (2009): Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for Near- and Far-Field Seismic Sources, J. Geophys. Res., 114, C11023, doi:10.1029/2008JC005132. Japan Earthquake Research Committee, (2011): http://www.jishin.go.jp/main/p_hyoka02.htm Mai, P. M., and G. C. Beroza (2002): A spatial random field model to characterize complexity in earthquake slip, J. Geophys. Res., 107(B11), 2308, doi:10.1029/2001JB000588. SSHAC (Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee) (1997): Recommendations for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis: Guidance on Uncertainty and Use of Experts, Main Report Rep. NUREG/CR-6372 UCRL-ID-122160 Vol. 1, 256 pp, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
Ch'oi, Jae-Mok; Kim, Jeŏng-Gon
revealed that his brother Tadaske and Shigeo also stayed in Chosŏn to act as an important assistants for the Colonial Chosŏn Government-general. Kudoh was an important man in Japanese society in Chosŏn, acting as a member of 「Group of Same Origin」 and 'Chosŏn Association of great Asia'which was an important organization assisting Colonial Chosŏn Government-general and was a representative position in Seoul district of Bukmichang-jeong(now Bukchang-dong) Fifth, Kudoh Takeki's precise activity to terminate Chosŏn cultural 'gene'and lead to enlightenment was analyzed by an examination of his Medical Science as an occupation and Confucianism as a background of his thought. Even he attempted to enlighten the brutal Chosŏn people in cultural aspects but it was only a tool to assist the colonial policy of Japan by emphasizing 'Kyoikuchokugo(Imperial Rescript on Education)'to implant the Kodo-Seishin(Imperial Spirit). Analyzing the relationship of Kumamoto Practical Party with Yi Toegye, the intention of a deep connection toward 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'by colonial policy was revealed. In conclusion, the paper revealed the Japanese modernization frame to complete 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'and 'Make people to obey the Japan Emperor'by enlightening the dark Chosŏn and merging them with Japan as Kudoh intended.
particle image velocimetry; optoelectronic, electronic and optical fibre sensors; and density metrology among others, and next year we will publish a special issue on nanoscale metrology which I'm sure will be of interest to many of you. Remember to set up a free e-mail alert so you can be e-mailed as soon as articles in your field are published! The Editorial Board invites topical review articles and this year several interesting topics were covered by international leaders in their field. For example, Paul Lambeck (Univ. Twente, Netherlands) has written about integrated optical sensors in the chemical domain; Bernd Fellmuth, Christof Gaiser and Joachim Fischer of PTB, Germany have contributed an interesting article on the determination of the Boltzmann constant; Juergen Czarske (TU Dresden, Germany) has published an article on laser Doppler velocimetry; while Adrian Dobroiu, Chiko Otani and Kodo Kawase (RIKEN, Japan) have written about terahertz wave sources and imaging applications. We were also pleased to publish a review by Brian Culshaw (Univ. Strathclyde, UK) on the optical fibre Sagnac interferometer. We hope that these articles and the others published this year will provide a useful overview for our readers, and be helpful to new researchers. In June 2005 we introduced the second phase of our author and referee homepages. Many of you already have your own referee homepages set up, and we have now introduced an authors section where authors can submit their manuscript, access referee reports, collect proofs, and track the progress of their article from submission, through the peer-review process, to decision and publication. Of course we still understand that some people prefer to receive things by e-mail or post so we will do our best to be flexible for both authors and referees. Our author and referee web pages have proved extremely popular, and partly as a result of our innovation in this area, most authors can expect to receive a first decision on their paper