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Sample records for koka vello hein

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Heine Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aziridines are important synthetic intermediates for the generation of nitrogen-containing molecules. N-Acylaziridines undergo rearrangement by ring expansion to produce oxazolines, a process known as the Heine reaction. The first catalytic, enantioselective Heine reaction is reported for meso-N-acylaziridines where a palladium(II)–diphosphine complex is employed. The highly enantioenriched oxazoline products are valuable organic synthons and potential ligands for transition-metal catalysis. PMID:27398262

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Heine Reaction.

    PubMed

    Punk, Molly; Merkley, Charlotte; Kennedy, Katlyn; Morgan, Jeremy B

    2016-07-01

    Aziridines are important synthetic intermediates for the generation of nitrogen-containing molecules. N-Acylaziridines undergo rearrangement by ring expansion to produce oxazolines, a process known as the Heine reaction. The first catalytic, enantioselective Heine reaction is reported for meso-N-acylaziridines where a palladium(II)-diphosphine complex is employed. The highly enantioenriched oxazoline products are valuable organic synthons and potential ligands for transition-metal catalysis.

  3. HeinOnline: An Online Archive of Law Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marisa, Richard J.

    Law is grounded in the past, in the decisions and reasoning of generations of lawyers, judges, juries, and professors. Ready access to this history is vital to solid legal research, and yet, until 2000, much of it was buried in vast collections of aging paper journals. HeinOnline is a new online archive of law journals. Development of HeinOnline…

  4. The nature of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard I.; Elbakyan, Vardan; Dunham, Michael M.; Guedel, Manuel

    2017-03-01

    Aims: The nature of very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs) with the internal luminosity Lobj ≤ 0.1 L⊙ is investigated by means of numerical modeling coupling the core collapse simulations with the stellar evolution calculations. Methods: The gravitational collapse of a large sample of model cores in the mass range 0.1-2.0 M⊙ is investigated. Numerical simulations were started at the pre-stellar phase and terminated at the end of the embedded phase when 90% of the initial core mass had been accreted onto the forming protostar plus disk system. The disk formation and evolution was studied using numerical hydrodynamics simulations, while the formation and evolution of the central star was calculated using a stellar evolution code. Three scenarios for mass accretion from the disk onto the star were considered: hybrid accretion in which a fraction of accreted energy absorbed by the protostar depends on the accretion rate, hot accretion wherein a fraction of accreted energy is constant, and cold accretion wherein all accretion energy is radiated away. Results: Our conclusions on the nature of VeLLOs depend crucially on the character of protostellar accretion. In the hybrid accretion scenario, most VeLLOs (90.6%) are expected to be the first hydrostatic cores (FHSCs) and only a small fraction (9.4%) are true protostars. In the hot accretion scenario, all VeLLOs are FHSCs due to overly high photospheric luminosity of protostars. In the cold accretion scenario, on the contrary, the majority of VeLLOs belong to the Class I phase of stellar evolution. The reason is that the stellar photospheric luminosity, which sets the floor for the total internal luminosity of a young star, is lower in cold accretion, thus enabling more VeLLOs in the protostellar stage. VeLLOs are relatively rare objects occupying 7%-11% of the total duration of the embedded phase and their masses do not exceed 0.3 M⊙. When compared with published observations inferring a fraction of VeLLOs in the

  5. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  6. 36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube boiler showing steam drum inspection manhole and blow-down valve. Note inspection plugs for water tubes in tube header below drum. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  7. Understanding the Nature of VeLLOs Through Interferometric Millimeter Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huard, Tracy L.; Pound, M. W.; Mundy, L. G.; Dunham, M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Since a new class of embedded sources, referred to as Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs), was discovered using Spitzer Space Telescope observations, the number of known VeLLOs has been slowly growing. Still, their nature remains unclear: they may be progenitors of typical low-mass stars or of brown dwarfs. The VeLLOs with millimeter observations demonstrate that they sustain outflows with a wide range of energetics, suggesting VeLLOs may represent an inhomogeneous group. For example, the large-scale outflow driven by a VeLLO in core IRAM 04191+1522 is three orders of magnitude stronger than the weak, compact outflow driven by VeLLO L1014-IRS, despite these sources having comparable luminosities. We have conducted a survey of eight confirmed and candidate VeLLOs, obtaining CO(2-1) and 1.3-mm continuum CARMA observations, to study their small-scale outflows and inner (< 3000 AU) envelopes. Our observations reveal previously undetected outflows and inner envelopes of 10-200 Jupiter masses. Since these envelopes represent reservoirs for future accretion, we identify which VeLLOs are likely protostars and which are likely proto-brown dwarfs based on these envelope masses.

  8. Modified Negative Staining of Heine for Fast and Inexpensive Screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora spp.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Archi; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2014-01-01

    Negative staining technique of Heine is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid way of screening for coccidian parasites of the intestinal tract. But its use as a routine technique for screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora is restricted due to its sensitivity being lower than the gold standard method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. This paper emphasises the modification of original Heine staining technique which has been attempted in order to increase the sensitivity and detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora. Modified Heine staining technique using malachite green is a practical, safe, and sensitive method of detecting oocysts in stool specimens. While the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is still considered the gold standard for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., modified negative staining technique of Heine using malachite green stain should be considered as the screening technique of first choice. PMID:27350981

  9. Modified Negative Staining of Heine for Fast and Inexpensive Screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora spp.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vinay; Tilak, Kriti; Ghosh, Archi; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2014-01-01

    Negative staining technique of Heine is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid way of screening for coccidian parasites of the intestinal tract. But its use as a routine technique for screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora is restricted due to its sensitivity being lower than the gold standard method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. This paper emphasises the modification of original Heine staining technique which has been attempted in order to increase the sensitivity and detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora. Modified Heine staining technique using malachite green is a practical, safe, and sensitive method of detecting oocysts in stool specimens. While the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is still considered the gold standard for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., modified negative staining technique of Heine using malachite green stain should be considered as the screening technique of first choice.

  10. Il faut bien faire avec des bribes, hein! (You Have to Make Do with Scraps, Huh?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malandain, Jean-Louis

    1983-01-01

    Suggestions are made for structuring taped listening exercises to promote careful attention to various elements of spontaneous speech (speaker, speaker characteristics, tone, etc.), and to sensitize students to the usage of "hein" or other specific expressions. (MSE)

  11. How does an Ethiopian dam increase malaria? Entomological determinants around the Koka reservoir.

    PubMed

    Kibret, Solomon; Lautze, Jonathan; Boelee, Eline; McCartney, Matthew

    2012-11-01

    To identify entomological determinants of increased malaria transmission in the vicinity of the Koka reservoir in Central Ethiopia. Larval and adult mosquitoes were collected between August 2006 and December 2007 in villages close to (<1km) and farther away from (>6 km) the Koka reservoir. Adult mosquitoes were tested for the source of blood meal and sporozoites. In reservoir villages, shoreline puddles and seepage at the base of the dam were the most productive Anopheles-breeding habitats. In villages farther from the dam (control villages), rain pools were important breeding habitats. About five times more mature anopheline larvae and six times more adult anophelines were found in the villages near the reservoir. Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles pharoensis were the most abundant species in the reservoir villages throughout the study period. The majority of adult and larval anophelines were collected during the peak malaria transmission season (September-October). Blood meal tests suggested that A. arabiensis fed on humans more commonly (74.6%) than A. pharoensis (62.3%). Plasmodium falciparum-infected A. arabiensis (0.97-1.32%) and A. pharoensis (0.47-0.70%) were present in the reservoir villages. No P. falciparum-infected anophelines were present in the control villages. The Koka reservoir contributes to increased numbers of productive Anopheles-breeding sites. This is the likely the cause for the greater abundance of malaria vectors and higher number of malaria cases evidenced in the reservoir villages. Complementing current malaria control strategies with source reduction interventions should be considered to reduce malaria in the vicinity of the reservoir. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Genetic Essentialism, Neuroessentialism, and Stigma: Commentary on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) presented a masterfully broad review of the implications of genetic essentialism for understandings of human diversity. This commentary clarifies the reasons that essentialist thinking has problematic social consequences and links genetic forms of essentialism to those invoking neural essences. The mounting evidence…

  13. Genetics and Human Agency: Comment on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) decried genetic essentialism without denying the importance of genetics in the genesis of human behavior, and although I agree on both counts, a deeper issue remains unaddressed: how should we adjust our cognitions about our own behavior in light of genetic influence, or is it perhaps not necessary to take genetics into…

  14. Genetics and Human Agency: Comment on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) decried genetic essentialism without denying the importance of genetics in the genesis of human behavior, and although I agree on both counts, a deeper issue remains unaddressed: how should we adjust our cognitions about our own behavior in light of genetic influence, or is it perhaps not necessary to take genetics into…

  15. Genetic Essentialism, Neuroessentialism, and Stigma: Commentary on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) presented a masterfully broad review of the implications of genetic essentialism for understandings of human diversity. This commentary clarifies the reasons that essentialist thinking has problematic social consequences and links genetic forms of essentialism to those invoking neural essences. The mounting evidence…

  16. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine Acanthaceae root extract.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, P; Venkataraman, S

    2006-03-08

    Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine (syn. Asteracantha longifolia Nees, Acanthaceae) was widely used in the Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various liver ailments. The hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the roots was studied on CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. The activity was assessed by monitoring the various liver function tests, viz. alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and total bilirubin. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopathological studies. The root extract was also studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. The extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities.

  17. Heine-Stieltjes correspondence and a new angular momentum projection for many-particle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feng; Li, Bo; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Draayer, Jerry P.

    2013-09-01

    A new angular momentum projection for systems of particles with arbitrary spins is formulated based on the Heine-Stieltjes correspondence, which can be regarded as the solutions of the mean-field-plus -pairing model in the strong-pairing interaction G→∞ limit. Properties of the Stieltjes zeros of the extended Heine-Stieltjes polynomials, whose roots determine the projected states, and the related Van Vleck zeros are discussed. An electrostatic interpretation of these zeros is presented. As examples, applications to n nonidentical particles of spin 1/2 and to identical bosons or fermions are made to elucidate the procedure and properties of the Stieltjes zeros and the related Van Vleck zeros. It is shown that the new angular momentum projection for n identical bosons or fermions can be simplified with the branching multiplicity formula of U(N)↓O(3) and the special choices of the parameters used in the projection. Especially, it is shown that the solutions for identical bosons can always be expressed in terms of zeros of Jacobi polynomials. However, unlike nonidentical particle systems, the n-coupled states of identical particles are nonorthogonal with respect to the multiplicity label after the projection.

  18. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and appraisal of health risk in Koka and Wonji farms, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eliku, Temesgen; Leta, Seyoum

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural crops has grown a major concern globally as a result of a significant health impact on human. The quantification of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni) in the soil and vegetables at two sites (Koka and Wonji Gefersa) was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in vegetable fields' soil samples obtained from Koka were higher for Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The overall results of soil samples ranged 0.52-0.93, 13.6-27.3, 10.0-21.8, 44.4-88.5, 11.9-30.3, and 14.7-34.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals were maximum for Cd (0.41 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1)), Pb (0.54 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)), Zn (14.4 ± 0.72 mg kg(-1)), Cu (2.84 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1)), and Ni (1.09 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)) in Cabbage and for Cr (2.63 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)) in green pepper. The result indicated that Cd has high transfer factor value and Pb was the lowest. The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb. Among different vegetables, cabbage showed the highest value of metal pollution index and bean had the lowest value. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the consumption of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  19. Comparison of Heine-Abarenkov and alternative pseudopotentials for electron-phonon interaction in aluminium, lead, lithium and calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Walmsley, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Applying the Heine-Abarenkov pseudopotential to aluminium and lead in both the superconducting and normal states, Carbotte and coworkers have set a challenging standard befitting the status of the classic BCS superconductor theory. Upholding the same standard and equipped with the technique of numerical inversion, we have extracted alternative pseudopotentials from experimental data with minimal prejudgement that might cloud the physics. The two potentials are broadly consistent in the superconducting state but distinctly different in the normal state. This is an urgent issue requiring confirmation or refutation in the context of the current search for high temperature conventional superconductivity.

  20. Validation of Heine Gamma G7 (G5) and XXL-LF aneroid devices for blood pressure measurement.

    PubMed

    Dorigatti, Francesca; Bonso, Elisa; Zanier, Ada; Palatini, Paolo

    2007-02-01

    To determine the accuracy of the Gamma G7 (and G5 model) and XXL-LF aneroid sphygmomanometers developed by the Heine Company. Device evaluations were performed using the new protocol of the European Society of Hypertension. Monitor performance was assessed in relation to participants' sex, age, arm circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The two sphygmomanometers were assessed in two different samples according to European Society of Hypertension requirements, which are based on four zones of accuracy differing from the mercury standard by 5, 10, 15 mmHg, or more. Both sphygmomanometers passed all three phases of the protocol for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Mean blood pressure difference between Gamma G7 sphygmomanometer and observers was -0.4+/-3.3 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and -0.5+/-2.6 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. Mean differences for the Gamma XXL-LF sphygmomanometer were -0.3+/-3.7 and -1.0+/-2.6 mmHg, respectively. In multivariable analyses, the SBP discrepancies between both aneroid sphygmomanometers and observers were unrelated to age, sex, arm circumference and systolic blood pressure. For diastolic blood pressure, a borderline relationship was found only for arm circumference (P=0.057) with the Gamma G7 device. These data show that the Heine Gamma G7 and Gamma XXL-LF aneroid sphygmomanometers satisfy the new recommended ESH accuracy levels for both SBP and DBP. Their performance is uniform across subgroups of participants with different clinical characteristics.

  1. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital.

  2. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia: The influence of lipid content and trophic position.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Ermias; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Salbu, Brit; Gebremariam, Zinabu; Dadebo, Elias; Norli, Hans Ragnar; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in four fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia, representing 2-3 levels in the food chain of the lake. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endosulfans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorpyrifos were identified, with DDTs as the most predominant pesticide, with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 72.53ngg(-1) wet weight (ww). All fish tissue samples collected from different species of the lake contained residues of DDTs. The maximum level of DDTs was found in the fattiest, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sampled from the lake, with a mean concentration of 15.15ngg(-1)ww. The significant (P<0.05) relationship between concentrations of DDTs and δ(15)N indicates that DDTs biomagnified in the food web of the lake. The 4,4'-DDE to 4,4'-DDT ratio in Oreochromis niloticus (0.6) and Cyprinus carpio (0.5) were below 1, indicating ongoing use of DDTs in the study area and recent exposure of these fish species.

  3. Assessment of heavy metals in water samples and tissues of edible fish species from Awassa and Koka Rift Valley Lakes, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Mengesha, Mesfin; Dadebo, Elias; de Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veiga; Sindern, Sven

    2013-04-01

    The Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes host populations of edible fish species including Oreochromis niloticus, Labeobarbus intermedius and Clarias gariepinus, which are harvested also in other tropical countries. We investigated the occurrence of six heavy metals in tissues of these fish species as well as in the waters of Lake Koka and Lake Awassa. Both lakes are affected by industrial effluents in their catchments, making them ideal study sites. Mercury concentrations were very low in the water samples, but concentrations in the fish samples were relatively high, suggesting a particularly high bioaccumulation tendency as compared with the other investigated metals. Mercury was preferentially accumulated in the fish liver or muscle. It was the only metal with species-specific accumulation with highest levels found in the predatory species L. intermedius. Lower mercury concentrations in O. niloticus could be attributed to the lower trophic level, whereas mercury values in the predatory C. gariepinus were unexpectedly low. This probably relates to the high growth rate of this species resulting in biodilution of mercury. Accumulation of lead, selenium, chromium, arsenic and cadmium did not differ between species, indicating that these elements are not biomagnified in the food chain. Values of cadmium, selenium and arsenic were highest in fish livers, while lead and chromium levels were highest in the gills, which could be related to the uptake pathway. A significant impact of the industrial discharges on the occurrence of metals in the lakes could not be detected, and the respective concentrations in fish do not pose a public health hazard.

  4. ["Utilitarian system" : Heine's legacy poem "legs, to each man two were given" with his lyrical comments on the field of urology].

    PubMed

    Kruse, J A

    2015-08-01

    The chequered biography as well as the enormous and controversial impact history of the poet Heinrich Heine form the notably changing sum of, in his time but also with a view to the future, the more than difficult and manifold relationships from political, social, religious, cultural and economic as well as industrial historical conditions and problems. The works and personality of the poet can rightly be characterized by the subtitle as a current biography laced with innuendo as "the discovery of the European intellectual".

  5. Implementation of palliative care as a mandatory cross-disciplinary subject (QB13) at the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian; Wenzel-Meyburg, Ursula; Karger, André; Scherg, Alexandra; In der Schmitten, Jürgen; Trapp, Thorsten; Paling, Andreas; Bakus, Simone; Schatte, Gesa; Rudolf, Eva; Decking, Ulrich; Ritz-Timme, Stephanie; Grünewald, Matthias; Schmitz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Einleitung: Im Rahmen der Novellierung der Ärztlichen Approbationsordnung (ÄAppO) im Jahr 2009 fand die Palliativmedizin als 13. Querschnittsbereich (QB 13) Eingang in die ärztliche Ausbildung als Pflichtlehr- und Prüfungsfach. Die Implementierung des neuen QB stellt nach wie vor Medizinische Fakultäten vor große Herausforderungen. Geringe Lehrressourcen und nur geringe Zahlen von Patienten stehen einer hohen Anzahl von Studierenden gegenüber. Neben der Vermittlung von Wissen und Fertigkeiten liegt in der Lehre der Palliativmedizin auch eine besondere Herausforderung in der Vermittlung einer ärztlichen Haltung gegenüber unheilbar erkrankten und sterbenden Menschen und deren Angehörigen.Projektbeschreibung: Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität und dem Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf ein evidenzbasiertes longitudinales Curriculum systematisch nach dem Kern-Zyklus [1] entwickelt und teilweise bereits implementiert sowie durch die Studierenden im Pilotprojekt evaluiert. Innovative Lehrmethoden (Virtuelle Schauspielpatienten, eLearning-Kurse, interprofessionelle Lehre und reflexive Selbstentwicklungsgruppe) wurden mit dem Ziel eingesetzt, palliativmedizinische Kernkompetenzen interdisziplinär und interprofessionell im klinischen Kontext zu vermitteln.Ergebnisse: Das gesamte in diesem Prozess entwickelte Curriculum Palliativmedizin (60 UE) wird nach einer nahezu 5-jährigen Entwicklungsphase ab dem Wintersemester 2014/2015 erstmalig in vollem Umfang durchgeführt. Die vorangestellten Pilotphasen wurden erfolgreich abgeschlossen. Bisher liegen Evaluationsergebnisse der Pilotierungsphasen (n=26), des Teilprojektes eLearning in der Palliativmedizin (n=518) und dem Blended-Learning Wahlpflichtfach „Kommunikation mit Sterbenden“ (n=12) vor. Schlussfolgerung: Alle durchgeführten Schritte und entwickelten Programme stehen anderen Fakultäten zur Umsetzung frei zugänglich zur Verfügung (Open Access

  6. The effect of water physical quality and water level changes on the occurrence and density of larvae of Anopheles mosquitoes around the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, Central Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklu, B. M.; Tekie, H.; McCartney, M.; Kibret, S.

    2010-08-01

    Entomological studies to determine the effect of the physical characteristics of larval breeding water bodies and reservoir water level changes on the occurrence of Anopheles mosquito larvae and on the spatial and temporal formation of larval breeding habitats were conducted in two villages at Koka reservoir between August and December 2007. Of the two study villages, Ejersa is in close proximity to the reservoir, and Kuma is 5 km away from it. Data on the type, number and physical characteristics of Anopheles larval breeding habitat, species composition and densities of anopheles mosquitoes in and around the study villages were investigated and recorded. Meteorological and reservoir water level data were compared with availability of Anopheles larval breeding sites and densities. Entomological data from the weekly larval collections showed that Anopheles pharoensis Theobald, Anopheles gambiae s.l. Giles, Anopheles coustani Laveran and Anopheles squamosus Theobald were breeding in the study area. The mean larval density of A. gambiae s.l. in this study was higher in slightly turbid and shallow aquatic habitats than in turbid and relatively deep aquatic habitats (F=16.97, p<0.05 and F=6.03, p<0.05, respectively). The density of A. pharoensis in habitat with floating vegetation and with relatively shady conditions was significantly higher than that of less shaded aquatic habitat and greater emergent vegetation (F=15.75, p<0.05 and F=10.56, p<0.05, respectively). There was also a positive correlation between the occurrence of Anopheles larvae with water temperature of the breeding habitat and daily minimum atmospheric temperature (r=0.541, p<0.05 and r=0.604, p<0.05, respectively). Similarly, there was a positive correlation between falling reservoir water levels and the number of positive breeding habitats at Ejersa during the sampling period (r=0.605, p<0.05). Results in this study show that physical characteristics such as water temperature, turbidity, depth and

  7. Portent of Heine's Reciprocal Square Root Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohl, H S

    2002-10-12

    Precise efforts in theoretical astrophysics are needed to fully understand the mechanisms that govern the structure, stability, dynamics, formation, and evolution of differentially rotating stars. Direct computation of the physical attributes of a star can be facilitated by the use of highly compact azimuthal and separation angle Fourier formulations of the Green's functions for the linear partial differential equations of mathematical physics.

  8. Portent of Heine's Reciprocal Square Root Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohl, H W

    2003-01-13

    Precise efforts in theoretical astrophysics are needed to fully understand the mechanisms that govern the structure, stability, dynamics, formation, and evolution of differentially rotating stars. Direct computation of the physical attributes of a star can be facilitated by the use of highly compact azimuthal and separation angle Fourier formulations of the Green's functions for the linear partial differential equations of mathematical physics.

  9. Imaging Thermal He(+)in Geospace from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Adrian, Mark L.; Goldstein, Jerry; Jahn, Joerg-Micha; Spasojevic, Maria; Griffin, Brand

    2007-01-01

    By mass, thermal plasma dominates near-earth space and strongly influences the transport of energy and mass into the earth's atmosphere. It is proposed to play an important role in modifying the strength of space weather storms by its presence in regions of magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause and in the near to mid-magnetotail. Ionospheric-origin thermal plasma also represents the most significant potential loss of atmospheric mass from our planet over geological time. Knowledge of the loss of convected thermal plasma into the solar wind versus its recirculation across high latitudes and through the magnetospheric flanks into the magnetospheric tail will enable determination of the mass balance for this mass-dominant component of the Geospace system and of its influence on global magnetospheric processes that are critical to space weather prediction and hence to the impact of space processes on human technology in space and on Earth. Our proposed concept addresses this basic issue of Geospace dynamics by imaging thermal He(+) ions in extreme ultraviolet light with an instrument on the lunar surface. The concept is derived from the highly successful Extreme Ultraviolet imager (EUV) flown on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. From the lunar surface an advanced EUV imager is anticipated to have much higher sensitivity, lower background noise, and higher communication bandwidth back to Earth. From the near-magnetic equatorial location on the lunar surface, such an imager would be ideally located to follow thermal He(+) ions to high latitudes, into the magnetospheric flanks, and into the magnetotail.

  10. NGA Tukitanga Mai Koka Ki Tona Ira: Maori mothers and child to mother violence.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ripekapaia Gloria; Wilson, Denise

    2010-11-01

    In common with other indigenous women Māori mothers risk illness, harm, and possible death when abused and intimidated by their children. Yet women suffering child to mother violence are silenced by their fear and shame, and endeavour to minimise the effects of this form of abuse. A qualitative descriptive research design using kaupapa Māori methodology was adopted to explore the experiences of Māori mothers who had been abused by a son or daughter. During semi-structured interviews with five Māori women experiences of abuse by a child, and its impact on the whānau/family were recorded. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically, and three key themes emerged: behind closed doors, my child and a new journey. These Māri mothers carried the secret of the violence alone; keeping it behind closed doors while paradoxically protecting their abusive child. Nonetheless, these mothers reached a point where they chose to undertake a new journey, one that involved telling their story, reconnecting with their indigenous roots, and engaging in healing activities. The mothers' experiences highlight a lack of support and responsiveness by support and health agencies. Regardless of these negative experiences with support agencies, we highlight the important role nurses have in facilitating whānau ora (family wellbeing) for these women. This research contributes an indigenous perspective to the growing literature on child to mother violence, and provides direction for future research.

  11. The Enigmatic Core L1451-mm: A First Hydrostatic Core? Or a Hidden VeLLO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Arce, Héctor G.; Schnee, Scott; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Tanner, Joel; Kauffmann, Jens; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-12-01

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and 12CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L ⊙ is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect 12CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope, the Submillimeter Array, and CARMA. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). The Submillimeter Array is a joint project between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics and is funded by the Smithsonian Institution and the Academia Sinica. Support for CARMA construction was derived from the states of California, Illinois, and Maryland, the James S. McDonnell Foundation, the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, the Kenneth T. and Eileen L. Norris Foundation, the University of Chicago, the Associates of the California Institute of Technology, and the National Science Foundation. Ongoing CARMA development and operations are supported by the National Science Foundation under a cooperative agreement and by the CARMA partner universities.

  12. THE ENIGMATIC CORE L1451-mm: A FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE? OR A HIDDEN VeLLO?

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens; Arce, Hector G.; Tanner, Joel; Schnee, Scott; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-12-20

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L{sub Sun} is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation.

  13. Mechanisms and Mitigation of Hearing Loss from Blast Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    References [1] James Easter, Xianxi Ge, Gregory Capra , Kanthaiah Koka, James Eric Lupo, and Travis Pfannenstiel. Measurement of dierential...Kanthaiah Koka, Travis Pfannenstiel, Xianxi Ge, Jianzhong Liu, Ronald Jackson, Gregory Capra , Vikrant Palan, Mario Pineda, Ben Balough, and James Easter

  14. Field investigation on the repellent activity of some aromatic plants by traditional means against Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis (Diptera: Culicidae) around Koka, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dugassa, Sisay; Medhin, Girmay; Balkew, Meshesha; Seyoum, Aklilu; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2009-10-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of traditional application methods of mosquito repellent plants in the reduction of the human-vector contact of malaria vectors in central Ethiopia. The plants (Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ocimum suave and Ocimum basilicum) were tested by thermal expulsion and direct burning on traditional stoves in the field against two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia (Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis). A Latin-square design was applied for randomly assigning the treatment plants and control to experimental houses over different nights. The percentage repellency of each candidate plant by both application methods was estimated from the catches of mosquitoes in the treatment and control houses. On direct burning of the plants, O. basilicum showed the highest percentage repellency (73.11%, P<0.001) and E. camaldulensis the least repellency (65.29%, P<0.001) against An. arabiensis. By the same method of application, C. citriodora on the other hand gave the highest repellency (72.87%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis was still the least repellent plant (66.60%, P<0.001) against An. pharoensis. On thermal expulsion, C. citriodora exhibited the highest repellency (78.69%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis was the lowest repellent plant (71.91%, P<0.001) against An. arabiensis. Against An. pharoensis, C. citriodora gave the highest repellency (72.9%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis still gave the least repellency (72.2%, P<0.001) on the same method of application. All the tested plants by both methods of application gave partial but significant protection (>65%) against the house-entry and biting of two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia, and thus have a potential to be used at least as supplements to other control methods. However, feasibility and actual impact on disease transmission need to be known on these and other potentially useful plants.

  15. Implementation of palliative care as a mandatory cross-disciplinary subject (QB13) at the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Christian; Wenzel-Meyburg, Ursula; Karger, André; Scherg, Alexandra; in der Schmitten, Jürgen; Trapp, Thorsten; Paling, Andreas; Bakus, Simone; Schatte, Gesa; Rudolf, Eva; Decking, Ulrich; Ritz-Timme, Stephanie; Grünewald, Matthias; Schmitz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background: By means of the revision of the Medical Licensure Act for Physicians (ÄAppO) in 2009, undergraduate palliative care education (UPCE) was incorporated as a mandatory cross sectional examination subject (QB13) in medical education in Germany. Its implementation still constitutes a major challenge for German medical faculties. There is a discrepancy between limited university resources and limited patient availabilities and high numbers of medical students. Apart from teaching theoretical knowledge and skills, palliative care education is faced with the particular challenge of imparting a professional and adequate attitude towards incurably ill and dying patients and their relatives. Project description: Against this background, an evidence-based longitudinal UPCE curriculum was systematically developed following Kern’s Cycle [1] and partly implemented and evaluated by the students participating in the pilot project. Innovative teaching methods (virtual standardised/simulated patient contacts, e-learning courses, interdisciplinary and interprofessional collaborative teaching, and group sessions for reflective self-development) aim at teaching palliative care-related core competencies within the clinical context and on an interdisciplinary and interprofessional basis. Results: After almost five years of development and evaluation, the UPCE curriculum comprises 60 teaching units and is being fully implemented and taught for the first time in the winter semester 2014/15. The previous pilot phases were successfully concluded. To date, the pilot phases (n=26), the subproject “E-learning in palliative care” (n=518) and the blended-learning elective course “Communication with dying patients” (n=12) have been successfully evaluated. Conclusion: All conducted development steps and all developed programmes are available for other palliative care educators (Open Access). The integrated teaching formats and methods (video, e-learning module, interprofessional education, group sessions for reflexive self-development) and their evaluations are intended to make a contribution to an evidence-based development of palliative care curricula in Germany. PMID:25699109

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) from 1.25-850um (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.-R.; Lee, C. W.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Kim, G.; Allen, L. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Spitzer Gould Belt Survey (GBS) is a project to survey about 21 square degrees of 11 nearby molecular clouds at 3.6-160um to provide a census of star formation in nearby large clouds (P.I. L. Allen). Spitzer has mapped a total of 11 molecular clouds, CMC, Chamaeleon I, Chamaeleon III, Musca, Lupus V, Lupus VI, Ophiuchus North, Aquila, CrA, Cepheus, and IC 5146 with the IRAC and MIPS between 2004 March and 2008 October. We utilized the data provided by the c2d/GBS projects (Evans et al. 2009, J/ApJS/181/321; Dunham et al. 2015, J/ApJS/220/11). There are two cloud complexes which were not listed in the c2d/GBS projects, but observed by other projects, the Taurus molecular clouds and the Orion molecular clouds. The Taurus molecular clouds have been observed over an area of ~44 square degrees by one of the GTO programs (P.I. D. Padgett) with the IRAC and the MIPS instruments. The Orion molecular clouds have been surveyed in ~9°2 area by Spitzer (P.I. T. Megeath). See section 2.1 for further details. Complementary archive infrared data were retrieved from 2MASS and Herschel PACS and SPIRE and JCMT SCUBA-2; see section 2.2. We observed our sources with the N2H+(1-0) line with the Korean Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (KVN) 21m radio telescopes from 2011 October to 2016 May for the northern hemisphere sources, and the Mopra 22m telescope in 2012 April for the southern hemisphere sources. See section 2.3 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  17. Mass Accretion Rate of Very Low Luminosity Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Ren-Shiang; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hsieh, Tien-Hao

    2013-08-01

    We propose to measure the mass accretion rate of six Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) using Near-infrared Integral Spectrometer (NIFS). The extremely low luminosity of VeLLOs, L_int ≤ 0.1 L_⊙, was previously thought not existing in the nature because the typical accretion rate gives much larger accretion luminosity even for the lowest mass star (``Luminosity Problem''). The commonly accepted solution is that the accretion rate is not constant but episodic. Thus, VeLLOs could be interpreted as protostars being in the quiescent phase of accretion activities. However, there is no observational data directly measuring the mass accretion rate of VeLLOs. The main goal of this proposal is to examine such theory and directly measure the mass accretion rate of VeLLOs for the first time. We propose to measure the blue continuum excess (veiling) of the stellar spectrum, which is the most reliable method for measuring the accretion rate. The measurements have to be made in infrared due to the very high extinction for highly embedded protostars. Our proposal provide a first opportunity to explain the long time ``Luminosity Problem'' through the observational aspects, and Gemini is the only instrument that can provide accurate and high sensitivity infrared spectroscopy measurements within reasonably short time scale.

  18. Off-shore to near-shore transects of ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin Tracey A. Conrad1, James R. Hein2, Adina Paytan1 1University of California Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (tconrad@ucsc.edu) 2USGS, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA (jhein@usgs.gov)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts growing on seamounts along the California Margin (CM) are influenced by terrestrial and biogenic input. These continental margin crusts have higher concentrations of Si, K, Fe, Na, Ag, Cr, B, and Ba than Fe-Mn crusts from the global open-ocean. Al is also higher but only relative to Pacific open-ocean crusts. These relative enrichments may reflect the high primary productivity near the CM caused by seasonal upwelling and high sediment transport to the region from river/eolian input and cliff erosion. Two transects with samples from five seamounts each are used to compare seaward changes. Transect A includes analyses of 66 bulk samples from Flint, Ben, and Little Joe seamounts, Patton Escarpment, and Northeast Bank. It spans ~400 km of seafloor heading ~58N and coming within ~220 km of the shoreline with samples collected at water depths ranging from 570-2925 m. Transect B includes analyses of 136 bulk samples from Adam, Hoss, San Marcos, San Juan, and Rodriguez seamounts at water depths ranging from 692-3880 m. This transect spans ~240 km heading ~10N and comes within ~75 km of the shoreline near the base of the continental slope. For both transects, mean water depth increases with mean longitude, and latitude is fairly constant varying by approximately 2 degree latitude for transect A and 1degree for B. Both transects show statistically significant trends at the 99% confidence level for element concentrations versus water depth. Concentrations of Fe, Ca, P, Co, and Pb increase as water depth decreases. For transect (A), Mn and Mg also follow this trend, as do Mo and Al for transect (B); Mn also shows this trend for transect (B) but at the 95% confidence level. For both transects, Cu and Zn show the opposite trend, with concentrations increasing in crusts with increasing water depth. For Transect (B), Ni and Al also show this trend. Si and K show no statistically significant trends for either transect. In open-ocean samples concentrations of Si generally increase in crusts with increasing water depth. The Si/Al ratio for the CM samples is 6.2 for transect (A) and 6.1 for (B). Global open-ocean crusts have a Si/Al ratio averaging about 4. This variation in CM crusts is due to input of biogenic Si; the ratio for terrestrial input would be much lower as concentrations of Al would be relatively higher. In global open-ocean samples Ca, Co, Mn, and P increase as water depth decreases while Cu and Fe increase as water depth increases. Element concentrations are influenced by the OMZ and by the chemical cycle of elements in the water column, including whether depth profiles are conservative, scavenged, or biologic. Element trends in CM Fe-Mn crusts can therefore be explained by high biological productivity, proximity to the OMZ, element profiles in the water column, and input of terrigenous debris.

  19. 77 FR 77017 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Diamond Tool Co., Ltd. Quanzhou Zongzhi Diamond Tool Co., Ltd. Rizhao Hein Saw Co., Ltd. Saint-Gobain... Co., Ltd. Xiamen ZL Diamond Tools Co., Ltd. Yichang HXF Circular Saw Industrial Co. Ltd. Zhejiang...

  20. Detail of smokestack base on east side, showing door manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of smokestack base on east side, showing door manufactured by Heine Chimney Co., Chicago. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Power House, Northwest Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Sewage Treatment Plants: Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources 1989 Final Rule (54 FR 6660)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document includes a copy of the Federal Register publication of the February 14, 1989 Final Rule for the Standards of Performance of New Stationary Sources for Sewage Treatment Plants. This document is provided courtesy of HeinOnline.

  2. Search and Seizure in Public Schools: Are Our Children's Rights Going to the Dogs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfer, Erica Tina

    1979-01-01

    "Renfrow" represents an aberration in the law. The court offered no relief against a patently unlawful practice involving the search of thousands of innocent children. Available from William S. Hein & Co., 1285 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14209. (Author/IRT)

  3. 78 FR 79392 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... Diamond Tool Co., Ltd. Rizhao Hein Saw Co., Ltd. Saint-Gobain Abrasives (Shanghai) Co., Ltd. Shanghai Deda... Huili Tools Co. Task Tools & Abrasives Wanli Tools Group Weihai Xiangguang Mechanical Industrial...

  4. 76 FR 82268 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... Diamond Tool Co. Ltd. Rizhao Hein Saw Co., Ltd. Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc. Saint-Gobain Abrasives.... Shijiazhuang Global New Century Tools Co., Ltd. Sichuan Huili Tools Co. Task Tools & Abrasives...

  5. The War in Afghanistan: A Legal Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    commercially from WilliamS . Hein & Co., Inc. This does not constitute government endorsement of William S. Hein & Co., Inc. as a commercial source...International Law Studies). VOL 58 WILLIAM T. MALLISON JR., STUDIES IN THE LAW OF NAVAL WARFARE: SUBMARINES IN GENERAL AND LIMITED WARS (1966) (Vol. 58, US...product of that sophisticated dialogue. Preface Part I sketches the conflict and its legal issues in the broad sense. Professor Sir Adam Roberts

  6. Command History for 1991 (Naval Personnel Research and Development Center)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    303-02 25 Linda M. Doherty Barbara A. Heins Supv Personnel Psychologist Secretary (Typing) Code OlE Code 16 GM-180-15 GS-318-05 Archester Houston Tom...Daira Paulson, Carolyn Shaw, Chan Shumate, Prentice C. St. Clair, Barbara Tarker, and Judy Wasik each contributed to the development of this course. Dr...Presenter, Steven Dockstader, Presenter;, Linda Doherty, Project Manager, Presenter;, Michael Flaningam, Curriculum Coordinator, Barbara Heins, Logistics

  7. Distances to dense cores that contain very low luminosity objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswar, G.; Lee, C. W.; Dib, S.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We estimate the distances to dense molecular cores that harbour very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs) detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope and attempt to confirm their VeLLO nature. Methods: The cloud distances are estimated using a near-IR photometric method. We use a technique that performs a spectral classification of stars lying towards the fields containing the clouds as either main-sequence stars or giants. In this technique, the observed (J - H) and (H - Ks) colours are dereddened simultaneously using trial values of AV and a normal interstellar extinction law. The best fit of the dereddened colours to the intrinsic colours giving a minimum value of χ2 then yields the corresponding spectral type and AV for the star. The main-sequence stars, thus classified, are then utilized in an AV versus distance plot to bracket the cloud distances. The typical error in the estimation of distances to the clouds are found to be ~18%. Results: We estimate distances to seven cloud cores, IRAM 04191, L1521F, BHR 111, L328, L673-7, L1014, and L1148 using the above method. These clouds contain VeLLO candidates. The estimated distances to the cores are found to be 127 ± 25 pc (IRAM 04191), 136 ± 36 pc (L1521F), 355 ± 65 pc (BHR 111), 217 ± 30 pc (L328), 240 ± 45 pc (L673-7), 258 ± 50 pc (L1014), and 301 ± 55 pc (L1148). We re-evaluated the internal luminosities of the VeLLOs discovered in these seven clouds using the distances estimated from this work. Except for L1014 - IRS (Lint = 0.15 L⊙), all other VeLLO candidates are found to be consistent with the definition of a VeLLO (Lint ≤ 0.1 L⊙). In addition to the cores that harbour VeLLO candidates, we also obtained distances to the clouds L323, L675, L676, CB 188, L1122, L1152, L1155, L1157, and L1158, which are located in the directions of the above seven cores. Towards L1521F and L1148, we found evidence of multiple dust layers.

  8. Enzymes of heme metabolism in the kidney: regulation by trace metals which do not form heme complexes.

    PubMed

    Maines, M D; Kappas, A

    1977-11-01

    The in vivo regulation by metal ions of the enzymes of heme metabolism in kidney-particularly of ALAS, the rate-limiting enzyme in heine formation- was investigated. Ni(2+) and Pt(4+), metals which do not enzymatically form metalloporphyrins, were found to regulate ALAS in kidney as they do in liver. The pattern of this regulation was generally similar to that observed with heme and metal ions in liver, i.e., a late increase in enzyme activity after an early period in which ALAS activity was unaltered or inhibited. The metals did not interact with the enzyme in vitro to alter its activity. In this study no direct reciprocal relationship between ALAS activity and total cellular heine content was demonstrated. The metal ions, particularly Pt(4+), also altered the activity of other enzymes of heme biosynthesis in kidney. Pt(4+) severely inhibited the activity of ALAD and UROS. Ni(2+) and Pt(4+) were potent inducers of heme oxygenase, the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in heine degradation. It is proposed that the physiological regulation of ALAS is mediated through the action of metal ions, rather than by the cellular content of heine, and that the regulation of ALAS by heine reflects the action of the central metal ion of heme rather than that of the entire metalloporphyrin complex. In this proposed mechanism for metal ion regulation of ALAS, the tetrapyrrole moiety of heine is considered to function principally as an efficient carrier of metal to the regulatory site for ALAS production, inasmuch as the tetrapyrrole ring itself has been shown in earlier studies not to have any effect on ALAS activity. The production of heine oxygenase is believed to be similarly regulated.

  9. Water resources implications of integrating malaria control into the operation of an Ethiopian dam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, Julia; Culver, Teresa B.; McCartney, Matthew; Lautze, Jonathan; Kibret, Solomon

    2011-09-01

    This paper investigates the water resources implications of using a method of hydrological control to reduce malaria around the Koka reservoir in central Ethiopia. This method is based on recent findings that malaria is transmitted from the shoreline of the Koka reservoir, and on a similar method that was used to control malaria some 80 yr ago in the United States. To assess the feasibility of implementing hydrological control at Koka, we considered the potential impact of the modified management regime on the benefits derived from current uses of the reservoir water (i.e., hydropower, irrigation, flood control, water supply, and downstream environmental flows). We used the HEC-ResSim model to simulate lowering the reservoir by a rate designed to disrupt larval development, which is expected to reduce the abundance of adult mosquito vectors and therefore reduce malaria transmission during the season in which transmission of the disease peaks. A comparison was made of major reservoir uses with and without the malaria control measure. In the 26-yr simulation, application of the malaria control measure increased total average annual electricity generation from 87.6 GWh × y-1 to 92.2 GWh × y-1 (i.e., a 5.3% increase) but resulted in a small decline in firm power generation (i.e., guaranteed at 99.5% reliability) from 4.16 MW to 4.15 MW (i.e., a 0.2% decrease). Application of the malaria control measure did not impact the ability of the reservoir to meet downstream irrigation demand and reduced the number of days of downstream flooding from 28 to 24 d. These results indicate that targeted use of hydrological control for malaria vector management could be undertaken without sacrificing the key benefits of reservoir operation.

  10. Animal Preparations to Assess Neurophysiological Effects of Bio-Dynamic Environments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-17

    lateral hypothalmic lesions in the cat: parallels with development. J . Comp. Physiol. Psychol. (1980) in press. Whittington, D ., Pettijohn, D . and Hein...Biological Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research ......... , D T C ,5I 90 /( l0 ELECTE , / fl~~l4-8’-C-O𔄃/.l.J" ’ SEp , 2 goSP2980D dAlan...Department of Psychology Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 J A. Hein GENERAL INTRODUCTION eridical perception of the visual world and motor performance

  11. Library Schools and Other Training Aspects Section. Education and Research Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library education presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Learning and Library Networks at Mid-Career Level: The Possible Contribution of the Library Schools" by M. H. Heine (United Kingdom); (2) "Network Implications for Library Education: Planning for (the)…

  12. For Your Bookshelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Reviews notable education books of 2001: "Not in Front of the Children" (Marjorie Heins); "The other Boston Busing Story" (Susan E. Eaton); "Another Planet" (Elinor Burkett); "Parents Under Siege" (James Garbarino and Claire Bedard); "Radical Equations" (Robert P. Moses and Charles E. Cobb, Jr.); "School" (Sheila Curran Bernard and Sarah Mondale);…

  13. Legal and Educational Aspects of Student Dismissals: A View from the Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerblance, Penn

    1979-01-01

    Legal and educational responsibility of law schools in dismissing students for academic or disciplinary reasons is discussed. Need for and rights to due process are examined, and constitutional law is referred to. Available from William S. Hein and Co., 1285 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14209. (MSE)

  14. Meeting New Challenges in the Foreign Language Classroom. Selected Papers from the Annual Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Kansas City, Missouri, April 21-24, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Gale K., Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this volume are: "National Standards and Assessments" (June K. Phillips; Jamie B. Draper); "Cultural Roots and Academic Achievement" (Charles R. Hancock); "The At-Risk Student in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Audrey Heining-Boynton); "I Can't Get Them To Talk" (Robert L. Davis; H. Jay Siskin);…

  15. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  16. Sewage Treatment Plants: Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources 1977 Final Rule (42 FR 58520)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document includes a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 10, 1977 Final Rule for the Standards of Performance of New Stationary Sources for 40 CFR 60 Subparts O. This document is provided curtesy of HeinOnline.

  17. High-Profile Plagiarism Prompts Soul-Searching in German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenos, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Rarely do political scandal and academe collide so publicly as they have now, in Europe. In February, Germany's education minister stepped down after Heinrich Heine University, in Dusseldorf, revoked her doctorate because her thesis lifted passages from other sources without proper attribution. Her departure came after scandals over plagiarized…

  18. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Laura, Ed.; Selden, Mark, Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on textbook treatments of World War II in Japan, Germany, and the United States and gives readers a new perspective on the creation of national identities and international misunderstandings. Essays in the collection are: (1) "The Lessons of War, Global Power, and Social Change" (Laura Hein; Mark…

  19. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Reviews two textbooks: "Principles of Biochemistry" by Albert L. Lehninger and "Inorganic Chemistry, A Modern Introduction" by Therald Moeller. Also reviews text, study guide, and laboratory manual for Morris Hein's "Foundations of College Chemistry, Fifth Edition" and text/study guide for David A. Ucko's "Basics for Chemistry." (JN)

  20. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Reviews two textbooks: "Principles of Biochemistry" by Albert L. Lehninger and "Inorganic Chemistry, A Modern Introduction" by Therald Moeller. Also reviews text, study guide, and laboratory manual for Morris Hein's "Foundations of College Chemistry, Fifth Edition" and text/study guide for David A. Ucko's "Basics for Chemistry." (JN)

  1. Growth and activity of Sceloporus cowlesi (southwestern fence lizard)

    Treesearch

    Heather L. Bateman; Alice Chung-MacCoubrey

    2012-01-01

    Lizards from the Sceloporus undulatus complex have been the subject of many studies on lizard ecology (Hager 2001; Rosenblum 2006; Rosenblum et al. 2007), behavior (Hein and Whitaker 1997; Robertson and Rosenblum 2009), and reproduction (Vinegar 1975; Robertson and Rosenblum 2010). However, genetic data (Leache and Reeder 2002) support reallocation of the subspecies of...

  2. Body Part Terms as a Semantic Basis for Grammaticalization: A Mordvin Case Study into Spatial Reference and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Pareren, Remco

    2013-01-01

    Body parts have played an important role in the development of theories describing grammaticalization processes (Heine and Kuteva, 2002, pp. 62-63 and 165-171). Within Uralic linguistics, this particular area of study has not yet received a great deal of attention, although the agglutinative character of most of these languages is known to have…

  3. Poetry and the Dying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Aaron

    1992-01-01

    Demonstrates roles poetry can play as people confront the death of loved ones and their own dying. Gives examples of Heinrich Heine transforming his agony into art and, from the poetry of two college students, both in advanced stages of neurological disease, which was read aloud in class, teaching all present something about how to approach their…

  4. Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

  5. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  6. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Laura, Ed.; Selden, Mark, Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on textbook treatments of World War II in Japan, Germany, and the United States and gives readers a new perspective on the creation of national identities and international misunderstandings. Essays in the collection are: (1) "The Lessons of War, Global Power, and Social Change" (Laura Hein; Mark…

  7. Federal Pre-Emption and the "Right" of Undocumented Alien Children to a Public Education: A Partial Reply.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catz, Robert S.; Lenard, Howard B.

    1979-01-01

    In "De Canas" the Supreme Court removed the spectre of preemption on the basis of an obscure notion of implied congressional intent, leaving only objective factors to be applied. Available from William S. Hein & Co., Inc., 1285 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14209. (Author)

  8. Perceptual-Motor Foundations: A Multidisciplinary Concern. Proceedings of the Perceptual-Motor Symposium (Washington, D.C., May 8-10, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The proceedings include addresses by Logan Wright on highlights of human development from birth to age 11, Leonard A. Cohen on development and function of the mechanisms of perception, Eric Denhoff on motor development as a function of perception, and Alan Hein on exposure history in spatial-motor development. Also provided are reports by William…

  9. Addressing the Standards for Foreign Language Learning. Dimension '97. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M., Ed.

    Seven papers from the annual conference are presented. "Developing Tomorrow's Technology-Using Foreign Language Teachers: Where We Are, Where We Are Going" (Marjorie H. DeWert, Audrey Heining-Boynton) looks at whether language teachers are being trained to take full advantage of educational technology. "Foreign Language Placement in…

  10. Renormalized vacuum polarization and stress tensor on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole threaded by a cosmic string

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottewill, Adrian C.; Taylor, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the renormalized vacuum polarization and stress tensor for a massless, arbitrarily coupled scalar field in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole threaded by an infinite straight cosmic string. This calculation relies on a generalized Heine identity for non-integer Legendre functions which we derive without using specific properties of the Legendre functions themselves.

  11. From "Admissions" to "Recruitment": The Professionalisation of Higher Education Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClaran, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the strategic pressures which are reinforcing and accelerating the professionalisation of the policies and procedures for the admission of undergraduate students to higher education (HE)in the UK. It reviews the assumptions and practices which have, until fairly recently, dominated the ways in which students are admitted and…

  12. Library Schools and Other Training Aspects Section. Education and Research Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library education presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Learning and Library Networks at Mid-Career Level: The Possible Contribution of the Library Schools" by M. H. Heine (United Kingdom); (2) "Network Implications for Library Education: Planning for (the)…

  13. High-Profile Plagiarism Prompts Soul-Searching in German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenos, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Rarely do political scandal and academe collide so publicly as they have now, in Europe. In February, Germany's education minister stepped down after Heinrich Heine University, in Dusseldorf, revoked her doctorate because her thesis lifted passages from other sources without proper attribution. Her departure came after scandals over plagiarized…

  14. 75 FR 81565 - Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...., Ltd...... Quanzhou Zhongzhi Diamond Tool Co. Ltd Rizhao Hein Saw Co., Ltd Saint-Gobain Abrasives Inc Saint-Gobain Abrasives (Shanghai) Co., Ltd...... Shanghai Deda Industry & Trading Co., Ltd... Huili Tools Co Task Tools & Abrasives Weihai Xiangguang Mechanical Industrial Co., Ltd Wuhan...

  15. 78 FR 11143 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Quanzhou Shuangyang Diamond Tools Co., Ltd. Task Tools & Abrasives Zhejiang Wanda Import and Export Co... Quanzhou Zhongzhi Diamond Tool Co. Ltd 9.55 Rizhao Hein Saw Co., Ltd 9.55 Saint-Gobain Abrasives (Shanghai...., Sichuan Huili Tools Co., Task Tools & Abrasives, Wuxi Lianhua Superhard Material Tools Co., Ltd.,...

  16. Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

  17. Pattern of malaria transmission along the Rahad River basin, Eastern Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding malaria vector mosquitoes and their infectivity dynamics is of importance in setting up intervention and control programmes. Patterns of malaria transmission have been shown to differ between non-irrigated and irrigated semi-arid areas of eastern Sudan. However, very little information is available regarding malaria transmission dynamics along the seasonal river's basin. Such information is required for the design of effective vector control strategies. Methods A longitudinal study for mosquito sampling using pyrethrum spray catch (PSC) was conducted in two villages (Koka & Um Salala) along the Rahad River basin from December 2005 to October 2006. The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CSP) and human blood index (HBI) were detected by ELISA. Three seasons were considered and the surveys represented cool dry, hot dry and rainy seasons were November - February, March - June, July - October, respectively. The CSP was compared between the seasons and populations using Chi-square test. The differences between the seasons and the populations in the other entomological indices, including Entomological Inoculation Rates (EIR), were measured using Tukey-Kramer HSD and Student T-test, respectively. The association between An. arabiensis density and monthly total rainfall was examined using regression analysis. Results A total of 1,402 adult female anopheline mosquitoes were sampled, of which 98% were An. gambiae complex; the rest were An. rufipes. All specimens of An. gambiae complex identified by the PCR were An. arabiensis. Bimodal annual peaks of An. arabiensis densities were observed following the peak of rainfall and recess of the Rahad River after a time- lag of two months (Koka r = 0.79, d.f. = 1, P = 0.05; Um Salala, r = 0.88, d.f. = 1, P = 0.02). The CSP differed significantly among the seasons only in Koka (P = 0.0009) where the mean was nine times higher than in Um Salala (P = 0.0014). Active transmission was observed in Koka during

  18. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS TOWARD CANDIDATE LOW-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2012-10-01

    We present a systematic single-dish search for molecular outflows toward a sample of nine candidate low-luminosity protostars and 30 candidate very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub int} {<=} 0.1 L{sub Sun }). The sources are identified using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope cataloged by Dunham et al. toward nearby (D < 400 pc) star-forming regions. Each object was observed in {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 2 {yields} 1 simultaneously using the sideband separating ALMA Band-6 prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope at 30'' resolution. Using five-point grid maps, we identify five new potential outflow candidates and make on-the-fly maps of the regions surrounding sources in the dense cores B59, L1148, L1228, and L1165. Of these new outflow candidates, only the map of B59 shows a candidate blue outflow lobe associated with a source in our survey. We also present larger and more sensitive maps of the previously detected L673-7 and the L1251-A-IRS4 outflows and analyze their properties in comparison to other outflows from VeLLOs. The accretion luminosities derived from the outflow properties of the VeLLOs with detected CO outflows are higher than the observed internal luminosity of the protostars, indicating that these sources likely had higher accretion rates in the past. The known L1251-A-IRS3 outflow is detected but not re-mapped. We do not detect clear, unconfused signatures of red and blue molecular wings toward the other 31 sources in the survey indicating that large-scale, distinct outflows are rare toward this sample of candidate protostars. Several potential outflows are confused with the kinematic structure in the surrounding core and cloud. Interferometric imaging is needed to disentangle large-scale molecular cloud kinematics from these potentially weak protostellar outflows.

  19. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  20. The Formation of Brown Dwarfs : Observational Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huelamo, Nuria

    2017-06-01

    How do brown dwarfs (BDs) form? The formation of substellar objects is still under debate, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain their origin, e.g. gravoturbulent fragmentation, disk fragmentation or the ejection from a multiple system at very early stages of their evolution. In this talk I will review different observational studies focused on understanding the origin of brown dwarfs: I will describe the main properties of the so-called Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs), the first hydrostatic cores, and some interesting properties of young BDs that can shed light on their formation mechanism.

  1. An Early Danish Computer Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    This paper reports on the development of Nimbi, which is an early computer game implemented at the Danish Computer Company Regnecentralen in 1962-63. Nimbi is a variant of the ancient game Nim. The paper traces the primary origins of the development of Nimbi. These include a mathematical analysis from 1901 of Nim that “killed the game” as the outcome could be predicted quite easily; the desire of the Danish inventor Piet Hein to make a game that eluded such analyses; and the desire of Piet Hein to have computers play games against humans. The development of Nimbi was successful in spite of considerable technical obstacles. However, it seems that the game was not used for publicizing the capabilities of computers - at least not widely - as was the case with earlier Nim implementations, such as the British Nim-playing computer Nimrod in 1951.

  2. An Expansion of the Gegenbauer Polynomial (Cn superscript mu)(xy).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-25

    8.1.1]. Szeg6’ s proof can be readily modified to show that Cos- - lira n- - P (046) (o-f _(/ - ~! y (3) for all complex x and y. Like the Mehler -Heine...and 3 be arbitrary real numbers. For any complex number x, the Mehler - Heine theorem states that lim n-a P ( ’I (cos--) = (x/2)- * J (x), (2) Kn where...4.21.2)] using the identity [2,(4.1.3)]. Setting a= M-A-1 and /=A + n-2k in (13) shows that Qk(u) = (U)n-k p (uA-I, (u+n-2k)(U). (14) S ) - +- k Expanding

  3. The Leadership Journey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    Captain ordered his co- pilot to bring a large rock on board and place it in between the two of them on the flight deck. Just before engine start he...in two directions. They effectively communicate, but also understand the importance of listening carefully, empathizing , and understanding the... fighter aircraft conducting close air support missions in conjunction with combat ground forces. From twenty-thousand feet and after multiple 18

  4. 34. (Credit JTL) Front (north side) of three water tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. (Credit JTL) Front (north side) of three water tube boilers built by the Heine Safety Boiler Co. of St. Louis, Missouri in 1917; rebuilt in 1938. Front doors opened on center boiler to show water header and inspection plugs for water tubes. Smaller doors beneath open into firebox; boilers presently equipped for gas firing. Operating pressure approx. 150 psi (saturated steam). - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  5. Development, design, fabrication and evaluation of a real-time video compression system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hein, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    This is the final report on the work done by David Hein at the NASA-AMES Research Center. The main emphasis is on the work done on the Conditional Replenishment Emulator. The progress for May and a description of the emulator are given. Brief summaries of the work that was done in the other areas covered by the contract over the entire contract period are also provided.

  6. Demonstration of the Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Pinkwater Treatment at McAlester Army Ammunition Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    column with an overall height of 22 ft (6.7 m) and a bed of GAC occupying approximately 11 ft (3.4 m) when expanded. Water was recirculated through the...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ER D C /C ER L TR -0 5- 8 Demonstration of the Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for...Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Pinkwater Treatment at McAlester Army Ammunition Plant Stephen W. Maloney and Robert L. Heine Construction

  7. Fatigue Solutions for Maintenance: From Science to Workplace Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    John Hall IAMAW Jim Hein AWP-204 William (Bill) Johnson AIR-100 Charles (Bob) Kelley AJW-341 Daniel Mollicone Pulsar Informatics, Inc. Thomas...That Fit Industry. Dr. Daniel Mollicone, President and Chief Executive Officer for Pulsar Informatics, Inc., presented research on the use of...FAA Maintenance Fatigue applied R&D program has worked with Pulsar Informatics to develop a software system that helps individuals assess their

  8. Detecting malingering in traumatic brain injury and chronic pain with an abbreviated version of the Meyers Index for the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Aguerrevere, Luis E; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Meyers, John E

    2008-01-01

    Meyers, Millis, and Volkert [Meyers, J. E., Millis, S. R., & Volkert, K. (2002). A validity index for the MMPI-2. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 157-169] developed a method to detect malingering in chronic pain patients using seven scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). This method may be impractical because two of the scales (Obvious minus Subtle and Dissimulation-revised) are not reported by the commercially available Pearson computerized scoring system. The current study recalculated the Meyers Index using the five Pearson-provided scales in the chronic pain data sets of Meyers et al. [Meyers, J. E., Millis, S. R., & Volkert, K. (2002). A validity index for the MMPI-2. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 157-169] and Bianchini, Etherton, Greve, Heinly, and Meyers [Bianchini, K. J., Etherton, J. L., Greve, K. W., Heinly, M. T., & Meyers, J. E. (in press). Classification accuracy of MMPI-2 validity scales in the detection of pain-related malingering: A known-groups approach. Assessment], and the traumatic brain injury data of Greve, Bianchini, Love, Brennan, and Heinly [Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., Love, J. M., Brennan, A., & Heinly, M. T. (2006). Sensitivity and specificity of MMPI-2 validity scales and indicators to malingered neurocognitive dysfunction in traumatic brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 20, 491-512]. Classification accuracy of the abbreviated Meyers Index was comparable to the original. These findings demonstrate that the abbreviated Meyers Index can be used as a substitute of the original Meyers Index without decrements in classification accuracy.

  9. Genetic Modifiers of Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    ovarian cancer, a sizeable proportion of women who carry a deleteriou s mutation will not d evelop this disease . In addition, the findings show that...carriers. Carriers were censored at age of onset of disease for those affected with breast or ovarian cancer and age of last follow up or age at 5...Doerk T, Hillemanns P, Durst M, Runnebaum I, Thompson PJ, Carney ME, Goodman MT, Lurie G, Wang- Gohrke S , Hein R, Chang-Claude J, Rossing MA, Cushing

  10. Simulator Sickness Research Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    male drivers” (Hein, p. 610). 8.2 Age Walt Disney World’s “Mission: Space” thrill ride left some older riders gulping, “Houston, we have a problem...from physical aging may also be a contributing factor to this phenomenon, since those with more flight hours naturally tend to fall into older age...for determining the particular pattern of discomfort produced by a given simulator. All scores have as their lowest level a natural zero (no

  11. A tribute to Achim Trebst at the time of his doctor honoris causa, University of Düsseldorf.

    PubMed

    Strotmann, Heinrich

    2009-06-01

    On June 9, 2009, we celebrate the 80th birthday of Achim Trebst. I present below the "Tribute" (Laudatio) that I read on February 11, 2000 on the occasion of his receiving Doctor honoris causa of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf. The text below is a translation from the original German to English with minor editorial changes by Govindjee.

  12. Flood Tolerance in Plants: A State-of-the-Art Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    P8 12 Tolerance of’ Cultivated Species to Flooding During the 1972 Growing Season ............... ................... 90 13 Species Capabilities to...and Gardener 1.939, J’r-amor 1951, Williamnson and Splinter 1968 Developmenit of aerenchyma Bryant 1934, Sobranai 1950 Poor fruit set Heinicke 1932...Corky fruit Hein.!ekc, ct ,l.. 19)!0 (Continued) (Sheet 2 of 3) 23 I / 𔃻 ... ... ...I I I I I’•....... :’ - --- .. . ....... .. I I Table 1 (Concluded

  13. 41. (Credit JTL) View looking south at #1 low service ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. (Credit JTL) View looking south at #1 low service engine as it appeared in 1980. Original 3 mdg pump ends were replaced in 1911 with Epping-Carpenter pump ends capable of delivering a total of 5 mgd. Engine was retired in the 1960's. Heine water tube boilers in the background. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  14. Guanidino Groups Greatly Enhance the Action of Antimicrobial Peptidomimetics Against Bacterial Cytoplasmic Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-28

    ARO 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER Jay Schieber Konstantin Andreev , Christopher...bacterial cytoplasmic membranes Konstantin Andreev a,b,1, Christopher Bianchi a,b,1, Jonas S. Laursen c, Linda Citterio d, Line Hein-Kristensen e, Lone Gram...protonated state together with efficient solvation in water, which makes them stronger bases and, thus, better suited for stable electrostatic

  15. VLA Ammonia Observations of IRAS 16253-2429: A Very Young and Low Mass Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    IRAS l6253-2429. the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source as possibly one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known.

  16. The Embedded Phase of Star Formation : Outflows, Envelopes, First Conditions of Disk Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyov, Eduard

    2017-06-01

    The embedded phase of star formation witnesses the birth of stars, the formation of circumstellar disks, and the launch of jets and outflows. It sets the stage for the disk and star evolution in the subsequent optically visible T Tauri phase, largely determining disk and stellar masses and paving the way for planet assembly. This phase is hard to observe and theory can provide valuable insights into the processes that take place in the depth of collapsing clouds. I will overview processes that are linked with the disk early evolution, such as gravitational instability and its implications, variable protostellar accretion with episodic bursts and its effect on the disk dynamical and chemical evolution, and initial stages of dust growth. The nature of very low luminosity objects (VELLOs) will also be discussed.

  17. Probing the magnetic fields in L1415 and L1389

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soam, A.; Lee, Chang Won; Maheswar, G.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Neha, S.; Kim, Mi-Ryang

    2017-01-01

    We present the R-band polarimetric results towards two nebulae L1415 and L1389 containing low-luminosity stars. Aim of this study is to understand the role played by magnetic fields in formation of low-luminosity objects. Linear polarization arises due to dichroism of the background starlight projected on the cloud providing the plane-of-the sky magnetic field orientation. The offsets between mean magnetic field directions obtained towards L1415 and L1389 and the projected outflow axes are found to be 35° and 12°, respectively. The offset between cloud minor axes and mean envelope magnetic field direction in L1415 and L1389 are 50° and 87°, respectively. To estimate the magnetic field strength by using the updated Chandrasekhar-Fermi (CF) relation, we obtained the 12CO(J = 1-0) line velocity dispersion value towards L1415 cloud using the Taeduk Radio Astronomical Observatory single dish observations. The values of Bpos in L1415 and L1389 are found to be 28 and 149 μG using CF technique and 23 and 140 μG using structure function analysis, respectively. The values of Bpos in these clouds are found to be consistent using both the techniques. By combining the present results with those obtained from our previous study of magnetic fields in cores with Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs), we attempt to improve the sample of cores with low-luminosity protostars and bridge the gap between the understanding of importance of magnetic fields in cores with VeLLOs and low-luminosity protostars. The results of this work and that of our previous work show that the outflow directions are aligned with envelope magnetic fields of the clouds.

  18. EARLY STAR-FORMING PROCESSES IN DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD L328; IDENTIFICATION OF L328-IRS AS A PROTO-BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Gwanjeong; Saito, Masao; Kurono, Yasutaka; Myers, Philip C.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of millimeter to sub-millimeter observations of CO, HCN, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HCO{sup +} lines in the dense molecular cloud L328, which harbors L328-IRS, a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO). Our analysis of the line width finds that {sup 13}CO and N{sub 2}H{sup +} lines are broadened right over the smallest sub-core S2 where L328-IRS is located, while they are significantly narrower in other regions of L328. Thus, L328-IRS has a direct association with the sub-core. CO observations show a bipolar outflow from this VeLLO with an extent of ∼0.08 pc. The outflow momentum flux and efficiency are much less than those of low-mass protostars. The most likely mass accretion rate (∼3.6 × 10{sup –7} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) inferred from the analysis of the CO outflow is an order of magnitude smaller than the canonical value for a protostar. If the main accretion lasts during the typical Class 0 period of a protostar, L328-IRS will accrete the mass of a brown dwarf, but not that of a star. Given that its envelope mass is small (∼0.09 M{sub ☉}) and 100% star formation rate is unlikely, we suggest that L328-IRS is likely a proto-brown dwarf. Inward motions are found in global scale in the L328 cloud and its sub-cores with a typical infall speed found in starless cores. L328 is found to be fairly well isolated from other nearby clouds and seems to be forming three sub-cores simultaneously through a gravitational fragmentation process. Altogether, these all leave L328-IRS as the best example supporting the idea that a brown dwarf forms like a normal star.

  19. IRAS 16253-2429: The First Proto-brown Dwarf Binary Candidate Identified through the Dynamics of Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs) is one of the long-standing problems in star formation because the typical Jeans mass in molecular clouds is too large to form these substellar objects. To answer this question, it is crucial to study a BD in the embedded phase. IRAS 16253-2429 is classified as a very low-luminosity object (VeLLO) with an internal luminosity of <0.1 L ⊙. VeLLOs are believed to be very low-mass protostars or even proto-BDs. We observed the jet/outflow driven by IRAS 16253-2429 in CO (2-1), (6-5), and (7-6) using the IRAM 30 m and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes and the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in order to study its dynamical features and physical properties. Our SMA map reveals two protostellar jets, indicating the existence of a proto-binary system as implied by the precessing jet detected in H2 emission. We detect a wiggling pattern in the position-velocity diagrams along the jet axes, which is likely due to the binary orbital motion. Based on this information, we derive the current mass of the binary as ˜0.032 M⊙. Given the low envelope mass, IRAS 16253-2429 will form a binary that probably consist of one or two BDs. Furthermore, we found that the outflow force as well as the mass accretion rate are very low based on the multi-transition CO observations, which suggests that the final masses of the binary components are at the stellar/substellar boundary. Since IRAS 16253 is located in an isolated environment, we suggest that BDs can form through fragmentation and collapse, similar to low-mass stars. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  20. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

    1997-07-01

    We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed.

  1. Towards an optimal integrated reservoir system management for the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ruben; Gebretsadik, Henok Y.; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the Kessem-Tendaho project is completed to bring about socioeconomic development and growth in the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. To support reservoir Koka, two new reservoirs where built together with extensive infrastructure for new irrigation projects. For best possible socioeconomic benefits under conflicting management goals, like energy production at three hydropower stations and basin wide water supply at various sites, an integrated reservoir system management is required. To satisfy the multi-purpose nature of the reservoir system, multi-objective parameterization-simulation-optimization model is applied. Different Pareto-optimal trade-off solutions between water supply and hydro-power generation are provided for two scenarios (i) recent conditions and (ii) future planned increases for Tendaho and Upper Awash Irrigation projects. Reservoir performance is further assessed under (i) rule curves with a high degree of freedom - this allows for best performance, but may result in rules curves to variable for real word operation and (ii) smooth rule curves, obtained by artificial neuronal networks. The results show no performance penalty for smooth rule curves under future conditions but a notable penalty under recent conditions.

  2. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  3. Hindsight bias around the world.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Rüdiger F; Bender, Michael; Lachmann, Gregor

    2002-01-01

    Hindsight bias refers to the tendency to overestimate in hindsight what one has known in foresight. Recently, two experiments extended the research to include samples from different cultures (Choi & Nisbett, 2000; Heine & Lehman, 1996). Asking their participants what they would have guessed before they knew the outcome ("hypothetical design"), Choi and Nisbett (2000) found that Koreans, in comparison to North Americans, exhibited more hindsight bias. Heine and Lehman (1996), however, reported that Japanese people in comparison to Canadians showed marginally less hindsight bias. In a second study, in which participants were asked to recall what they had estimated before they knew the outcome ("memory design"), the latter authors found no difference in hindsight bias between Japanese people and Canadians. We extended these studies with 225 Internet participants, in a hypothetical design, from four different continents (Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America). Hindsight bias was large and similar for all samples except for German and Dutch participants who showed no hindsight bias at all. While the latter effect may be based on peculiarities of the material and of the participants, the former underscores the worldwide stability of the phenomenon. In addition a follow-up surprise rating (paper and pencil) in China (35 participants) and Germany (20 participants) revealed that only less surprising items led to hindsight bias while more surprising ones did not. We suggest that the basic cognitive processes leading to hindsight bias are by-products of the evolutionary-evolved capacity of adaptive learning. On top of these basic processes, individual meta-cognitions (e.g., elicited by surprise) or motives (e.g., a self-serving motive) may further moderate the amount of bias, thus explaining the diverging results of Choi and Nisbett (2000), Heine and Lehman (1996), and our own study.

  4. An Investigation of Over-Heating and Rock-Like Fracture of Steel 18Cr2Ni4WA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-29

    basic electric process; and electric proce ss plusL eletri slg rmelinq) an-’ two dill’erent m~ethods of’ deoxidization ( using alminum and titaniun or...fain of -11 gr--ains 3reci-Oitates at austenite -rain boundary. It is believed th-a .idization by-, us ~r.ng both alzumintum and A .tanium can make the...the mechanism of’ this steel which heins to form rock- like fracturAe is brouc-ht in-to discussion. When teel l~G2!4Amle by electric process (and

  5. Applications of Superconductivity to Avionics: Proceedings of a Conference Held in Bath, England on May 7-8, 1990 (Les Applications de la Supraconductivite dans le Domains de l’Avionique)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    and 7J. Tenbrtnk. K . Heine. H. Krauth . A. Szulcyzk flux pinning in BSCCO, need innovative solutions for and M. Th6ner. ’Entwicklung von Hoch- many...iquc 38521 St. Egrcve (’cdcx M~ien George R.Pearke. Bldg I hotnson ( Sl- ICR France Ottawa, Ontario, K I A l)K2 9140)4 OrsaN (’cdes Canada France Col...avionics systems. The field of superconductivity, which Is not a new field, having been created in 1911 with the discovery of the phenomenon by K . nnes, has

  6. Work Motivation: Theory and Practice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    provides a single sui:-, mary ii, dex of the extent to which the job attributes will allow a person to s:eisfy his,’her hirer order needs if he/she performs...motivatiorial effects of fcedLack have been widely disputed (locke, 1968, 1930; !-ndal, 1069; Komaki, Edar,.ick, & Scott, 1978; Ko::,aki, Hein:-’, ann ...Landy, F. J., & Trumbo, D. A. _Psy1hologyofWork Behavior. Homewood, IL: The Dorsey Press, 1976. Latham, G. P., & Baldes, J. J. The "practical

  7. Rearrangement of 3-Membered 1,1,2-Trifluorobromonium and Iodonium Ions and Comparison of Trifluorochloronium to Fluorocarbeniuim Ions (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    The steric effect and repulsive forces from the lone-pair electrons on the fluorine atoms of 5 shield the carbon nucleus, rendering it resistant to... Electrophilic addition of Cl2 to alkene 2 gives 2% of rearranged product (Table 3, run 5). Intermediate 5 (Scheme 1, X ) Y ) Cl; Z ) Br) is 22.1 kcal...71 and 190. Chambers, R. D. Fluorine in Organic Chemistry; Wiley: New York, 1973; p 98. (4) (a) Heine, H. W.; Siegfried, W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954

  8. Optimum Aeroelastic Characteristics for Composite Supermaneuverable Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-28

    Re- gime," J. Aero/Space Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 11, November 1959, pp. 703-716, 738. 2. Strutt , J.W. (Baron Rayleigh ), The Theory of Sound, Vol. 1...efforts of Mr. John Calle- 73 ja, a graduate student in the department and we thank Mrs. B. Hein for patiently typing the manuscript. 0 74 5.3.13...and Williams , M. It., "Linear/Non- ’Molenbrock, P.. "Uber einige Bewegungen eines Gases bei An- linear Behavior in Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamics

  9. A Right Way and a Wrong Way: Remedying Excessive Post-Trial Delay in Light of Tardiff, Moreno, and Toohey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    HISTORY OF THE JUDGE ADVOCATE GENERAL’S CORPS, 1775-1975, at 10-11 (William S . Hein & Co., Inc. 1993). 10 U.S. CONST, art. 1, § 8, cl. 14. 11 WILLIAM...States v. Banks, 1 M.J. 92 (C.M.A. 1979)). 89 Id at 223 (quoting S . REP. NO. 98-486, at 28 (1949); Jackson v. Taylor, 353 U.S. 569, 576-77 (1957...of how one chooses to characterize it. 97 See, e.g., S . REP. NO. 98-486, at 28 (1949); Jackson v. Taylor, 353 U.S. 569, 576-77 (1957). Both civilian

  10. Kuwait: Governance, Security, and U.S. Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    to-day governance as he chooses, and Amir Sabah tends to be more directly involved in governance than was his predecessor. At about 86 years old , he...in Kuwait. 8 Members of religions not sanctioned in the Quran—including about 400 Baha’i’s, 100,000 Buddhists, 100,000 Hindus, and 10,000 Sikhs—are...states such as UAE in cultivating private ties to Israel, Kuwait’s foreign minister visited the Old City of Jerusalem in September 2014. The Kuwaiti

  11. Simulator Sickness During Emergency Procedures Training in a Helicopter Simulator: Age, Flight Experience, and Amount Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    drivers are more susceptible than male drivers" (Hein, p. 610). Age. Walt Disney World’s "Mission: Space" thrill ride left some older riders gulping...since those with more flight hrs naturally tend to fall into older age groups. (McGuinness et al., 1981, p. 25) 3. The SS symptoms reported by the...symptomatology and are useful for determining the pattern of discomfort produced by a given simulator. All scores have as their lowest level a natural zero (no

  12. [Regazell-Energen: bioactivator in tumor treatment? Documentation No. 26 D].

    PubMed

    Hauser, S P; Allewelt, M C

    1996-12-17

    Regazell-Energen (RE) is a combination of drinking vials which contain gelée royale, ginseng, hawthorn, wheatgerm extract solved in mead, and capsules filled with mixed pollen. RE is recommended for revitalization and regeneration, regulation and stimulation of the immune system and in the early metaphylaxis of treated cancer patients. Two courses during 40 days per year should be taken. RE has practically no side effects. Only individuals with pollen allergy or alcohol intolerance should be cautious. A package for a 14-day course costs 170 Swiss francs. RE is produced by Bio-Naturkraft in Poing, Munich, and research is supported by the German Society for Matrix Research. The president is Prof. H. Heine from the Institute of Anatomy of the anthroposophic University Witten-Herdecke. The bioactivator RE ist claimed to be a 'new, autonomous therapeutic system' to 'increase physical and mental well-being ... helping to overcome stress and immune defects'. Heine claims that RE acts decisively on the 'regulation of the matrix' and fights cancer by activating the fibroblast-macrophage system via the healthy tissue. The three clinical investigations on the effect of RE in the oncological aftercare contain severe flaws in the collection of data and interpretation.

  13. Effects of laryngoscope handle light source on the light intensity from disposable laryngoscope blades.

    PubMed

    Milne, A D; Brousseau, P A; Brousseau, C A

    2014-12-01

    A bench-top study was performed to assess the effects of different laryngoscope handles on the light intensity delivered from disposable metal or plastic laryngoscope blades. The light intensity from both the handle light sources themselves and the combined handle and laryngoscope blade sets was measured using a custom-designed testing system and light meter. Five samples of each disposable blade type were tested and compared with a standard re-usable stainless steel blade using three different handle/light sources (Vital Signs LED, Heine 2.5 V Xenon and 3.5 V Xenon). The light intensity delivered by the disposable blades ranged from 790 to 3846 lux for the different handle types. Overall, the 3.5 V Heine handle delivered the highest light output (p < 0.007) in comparison with the other handles. For the disposable blades, the overall light output was significantly higher from the plastic than the metal blades (p < 0.001).

  14. Skin surface microscopy of port-wine stains: preliminary data on classification and assessment of laser therapy results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotteleur, Guy; Huan, P.; Mordon, Serge R.; Beacco, Claire; Brunetaud, Jean Marc

    1994-12-01

    In order to characterize port-wine stains (PWS) before and after laser-therapy, a study using epiluminescence microscopy is achieved. The technique consists in placing a thin layer of mineral oil on the skin surface and inspecting the PWS with a Delta 10 dermatoscope (HEINE). A contact microphotography is then performed in a similar manner by means of a Dermaphot optical module (HEINE). One hundred and sixteen patients have been explored prior to laser treatment. Twenty eight have been explored at the same place three months after the first treatment and four three months after two treatments. The preliminary results are compared with Jones, Shakespeare, and Carruth's studies on transcutaneous microscopy. It is possible to classify PWS according to their epiluminescence microscopic aspect. The classification proposed by the English authors is not ideal and some adaptations are desirable, regarding particularly the background condition. Some correlation can be established between the macroscopic and microscopic aspect of PWS. It is far too early to correlate epiluminescence aspect before treatment and long term results of laser-therapy.

  15. Efficacy of computer-assisted, 3D motion-capture toothbrushing instruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kee-Deog; Jeong, Jin-Sun; Lee, Hae Na; Gu, Yu; Kim, Kyeong-Seop; Lee, Jeong-Whan; Park, Wonse

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of computer-assisted TBI using a smart toothbrush (ST) and smart mirror (SM) in plaque control to that of conventional TBI. We evaluated the plaque removal efficacy of a ST comprising a computer-assisted, wirelessly linked, three-dimensional (3D) motion-capture, data-logging, and SM system in TBI. We also evaluated the efficacy of TBI with a ST and SM system by analyzing the reductions of the modified Quigley-Hein plaque index in 60 volunteers. These volunteers were separated randomly into two groups: conventional TBI (control group) and computer-assisted TBI (experimental group). The changes in the plaque indexes were recorded immediately, 1 week, 1 month, and 10 months after TBI. The patterns of decreases in the modified Quigley-Hein plaque indexes were similar in the two groups. Reductions of the plaque indexes of both groups in each time period were observed (P < 0.0001), and the effects of TBI did not differ between the two groups (P = 0.3803). All volunteers were sufficiently motivated in using this new system. The reported new, computer-assisted TBI system might be an alternative option in controlling dental plaque and maintaining oral hygiene. Individuals can be motivated by the new system; meanwhile, comparable effects of controlling dental plaque can be achieved.

  16. Institutional trust in the national social security and municipal healthcare systems for the elderly in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Atsuko; Ryu, Shuhei; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2012-09-01

    Japanese social security systems and institutions for the elderly, as well as the general attitude toward elderly care services among the Japanese population, have been undergoing a dramatic change. By examining the association between institutional trust, which is a representative element of social capital, and anxiety regarding receiving elderly care, we can uncover clues toward building a more robust social security system for the elderly. This study examines the relationship between institutional trust, in the national social security and municipal healthcare systems for the elderly, and anxiety with respect to receiving elderly care among the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire that was returned by mail in January and February 2005. The target population was 4735 community residents aged 20-75 years, who lived in the city of Koka, Shiga, Japan. A total of 2264 questionnaires were included in the analysis. A binominal logistic regression analysis showed that responses of 'trust' [odds ratio (OR): 2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-4.30] and 'strongly trust' (OR: 3.80, 95% CI: 1.55-9.31) for the national system were associated with not having anxiety regarding elderly care, compared with the reference category of feeling strongly distrust. However, trust in the municipal system showed no association with this anxiety. These results indicate the importance of developing strategies to increase a common trust in the national care services for the elderly to reduce the anxiety people feel regarding whether they will be able to receive elderly care when required.

  17. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly.

  18. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly. PMID:26020238

  19. THE SPITZER c2d SURVEY OF NEARBY DENSE CORES. IX. DISCOVERY OF A VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECT DRIVING A MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN THE DENSE CORE L673-7

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Michael M.; Evans, Neal J.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Myers, Philip C.; Huard, Tracy L.; Stutz, Amelia M.

    2010-10-01

    We present new infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter observations of the dense core L673-7 and report the discovery of a low-luminosity, embedded Class 0 protostar driving a molecular outflow. L673-7 is seen in absorption against the mid-infrared background in 5.8, 8, and 24 {mu}m Spitzer images, allowing for a derivation of the column density profile and total enclosed mass of L673-7, independent of dust temperature assumptions. Estimates of the core mass from these absorption profiles range from 0.2to4.5 M{sub sun}. Millimeter continuum emission indicates a mass of {approx}2 M{sub sun}, both from a direct calculation assuming isothermal dust and from dust radiative transfer models constrained by the millimeter observations. We use dust radiative transfer models to constrain the internal luminosity of L673-7, defined to be the luminosity of the central source and excluding the luminosity from external heating, to be L{sub int} = 0.01-0.045 L{sub sun}, with L{sub int} {approx} 0.04 L{sub sun} the most likely value. L673-7 is thus classified as a very low luminosity object (VeLLO), and is among the lowest luminosity VeLLOs yet studied. We calculate the kinematic and dynamic properties of the molecular outflow in the standard manner. From the outflow properties and standard assumptions regarding the driving of outflows, we calculate the time-averaged protostellar mass accretion rate, total protostellar mass accreted, and expected accretion luminosity to be {>=}1.2 x 10{sup -6} (sin i)/(co{sup 2} i) M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, M{sub acc{>=}}0.07 1/cos i M{sub sun}, and L{sub acc} {>=} 0.36 L{sub sun}, respectively. The discrepancy between this calculated L{sub acc} and the L{sub int} derived from dust radiative transfer models indicates that the current accretion rate is much lower than the average rate over the lifetime of the outflow. Although the protostar embedded within L673-7 is consistent with currently being substellar, it is unlikely to remain as

  20. Embodied learning across the life span.

    PubMed

    Kontra, Carly; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Beilock, Sian L

    2012-10-01

    Developmental psychologists have long recognized the extraordinary influence of action on learning (Held & Hein, 1963; Piaget, 1952). Action experiences begin to shape our perception of the world during infancy (e.g., as infants gain an understanding of others' goal-directed actions; Woodward, 2009) and these effects persist into adulthood (e.g., as adults learn about complex concepts in the physical sciences; Kontra, Lyons, Fischer, & Beilock, 2012). Theories of embodied cognition provide a structure within which we can investigate the mechanisms underlying action's impact on thinking and reasoning. We argue that theories of embodiment can shed light on the role of action experience in early learning contexts, and further that these theories hold promise for using action to scaffold learning in more formal educational settings later in development. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  1. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations (SSMO), Central American Coastal Marine Areas West Coast. Volume 1. Area 1 - Central Baja West, Area 2 - Southwest Baja, Area 3 - Gulf of California, Area 4 - Mazatlan, Area 5 - Puerto Vallarta

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    2 *- lP 11-21 22« • 0 101 I 0-3 2 <i <t- lP .1 11-21 22- • 0 TOI > • 2 0-1 .j 5<IC «-10 .9 11-21 ,s 22« • 0 TOI > 1...INC oinrcTiOM HEIN « MD 01» r- 2 3-» 1*7 | I T0T1L CLOUO OI3C0 OftS COVC* «.T r.l 1.» s.c t 1,1 ,1 1.0...ipi 1 ^i •x ä /*-ro "i b &» b $ IO-H (A g O So I UJ i CO o i < o < i s s ui s UJ Ü I I q> s E « 3 e Ö

  2. A Central Limit Theorem for Random Walks on the Dual of a Compact Grassmannian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösler, Margit; Voit, Michael

    2015-02-01

    We consider compact Grassmann manifolds G/K over the real, complex or quaternionic numbers whose spherical functions are Heckman-Opdam polynomials of type BC. From an explicit integral representation of these polynomials we deduce a sharp Mehler-Heine formula, that is an approximation of the Heckman-Opdam polynomials in terms of Bessel functions, with a precise estimate on the error term. This result is used to derive a central limit theorem for random walks on the semi-lattice parametrizing the dual of G/K, which are constructed by successive decompositions of tensor powers of spherical representations of G. The limit is the distribution of a Laguerre ensemble in random matrix theory. Most results of this paper are established for a larger continuous set of multiplicity parameters beyond the group cases.

  3. Asymptotic distribution of motifs in a stochastic context-free grammar model of RNA folding.

    PubMed

    Poznanović, Svetlana; Heitsch, Christine E

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the distribution of RNA secondary structures given by the Knudsen-Hein stochastic context-free grammar used in the prediction program Pfold. Our main theorem gives relations between the expected number of these motifs--independent of the grammar probabilities. These relations are a consequence of proving that the distribution of base pairs, of helices, and of different types of loops is asymptotically Gaussian in this model of RNA folding. Proof techniques use singularity analysis of probability generating functions. We also demonstrate that these asymptotic results capture well the expected number of RNA base pairs in native ribosomal structures, and certain other aspects of their predicted secondary structures. In particular, we find that the predicted structures largely satisfy the expected relations, although the native structures do not.

  4. Exact solution of the two-axis countertwisting Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feng; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Draayer, Jerry P.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the two-axis countertwisting Hamiltonian is exactly solvable when the quantum number of the total angular momentum of the system is an integer after the Jordan-Schwinger (differential) boson realization of the SU(2) algebra. Algebraic Bethe ansatz is used to get the exact solution with the help of the SU(1,1) algebraic structure, from which a set of Bethe ansatz equations of the problem is derived. It is shown that solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations can be obtained as zeros of the Heine-Stieltjes polynomials. The total number of the four sets of the zeros equals exactly 2 J + 1 for a given integer angular momentum quantum number J, which proves the completeness of the solutions. It is also shown that double degeneracy in level energies may also occur in the J → ∞ limit for integer J case except a unique non-degenerate level with zero excitation energy.

  5. [The human being from the point of view of animals or, "Who knows whether the breath of men goes upwards?" (Ecclesiastes 3:21)].

    PubMed

    Arendt, D

    1999-05-01

    The question of whether animals have souls has been asked since as early as the Old Testament. Where this is believed to be true, fiction has provided interesting models in literature: The human being as seen by animals has been a popular subject since Apuleius' 'Asinus aureus' and how man appears from the perspective of a donkey or a beetle, that is to say the perspective from below, becomes controversial. Examples may be found in all languages and centuries in Jonathan Swift, Miguel Cervantes, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Ludwig Tieck, Heinrich Heine, Viktor von Scheffel, Franz Kafka and others. Résumé at the end: How does man answer this question or his own self-questioning?

  6. Dynamical and anharmonic effects on the electron-phonon coupling and the zero-point renormalization of the electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonius, G.; Poncé, S.; Lantagne-Hurtubise, E.; Auclair, G.; Gonze, X.; Côté, M.

    2015-08-01

    The renormalization of the band structure at zero temperature due to electron-phonon coupling is explored in diamond, BN, LiF, and MgO crystals. We implement a dynamical scheme to compute the frequency-dependent self-energy and the resulting quasiparticle electronic structure. Our calculations reveal the presence of a satellite band below the Fermi level of LiF and MgO. We show that the renormalization factor (Z ), which is neglected in the adiabatic approximation, can reduce the zero-point renormalization (ZPR) by as much as 40 % . Anharmonic effects in the renormalized eigenvalues at finite atomic displacements are explored with the frozen-phonon method. We use a nonperturbative expression for the ZPR, going beyond the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory. Our results indicate that high-order electron-phonon coupling terms contribute significantly to the zero-point renormalization for certain materials.

  7. Fundamentals of charged devices: Energy changes in a capacitor medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. S.; Baudry, L.

    2013-03-01

    Capacitors and derivative devices continue to be as relevant as ever, both at the frontiers of scientific and technological research and in the development of commercial products. Central to such pursuits is the essential requirement that all aspects of the work done in charging or discharging capacitors are clearly understood. Surprisingly, there is a very significant disagreement among standard texts and journal publications regarding this topic. The present work elaborates a thorough analysis of energy changes in a capacitor medium in terms of thermodynamic work and its extension to the more general, electrostatic energy change. Our conclusions agree, for example, with those of Volker Heine, but not with texts by Pippard or Callen. We also note that electric and magnetic analogues are not equivalent.

  8. [Post-polio syndrome - a case report].

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, Żanna; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; Stępień, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Post-polio syndrome occurs 30-40 years after polio virus infection. The main symptoms of PPS are slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia. In 90% of patients the main symptom is fatigue that leads to physical and mental activity deterioration. The cause of disease remains unknown. Probably it is an effect of motoneurons damage during acute virus polio infection, their overloading and degeneration of remaining ones. In this study we described a case of man who developed PPS 36 years after Heine-Medin disease. The main symptom was intensification of right limb paresis and muscle atrophy. In electromyography there were damage features of muscle clinically affected and unaffected. Changes in lifestyle made possible to continue occupational activity.

  9. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 7. MFG01 Glossary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    lat oe C % 000 Sj C4 le ’ 4, 4,4 2:4 tj t*K l- X: 44 0’~ k IW- C4 % 40 Go r 00 c ~ IL P v C c -. . v IL zl - 4 1 S . v I .I a w I 1 v c u > c- -FT U 4...CC c .C C aI o , 0 A Z . 6--c 0 cCrV 46 a .0 b. 1 c 1 . Ga, v 0 M 0 44 c c c f-V - 4 0 aLS C C - . l-l - 2 - 0 S- C (~ b , J O’~ 0 .4. hSV b... ~ b...RD-R144 426 INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (ICAM)_ 1 /3 ARCHITECTURE PART 3 VOLUME.. (U) SOFTECH INC WALTHAM MRR HEINE ET RL. SEP 83 RFWRL-TR

  10. An exact solution of spherical mean-field plus a special separable pairing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lianrong; Pan, Feng; Draayer, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    An exact solution of nuclear spherical mean-field plus a special orbit-dependent separable pairing model is studied, of which the separable pairing interaction parameters are obtained by a linear fitting in terms of the single-particle energies considered. The advantage of the model is that, similar to the standard pairing case, it can be solved easily by using the extended Heine-Stieltjes polynomial approach. With the analysis of the model in the ds- and pf-shell subspace, it is shown that this special separable pairing model indeed provides similar pair structures of the model with the original separable pairing interaction, and is obviously better than the standard pairing model in many aspects.

  11. An empirical many-body potential-energy function for aluminum. Application to solid phases and microclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Roy L.; Fang, Jian-Yun

    1992-11-01

    An empirical two-plus-three-body potential, developed by Murrell and co-workers [J. N. Murrell and R. A. Rodriguez-Ruiz, Mol. Phys. 71, 823 (1990)], is applied to the study of fcc aluminum. The parameters in the potential are derived by fitting the experimental phonon-dispersion curves and elastic constants. Calculations, using this potential, on a number of one-, two- and three-dimensional extended systems give results which are in quantitative agreement with recent ab initio calculations [I. J. Robertson, M. C. Payne, and V. Heine, Europhys. Lett. 15, 301 (1991)]. Calculations on small- and medium-sized aluminum clusters give cluster geometries and growth patterns which agree qualitatively with previous ab initio molecular-orbital and density-functional studies.

  12. [European paintings entitled "Jesus Christ as Pharmacist" in the Middle Ages and later].

    PubMed

    Okuda, J

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-eight pictures painted in the Middle Ages and later entitled "Christ as Pharmacist" are shown in a little German book (W. H. Hein, Christus als Apotheker, Govi-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1974). In the three paintings shown here, Christ appears as a pharmacist standing behind a pharmacy table used to compound medicine, and he has a medicinal balance in his left hand. The Christian terms, such as faith, love, and hope, and the drug's name are written on each of the drug vase labels. It seems that the purpose of displaying these paintings in a pharmacy was both to propagate Christianity to the poor who bought medicine at their family pharmacy and to win their respect for the pharmacist.

  13. Quantum chemistry without diagonalization: An extension of the Lanczos method to molecules and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, Roland; Benard, Marc

    1991-01-01

    We implement here the recursion method and its extensions to the case of nonorthogonal bases (Riedinger et al., 1989) for determining the electronic structure of molecules of intermediate size. The recursion method, which is a variant of the Lanczos method, has been introduced by Heine, Haydock, and Kelly in solid state physics during the 1970s. It provides an invaluable tool for studying the electronic structure of solids and amorphs in direct space, without explicit diagonalization, in the case of orthogonal bases. Applications with nonorthogonal bases are made on the decavanadate ion (V10O28)6-, described within the extended Hückel model. Our extension of the recursion method may even be applied to molecules of large size or to infinite systems, where the usual methods of quantum chemistry fail. It applies to crystals as well as to glasses and molecules, for which no translational symmetry exists.

  14. Liberals think more analytically (more "WEIRD") than conservatives.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, Thomas; Haidt, Jonathan; Oishi, Shigehiro; Zhang, Xuemin; Miao, Felicity F; Chen, Shimin

    2015-02-01

    Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan summarized cultural differences in psychology and argued that people from one particular culture are outliers: people from societies that are Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD). This study shows that liberals think WEIRDer than conservatives. In five studies with more than 5,000 participants, we found that liberals think more analytically (an element of WEIRD thought) than moderates and conservatives. Study 3 replicates this finding in the very different political culture of China, although it held only for people in more modernized urban centers. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives in the same country think as if they were from different cultures. Studies 4 to 5 show that briefly training people to think analytically causes them to form more liberal opinions, whereas training them to think holistically causes shifts to more conservative opinions.

  15. Stochastic Approach to Phonon-Assisted Optical Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Marios; Patrick, Christopher E.; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-10-01

    We develop a first-principles theory of phonon-assisted optical absorption in semiconductors and insulators which incorporates the temperature dependence of the electronic structure. We show that the Hall-Bardeen-Blatt theory of indirect optical absorption and the Allen-Heine theory of temperature-dependent band structures can be derived from the present formalism by retaining only one-phonon processes. We demonstrate this method by calculating the optical absorption coefficient of silicon using an importance sampling Monte Carlo scheme, and we obtain temperature-dependent line shapes and band gaps in good agreement with experiment. The present approach opens the way to predictive calculations of the optical properties of solids at finite temperature.

  16. Commercial DNA Probes for Mycobacteria Incorrectly Identify a Number of Less Frequently Encountered Species▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Pecorari, Monica; Fabio, Giuliana; Messinò, Massimino; Fabio, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Although commercially available DNA probes for identification of mycobacteria have been investigated with large numbers of strains, nothing is known about the ability of these probes to identify less frequently encountered species. We analyzed, with INNO LiPA MYCOBACTERIA (Innogenetics) and with GenoType Mycobacterium (Hein), 317 strains, belonging to 136 species, 61 of which had never been assayed before. INNO LiPA misidentified 20 taxa, the majority of which cross-reacted with the probes specific for Mycobacterium fortuitum and the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum group. GenoType misidentified 28 taxa, most of which cross-reacted with M. intracellulare and M. fortuitum probes; furthermore, eight species were not recognized as members of the genus Mycobacterium. Among 54 strains investigated with AccuProbe (Gen-Probe), cross-reactions were detected for nine species, with the probes aiming at the M. avium complex being most involved in cross-reactions. PMID:19906898

  17. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  18. The Transverse Effective Charge of the IV-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Shindo, Koichi

    1981-10-01

    Littlewood’s assumption in the calculation of the transverse effective charge (TEC) of IV-VI compound semiconductors is studied by the simple calculation at W-point on the Jones zone surfaces based on the Heine-Jones model. It is shown that the main peak of optical absorption spectrum cannot be assigned only to (111) component of the effective charge in contrast with Littlewood’s assumption. The TEC is directly calculated by executing the band calculation with the potential obtained by the EPM in the framework of Vogl’s expression. The calculated result gives better agreement with experiment than Littlewood’s. The acoustic sum rule is also studied by using the similar formulation given by Vogl.

  19. Development of an interdisciplinary model cluster for tidal water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Stephan; Winterscheid, Axel; Jens, Wyrwa; Hartmut, Hein; Birte, Hein; Stefan, Vollmer; Andreas, Schöl

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change has a high potential to influence both the persistence and the transport pathways of water masses and its constituents in tidal waters and estuaries. These processes are linked through dispersion processes, thus directly influencing the sediment and solid suspend matter budgets, and thus the river morphology. Furthermore, the hydrologic regime has an impact on the transport of nutrients, phytoplankton, suspended matter, and temperature that determine the oxygen content within water masses, which is a major parameter describing the water quality. This project aims at the implementation of a so-called (numerical) model cluster in tidal waters, which includes the model compartments hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. For the implementation of this cluster it is required to continue with the integration of different models that work in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The model cluster is thus suggested to lead to a more precise knowledge of the feedback processes between the single interdisciplinary model compartments. In addition to field measurements this model cluster will provide a complementary scientific basis required to address a spectrum of research questions concerning the integral management of estuaries within the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG, Germany). This will in particular include aspects like sediment and water quality management as well as adaptation strategies to climate change. The core of the model cluster will consist of the 3D-hydrodynamic model Delft3D (Roelvink and van Banning, 1994), long-term hydrodynamics in the estuaries are simulated with the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model HAMSOM (Backhaus, 1983; Hein et al., 2012). The simulation results will be compared with the unstructured grid based SELFE model (Zhang and Bapista, 2008). The additional coupling of the BfG-developed 1D-water quality model QSim (Kirchesch and Schöl, 1999; Hein et al., 2011) with the morphological/hydrodynamic models is an

  20. Technology transfer: Kuwait--a quarter-century of progress.

    PubMed

    Millstein, Charles B

    2008-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, skill, and technology from resource-rich countries to resource-constrained countries is a valuable tool in improving global health. During an important period in dental history, one individual made this type of transfer a reality. John W. Hein was director of the Forsyth Dental Center in Boston when he wrote a short article in 1986 defining technology transfer. For it to be successful, either within a first-world, developed country or in a third-world, developing country, he determined that certain proven procedures should be followed, maintained, and updated. This paper will outline the development of his strategy for technology transfer, as well as its successful application in Kuwait.

  1. Study of thermodynamic properties of liquid binary alloys by a pseudopotential method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2010-11-01

    On the basis of the Percus-Yevick hard-sphere model as a reference system and the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality, a thermodynamic perturbation method is applied with the use of the well-known model potential. By applying a variational method, the hard-core diameters are found which correspond to a minimum free energy. With this procedure, the thermodynamic properties such as the internal energy, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, entropy of mixing, and heat of mixing are computed for liquid NaK binary systems. The influence of the local-field correction functions of Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru-Utsumi, Farid-Heine-Engel-Robertson, and Sarkar-Sen-Haldar-Roy is also investigated. The computed excess entropy is in agreement with available experimental data in the case of liquid alloys, whereas the agreement for the heat of mixing is poor. This may be due to the sensitivity of the latter to the potential parameters and dielectric function.

  2. Denture plaque distribution and the effectiveness of a perborate-containing denture cleanser.

    PubMed

    Keng, S B; Lim, M

    1996-05-01

    Formation of plaque on the surfaces of dentures is a common problem among denture wearers. A study was conducted to determine the distribution of plaque on dentures. The plaque material was disclosed with a dye solution and measured with a modified Quigley-Hein scale. A photographic method was used to determine the distribution of plaque on the dentures of a group of complete-denture wearers. The effectiveness of a perborate soak-type cleanser was also measured by studying the precleaned and postcleaned states of the denture. Denture plaque was more evident on the fitting surfaces of the dentures than on areas of the flange, teeth, and palate. The use of the soak-type cleanser alone may not be completely effective for the control of heavy plaque.

  3. Pushing the limits of first-principles electron-phonon calculations: from photoemission kinks to band gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giustino, Feliciano

    2012-02-01

    The electron-phonon interaction is key to some of the most intriguing and technologically important phenomena in condensed matter physics, ranging from superconductivity to charge density waves, electrical resistivity, and thermoelectricity. Starting from the late nineties first-principles calculations of electron-phonon interactions in metals have become increasingly popular, mainly in connection with the study of conventional superconductors and with the interpretation of angle-resolved photoemission experiments. In contrast, progress on first-principles calculations of electron-phonon interactions in insulators has been comparatively slower. This delay is arguably due to the conventional wisdom that the signatures of electron-phonon interactions in semiconductor band structures are so small that they fall within the error bar of the most accurate electronic structure calculations. In order to fill this gap we developed, within the context of state-of-the-art density-functional techniques, a theory proposed by Allen and Heine for calculating the temperature dependence of band gaps in semiconductors [P. B. Allen, V. Heine, J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 69, 2305 (1976)]. This methodology allows us to calculate both the temperature dependence of the quasiparticle energies and the renormalization due to zero-point quantum fluctuations. In order to demonstrate this technique an application to the intriguing case of diamond will be discussed [F. Giustino, S. G. Louie, M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 265501 (2010)]. In this case the calculated temperature dependence of the direct band gap agrees well with spectroscopic ellipsometry data, and the renormalization due to the electron-phonon interaction is found to be spectacularly large (>0.6 eV). This unexpected finding might be only the tip of the iceberg in a research area which remains largely unexplored and which, from a first glimpse, appears rich of surprises.

  4. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.

  5. Manganese nodules

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Harff, Jan; Petersen, Sven; Thiede, Jorn

    2016-01-01

    The existence of manganese (Mn) nodules (Figure 1) has been known since the late 1800s when they were collected during the Challenger expedition of 1873–1876. However, it was not until after WWII that nodules were further studied in detail for their ability to adsorb metals from seawater. Many of the early studies did not distinguish Mn nodules from Mn crusts. Economic interest in Mn nodules began in the late 1950s and early 1960s when John Mero finished his Ph.D. thesis on this subject, which was published in the journal Economic Geology (Mero, 1962) and later as a book (Mero, 1965). By the mid-1970s, large consortia had formed to search for and mine Mn nodules that occur between the Clarion and Clipperton fracture zones (CCZ) in the NE Pacific (Figure 2). This is still the area considered of greatest economic potential in the global ocean because of high nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), and Mn contents and the dense distribution of nodules in the area. While the mining of nodules was fully expected to begin in the late 1970s or early 1980s, this never occurred due to a downturn in the price of metals on the global market. Since then, many research cruises have been undertaken to study the CCZ nodules, and now 15 contracts for exploration sites have been given or are pending by the International Seabed Authority (ISA). Many books and science journal articles have been published summarizing the early work (e.g., Baturin, 1988; Halbach et al., 1988), and research has continued to the present day (e.g., ISA, 1999; ISA, 2010). Although the initial attraction for nodules was their high Ni, Cu, and Mn contents, subsequent work has shown that nodules host large quantities of other critical metals needed for high-tech, green-tech, and energy applications (Hein et al., 2013; Hein and Koschinsky, 2014).

  6. The First Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary Candidate Identified through Dynamics of Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs) is one of the long-standing problems in star formation because the typical Jeans mass in molecular clouds is too large to form these substellar objects. To answer this question, it is crucial to study a BD at the embedded phase (proto-brown dwarf). IRAS16253 is classified as a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO, L int < 0.1L ⊙), which is considered as a proto-brown dwarf candidate. We use the IRAM 30m, APEX telescopes and the SMA to probe the molecular jet/outflow driven by IRAS 16253 in CO (2-1), (6-5), and (7-6) and study its dynamical features and physical properties. We detect a wiggling pattern in the position-velocity diagrams of the jets. Assuming that this pattern is due to the orbital motion of a binary system, we obtain the current mass of the binary is ~0.026 M ⊙. Together with the low parent core mass, IRAS16253 will likely form one or two proto-BD in the future. This is the first time that the current mass of a proto-BD binary system is identified through the dynamics of the jets. Since IRAS16253 is located in an isolated environment, we suggest that BDs can form through fragmentation and collapse like low mass stars.

  7. Extremely Low Mass: The Circumstellar Envelope of a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    What is the environment for planet formation around extremely low mass stars? Is the environment around brown dwarfs and extremely low mass stars conducive and sufficiently massive for planet production? The determining conditions may be set very early in the process of the host object's formation. IRAS 16253-2429, the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated, very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet, indicating environmental disruption. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source to be one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known, and discuss the ramifications for planet formation potential in this extremely low mass system.

  8. Efficacy of a non-drinking mental simulation intervention for reducing student alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Conroy, Dominic; Sparks, Paul; de Visser, Richard

    2015-11-01

    days' per week (NHS, 2014). Benefits of, and strategies involved in, social non-drinking exist (Conroy & de Visser, 2014). Mental simulation interventions may help reduce student drinking (Hagger, Lonsdale, & Chatzisarantis, 2012; Hagger, Lonsdale, Koka et al., 2012). What does this study add? Demonstrates efficacy of a novel 'non-drinking' mental simulation exercise. Suggests that healthier alcohol prototypes can be encouraged via a health promotion intervention. Shows potential utility of 'episodic non-drinking' as an indicator of health-adherent drinking. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Evidence for Neoarchaean extensional faults in the Vredefort Dome, South Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    mashabela, sello

    2013-04-01

    -2643 Ma) of the Ventersdorp Supergroup. The association potentially means that the Vredefort collar hosts rotated Ventersdorp-age extensional faults or a rift system of faults that predate impact-induced structures. 1. Manzi, M.S.D., Durrheim, R.J., Hein, K.A.A., King N., 2012. 3D edge detection seismic attributes used to map potential conduits for water and methane in deep gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. Geophysics 77 (5), 1-16. 2. Manzi, M., Gibson, M. A.S., Hein, K.A.A., King, N., Durrheim, R.J., 2012. Application of 3D Seismic techniques in evaluation of ore resources in the West Wits Line goldfield and portions of the West Rand Goldfield, South Africa. Geophysics 77, 1-9. 3. Manzi, M., Hein, K.A.A., King, N, Durrheim, R.J., submitted. NeoArchaean tectonic history of the Witwatersrand Basin and Ventersdorp Supergroup: New Constraints from high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data. Tectonophysics

  10. Macroscopic character of composite high-temperature superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, S. A.; Spivak, B.

    2015-11-01

    The "d -wave" symmetry of the superconducting order in the cuprate high temperature superconductors is a well established fact [J. Tsuei and J. R. Kirtley, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 969 (2000), 10.1103/RevModPhys.72.969 and D. J. Vanharlingen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 67, 515 (1995), 10.1103/RevModPhys.67.515], and one which identifies them as "unconventional." However, in macroscopic contexts—including many potential applications (i.e., superconducting "wires")—the material is a composite of randomly oriented superconducting grains in a metallic matrix, in which Josephson coupling between grains mediates the onset of long-range phase coherence. [See, e.g., D. C. Larbalestier et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 375 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3887, A. P. Malozemoff, MRS Bull. 36, 601 (2011), 10.1557/mrs.2011.160, and K. Heine et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2441 (1989), 10.1063/1.102295] Here we analyze the physics at length scales that are large compared to the size of such grains, and in particular the macroscopic character of the long-range order that emerges. While X Y -superconducting glass order and macroscopic d -wave superconductivity may be possible, we show that under many circumstances—especially when the d -wave superconducting grains are embedded in a metallic matrix—the most likely order has global s -wave symmetry.

  11. Validity and reliability of autofluorescence-based quantification method of dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Han, Sun-Young; Kim, Bo-Ra; Ko, Hae-Youn; Kwon, Ho-Keun; Kim, Baek-Il

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of autofluorescence-based plaque quantification (APQ) method. The facial surfaces of 600 sound anterior teeth of 50 subjects were examined. The subjects received dental plaque examination using Turesky modified Quigley Hein plaque index (QHI) and Silness & Löe plaque index (SLI). The autofluorescence images were taken before the plaque examination with Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence-Digital, and plaque percent index (PPI) was calculated. Correlation between two existing plaque indices and the PPI of the APQ method was evaluated to find which level of plaque redness on tooth (ΔR) by the APQ method shows the highest correlation. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) analysis and intra- and inter-examiner reliability tests were performed. The PPIΔR20 of the APQ method showed a moderate correlation with two existing plaque indices (rho of QHI=0.48, SLI=0.51). This methodology fell in the fair category and it had an excellent reliability. The APQ method also showed possibility to detect heavy plaque with fair validity. The APQ method demonstrated excellent reliability, and fair validity, compared with 2 conventional indices. The plaque quantification described has the potential to be used in clinical evaluation of oral hygiene procedures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The presence of Spinoza in the exchanges between Sigmund Freud and Romain Rolland.

    PubMed

    Vermorel, Henri

    2009-12-01

    Although Freud recognized his profound affinity with Spinoza, we seldom find explicit and direct references to the philosopher in his works. The correspondence between Romain Rolland, the 'Christian without a church', and Freud, the 'atheist Jew', is full of Spinozian reminiscences that nourish their works of this period and are underpinned by their mutual transference. The Future of an Illusion is written according to a Spinozian blueprint and aims at replacing religion, qualified as superstition, by psychoanalysis. A quotation from Heine, 'brother in unbelief', is a direct reference to Spinoza. Concurring with Freud's critiques of dogmas and churches, Rolland proposes an analysis of the 'oceanic feeling' as a basis of the religious sentiment. Freud replies with Civilization and Its Discontents. In 1936, on the occasion of Rolland's 70th birthday, Freud sends him an open letter, A disturbance of memory on the Acropolis, where the strange feeling that he has experienced in front of the Parthenon refers inter alia to his double culture: Jewish and German. In the light of this correspondence, the creation of psychoanalysis turns out to be a quest for the sacred that has disappeared in modernity; Freud, though, was able to find it inside man's unconscious.

  13. Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Satyawan G.; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. Results: The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Conclusion: Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health. PMID:25374836

  14. Neutron scattering studies of short-range order, atomic displacements, and effective pair interactions in a null-matrix Ni0.5262Pt0.48 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. A.; Moss, S. C.; Robertson, J. L.; Copley, J. R. D.; Neumann, D. A.; Major, J.

    2006-09-01

    The best known exception to the Heine-Sampson and Bieber-Gauthier arguments for ordering effects in transition metal alloys (similar to the Hume-Rothery rules) is a NiPt alloy, whose phase diagram is similar to that of the CuAu system. Using neutron scattering we have investigated the local atomic order in a null-matrix Ni0.5262Pt0.48 single crystal. In a null-matrix alloy, the isotopic composition is adjusted so that the average neutron scattering length vanishes ( Ni62 has a negative scattering length nearly equal in magnitude to that of Pt). Consequently, all contributions to the total scattering depending on the average lattice are suppressed. The only remaining components of the elastic scattering are the short-range order (SRO) and size effect terms. These data permit the extraction of the SRO parameters (concentration-concentration correlations) as well as the displacement parameters (concentration-displacement correlations). Using the Krivoglaz-Clapp-Moss theory, we obtain the effective pair interactions (EPIs) between near neighbors in the alloy. The results can be used by theorists to model the alloy in the context of the electronic theory of alloy phase stability, including a preliminary evaluation of the local species-dependent displacements. Our maps of V(q) , the Fourier transform of the EPIs, show very similar shapes in the experimental and reconstructed data. This is of importance when comparing to electronic structure calculations.

  15. Temperature Dependence of the Energy Levels of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite from First-Principles.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Wissam A; Poncé, Samuel; Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-12-15

    Environmental effects and intrinsic energy-loss processes lead to fluctuations in the operational temperature of solar cells, which can profoundly influence their power conversion efficiency. Here we determine from first-principles the effects of temperature on the band gap and band edges of the hybrid pervoskite CH3NH3PbI3 by accounting for electron-phonon coupling and thermal expansion. From 290 to 380 K, the computed band gap change of 40 meV coincides with the experimental change of 30-40 meV. The calculation of electron-phonon coupling in CH3NH3PbI3 is particularly intricate as the commonly used Allen-Heine-Cardona theory overestimates the band gap change with temperature, and excellent agreement with experiment is only obtained when including high-order terms in the electron-phonon interaction. We also find that spin-orbit coupling enhances the electron-phonon coupling strength but that the inclusion of nonlocal correlations using hybrid functionals has little effect. We reach similar conclusions in the metal-halide perovskite CsPbI3. Our results unambiguously confirm for the first time the importance of high-order terms in the electron-phonon coupling by direct comparison with experiment.

  16. Cage-Core Interactions in Fullerenes Enclosing Metal Clusters with Multiple Scandium and Yttrium Atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Liu; Hagelberg, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Pronounced stability has been reported for metallofullerenes of the form NSc3@CN (N = 68, 78) /1/. In response of these and related findings, Density Functional Theory studies have been performed on the relation between cage-core interactions and the geometry as well as stability of endofullerenes with metal impurities containing Sc and Y. Substantial electron transfer from the metal core to the fullerene cage combines with electron backdonation, involving the interaction between the occupied orbitals of the negatively charged cage and the unoccupied d orbitals of the positively charged core. The Hueckel 4n+2 rule, well established in organic chemistry, is shown to provide a valuable heuristic tool for understanding the intramolecular electron transfer and the related stability gain /1/. The usefulness of the aromaticity concept for explaining and predicting the architecture of metallofullerenes is further exemplified by the units Sc2@C84 and Y2@C84 which were analyzed in spin triplet and singlet conditions. The Sc2 core turns out to be realized by two separated ions, while Y2 forms a bound subunit. These findings are in agreement with conclusions based on the 4n + 2 rule, assisted by Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) calculations. /1/ Stevenson, S.; Fowler, P.W.; Heine, T.; Duchamp, J.C.; Rice, G.; Glass, T.; Harich, K.; Hadju, F.; Bible, R.; Dorn, H.C. Nature, 2000, 408, 427, /2/ S. S. Park, D. Liu, F. Hagelberg, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 8865 (2005).

  17. Zero-point motion effect on the bandgap of diamond: validation of codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poncé, Samuel; Antonius, Gabriel; Boulanger, Paul; Cannuccia, Elena; Marini, Andrea; Côté, Michel; Gonze, Xavier

    2014-03-01

    Verification and validation of codes, as well as new theoretical methods, are of utmost importance if one wants to provide reliable results. In this work we present a rigorous and careful study of all the quantities that enters into the calculation of the zero point motion renormalization of the direct band gap of diamond due to electron-phonon coupling. This study has been done within the Allen-Heine-Cardona (AHC) formalism as implemented into Abinit and Yambo on top of Quantum Espresso. We aim at quantifying the agreement between the codes for the different quantities of interest. This study shows that one can get less than 10-5 Ha / at differences on the total energy, 0.07 cm-1 on the phonon frequencies, 0.5% on the electron-phonon matrix elements and less than 4 meV on the zero-point motion renormalization. At the LDA level, the converged direct bandgap renormalization in diamond due to electron-phonon coupling in the AHC formalism is -409 meV (reduction of the band gap). This work was supported by the FRS-FNRS through a FRIA grant (S.P.). A. M. acknowledges funding by MIUR FIRB Grant No. RBFR12SW0J.

  18. [History of artificial limbs for the leg].

    PubMed

    Wetz, H H; Gisbertz, D

    2000-12-01

    Following the development of prosthetics for the lower limb since the middle of the 18th century one will find very interesting similarities to modern prostheses. This becomes evident when looking at former knee and ankle joint mechanisms or socket designs. Also, the materials used for the prostheses underwent very interesting variations. In our paper we will describe the development of socket designs and several materials from the beginning of the 19th century. Several still obtainable books dealing with 200 years of prosthetics development, were reviewed. Charles White describes in the year 1761 a supramalleolar amputation using the flap technique and the specially built BK prostheses the socket. V. Brünninghausen describes in 1809 a socket made of tin sheet. It was built oval, as the normal transverse section of the thigh is. Stump adhesion was obtained when a shortly trimmed dog fur--panelling the socket and covering the stump--was attached like brushes end on end. A similar fitting was described by Heine in 1811, v. Dornblüth in 1831, and Mrs. Eichler in 1836. Hermann first mentioned the need of a perpendicular construction of prostheses. Parmelee developed in 1868 the first suction socket. The first tuber-enclosing socketdesign was made by Riedel in 1911. We will show documents from this time and will also show, that muscle-physiological aspects had a very important influence on socket designs.

  19. Subsurface temperature signature of a large Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in the North Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, J.; Gosnold, W.; Unsworth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent results from a 2.3km deep temperature log in northern Alberta, Canada acquired as part of the University of Alberta Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI) geothermal energy project in 2010-2011shows that there is a significant increase in thermal gradient in the granites. Inversion of the measured T-z profile between 550 - 2320 m indicates a temperature increase of 9.6 ± 0.3 °C, at 13.0 ± 0.6 ka and that the glacial base surface temperature was - 4.4± 0.3 °C. This inversion computation accounted for granite heat production of 3 µW/m3. This is the largest amplitude of Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in Canada inferred from borehole temperature logs, and is compatible with the results of similar studies in Eurasia (KTB, Outokumpu, Torun-1 etc.) reported previously. Reference: Majorowicz, J., Unsworth, M., Chacko, T., Gray, A., Heaman L., Potter, D., Schmitt, D., and Babadagli, T., 2011. Geothermal energy as a source of heat for oilsands processing in northern Alberta, Canada, in: Hein, F. J., Leckie, D., Suter , J., and Larter, S., (Eds), Heavy Oil/Bitumen Petroleum Systems in Alberta and beyond, AAPG Mem., in press.

  20. Comparative evaluation of the antiplaque effectiveness of green tea catechin mouthwash with chlorhexidine gluconate

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harjit; Jain, Sanjeev; Kaur, Amritpal

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of green tea catechin mouthwash with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. Materials and Methods: A single blinded cross-over study was conducted among 30 participants in the age group of 18-25 years. The mouthwash samples for the study were previously labeled assigning the letters: A (0.25% of green tea catechin mouthwash) and B (0.12% of chlorhexidine mouthwash). The study subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 15 each and the study was divided into two phases. In phase I, the mouthwash A was given to one group and other group was given mouthwash B. After a 15 day washout period, in phase II, both groups were given other mouthwash. At the end of each phase of 1 week, plaque score was recorded by using Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein plaque index. Results: The plaque scores were compared and the difference between the green tea catechin and chlorhexidine mouthwash was determined by t-test. The difference between plaque scores were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The results showed that both the groups that is green tea catechin mouthwash (0.25%) and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.12%) have comparable results in plaque reduction. Conclusion: This study supports the effectiveness of green tea catechin mouthwash as an antiplaque agent. It should be explored as a cost-effective, long-term antiplaque rinse with prophylactic benefits. PMID:24872625

  1. Effects of a Novel Dental Gel on Plaque and Gingivitis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah, M; Chung, NE; Ajdaharian, J; Wink, C; Klokkevold, P; Wilder-Smith, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of a novel dental gel on plaque and gingival health. The dental gel was designed to (1) break up and prevent re-accumulation of microbial biofilm, and (2) inhibit metal mediated inflammation. Materials and Methods Twenty-five subjects with moderate gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index ≥2) and pocket depths <4 were randomly assigned to brush twice daily for 21 days with the test or the control dental gel. On Days 0, 7, 14 and 21, plaque levels (Quigley-Hein, Turesky Modification Plaque Index), gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index) and gingival bleeding (modified Sulcus Bleeding Index) were determined by one blinded, investigator using a pressure sensitive probe. Results After 3 weeks, all 3 clinical indices were significantly improved in both groups (P<0.05) and significantly lower in the test group (P<0.05). Conclusion The novel dental gel formulation was provided effective plaque control and reduced gingival inflammation. Clinical Relevance A novel dentifrice formulation may be an effective tool for plaque removal and maintaining gingival health. PMID:26052472

  2. Illumination frame of reference in the object-reviewing paradigm: A case of luminance and lightness.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Anja; Moore, Cathleen M

    2015-12-01

    The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1992) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) to contrast the effects of objects' luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects' luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects. In contrast, when objects were presented on the checkershadow illusion background which provided an explanation for the luminance switch, a reliable object-specific preview benefit was observed. This suggests that object correspondence as measured by the object-reviewing paradigm can be influenced by scene-induced, perceived lightness of objects' surfaces. We replicated this finding and moreover showed that the scene context only influences the object-specific preview benefit if the objects are perceived as part of the background scene.

  3. The effectiveness of a musical toothbrush for dental plaque removal: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, M; Shah, S; Parikh, D; Choudhary, P; Bhaskar, V

    2012-01-01

    the purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate and compare the efficacy of "Brush Buddies" musical tooth brush and Colgate Smile tooth brush in the reduction of established plaque and gingivitis. for this study, 120 healthy kids (73 boys and 47 Girls) were selected. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups by a second examiner; one group used Colgate Smile brush and the other group used "Brush Buddies" musical tooth brush. Plaque index (Quigley and Hein), Modified Gingival Index (Lobene and Associates) and Gingival Bleeding Index (Ainamo and Bay) were assessed at baseline, 30th day, 60th day, and 90th day. all the baseline indices appeared to be well balanced. At the end of the study, reduction in plaque index, modified gingival index and gingival bleeding index were statistically highly significant during each interval for both the toothbrushes. For "Brush Buddies" musical tooth brush, the reduction in all clinical parameters were statistically significant for 30 days and 60 days interval, while nonsignificant at 90 days interval. both the tooth brushes used in this study were clinically effective in removing plaque, improving gingival health. Musical tooth brush is more effective initially but as the time period increases both tooth brushes give almost similar results.

  4. Gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old Burmese children following participation in a 2-year school-based toothbrushing programme.

    PubMed

    Rosema, N A M; van Palenstein Helderman, W H; Van der Weijden, G A

    2012-08-01

    The present study assessed whether gingivitis and plaque scores of 8- to 11-year-old school children who participated in a SBTB programme for 2 years were lower than those of children who did not participate in the programme. The present study was performed using an examiner-blind, parallel group design and was performed in Burma (Myanmar) in 2006. Three of the five schools where daily SBTB programmes took place after lunch and which were performed under teacher supervision were randomly selected; three non-participating schools (non-SBTB) from the same area were assigned as controls. Twenty-five children per school were examined for gingivitis (bleeding on marginal probing) and plaque (Quigley & Hein). In total, 150 8- to 11-year-old children participated, with 75 children in either group. The test group (SBTB) exhibited an overall mean bleeding score of 0.76. For the control group (non-SBTB), this score was 0.83. With respect to the overall mean plaque scores, the test group exhibited a score of 2.93, whereas the control group exhibited a score of 2.91. No statistically significant differences between the test and the control group were observed. The present study did not reveal a statistically significant effect of daily SBTB programmes in 8- to 11-year-old school children with respect to gingivitis and plaque scores. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Efficacy of chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwashes in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A comparative clinical study.

    PubMed

    Priya, B Meena; Anitha, V; Shanmugam, M; Ashwath, B; Sylva, Suganthi D; Vigneshwari, S K

    2015-01-01

    The intake of green tea has been increased recently due to its medicinal values. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of green tea were found to be beneficial in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The aim of this comparative study was to compare the efficacy of the mouthwash containing green tea and chlorhexidine in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis. Thirty patients who participated in the study were divided randomly into two groups, each group of 15 patients was prescribed with either chlorhexidine or green tea mouthwash. Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index, Löe and Silness gingival index, Ainamo and Bay bleeding index, tooth stain, and tongue stain (TS) were recorded at baseline, 15 days, and 1 month. The subjects were asked to report any discomfort or alteration in taste. There was a significant decrease in plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding index in both the groups. However, green tea mouthwash resulted in a statistically significant decrease in bleeding index compared to chlorhexidine group. There was no significant difference in tooth stain and TS in both the groups. The green tea-containing mouthwash is equally effective in reducing the gingival inflammation and plaque to chlorhexidine.

  6. Efficacy of chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwashes in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Priya, B. Meena; Anitha, V.; Shanmugam, M.; Ashwath, B.; Sylva, Suganthi D.; Vigneshwari, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The intake of green tea has been increased recently due to its medicinal values. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of green tea were found to be beneficial in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The aim of this comparative study was to compare the efficacy of the mouthwash containing green tea and chlorhexidine in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who participated in the study were divided randomly into two groups, each group of 15 patients was prescribed with either chlorhexidine or green tea mouthwash. Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index, Löe and Silness gingival index, Ainamo and Bay bleeding index, tooth stain, and tongue stain (TS) were recorded at baseline, 15 days, and 1 month. The subjects were asked to report any discomfort or alteration in taste. Results: There was a significant decrease in plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding index in both the groups. However, green tea mouthwash resulted in a statistically significant decrease in bleeding index compared to chlorhexidine group. There was no significant difference in tooth stain and TS in both the groups. Conclusion: The green tea-containing mouthwash is equally effective in reducing the gingival inflammation and plaque to chlorhexidine. PMID:26681856

  7. [Clinical observation of toothpaste containing zanthoxylum nitidum extract on dental plaque and gingivitis].

    PubMed

    Wan, Hu-chun; Hu, De-yu; Liu, Hong-chun

    2005-11-01

    To observe the clinical efficacy of drug toothpaste containing 2% Zanthoxylum Nitidum extract in reducing accumulation of dental plaque and occurrence of gingivitis in adults. Adopting double-blind, stratified and parallel design, the status of dental plaque and gingivitis in 200 healthy adults enrolled in the trial (100 in the treated group took the drug toothpaste to clean teeth, and 100 in the control group use common toothpaste instead) were assessed at before experiment, 3 months and 6 months after experiment. At the end of the 3rd month and the 6th month, as compared with the control group, the L e-Silness Gingival Index (GI) in the treated group was decreased by 9.1% (P > 0.05) and 13.9 % (P< 0.5), in the same period, the Quigley-Hein(Turesky Modification) Plaque Index (PlI) decreased by 18.7% and 22.6% (P<0.05), respectively. Toothpaste containing Zanthoxylum Nitidum extract can obviously decrease the incidence of dental plaque and enhance gingival health.

  8. Effect of Cinnamon Extract and Chlorhexidine Gluconate (0.2%) on the Clinical Level of Dental Plaque and Gingival Health: A 4-Week, Triple-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanand; Jain, Ankita

    2015-07-01

    To compare the effect of cinnamon extract, chlorhexidine mouthwash and placebo on dental plaque level and gingivitis. One hundred five healthy dental and medical students aged 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups: i.e., the cinnamon group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the placebo (distilled water) group. Data were collected at baseline, the 15th and the 30th day. Plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Gingival scoring was done by the gingival index of Löe and Silness. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the effect of all three treatments groups; p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The chlorhexidine group showed the maximum decrease in both plaque and gingival scores, followed by cinnamon extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. The plaque and gingival scores remained almost unchanged in the distilled water group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that cinnamon may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level and gingivitis.

  9. Comparative effect of fluoride, essential oil and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis in patients with and without dental caries: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Charugundla, B R; Anjum, S; Mocherla, M

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fluoride, essential oil (EO) and chlorhexidine (CHX)-containing mouth rinses on dental plaque and gingivitis and to compare their relative efficacy in patients with and without dental caries. A randomized, controlled, double- blind, crossover clinical trial was conducted for a period of 8 weeks. Thiry-six qualifying subjects, aged 12-44 years, were included in the study. Subjects were divided into caries and caries-free groups and were randomly assigned to one of the following mouth rinse groups: fluoride; EO; CHX and saline as negative control. Subjects used their respective mouth rinse for a period of 7-days each with 1-week wash-out periods. Primary efficacy variables were Quigley-Hein plaque index (PI) and Loe and Silness gingival index. Fluoride and CHX mouth rinses showed significant reduction in plaque after use of mouth rinses (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed with respect to each other in reducing gingivitis (P > 0.05). Further significant differences were found in reducing plaque and gingivitis in caries-free subjects in comparison to those with caries (P < 0.05). All the three mouth rinses significantly reduced plaque accumulation and gingivitis especially in caries-free subjects in comparison to those with caries, and amongst the three, fluoride and CHX proved to be more effective than EO mouth rinse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The effectiveness of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulphate on dental plaque and gingivitis - a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sälzer, S; Rosema, Nam; Hennequin-Hoenderdos, N L; Slot, D E; Timmer, C; Dörfer, C E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect on dental plaque and gingivitis of a dentifrice without sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS) compared to two SLS-containing dentifrices. For this double-blind, parallel study, 90 volunteers having moderate gingival inflammation (≥40%) were randomly divided among three groups: one group using non-SLS dentifrice containing enzymes, colostrum and low concentrations of zinc and two control groups each using different SLS-containing dentifrices. Dental plaque scores (Turesky modification of Quigley & Hein) and gingivitis scores (Bleeding On Marginal Probing) were assessed at baseline, after 2 and 4 weeks. Eighty-nine participants provided evaluable data. A slight decrease in gingivitis scores was observed for all groups over 4 weeks, which was statistically significant for the non-SLS group. Mean values for dental plaque scores did not show major differences over 4 weeks. For both parameters, no significant differences between groups could be observed at any time point. Patient appreciation was in favour of the SLS groups especially regarding the foaming effect. No significant differences could be observed with respect to the effect on plaque and gingivitis between SLS-containing and SLS-free dentifrice containing enzymes, colostrum and low concentration zinc. Patients enjoyed the duration of taste and the 'foaming effect' of SLS-containing dentifrices better. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Dynamical and anharmonic effects on the electron-phonon coupling and the zero-point renormalization of the band structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonius, Gabriel; Poncé, Samuel; Lantagne-Hurtubise, Étienne; Auclair, Gabriel; Côté, Michel; Gonze, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The electron-phonon coupling in solids renormalizes the band structure, reducing the band gap by several tenths of an eV in light-atoms semiconductors. Using the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory (AHC), we compute the zero-point renormalization (ZPR) as well as the quasiparticle lifetimes of the full band structure in diamond, BN, LiF and MgO. We show how dynamical effects can be included in the AHC theory, and still allow for the use of a Sternheimer equation to avoid the summation over unoccupied bands. The convergence properties of the electron-phonon coupling self-energy with respect to the Brillouin zone sampling prove to be strongly affected by dynamical effects. We complement our study with a frozen-phonon approach, which reproduces the static AHC theory, but also allows to probe the phonon wavefunctions at finite displacements and include anharmonic effects in the self-energy. We show that these high-order components tend to reduce the strongest electron-phonon coupling elements, which affects significantly the band gap ZPR.

  12. Some results and a conjecture on the degree of ill-posedness for integration operators with weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Bernd; von Wolfersdorf, Lothar

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we are looking for answers to the question whether a non-compact linear operator with non-closed range applied to a compact linear operator mapping between Hilbert spaces can, in a specific situation, destroy the degree of ill-posedness determined by the singular value decay rate of the compact operator. We partially generalize a result of Vu Kim Tuan and Gorenflo (1994 Inverse Problems 10 949-55) concerning the non-changing degree of ill-posedness of linear operator equations with fractional integral operators in L2(0, 1) when weight functions appear. For power functions m(t) = tα(α > -1), we prove the asymptotics \\sigma_n(A)\\sim \\frac{\\int_0^1 m(t)\\,dt}{\\pi n} for the singular values of the composite operator [Ax](s) = m(s)∫s0x(t) dt in L2(0, 1). We conjecture this asymptotic behaviour also for exponential functions m(t) = exp(-1/tα)(α > 0) that play some role for the local degree of ill-posedness for a nonlinear inverse problem in option pricing in Hein and Hofmann (2003 Inverse Problems 19 1319-38).

  13. RF waves - Measuring their energy (dBm) in three points into Baia Mare, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop-Vǎdean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Barz, C.; Lung, C.

    2016-02-01

    For the general public - and even for people with a science education - knowing to be subject to Radio Frequency (RF) radiation may arouse a feeling of uneasiness or even fear. Those feelings are instigated by the fact that you cannot see, hear, smell or feel RF radiation. Furthermore, the term „radiation” in itself has become very sensitive from the moment that the hazardous health effects of excessive radioactive decay (ionizing radiation) have become apparent. Media announcements of mostly unconfirmed scientific studies add to the feeling of uneasiness. So, naturally, whenever a new Global System of Mobile communications (GSM) base station is installed in an urban environment, the people living in the neighborhood may get worried. The same applies when we propose to use RF radiation for powering wireless sensors in office and home spaces using harvesting energy sistem (HE).In this paper we determine if the electromagnetic field intensity values, measured at certain points, respect the limits set by law, the protection against risks to human health.

  14. Comparative analysis between hard- and soft-filament toothbrushes related to plaque removal and gingival abrasion.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rosimary de Sousa; Rossi, Vanessa; Weidlich, Patrícia; Oppermann, Rui Vicente

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this split-mouth, examiner-blind study was to compare the dental plaque removal and incidence of gingival abrasion associated with the use of hard- and soft-filament toothbrushes. The test group consisted of 20 non-dental students, mean age 25 years. After a three-day period of plaque accumulation following the use of a disclosing solution, the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index was recorded, while the presence of gingival abrasion was measured from photographs. Pairs of quadrants 1-3 and 2-4 were allocated to supervised brushing with hard- or soft-filament toothbrushes for 30 seconds, limited to the buccal aspects of the teeth. Plaque levels and gingival abrasion were again assessed. Initial and final values of the plaque index and the mean number of abrasions were compared with the Friedman and Wilcoxon tests (p < or = 0.05). Plaque indices were reduced significantly from a baseline of 4.12 in both groups to 1.21 after the use of hard-filament toothbrushes, and to 1.67 after the use of soft-filament toothbrushes. The use of hard-filament toothbrushes resulted in a significantly higher mean number of lesions when compared to the soft-filament toothbrushes; 11.6 and 7.9, respectively (p = 0.018). Hard-filament toothbrushes remove more plaque than soft filament brushes, but also cause a higher number of gingival abrasions.

  15. A clinical trial testing the efficacy of an ionic toothbrush for reducing plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha; Luz, Patrícia Blaya; Villarinho, Eduardo Aydos; Petri, Luciano Costa; Weidlich, Patrícia; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the efficacy of an ionic toothbrush on reducing plaque and gingivitis. Twenty first-year dental students were included in the study. Ten individuals were randomly assigned to use either an ionic or a conventional toothbrush. Two periods of 28 days each were used with each brush, with a wash-out period of 14 days. A calibrated examiner used the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (QHI) and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) on six sites per tooth, on all teeth, both pre- and post-brushing. The examiner was unaware of the toothbrush used by the subjects. Means were calculated, and for intra and inter-group comparisons a paired sample t-test was used (alpha = 0.05). On buccal-lingual surfaces, both toothbrushes significantly reduced plaque; there was no statistically significant difference between the two toothbrushes (1.56 and 1.52 for ionic and conventional toothbrushes, respectively). In interdental spaces, an increase of QHI was detected for both brushes, but without significant differences between them. For the GBI on buccal/lingual surfaces, no significant differences were detected between toothbrushes. The GBI did not significantly change for either toothbrush on interdental surfaces during the study period. The ionic and the conventional toothbrushes did not present statistically significant differences on plaque and gingival bleeding reductions.

  16. [Evaluation of dental plaque by quantitative digital image analysis system].

    PubMed

    Huang, Z; Luan, Q X

    2016-04-18

    To analyze the plaque staining image by using image analysis software, to verify the maneuverability, practicability and repeatability of this technique, and to evaluate the influence of different plaque stains. In the study, 30 volunteers were enrolled from the new dental students of Peking University Health Science Center in accordance with the inclusion criteria. The digital images of the anterior teeth were acquired after plaque stained according to filming standardization.The image analysis was performed using Image Pro Plus 7.0, and the Quigley-Hein plaque indexes of the anterior teeth were evaluated. The plaque stain area percentage and the corresponding dental plaque index were highly correlated,and the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.776 (P<0.01). Intraclass correlation coefficients of the tooth area and plaque area which two researchers used the software to calculate were 0.956 and 0.930 (P<0.01).The Bland-Altman analysis chart showed only a few spots outside the 95% consistency boundaries. The different plaque stains image analysis results showed that the difference of the tooth area measurements was not significant, while the difference of the plaque area measurements significant (P<0.01). This method is easy in operation and control,highly related to the calculated percentage of plaque area and traditional plaque index, and has good reproducibility.The different plaque staining method has little effect on image segmentation results.The sensitive plaque stain for image analysis is suggested.

  17. Electron-Phonon Renormalization of Electronic Band Structures of C Allotropes and BN Polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutchton, Roxanne M.; Marchbanks, Christopher; Wu, Zhigang

    The effect of lattice vibration on electronic band structures has been mostly neglected in first-principles calculations because the electron-phonon (e-ph) renormalization of quasi-particle energies is often small (< 100 meV). However, in certain materials, such as diamond, the electron-phonon coupling reduces the band gap by nearly 0.5 eV, which is comparable to the many-body corrections of the electronic band structures calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). In this work, we compared two implementations of the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the EPW code and the ABINIT package respectively. Our computations of Si and diamond demonstrate that the ABINIT implementation converges much faster. Using this method, the e-ph renormalizations of electronic structures of three C allotropes (diamond, graphite, graphene) and four BN polymorphs (zincblend, wurtzite, mono-layer, and layered-hexagonal) were calculated. Our results suggest that (1) all of the zero-point renormalizations of band gaps in these materials, except for graphene, are larger than 100 meV, and (2) there are large variations in e-ph renormalization of band gaps due to differences in crystal structure. This work was supported by a U.S. DOE Early Career Award (Grant No. DE-SC0006433). Computations were carried out at the Golden Energy Computing Organization at CSM and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  18. Evaluation of several lightweight stochastic context-free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Robin D; Eddy, Sean R

    2004-01-01

    Background RNA secondary structure prediction methods based on probabilistic modeling can be developed using stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs). Such methods can readily combine different sources of information that can be expressed probabilistically, such as an evolutionary model of comparative RNA sequence analysis and a biophysical model of structure plausibility. However, the number of free parameters in an integrated model for consensus RNA structure prediction can become untenable if the underlying SCFG design is too complex. Thus a key question is, what small, simple SCFG designs perform best for RNA secondary structure prediction? Results Nine different small SCFGs were implemented to explore the tradeoffs between model complexity and prediction accuracy. Each model was tested for single sequence structure prediction accuracy on a benchmark set of RNA secondary structures. Conclusions Four SCFG designs had prediction accuracies near the performance of current energy minimization programs. One of these designs, introduced by Knudsen and Hein in their PFOLD algorithm, has only 21 free parameters and is significantly simpler than the others. PMID:15180907

  19. TRANSFER EFFECTS IN TASK-SET COST AND DUAL-TASK COST AFTER DUAL-TASK TRAINING IN OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS: FURTHER EVIDENCE FOR COGNITIVE PLASTICITY IN ATTENTIONAL CONTROL IN LATE ADULTHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Bherer, Louis; Kramer, Arthur F.; Peterson, Matthew S.; Colcombe, Stanley; Erickson, Kirk; Becic, Ensar

    2010-01-01

    Older adults’ difficulties in performing two tasks concurrently have been well documented (Kramer & Madden, 2008). It has been observed that the age-related differences in dual-task performance are larger when the two tasks require similar motor responses (Hartley, 2001) and that in some conditions older adults also show greater susceptibility than younger adults to input interference (Hein & Schubert, 2004). The authors recently observed that even when the two tasks require motor responses, both older and younger adults can learn to perform a visual discrimination task and an auditory discrimination task faster and more accurately (Bherer et al., 2005). In the present study, the authors extended this finding to a dual-task condition that involves two visual tasks requiring two motor responses. Older and younger adults completed a dual-task training program in which continuous individualized adaptive feedback was provided to enhance performance. The results indicate that, even with similar motor responses and two visual stimuli, both older and younger adults showed substantial gains in performance after training and that the improvement generalized to new task combinations involving new stimuli. These results suggest that dual-task skills can be substantially improved in older adults and that cognitive plasticity in attentional control is still possible in old age. PMID:18568979

  20. Retention of fluoride/triclosan in plaque following different modes of administration.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Y; Birkhed, D

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare: (i) de novo plaque formation, and (ii) fluoride and triclosan concentration in approximal plaque, when a NaF/triclosan/Gantrez-containing dentifrice slurry or a mouthrinse were administrated during a 2-week period of no mechanical plaque control. 10 subjects rinsed for 60 s, 2x daily, for a 14-day period with one of the following 3 test products: (A) a dentifrice slurry including 1 ml of a NaF/triclosan/Gantrez dentifrice mixed with 10 ml of tap water, (B) 10 ml of a NaF/triclosan/ Gantrez mouthrinse, or (C) 10 ml of a NaF mouthrinse. De novo plaque formation was assessed on days 4, 7 and 14 using the Turesky's modification of the Quigley and Hein index system. Samples of approximal plaque were obtained immediately after clinical examination on day 14. The samples were analyzed with respect to concentration of fluoride and triclosan using an ion-specific electrode and a HPLC system, respectively. The 14-day period was repeated using another test product until all 10 subjects had used all 3 test products in a randomized order. The results showed that: (i) significantly more fluoride was retained in the approximal plaque following periods A and B than period C, and (ii) less plaque was formed during period B than periods A and C.

  1. Detection of melanoma from dermoscopic images of naevi acquired under uncontrolled conditions.

    PubMed

    Tenenhaus, Arthur; Nkengne, Alex; Horn, Jean-François; Serruys, Camille; Giron, Alain; Fertil, Bernard

    2010-02-01

    Several systems for the diagnosis of melanoma from images of naevi obtained under controlled conditions have demonstrated comparable efficiency with dermatologists. However, their robustness to analyze daily routine images was sometimes questionable. The purpose of this work is to investigate to what extent the automatic melanoma diagnosis may be achieved from the analysis of uncontrolled images of pigmented skin lesions. Images were acquired during regular practice by two dermatologists using Reflex 24 x 36 cameras combined with Heine Delta 10 dermascopes. The images were then digitalized using a scanner. In addition, five senior dermatologists were asked to give the diagnosis and therapeutic decision (exeresis) for 227 images of naevi, together with an opinion about the existence of malignancy-predictive features. Meanwhile, a learning by sample classifier for the diagnosis of melanoma was constructed, which combines image-processing with machine-learning techniques. After an automatic segmentation, geometric and colorimetric parameters were extracted from images and selected according to their efficiency in predicting malignancy features. A diagnosis was subsequently provided based on selected parameters. An extensive comparison of dermatologists' and computer results was subsequently performed. The KL-PLS-based classifier shows comparable performances with respect to dermatologists (sensitivity: 95% and specificity: 60%). The algorithm provides an original insight into the clinical knowledge of pigmented skin lesions.

  2. Assessment of Effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Jain, Ankita; Bindhumadhav, Suresh; Sangeeta; Garg, Purnima; Chaturvedi, Saurabh; Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effect of the two drug regime. Results: Our result showed that the CHX and the B. prionitis were statistically equally effective against dental plaque. Although the action of CHX was more pronounced. Conclusions: This study has confirmed antimicrobial potential of the plant B. prionitis, thus supporting its folklore application as preventive remedy against oral microbial diseases. SUMMARY Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime. PMID:27365983

  3. Assessment of Effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Jain, Ankita; Bindhumadhav, Suresh; Sangeeta; Garg, Purnima; Chaturvedi, Saurabh; Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effect of the two drug regime. Our result showed that the CHX and the B. prionitis were statistically equally effective against dental plaque. Although the action of CHX was more pronounced. This study has confirmed antimicrobial potential of the plant B. prionitis, thus supporting its folklore application as preventive remedy against oral microbial diseases. Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime.

  4. Comparison of oral hygiene efficacy of one manual and two electric toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Aass, A M; Gjermo, P

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the efficacy of two electric toothbrushes (Philips HP555 and the Philips Jordan 2-action Plaque Remover HP510). A manual toothbrush Jordan V-shaped, medium) served as control. Fifty subjects, aged 18-60 years, participated in a randomized, single-blind, 3 x 3 weeks crossover study. Plaque was assessed according to the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein index (P.I.), while the Løe-Silness index was used for assessing gingivitis. Adverse effects were assessed according to the ADA specifications. Compliance and preference were assessed through questionnaires and interviews, respectively. All periods mean P.I. (all surfaces) were 2.79, 3.01, and 2.86 for the manual, the HP555, and the HP510 electric brushes and the corresponding gingivitis values were 1.19, 1.22, and 1.21. For both indices, only the difference between the manual and the HP555 yielded significance (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02). Most subjects (28/50) preferred the HP5 10 brush, as it felt more practical to use and was perceived to have better cleaning ability. In conclusion. no clinically relevant differences in plaque reducing and gingivitis controlling ability were observed.

  5. Efficacy of antiplaque mouthwashes: a five-day clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Haq, Muhammad Wasif; Batool, Mehwish; Ahsan, Syed Hammad; Sharma, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of antiplaque mouthwashes. Plaque levels were determined by applying a plaque-disclosing solution using the Turesky et al modification of the Quigley Hein plaque index. The control group (n = 6) brushed twice per day with fluoride toothpaste for one minute and rinsed with water, while the study groups (n = 6) brushed once per day with fluoride toothpaste for one minute, followed by rinsing with 5.0 mL of mouthwash diluted with 10.0 mL of water for 30 seconds. The control group brushed and rinsed with water twice per day. The results indicated that cetylpyridinium chloride in combination with sodium fluoride offered maximum plaque inhibition, followed by chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium monofluorophosphate, while plaque levels increased in the control group and with the combination of chlorhexidine gluconate and sodium fluoride. The only antiplaque agents to demonstrate a statistically significant difference from the control were cetylpyridinium chloride in combination with sodium fluoride, and chlorhexidine gluconate. Increasing the fluoride concentration had no impact on antiplaque activity.

  6. Efficacy of an unwaxed dental floss impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine on control of supragingival biofilm: A randomized, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes; da Silva Lima, Heitor; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Martins, Ricardo Souza; Moreira, Maria Mônica Studart Mendes; Carvalho, Rosimary de Sousa

    2017-07-09

    In the present study, we evaluated the antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of a dental floss impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate. Thirty dental students were randomly divided into three groups (n=10): (a) negative control (NC) group, in which no interproximal cleaning was performed; (b) the positive control (PC) group, which used a standard unwaxed dental floss twice daily; and (c) and the test group, which used a unwaxed dental floss impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine twice daily. Six surfaces per tooth were evaluated by the Quigley-Hein plaque index (Turesky modification) at the last appointment (day 15), and testing for the presence of marginal bleeding was performed using the marginal bleeding index (MBI) at both the baseline and last appointments. At day 15, the test group had the lowest mean plaque index (1.04±0.67), showing a statistically-significant difference compared to the NC group (1.40±0.65, P<.001) and PC group (2.30±0.73, P<.001). The PC and test groups showed a mean reduction of 70.2% and 87.26%, respectively, with significant reduction compared to baseline (P<.05) for the MBI. No statistically-significant difference was found between the PC and test groups (P=.126). Unwaxed dental floss impregnated with 2% chlorhexidine showed additional reductions in supragingival interproximal biofilm compared with a conventional unwaxed dental floss, without additional improvement in marginal bleeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  7. Site-based plaque removal efficacy of four branded toothbrushes and the effect of dental floss in interproximal plaque removal: a randomized examiner-blind controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ashwath, Balachandran; Vijayalakshmi, Rajaraman; Arun, Dayanathi; Kumar, Vasanth

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sitelevel plaque removal efficacy of four commercially available toothbrushes. The adjunctive benefit of dental floss on interproximal plaque removal was also evaluated. This study was designed as a randomized examiner- blinded clinical study involving 60 subjects. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups of 15 participants each, and a particular branded toothbrush was allotted for each group. Brushing technique, toothpaste, and brushing time were standardized for all the subjects. The Turesky- Gilmore-Glickman modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index was used to evaluate plaque scores at baseline, and 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks by one blinded examiner. After 2 weeks, the subjects were provided with dental floss to be used in conjunction with the toothbrush. Buccal, lingual, and interproximal plaque reduction percentages were computed and analyzed for statistical significance. The four toothbrushes showed similar plaque removal scores at the three sites, with no statistical significance (P > .05). The interproximal plaque removal scores of the four toothbrushes were the least at 2 weeks (25%) when compared with buccal (65%) and lingual (60%) percentage scores. The addition of dental floss significantly increased the interproximal plaque removal scores, with 4-week scores revealing 70% removal. These data revealed the lack of significance between the four toothbrushes studied, which is in line with previous studies. The addition of dental floss had a significant effect on the interproximal plaque removal, which could be crucial in the maintenance of gingival health.

  8. Impact of oral health education on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, plaque control and gingival health of 13- to 15-year-old school children in Bangalore city.

    PubMed

    D'Cruz, A M; Aradhya, S

    2013-05-01

    To assess effectiveness of an oral health education (OHE) programme on oral hygiene knowledge, practices, plaque control and gingival health of 13- to 15-year-old school children in Bangalore city. Three schools were randomly selected and assigned to experimental I, experimental II and control groups. At baseline, a 20-item questionnaire was used to assess the oral hygiene knowledge and practices. Clinical examinations (Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of Quigley Hein plaque index; Loe-Silness gingival index) were performed by 2 examiners. OHE was provided by the investigator for experimental groups I (lecture using a PowerPoint presentation) and II (lecture using a PowerPoint presentation with toothbrushing demonstration). Control group did not receive any intervention. Reinforcement was provided for experimental groups at 3 and 6 months. At end of 9 months, questionnaire was administered and clinical examinations were performed. Data were analysed using chi-square, anova and post hoc Tukey's tests. Nine months post-intervention, there was significant improvement in oral hygiene knowledge and practices in experimental groups. There were significant reductions in mean plaque index and gingival index scores in the experimental groups. The control group did not show any significant improvement. Active involvement of school children with reinforcement of OHE can improve oral hygiene knowledge, practices and gingival health and decrease plaque levels. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. A novel music based tooth brushing system for blind children.

    PubMed

    Shetty, V; Hegde, A M; Varghese, E; Shetty, V

    2013-01-01

    To assess the Oral Health Status (OHS) of visually impaired children in South India, to devise and implement a specially designed Oral Health Education (OHE) program for them and to assess its efficacy in improving their OHS. OHS of 98 institutionalized visually impaired children aged 6 to 14 years were evaluated at the start of the study (Pre-OHE level) using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), the Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index (MQHPI) and Streptococcus mutans colony count. Oral Health Education was imparted with the help of specially designed models and tooth-brushing taught with specially formulated music aided instructions in a song format. These parameters were re-evaluated after a period of reinforced (two weeks and one month) and non-reinforced (two months) tooth-brushing. Mean values of MGI and MQHPI showed a statistically very highly significant drop from the Pre-OHE level to the end of both the periods of reinforcement and non-reinforcement. There was a significant decrease in the S. mutans counts from the Pre-OHE levels to the period of non-reinforcement (p < 0.0005). The OHE program specially formulated for the visually impaired children was effective in improving their OHS significantly

  10. The effect of multidisciplinary team care on cancer management.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Ganiy Opeyemi

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the multidisciplinary team management of many medical conditions especially cancers has increasingly taken a prominent role in patient management in many hospitals and medical centres in the developed countries. In the United Kingdom, it began to gain prominence following the Calman-Heine report in 1995 which suggested that each Cancer Unit in a hospital should have in place arrangements for non-surgical oncological input into services, with a role for a non-surgical oncologist. The report further suggested that a lead clinician with a well established interest in cancer care should be appointed to organise and coordinate the whole range of cancer services provided within the Cancer Unit. Many people have argued that the multidisciplinary team management of patients has resulted in better care and improved survival. However, there are barriers to the optimal effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team. This paper aims to review various studies on the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team in the management of cancer patients and also discuss some of the barriers to the multidisciplinary team.

  11. Breaking the sound barrier: oral health education for children with hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vabitha; Kumar, Jithendra; Hegde, Amitha

    2014-01-01

    In our study, a visual oral health education (OHE) program was specially designed for children with hearing impairment. Its efficacy in improving their oral health status was evaluated after periods of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. One hundred and ten institutionalized children with moderate-to-severe hearing impairment aged 6-14 years were selected for the study. Oral health status was evaluated at the start of the study (pre-OHE level) using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) and the Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index (MQPI). Salivary Streptococcus mutans levels of the children were also evaluated. Brushing skills were assessed using the Simmons index at the start of the study. Significant decreases were observed in the mean values of both the MGI and MQPI from the baseline up to the values obtained at the end of both periods of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. Significant reduction in S. mutans counts was observed, from Pre-OHE levels up to the levels at the end of the period of nonreinforcement. Brushing skills of children improved significantly at the end of study, notably in areas where brushing was previously deemed unsatisfactory. The OHE program specially formulated for the hearing impaired children was effective in improving their oral health status significantly.

  12. An evaluation of a commercial chewing gum in combination with normal toothbrushing for reducing dental plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N C; Galustians, J H; Qaqish, J G

    2001-07-01

    New evidence suggests a beneficial outcome to chewing a sugarless gum as an added component to a regular, twice-daily toothbrushing regimen. Results of a 4-week study performed on 78 adults with preexisting gingivitis showed a significant reduction of dental plaque and gingivitis when the test group of 39 adults chewed 2 pieces of ARM & HAMMER Dental Care The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC)--a sugar-free chewing gum containing sorbitol, malitol, xylitol, and sodium bicarbonate--for 20 minutes twice a day in conjunction with once-daily toothbrushing for 60 seconds. The control group, also comprised of 39 adults, used breath mints (the study placebo) twice a day in conjunction with the same toothbrushing regimen. There were no statistically significant differences in plaque and gingivitis scores at the baseline examination. Using the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index, the test group experienced a 17% reduction in plaque over 4 weeks, while the control group reduced their plaque amounts by approximately 9% over the same period. Lobene's Mean Gingivitis Index scores were equally significant: a nearly 10% decline for the test group compared to almost 2% for the control group. This article describes the 4-week study and its promising results.

  13. In Vivo Antiplaque Effect of Three Edible Toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Feijoo, Javier; Limeres, Jacobo; García-Caballero, Lucía; Abeleira, María T.; Diz, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyse the antibacterial and antiplaque activity of three edible toothpastes with the widest worldwide distribution: KidScents™, which contains essential oils; Browning B&B™, with medicinal plants; and Wysong Probiodent™, which contains probiotics. Study Design: The study group was formed of twenty healthy volunteers (dental students) with a good oral health status. Using a balanced randomisation system, all volunteers performed toothbrushing with four products (the three edible toothpastes and water) at intervals of one week. Bacterial vitality in the saliva was analysed by epifluorescence microscopy and plaque regrowth was evaluated using the Turesky-Quigley-Hein plaque index. Results: Bacterial vitality in the saliva was significantly higher after toothbrushing with water (positive control) than with the three toothpastes (P=0.002, P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The plaque index was significantly higher after using these three toothpastes than after toothbrushing with water (P=0.047, P=0.032 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The three edible toothpastes analysed have some antimicrobial activity but favour plaque regrowth. Key words:Edible toothpaste, dental plaque, oral bacteria. PMID:23986022

  14. Cutaneous horns: clues to invasive squamous cell carcinoma being present in the horn base.

    PubMed

    Pyne, John; Sapkota, Devendra; Wong, Jian Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous horns usually develop on a keratinocytic base with the histopathology on a spectrum ranging from benign keratosis through to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Some features of horns are easily identified using dermatoscopy. To investigate if specific clinical or dermatoscopy features of horns correlate with the histopathology in the base of the horn. Consecutive horn cases (n=163) were assessed prospectively in vivo for horn height, terrace morphology and base erythema using a Heine Delta 20 dermatoscope. Cases with potentially confounding influences were excluded. A history of horn pain or pain on palpation was also recorded. Benign keratosis (n = 49), actinic keratosis (n = 21), SCC in situ (n = 37) and invasive SCC (n = 56) were recorded. An invasive SCC presenting as a horn as most likely to have a height less than the base diameter, 66% (37/56). Compared to the other study entities, invasive SCC tends to have less terrace morphology (P<0.05), a higher incidence of base erythema (P<0.05) and more pain (P<0.01). Data categories did not include anatomic site or horn growth rates. Excision selection bias favored the incidence of invasive SCC. Horns presenting on an invasive SCC base are more likely to have a height less than the diameter of the base, not to have terrace morphology, to have an erythematous base and to be painful.

  15. Time-dependent density functional theory for charge-transfer dynamics: review of the causes of failure and success*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Johanna I.

    2016-10-01

    The present study is an effort to unveil and characterize the failure and success of real-time Time-dependent density functional theory simulated charge transfer dynamics. To this aim, we study two distinct examples found in the literature: a dramatic failure is reported in [S. Raghunathan, M. Nest, J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 7, 2492 (2011)] whereas in [C.A. Rozzi et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1602 (2013)] the simulations show good agreement with experiments. We find that the choice of Single Slater Determinant for the Kohn Sham initial state renders the simulation of charge transfer dynamics starting in the ground state very challenging. In contrast, starting the simulation in a photo-excited state facilitates the description and we show that even a simple functional can perform well. We formulate exact conditions to be satisfied by the exchange-correlation functional in order to keep the resonances of the system constant and relate the degree of their violation to the performance of a given functional approximation. We show that even the best possible ground state approximation to the exchange-correlation density functional violates the exact conditions, resulting in inaccurate dynamics. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Ψk Volker Heine Young Investigator Award - 2015 Finalists", edited by Angel Rubio and Risto Nieminen.

  16. Illumination Frame of Reference in the Object-Reviewing Paradigm: A Case of Luminance and Lightness

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Anja; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1990) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) in order to contrast the effects of objects’ luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects’ luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in four experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects. In contrast, when objects were presented on the checkershadow illusion background which provided an explanation for the luminance switch, a reliable object-specific preview benefit was observed. This suggests that object correspondence as measured by the object-reviewing paradigm can be influenced by scene-induced, perceived lightness of objects’ surfaces. We replicated this finding and moreover showed that the scene context only influences the object-specific preview benefit if the objects are perceived as part of the background scene. PMID:26280265

  17. A randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of Aloe Vera and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash efficacy on de-novo plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Chhina, Shivjot; Singh, Avnish; Menon, Ipseeta; Singh, Rickypal; Sharma, Anubhav; Aggarwal, Vartika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group. Conclusions: Herbal mouthwash containing Aloe vera mouthwash has comparable antiplaque efficacy as the gold standard 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate with fewer side effects and can be considered as an alternative. PMID:27382543

  18. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%) and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2%) on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ankita; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Devanand; Agali, Chandan; Gupta, Vipul; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Yadav, Priyanka; Lavate, Akash B.; Chaturvedi, Mudita

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15th day and 30th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference) showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine. PMID:25657903

  19. Are vegans the same as vegetarians? The effect of diet on perceptions of masculinity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Margaret A

    2016-02-01

    Food and food consumption matters in interpersonal interactions. Foods consumed can affect how a person is perceived by others in terms of morality, likeability, and gender. Food consumption can be used as a strategy for gendered presentation, either in terms of what foods are consumed or in the amount of food consumed. Finally, foods themselves are associated with gender. Previous research (Browarnik, 2012; Ruby & Heine, 2011) shows inconsistent patterns in the association between vegetarianism and masculinity. The current research conceptually replicates and extends this research by including the explicit label of vegetarian. The four studies in this article provide increased information about the effects of diet on gendered perceptions. Study 1 shows that vegetarian and omnivorous targets are rated equally in terms of masculinity. Study 2 shows that perceptions of vegetarians and vegans are similar, though comparing this research with past research indicates that perceptions of vegetarians are more variable. Study 3 shows that veganism leads perceptions of decreased masculinity relative to omnivores. Finally, Study 4 tests one possible mechanism for the results of Study 3, that it is the choice to be vegan that impacts perceptions of gender. Implications include increased knowledge about how meatless diets can affect the perceptions of gender in others. Multiple directions for future research are discussed.

  20. Unified theory of electron-phonon renormalization and phonon-assisted optical absorption.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher E; Giustino, Feliciano

    2014-09-10

    We present a theory of electronic excitation energies and optical absorption spectra which incorporates energy-level renormalization and phonon-assisted optical absorption within a unified framework. Using time-independent perturbation theory we show how the standard approaches for studying vibronic effects in molecules and those for addressing electron-phonon interactions in solids correspond to slightly different choices for the non-interacting Hamiltonian. Our present approach naturally leads to the Allen-Heine theory of temperature-dependent energy levels, the Franck-Condon principle, the Herzberg-Teller effect and to phonon-assisted optical absorption in indirect band gap materials. In addition, our theory predicts sub-gap phonon-assisted optical absorption in direct gap materials, as well as an exponential edge which we tentatively assign to the Urbach tail. We also consider a semiclassical approach to the calculation of optical absorption spectra which simultaneously captures energy-level renormalization and phonon-assisted transitions and is especially suited to first-principles electronic structure calculations. We demonstrate this approach by calculating the phonon-assisted optical absorption spectrum of bulk silicon.

  1. Clinical and microbiologic effects of commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Agarwal, Esha; Naik, Savitha B

    2012-06-01

    Certain plants used in folk medicine serve as a source of therapeutic agents that have antimicrobial and other multipotential effects. This prospective, randomized, placebo, and positively controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic effects of a commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Ninety patients diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into three groups: group 1, placebo toothpaste; group 2, toothpaste containing aloe vera; and group 3, toothpaste with polymer and fluoride containing triclosan. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using a gingival index, plaque was assessed using a modification of the Quigley-Hein index, and microbiologic counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by questionnaire. Toothpaste containing aloe vera showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with toothpaste containing triclosan. Toothpaste containing aloe vera may be a useful herbal formulation for chemical plaque control agents and improvement in plaque and gingival status.

  2. Resolving Variations in Continental Weathering Flux From Changes in Continental Source Using Marine Radiogenic Isotope Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, K. W.; Gannoun, A.; Allegre, C. J.; Christensen, J. N.; Hein, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    effects. [1] J.C.G. Walker, P.B. Hays, J.F. Kasting. JGR. 86, 9776-9782 (1981). [2] M. Frank. Rev. Geophys. 40(1), 1001, 1-38 (2002).[3] H.-F. Ling, K.W. Burton, R.K. O'Nions, B.S. Kamber, F. von Blanckenburg. EPSL. 146, 1-12 (1997). [4] J.N. Christensen, A.N. Halliday, L.VC. Godfrey, J.R.Hein, D.K. Rea. Science 277, 913-918 (1997). [5] D.-C. Lee, A.N. Halliday, J.R. Hein, K.W. Burton, J.N. Christensen, D. Gunther. Science 285, 1052-1054 (1999). [6] J. Zachos, M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, K. Billups. Science 292, 686-693 (2001).

  3. The efficacy of antiseptic mouth rinses in comparison with dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Mythri, H; Ananda, S R; Prashant, G M; Subba Reddy, V V; Chandu, G N

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining good oral hygiene is important to combat periodontal diseases. The use of tooth brush alone does not serve the purpose, especially in inaccessible areas like proximal embrasures, which demand the use of some adjuncts like proximal cleaning aids. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of two antimicrobial mouth rinses (Cool mint Listerine and 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate) with dental floss in reducing interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque in an unsupervised condition. A randomized, controlled, single-blind (observer), parallel-group clinical trial in accordance with the ADA guidelines was conducted for a period of 6 months. Four index age groups (12, 15, 35-44, and 65-74 years) were divided into four groups, i.e., brushing, brushing and flossing, brushing and rinsing with Listerine, and brushing and rinsing with Chlorhexidine, so that each group comprised 40 subjects. Interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque were assessed using Modified Gingival Index, Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index and Gingival Bleeding Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons, followed by Tukey's post hoc for group-wise comparisons. Chlorhexidine and Listerine showed significant reduction in plaque and gingivitis level compared to others, the activity of Chlorhexidine being more significant. The level of interproximal gingivitis control efficacy provided by the Listerine and Chlorhexidine was "at least as good as" that provided by the dental floss. Hence, they can be recommended for the patients with gingivitis as an adjunctive to the usual home care routine.

  4. Increasing antiplaque/antigingivitis efficacy of an essential oil mouthrinse over time: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Charles, Christine A; McGuire, J A; Qaqish, James; Amini, Pejmon

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, observer-blind, parallel, controlled study determined the efficacy of an essential oils-containing (EO) antiseptic mouthrinse (in conjunction with toothbrushing) in reducing and/or controlling existing plaque or gingivitis over 6 months. Toothbrushing, combined with placebo rinsing, served as the control (C). Following ethics board approval (Biosci Research Canada, Ltd. Institutional Review Board), 139 healthy adults with mild to moderate plaque and gingivitis were randomized into EO or C groups. All subjects received oral/written instructions, monthly monitoring, and assigned unsupervised rinses. Efficacy variables were whole-mouth mean modified gingival index (MGI), Turesky modification of the Quigley Hein plaque index (PI), bleeding index (BI) at 6, 12, and 24 weeks, and data analysis through an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model. The EO group provided greater and increasing MGI, PI, and BI reductions than did C group over all examination periods. Compared to the C group, at 6, 12, and 24 weeks, MGI reductions for the EO group were 4.7%, 9.1%, and 20.4%, and PI reductions were 7.6%, 12.6%, and 26.3%, respectively. BI scores decreased over time and were significant compared to those for the C group (P < 0.001). Additionally, the percentages of sites improved versus baseline MGI over time for EO were 14.1%, 26.4%, and 43.3%, respectively. This study demonstrated that an EO-containing mouthrinse can provide an increasing benefit over a period of 6 months with twice daily use. This study also confirmed that an antiseptic EO rinse can provide a clinically significant benefit in reducing existing plaque and gingivitis.

  5. A 6-month clinical study assessing the safety and efficacy of two cetylpyridinium chloride mouthrinses.

    PubMed

    Stookey, George K; Beiswanger, Bradley; Mau, Melissa; Isaacs, Roger L; Witt, Jon J; Gibb, Roger

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of two experimental cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthrinses containing 0.075% and 0.10% CPC on the development of gingivitis and plaque versus a placebo control over a period of 6 months. This was a randomized, single center, parallel group, double blind, positive and placebo controlled clinical trial. A 0.12% chlorhexidine rinse served as the positive control for validation of the methodology. At the beginning of the trial, 366 subjects were balanced and randomly assigned to treatment groups. Subjects received a dental prophylaxis and began rinsing twice a day with 15 ml of their assigned mouthwash for 30 seconds after brushing their teeth. Subjects were assessed for gingivitis and gingival bleeding by the Löe-Silness Gingival Index method and plaque by the Turesky modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of product use. Oral soft tissue health was also assessed. After 3 and 6 months, subjects rinsing with either 0.075% or 0.10% CPC had significantly (P< 0.0001) less gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and plaque, on average, than those on placebo. The 6-month mean reductions in gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and plaque for the 0.075% and 0.10% CPC rinses versus placebo were 23%, 30% and 17%, and 20%, 27% and 19%, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in efficacy between the two CPC mouthrinses. Reductions at 3 months were similar to those seen at 6 months. Significant benefits were observed with chlorhexidine, thereby validating the study. This study clearly demonstrates that CPC mouthrinses formulated to deliver therapeutic benefits when used twice daily can significantly prevent the development of gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and plaque over a 6-month period.

  6. The Future of Life on the Earth Ecosystems as Topological Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounias, Michel; Bonaly, André

    Life, as well as any kind of matter, is embedded in mathematical spaces. The filters of Life spaces are filtered by finer filters in purely mathematical spaces. Therefore, the functioning of Life systems depends on the functionality of embedding mathematical spaces. The global planetary ecosystem and its subsystems own properties of a topological space (X, ⊥), provided with a set (X) of biotic and abiotic members and a combination rule (⊥) mapping interactions between any of the components of (X). Its optimum properties can be reached if and only if the space of the orbits of members of X by the set of functions in (⊥) is provided with appropriate topological properties, e.g. this space is compact and complete. These properties are fulfilled in discrete setting only within a finite time interval, whereas they are not if members of (X) and/or (⊥) are arbitrarily eliminated, through either space or time, both nonlinear. As a corollary of the Bolzano, Weierstrass, and Heine-Borel-Lebesgue theorems, it infers that a future for Life on Planet Earth lies on two major conditions: (i) maximization of complementarity in habitat occupation and resource utilization, and (ii) reciprocal contribution of subsystems in filling each other with components needed for improving their respective structures and functions, i.e. mutualism. Objective foundations for assessing features of a further "universal right" are derived from the need for all livings to fulfill the biological conditions necessary for life to be sustainably possible. In conclusion, should natural conditions hit some difficulties on the way to these accomplishments, it would be the honor of humankind to contribute to improving, rather than to impairing, the trends of evolution towards the goals of reaching "optimum states" in which competition is minimized and mutualism is generalized.

  7. A 3-month clinical comparison of the safety and efficacy of two battery-operated toothbrushes: the Braun Oral-B Battery toothbrush and the Colgate Actibrush.

    PubMed

    Putt, M S; Milleman, J L; Davidson, K R; Cugini, M; Warren, P R

    2001-11-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of two battery-operated, non-rechargeable power toothbrushes, the Braun Oral-B Battery toothbrush (D4) and the Colgate Actibrush. This was a randomized, single-blind, parallel-group study carried out over a 3-month period. A total of 114 subjects from a general population, who met the inclusion criteria of the study and who had whole mouth plaque scores of > or = 1.5 and gingivitis scores of > or = 1.2, participated in the study. Subjects were given either the D4 or the Colgate Actibrush with the manufacturers' instructions, and were asked to brush their teeth at home twice each day. At baseline and after 1 and 3 months, subjects were examined for oral hard and soft tissue health, after which they were assessed for gingivitis (Modified Gingival Index), bleeding (Gingival Bleeding Index), and plaque (Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index). Prior to each assessment, subjects refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for a period of 12-18 hours. No evidence was found of significant oral soft or hard tissue trauma, and both brushes were considered to be safe when used according to the manufacturers' instructions. In the D4 group, whole mouth, marginal and approximal plaque scores were significantly reduced from baseline (P < 0.05) after both 1 and 3 months by 7-12%, whereas, in the Actibrush group, plaque scores remained relatively unchanged from baseline throughout the study. Furthermore, comparisons between the toothbrush groups showed that whole mouth, marginal and approximal plaque scores for the D4 were significantly lower than those for the Actibrush at both the 1- and 3-month assessments. Modified Gingival Index scores after 3 months were significantly reduced from baseline in both groups by 7-8%. Similarly, percentages of bleeding sites were significantly lower by 12-15%. There were no significant differences between the groups with respect to gingivitis scores.

  8. The effect of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride 
toothpaste on plaque formation, gingivitis, and 
dentin hypersensitivity: A single-blinded 
randomized clinical study.

    PubMed

    Al Habashneh, Rola; Farasin, Rawan; Khader, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    The daily removal of supragingival dental plaque is a key factor in the prevention of gingivitis. The aim of the study was to compare the gingival health benefits of a triclosan/copolymer/fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Total, a fluoride toothpaste containing an antiseptic) to a commercially available toothpaste containing 0.243% sodium fluoride in a silica base (Colgate Herbal, a conventional fluoride toothpaste with herbal extracts). A total of 50 patients with gingivitis and at least one sensitive tooth were included. The subjects were randomly stratified into two groups: Colgate Total toothpaste, and Colgate Herbal toothpaste. After a 4-week pre-experimental phase, baseline Plaque Index (Quigley-Hein Index) (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Visual Analog Scale (VAS) were assessed. The PI, GI, GBI, and VAS were reexamined at weeks 4, 12, and 24 after the baseline. Fifty subjects complied with the protocol and completed the study. The conventional fluoride toothpaste with herbal extracts group and the fluoride toothpaste containing an antiseptic group exhibited significant reductions in PI, GI, GBI, and VAS over time. The amount of reduction after 6 months of the treatment was higher in the Total group compared to Herbal group (1.82 vs 1.39, P = .015 for PI; 0.67 vs 0.37, P < .005 for GI; and 56.64% vs 34.26%, P < .005 for GBI). No significant difference was seen for VAS. Twice daily brushing with a toothpaste containing 0.3% triclosan and polyvinyl methyl ether and maleic acid copolymer provides a more effective level of plaque control and gingival health with no effect on decreasing dentin hypersensitivity compared to conventional fluoride toothpaste. Toothpastes containing triclosan/copolymer, in addition to fluoride, result in a higher reduction in plaque, gingival inflammation, and gingival bleeding when compared with fluoride toothpastes without triclosan/copolymer.

  9. Comparison of two clinical methods for evaluating the anti-plaque efficacy of a dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Barnes, Virginia Monsul

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to assess two different published methods of plaque level evaluation on human subjects, and to determine whether both methods can produce similar findings to the point that the methods can be used interchangeably. Healthy human volunteers entered into a number of double-blind, cross-over clinical trials. Two plaque scoring methods were used: The Modified Gingival Margin Plaque Index (MGMPI) and the Turesky Modified Quigley-Hein (TMQH). With the MGMPI, plaque was evaluated 24 hours after a single product use. With the TMQH, plaque was scored after four days of product use. Three dentifrices were studied: Colgate Total, Colgate Total plus Whitening, and Colgate Regular Dental Cream. Additionally, two mouthrinses were evaluated: PerioGard and Fluorigard. In all studies conducted, there was a one-week wash-out period between each product use. There were no side effects observed or reported in any study. In all studies, both the plaque indices used found that the active products Colgate Total, Colgate Total plus Whitening and PerioGard produced significantly lower mean plaque scores compared to Colgate Regular Dental Cream and Fluorigard (p < 0.05). The results of this investigation indicate that the two plaque evaluation methods continue to demonstrate that an active product is significantly more efficacious than a control product. Therefore, either method can be used to investigate the anti-plaque efficacy of a product. Additionally, the MGMPI method can be used 24 hours after product use, which is a clear advantage over a four-day product use and will yield the same results.

  10. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. This was a single-center, monadic, case-controlled study with the 7 days duration. A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7(th) day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants.

  11. Severity and prevalence of plaque-induced gingivitis in the Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jincai; Xuan, Dongying; Fan, Weihua; Zhang, Xiong; Dibart, Serge; De Vizio, William; Panagakos, Foti; Zhang, Yun-Po

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and severity of gingivitis and plaque in a representative Chinese population of adults. Using the Loe-Silness gingivitis index (GI) and the modified Quigley-Hein plaque index (PULI), researchers examined 1143 patients from Guangzhou, Shenyang, and Nanjing for the presence of gingivitis and plaque. A two-tailed t-test was used to determine significant differences in the GI and PLI scores between gender and urban/rural areas. The data pertaining to study sites and age groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variances (ANOVA) by ranks. The correlation between GI/PLI and age was examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Age differences among three sites were analyzed with the one-way ANOVA. The age and urban/rural compositions (mean age 42.2 years) paralleled the 2008 China census. The overall average and standard deviation of GI and PLI were 1.101 +/- 0.239 and 3.394 +/- 0.578, respectively. Age significantly correlated with GI and PLI (P < .0001). The PLI in males was significantly higher (P < .0001) than in females; however, no significant difference was noted between GI in males compared to females. Patients in rural areas showed a significantly higher GI and PLI (t = 7.723, P < .0001; t = 7.072, P < .0001) than those in urban ones. Clinical trials evaluating a product's antigingivitis efficacy should recruit participants from a population that represents accurately the intended product users. Variables should include gender, race, age, and geography.

  12. Reducing Dental Plaque and Gingivitis With 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae Toothpaste: A Randomized, Double-Masked Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongchun; Yin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Cortex Ilicis Rotundae has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Few studies have evaluated the effects of toothpastes containing Cortex Ilicis Rotundae. This study evaluates the antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of a test toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae extract in a calcium carbonate base compared with a control toothpaste without any active ingredient. One hundred adults with a mean plaque index (PI) ≥ 1.5 and a mean gingival index (GI) ≥ 1.0 were enrolled in this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled clinical trial. They were assigned randomly to use a test toothpaste or a control toothpaste. At baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks, they received examinations of oral hard and soft tissues, using Löe-Silness GI for gingivitis and the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein PI for PI. Adverse events were monitored. When the study was completed, the test group reported lower mean GI than the control group (1.13 ± 0.22 versus 1.30 ± 0.23; P = 0.001) and lower mean PI than the control group (2.53 ± 0.5 versus 2.93 ± 0.44; P < 0.001). Compared to the baseline, the test group had reductions in GI and PI of 14.39% and 17.86%, respectively (both P < 0.001); the control group had reductions in GI and PI of 3.7% and 3.93%, respectively (both P < 0.001). No adverse events were reported during the course of the study. The toothpaste containing 0.6% Cortex Ilicis Rotundae was effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis after 12 weeks of use compared with a negative control toothpaste.

  13. Comparison of Dill Seed Oil Mouth Rinse and Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse on Plaque Levels and Gingivitis - A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eshwar, Shruthi; K, Rekha; Jain, Vipin; Manvi, Supriya; Kohli, Shivani; Bhatia, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mouthrinses have been in use for centuries as breath fresheners, medicaments, and antiseptics. Dill is said to be a good source of calcium, manganese and iron. It contains flavonoids known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. Dill can help with microbial infections in the mouth; and its anti-oxidants minimize damage caused by free radicals to the gums and teeth. Being a good source of calcium, dill also helps with bone and dental health. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of commercially available 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse and dill seed oil mouthrinse on plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled, double blind parallel arm study was conducted over 90 days on 90 subjects. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups and baseline data was collected using Loe and Silness gingival index and Quigley Hein plaque index and oral prophylaxis was performed on all the subjects. The mouthrinses included in the present study were dill seed oil and Hexodent (0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate). Intervention regarding the mouthrinsing was given to the subjects and were followed up for 45 days and 90 days, after this post intervention changes were assessed using the respective indices. Results: It was observed that there is no significant difference in gingival & plaque scores among two mouthrinses from baseline to 45 days and 90 days. It was observed that there is statistical difference in gingival and plaque scores when compared with baseline to 45 days (p<0.001), baseline to 90 days (p<0.001) and 45 days to 90 days (p<0.001) when intergroup comparisons were done. Conclusion: It was concluded that dill seed oil and Hexodent (0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate) mouthrinse have similar antiplaque and antigingival effectiveness. PMID:27386006

  14. Comparative evaluation of turmeric and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of plaque formation and gingivitis: a clinical and microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Waghmare, P F; Chaudhari, A U; Karhadkar, V M; Jamkhande, A S

    2011-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of turmeric mouthwash and chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash in prevention of gingivitis and plaque formation. A total of 100 randomly selected subjects visiting the Department of Periodontology at Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Dental College and Hospital, were considered for the study. The gingival index (GI) by Loe and Silness was recorded which was followed by Turesky- Gilmore-Glickman modification of Quigley Hein plaque index (TQHPI) at 0, 14 and 21 days. Individuals who gave an informed consent, subjects in the age group of 25 to 35 years with having fair and poor gingival index scores and a score >1 for plaque index, were included in the study. Results showed statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in mean plaque index (PI) with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash when compared with turmeric mouthwash. No significant difference in mean gingival index (GI) was seen when chlorhexidine mouthwash was compared with turmeric mouthwash. Significant reduction in total microbial count (p < 0.05) was observed in both the groups. No significant difference was observed in total microbial count when chlorhexidine mouthwash was compared with turmeric mouthwash. From the above observations, it can be concluded that chlorhexidine gluconate as well as turmeric mouthwash can be effectively used as an adjunct to mechanical plaque control methods in prevention of plaque and gingivitis. Chlorhexidine gluconate has been found to be more effective when antiplaque property was considered. From this study, it could be stated that turmeric is definitely a good adjunct to mechanical plaque control. Further studies are required on turmeric based mouthwash to establish it as a low cost plaque control measure.

  15. Effect of a chlorhexidine mouthrinse on plaque, gingival inflammation and staining in gingivitis patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Strydonck, Daniëlle A C; Slot, Dagmar E; Van der Velden, Ubele; Van der Weijden, Fridus

    2012-11-01

    To systematically evaluate the efficacy of chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthrinses on plaque, gingival inflammation and staining in gingivitis patients. Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched through April 2011. Randomized controlled clinical trials comparing CHX to placebo/control mouthrinses or oral hygiene (OH) ≥ 4 weeks were included. Among 1355 titles, 30 publications fulfilled the selection criteria. Meta-analysis (MA) showed significant weighted mean differences (WMD) favouring CHX. This was -0.39 [95% CI: -0.70; -0.08] for the Plaque Index Silness & Löe, -0.67 [95% CI: -0.82; -0.52] for the Plaque-Index Quigley & Hein (PIQH), -0.32 [95% CI: -0.42; -0.23] for the Gingival Index (GI), -0.08 [95% CI: -0.10; -0.05] for the bleeding aspect of the GI, -0.21 [95% CI: -0.37; -0.04] for the Papillary BIeeding Index, -0.16 [95% CI: -0.26; -0.07] for Bleeding on Marginal Probing and 0.91 [95% CI: 0.12;1.70] for the Lobene Stain Index. MA of studies with a low risk of author-estimated bias showed a WMD of -0.68 [95% CI: -0.85; -0.51] for the PIQH and -0.24 [95% CI: -0.29; -0.20] for the GI in favour of CHX. Relative to control, the reduction with CHX for plaque was 33% and for gingivitis 26%. CHX rinsing groups demonstrated significantly more staining. In gingivitis patients, CHX mouthrinses together with OH versus placebo- or control mouthrinse provide significant reductions in plaque and gingivitis scores, but a significant increase in staining score. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Comparison of rotation/oscillation and sonic power toothbrushes on plaque and gingivitis for 10 weeks.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karen; Rapley, Kathy; Haun, Jan; Walters, Pat; He, Tao; Grender, Julie; Biesbrock, Aaron R

    2009-12-01

    Although power toothbrushes provide valuable tools toward improving oral health, contrasting results are discerned in their efficiency. This 10-week study was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of rotation/oscillation and sonic power toothbrushes in the reduction of plaque and gingivitis. This two-treatment, parallel group, examiner-blind, randomized study had the subjects brush twice daily at home with their assigned rotation/oscillation or sonic toothbrush following manufacturer's instructions with center visits at baseline, and at 4 and 10 weeks following the baseline visit, for assessment of oral safety (all visits), plaque (baseline, Weeks 4 and 10), and gingivitis (baseline and Week 10). Gingivitis and number of bleeding sites were measured using the Löe-Silness Gingivitis Index, and plaque was measured using the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index. At Week 10, 171 subjects were evaluable for plaque assessment (85 in Sonic group, 86 in rotation/oscillation group) and 165 subjects were evaluable for gingivitis and bleeding sites assessment (84 in sonic group, 81 in rotation/oscillation group). The rotation/oscillation group had statistically significantly lower gingivitis scores (by 3.5%) and statistically significantly fewer bleeding sites than the sonic group (by 16.1%) with P = 0.038 and 0.028, respectively, at Week 10. Compared to baseline, only the rotation/oscillation group showed a statistically significant improvement in gingivitis (P = 0.003) and bleeding (P < 0.001) at Week 10. At both Weeks 4 and 10, the rotation/oscillation group had directionally lower plaque scores than the sonic group (by approximately 3%), but treatment group differences were not statistically significant (P > 0.1) at either time point. Both groups showed statistically significantly lower plaque scores at Weeks 4 and 10 relative to baseline.

  17. Randomized controlled trial on mouth rinse and flossing efficacy on interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque.

    PubMed

    Luís, H S; Luís, L S; Bernardo, M; Santos, Nr Dos

    2017-08-22

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of an essential oils mouth rinse and dental floss on dental plaque accumulation and gingivitis in interproximal areas. With informed consent, a parallel randomized controlled clinical trial was developed with 60 third-year dental hygiene students, randomly divided into two non-blind groups of 30 individuals each. For a period of 2 weeks, one group used an essential oils mouth rinse, according to manufacturer's instructions, and the other group flossed twice a day. Both groups received a toothbrush and fluoridated toothpaste for home dental hygiene care. A baseline dental hygiene appointment consisted of tooth scaling, prophylaxis and collection of the study data, using the Lobene modified gingival index; Saxton & Ouderaa gingival bleeding index and the Quigley & Hein modified by Turesky dental plaque index. At baseline, there was no significant difference between the groups for interproximal gingival inflammation (P = .214), gingival bleeding (P = .829) and dental plaque accumulation (P = .860). After 2 weeks of treatment, no significant differences were found between the essential oils mouth rinse and dental flossing for reduction of interproximal gingival inflammation (P = .938) and bleeding (P = .307). Essential oils mouth rinse showed to be significantly better than dental flossing in reducing interproximal dental plaque accumulation (P = .006). The use of an essential oils mouth rinse may be advised, as a complement, for patients unable to floss effectively, as it is more effective in reducing interproximal dental plaque accumulation than dental floss. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparative clinical trial of two antigingivitis mouthrinses.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jon J; Walters, Patricia; Bsoul, Samer; Gibb, Roger; Dunavent, John; Putt, Mark

    2005-07-01

    To compare the safety and the antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy of two oral rinses. A randomized, double-blind, parallel groups, single-center study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high bioavailable, alcohol-free 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) rinse (Crest Pro-Health Rinse) and a positive control rinse containing essential oils (EO) and 21.6% ethyl alcohol (Cool Mint Listerine). Seventy-eight healthy adults were enrolled in a modified experimental gingivitis clinical trial. Four weeks before the baseline visit, subjects received a prophylaxis and were instructed to brush twice daily in a manner to approach optimum gingival health. At the end of the 4-week period, subjects were randomly assigned to treatment and instructed to use 20 ml of their assigned product for 30 seconds after brushing twice daily during a 21-day treatment phase. Plaque removal by brushing was prevented during the treatment phase for one mandibular quadrant (experimental gingivitis region) by means of a specially-manufactured tooth shield. Safety and efficacy measurements were obtained at baseline and at the end-of-treatment using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI), and Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (MQH). At all visits, an oral soft tissue examination was performed for each subject. The efficacy data obtained in the experimental gingivitis region were analyzed with analysis of covariance. Seventy-five subjects completed the study and were included in the data analyses. No statistically significant differences were detected between the two treatment groups for MGI, GBI or MQH measures. Results were similar for shielded interproximal sites. Both treatments were well-tolerated. This randomized, controlled comparative clinical trial demonstrated that rinsing twice daily with the experimental alcohol-free 0.07% CPC rinse provides antiplaque and antigingivitis efficacy similar to that of the positive control EO rinse, a recognized

  19. Initial impact of a national dental education program on the oral health and dental knowledge of children.

    PubMed

    Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia A; Bartizek, Robert D

    2003-05-15

    Oral health educational programs have been reported to have a variable impact on the oral health status of program participants. This paper reports the impact of an educational oral health program conducted within a single Boys & Girls Club of America. The objective of this 4-week examiner-blind study was to determine the impact of the educational program on the gingival health (gingivitis and plaque) of participating children who were between the ages of 5 and 15. The multi-week program taught the participants the basics of oral biology and disease, as well as proper oral health prevention including oral hygiene, dietary modification, and the importance of visiting the dentist. A calibrated examiner measured whole mouth Loe-Silness Gingival Index (GI) and Turesky Modification of Quigley-Hein Plaque index (PI) at baseline (immediately prior to the initiation of the educational program) and 4 weeks later. The primary efficacy analysis was based on change from baseline for 75 subjects who were enrolled at baseline, participated in the educational program, and were examined 4 weeks later. Mean baseline GI score was 0.37, while the 4 week mean GI score was reduced to 0.18. This represents a 51% reduction in GI score with p<0.001. Mean baseline PI score was 3.80, while the 4 week mean PI score was reduced to 2.68. This represents a 29% reduction in PI score with p<0.001. In addition, subjects completed a questionnaire (5 questions) at baseline and at 4 weeks to assess their oral health knowledge. The subject population was found to have statistically significantly (p<0.05) greater knowledge with respect to optimal brushing time and optimal frequency of dental recall visits following the program at week 4. Collectively, these data support the role of the educational program in promoting improved oral health in these children over a one month period.

  20. Influence of symptom expectancies on stair-climbing performance in chronic fatigue syndrome: effect of study context.

    PubMed

    Heins, Marianne; Knoop, Hans; Nijs, Jo; Feskens, Remco; Meeus, Mira; Moorkens, Greta; Bleijenberg, Gijs

    2013-06-01

    In patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), performance of physical activities may be affected by an anticipated increase in symptoms after these activities. Nijs et al. previously studied the influence of symptom expectancies and related psychological processes on the performance of an isolated physical activity [Nijs J, Meeus M, Heins M, Knoop H, Moorkens G, Bleijenberg G. Kinesiophobia, catastrophizing and anticipated symptoms before stair climbing in chronic fatigue syndrome: an experimental study. Disabil Rehabil 2012. doi: 10.3109/09638288.2011.641661 .]. We aimed to validate the previous findings in a larger group of patients in a different setting. We also extended the possible underlying psychological processes studied. In 49 CFS patients, we measured performance (duration and increase in heart rate) during self-paced climbing and descending of two floors of stairs. Before this task, patients rated experienced fatigue and anticipated fatigue after stair climbing. In addition, kinesiophobia, catastrophising and focusing on bodily symptoms were measured. Using correlational and regression analyses, we tested whether performance during stair climbing could be explained by experienced and anticipated fatigue and psychological factors. Longer duration of stair climbing correlated with higher anticipated fatigue, independently of sex, age, body mass index and fatigue before stair climbing. Focusing on bodily symptoms and fatigue-related catastrophising were related to anticipated fatigue. Symptom expectations affect the performance of physical activity in CFS patients, possibly through focusing on bodily symptoms and catastrophising. These findings partially contradict the findings of the previous study, which stresses the importance of study context in conducting this type of experiments (i.e., patient characteristics, instructions).

  1. Effect of Chlorhexidine with Fluoride Mouthrinse on Plaque Accumulation, Plaque pH - A Double Blind Parallel Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouthwashes are important means used in chemical control of dental plaque. There is strong evidence suggestive of better effectiveness, when fluoride is added to chlorhexidine mouthwash. Aim To assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Chlorhexidine combined with Fluoride mouthwash and to measure its impact on plaque accumulation and on plaque pH. Materials and Methods Initially 100 subjects were screened. A double blind, parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted on 30 subjects after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Other independent variables were matched before randomly allocating them in three groups: Group A-Chlorhexidine as positive control, Group B-Chlorhexidine + Fluoride as test group and Group C- Distilled water as negative control. Oral prophylaxis of participants was done before onset of the study. Plaque pH was assessed before and immediately after rinsing at 0, 5 and 10 minutes interval and after 7 days with digital pH electrode (pHepR pH meter, Hanna Instruments R10285) and accumulation of plaque was recorded by Turesky et al., modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970). ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Results Although there was a statistically significant reduction in mean plaque scores from baseline to seven days in both Groups A and B, Group B showed better anti-plaque efficacy . Almost equal drop in plaque pH was seen for both the groups at 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusion Better anti-plaque efficacy was observed in Group B (Chlorhexidine and Fluoride combination) with minimum variation of plaque pH. PMID:27630956

  2. The efficacy of antiseptic mouth rinses in comparison with dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, H.; Ananda, S. R.; Prashant, G. M.; Subba Reddy, V. V.; Chandu, G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Maintaining good oral hygiene is important to combat periodontal diseases. The use of tooth brush alone does not serve the purpose, especially in inaccessible areas like proximal embrasures, which demand the use of some adjuncts like proximal cleaning aids. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of two antimicrobial mouth rinses (Cool mint Listerine and 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate) with dental floss in reducing interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque in an unsupervised condition. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-blind (observer), parallel-group clinical trial in accordance with the ADA guidelines was conducted for a period of 6 months. Four index age groups (12, 15, 35–44, and 65–74 years) were divided into four groups, i.e., brushing, brushing and flossing, brushing and rinsing with Listerine, and brushing and rinsing with Chlorhexidine, so that each group comprised 40 subjects. Interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque were assessed using Modified Gingival Index, Turesky–Gilmore–Glickman modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index and Gingival Bleeding Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons, followed by Tukey's post hoc for group-wise comparisons. Results: Chlorhexidine and Listerine showed significant reduction in plaque and gingivitis level compared to others, the activity of Chlorhexidine being more significant. Conclusions: The level of interproximal gingivitis control efficacy provided by the Listerine and Chlorhexidine was “at least as good as” that provided by the dental floss. Hence, they can be recommended for the patients with gingivitis as an adjunctive to the usual home care routine. PMID:24478951

  3. Clinical, histological and ultrastructural characteristics of a spontaneous corneal opacity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wegener, A; Jochims, K

    1994-01-01

    The eyes of 200 rats (Mol:SPRD, Moellegaard Ltd., Skensvet, Denmark), 8 weeks of age and of both sexes, were examined routinely with a photo-slitlamp microscope (Zeiss) and opthalmoscope (Heine) 3-4 times in the course of four different 12-week toxicity studies. The animals were kept under constant lighting conditions at a room temperature of 20 +/- 2 degrees C and 55 +/- 5% humidity on a standard diet. More than 70% of the animals were found to have more or less prominent corneal opacities already at the beginning of the study. These were morphologically characterized as meshwork-like alterations of the deeper corneal epithelium, mostly located in the central and nasal region. The temporal, upper and lower periphery remained always unaffected. Male animals were more frequently and more intensively affected than the females. The occurrence of the opacity was totally independent of the treatment scheme (controls and drug dosages, respectively), showing a slight increase in density in some of the animals of all groups and remaining stable in others. Regression was rarely observed. Light and electron microscopical investigations demonstrated focal degenerations of the basal epithelial cell layer as well as alterations of its basement membrane. The lesion was not associated with inflammation or irritation. Therefore, we considered that a genetically determined metabolic disorder of the basal epithelial cells might have led to the impairment of basement membrane synthesis. Further screenings performed in conjunction with the breeder evidenced that these opacities are probably caused by a spontaneous mutation with a complex, not X-linked genetic background.

  4. One-shot calculation of temperature-dependent optical spectra and phonon-induced band-gap renormalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Marios; Giustino, Feliciano

    2016-08-01

    Recently, Zacharias et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 177401 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.177401] developed an ab initio theory of temperature-dependent optical absorption spectra and band gaps in semiconductors and insulators. In that work, the zero-point renormalization and the temperature dependence were obtained by sampling the nuclear wave functions using a stochastic approach. In the present work, we show that the stochastic sampling of Zacharias et al. can be replaced by fully deterministic supercell calculations based on a single optimal configuration of the atomic positions. We demonstrate that a single calculation is able to capture the temperature-dependent band-gap renormalization including quantum nuclear effects in direct-gap and indirect-gap semiconductors, as well as phonon-assisted optical absorption in indirect-gap semiconductors. In order to demonstrate this methodology, we calculate from first principles the temperature-dependent optical absorption spectra and the renormalization of direct and indirect band gaps in silicon, diamond, and gallium arsenide, and we obtain good agreement with experiment and with previous calculations. In this work we also establish the formal connection between the Williams-Lax theory of optical transitions and the related theories of indirect absorption by Hall, Bardeen, and Blatt, and of temperature-dependent band structures by Allen and Heine. The present methodology enables systematic ab initio calculations of optical absorption spectra at finite temperature, including both direct and indirect transitions. This feature will be useful for high-throughput calculations of optical properties at finite temperature and for calculating temperature-dependent optical properties using high-level theories such as G W and Bethe-Salpeter approaches.

  5. Medicinal plants used to treat TB in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Nguta, Joseph Mwanzia; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G A

    2015-06-01

    The current study was designed to document medicinal plant species that are traditionally used to treat tuberculosis (TB) by Ghanaian communities. The medicinal plants used against TB or its signs and symptoms were selected using library and online published data searches. A guided questionnaire interview was also conducted with a botanist involved in plant collection at the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM) at Mampong. Data obtained were entered in Excel and summarized into means and frequencies using SPSS 12.0.1 for windows, and expressed as tables and bar graphs. A total of 15 medicinal plant species distributed between 13 genera and 13 families were documented. The following medicinal plant species were found to be used against TB in Greater Accra and Eastern parts of Ghana: Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Stem bark (Meliaceae), Hygrophila auriculata Heine, whole plant (Acanthaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides L. leaves (Amaranthaceae), Coix lacryma-jobi L. glumes (Poaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. unripe fruits (Solanaceae), Solanum torvum Sw. leaves (Solanaceae), Bidens pilosa L. whole plant (Asteraceae), Phyllanthus fraternus G.L. Webster leaves (Phyllanthaceae), Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm.) Triana, leaves (Melastomataceae), Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Leaves (Poaceae), Cyperus articulatus L. roots (Cyperaceae), Allium sativum L. bulb (Amaryllidaceae), Zingiber officinale Roscoe, rhizomes (Zingiberaceae), Allium cepa L. bulbs (Amaryllidaceae), Allium cepa L. leaves (Amaryllidaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis aqueous extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Aloe vera var. barbadensis organic extract from leaves (Xanthorrhoeaceae), Cocos nucifera Linn, water (Arecaceae) and Cocos nucifera Linn. Husk (Arecaceae). The collected plant species could be a source of a new class of drugs against TB. Bioactivity guided fractionation is recommended to identify lead compounds for antimycobacterial activity. The current paper documents for the first time

  6. The relationship between dental health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Betul; Kawas, Sausan Al

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of knowledge acquired in preventive aspects of dental education on dental students’ own health attitudes, oral hygiene and gingival status in the United Arab Emirates. Methods: To compare the self-reported oral health behavior of first year dental students in the University of Sharjah with their actual oral hygiene and gingival conditions, 93 volunteers who participated in the study completed the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire. Subsequently a clinical examination for their Plaque Scores (Modified Quigley Hein Plaque Index) and Gingival Bleeding Index was performed by a calibrated dentist. Results: 29% of the participants reported bleeding gums; 83% were concerned by the color of their gums while 63% reported that it was impossible to prevent gum disease with brushing alone; and only 10% noticed some sticky white deposits on their teeth. However, approximately 92% were not in agreement that they would have false teeth when they grew older. 56% mentioned that they used dental floss regularly and 86% brushed twice daily or more. Male students had higher bleeding and plaque scores than female students. There appeared to be a significant relationship between plaque scores and HU-DBI responses; in addition to the significant relationship noted between recorded bleeding percentages and HU-DBI responses. Conclusion: Female students have shown better dental care behavior than male students. The dental students with better self-reported oral health attitudes were expected to have lower plaque scores but instead had moderate plaque and gingival bleeding scores. This indicates the need for more emphasis on preventive measures in oral health education. PMID:23408498

  7. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case–controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants. PMID:27630494

  8. Antibacterial and antiplaque efficacy of a commercially available octenidine-containing mouthrinse.

    PubMed

    Welk, Alexander; Zahedani, Maral; Beyer, Carolin; Kramer, Axel; Müller, Gerald

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to determine the antibacterial and antiplaque efficacy of a recently introduced octenidine-containing mouthrinse (Octenidol®) in comparison with established antiseptic mouthrinses. In a 4-day plaque-regrowth study employing a four-replicate cross-over design, a 0.1 % octenidine mouthrinse (Octenidol®/OCT-MR) was compared with a 0.12 % chlorhexidine mouthrinse (Paroex®/CHX-MR), an essential oil mouthrinse (Listerine®/EO-MR), and a placebo mouthrinse/P-MR. Plaque regrowth was assessed with a modified Quigley-Hein plaque index. The antibacterial effect was assessed by taking bacterial counts from the tooth surface and oral mucosa after professional tooth cleaning and after first rinsing with the allocated mouthrinse on days 1 and 5. Sixteen volunteers suspended tooth cleaning and rinsed twice daily with the allocated mouthrinse for 4 days. All tested antiseptic mouthrinses were significantly more effective than the placebo mouthrinse in inhibiting plaque, but no significant differences were observed between OCT-MR and CHX-MR, OCT-MR and EO-MR, and CHX-MR and EO-MR. After 4 days, comparable bacterial count levels were found on both the tooth surface and mucosa applying OCT-MR and CHX-MR, which were significantly lower than that of EO-MR and P-MR. Octenidol® and Paroex® showed comparable antibacterial and antiplaque efficacy in the human oral cavity. The recently introduced octenidine-containing mouthrinse Octenidol® may become a suitable alternative to 0.12 % chlorhexidine-containing mouthrinses such as Paroex®.

  9. Self-adhesive resin cement versus zinc phosphate luting material: a prospective clinical trial begun 2003.

    PubMed

    Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin; Wimmer, Jutta; Lang, Reinhold; Kolbeck, Carola; Bürgers, Ralf; Handel, Gerhard

    2009-05-01

    The literature demonstrates that conventional luting of metal-based restorations using zinc phosphate cements is clinically successful over 20 years. This study compared the clinical outcomes of metal-based fixed partial dentures luted conventionally with zinc phosphate and self-adhesive resin cement. Forty-nine patients (mean age 54+/-13 years) received 49 metal-based fixed partial dentures randomly luted using zinc phosphate (Richter & Hoffmann, Berlin, Germany) or self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem Aplicap, 3M ESPE, Germany) at the University Medical Center Regensburg. The core build-up material was highly viscous glass ionomer; the finishing line was in dentin. The study included 42 posterior, 5 anterior crowns and two onlays. Forty-seven restorations were made of precious alloys, 2 of non-precious alloys. The restorations were clinically examined every year. The clinical performance was checked for plaque (0-5; PI, Quigley-Hein), bleeding (0-4; PBI; Mühlemann) and attachment scores. The examination included pulp vitality and percussion tests. Means of scores, standard deviation, cumulative survival and complication rates were calculated using life tables. The mean observation time was 3.16+/-0.6 years (min: 2.0; max: 4.5 years). During that time no restoration was lost, no recementation became necessary. One endodontic treatment was performed in the self-adhesive composite group after 2.9 years. At study end bleeding (1.44 RelyX Unicem vs. 1.25 zinc phosphate) and plaque (1.64 RelyX Unicem vs. 1.0 zinc phosphate) scores showed no statistically significant difference. The self-adhesive resin cement performed clinically as well and can be used as easily as zinc phosphate cement to retain metal-based restorations over a 38-month observation period.

  10. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Poncé, S. Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X.; Marini, A.; Verstraete, M.

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  11. Bacterial colonization during de novo plaque formation.

    PubMed

    Ramberg, Per; Sekino, Satoshi; Uzel, Naciye Guzin; Socransky, Sigmund; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-11-01

    To determine microbial changes that occur during plaque formation in a dentition free of gingival inflammation. Ten subjects were recruited. The study included one preparatory period (2 weeks) and a plaque accumulation period (4 days). The volunteers exercised proper tooth cleaning methods, were scaled and received repeated professional mechanical tooth cleaning during the preparatory period. During the plaque accumulation period, the participants abstained from plaque control measures. Plaque was scored on the approximal surfaces of maxillary and mandibular premolars on Days 0, 1, 2 and 4 using a scale from 0 to 5 and according to the criteria of the Quigley and Hein Plaque Index (QHI). Supragingival plaque samples were obtained from the same intervals and surfaces and evaluated using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. The mean QHI increased from 0 to 1.6 (Day 4). The total number of organisms on Day 0 averaged 140 x 10(5) and increased to about 210 x 10(5) after 4 days without oral hygiene. The most dominant species on Day 0 were members of the genus Actinomyces. These organisms comprised almost 50% of the microbiota evaluated. None of the Actinomyces species increased significantly during the 4 days. Some Streptococcus species increased significantly over time as well as species of the genera Capnocytophaga, Campylobacter, Fusobacteria and Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans. In the present investigation, the preparatory phase established a situation with minimal gingival inflammation and close to zero amounts of dental plaque. The Day 0 plaque samples exhibited high proportions of Actinomyces species. During the 4 days of no oral hygiene, there was a small increase in total numbers of organisms as well as a modest increase in the proportion of "disease-associated" taxa such as species of the "orange complex" species.

  12. Lipid Profile and Its Association with Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in the Highlanders of Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Deji; Stigum, Hein; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Luobu, Ouzhu; Thelle, Dag S.; Nafstad, Per; Bjertness, Espen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sherpa, Lhamo Y., Deji, Hein Stigum, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong, Ouzhu Luobu, Dag S. Thelle, Per Nafstad, and Espen Bjertness. Lipid profile and its association with risk factors for coronary heart disease in highlanders of Lhasa, Tibet. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:57–63, 2011.—The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal lipid levels and its association with selected coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in the Tibetan population living at 3660 meters above sea level in Lhasa, Tibet. Three hundred seventy one randomly selected male and female, aged 30 to 70 yr took part in the study. Based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCED) adult treatment panel ATP-III 2004 criteria, the age-adjusted prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 12.0%; high triglycerides (TG), 33.4%; high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 4.8%; and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); 24.3%. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, diet, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), an increase in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) by 0.1 unit was associated with a statistically significant increase in TG, total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C by 0.25 mmol/L, 0.24 mmol/L, and 0.18 mmol/L, respectively. Female gender increased HDL-C by 0.18 mmol/L when compared with males. Age-adjusted prevalences of Framingham CHD risk score for males and females were 16.3% and 0.6%, respectively. This study demonstrated a high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in males, a higher prevalence of low HDL-C in females, and a high hypercholesterolemia prevalence in both genders. However, further longitudinal studies assessing CHD risk factors in high altitude natives are required. PMID:21452966

  13. Anti-gingivitis efficacy of a stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Mankodi, Suru; Bartizek, Robert D; Winston, J Leslie; Biesbrock, Aaron R; McClanahan, Stephen F; He, Tao

    2005-01-01

    Stannous fluoride is a broad-spectrum anti-microbial agent that has been used in dentistry as a chemical adjunct to prevent dental caries and gingivitis. The objective of this study was to assess the anti-gingivitis efficacy of a stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice relative to a negative control. This was a randomized, 6-month, double-blind, parallel-group gingivitis study conducted according to the guidelines for evaluating chemotherapeutic products for the control of gingivitis outlined by the American Dental Association. A stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice was tested against a commercially available negative control dentifrice. Following baseline measurements, subjects received a dental prophylaxis. Subjects were then instructed to brush twice daily for 60 s using their assigned product. Oral soft-hard-tissue examinations and clinical examinations using the Modified Gingival Index, Gingival Bleeding Index, and the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index were performed at baseline, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. A total of 143 subjects were enrolled and 130 of them completed the 6-month study. After 6 months of product usage, the experimental group had 21.7% less gingivitis (p<0.001), 57.1% less bleeding (p<0.001), and 6.9% less plaque (p=0.01) on average compared with the negative control group. No adverse oral soft-hard-tissue effects or extrinsic tooth staining was observed in the study. The results demonstrate that use of the stabilized 0.454% stannous fluoride/sodium hexametaphosphate dentifrice over a 6-month period provided statistically significant reductions in gingivitis, gingival bleeding, and plaque when compared with a negative control dentifrice. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004.

  14. The anti-plaque efficacy of a novel stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice: a randomized and controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Sun, Lily; Li, Sarah; Ji, Nelson

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the anti-plaque efficacy of a novel stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice compared to a negative control regular anti-caries dentifrice and a positive control marketed triclosan-containing dentifrice. This was a randomized and controlled, single-center, double-blind, three-treatment, three-period, crossover clinical trial in generally healthy adults. A prophylaxis was followed by three 4-day treatment periods of limited brushing, each separated by an approximate 7-day washout phase. Subjects used the test dentifrice on Days 0-3 of each period according to their randomly assigned sequence; either Crest Cavity Protection (negative control); an experimental stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice; or a marketed triclosan positive control (Colgate Total). A dental polishing was given at Day 0 of each treatment period, and subjects brushed the lingual surfaces only and then swished the entire dentition with a dentifrice slurry twice daily under supervision through Day 3. At baseline and Day 4 of each treatment period, plaque levels were assessed via the Turesky Modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (TMQHPI). Twenty-eight fully evaluable subjects completed the trial. Both the experimental and positive control dentifrices provided significantly lower mean whole mouth TMQHPI plaque scores after treatment compared to the negative control: 11.4% lower for the experimental stannous-containing dentifrice and 8.4% for Colgate Total (P< 0.0001). The experimental stannous-containing dentifrice group resulted in directionally lower whole mouth plaque scores when compared to Colgate Total (P= 0.07). The experimental stannous-containing dentifrice had significantly lower mean plaque scores post-treatment at lingual sites compared with Total (P= 0.0355). All dentifrices were well-tolerated.

  15. The coral reef aorta – a single centre experience in 70 patients

    PubMed Central

    Grotemeyer, Dirk; Pourhassan, Siamak; Rehbein, Hermann; Voiculescu, Adina; Reinecke, Petra; Sandmann, Wilhelm

    2007-01-01

    Coral reef aorta (CRA) is described as rock-hard calcifications in the visceral part of the aorta. These heavily calcified plaques grow into the lumen and can cause significant stenoses, which may lead to malperfusion of the lower limbs, visceral ischemia or hypertension due to renal ischemia. From January 1984 to February 2007, 70 patients (24 men, 46 women, mean age 59.5 years, range 14 to 81 years) underwent treatment in the Department of Vascular Surgery and Renal Transplantation, University Hospital, Heinrich-Heine-University (Düsseldorf, Germany) for CRA. The present study is based on a review of patients’ records and the prospective follow-up in the outpatient clinic. The most frequent finding was renovascular arterial hypertension (44.3%) causing headache, vertigo and visual symptoms. Intermittent claudication due to peripheral arterial occlusive disease was found in 28 patients (40.0%). Seventeen patients (24.3%) presented with chronic visceral ischemia causing diarrhea, weight loss and abdominal pain. Sixty-nine of the 70 patients (98.6%) underwent surgery; in 57 patients, aortic reconstruction was achieved with thromboendarterectomy, performed on an isolated suprarenal segment in six cases (8.7%), an infrarenal segment in 15 cases (21.7%), and the supra- and infrarenal aorta in 43 cases (62.3%). Eight patients (11.6%) died during or soon after surgery. Postoperative complications requiring corrective surgery occurred in 11 patients (15.9%). Almost one-third of the patients (n=19, 27.5%) returned for follow-up after a mean of 52.6 months (range six to 215 months). Of the 19 patients, there was significant clinical and diagnostic improvement in 16 patients (84.2%) and three patients (15.8%) were unchanged. Impairment was not observed. Despite the existing and improving surgical techniques for the treatment of CRA, its pathophysiological basis and genesis is not yet understood. PMID:22477301

  16. Combined effects of repeated oral hygiene motivation and type of toothbrush on orthodontic patients: a blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Marini, Ida; Bortolotti, Francesco; Parenti, Serena Incerti; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Bonetti, Giulio Alessandri

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects on plaque index (PI) scores of manual or electric toothbrush with or without repeated oral hygiene instructions (OHI) and motivation on patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. One month after the orthodontic fixed appliance bonding on both arches, 60 patients were randomly assigned to four groups; groups E1 (n  =  15) and E2 (n  =  15) received a powered rotating-oscillating toothbrush, and groups M1 (n  =  15) and M2 (n  =  15) received a manual toothbrush. Groups E1 and M1 received OHI and motivation at baseline (T0) and after 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks (T4, T8, T12, T16, and T20, respectively) by a Registered Dental Hygienist; groups E2 and M2 received OHI and motivation only at baseline. At each time point a blinded examiner scored plaque of all teeth using the modified Quigley-Hein PI. In all groups the PI score decreased significantly over time, and there were differences among groups at T8, T12, T16, and T20. At T8, PI scores of group E1 were lower than those of group E2, and at T12, T16, and T20, PI scores of groups M1 and E1 were lower compared to those of groups M2 and E2. A linear mixed model showed that the effect of repeated OHI and motivation during time was statistically significant, independently from the use of manual or electric toothbrush. The present results showed that repeated OHI and motivation are crucial in reducing PI score in orthodontic patients, independent of the type of toothbrush used.

  17. Comparison of soft toothbrush and new ultra-soft cleaner in ability to remove plaque from teeth.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William J; Gratzel, Kristen; Gearity, Erin J; Akerman, Meredith; Hill, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    In this single-blind, crossover study, the difference between a brushless tooth cleaner and a soft toothbrush was studied to compare plaque removal efficiency. The sample was composed of 15 human subjects who were categorized into two groups. Group 1 was composed of subjects randomly assigned to the brushless tooth cleaner for the first two weeks. Group 2 was composed of those randomly assigned to begin the study using the soft toothbrush. After two weeks of brushing with their assigned device, subjects returned to their normal modality to brush their teeth for one week. For the last two weeks of the study, subjects were told to brush with the opposite device they were originally assigned to at the beginning of the trial. Investigators recorded the subjects' gingival indices (based on probe depths) and Quigley scores (based on plaque indices using disclosing solution) at the beginning of week one, the end of week two, the end of week three and the end of week five. The main outcomes in this study were the Silness Loe Index (SLI) and the Quigley Hein Index (QHI). The SLI was assessed on the buccal, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 24 surfaces. The QHI was assessed on the buccal and lingual surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 12 surfaces. Each index was measured at each visit by the sum total score divided by the total number of surfaces. The data were analyzed separately using a mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) for crossover designs. Results indicate that, according to the SLI, there is no significant difference between the two treatments after the first or second weeks. However, based on the QHI, statistically significant differences existed between the two treatments after week one and two. After week one, the soft toothbrush use had a higher QHI than the brushless tooth cleaner. After week two, the brushless tooth cleaner had a higher QHI than the soft toothbrush.

  18. A large format membrane-based x-ray mask for microfluidic chip fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Min; Desta, Yohannes; Melzak, J.; Wu, C. H.; Peng, Zhengchun

    2006-02-01

    X-ray lithography is a very good option for the fabrication of micro-devices especially when high aspect ratio patterns are required. Membrane-based x-ray masks are commonly used for high-resolution x-ray lithography. A thin layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon carbide (SiC) film (1-2 µm) is normally used as the membrane material for x-ray mask fabrication (Wells G M, Reilly M, Nachman R, Cerrina F, El-Khakani M A and Chaker M 1993 Mater. Res. Soc. Conf. Proc. 306 81-9 Shoki T, Nagasawa H, Kosuga H, Yamaguchi Y, Annaka N, Amemiya I and Nagarekawa O 1993 SPIE Proc. 1924 450-6). The freestanding membrane window of an x-ray mask, which defines the exposing area of the x-ray mask, can be obtained by etching a pre-defined area on a silicon wafer from the backside (Wang L, Desta Y, Fettig R K, Goettert J, Hein H, Jakobs P and Chulz J 2004 J. Micromech. Microeng. 14 722-6). Usually, the window size of an x-ray mask is around 20 × 20 mm because of the low tensile stress of the membrane (10-100 MPa), and the larger window dimension of an x-ray mask may cause the deformation of membranes and lower the mask quality. However, x-ray masks with larger windows are preferred for micro-device fabrication in order to increase the productivity. We analyzed the factors which influence the flatness of large format x-ray masks and fabricated x-ray masks with a window size of 55 × 55 mm and 46 × 65 mm on 1 µm thick membranes by increasing the tensile stress of the membranes (>300 MPa) and optimizing the stress of the absorber layer. The large format x-ray mask was successfully applied for the fabrication of microfluidic chips.

  19. A comparison of dermoscopic features among lentigo senilis/initial seborrheic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma on the face.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mustafa Turhan; Oztürkcan, Serap; Ermertcan, Aylin Türel; Güneş, Ali Tahsin

    2004-11-01

    Clinical differentiation of facial lentigo senilis/initial seborrheic keratosis (LS/ISK), seborrheic keratosis (SK), lentigo maligna (LM), and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) can be difficult. Dermoscopy improves the diagnoses in pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), but it is not helpful for the sun-exposed face because of the flat rete ridges without network-derived features. Therefore, development of new diagnostic criteria for this particular localization is a current issue of dermatology. In this retrospective study, dermoscopic slides of facial pigmented skin lesions of 66 patients referred to two clinics in Turkey were evaluated. Our aim was to determine the reliability of dermoscopy in the differentiation of these entities. The facial PSLs of 66 patients (34 males and 32 females) (median age: 58.2) were photographed with a Dermaphot (Heine, Hersching, Germany) over a five year period from November of 1995 to May of 2000. All of the dermoscopic slides were analysed according to 27 dermoscopic criteria developed by Schiffner et al. This data set contained 22 histologically proven malignant (14 LM, 8 early LMM) and 44 benign (18 SK, 26 LS/ISK) PSLs. In general, asymmetric pigmented follicular openings, dark streaks, slate-gray streaks, dark globules, slate-gray globules, dark dots, dark rhomboidal structures, light brown rhomboidal structures, dark homogeneous areas and dark pseudonetworks were statistically significant for malignant growth. On the other hand, milia-like cysts, pseudofollicular openings, cerebriform structures, light brown globules, light brown dots, light brown homogeneous areas, yellow opaque homogeneous areas, and light brown pseudonetworks were statistically significant for benign growth. This research emphasizes that dermoscopic features on the face differ from criteria used in other locations of the body. Analysis of the data suggests that dermoscopy can be used in the differentiation of LS/ISK, SK, LM and LMM from each other.

  20. Efficacy of dental floss impregnated with chlorhexidine on reduction of supragingival biofilm: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Muniz, F W M G; Sena, K S; de Oliveira, C C; Veríssimo, D M; Carvalho, R S; Martins, R S

    2015-05-01

    The use of a toothbrush has a limited ability to control the dental biofilm in interproximal areas. Therefore, specialized devices, such as dental floss, may be useful for these specific areas. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of dental floss impregnated with 5% chlorhexidine gluconate on the reduction of the supragingival biofilm. This research was parallel, single-blind, controlled and randomized, and contained a sample of thirty dental students from the Faculty of Pharmacy, Dentistry and Nursing of the Federal University of Ceará, Brazil, who were divided equally into three groups. The negative control group (NC) did not utilize any kind of interproximal cleaning; the positive control group (PC) used waxed floss without impregnation twice a day; and the test group (T) used the same dental floss, which was impregnated with 5% chlorhexidine gluconate, twice a day. For all groups, this study lasted for 15 days. The presence of a biofilm was evaluated on four surfaces (mesiobuccal, distobuccal, mesiolingual and distolingual) by the Quigley-Hein Index, resulting in four scores for each tooth. Group T had the lowest plaque scores, showing a significant difference compared to group NC (P < 0.001) and group PC (P < 0.001). Group PC also displayed a significant difference compared to NC (P < 0.001). It was concluded that the use of dental floss impregnated with 5% chlorhexidine gluconate resulted in additional reductions in the supragingival biofilm relative to the results achieved with conventional waxed floss on the anterior teeth of a well-motivated and well-instructed population. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clinical evaluation of the anti-plaque effect of a commercial chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Virginia M; Santarpia, Peter; Richter, Rose; Curtis, John; Xu, Tao

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the dental plaque control effect of a chewing gum versus brushing with a dentifrice via four clinical studies. Study 1 compared a commercial chewing gum (Colgate Dental Gum, CDG) with a water control after 24 hours post-brushing; Studies 2 and 3 compared CDG to two different brands of commercially available fluoride dentifrices after 24 hours post-brushing; Study 4 examined the anti-plaque effect of CDG plus a regular fluoride dentifrice (Colgate Winterfresh Gel, CWG) versus brushing with CWG alone for five days. The 24-hour clinical tests employed the Modified Gingival Margin Plaque Index (MGMPI), while the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (QHPI) was used for the five-day study. All studies utilized a randomized, crossover design with a one-week washout period, and were single-blinded to the clinical evaluator. In Study 1, the mean MGMPI score for CDG was significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared to the water control. In Studies 2 and 3, while brushing with regular fluoride dentifrices provided improved plaque control compared to CDG, the chewing gum alone with no tooth brushing delivered a plaque reduction 60% as effective as brushing with a fluoride dentifrice. In Study 4, the group using the combination of chewing with CDG and brushing with CWG provided a significantly lower (p < 0.05) mean QHPI score compared to the group using the dentifrice only, particularly on the hard-to-brush lingual surfaces. Four clinical studies demonstrated that CDG provides a plaque control benefit. The results suggest that chewing gum may serve as an effective oral hygiene device when brushing may not be possible and, additionally, that chewing gum may serve as an effective adjunct to brushing for enhanced oral health.

  2. New portable system for dental plaque measurement using a digital single-lens reflex camera and image analysis: Study of reliability and validation

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Guillermo Martin; Elizondo, Maria Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The quantification of the dental plaque (DP) by indices has limitations: They depend on the subjective operator's evaluation and are measured in an ordinal scale. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a method to measure DP in a proportional scale. Materials and Methods: A portable photographic positioning device (PPPD) was designed and added to a photographic digital single-lens reflex camera. Seventeen subjects participated in this study, after DP disclosure with the erythrosine, their incisors, and a calibration scale ware photographed by two operators in duplicate, re-positioning the PPPD among each acquisition. A third operator registered the Quigley-Hein modified by Turesky DP index (Q-H/TPI). After tooth brushing, the same operators repeated the photographs and the Q-H/TPI. The image analysis system (IAS) technique allowed the measurement in mm2 of the vestibular total tooth area and the area with DP. Results: The reliability was determined with the intra-class correlation coefficient that was 0.9936 (P < 0.05) for the intra-operator repeatability and 0.9931 (P < 0.05) for inter-operator reproducibility. The validity was assessed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient that indicated a strong positive correlation with the Q-H/TPI rs = 0.84 (P < 0.01). The sensitivity of the IAS was evaluated with two sample sizes, only the IAS was able to detect significant differences (P < 0.05) with the sample of smaller size (n = 8). Conclusions: Image analysis system showed to be a reliable and valid method to measure the quantity of DP in a proportional scale, allowing a more powerful statistical analysis, thus facilitating trials with a smaller sample size. PMID:26229267

  3. Microstratigrapgy for Paleoceanographic Reconstruction of Hydrogenetic Ferromanganese Crusts in Northwest Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, E.; Usui, A.

    2016-12-01

    Hydrogenetic ferromanganese crusts are chemical sedimentary rocks composed mainly of iron and manganese oxyhydroxide and partly of detrital fractions. Crusts widely cover hard ground of seamounts in all over the world ocean with wide range of depth. Crusts precipitate directly from normal seawater at very slow growth rates (1 to 10 mm/m.y.), and show significant variations in mineralogical and chemical composition and inner growth textures in time and space. Crusts are thus considered as reliable recorders of the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic conditions. Several microstratigraphic studies have suggested correlation between inner texture and the bottom water conditions (Hein et al., 1992), chemical composition and ocean minimum zone (Dickens and Owen, 1994), and so on. However, most of previous studies conducted bulk analyses and did not focused on detritus. We focused on detrital particles because crusts are polygenetic sediments which incorporate biogenic, volcanogenic, terrestrial particles rather than metallic components. Chemical and physical separation were conducted on more than 50 crusts collected in different regions and water depth covers 1,000-6,000m over Northwest Pacific. These samples were previously analyzed for chemical composition and dated 0-20m.y. We attempted fine-scale mineral composition and grain-size analysis on those separated detritus. After the separation, we identified a few kinds of minerals we could not observe by bulk XRD, such as pyroxene, magnetite, cosmic dust, fossil teeth, and foraminifera. Also it was revealed that some minerals show variation in content in time or space. The content of fossil teeth changed regions and age. Fine (<10µ) quartz content increased as it went to the upper (younger) layer. These variations seem to reflect global or regional paleoenvironmental conditions. It can be expected that the fine-scale analysis on the separated detritus beyond bulk analysis will be powerful tool for reconstruction of

  4. Comparison of the plaque removal efficacy of a new flossing aid (Quik Floss) to finger flossing.

    PubMed

    Carter-Hanson, C; Gadbury-Amyot, C; Killoy, W

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness and safety of a new dental flossing device (Quik Floss) to finger flossing in plaque removal, reduction of gingival inflammation and patient preference. 30 healthy, non-flossing adults with 20 natural teeth, a plaque index (PI) of at least 1.8 and a gingival index (GI) of 1.3 or greater participated in this two-phase crossover design study. Patients were randomly assigned to use either the new flossing device or finger flossing first in the sequence. At baseline, data were collected and patients were given flossing method instructions. The Silness & Löe GI, Quigley-Hein PI, Eastman Bleeding Index (BI) and trauma were assessed at baseline, 15 and 30 days for each treatment period. After the initial 30-day treatment phase, patients were instructed to cease all flossing during a 14-day "washout" period. Subjects were then assigned to the opposite treatment group during the 2nd treatment phase. A 3-factor repeated measures ANOVA analyzed data for differences within and between groups over time. Results revealed statistically significant (p < 0.01) within group improvement in PI, GI, and BI for both treatment groups over time. No statistically significant between group differences were found for either group at any time period. In addition, no significant gingival trauma was recorded and no differences were found between groups. Quik Floss was as effective as finger flossing. Subjects preferred (55%) Quik Floss over finger flossing. In conclusion, Quik Floss is a safe and effective oral hygiene measure for reducing plaque, inflammation and bleeding over time.

  5. The role of the Chinese police in methadone maintenance therapy: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jinmei; Burris, Scott

    2013-11-01

    The behavior of police is an important factor in drug users' access to preventive and therapeutic health services. In China, opiate users must be registered and approved by police before accessing methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We conducted a literature review to identify studies reporting original data about the influence of Chinese drug policing activities on MMT access and outcomes. Searches were conducted in PubMed, the Law Journal Library of HeinOnline, the Social Science Citation Index and China Academic Journals of CNKI for empirical studies conducted in China and published in academic journals between 2005 and April 2012. The initial literature search retrieved 276 records, of which 85 were included in the review and 191 were excluded. The majority of the included papers were single-clinic observational studies. These studies reported that: (1) fear of incarceration deterred users from initiating and continuing MMT; (2) the rates of MMT referral by police were considerably lower than those by drug user peers and by community and the media; (3) police sending users to compulsory detoxification (DETOX) and reeducation through labor (RTL) centers contributed to higher rates of MMT patient dropout; (4) arrests in and around MMT clinics were not uncommon; (5) cooperation between local police and public health agencies was difficult to achieve; and (6) a limited number of trial programs were conducted to refer detainees in DETOX to MMT clinics after release, but the outcomes were not promising. Reviewed studies report drug policing practices that appear to be impeding MMT access and reducing successful treatment outcomes. Research focusing on the nature, prevalence and severity of these effects is urgently needed. Health and public security officials in China should review and reform policies and practices of registering, monitoring, and incarcerating drug users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical Investigations of the Effects of Lithium Intercalation on the Properties of Indium Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes da Costa, Manuel Pedro Fernandes

    The effect of intercalating lithium into gamma-InSe and beta -InSe has been investigated. The energy bands of pure gamma -InSe and pure beta-InSe were calculated using an overlap-reduced semi-empirical tight-binding method. The parameters for the interactions of Li atoms with In and Se atoms were obtained using the atomic wave-functions of Clementi and Roetti and the Heine-Abarenkov model potential. We established the positions of minimum potential inside the unit cell of the two InSe polytypes where the lithium atoms are most likely to be found. By placing lithium atoms in these sites, we calculated the modifications of the energy bands produced by the introduction of one Li atom per unit cell in gamma-InSe and two lithium atoms per unit cell in beta -InSe. The activation energy for movement of a Li atom between local energy minima was also calculated. The results have been correlated with the optical absorption and photoluminescence data of InSe and Li-intercalated InSe. The lattice dynamics of both the pure gamma- and beta-polytypes of the layer compound InSe have been investigated using a model containing short-range central forces and long -range Coulomb interactions. The normal mode frequencies and eigenvectors were determined by diagonalizing the dynamical matrix. The results have been correlated with the infrared and Raman spectra in InSe. The procedure was then extended to include one lithium ion per unit cell in a site of minimum potential in both the gamma-InSe and the beta-InSe polytypes. The effect of intercalated Li atoms on the vibrational modes and on the infrared and Raman spectra was then investigated.

  7. Clinical effect of miswak as an adjunct to tooth brushing on gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Punit Vaibhav; Shruthi, S.; Kumar, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to clinically evaluate the effect of miswak as an adjunct to tooth brushing on plaque levels and gingival health in subjects diagnosed with mild to moderate chronic generalized marginal gingivitis in comparison with those of toothbrush users. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 30 systemically healthy subjects, aged 18-35 years diagnosed with mild to moderate gingivitis. The study was designed as a randomized, single-blind, parallel-armed study. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A (toothbrush users), group B (toothbrush and miswak users), and group C (miswak users). Subjects were advised to use toothbrush, miswak, or both, three times daily depending on their respective allocations. Gingival index according to Loe and Silness, Plaque index, according to Turesky modified Quigley-Hein plaque index, and the digital photographs of the total labial surfaces of the teeth were taken for image analysis. Recording of data were done at baseline, 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th week time intervals. Obtained data were analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA and student t test (independent samples). Results: Group B showed statistically significant (P<0.0001) decrease in plaque score and gingival score compared to group A and group C, respectively, from 2nd to 8th week, whereas no statistical significant difference was found in plaque score, when group A was compared with group C (P>0.05) from 2nd to 4th week. Further at the 6th and 8th week, there was significant difference (P<0.05) in plaque score between group A and group C. The difference in gingival score was not significant (P<0.05), when group A was compared with group C on all the indicated time intervals. Conclusion: Results showed significant improvement in plaque score and gingival health when miswak was used as an adjunct to tooth brushing. PMID:22628969

  8. Tectonic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol greenstone belt in NE Burkina Faso and Niger, West African craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2010-05-01

    -2130 Ma (Hein, 2009). D2 involved a period of SE-NW crustal shortening and sinistral-reverse displacement on the MSZ, and is correlated to the Eburnean Orogeny ~2.1 Ga of Feybesse et al. (2006). Deformation in D2 is characterised by NE-trending regional folds (F2) and a pervasive NE-trending foliation (S2-C to S2). Since 2007 an identical tectonic history has been established for a number of shear zones in the OGGB including the north-trending Kargouna Shear Zone, which is subtended by NW- and NE-trending shears. However the metamorphic grade and mineral assemblages vary from one shear zone to the next. Structural studies completed adjacent to the Dori batholith have indicated that the MSZ forms a shear complex that was active during pluton emplacement. However, the MSZ has two main branches that join at the location of a mylonite zone located north west of Essakane. Southwest of Essakane, a NW-trending mylonite zone crosscuts the Dori batholith and near the village of Kargouna, which is situated southeast of Essakane, the Kargouna shear crosscuts and deforms the Dori batholith. It is thus likely that the Dori batholith was emplacement prior to D1 in the OGGB. Gold mineralization in the OGGB is generally hosted in the hanging-wall of NE-trending faults and or NW-trending folds in metasiltstone-sandstone-shale sequences. Nkuna (2009) concluded that the deposits can be classified as orogenic gold deposits under the sub-class of "intrusion related" due to their proximity to plutonic masses, which concurs with geophysical studies for the OGGB. References: Feybesse, J.L., Billa, M., Guerrot, C., Duguey, E., Lescuyer, J.L., Milési, J.P., Bouchot, V., 2006. The Palaeoproterozoic Ghanaian province: Geodynamic model and ore controls, including regional stress modelling. Precambrian Research 149, 149-196. Hein, K.A.A., 2009 (In press). Structural chronologies in the Goren Greenstone belt (Burkina Faso); Implications for West African tectonics. Journal of African Earth Sciences

  9. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  10. A randomized crossover-design study to investigate the plaque removal efficacy of two power toothbrushes: Philips Sonicare Flexcare and Oral-B Triumph.

    PubMed

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Jeffery L; Jenkins, Wendy; Schmitt, Paul; Master, Aditi S; Strate, Joerg

    2008-01-01

    The Sonicare FlexCare and the Oral-B Triumph Professional Care 9000 power toothbrushes were compared in a single-use, examiner-masked, crossover clinical trial. Outcomes were evaluated using the Turesky Modified Quigley-Hein (TMQH) plaque index. Percent reduction in overall plaque score because of toothbrushing was the primary efficacy measure. Subjects were required to have a TMQH score > or = 1.8 at screening after refraining from oral hygiene for 24 hours. The study included three visits. At visit 1, subjects were randomized to one of two treatment sequences, given their first toothbrush and toothpaste, and instructed to use them twice daily for 2 minutes during a 1-week familiarization phase. Before visit 2, subjects again refrained from oral hygiene for 24 hours. At this visit, plaque scores were assessed before and after a 2-minute supervised brushing episode, then the second test product was issued. Familiarization, plaque accumulation, and clinical examinations were the same for both product use periods. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed effects model with subject as a grouping factor. Treatment effects were expressed as mean values and the appropriate 95% confidence intervals (CI). Ninety-six subjects were screened with 93 subjects completing the study. The sample's TMQH score at Visit 1 was 3.18 +/- 0.42 (mean +/- standard deviation [SD]). Full-mouth prebrushing plaque scores were 2.85 +/- 0.49 for FlexCare and 2.94 +/- 0.45 for Triumph. Respective full-mouth reductions in overall plaque score were 38.02% +/- 15.14% and 30.43% +/- 14.05%. The estimated treatment effect, expressed as difference between FlexCare and Triumph in percent plaque index reduction, was 7.59% with a 95% CI from 4.79% to 10.40%. Similar differences were observed for all subregions, including anterior, posterior, interproximal, and interproximal posterior sites. The same protocol design was used at an earlier study in another center. The combined overall treatment effect from

  11. Small scale inhomogeneity in the mantle source of the Cape Verde hotspot is probably related to plume complexity: implications from Sr, Nd and high precision Pb isotopes and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, P. M.; Sørensen, R. V.

    2009-04-01

    The volcanic rocks of one of the major islands of the Cape Verde hotspot have been investigated in order to test mantle plume models. From the centre of the Cape Verde Rise an array of islands trend west, the northern HIMU-type Cape Verde Islands. Of these, São Nicolau (SN) is the easternmost and Santo Antão the westernmost. Sixty samples of primitive (MgO = 9-14 wt%) basanitic composition from SN that represent the four volcanic stages of the 9 - 0.1 Ma evolution of the island have been analysed for Sr, Nd and high precision Pb isotopic composition. Pb ranges to a less radiogenic composition than on SA [1] and has lower 8/4 than the rocks of the southern EM1-type Cape Verde islands. Most SN lavas have a young HIMU character with negative 7/4. The most radiogenic Pb at SN is less thorogenic than Pb at SA. Temporal variation is also evident: An intermediate age group of samples have particularly low La/Nb = 0.4 - 0.5 and the least LREE-enrichment for SN. The youngest group of rocks has the lowest Zr/Nb = 2.5 - 3.0 and the most unradiogenic Sr and radiogenic Nd in the archipelago. At least four of the mantle source components for the SN magmas are different from any found in the SA magmas. High precision Pb data allow identification of parallel trends for northern SN and the southern island Santiago, which therefore must have unrelated source components. For the northern Cape Verde islands source compositions vary from E to W as well as with time. This cannot be explained by stationary enriched lithosphere components. The derivation of melts from a complex plume source is modelled. [1] Holm P.M., Wilson J.R., Christensen B.P., Hansen S.L., Hein K.M., Mortensen A.K., Pedersen R., Plesner S., and Runge M.K. (2006) JPetrol 47, 145-189.

  12. Rinsing with alcohol-free or alcohol-based chlorhexidine solutions after periodontal surgery. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, pilot study.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Helena; Asklöw, Barbro; Johansson, Eva; Slotte, Christer

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, double-blind, cross-over pilot study was to evaluate the effect on plaque formation and patient experience of rinsing after periodontal surgery using chlorhexidine solution with or without alcohol. Twenty patients refrained from tooth brushing after surgery and used two mouth rinses.Ten patients used alcohol-based (AB) 0.1% and another ten used alcohol-free (AF) 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX). Sutures were removed after 2 weeks and teeth were cleaned; thereafter, the two groups shifted solution. Plaque at operated teeth was recorded at 2 and 4 weeks (Quigley-Hein Index). Patient experience was assessed with a visual analogue scale (0-10). Mean (SD) plaque indices at 2 and 4 weeks were 1.0 (0.8) and 1.1 (1.0) for AB CHX and 1.1 (0.7) and 0.8 (0.7) for AF CHX, respectively (no significant differences between solutions). At 2 weeks, between-group differences in taste experience of the solutions differed non-significantly: 6.1 (2.8) for AB and 6.0 (2.3) for AF. At 4 weeks, values were 4.6 (2.5) for AB and 6.9 (3.3) for AF-patients tended to prefer AF (p = 0.050). Taste change over the study period was equal for both groups: -37 (3.3) for AB and 3.4 (2.3) for AF at 2 weeks and slightly higher at 4 weeks 4.9 (2.8) and 4.5 (2.5) for AB and AF, respectively. Smarting was low in both groups: 2.2 (3.2) and 1.3 (2.2) for AB and 1.0 (1.5) and 1.9 (2.0) for AF at 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. To conclude, alcohol-free and alcohol-based chlorhexidine showed the same plaque inhibitory effect in periodontal patients after periodontal surgery. Both rinses were well tolerated by the patients.

  13. A four-week clinical study to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of a baking soda dentifrice and an antimicrobial dentifrice in reducing plaque.

    PubMed

    Ghassemi, Annahita; Vorwerk, Linda M; Hooper, William J; Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the effectiveness in reducing plaque of a fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda and a non-baking soda fluoride dentifrice containing an antimicrobial (triclosan/copolymer) system after a single brushing and over a four-week period of daily brushing. A total of 207 subjects completed this randomized, blinded, parallel-group clinical study. Twenty-four hour plaque buildup was scored at baseline and after two and four weeks of twice-daily use of the products. Additionally, controlled single brushing with the assigned dentifrice, followed by post-brushing plaque assessment, was performed at the start (baseline visit) and end (Week-4 visit) of the study. Plaque was scored using the Turesky, et al. modification of Quigley-Hein Index at six sites per tooth, according to Soparkar's modification. Mean baseline whole mouth plaque scores for the baking soda and triclosan dentifrice groups were 2.90 +/- 0.40 and 2.90 +/- 0.39, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant. Within-group analysis showed that both products significantly reduced the amount of plaque over the four-week period (p < 0.001). Between-group analysis showed that brushing with the baking soda dentifrice exhibited significantly greater reduction in plaque scores (p < 0.001) after two and four weeks of brushing as compared to the triclosan dentifrice. After four weeks, the mean plaque reduction for the baking soda dentifrice group (0.34 +/- 0.32) was 2.22-fold greater than that observed for the triclosan dentifrice group (0.15 +/- 0.24). Similarly, single brushing with the baking soda dentifrice showed a 1.88- to 2.08-fold greater pre- to post-brushing plaque difference as compared to the triclosan dentifrice at the baseline visit (mean plaque reduction: baking soda 0.54 +/- 0.26; triclosan 0.28 +/- 0.18; ratio 1.88X) and Week-4 visit (baking soda 0.47 +/- 0.21; triclosan 0.23 +/- 0.15; ratio 2.08X). Similar to the whole mouth scores, evaluation of various

  14. The heat capacity and enthalpy of condensed UO 2: Critical review and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, G. J.; Ohse, R. W.

    1986-09-01

    Having established the role of the heat capacity, Cp( T), of condensed UO 2 in various FBR accident scenarios, e.g. HCDA and PAHR, and having noted the unsatisfactory state of present knowledge concerning this basic thermophysical property of the fuel, all existing enthalpy and heat capacity data are collated and assessed, and certain recommendations made. The conventional method of obtaining Cp( T) by analytical differentiation of some adopted fit to this enthalpy data is then critically examined. The attendant problems are illustrated both for solid UO 2, where the contribution to Cp( T) from the weak, sigmoidal, enthalpy structure (which is just discernible in the data of Hein and Flagella) is missed and for molten UO 2, where not even the direction of the trend of Cp( T) with T can be definitively established, resulting, upon extrapolation to 5000 K, in Cp values which can differ by as much as 60 J mol -1K -1. Some recent progress towards a more acceptable, "model-independent" approach, known as quasi-local linear regression (QLLR), is then reviewed and applied to enthalpy data of UO 2 on both sides of its melting point, Tm. In the case of solid UO 2, a pronounced heat capacity peak, extending over about 100 K and centred on 2610 K., is revealed, whose magnitude and location is very similar to that found in other fluorite structured materials near 0.8 Tm wherein it indicates a (Bredig) transition to a state characterised by giant ionic conductivities. Whilst it is impossible to establish any definite T-dependence for the Cp(QLLR) values in molten UO 2, the tendency to slightly decrease appears to marginally outweigh the converse, in qualitative accord with the dependence advocated by Hoch and Vernardakis. In the post-transitional region Tt< T< Tm the opposite holds, as is necessary for consistency between the independently established T-dependences of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity, which requires that Cp( T) increases with T faster than the density

  15. [Sensitivity, precision and resolution of the optical microscope in the study of environmental pollution by asbestos fibers].

    PubMed

    Maddalon, G; Patroni, M; Trimarchi, R; Clerici, C; Occella, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors comment on the methods and equipment used in two Italian laboratories for sampling and microscopic phase contrast analysis of asbestos and other respirable fibres in the air of the general environment, i.e., the Dust Analysis Laboratory, Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology Department of the Institute of Occupational Health (Clinica del Lavoro), University of Milan and the Technical Microscopy Laboratory, Ground Resources and Land Control (Georisorse e Territorio) Department of Turin Polytechnic, which use identical methods. Airborne dust samples are taken with personal samplers, 1 l/min air flow (sample duration 4-8 h), filtering air on 25 mm diameter, 0.8 micropore cellulose filters (about 300 mm total net surface of dust deposit). The following equipment is used for counting and analysis of fibres: a) Clinica del Lavoro, Milan: Polyvar Reichert-Jung microscope, 500 magnitudes, Zernike positive phase contrast; numerical counting on 100 whole ocular fields, equal to 6.38% of the total net surface of dust deposit on the membrane; b) Turin Polytechnic: Leitz Ortholux microscope, 500 magnitudes, Heine and Zernike phase contrast with mean standard contrast; numerical counting on square grid, with explored surface total equal to 1.68% of the total net surface of dust deposit on the membrane. Measurements performed: Clinica del Lavoro, Milan: 2,980 since 1960; Turin Polytechnic: 875 since 1965. The sensitivity of the methods for counting airborne fibres is discussed, concluding that the methods used by the two laboratories have a sensitivity between 0.05 and 1.6 fibre/litre of air, according to the overall dustiness of the environment under study. Analysis of the accuracy of the optic determinations, based on the repeated counts, shows a repeatability of 0.4 (40%) within 95% confidence limits. A resolution power of 0.35 microns is reported; however, the possibility exists (and is normally achieved in analytical practice in both laboratories) of identifying and

  16. The clinical efficacy of Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste containing a special grade of silica and Colgate Total Fresh Stripe Toothpaste in the control of plaque and gingivitis: a six-month clinical study.

    PubMed

    Allen, Donald R; Battista, Guido W; Petrone, Dolores M; Petrone, Margaret E; Chaknis, Patricia; DeVizio, William; Volpe, Anthony R

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this six-month, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical study, conducted in harmony with American Dental Association guidelines, was to provide an assessment of the effectiveness of a new dentifrice formulation of Colgate Total Toothpaste containing a special grade of silica (Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste), vs. Colgate Total Fresh Stripe Toothpaste as a control, and a placebo dentifrice without triclosan and the copolymer, for the control of supragingival dental plaque and gingivitis. Adult male and female subjects from the state of New Jersey were entered into the study, and stratified into three treatment groups which were balanced for baseline Quigley-Hein Plaque Index scores and baseline Löe-Silness Gingival Index scores. Subjects received an oral prophylaxis, and were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily (morning and evening) for one minute with their assigned dentifrice, using a soft-bristled toothbrush. Examinations for supragingival plaque and gingivitis were conducted after three-months' and again after six-months' participation in the study. One-hundred ten (110) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire six-month clinical study. At both the three- and six-month study examinations, the Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste group and the Colgate Total Fresh Stripe Toothpaste group exhibited statistically significantly less supragingival plaque and gingivitis than did the placebo toothpaste group. At the six-month examination, the magnitude of these differences exceeded 23.0% for all four parameters measured in the Colgate Total Plus Whitening Toothpaste group (29.9% for Plaque Index, 59.2% for Plaque Severity Index, 23.2% for Gingival Index, and 75.1% for Gingivitis Severity Index). Also, at the six-month examination, the magnitude of these differences exceeded 21.0% for each of the four parameters measured in the Colgate Total Fresh Stripe Toothpaste group (27.9% for Plaque Index, 54.9% for Plaque

  17. A randomized controlled clinical study of the effect of daily intake of Ascophyllum nodosum alga on calculus, plaque, and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    van Dijken, Jan W V; Koistinen, S; Ramberg, Per

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate, in a randomized controlled cross-over study, the effect of daily intake of the alga Ascophyllum nodosum on supragingival calculus, plaque formation, and gingival health over a 6-month period. Sixty-one adults with moderate to heavy calculus formation since their last yearly recall visit participated. In a randomized order over two 6-month periods, they swallowed two capsules daily, comprising a total of 500 mg dried marine alga powder (Ascophyllum nodosum, ProDen PlaqueOff®) or two negative control tablets. During the study, the participants maintained their regular oral habits. Their teeth were professionally cleaned at the start of each period and after the 6-month registrations. A wash out period of 1 month separated the two 6-month periods. Supragingival calculus (Volpe Manhold), gingivitis (Löe and Silness), gingival bleeding (Ainamo and Bay), and plaque (Quigley-Hein) were registered at screening and at the end of the two periods. Differences in oral health between the test and control periods were analyzed using a paired t test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. Fifty-five participants completed the study. After the alga intake, the mean calculus reduction was 52% compared to the control (p < 0.0001). Fifty-two participants showed less calculus formation in the alga group than in the control group. Plaque (p = 0.008) and gingival bleeding (p = 0.02) were also significantly less in the alga group. However, no significant difference was found between the groups for gingivitis (p = 0.13). The alga intake significantly reduced the formation of supragingival calculus and plaque and occurrence of gingival bleeding. The alga has a systemic effect on oral health. Daily intake of the alga Ascophyllum nodosum as an adjunct to customary oral hygiene showed a major reduction of supragingival calculus formation and reduced plaque formation. In addition, the calculus in the alga group was characterized by a more porous

  18. Essential oils-containing mouthwashes for gingivitis and plaque: Meta-analyses and meta-regression.

    PubMed

    Haas, Alex Nogueira; Wagner, Tassiane Panta; Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes; Fiorini, Tiago; Cavagni, Juliano; Celeste, Roger Keller

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of EO as adjuncts to mechanical plaque control (MPC) on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis when compared to placebo or cetylpyridium chloride (CPC). Randomized controlled trials of at least 6 months of follow-up including systemically healthy individuals with gingivitis were included. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Lilacs and SCOPUS were searched up to April 2016. From 3045 citations, 16 studies were included. 14 studies assessed the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (QHI) and 11 studies assessed the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) and were included in meta-analyses and meta-regression. The analysis of risk of bias suggested that the quality of the studies ranged from moderate to low. Mean QHI (WMD=-0.86, 95%CI -1.05 to -0.66) and MGI (WMD=-0.52, 95%CI -0.67 to -0.37) were lower for EO+MPC than placebo+MPC. Reductions in plaque and gingivitis were, respectively, 32% and 24% larger for EO+MPC than placebo+MPC. The decreases in QHI (WMD=-0.95, 95%CI -1.26 to -0.63) and in MGI (WMD=-0.34, 95%CI -0.53 to -0.15) observed in the EO+MPC group, compared to placebo+MPC in interproximal areas, were significantly different and in favor to EO+MPC. EO+MPC compared to CPC+MPC resulted in clinically lower levels of plaque and gingivitis. High heterogeneity (I(2)>95%) was found and explained (MGI-R(2)=63.6%; QHI-R(2)=80.1%) by differences between studies in the percentage of males, supervision of the mouthwashes and provision of oral hygiene. EO seems to be superior to placebo+MPC and CPC+MPC for reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Expected benefits may be clinically relevant and may also reach the interproximal area. Mouthwashes containing essential oils should be considered the first choice for daily use as adjuvants to self-performed mechanical plaque control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Distribution of dental plaque and gingivitis within the dental arches.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, Prem K; Prasad, Kakarla V V

    2017-10-01

    Objective The natural accumulation of supragingival plaque on surfaces of human teeth is associated with gingival inflammation and the initiation of common oral diseases. This study evaluated the distribution of dental plaque and gingivitis scores within the dental arches after prophylaxis. Methods Adult subjects from the Dharwad, India area representing the general population who provided written informed consent were scheduled for screening. Healthy subjects over the age of 18 years, not currently requiring any medical or dental care, and presenting with a complement of at least 20 natural teeth were recruited for this parallel design study. Enrolled subjects (n = 41) underwent oral examinations for dental plaque (PI) and gingivitis (GI) using the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein and the Löe-Silness Index, respectively, at the baseline visit, followed by a whole mouth dental prophylaxis. Subjects were given fluoride toothpaste for twice daily oral hygiene for the next 30 days. Subjects were recalled on days 15 and 30 for PI and GI examinations identical to baseline. Results Analyses indicated that mean scores for PI and GI on either arch and the whole mouth were higher than 2 and 1, respectively, during all examinations. Anterior surfaces consistently exhibited lower PI scores than posterior regions of either arch, or the entire dentition. Regional GI differences within the dentition were similar to PI scores, with lower scores on anterior than posterior teeth. Prophylaxis reduced both the frequency and mean scores of both PI and GI, irrespective of arch, with lower scores observed on anterior than posterior regions during all recall visits. Molar and lingual regions consistently exhibited higher PI and GI scores compared with anterior surfaces. At all examinations, mean scores for both plaque and gingivitis were higher on approximal vestibular than mid-vestibular surfaces. Conclusions Differences observed in PI and GI within the dentition have

  20. Comparison of triclosan and stannous fluoride dentifrices on parameters of gingival inflammation and plaque scores: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sälzer, S; Slot, D E; Dörfer, C E; Van der Weijden, G A

    2015-02-01

    To systematically review the literature to compare the efficacy of triclosan (Tcs) and stannous fluoride (SnF) dentifrices on parameters of gingivitis and plaque scores. Medline, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched up to March 2013 to identify appropriate studies. Studies regarding self-performed manual brushing by adults with a minimum 4 weeks of follow-up were included. Primary outcomes were parameters of gingivitis. Secondary outcome was plaque score. Of 55 publications, 11 met the eligibility criteria. Additionally, four unpublished papers were added after contacting the manufacturers of the leading brands. In total, 15 studies [10 medium term and five long term (>6 months)] were processed for data analysis. There was no difference in gingival index (or its modification) between the two types of dentifrice [DiffM-0.04, 95% confidence interval CI (-0.11; 0.04); P = 0.34]. The change in the average gingival bleeding score was significantly in favour of SnF [DiffM0.02, 95% CI (0.01; 0.02); P < 0.00001]. Plaque scores demonstrated a statistical significant difference in favour of Tcs, according to Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (Q&H PI; DiffM-0.29, 95% CI [-0.45; -0.13]; P = 0.0004), but there was no difference according to Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI) [DiffM-0.09, 95% CI (-0.01; 0.18); P = 0.07]. Long-term results supported these findings. In the context of inconclusive results for the primary outcome variable of gingival health, it can be concluded that there was a minor and most likely clinically insignificant difference between Tcs- and SnF-containing dentifrices. Meta-analysis of plaque score reduction was also inconclusive; whereas Tcs was more effective when assessed by the Q&H PI, it was not when scored with the RMNPI. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Regional differences within the dentition for plaque, gingivitis, and anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sreenivasan, P K; DeVizio, W; Prasad, K V V; Patil, S; Chhabra, K G; Rajesh, G; Javali, S B; Kulkarni, R D

    2010-01-01

    This investigation assessed regional differences in dental plaque and gingivitis within the human dentition in conjunction with microbiological analyses of dental plaque. Forty-one adults (23 males and 18 females; age range 19-44 years) were enrolled, and a calibrated dental examiner completed whole mouth examinations for dental plaque (PI) and gingivitis (GI) using the Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein Index (TMQH) and the L6e-Silness (LS) Index, respectively. Dental plaque samples were collected from the anterior surfaces and posterior teeth to determine viable anaerobic bacteria. During this visit, subjects underwent a whole mouth dental prophylaxis and were provided a marketed fluoride dentifrice for twice-daily oral hygiene. Subjects were recalled on day 15 and day 30 for whole mouth assessments of PI and GI, followed by the collection of dental plaque from the anterior and posterior teeth for microbiological analyses during these visits. Low plaque and gingival scores were common on anterior surfaces, in contrast to greater frequencies of higher PI and GI scores on the posterior regions or the entire dentition. Correspondingly, mean scores for PI and GI were significantly lower among the anterior surfaces in comparison to all other regions of the mouth (posterior, Ramfjord surfaces, or the entire dentition) over each phase of the study (p < 0.0001). While prophylaxis resulted in lower clinical scores from baseline to the day-15 recall visit (p < 0.05), anterior surfaces demonstrated lower scores than posterior regions during this recall visit (p < 0.05). Although dental plaque scores increased from the day-15 to the day-30 evaluations, gingival scores maintained broad reductions, with anterior scores consistently lower than the corresponding posterior regions (p <0.05). Microbiological analyses indicated significantly lower numbers of viable bacteria from the anterior surfaces in comparison to posterior regions at both recall visits (p < 0

  2. Short-term impact of a national dental education program on children's oral health and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Biesbrock, Aaron R; Walters, Patricia A; Bartizek, Robert D

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this four-week, examiner-blind study was to determine the impact of an educational oral health program conducted within a Boys and Girls Club of America in Chicago, Illinois, USA. The educational program focused on the gingival health (gingivitis and plaque) of participating children who were between the ages of six and 15. The multi-week program taught the participants the basics of oral biology and disease, as well as proper oral health prevention, including oral hygiene, dietary modification, and the importance of visiting the dentist. A calibrated examiner measured whole mouth Löe-Silness Gingival Index (GI) and Turesky Modification of Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (PI) at baseline (immediately prior to the initiation of the educational program) and four weeks later. The primary efficacy analysis was based on the change from baseline for 90 subjects who were enrolled at baseline, participated in the educational program, and were examined four weeks later. In addition, subjects completed five questions at baseline and at four weeks to assess their oral health knowledge before and after exposure. Mean baseline GI score was 0.184, while the four-week mean GI score was reduced to 0.140. This represents a 24% reduction in GI score, with p < 0.001. The mean baseline bleeding site score was 9.99, while the four-week mean bleeding score was reduced to 7.97. This represents a 20% reduction in bleeding sites, with p = 0.005. The mean baseline PI score was 3.06, while the four-week mean PI score was reduced to 2.97. This represents a 3% reduction in PI score with p = 0.044. The subject population was found to have statistically significantly (p < 0.001) greater knowledge following the program at week four, with 37% (33 of 90) and 69% (62 of 90) of subjects answering the questions correctly at baseline and week four, respectively. Collectively, these data support the role of an educational program in promoting improved oral health in these children over a

  3. Three-month assessment of safety and efficacy of two electric toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Cronin, M J; Dembling, W Z; Cugini, M A; Thompson, M C; Warren, P R

    2005-06-01

    OBJECTIVE.: This randomised, examiner-blind parallel group study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a rechargeable oscillating/pulsating toothbrush (Oral-B ProfessionalCaretrade mark 7000, Oral-B Laboratories; PC 7000) and a battery-operated toothbrush (Crest(R) SpinBrushtrade mark Pro, Procter & Gamble Company; SBP) in the reduction of gingivitis, bleeding and plaque over a 3-month period. METHODS.: After 12-18 hours of no oral hygiene, subjects had oral tissue examinations, and gingival and plaque assessments to determine eligibility in the study. Subjects were stratified and randomised into treatment groups based on initial whole mouth mean plaque (Turesky modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index) and gingivitis (Löe & Silness Gingival Index) scores and gender. Subjects were instructed to brush twice daily with their assigned toothpaste and toothbrush. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline, and after 1 and 3 months of use. Within treatment comparisons from baseline were analysed using t-test; between treatment comparisons were analysed using ANOVA. RESULTS.: Data were obtained from 92 subjects (PC 7000 n=45; SBP n=47). No significant differences were found in baseline plaque, gingivitis and bleeding between groups. Both treatment groups had significant reductions from baseline in plaque, gingivitis and bleeding scores. PC 7000 demonstrated significantly greater reductions compared to SBP in whole mouth plaque at 1 month: 0.39+/-0.43 vs. 0.16+/-0.42 and 3 months: 0.32+/-0.48 vs. 0.04+/-0.41. PC 7000 also demonstrated significant reductions compared to SBP in gingivitis at 3 months for whole mouth: 0.14+/-0.09 vs. 0.10+/-0.10 and approximal areas: 0.11+/-0.08 vs. 0.08+/-0.09. There were no significant differences between toothbrushes in bleeding at either time point. Safety examinations revealed no apparent difference in soft and hard tissue abnormalities between groups. CONCLUSION.: The PC 7000 toothbrush demonstrated significantly

  4. Three-month assessment of safety and efficacy of two electric toothbrushes.

    PubMed

    Cronin, M J; Dembling, W Z; Cugini, M A; Thompson, M C; Warren, P R

    2005-06-01

    This randomised, examiner-blind parallel group study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a rechargeable oscillating/pulsating toothbrush (Oral-B ProfessionalCare 7000, Oral-B Laboratories; PC 7000) and a battery-operated toothbrush (Crest SpinBrush Pro, Procter & Gamble Company; SBP) in the reduction of gingivitis, bleeding and plaque over a 3-month period. After 12-18 hours of no oral hygiene, subjects had oral tissue examinations, and gingival and plaque assessments to determine eligibility in the study. Subjects were stratified and randomised into treatment groups based on initial whole mouth mean plaque (Turesky modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index) and gingivitis (Löe & Silness Gingival Index) scores and gender. Subjects were instructed to brush twice daily with their assigned toothpaste and toothbrush. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline, and after 1 and 3 months of use. Within treatment comparisons from baseline were analysed using t-test; between treatment comparisons were analysed using ANOVA. Data were obtained from 92 subjects (PC 7000 n=45; SBP n=47). No significant differences were found in baseline plaque, gingivitis and bleeding between groups. Both treatment groups had significant reductions from baseline in plaque, gingivitis and bleeding scores. PC 7000 demonstrated significantly greater reductions compared to SBP in whole mouth plaque at 1 month: 0.39 +/- 0.43 vs. 0.16 +/- 0.42 and 3 months: 0.32 +/- 0.48 vs. 0.04 +/- 0.41. PC 7000 also demonstrated significant reductions compared to SBP in gingivitis at 3 months for whole mouth: 0.14 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.10 +/- 0.10 and approximal areas: 0.11 +/- 0.08 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.09. There were no significant differences between toothbrushes in bleeding at either time point: Safety examinations revealed no apparent difference in soft and hard tissue abnormalities between groups. The PC 7000 toothbrush demonstrated significantly greater reductions in plaque and gingivitis compared to

  5. EDITORIAL: Computational materials science Computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Kresse, Georg

    2011-10-01

    Special issue in honour of Jürgen Hafner On 30 September 2010, Jürgen Hafner, one of the most prominent and influential members within the solid state community, retired. His remarkably broad scientific oeuvre has made him one of the founding fathers of modern computational materials science: more than 600 scientific publications, numerous contributions to books, and a highly cited monograph, which has become a standard reference in the theory of metals, witness not only the remarkable productivity of Jürgen Hafner but also his impact in theoretical solid state physics. In an effort to duly acknowledge Jürgen Hafner's lasting impact in this field, a Festsymposium was held on 27-29 September 2010 at the Universität Wien. The organizers of this symposium (and authors of this editorial) are proud to say that a large number of highly renowned scientists in theoretical condensed matter theory—co-workers, friends and students—accepted the invitation to this celebration of Hafner's jubilee. Some of these speakers also followed our invitation to submit their contribution to this Festschrift, published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, a journal which Jürgen Hafner served in 2000-2003 and 2003-2006 as a member of the Advisory Editorial Board and member of the Executive Board, respectively. In the subsequent article, Volker Heine, friend and co-worker of Jürgen Hafner over many decades, gives an account of Hafner's impact in the field of theoretical condensed matter physics. Computational materials science contents Theoretical study of structural, mechanical and spectroscopic properties of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) D Tunega, H Pašalić, M H Gerzabek and H Lischka Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide M O Ozbek, I Onal and R A Van Santen First-principles study of Cu2ZnSnS4 and the related band offsets for photovoltaic applicationsA Nagoya, R Asahi and G Kresse Renormalization group study of random quantum magnetsIstván A Kovács and

  6. A randomised, controlled crossover comparison of the C-MAC videolaryngoscope with direct laryngoscopy in 150 patients during routine induction of anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The C-MAC® (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany) has recently been introduced as a new device for videolaryngoscopy guided intubation. The purpose of the present study was to compare for the first time the C-MAC with conventional direct laryngoscopy in 150 patients during routine induction of anaesthesia. Methods After approval of the institutional review board and written informed consent, 150 patients (ASA I-III) with general anaesthesia were enrolled. Computer-based open crossover randomisation was used to determine the sequence of the three laryngoscopies: Conventional direct laryngoscopy (HEINE Macintosh classic, Herrsching, Germany; blade sizes 3 or 4; DL group), C-MAC size 3 (C-MAC3 group) and C-MAC size 4 (C-MAC4 group) videolaryngoscopy, respectively. After 50 patients, laryngoscopy technique in the C-MAC4 group was changed to the straight blade technique described by Miller (C-MAC4/SBT). Results Including all 150 patients (70 male, aged (median [range]) 53 [20-82] years, 80 [48-179] kg), there was no difference of glottic view between DL, C-MAC3, C-MAC4, and C-MAC4/SBT groups; however, worst glottic view (C/L 4) was only seen with DL, but not with C-MAC videolaryngoscopy. In the subgroup of patients that had suboptimal glottic view with DL (C/L≥2a; n = 24), glottic view was improved in the C-MAC4/SBT group; C/L class improved by three classes in 5 patients, by two classes in 2 patients, by one class in 8 patients, remained unchanged in 8 patients, or decreased by two classes in 1 patient. The median (range) time taken for tracheal intubation in the DL, C-MAC3, C-MAC4 and C-MAC4/SBT groups was 8 sec (2-91 sec; n = 44), 10 sec (2-60 sec; n = 37), 8 sec (5-80 sec; n = 18) and 12 sec (2-70 sec; n = 51), respectively. Conclusions Combining the benefits of conventional direct laryngoscopy and videolaryngoscopy in one device, the C-MAC may serve as a standard intubation device for both routine airway management and educational purposes. However, in

  7. Taking a fresh look at the skull base in otorhinolaryngology with web-based simulation: Student's Interactive Skull-Base Trainer (SISTer).

    PubMed

    von Sass, Peter Freiherr; Scheckenbach, Kathrin; Wagenmann, Martin; Klenzner, Thomas; Schipper, Joerg; Chaker, Adam

    2015-02-01

    The increasing amount of medical knowledge and necessity for time-effective teaching and learning have given rise to emerging online, or e-learning, applications. The base of the skull is a challenging anatomic area in the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) department-for both students and lecturers. Technology-enhanced learning might be an expedient approach to benefit both learners and lecturers. To investigate and create for advanced medical students a self-assessed adaptive e-learning application for the skull base within our curriculum of otolaryngology at the University Medical Center of Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, Germany. Pilot approach with prospective evaluation of a newly implemented web-based e-learning simulation. The e-learning application (Student's Interactive Skull-Base Trainer) was made accessible as an elective course to a total of 269 enrolled medical students during the first 2 semesters after web launch. Spatiotemporal independent e-learning application for the skull base. Self-assessed evaluation with focus on general acceptance and personal value as well as usage data analysis. The application was well accepted by the learners. More than 80% of the participating students found the application to be a beneficial tool for enhancing their analytical and clinical problem-solving skills. Although the general matter of the skull base seemed to be of lesser interest, the concept of anchored instructions with the use of high-end, interactive, multimedia-based content was considered to be particularly suitable for this challenging topic. Most of the students would have appreciated an extension of optional e-learning modules. With this pilot approach we were able to implement a useful and now well-accepted tool for blended learning. We showed that it is possible to raise interest even in this very specialized subspecialty of ORL with overall individual learning benefit for the students. There is a demand for more e-learning and web-based simulation

  8. Predicting dynamic topography from mantle circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Peter; Davies, J. Huw

    2013-04-01

    Dynamic topography is anomalous vertical motions of Earth's surface associated with viscous flow in the mantle. Deformable boundaries, such as the surface, CMB and phase transition boundaries, within a fluid (Earth's mantle) are deflected by viscous flow. Denser than average, sinking mantle creates inward deflections of Earth's surface. Equally, upwelling flow creates bulges in the surface; large plumes are commonly thought to produce superswells, such as the anomalously high elevation of Southern Africa. Dynamic topography appears to operate on a number of length scales. Mantle density anomalies estimated from seismic tomography indicate long wavelength dynamic topography at present day of around 2 km amplitude (e.g. Conrand & Husson, 2009) whilst continental scale studies suggest vertical motions of a few hundred metres. Furthermore, time scales must be an important factor to consider when assessing dynamic topography. Stable, dense lower mantle 'piles' may contribute to dynamic surface topography; as they appear stable over reasonably long time scales, long wavelength dynamic topography may be a fairly constant feature over the recent geological past. Shorter wavelength, smaller amplitude dynamic topography may be due to more transient features of mantle convection. Studies on a continental scale reveal shorter term changes in dynamic topography of the order of a few hundred metres (e.g. Roberts & White, 2010; Heine et al., 2010). Understanding dynamic topography is complicated by the fact it is difficult to observe as the signal is often masked by isostatic effects. We use forward mantle convection models with 300 million years of recent plate motion history as the surface boundary condition to generate a present day distribution of density anomalies associated with subducted lithosphere. From the modelled temperature and density fields we calculate the normal stress at or near the surface of the model. As the models generally have a free slip surface where no

  9. The effect of a polyhexamethylene biguanide mouthrinse compared with a triclosan rinse and a chlorhexidine rinse on bacterial counts and 4-day plaque re-growth.

    PubMed

    Welk, A; Splieth, C H; Schmidt-Martens, G; Schwahn, Ch; Kocher, Th; Kramer, A; Rosin, M

    2005-05-01

    For various clinical applications, polyhexamethylene biguanide hydrochloride (PHMB) has been used for many years as an antiseptic in medicine. Recently, a 0.04% and a 0.12% PHMB mouthwash were shown to inhibit plaque re-growth and to reduce oral bacterial counts. In this study, a 0.2% PHMB mouthrinse (A) was compared with a positive control 0.12% aqueous chlorhexidine solution (B), a commercially available 0.3% triclosan/2.0% polyvinyl methyl ether maleic acid copolymer mouthrinse (Colgate Total Plax) (C), and a negative control placebo rinse (10% ethanol, flavour) (D). The controlled clinical study was a double blind, randomized, four replicate cross - over design. Plaque re-growth was assessed with the Turesky et al. (1970) modification of the Quigley & Hein (1962) plaque index. The antibacterial effect was assessed by taking bacterial counts on the tooth surface (smears from the buccal surface of 16/26) and mucosa (smears from the buccal mucosa in opposite of area 16/26) after the professional prophylaxis and after the first rinse with the preparations on day 1 and prior to the clinical examination on day 5. Sixteen volunteers participated and, on day 1 of each study period were rendered plaque-free, ceased toothcleaning, and rinsed twice daily with the allocated mouthrinse. On day 5, plaque was scored and smears were collected according to the protocol. A 10-day wash-out period was carried out between each rinse evaluation. Data were analysed using ancova with Bonferroni HSD adjustment for multiple comparisons (colony forming units per sample) with a significance level alpha=0.05. The 0.2% PHMB mouthrinse (A) was significantly better at inhibiting plaque than the placebo (D), but significant less effective than the 0.12% aqueous chlorhexidine solution (B). There is no significant difference between A and the 0.3% triclosan/2.0% copolymer mouthrinse (C). Bacterial count reductions (tooth surface and mucosa) with PHMB (A) were significantly greater compared with

  10. Dental and Microbiological Risk Factors for Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia in Non-Ventilated Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ewan, Victoria C.; Sails, Andrew D.; Walls, Angus W. G.; Rushton, Steven; Newton, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is often fatal in older patients. The mouth is the main reservoir of infection and studies have suggested that oral hygiene interventions may prevent HAP. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between HAP and preceding a) heavy dental plaque and b) oral carriage of potential respiratory pathogens in older patients with lower limb fracture to determine the target for intervention studies. Methods We obtained a time series of tongue/throat swabs from 90 patients with lower limb fracture, aged 65-101 in a general hospital in the North East of England between April 2009-July 2010. We used novel real-time multiplex PCR assays to detect S. aureus, MRSA, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, H. influenza and Acinetobacter spp. We collected data on dental/denture plaque (modified Quigley-Hein index) and outcomes of clinician-diagnosed HAP. Results The crude incidence of HAP was 10% (n = 90), with mortality of 80% at 90 days post discharge. 50% of cases occurred within the first 25 days. HAP was not associated with being dentate, tooth number, or heavy dental/denture plaque. HAP was associated with prior oral carriage with E. coli/S. aureus/P.aeruginosa/MRSA (p = 0.002, OR 9.48 95% CI 2.28-38.78). The incidence of HAP in those with carriage was 35% (4% without), with relative risk 6.44 (95% CI 2.04-20.34, p = 0.002). HAP was associated with increased length of stay (Fishers exact test, p=0.01), with mean 30 excess days (range -11.5-115). Target organisms were first detected within 72 hours of admission in 90% participants, but HAP was significantly associated with S. aureus/MRSA/P. aeruginosa/E. coli being detected at days 5 (OR 4.39, 95%CI1.73-11.16) or 14 (OR 6.69, 95%CI 2.40-18.60). Conclusions Patients with lower limb fracture who were colonised orally with E. coli/ S. aureus/MRSA/P. aeruginosa after 5 days in hospital were at significantly greater risk of HAP (p = 0.002). PMID:25923662

  11. The effect of systemic administration of ibuprofen in the experimental gingivitis model.

    PubMed

    Sekino, Satoshi; Ramberg, Per; Lindhe, Jan

    2005-02-01

    Studies in humans have indicated that systemically administered flurbiprofen and ibuprofen may reduce gingivitis. De novo plaque formation is enhanced at tooth surfaces adjacent to inflamed gingivae. The aim of the present clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of systemic administration of ibuprofen on gingivitis and plaque build-up. Eleven subjects were recruited for the study and were given oral hygiene instruction, scaling and professional mechanical tooth cleaning (PTC). At the end of a preparatory period (Day 0), the participants were told to abstain from all mechanical plaque control measures during a 2-week experimental period but to rinse with an assigned mouth rinse (positive control: 0.1% chlorhexidine digluconate; negative control: saline) or administer ibuprofen (tablets of 200 mg twice daily). Mouth rinsing was performed twice a day (after breakfast and in the evening), for 60 s with 10 ml. Re-examination was performed after 14 days of experiment. After a 2-week "wash-out" period, the participants received a new PTC and a second 14-day experimental period was initiated. The experimental and "wash-out" periods were repeated until all volunteers had been involved in all three regimens. Dental plaque was scored using the Quigley & Hein Plaque Index system and gingivitis according to the Gingival Index (GI) system. Supragingival plaque was collected and prepared for dark-field microscopy. One hundred bacterial cells were counted and classified into six different groups: coccoid cells, straight rods, filaments, fusiforms, spirochetes and motile rods. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from the same sites that were sampled for plaque. The volume of GCF collected in each strip was measured and analysed regarding content of lactoferrin and albumin. During the period when the panelists rinsed with saline they accumulated large amounts of plaque and developed marked signs of gingivitis. When they rinsed with chlorhexidine digluconate, small

  12. Treatment of infrabony pocket with a collagen membrane supported by cancellous bovine bone.

    PubMed

    Mauro, S; Orlando, L

    2001-06-01

    Treatment of infrabony pockets with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) methods using absorbable membranes supported by bone substitutes has gained wide acceptance. Our objective is to observe the clinical variations obtained with the use of these materials in a prospective clinical study. Nine patients were treated with GTR at nine infrabony pockets using a double layered collagen membrane and deproteinized cancellous bovine bone associated with root conditioning by application of tetracycline-HCl. The nine patients included in this study had adult periodontitis, were non-smokers and responded well to initial therapy. The sites evaluated had probing pocket depths of at least 5 mm and an angular defect of at least 2 mm. The clinical parameters considered were probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and gingival recession (REC). Some indexes were also evaluated: the modified Quigley and Hein's Plaque index (PI), O'Leary's bleeding index (FMBS) and the Löe and Sillness gingival index (GI). These parameters were measured one week before surgery and at the control visit after an average of 22.9 months. After the removal of the sutures on the eighth day the patients received professional oral hygene every four months at their private dentists' offices. The baseline and the final measurements were compared with the Student OtO-test to verify the statistical significance of this case series. The mean values of PI, FMBS and GI remained unvaried (p>0.05). Results showed an average decrease in PPD of 4.0+/-2.7 mm (p=0.0002), an average increase of CAL of 4.1+/-2.1 mm (p=0.0001) and an average decrease in recession of 0.2+/-1.2 mm (p=0.594). The value of statistical significance was set at p=0.05. We can conclude that the materials used in this study behaved well clinically and that the surgical technique described has given results that, within the limits of the number of cases reported, has modified the PPD and CAL in a significant manner.

  13. Enhancement of plaque removal efficacy by tooth brushing with baking soda dentifrices: results of five clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Putt, Mark S; Milleman, Kimberly R; Ghassemi, Annahita; Vorwerk, Linda M; Hooper, William J; Soparkar, Pramod M; Winston, Anthony E; Proskin, Howard M

    2008-01-01

    An earlier clinical study demonstrated that brushing with a commercial Arm & Hammer dentifrice containing baking soda physically removed significantly more plaque than brushing with either of two commercial dentifrices which did not contain baking soda. However, little has been done to confirm these results and to compare baking soda-containing dentifrices with more recently commercialized non-baking soda dentifrice formulations. The objective of this study was to compare commercial dentifrices containing 20% to 65% baking soda and commercial dentifrices without baking soda in enhancing plaque removal efficacy of tooth brushing. Five randomized, controlled, blinded, crossover clinical studies were performed among healthy adult volunteers who provided informed consent. After approximately 24 hours without oral hygiene, subjects with sufficient plaque were enrolled in the study phase. Plaque was scored before and after supervised brushing for one minute using the Turesky, et al. modification of the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index at six sites per tooth according to Soparkar's modification as described by Lobene, et al. In each study, wash-out periods with a regular dentifrice not evaluated in the study separated each product treatment. In all studies, every dentifrice exhibited a significant (p < 0.0001) reduction in 24-hour plaque scores. Between-group comparisons of whole mouth plaque scores in all five studies demonstrated that brushing with baking soda dentifrices resulted in statistically greater (p < 0.01) reductions in whole mouth mean plaque scores than brushing with dentifrices that did not contain baking soda. Results on other tooth surfaces, such as facial, lingual, proximal, and gingival surfaces also demonstrated statistically greater (p < 0.05) reductions in mean plaque scores for the baking soda-containing dentifrices as compared to the baking soda-free dentifrices. In three of the studies comparing different levels of baking soda, brushing with dentifrices

  14. Comparative effectiveness of an essential oil mouthrinse and dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis and plaque.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naresh C; Charles, Christine H; Qaqish, Jimmy G; Galustians, H Jack; Zhao, Qian; Kumar, Lori D

    2002-12-01

    To compare the effectiveness of rinsing with an essential oil-containing antimicrobial mouthrinse with that of dental floss in reducing interproximal gingivitis and plaque in an unsupervised 6-month clinical trial designed in accordance with ADA Acceptance Program Guidelines. 319 qualifying subjects, aged 18-63, were randomized into one of three groups: essential oil mouthrinse (Listerine Antiseptic); dental floss (Reach Dental Floss); or a negative control rinse. At baseline, subjects received a complete oral soft tissue examination and scoring of the Modified Gingival Index (MGI), modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (PI), and bleeding index (BI). Following a complete dental prophylaxis and receiving flossing or rinsing instructions, subjects started on their respective regimen. They continued on their assigned regimen unsupervised at home, in addition to toothbrushing, and were reexamined at 3 and 6 months. The treatment groups were compared with respect to baseline demographic and clinical variables. The primary efficacy variables were mean interproximal MGI and PI at 6 months. Intergroup differences at 3 and 6 months were tested using a one-way analysis of covariance model with treatment as a factor and the respective baseline value as the covariate. In addition, the essential oil mouthrinse was compared to floss for interproximal gingivitis reduction using "at least as good as" statistical criteria. 301 subjects were considered evaluable. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 groups at baseline, with the exception of the essential oil mouthrinse group having significantly fewer AfroAmerican subjects than the other two groups. For the interproximal MGI, the essential oil mouthrinse and flossing were both significantly more effective than the negative control (P < 0.001) at 3 and 6 months. The essential oil mouthrinse was shown to be "at least as good as" dental floss for the control of interproximal gingivitis. For the interproximal PI

  15. Dental problems and emergencies of trekkers--epidemiology and prevention. Results of the ADEMED Expedition 2008.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Thomas; Hettlich, Malaika; Horz, Hans-Peter; Lechner, Karin; Scharfenberg, Christine; Conrads, Georg; Yekta, Said S; Lampert, Friedrich; Gore, Claudia

    2014-04-01

    Dental problems are rarely mentioned in the training of medical students or physicians in travel medicine, and there are little data on dental problems of travellers in the literature. We studied the epidemiology of dental problems amongst trekkers in Nepal to develop strategies for preventive care during/before travelling and propose a curriculum for dental First Aid training. We undertook a prospective, cross-sectional questionnaire and clinical dental survey of Trekkers at Manang (3550 m, Annapurna Circuit, Nepal). The questionnaire was developed based on published literature and clinical experience (exploring: availability of dental kits, dental history, current dental problems, and nutritional behavior). Dental examination included: dental status, papillary bleeding index (PBI), and plaque index (Quigley and Hein; QH). Questionnaire and clinical findings were compared to data of the Annapurna Conservancy Authority about the number of days of trekkers in the region to estimate the incidence of dental problems of trekkers. None of the 309 participants carried a dental first aid kit. Dental problems, potentially treatable with a dental first aid kit, were reported by 50/309 (16.5%). Oral hygiene en route was significantly worse than home hygiene practice; overall increased plaque indices were found (Median QH: 2.25 in women; 2.36 in men). Participants who visited a dentist ≤6 months before departure had significantly fewer problems, and had lower PBI [males 0.07 (IQR 0.0 to 0.29), females 0.0 (IQR 0.0 to 0.11)]. Combining our findings with data of the park authorities on person days in the region (2007), we found a risk of dental problems as follows: any dental problem 1:23.7 trekking days; gingival bleeding 1:37.7 trekking days; dental pain 1:145.2 trekking days; lost fillings 1:339 trekking days; fractured teeth 1:509 trekking days. Dental problems can pose significant discomfort for anybody travelling in regions with low/missing infrastructure. Improved

  16. Comparison of different surgical techniques in 112 consecutive patients with aortic root operations: when should the valve be spared?

    PubMed

    Blehm, Alexander; Schurr, Paulus; Sorokin, Vitaly A; Zianikal, Ioanna; Kamiya, Hiroyuki; Albert, Alexander; Lichtenberg, Artur

    2014-01-01

    The benefit of valve-sparing aortic root replacement compared to conventional aortic root replacement surgery remains unclear. Between February 2009 and November 2010, a total of 112 patients underwent aortic root surgery at the Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Heinrich-Heine-University, Dusseldorf, Germany. The valve-sparing technique was used when leaflets were grossly normal. In cases where the valve could not be saved, a prosthetic or biological substitute was used for the aortic root, according to existing guidelines. The patients were allocated to three groups: (i) valve-sparing aortic root replacement group using the David technique (VSR-David; n = 47); (ii) valve-replacing aortic root surgery with a prosthetic conduit using the Bentall-Kuchucus technique (VRR-Prosthetic; n = 31); and (iii) valve-replacing aortic root surgery with a biological stentless valve with the full root technique (VRR-Bio; n = 34). Intraoperative data revealed that, in the VSR-David group, the cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were significantly longer (207 +/- 68 min and 140 +/- 38 min respectively; both p = 0.001). The VRR-Prosthetic patients were at highest risk (mean EuroSCORE 15.9%) compared to the VSR-David and VRR-Bio groups (10.8% and 10.4%, respectively). Postoperative analysis showed that patients in the VRR-Bio group had the lowest number of perioperative heart failures (p = 0.004). The perioperative 30-day mortality was significantly higher in the VRR-Prosthetic group (22.6%; p = 0.004). Transaortic flow velocities were significantly lower in the VSR-David group, followed by the VRR-Bio group and VRR-Prosthetic group (1.66 +/- 0.54, 1.98 +/- 0.45, and 2.29 +/- 0.39 m/s, respectively; p = 0.012). The univariate and multivariate analyses of perioperative risk factors showed that only open distal anastomosis was strongly associated with negative results, but not the valve-sparing technique. Aortic valve-sparing root replacement must be considered

  17. The characteristics of patients who discontinue their dying process - an observational study at a single university hospital centre.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian; Schlieper, Daniel; Altreuther, Christiane; Schallenburger, Manuela; Fetz, Katharina; Schmitz, Andrea

    2015-12-07

    for harm by the LCP. We conclude that a correctly applied integrated care plan can be useful to provide good and safe care for the dying. Internal Clinical Trial Register of the Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, No. 2015053680 (22 May 2015).

  18. Organic electrospun nanofibers as vehicles toward intelligent pheromone dispensers: characterization by laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Lindner, I; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Hummel, H E; Deuker, A; Vilcinskas, A; Leithold, G; Hellmann, C; Dersch, R; Wendorff, J H; Greiner, A

    2011-01-01

    Organic nanofibers have a history of technical application in various independent fields, including medical technology, filtration technology, and applications of pharmaceuticals via inhalation into the lungs. Very recently, in a joint effort with polymer chemists, agricultural applications have been added to this list of priorities. The aim is finding novel approaches to insect control. Pheromones, dispensed in a quantifiable way, are being used here in disrupting the mating communication between male and female pest insects, e.g. the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), where current dispenser technology does not fully meet the high expectations of growers and environmentalists with respect to longevity of constant release, self decomposition, mechanical distribution, renewability as well as sustainability of resources. The methodology of electrospinning is exhaustively covered by Greiner and Wendorff (2007), with technical details reported by Hellmann et al. (2009), Hein et al. (2011), and Hummel et al. (2010). Wind tunnel studies were run within a tunnel with adjustable laminar flow and 0.5 m/sec air velocity. Mass losses of the electrospun fiber bundles were determined with a sensitive analytical balance 2-3 times per week and recorded as time vs. mass change. CLSA experiments were performed with a self developed glass apparatus (Lindner, 2010) based on various suggestions of previous authors. Microgram quantities of volatile pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-Dodecadienylacetate were absorbed on a filter of rigorously purified charcoal and desorbed by repeated micro extraction with a suitable solvent mixture. Aliquots of the solution were subjected to temperature programmed capillary GLC. Retention times were used for identification, whereas the area covered by the pheromone peak originating from a FID detector signal was integrated and compared with a carefully calibrated standard peak. Since these signals were usually in the low nanogram

  19. Global Paleobathymetry for the Cenomanian-Turonian (90 Ma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    , C., Steinberger, B., Heine, C., 2008a, Science, 319, 1357-1362. Scotese, C., 2011, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas. Turcotte, D., Schubert, G., 2002, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 456 p. Whittaker, J., Goncharov, A., Williams, S., Müller, R., Leitchenkov, G., 2013, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. DOI:10.1002/ggge.20181

  20. Fluid Inclusion characteristics of syn-late orogenic Co-Ni-Cu-Au deposits in the Siegerland District of the Rhenish Massif, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, Christoph; Hellmann, André; Meyer, Franz Michael

    2013-04-01

    The Siegerland District is located in the fold-and-thrust-belt of the Rhenish Massif and hosts various syn- late orogenic vein-hosted hydrothermal mineralization types. Peak-metamorphism and deformation occurred at 312-316 ± 10 Ma (Ahrendt et al., 1978) at pT-conditions of 280 - 320 °C and 0.7 - 1.4 kbar (Hein, 1993). The district is known for synorogenic siderite-quartz mineralization formed during peak-metamorphic conditions. At least 4 syn-late orogenic mineralization types are distinguished: Co-Ni-Cu-Au, Pb-Zn-Cu, Sb-Au and hematite-digenite-bornite mineralization (Hellmann et al., 2012b). Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization of the Siegerland District belongs to the recently defined class of metasediment hosted synorogenic Co-Cu-Au deposits (i.e. Slack et al, 2010). Ore minerals are Fe-Co-Ni sulpharsenides, bearing invisible gold, chalcopyrite, and minor As-bearing pyrite. The gangue is quartz. The alteration mineralogy comprises chlorite, illite-muscovite and quartz. The epigenetic quartz veins are closely related to the formation of reverse faults (Hellmann et al., 2011a). Microthermometric studies of fluid inclusions concerning the relationship between mineralization and microstructures have not been done so far for this deposit-class and this will be addressed here. Fluid inclusions are investigated in hydrothermally formed vein-quartz, selected from Co-Ni-Cu-Au mineralization bearing veins showing only minor overprints by later mineralization types. Two quartz generations are distinguished: subhedral quartz-I showing growth zonation and fine grained, recrystallized- and newly formed quartz-II grains forming irregular masses and fracture fillings in quartz-I. Co-Ni-Fe sulpharsenides and chalcopyrite are closely intergrown with quartz-II, implying their contemperaneous formation. However, fluid inclusions in quartz-II are often small, therefore fluid inclusions in quartz-I have been mostly investigated. In total, 180 inclusions from 4 different deposits have been

  1. Fluctuations in seafloor spreading predicted by tectonic reconstructions and mantle convection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Seton, Maria; Rolf, Tobias; Müller, R. Dietmar; Tackley, Paul J.

    2013-04-01

    "ground-truth" for modeling this parameter. Both kinematic reconstructions and geodynamic models suggest the rate of production of new seafloor can vary by a factor of 3 over a Wilson cycle, with concomitant changes of the shape of the area vs. age distribution. Geodynamic models show seafloor production time-series contain fluctuations of time scales exceeding 500My that depend on the strength of the lithosphere and the amount of basal heating. References Coltice, N., Rolf, T., Tackley P.J., Labrosse, S., Dynamic causes of the relation between area and age of the ocean floor, Science 336, 335-338 (2012). Moresi, L., Solomatov, V., Mantle convection with a brittle lithosphere: Thoughts on the global tectonic style of the Earth and Venus, Geophys. J. 133, 669-682 (1998). Parsons, B., 1982, Causes and consequences of the relation between area and age of the ocean floor, J. of Geophys. Res. 87, 289-302 (1982). Rowley, D. B., History of Plate Creation 180 Ma to Present, Geol. Soc. of America Bull. 114, 927-933 (2002). Seton, M., Gaina, C., Müller, R.D., and Heine, C., Mid Cretaceous Seafloor Spreading Pulse: Fact or Fiction?, Geology, 37, 687-690 (2009). Seton, M., Müller, R.D., Zahirovic, S., Gaina, C., Torsvik, T.H., Shephard, G., Talsma, A., Gurnis, M., Turner, M., Maus, S., Chandler, M. (2012), Global continental and ocean basin reconstructions since 200 Ma, Earth Sci. Rev. 113, 212-270 (2012). Tackley, P.J., Self-consistent generation of tectonic plates in time-dependent, three-dimensional mantle convection simulations, part 1: Pseudoplastic yielding, Geoch. Geophys. Geosys. 1 (2000a). Tackley, P.J., Self-consistent generation of tectonic plates in time-dependent, three-dimensional mantle convection simulations, part 2: Strain weakening and asthenosphere, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 1, (2000b).

  2. Appropriateness of using a symbol to identify dementia and/or delirium: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hines, Sonia; Abbey, Jenny; Wilson, Jacinda; Sacre, Sandy

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's Australia contracted the Dementia Collaborative Research Centre - Consumers, Carers and Social Research to conduct a systematic review to explore the appropriateness of a symbol for dementia.The concept of a symbol for people with dementia was an outcome of the Alzheimer's Australia National Consumer Summit on Dementia held in Canberra in October 2005. People living with dementia and their carers identified that a national symbol would be helpful in order to encourage appropriate treatment of people with dementia.Funding was provided as part of the Australian Government's Dementia Initiative to Alzheimer's Australia to work in collaboration with the Queensland University of Technology and Catholic Health Australia to explore, through research, the viability and potential impact of such a symbol in a range of care settings. The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate any published and unpublished evidence regarding the appropriateness of developing a symbol for dementia and/or delirium, which could be used in a variety of settings to indicate that a person has dementia and/or delirium. A literature search was performed using the following databases: Ageline, APAIS Health, CINAHL, Dissertations and Theses Abstracts, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycEXTRAS, PsycINFO, PsycArticles, Current Contents, LegalTrac, Health and Society, Sociological Abstracts, Family and Society, CINCH, and Hein Online databases. The reference lists of articles retrieved were hand searched, as well as a range of literature from health, legal, ethical and emergency services. Grey literature was searched for using a number of Internet sites, and personal email communication with authors of relevant studies and known researchers in the field was initiated. Papers were retrieved if they provided information about attitudes or perceptions towards the appropriateness of symbols, identifiers or alerts used to inform others that someone has dementia, delirium and/or another medical

  3. Early breakup of Gondwana: constraints from global plate motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seton, Maria; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon; Whittaker, Joanne; Gibbons, Ana; Muller, Dietmar; Brune, Sascha; Heine, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Supercontinent break-up and amalgamation is a fundamental Earth cycle, contributing to long-term sea-level fluctuations, species diversity and extinction events, long-term greenhouse-icehouse cycles and changes in the long-wavelength density structure of the mantle. The most recent and best-constrained example involves the fragmentation of Gondwana, starting with rifting between Africa/Madagascar and Antarctica in the Early Jurassic and ending with the separation of the Lord Howe microcontinental blocks east of Australia in the Late Cretaceous. Although the first order configuration of Gondwana within modern reconstructions appears similar to that first proposed by Wegener a century ago, recent studies utilising a wealth of new geophysical and geological data provide a much more detailed picture of relative plate motions both during rifting and subsequent seafloor spreading. We present our latest global plate motion model that includes extensive, new regional analyses. These include: South Atlantic rifting, which started at 150 Ma and propagated into cratonic Africa by 145 Ma (Heine et al., 2013); rifting and early seafloor spreading between Australia, India and Antarctica, which reconciles the fit between Broken Ridge-Kergulean Plateau and the eastern Tasman region (Whittaker et al., 2013); rifting of continental material from northeastern Gondwana and its accretion onto Eurasia and SE Asia including a new model of microcontinent formation and early seafloor spreading in the eastern Indian Ocean (Gibbons et al., 2012; 2013; in review; Williams et al., 2013; Zahirovic et al., 2014); and a new model for the isolation of Zealandia east of Australia, with rifting initiating at 100 Ma until the start of seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea at ~85 Ma (Williams et al., in prep). Using these reconstructions within the open-source GPlates software, accompanied by a set of evolving plates and plate boundaries, we can explore the factors that govern the behavior of plate

  4. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    his family (like his sons Johann Barthel and Adadam Elias von Siebold), reorganized the medical faculty, which had brought her in the byname 'Academia Sieboldiana". In the beginning of the 19th century the recovery of the faculty moved on more and more: OUtstanding representatives like Ignaz Döllinger, Johann Lukas Schoenlein and Franz von Rinecker founded by their great medical-scientific and organizational achievements, the high reputation of the medical faculty of Würzburg. Especially in the second half of the 19th century the University of Würzburg was in a leading position in a lot of traditional disciplines and in the developing and establishing of new medical fields, shown by names like Franz Kiwisch Ritter von Rotterau and Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, Cajetan von Textor and Wenzel von Linhart, Rudolf Virchow, Albert Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Carl Joseph von Ringelmann, Johann Joseph von Scherer, Johann Georg Heine, Adolf Fick or Carl Gerhardt.

  5. A comparative investigation to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an alcohol-free CPC-containing mouthwash as compared to a control mouthwash in controlling dental plaque and gingivitis: a six-month clinical study on adults in San Jose, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Farid; Prado, Roger; Mateo, Luis R; Stewart, Bernal; Szewczyk, Gregory; Arvanitidou, Evangelia; Panagakos, Fotinos S

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of an antiplaque alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and 0.05% sodium fluoride (NaF), as compared to a control mouthwash containing only 0.05% NaF, in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis after three and six months of product use. This was a single-center, parallel-group, two-cell, double-blind, randomized clinical study. Prospective adult male and female subjects from San Jose, Costa Rica reported to the clinical facility having refrained from all oral hygiene procedures for 12 hours, and from eating, drinking, or smoking for four hours prior to their visit. Qualifying subjects who presented with Gingival Index scores (Löe and Silness Index) of at least 1.0 and Plaque Index scores (Turesky Modified Quigley-Hein Index) of at least 1.5 were allowed to participate in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups according to their baseline gingival and plaque scores. In the first treatment group (Test), subjects used an alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.075% CPC and 0.05% NaF, whereas in the second treatment group (Control), subjects used a mouthwash containing only 0.05% NaF. Gingivitis and plaque assessments, and examinations of oral hard and soft tissues were conducted after three months and six months of product use. One-hundred and ten (110) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the six-month study. After six months of product use, the Test Mouthwash group exhibited statistically significant reductions from baseline with respect to Gingival (33.5%), Gingival Interproximal (34.5%), Gingival Severity (63.2%), Plaque (33.6%), Plaque Interproximal (30.0%), and Plaque Severity (73.6%) Index scores. After six months of product use, the Control Mouthwash group exhibited statistically significant increases from baseline with respect to Gingival (6.9%), Plaque Interproximal (7.2%), and Plaque Severity (32.7%) Index

  6. Felsic Magmatism in Intra-Oceanic Arcs: The Diamante Cross-chain in the Southern Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Tamura, Y.; Leybourne, M. I.; Nunokawa, A.; Kawabata, H.; Bloomer, S. H.; Embley, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Felsic lavas may be more abundant than commonly thought in intra-oceanic arcs, but the origins of these magmas remain enigmatic. The Diamante Cross-chain in the southern Mariana arc provides a useful perpective on such felsic magas. This cross-chain comprises three submarine volcanoes: E. Diamante lies along the magmatic front whereas Central Diamante and W. Diamante are rear-arc volcanoes that lie above a progressively deeper subducted Pacific plate. We investigated this cross-chain by surface surveys, dredging, and ROV diving. W. Diamante is a conical basaltic volcano whereas Central Diamante is a basaltic volcano affected by recent seismicity and has a morphology that is strongly modified by E-W normal faulting. E. Diamante is elongated E-W. These relationships indicate that the location and trend of the Diamante cross-chain is controlled by an E-W extensional zone. E. Diamante encloses a shallow (floor is ~600m b.s.l.) 5 x 10 km caldera. E. Diamante caldera contains a nest of resurgent dacite domes with an active hydrothermal field (see Hein et al., this meeting). Violent “Neptunian” submarine felsic eruptions from the E. Diamante caldera created an extensive field of megadunes that extend more than 20km distant from the caldera to the north of the volcano. The NE caldera wall is composed of Late Pleistocene - Recent limestones 300m thick, probably constructed on part of an older volcano. In contrast to the moderately fractionated (mean Mg# ~55) basaltic volcanoes of Central and W. Diamante, E. Diamante has erupted lavas that are bimodal in silica, with modes at 52% and 70% SiO2. Diamante cross-chain lavas define a medium-K suite, E. Diamante has a K55 (K2O at 55% SiO2) ~0.7, Central Diamante K55 ~0.9, and W. Diamante K55 ~0.95, showing a modest increase of K55 with depth to the subduction zone. E. Diamante felsic lavas plot show a lot of compositional scatter compared to mafic lavas. It is difficult to explain formation of felsic melts via fractionation of

  7. Morphology, sedimentology and stratigraphic implication of debris-covered glacier deposits from the LGM and Lateglacial (Eastern Alps, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitner, Jürgen M.; Seidl, Sabrina; Wagreich, Michael

    2013-04-01

    the morphostratigraphic characteristics of Younger Dryas (Egesen) stadial with multiple, sharp crested moraine ridges (e.g. Ivy-Ochs et al. 2008), the unusual large glacier extent is due to the rock avalanche debris cover and its insulating effect. In both cases the maximum elevation of lateral moraines (MELM - method) gave the most reliable estimates of ELAs with reconstructed low AARs of around 0.5 compared to the standard assumption for Lateglacial glaciers with a ratio around 0.65. Thus, stratigraphic correlations of moraines should be done not until morphological features and lithofacies have been analyzed considering the whole geological setting. Ivy-Ochs, S., Kerschner, H., Reuther, A., Preusser, F., Heine, K., Maisch, M., Kubik, P.W. and Ch. Schlüchter (2008):Chronology of the last glacial cycle in the Northern European Alps. Journal of Quaternary Science 23(6-7), 559-573.

  8. First-principles models of equilibrium tellurium isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Schauble, E. A.; Fornadel, A. P.; Spry, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    oxidation and reduction. Se- and S-isotope redox systems also show kinetically-controlled isotopic disequilibrium, and may serve as useful analogues. Among Te(-II) species, fractionations are smaller (< 1‰ at 100οC). (Au,Ag)Te2 minerals (calaverite, krennerite) and (Au,Ag)2Te minerals (petzite, hessite) are expected to have similar isotopic compositions to vapor-phase H2Te, and there appears to be little discernable effect from Ag,Au solid solution. Altaite (PbTe) will have somewhat lower 130Te/125Te. Calculated fractionation factors for gas-phase species like H2Te and TeF6, based on hybrid density functional theory (B3LYP), agree well with earlier estimates (2). For telluride-bearing crystals, cluster models are in qualitative agreement with periodic boundary condition calculations, especially when larger basis sets (e.g., aug-cc-PVDZ-PP) are used; however, cluster models tend to predict higher 130Te/125Te for reasons that are not yet clear. References: 1. Hein et al. (2003) GCA 67:6. 2. Smithers et al. (1968) Can. J. Chem. 46:4.

  9. The miswak (chewing stick) and oral health. Studies on oral hygiene practices of urban Saudi Arabians.

    PubMed

    al-Otaibi, Meshari

    2004-01-01

    The miswak, a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth, is made from the plant Salvadora persica. For religious and cultural reasons, miswak use is firmly established and widespread in Saudi Arabia and most other Muslim countries. Only recently has scientific evaluation of the miswak been undertaken. The aims of the thesis were: 1) to explore current oral hygiene habits and oral health awareness among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and educational level (papers I and II); 2) to compare mechanical plaque removal and gingival health after miswak use and toothbrushing (paper III); 3) to compare the effect of miswak use and toothbrushing on subgingival plaque microflora (paper IV). In papers I and II, structured interviews were conducted with 1200 regular patients at two centres in the city of Makkah, providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age, into 6 age groups from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each centre. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subjects' age, gender, and educational levels and analysed statistically by a generalized linear model and ANOVA. In papers III and IV, the subjects comprised 15 healthy Saudi Arabian male volunteers aged 21 to 36 years, attending the Dental Center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah City. A single-blind, randomised crossover design was used. The Turesky modified Quigley-Hein plaque and Löe-Silness gingival indices and digital photographs of plaque distribution were recorded in Paper III and in Paper IV plaque was sampled for DNA-testing. Inhibition zones around miswak material were examined on agar plates with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and the leukotoxicity of this bacterium was analysed in a bioassay with macrophages +/- miswak extracts (paper IV). In papers I and II, 73% of the subjects used a toothbrush and 65% used a miswak daily

  10. Variations of the Indian summer monsoon over the Mio-Pliocene recorded in the Bengal Fan (IODP Exp354): implications for the evolution of the terrestrial biosphere.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy, Valier; Feakins, Sarah; Karkabi, Elias; Ponton, Camilo; Galy, Albert; France-Lanord, Christian

    2017-04-01

    expansion in the Himalayan system. Hemipelagic sediments generally carry 13C enriched signatures indicative of C4-dominated source areas, and based on a combination of the wind field climatology and the wetness and ecosystems of source regions today, we suggest that these would likely represent wind transport, likely from peninsular India. Interestingly we found hemipelagic horizons carrying this enriched 13C character prior to the C4 expansion recorded in turbiditic sediments, likely revealing an earlier C4 colonization of peninsular India. Based on our preliminary data we thus propose that C4 plants colonized peninsular India around 9-10 Ma. The hydrogen isotopic composition of the same leaf-wax compounds reveals a surprisingly small (on the order of 10 ‰) isotopic shift associated with the late Miocene C4 expansion. In contrast, the hydrogen isotope composition shift observed across the last deglaciation is far greater (ca. 40‰; Hein et al., in prep.). Cores from site U1451, provide a low resolution record across at least the last 26 Myr and appear to indicate a long term hydrological change from ca. 11Ma to ca. 7Ma, as inferred from progressive D enrichment in the biomarker records. These compound specific hydrogen isotope data will be discussed in the context of changing erosion patterns and attendant variations in the strength of the Indian summer monsoon as well as with respect to the mechanisms that led to the C4 expansion.

  11. Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Luke

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso L.F.H. Peters and K.A.A Hein School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa. The Goren Greenstone Belt (GGB) is a Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary belt situated in the northeast of Burkina Faso in the West African craton (WAC). Basalt is the main volcanic constituent of the GGB, specifically mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBS), which have undergone pervasive greenschist facies metamorphism during at least 2 deformation including the Tangaean Event (2170-2130 Ma) and Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma). Remarkably, many of the primary textures and minerals remain intact in less deformed regions of the GBB. Textural characteristics and petrographic analyses include aphyric and aphanitic textures, amygdales, hyaloclastic brecciation, pillow structures and preserved (chloritised) volcanic glass. Despite the ubiquitous presence of chlorite and epidote, plagioclase and clinopyroxene microlites are fairly common albeit altered. Phenocrysts (< 1 mm) of plagioclase and CPX are present in some samples but aphyric texture is dominant. These textures indicate that the basalts represent coherent units of sub-aqueous extrusion from a proximal volcanic facies setting relative to the original magma conduit. A repetitious succession of Fe-rich meta-siltstones, fine-grained, carbonaceous, Fe-rich exhalatives and volcaniclastic units is intercalated with the basalts. The volcaniclastic units contrast with the MORBs, which raises questions about the source region of the volcaniclastics. In hand sample, the volcaniclastic rocks show an array of various sized fragments, compared to the fine-grained nature of the MORBs. They are dominated by euhedral, zoned, brown volcanic hornblende, large (2.5-5 mm) euhedral plagioclase crystals, and sub-angular to rounded quartz grains in a poorly sorted volcanogenic sedimentary sequence. Due to the

  12. Fractures, not Plumes, Have Controlled Major Seamount Volcanism in the Pacific over 170 Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natland, J. H.; Winterer, E. L.

    2003-12-01

    shift laterally in response to whatever was occurring along its eastern spreading boundaries. A very consistent and strong stress regime therefore developed across the Pacific plate with a NNE direction of least principal stress. The change in stress orientation may have taken up to 10 million years, during an interval marked by little or no volcanic productivity at the western end of the Hawaiian chain. Since that time, the predominant alignment of both linear island chains and Puka Puka-type ridges, from the Kodiak-Bowie chain in the Gulf of Alaska to the Louisville Ridge south of the Antarctic convergence, has been orthogonal to this direction. Development of large-volume persistent chains and shorter small-volume chains indicates patterns of differential stress in the plate, variable fertility and geochemistry of the asthenosphere and/or shallow convective overturn of the asthenosphere rather than the action of mantle plumes of different sizes and depths of origin. Tapping of enriched mantle by widespread volcano clusters during the Mesozoic suggests the presence of a shallow asthenospheric source layer rather than multiple narrow conduits. (1) Hieronymus, C.F., and Bercovici, D. 2000. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 181, 539-554. (2) Davis, A.S., Gray, L.B., Clague, D.A., and Hein, J.R., 2002 Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 3: 10.1029/2001GC0000190, 1-28.

  13. Occupational safety and health enforcement tools for preventing occupational diseases and injuries.

    PubMed

    Mischke, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Job, Jenny; Morata, Thais C; Alvesalo-Kuusi, Anne; Neuvonen, Kaisa; Clarke, Simon; Pedlow, Robert I

    2013-08-30

    There is uncertainty as to whether and what extent occupational safety and health regulation and legislation enforcement activities, such as inspections, are effective and efficient to improve workers' health and safety. We use the term regulation to refer both to regulation and legislation. To assess the effects of occupational safety and health regulation enforcement tools for preventing occupational diseases and injuries. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (embase.com), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsycINFO (Ovid), OSH update, HeinOnline, Westlaw International, EconLit and Scopus from the inception of each database until January 2013. We also checked reference lists of included articles and contacted study authors to identify additional published, unpublished and ongoing studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before-after studies (CBAs), interrupted time series (ITS) and econometric panel studies of firms or workplaces evaluating inspections, warnings or orders, citations or fines, prosecution or firm closure by governmental representatives and if the outcomes were injuries, diseases or exposures.In addition, we included qualitative studies of workers' or employers' attitudes or beliefs towards enforcement tools. Pairs of authors independently extracted data on the main characteristics, the risk of bias and the effects of the interventions. We expressed intervention effects as risk ratios (RR) or mean differences (MD). We recalculated other effect measures into RRs or MDs. We combined the results of similar studies in a meta-analysis. We located 23 studies: two RCTs with 1414 workplaces, two CBAs with 9903 workplaces, one ITS with six outcome measurements, 12 panel studies and six qualitative studies with 310 participants. Studies evaluated the effects of inspections in general and the effects of their consequences, such as penalties. Studies on the effects of prosecution, warnings

  14. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Atom optics employs the modern techniques of quantum optics and laser cooling to enable applications which often outperform current standard technologies. Atomic matter wave interferometers allow for ultra-precise sensors; metrology and clocks are pushed to an extraordinary accuracy of 17 digits using single atoms. Miniaturization and integration are driven forward for both atomic clocks and atom optical circuits. With the miniaturization of information-storage and -processing devices, the scale of single atoms is approached in solid state devices, where the laws of quantum physics lead to novel, advantageous features and functionalities. An upcoming branch of atom optics is the control of single atoms, potentially allowing solid state devices to be built atom by atom; some of which would be applicable in future quantum information processing devices. Selective manipulation of individual atoms also enables trace analysis of extremely rare isotopes. Additionally, sources of neutral atoms with high brightness are being developed and, if combined with photo ionization, even novel focused ion beam sources are within reach. Ultracold chemistry is fertilized by atomic techniques, when reactions of chemical constituents are investigated between ions, atoms, molecules, trapped or aligned in designed fields and cooled to ultra-low temperatures such that the reaction kinetics can be studied in a completely state-resolved manner. Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications Contents Sensitive gravity-gradiometry with atom interferometry: progress towards an improved determination of the gravitational constant F Sorrentino, Y-H Lien, G Rosi, L Cacciapuoti, M Prevedelli and G M Tino A single-atom detector integrated on an atom chip: fabrication, characterization and application D Heine, W Rohringer, D Fischer, M Wilzbach, T Raub, S Loziczky, XiYuan Liu, S Groth, B Hessmo and J Schmiedmayer Interaction of a propagating guided matter wave with a localized potential G L Gattobigio, A

  15. The Lateglacial to Holocene transition as recorded by glacier fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelwig, I.; Akçar, N.; Kubik, P. W.; Schlüchter, C.

    2009-04-01

    , the glacier at the Belalp shows multiple advances during the Lateglacial to early Holocene. 10Be exposure age data suggest that the outer moraine ridge can be an advance older than the Egesen stadial and younger than the LGM. This is in concert with other Younger Dryas related glacial landsystems in Switzerland (reviewing the outer moraine ages e.g. Julier Pass, Ivy-Ochs et al. 1996, 2008). A large number of Lateglacial moraines have been identified and relative correlations on the basis of elevation, equilibrium line altitude (Gross et al. 1977; Maisch, 1987) and morphological characteristics have been established. Nevertheless, it remains important to refine the absolute chronology in order to put further temporal constraints on these relative frameworks. This allows the allocation of such absolutely dated deposits to distinguished cold phases (Preboreal oscillation, Younger Dryas, Aegelsee oscillation) thus underlining their potential significance in the context of regional, as well as global Lateglacial climate conditions. The 10Be exposure ages from an inner moraine ridge are in a good agreement with the recalculated previously published 10Be exposure ages from the Egesen moraines in the Alps. This suggests a synchronicity of the Egesen stadial in the European Alps at the end of the Younger Dryas cold phase. REFERENCES Björck, S., Walker, M. J.C., Cwynar, L.C., Johnson, S., Knudsen, K-L., Lowe, J. J. & Wohlfarth, B. (1998): An event stratigraphy for the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region based on the Greenland ice-core record: a proposal by the INTIMATE group. Journal of Quarternary Science, 13, 283-292. Gross, G., Kerschner, H. & Patzelt, G. (1977): Methodische Untersuchungen über die Schneegrenze in alpinen Gletschergebieten. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 12, 223-251. Ivy-Ochs, S., Kerschner, H., Reuther, A., Preusser, F., Heine, K., Maisch, M., Kubik, P.W. & Schlüchter, C. (2008): Chronology of the last glacial cycle in the

  16. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    and Kresse G 1994 Structral and electronic properties of clean and hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces Europhys. Lett. 28 659-64 [10] Krajčí and Hafner J 2008 Ab-initio studies of quasicrystalline surfaces Quasicrystals (Handbook of Metal Physics vol 2) ed T Fujiwara and Y Ishii (Amsterdam: Elsevier) chapter 9, pp 313-55 [11] Raybaud P, Hafner J, Kresse G, Kasztelan S and Toulhoat H 2000 Structure, energetics and electronic properties of the surface of a promoted MoS2 catalyst: an ab-initio local-density-functional study J. Catalysis 190 128-43 [12] Hafner J, Benco L and Bucko T 2006 Acid-based catalysis in zeolites investigated by density-functional methods Top. Catalysis 37 41-54 [13] Hafner J 1989 Formation of polyanionic clusters in liquid potassium-lead alloys: a molecular-dynamics study J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1 1133-40 [14] Meeks P E 1976 Vibrational spectra and topological structure of tetrahedrally bonded amorphous semiconductors Phil. Mag. 33 897-908 [15] See articles by Heine V, Bullet D, Haydock R and Kelly M J 1980 Solid State Physics—Advances in Research and Applications vol 35, ed H Ehrenreich, D Turnbull and F Seitz (New York: Academic) [16] Hafner J 1980 The dynamical properties of metallic glasses Liquids and Amorphous Metals (NATO-ASI Ser. E vol 36) ed E Lüscher and H Coufal (Sijthoff and Nordhoff: Alpen van Rijn) pp 199-209 [17] Hafner J 1987 From Hamiltonians to Phase Diagrams—The Electronic and Statistical-Mechanical Theory of sp-Bonded Metals and Alloys (Solid State Sciences Series vol 70) (Berlin: Springer) p 415 [18] Hafner J and Heine V 1983 The crystal structure of the elements: pseudopotential theory revisited J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 13 2479-501 [19] Hafner J and Kahl G 1984 The structure of the elements in the liquid state J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 14 2259-78 [20] Denton A R and Hafner J 1997 Thermodynamically stable one-component quasicrystals: a density-functional survey of relative stabilities Phys. Rev. B 56 2469-82 [21] Hafner J

  17. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The recent acceleration of land use transformations, coupled with an increasing global population has manifested in an alteration of almost all terrestrial ecosystems (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In particular, the extension and intensification of agricultural and pastoral uses has supported unprecedented rates of population growth (Ellis and Ramankutty 2008). However, this development stands opposed to increased greenhouse gas emissions, declining biodiversity, declining air quality and increasing soil degradation, being reflected in the general reduction in ecosystem services and functions (Sala, Chapin III et al. 2000; Butchart, Walpole et al. 2010; Banwart 2011; Lal 2013). Such global change processes are to a large degree driven by land-use transformations or modifications (Foley, Defries et al. 2005). These are in turn a result of the complex interaction of factors playing out at different scales, varying from global market dynamics through national policies to regional planning and local traditions (Hein, van Koppen et al. 2006). The Okavango Basin represents a highly complex social-ecological system, where the variation in physio-geographic characteristics is reflected by manifold livelihood strategies in the three adjacent countries Angola, Namibia and Botswana. In mostly rural areas, small-scale subsistence agriculture, livestock-keeping and the utilization of natural resources such as thatch grass, timber, fruits etc. have traditionally formed the basis for human well-being. These strategies are juxtaposed by recent urban and transportation infrastructure developments, the expansion of commodity markets, the creation of commercial irrigated farming schemes and dams for energy production, or the growing role of tourism, in particular in the Delta region, as a major source of income generation. At present, the three countries bordering the river have individual legislations governing the use of natural resources, which usually originate at

  18. PREFACE: A tribute to Virginio Bortolani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, Gian Paolo

    2007-08-01

    published by Plenum Press in 1990, are still a classic in surface science, and we often refer to them as the 'red book' by the colour of its cover reminiscent of another more famous book. But I do not wish to dwell upon pleasant memories of my relationship with Virginio Bortolani any longer. We should better record a few important facts of his broad activity. J P Toennies will outline Bortolani's achievements in the field of surface phonons and vibrations in a review article of this volume. So I would like to stress other very important contributions of his to the scientific development in this country and to the international community. In the late seventies surface physics was being studied by very few and tiny groups in Italy (mainly at Genova, Milano and Roma Universities). But Bortolani was able to form the first theoretical group of international reputation in this field in Italy at Modena University. In this respect he was surely helped by his previous experience at the Cavendish Laboratory working with V Heine on the theory of pseudopotentials and with N Mott. This allowed him to be at the forefront of condensed matter theory so that to propose and carry out exciting research subjects. Bortolani also supervised all the initiatives in the 70s and 80s from which Modena has grown so much as to be now considered an internationally recognized centre of surface science and nanotechnology. Second, by organizing a conference in Modena every year the week before Christmas (the so-called Congressino di Modena by the Italian participants), he promoted the diffusion of surface physics in the country: it became soon traditional for bright young physicists to come to Modena on that occasion, and, because of the exciting and friendly atmosphere, to turn to surface investigations. The catalysing activity of Bortolani is also confirmed by the number of his students who have matured into excellent scientists or technologists: Carlo Calandra, Carlo Maria Bertoni, Franca Manghi

  19. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    of concrete instances with special properties. The aim of this special section is to provide a forum for highly topical ongoing work in the area of regularization in Banach spaces, its numerics and its applications. Indeed, we have been lucky enough to obtain a number of excellent papers both from colleagues who have previously been contributing to this topic and from researchers entering the field due to its relevance in practical inverse problems. We would like to thank all contributers for enabling us to present a high quality collection of papers on topics ranging from various aspects of regularization via efficient numerical solution to applications in PDE models. We give a brief overview of the contributions included in this issue (here ordered alphabetically by first author). In their paper, Iterative regularization with general penalty term—theory and application to L1 and TV regularization, Radu Bot and Torsten Hein provide an extension of the Landweber iteration for linear operator equations in Banach space to general operators in place of the inverse duality mapping, which corresponds to the use of general regularization functionals in variational regularization. The L∞ topology in data space corresponds to the frequently occuring situation of uniformly distributed data noise. A numerically efficient solution of the resulting Tikhonov regularization problem via a Moreau-Yosida appriximation and a semismooth Newton method, along with a δ-free regularization parameter choice rule, is the topic of the paper L∞ fitting for inverse problems with uniform noise by Christian Clason. Extension of convergence rates results from classical source conditions to their generalization via variational inequalities with a priori and a posteriori stopping rules is the main contribution of the paper Regularization of linear ill-posed problems by the augmented Lagrangian method and variational inequalities by Klaus Frick and Markus Grasmair, again in the context of some

  20. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    John Pendry John Inglesfield and Pedro Echenique write: John Pendry's 65th birthday is on 4 July 2008, and this issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to him, with articles by friends, colleagues, and former students. By any standards, John Pendry is a great scientist, who has made—and continues to make—an enormous contribution to physics; the wide range of his interests is reflected in the scope of these articles. Not many scientists can establish a completely new and unexpected area of research, but this has been John's achievement in the last few years in the field of metamaterials, materials whose electromagnetic properties depend on their structure rather than the materials of which the structure is built. In this way, structures with effectively negative electrical permittivity and negative magnetic permeability can be constructed, demonstrating negative refraction; through metamaterials scientists now have access to properties not found in nature, and never previously explored experimentally. Never a week goes by without a potential new application of metamaterials, whether it is perfect lensing, or the cloak of invisibility. This has certainly led to tremendous visibility for John himself, with guest lectures all over the world, and radio and television appearances. John Pendry's first paper was published exactly 40 years ago, 'Analytic properties of pseudopotentials' [1], and since then he has published 310 articles at the latest count. But this first paper already reflected something of the way John works. His PhD project, with Volker Heine at the Cavendish Laboratory, was to interpret the scattering of low energy electrons from surfaces, the technique of LEED which was to become the method of choice for determining surface structure. Although the energy of the electrons in LEED is relatively low—say 50 eV—it is much higher than the energy of the conduction electrons, for which pseudopotentials had been devised, and John