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Sample records for koka vello hein

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Heine Reaction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Aziridines are important synthetic intermediates for the generation of nitrogen-containing molecules. N-Acylaziridines undergo rearrangement by ring expansion to produce oxazolines, a process known as the Heine reaction. The first catalytic, enantioselective Heine reaction is reported for meso-N-acylaziridines where a palladium(II)–diphosphine complex is employed. The highly enantioenriched oxazoline products are valuable organic synthons and potential ligands for transition-metal catalysis. PMID:27398262

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Heine Reaction.

    PubMed

    Punk, Molly; Merkley, Charlotte; Kennedy, Katlyn; Morgan, Jeremy B

    2016-07-01

    Aziridines are important synthetic intermediates for the generation of nitrogen-containing molecules. N-Acylaziridines undergo rearrangement by ring expansion to produce oxazolines, a process known as the Heine reaction. The first catalytic, enantioselective Heine reaction is reported for meso-N-acylaziridines where a palladium(II)-diphosphine complex is employed. The highly enantioenriched oxazoline products are valuable organic synthons and potential ligands for transition-metal catalysis.

  3. HeinOnline: An Online Archive of Law Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marisa, Richard J.

    Law is grounded in the past, in the decisions and reasoning of generations of lawyers, judges, juries, and professors. Ready access to this history is vital to solid legal research, and yet, until 2000, much of it was buried in vast collections of aging paper journals. HeinOnline is a new online archive of law journals. Development of HeinOnline…

  4. 36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. (Credit JTL) Detail of rear of Heine water tube boiler showing steam drum inspection manhole and blow-down valve. Note inspection plugs for water tubes in tube header below drum. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  5. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  6. Modified Negative Staining of Heine for Fast and Inexpensive Screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora spp.

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Archi; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2014-01-01

    Negative staining technique of Heine is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid way of screening for coccidian parasites of the intestinal tract. But its use as a routine technique for screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora is restricted due to its sensitivity being lower than the gold standard method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. This paper emphasises the modification of original Heine staining technique which has been attempted in order to increase the sensitivity and detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora. Modified Heine staining technique using malachite green is a practical, safe, and sensitive method of detecting oocysts in stool specimens. While the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is still considered the gold standard for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., modified negative staining technique of Heine using malachite green stain should be considered as the screening technique of first choice. PMID:27350981

  7. Modified Negative Staining of Heine for Fast and Inexpensive Screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora spp.

    PubMed

    Khanna, Vinay; Tilak, Kriti; Ghosh, Archi; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2014-01-01

    Negative staining technique of Heine is an easy, inexpensive, and rapid way of screening for coccidian parasites of the intestinal tract. But its use as a routine technique for screening of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora is restricted due to its sensitivity being lower than the gold standard method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. This paper emphasises the modification of original Heine staining technique which has been attempted in order to increase the sensitivity and detection of oocysts of Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, and Cystoisospora. Modified Heine staining technique using malachite green is a practical, safe, and sensitive method of detecting oocysts in stool specimens. While the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique is still considered the gold standard for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., modified negative staining technique of Heine using malachite green stain should be considered as the screening technique of first choice.

  8. Genetics and Human Agency: Comment on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkheimer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) decried genetic essentialism without denying the importance of genetics in the genesis of human behavior, and although I agree on both counts, a deeper issue remains unaddressed: how should we adjust our cognitions about our own behavior in light of genetic influence, or is it perhaps not necessary to take genetics into…

  9. Genetic Essentialism, Neuroessentialism, and Stigma: Commentary on Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Dar-Nimrod and Heine (2011) presented a masterfully broad review of the implications of genetic essentialism for understandings of human diversity. This commentary clarifies the reasons that essentialist thinking has problematic social consequences and links genetic forms of essentialism to those invoking neural essences. The mounting evidence…

  10. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects of Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine Acanthaceae root extract.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, P; Venkataraman, S

    2006-03-08

    Hygrophila auriculata (K. Schum) Heine (syn. Asteracantha longifolia Nees, Acanthaceae) was widely used in the Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various liver ailments. The hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of the roots was studied on CCl(4)-induced liver toxicity in rats. The activity was assessed by monitoring the various liver function tests, viz. alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein and total bilirubin. Furthermore, hepatic tissues were subjected to histopathological studies. The root extract was also studied for its in vitro antioxidant activity using ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) methods. The extract exhibited significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities.

  11. Heavy metals bioconcentration from soil to vegetables and appraisal of health risk in Koka and Wonji farms, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eliku, Temesgen; Leta, Seyoum

    2017-03-24

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural crops has grown a major concern globally as a result of a significant health impact on human. The quantification of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni) in the soil and vegetables at two sites (Koka and Wonji Gefersa) was done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in vegetable fields' soil samples obtained from Koka were higher for Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The overall results of soil samples ranged 0.52-0.93, 13.6-27.3, 10.0-21.8, 44.4-88.5, 11.9-30.3, and 14.7-34.5 mg kg(-1) for Cd, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals were maximum for Cd (0.41 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1)), Pb (0.54 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)), Zn (14.4 ± 0.72 mg kg(-1)), Cu (2.84 ± 0.27 mg kg(-1)), and Ni (1.09 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)) in Cabbage and for Cr (2.63 ± 0.11 mg kg(-1)) in green pepper. The result indicated that Cd has high transfer factor value and Pb was the lowest. The transfer pattern for heavy metals in different vegetables showed a trend in the order: Cd > Zn > Cu > Cr > Ni > Pb. Among different vegetables, cabbage showed the highest value of metal pollution index and bean had the lowest value. Hazard index of all the vegetables was less than unity; thus, the consumption of these vegetables is unlikely to pose health risks to the target population.

  12. Comparison of Heine-Abarenkov and alternative pseudopotentials for electron-phonon interaction in aluminium, lead, lithium and calcium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Walmsley, D. G.

    2017-01-01

    Applying the Heine-Abarenkov pseudopotential to aluminium and lead in both the superconducting and normal states, Carbotte and coworkers have set a challenging standard befitting the status of the classic BCS superconductor theory. Upholding the same standard and equipped with the technique of numerical inversion, we have extracted alternative pseudopotentials from experimental data with minimal prejudgement that might cloud the physics. The two potentials are broadly consistent in the superconducting state but distinctly different in the normal state. This is an urgent issue requiring confirmation or refutation in the context of the current search for high temperature conventional superconductivity.

  13. Fathers of orthopaedics in Germany (eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries): Lorenz Heister in Helmsted; Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach in Berlin; Heine and family in Würzburg.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    In orthopaedic medicine in Germany, Lorenz Heister, practicing in the eighteenth century, is considered one of the fathers of German surgery and is renowned for his books on management of hemorrhage, wounds, fractures, bandaging, instrumentation and surgery. After Heister, at the beginning of the nineteenth century, orthopaedic medicine in Germany developed uniformly. In a period when few doctors were interested in a separate discipline of orthopaedics, Germany led in this field. Heine devoted himself to the development of the new profession of orthopaedics, and in 1816, he opened the first orthopaedic institute on German soil in the former monastery of St. Stephen, which later became known as the Karolinen-Institut. Along with Heine and his family, the special development of orthopaedics in Berlin may be attributed to the work of Dieffenbach who, in 1832, became professor at the University of Berlin and in 1840 director of the Clinical Institute for Surgery at Charité Hospital.

  14. ["Utilitarian system" : Heine's legacy poem "legs, to each man two were given" with his lyrical comments on the field of urology].

    PubMed

    Kruse, J A

    2015-08-01

    The chequered biography as well as the enormous and controversial impact history of the poet Heinrich Heine form the notably changing sum of, in his time but also with a view to the future, the more than difficult and manifold relationships from political, social, religious, cultural and economic as well as industrial historical conditions and problems. The works and personality of the poet can rightly be characterized by the subtitle as a current biography laced with innuendo as "the discovery of the European intellectual".

  15. Bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia: The influence of lipid content and trophic position.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Ermias; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Borgstrøm, Reidar; Salbu, Brit; Gebremariam, Zinabu; Dadebo, Elias; Norli, Hans Ragnar; Eklo, Ole Martin

    2011-12-01

    The concentrations and bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in four fish species from Lake Koka, Ethiopia, representing 2-3 levels in the food chain of the lake. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), endosulfans, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorpyrifos were identified, with DDTs as the most predominant pesticide, with concentration ranging from 0.05 to 72.53ngg(-1) wet weight (ww). All fish tissue samples collected from different species of the lake contained residues of DDTs. The maximum level of DDTs was found in the fattiest, African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) sampled from the lake, with a mean concentration of 15.15ngg(-1)ww. The significant (P<0.05) relationship between concentrations of DDTs and δ(15)N indicates that DDTs biomagnified in the food web of the lake. The 4,4'-DDE to 4,4'-DDT ratio in Oreochromis niloticus (0.6) and Cyprinus carpio (0.5) were below 1, indicating ongoing use of DDTs in the study area and recent exposure of these fish species.

  16. Assessment of heavy metals in water samples and tissues of edible fish species from Awassa and Koka Rift Valley Lakes, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Mengesha, Mesfin; Dadebo, Elias; de Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo Veiga; Sindern, Sven

    2013-04-01

    The Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes host populations of edible fish species including Oreochromis niloticus, Labeobarbus intermedius and Clarias gariepinus, which are harvested also in other tropical countries. We investigated the occurrence of six heavy metals in tissues of these fish species as well as in the waters of Lake Koka and Lake Awassa. Both lakes are affected by industrial effluents in their catchments, making them ideal study sites. Mercury concentrations were very low in the water samples, but concentrations in the fish samples were relatively high, suggesting a particularly high bioaccumulation tendency as compared with the other investigated metals. Mercury was preferentially accumulated in the fish liver or muscle. It was the only metal with species-specific accumulation with highest levels found in the predatory species L. intermedius. Lower mercury concentrations in O. niloticus could be attributed to the lower trophic level, whereas mercury values in the predatory C. gariepinus were unexpectedly low. This probably relates to the high growth rate of this species resulting in biodilution of mercury. Accumulation of lead, selenium, chromium, arsenic and cadmium did not differ between species, indicating that these elements are not biomagnified in the food chain. Values of cadmium, selenium and arsenic were highest in fish livers, while lead and chromium levels were highest in the gills, which could be related to the uptake pathway. A significant impact of the industrial discharges on the occurrence of metals in the lakes could not be detected, and the respective concentrations in fish do not pose a public health hazard.

  17. Implementation of palliative care as a mandatory cross-disciplinary subject (QB13) at the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian; Wenzel-Meyburg, Ursula; Karger, André; Scherg, Alexandra; In der Schmitten, Jürgen; Trapp, Thorsten; Paling, Andreas; Bakus, Simone; Schatte, Gesa; Rudolf, Eva; Decking, Ulrich; Ritz-Timme, Stephanie; Grünewald, Matthias; Schmitz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Einleitung: Im Rahmen der Novellierung der Ärztlichen Approbationsordnung (ÄAppO) im Jahr 2009 fand die Palliativmedizin als 13. Querschnittsbereich (QB 13) Eingang in die ärztliche Ausbildung als Pflichtlehr- und Prüfungsfach. Die Implementierung des neuen QB stellt nach wie vor Medizinische Fakultäten vor große Herausforderungen. Geringe Lehrressourcen und nur geringe Zahlen von Patienten stehen einer hohen Anzahl von Studierenden gegenüber. Neben der Vermittlung von Wissen und Fertigkeiten liegt in der Lehre der Palliativmedizin auch eine besondere Herausforderung in der Vermittlung einer ärztlichen Haltung gegenüber unheilbar erkrankten und sterbenden Menschen und deren Angehörigen.Projektbeschreibung: Vor diesem Hintergrund wurde an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Heinrich-Heine-Universität und dem Universitätsklinikum Düsseldorf ein evidenzbasiertes longitudinales Curriculum systematisch nach dem Kern-Zyklus [1] entwickelt und teilweise bereits implementiert sowie durch die Studierenden im Pilotprojekt evaluiert. Innovative Lehrmethoden (Virtuelle Schauspielpatienten, eLearning-Kurse, interprofessionelle Lehre und reflexive Selbstentwicklungsgruppe) wurden mit dem Ziel eingesetzt, palliativmedizinische Kernkompetenzen interdisziplinär und interprofessionell im klinischen Kontext zu vermitteln.Ergebnisse: Das gesamte in diesem Prozess entwickelte Curriculum Palliativmedizin (60 UE) wird nach einer nahezu 5-jährigen Entwicklungsphase ab dem Wintersemester 2014/2015 erstmalig in vollem Umfang durchgeführt. Die vorangestellten Pilotphasen wurden erfolgreich abgeschlossen. Bisher liegen Evaluationsergebnisse der Pilotierungsphasen (n=26), des Teilprojektes eLearning in der Palliativmedizin (n=518) und dem Blended-Learning Wahlpflichtfach „Kommunikation mit Sterbenden“ (n=12) vor. Schlussfolgerung: Alle durchgeführten Schritte und entwickelten Programme stehen anderen Fakultäten zur Umsetzung frei zugänglich zur Verfügung (Open Access

  18. Portent of Heine's Reciprocal Square Root Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohl, H W

    2003-01-13

    Precise efforts in theoretical astrophysics are needed to fully understand the mechanisms that govern the structure, stability, dynamics, formation, and evolution of differentially rotating stars. Direct computation of the physical attributes of a star can be facilitated by the use of highly compact azimuthal and separation angle Fourier formulations of the Green's functions for the linear partial differential equations of mathematical physics.

  19. Portent of Heine's Reciprocal Square Root Identity

    SciTech Connect

    Cohl, H S

    2002-10-12

    Precise efforts in theoretical astrophysics are needed to fully understand the mechanisms that govern the structure, stability, dynamics, formation, and evolution of differentially rotating stars. Direct computation of the physical attributes of a star can be facilitated by the use of highly compact azimuthal and separation angle Fourier formulations of the Green's functions for the linear partial differential equations of mathematical physics.

  20. Imaging Thermal He(+)in Geospace from the Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Sandel, B. R.; Adrian, Mark L.; Goldstein, Jerry; Jahn, Joerg-Micha; Spasojevic, Maria; Griffin, Brand

    2007-01-01

    By mass, thermal plasma dominates near-earth space and strongly influences the transport of energy and mass into the earth's atmosphere. It is proposed to play an important role in modifying the strength of space weather storms by its presence in regions of magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause and in the near to mid-magnetotail. Ionospheric-origin thermal plasma also represents the most significant potential loss of atmospheric mass from our planet over geological time. Knowledge of the loss of convected thermal plasma into the solar wind versus its recirculation across high latitudes and through the magnetospheric flanks into the magnetospheric tail will enable determination of the mass balance for this mass-dominant component of the Geospace system and of its influence on global magnetospheric processes that are critical to space weather prediction and hence to the impact of space processes on human technology in space and on Earth. Our proposed concept addresses this basic issue of Geospace dynamics by imaging thermal He(+) ions in extreme ultraviolet light with an instrument on the lunar surface. The concept is derived from the highly successful Extreme Ultraviolet imager (EUV) flown on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) spacecraft. From the lunar surface an advanced EUV imager is anticipated to have much higher sensitivity, lower background noise, and higher communication bandwidth back to Earth. From the near-magnetic equatorial location on the lunar surface, such an imager would be ideally located to follow thermal He(+) ions to high latitudes, into the magnetospheric flanks, and into the magnetotail.

  1. NGA Tukitanga Mai Koka Ki Tona Ira: Maori mothers and child to mother violence.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ripekapaia Gloria; Wilson, Denise

    2010-11-01

    In common with other indigenous women Māori mothers risk illness, harm, and possible death when abused and intimidated by their children. Yet women suffering child to mother violence are silenced by their fear and shame, and endeavour to minimise the effects of this form of abuse. A qualitative descriptive research design using kaupapa Māori methodology was adopted to explore the experiences of Māori mothers who had been abused by a son or daughter. During semi-structured interviews with five Māori women experiences of abuse by a child, and its impact on the whānau/family were recorded. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically, and three key themes emerged: behind closed doors, my child and a new journey. These Māri mothers carried the secret of the violence alone; keeping it behind closed doors while paradoxically protecting their abusive child. Nonetheless, these mothers reached a point where they chose to undertake a new journey, one that involved telling their story, reconnecting with their indigenous roots, and engaging in healing activities. The mothers' experiences highlight a lack of support and responsiveness by support and health agencies. Regardless of these negative experiences with support agencies, we highlight the important role nurses have in facilitating whānau ora (family wellbeing) for these women. This research contributes an indigenous perspective to the growing literature on child to mother violence, and provides direction for future research.

  2. THE ENIGMATIC CORE L1451-mm: A FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE? OR A HIDDEN VeLLO?

    SciTech Connect

    Pineda, Jaime E.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Bourke, Tyler; Foster, Jonathan B.; Robitaille, Thomas; Kauffmann, Jens; Arce, Hector G.; Tanner, Joel; Schnee, Scott; Tafalla, Mario; Caselli, Paola; Anglada, Guillem

    2011-12-20

    We present the detection of a dust continuum source at 3 mm (CARMA) and 1.3 mm (Submillimeter Array, SMA), and {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission (SMA) toward the L1451-mm dense core. These detections suggest a compact object and an outflow where no point source at mid-infrared wavelengths is detected using Spitzer. An upper limit for the dense core bolometric luminosity of 0.05 L{sub Sun} is obtained. By modeling the broadband spectral energy distribution and the continuum interferometric visibilities simultaneously, we confirm that a central source of heating is needed to explain the observations. This modeling also shows that the data can be well fitted by a dense core with a young stellar object (YSO) and a disk, or by a dense core with a central first hydrostatic core (FHSC). Unfortunately, we are not able to decide between these two models, which produce similar fits. We also detect {sup 12}CO (2-1) emission with redshifted and blueshifted emission suggesting the presence of a slow and poorly collimated outflow, in opposition to what is usually found toward YSOs but in agreement with prediction from simulations of an FHSC. This presents the best candidate, so far, for an FHSC, an object that has been identified in simulations of collapsing dense cores. Whatever the true nature of the central object in L1451-mm, this core presents an excellent laboratory to study the earliest phases of low-mass star formation.

  3. Mechanisms and Mitigation of Hearing Loss from Blast Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    References [1] James Easter, Xianxi Ge, Gregory Capra , Kanthaiah Koka, James Eric Lupo, and Travis Pfannenstiel. Measurement of dierential...Kanthaiah Koka, Travis Pfannenstiel, Xianxi Ge, Jianzhong Liu, Ronald Jackson, Gregory Capra , Vikrant Palan, Mario Pineda, Ben Balough, and James Easter

  4. Implementation of palliative care as a mandatory cross-disciplinary subject (QB13) at the Medical Faculty of the Heinrich-Heine-University Düsseldorf, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Christian; Wenzel-Meyburg, Ursula; Karger, André; Scherg, Alexandra; in der Schmitten, Jürgen; Trapp, Thorsten; Paling, Andreas; Bakus, Simone; Schatte, Gesa; Rudolf, Eva; Decking, Ulrich; Ritz-Timme, Stephanie; Grünewald, Matthias; Schmitz, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background: By means of the revision of the Medical Licensure Act for Physicians (ÄAppO) in 2009, undergraduate palliative care education (UPCE) was incorporated as a mandatory cross sectional examination subject (QB13) in medical education in Germany. Its implementation still constitutes a major challenge for German medical faculties. There is a discrepancy between limited university resources and limited patient availabilities and high numbers of medical students. Apart from teaching theoretical knowledge and skills, palliative care education is faced with the particular challenge of imparting a professional and adequate attitude towards incurably ill and dying patients and their relatives. Project description: Against this background, an evidence-based longitudinal UPCE curriculum was systematically developed following Kern’s Cycle [1] and partly implemented and evaluated by the students participating in the pilot project. Innovative teaching methods (virtual standardised/simulated patient contacts, e-learning courses, interdisciplinary and interprofessional collaborative teaching, and group sessions for reflective self-development) aim at teaching palliative care-related core competencies within the clinical context and on an interdisciplinary and interprofessional basis. Results: After almost five years of development and evaluation, the UPCE curriculum comprises 60 teaching units and is being fully implemented and taught for the first time in the winter semester 2014/15. The previous pilot phases were successfully concluded. To date, the pilot phases (n=26), the subproject “E-learning in palliative care” (n=518) and the blended-learning elective course “Communication with dying patients” (n=12) have been successfully evaluated. Conclusion: All conducted development steps and all developed programmes are available for other palliative care educators (Open Access). The integrated teaching formats and methods (video, e-learning module, interprofessional education, group sessions for reflexive self-development) and their evaluations are intended to make a contribution to an evidence-based development of palliative care curricula in Germany. PMID:25699109

  5. Field investigation on the repellent activity of some aromatic plants by traditional means against Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis (Diptera: Culicidae) around Koka, central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Dugassa, Sisay; Medhin, Girmay; Balkew, Meshesha; Seyoum, Aklilu; Gebre-Michael, Teshome

    2009-10-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of traditional application methods of mosquito repellent plants in the reduction of the human-vector contact of malaria vectors in central Ethiopia. The plants (Corymbia citriodora, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Ocimum suave and Ocimum basilicum) were tested by thermal expulsion and direct burning on traditional stoves in the field against two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia (Anopheles arabiensis and An. pharoensis). A Latin-square design was applied for randomly assigning the treatment plants and control to experimental houses over different nights. The percentage repellency of each candidate plant by both application methods was estimated from the catches of mosquitoes in the treatment and control houses. On direct burning of the plants, O. basilicum showed the highest percentage repellency (73.11%, P<0.001) and E. camaldulensis the least repellency (65.29%, P<0.001) against An. arabiensis. By the same method of application, C. citriodora on the other hand gave the highest repellency (72.87%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis was still the least repellent plant (66.60%, P<0.001) against An. pharoensis. On thermal expulsion, C. citriodora exhibited the highest repellency (78.69%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis was the lowest repellent plant (71.91%, P<0.001) against An. arabiensis. Against An. pharoensis, C. citriodora gave the highest repellency (72.9%, P<0.001) while E. camaldulensis still gave the least repellency (72.2%, P<0.001) on the same method of application. All the tested plants by both methods of application gave partial but significant protection (>65%) against the house-entry and biting of two important malaria vectors in Ethiopia, and thus have a potential to be used at least as supplements to other control methods. However, feasibility and actual impact on disease transmission need to be known on these and other potentially useful plants.

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Very Low-Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) from 1.25-850um (Kim+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M.-R.; Lee, C. W.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J., II; Kim, G.; Allen, L. E.

    2016-10-01

    The Spitzer Gould Belt Survey (GBS) is a project to survey about 21 square degrees of 11 nearby molecular clouds at 3.6-160um to provide a census of star formation in nearby large clouds (P.I. L. Allen). Spitzer has mapped a total of 11 molecular clouds, CMC, Chamaeleon I, Chamaeleon III, Musca, Lupus V, Lupus VI, Ophiuchus North, Aquila, CrA, Cepheus, and IC 5146 with the IRAC and MIPS between 2004 March and 2008 October. We utilized the data provided by the c2d/GBS projects (Evans et al. 2009, J/ApJS/181/321; Dunham et al. 2015, J/ApJS/220/11). There are two cloud complexes which were not listed in the c2d/GBS projects, but observed by other projects, the Taurus molecular clouds and the Orion molecular clouds. The Taurus molecular clouds have been observed over an area of ~44 square degrees by one of the GTO programs (P.I. D. Padgett) with the IRAC and the MIPS instruments. The Orion molecular clouds have been surveyed in ~9°2 area by Spitzer (P.I. T. Megeath). See section 2.1 for further details. Complementary archive infrared data were retrieved from 2MASS and Herschel PACS and SPIRE and JCMT SCUBA-2; see section 2.2. We observed our sources with the N2H+(1-0) line with the Korean Very Long Baseline Interferometry Network (KVN) 21m radio telescopes from 2011 October to 2016 May for the northern hemisphere sources, and the Mopra 22m telescope in 2012 April for the southern hemisphere sources. See section 2.3 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  7. Mass Accretion Rate of Very Low Luminosity Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Ren-Shiang; Lai, Shih-Ping; Hsieh, Tien-Hao

    2013-08-01

    We propose to measure the mass accretion rate of six Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs) using Near-infrared Integral Spectrometer (NIFS). The extremely low luminosity of VeLLOs, L_int ≤ 0.1 L_⊙, was previously thought not existing in the nature because the typical accretion rate gives much larger accretion luminosity even for the lowest mass star (``Luminosity Problem''). The commonly accepted solution is that the accretion rate is not constant but episodic. Thus, VeLLOs could be interpreted as protostars being in the quiescent phase of accretion activities. However, there is no observational data directly measuring the mass accretion rate of VeLLOs. The main goal of this proposal is to examine such theory and directly measure the mass accretion rate of VeLLOs for the first time. We propose to measure the blue continuum excess (veiling) of the stellar spectrum, which is the most reliable method for measuring the accretion rate. The measurements have to be made in infrared due to the very high extinction for highly embedded protostars. Our proposal provide a first opportunity to explain the long time ``Luminosity Problem'' through the observational aspects, and Gemini is the only instrument that can provide accurate and high sensitivity infrared spectroscopy measurements within reasonably short time scale.

  8. Off-shore to near-shore transects of ferromanganese crusts adjacent to the California margin Tracey A. Conrad1, James R. Hein2, Adina Paytan1 1University of California Santa Cruz, CA, 95064 (tconrad@ucsc.edu) 2USGS, Menlo Park, CA, 94025, USA (jhein@usgs.gov)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, T. A.; Hein, J. R.; Paytan, A.

    2012-12-01

    Marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts growing on seamounts along the California Margin (CM) are influenced by terrestrial and biogenic input. These continental margin crusts have higher concentrations of Si, K, Fe, Na, Ag, Cr, B, and Ba than Fe-Mn crusts from the global open-ocean. Al is also higher but only relative to Pacific open-ocean crusts. These relative enrichments may reflect the high primary productivity near the CM caused by seasonal upwelling and high sediment transport to the region from river/eolian input and cliff erosion. Two transects with samples from five seamounts each are used to compare seaward changes. Transect A includes analyses of 66 bulk samples from Flint, Ben, and Little Joe seamounts, Patton Escarpment, and Northeast Bank. It spans ~400 km of seafloor heading ~58N and coming within ~220 km of the shoreline with samples collected at water depths ranging from 570-2925 m. Transect B includes analyses of 136 bulk samples from Adam, Hoss, San Marcos, San Juan, and Rodriguez seamounts at water depths ranging from 692-3880 m. This transect spans ~240 km heading ~10N and comes within ~75 km of the shoreline near the base of the continental slope. For both transects, mean water depth increases with mean longitude, and latitude is fairly constant varying by approximately 2 degree latitude for transect A and 1degree for B. Both transects show statistically significant trends at the 99% confidence level for element concentrations versus water depth. Concentrations of Fe, Ca, P, Co, and Pb increase as water depth decreases. For transect (A), Mn and Mg also follow this trend, as do Mo and Al for transect (B); Mn also shows this trend for transect (B) but at the 95% confidence level. For both transects, Cu and Zn show the opposite trend, with concentrations increasing in crusts with increasing water depth. For Transect (B), Ni and Al also show this trend. Si and K show no statistically significant trends for either transect. In open-ocean samples concentrations of Si generally increase in crusts with increasing water depth. The Si/Al ratio for the CM samples is 6.2 for transect (A) and 6.1 for (B). Global open-ocean crusts have a Si/Al ratio averaging about 4. This variation in CM crusts is due to input of biogenic Si; the ratio for terrestrial input would be much lower as concentrations of Al would be relatively higher. In global open-ocean samples Ca, Co, Mn, and P increase as water depth decreases while Cu and Fe increase as water depth increases. Element concentrations are influenced by the OMZ and by the chemical cycle of elements in the water column, including whether depth profiles are conservative, scavenged, or biologic. Element trends in CM Fe-Mn crusts can therefore be explained by high biological productivity, proximity to the OMZ, element profiles in the water column, and input of terrigenous debris.

  9. Detail of smokestack base on east side, showing door manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of smokestack base on east side, showing door manufactured by Heine Chimney Co., Chicago. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Power House, Northwest Corner of East Harlow Avenue & North Page Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  10. Search and Seizure in Public Schools: Are Our Children's Rights Going to the Dogs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helfer, Erica Tina

    1979-01-01

    "Renfrow" represents an aberration in the law. The court offered no relief against a patently unlawful practice involving the search of thousands of innocent children. Available from William S. Hein & Co., 1285 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14209. (Author/IRT)

  11. Sewage Treatment Plants: Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources 1989 Final Rule (54 FR 6660)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document includes a copy of the Federal Register publication of the February 14, 1989 Final Rule for the Standards of Performance of New Stationary Sources for Sewage Treatment Plants. This document is provided courtesy of HeinOnline.

  12. Distances to dense cores that contain very low luminosity objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheswar, G.; Lee, C. W.; Dib, S.

    2011-12-01

    Aims: We estimate the distances to dense molecular cores that harbour very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs) detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope and attempt to confirm their VeLLO nature. Methods: The cloud distances are estimated using a near-IR photometric method. We use a technique that performs a spectral classification of stars lying towards the fields containing the clouds as either main-sequence stars or giants. In this technique, the observed (J - H) and (H - Ks) colours are dereddened simultaneously using trial values of AV and a normal interstellar extinction law. The best fit of the dereddened colours to the intrinsic colours giving a minimum value of χ2 then yields the corresponding spectral type and AV for the star. The main-sequence stars, thus classified, are then utilized in an AV versus distance plot to bracket the cloud distances. The typical error in the estimation of distances to the clouds are found to be ~18%. Results: We estimate distances to seven cloud cores, IRAM 04191, L1521F, BHR 111, L328, L673-7, L1014, and L1148 using the above method. These clouds contain VeLLO candidates. The estimated distances to the cores are found to be 127 ± 25 pc (IRAM 04191), 136 ± 36 pc (L1521F), 355 ± 65 pc (BHR 111), 217 ± 30 pc (L328), 240 ± 45 pc (L673-7), 258 ± 50 pc (L1014), and 301 ± 55 pc (L1148). We re-evaluated the internal luminosities of the VeLLOs discovered in these seven clouds using the distances estimated from this work. Except for L1014 - IRS (Lint = 0.15 L⊙), all other VeLLO candidates are found to be consistent with the definition of a VeLLO (Lint ≤ 0.1 L⊙). In addition to the cores that harbour VeLLO candidates, we also obtained distances to the clouds L323, L675, L676, CB 188, L1122, L1152, L1155, L1157, and L1158, which are located in the directions of the above seven cores. Towards L1521F and L1148, we found evidence of multiple dust layers.

  13. Enzymes of heme metabolism in the kidney: regulation by trace metals which do not form heme complexes.

    PubMed

    Maines, M D; Kappas, A

    1977-11-01

    The in vivo regulation by metal ions of the enzymes of heme metabolism in kidney-particularly of ALAS, the rate-limiting enzyme in heine formation- was investigated. Ni(2+) and Pt(4+), metals which do not enzymatically form metalloporphyrins, were found to regulate ALAS in kidney as they do in liver. The pattern of this regulation was generally similar to that observed with heme and metal ions in liver, i.e., a late increase in enzyme activity after an early period in which ALAS activity was unaltered or inhibited. The metals did not interact with the enzyme in vitro to alter its activity. In this study no direct reciprocal relationship between ALAS activity and total cellular heine content was demonstrated. The metal ions, particularly Pt(4+), also altered the activity of other enzymes of heme biosynthesis in kidney. Pt(4+) severely inhibited the activity of ALAD and UROS. Ni(2+) and Pt(4+) were potent inducers of heme oxygenase, the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in heine degradation. It is proposed that the physiological regulation of ALAS is mediated through the action of metal ions, rather than by the cellular content of heine, and that the regulation of ALAS by heine reflects the action of the central metal ion of heme rather than that of the entire metalloporphyrin complex. In this proposed mechanism for metal ion regulation of ALAS, the tetrapyrrole moiety of heine is considered to function principally as an efficient carrier of metal to the regulatory site for ALAS production, inasmuch as the tetrapyrrole ring itself has been shown in earlier studies not to have any effect on ALAS activity. The production of heine oxygenase is believed to be similarly regulated.

  14. Bridging the Theory-Practice Divide in Contemporary Art Museum Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Melinda M.

    2005-01-01

    Today's art museum educators face a challenge that is unprecedented in the field. Where not too long ago little was known regarding how people learn in the museum, now multiple theories have emerged (Falk & Dierking 1992, 2000; Hein 1998; Roberts, 1997; Yenawine, 1988). New theories breed new practices. The dilemma for art museum educators is to…

  15. Library Schools and Other Training Aspects Section. Education and Research Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library education presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Learning and Library Networks at Mid-Career Level: The Possible Contribution of the Library Schools" by M. H. Heine (United Kingdom); (2) "Network Implications for Library Education: Planning for (the)…

  16. Addressing the Standards for Foreign Language Learning. Dimension '97. Selected Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the South Carolina Foreign Language Teachers' Association (Myrtle Beach, South Carolina).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M., Ed.

    Seven papers from the annual conference are presented. "Developing Tomorrow's Technology-Using Foreign Language Teachers: Where We Are, Where We Are Going" (Marjorie H. DeWert, Audrey Heining-Boynton) looks at whether language teachers are being trained to take full advantage of educational technology. "Foreign Language Placement in…

  17. High-Profile Plagiarism Prompts Soul-Searching in German Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockenos, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Rarely do political scandal and academe collide so publicly as they have now, in Europe. In February, Germany's education minister stepped down after Heinrich Heine University, in Dusseldorf, revoked her doctorate because her thesis lifted passages from other sources without proper attribution. Her departure came after scandals over plagiarized…

  18. Sewage Treatment Plants: Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources 1977 Final Rule (42 FR 58520)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document includes a copy of the Federal Register publication of the November 10, 1977 Final Rule for the Standards of Performance of New Stationary Sources for 40 CFR 60 Subparts O. This document is provided curtesy of HeinOnline.

  19. Censoring History: Citizenship and Memory in Japan, Germany, and the United States. Asia and the Pacific.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Laura, Ed.; Selden, Mark, Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on textbook treatments of World War II in Japan, Germany, and the United States and gives readers a new perspective on the creation of national identities and international misunderstandings. Essays in the collection are: (1) "The Lessons of War, Global Power, and Social Change" (Laura Hein; Mark…

  20. Perceptual-Motor Foundations: A Multidisciplinary Concern. Proceedings of the Perceptual-Motor Symposium (Washington, D.C., May 8-10, 1968).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association for Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Washington, DC.

    The proceedings include addresses by Logan Wright on highlights of human development from birth to age 11, Leonard A. Cohen on development and function of the mechanisms of perception, Eric Denhoff on motor development as a function of perception, and Alan Hein on exposure history in spatial-motor development. Also provided are reports by William…

  1. The Limits of Soviet Airpower: The Bear Versus the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, 1979-1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    Alexievich , Svetlana . Zinky Boys: Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War. Translated by Julia and Robin Whitby. New York: WW Norton and Company... Alexievich , Zinky Boys. Soviet Voices from the Afghanistan War, trans. Julia and Robin Whitby (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1990): 18. 171Heinämaa

  2. Children's Classics. Fifth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Alice M.

    "Children's Classics," a 1947 article by Alice M. Jordan reprinted from "The Horn Book Magazine," examines the dynamics and appeal of some of the most famous books for young readers, including "Alice in Wonderland,""The Wind in the Willows,""Robinson Crusoe," and "Andersen's Fairy Tales." Paul Hein's annotated bibliography, a revision of Jordan's…

  3. For Your Bookshelf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Reviews notable education books of 2001: "Not in Front of the Children" (Marjorie Heins); "The other Boston Busing Story" (Susan E. Eaton); "Another Planet" (Elinor Burkett); "Parents Under Siege" (James Garbarino and Claire Bedard); "Radical Equations" (Robert P. Moses and Charles E. Cobb, Jr.); "School" (Sheila Curran Bernard and Sarah Mondale);…

  4. Book Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Reviews two textbooks: "Principles of Biochemistry" by Albert L. Lehninger and "Inorganic Chemistry, A Modern Introduction" by Therald Moeller. Also reviews text, study guide, and laboratory manual for Morris Hein's "Foundations of College Chemistry, Fifth Edition" and text/study guide for David A. Ucko's "Basics for Chemistry." (JN)

  5. Legal and Educational Aspects of Student Dismissals: A View from the Law School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerblance, Penn

    1979-01-01

    Legal and educational responsibility of law schools in dismissing students for academic or disciplinary reasons is discussed. Need for and rights to due process are examined, and constitutional law is referred to. Available from William S. Hein and Co., 1285 Main St., Buffalo, NY 14209. (MSE)

  6. Meeting New Challenges in the Foreign Language Classroom. Selected Papers from the Annual Central States Conference on the Teaching of Foreign Languages Kansas City, Missouri, April 21-24, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, Gale K., Ed.; And Others

    Papers in this volume are: "National Standards and Assessments" (June K. Phillips; Jamie B. Draper); "Cultural Roots and Academic Achievement" (Charles R. Hancock); "The At-Risk Student in the Foreign Language Classroom" (Audrey Heining-Boynton); "I Can't Get Them To Talk" (Robert L. Davis; H. Jay Siskin);…

  7. Assessment of Hearing Impaired Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Doin E., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The issue of Directions contains 11 articles on assessment of hearing impaired individuals. Entries have the following titles and authors: "Classroom Assessment Techniques for Hearing Impaired Students--A Literature Review" (B. McKee, M. Hausknecht); "Informal Assessment of Hearing Impaired Students In the Classroom" (B. Culhane, R. Hein);…

  8. Trace element mobility and transfer to vegetation within the Ethiopian Rift Valley lake areas.

    PubMed

    Kassaye, Yetneberk A; Skipperud, Lindis; Meland, Sondre; Dadebo, Elias; Einset, John; Salbu, Brit

    2012-10-26

    To evaluate critical trace element loads in native vegetation and calculate soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs), 11 trace elements (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Pb and Mn) have been determined in leaves of 9 taxonomically verified naturally growing terrestrial plant species as well as in soil samples collected around 3 Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes (Koka, Ziway and Awassa). The Cr concentration in leaves of all the plant species was higher than the "normal" range, with the highest level (8.4 mg per kg dw) being observed in Acacia tortilis from the Lake Koka area. Caper species (Capparis fascicularis) and Ethiopian dogstooth grass (Cynodon aethiopicus) from Koka also contained exceptionally high levels of Cd (1 mg per kg dw) and Mo (32.8 mg per kg dw), respectively. Pb, As and Cu concentrations were low in the plant leaves from all sites. The low Cu level in important fodder plant species (Cynodon aethiopicus, Acacia tortilis and Opuntia ficus-indicus) implies potential deficiency in grazing and browsing animals. Compared to the Canadian environmental quality guideline and maximum allowable concentration in agricultural soils, the total soil trace element concentrations at the studied sites are safe for agricultural crop production. Enrichment factor was high for Zn in soils around Lakes Ziway and Awassa, resulting in moderate to high transfer of Zn to the studied plants. A six step sequential extraction procedure on the soils revealed a relatively high mobility of Cd, Se and Mn. Strong association of most trace elements with the redox sensitive fraction and mineral lattice was also confirmed by partial redundancy analysis. TF (mg per kg dw plants/mg per kg dw soil) values based on the total (TF(total)) and mobile fractions (TF(mobile)) of soil trace element concentrations varied widely among elements and plant species, with the averaged TF(total) and TF(mobile) values ranging from 0.01-2 and 1-60, respectively. Considering the mobile fraction in soils should

  9. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  10. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS TOWARD CANDIDATE LOW-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2012-10-01

    We present a systematic single-dish search for molecular outflows toward a sample of nine candidate low-luminosity protostars and 30 candidate very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub int} {<=} 0.1 L{sub Sun }). The sources are identified using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope cataloged by Dunham et al. toward nearby (D < 400 pc) star-forming regions. Each object was observed in {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 2 {yields} 1 simultaneously using the sideband separating ALMA Band-6 prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope at 30'' resolution. Using five-point grid maps, we identify five new potential outflow candidates and make on-the-fly maps of the regions surrounding sources in the dense cores B59, L1148, L1228, and L1165. Of these new outflow candidates, only the map of B59 shows a candidate blue outflow lobe associated with a source in our survey. We also present larger and more sensitive maps of the previously detected L673-7 and the L1251-A-IRS4 outflows and analyze their properties in comparison to other outflows from VeLLOs. The accretion luminosities derived from the outflow properties of the VeLLOs with detected CO outflows are higher than the observed internal luminosity of the protostars, indicating that these sources likely had higher accretion rates in the past. The known L1251-A-IRS3 outflow is detected but not re-mapped. We do not detect clear, unconfused signatures of red and blue molecular wings toward the other 31 sources in the survey indicating that large-scale, distinct outflows are rare toward this sample of candidate protostars. Several potential outflows are confused with the kinematic structure in the surrounding core and cloud. Interferometric imaging is needed to disentangle large-scale molecular cloud kinematics from these potentially weak protostellar outflows.

  11. Detecting malingering in traumatic brain injury and chronic pain with an abbreviated version of the Meyers Index for the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Aguerrevere, Luis E; Greve, Kevin W; Bianchini, Kevin J; Meyers, John E

    2008-01-01

    Meyers, Millis, and Volkert [Meyers, J. E., Millis, S. R., & Volkert, K. (2002). A validity index for the MMPI-2. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 157-169] developed a method to detect malingering in chronic pain patients using seven scales from the Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory-2 (MMPI-2). This method may be impractical because two of the scales (Obvious minus Subtle and Dissimulation-revised) are not reported by the commercially available Pearson computerized scoring system. The current study recalculated the Meyers Index using the five Pearson-provided scales in the chronic pain data sets of Meyers et al. [Meyers, J. E., Millis, S. R., & Volkert, K. (2002). A validity index for the MMPI-2. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 17, 157-169] and Bianchini, Etherton, Greve, Heinly, and Meyers [Bianchini, K. J., Etherton, J. L., Greve, K. W., Heinly, M. T., & Meyers, J. E. (in press). Classification accuracy of MMPI-2 validity scales in the detection of pain-related malingering: A known-groups approach. Assessment], and the traumatic brain injury data of Greve, Bianchini, Love, Brennan, and Heinly [Greve, K. W., Bianchini, K. J., Love, J. M., Brennan, A., & Heinly, M. T. (2006). Sensitivity and specificity of MMPI-2 validity scales and indicators to malingered neurocognitive dysfunction in traumatic brain injury. The Clinical Neuropsychologist, 20, 491-512]. Classification accuracy of the abbreviated Meyers Index was comparable to the original. These findings demonstrate that the abbreviated Meyers Index can be used as a substitute of the original Meyers Index without decrements in classification accuracy.

  12. A tribute to Achim Trebst at the time of his doctor honoris causa, University of Düsseldorf.

    PubMed

    Strotmann, Heinrich

    2009-06-01

    On June 9, 2009, we celebrate the 80th birthday of Achim Trebst. I present below the "Tribute" (Laudatio) that I read on February 11, 2000 on the occasion of his receiving Doctor honoris causa of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of the Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf. The text below is a translation from the original German to English with minor editorial changes by Govindjee.

  13. Demonstration of the Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Pinkwater Treatment at McAlester Army Ammunition Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    column with an overall height of 22 ft (6.7 m) and a bed of GAC occupying approximately 11 ft (3.4 m) when expanded. Water was recirculated through the...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ER D C /C ER L TR -0 5- 8 Demonstration of the Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for...Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Reactor for Pinkwater Treatment at McAlester Army Ammunition Plant Stephen W. Maloney and Robert L. Heine Construction

  14. An Integrated Watershed and Receiving Water Model for Fecal Coliform Fate and Transport in Sinclair and Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, WA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Adams Kitsap County Surface and Storm Water Management: D. Tucker, S. Olsen, and M. Heine Ktisap County Natural Resources: K. Folkerts, D. Nash, and P...Nelson. Kitsap County Health District: S. Whitford, J. Zimny, J. Kiess, S. Ultican, and M. Fohna City of Port Orchard: D. Cole City of...State Department of Health: F. Meriwether and G. Combs U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center: C. LaHatte Suquamish

  15. The JIIM Domain: Examination of U.S. Military Sustainment Assistance Following North Korean Regime Collapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    at 690,000, “by providing them shelter, a plate of food, and effective support.”126 Phase I: Initial Response After 15 years of UN missions from...Horn’s Strategic Hub: Chatham House Briefing Papers (London: Chatham House, April 2013): 4. 122Mark Schuller and Pablo Morales, Tectonic Shifts: Haiti...2010.aspx (accessed May 4, 2014). 130Ibid. 131Schuller and Morales, Tectonic Shifts, 218. 132Ibid. 133Ibid. 134Ibid., 220. 135Jorge Heine and

  16. Simulator Sickness Research Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    male drivers” (Hein, p. 610). 8.2 Age Walt Disney World’s “Mission: Space” thrill ride left some older riders gulping, “Houston, we have a problem...from physical aging may also be a contributing factor to this phenomenon, since those with more flight hours naturally tend to fall into older age...for determining the particular pattern of discomfort produced by a given simulator. All scores have as their lowest level a natural zero (no

  17. Fatigue Solutions for Maintenance: From Science to Workplace Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    John Hall IAMAW Jim Hein AWP-204 William (Bill) Johnson AIR-100 Charles (Bob) Kelley AJW-341 Daniel Mollicone Pulsar Informatics, Inc. Thomas...That Fit Industry. Dr. Daniel Mollicone, President and Chief Executive Officer for Pulsar Informatics, Inc., presented research on the use of...FAA Maintenance Fatigue applied R&D program has worked with Pulsar Informatics to develop a software system that helps individuals assess their

  18. 34. (Credit JTL) Front (north side) of three water tube ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. (Credit JTL) Front (north side) of three water tube boilers built by the Heine Safety Boiler Co. of St. Louis, Missouri in 1917; rebuilt in 1938. Front doors opened on center boiler to show water header and inspection plugs for water tubes. Smaller doors beneath open into firebox; boilers presently equipped for gas firing. Operating pressure approx. 150 psi (saturated steam). - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  19. 41. (Credit JTL) View looking south at #1 low service ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. (Credit JTL) View looking south at #1 low service engine as it appeared in 1980. Original 3 mdg pump ends were replaced in 1911 with Epping-Carpenter pump ends capable of delivering a total of 5 mgd. Engine was retired in the 1960's. Heine water tube boilers in the background. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  20. VLA Ammonia Observations of IRAS 16253-2429: A Very Young and Low Mass Protostellar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer J.

    2011-01-01

    IRAS l6253-2429. the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source as possibly one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known.

  1. EARLY STAR-FORMING PROCESSES IN DENSE MOLECULAR CLOUD L328; IDENTIFICATION OF L328-IRS AS A PROTO-BROWN DWARF

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chang Won; Kim, Mi-Ryang; Kim, Gwanjeong; Saito, Masao; Kurono, Yasutaka; Myers, Philip C.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents the results of millimeter to sub-millimeter observations of CO, HCN, N{sub 2}H{sup +}, and HCO{sup +} lines in the dense molecular cloud L328, which harbors L328-IRS, a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO). Our analysis of the line width finds that {sup 13}CO and N{sub 2}H{sup +} lines are broadened right over the smallest sub-core S2 where L328-IRS is located, while they are significantly narrower in other regions of L328. Thus, L328-IRS has a direct association with the sub-core. CO observations show a bipolar outflow from this VeLLO with an extent of ∼0.08 pc. The outflow momentum flux and efficiency are much less than those of low-mass protostars. The most likely mass accretion rate (∼3.6 × 10{sup –7} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) inferred from the analysis of the CO outflow is an order of magnitude smaller than the canonical value for a protostar. If the main accretion lasts during the typical Class 0 period of a protostar, L328-IRS will accrete the mass of a brown dwarf, but not that of a star. Given that its envelope mass is small (∼0.09 M{sub ☉}) and 100% star formation rate is unlikely, we suggest that L328-IRS is likely a proto-brown dwarf. Inward motions are found in global scale in the L328 cloud and its sub-cores with a typical infall speed found in starless cores. L328 is found to be fairly well isolated from other nearby clouds and seems to be forming three sub-cores simultaneously through a gravitational fragmentation process. Altogether, these all leave L328-IRS as the best example supporting the idea that a brown dwarf forms like a normal star.

  2. IRAS 16253-2429: The First Proto-brown Dwarf Binary Candidate Identified through the Dynamics of Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs) is one of the long-standing problems in star formation because the typical Jeans mass in molecular clouds is too large to form these substellar objects. To answer this question, it is crucial to study a BD in the embedded phase. IRAS 16253-2429 is classified as a very low-luminosity object (VeLLO) with an internal luminosity of <0.1 L ⊙. VeLLOs are believed to be very low-mass protostars or even proto-BDs. We observed the jet/outflow driven by IRAS 16253-2429 in CO (2-1), (6-5), and (7-6) using the IRAM 30 m and Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescopes and the Submillimeter Array (SMA) in order to study its dynamical features and physical properties. Our SMA map reveals two protostellar jets, indicating the existence of a proto-binary system as implied by the precessing jet detected in H2 emission. We detect a wiggling pattern in the position-velocity diagrams along the jet axes, which is likely due to the binary orbital motion. Based on this information, we derive the current mass of the binary as ˜0.032 M⊙. Given the low envelope mass, IRAS 16253-2429 will form a binary that probably consist of one or two BDs. Furthermore, we found that the outflow force as well as the mass accretion rate are very low based on the multi-transition CO observations, which suggests that the final masses of the binary components are at the stellar/substellar boundary. Since IRAS 16253 is located in an isolated environment, we suggest that BDs can form through fragmentation and collapse, similar to low-mass stars. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m Telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain).

  3. Probing the magnetic fields in L1415 and L1389

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soam, A.; Lee, Chang Won; Maheswar, G.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Neha, S.; Kim, Mi-Ryang

    2017-01-01

    We present the R-band polarimetric results towards two nebulae L1415 and L1389 containing low-luminosity stars. Aim of this study is to understand the role played by magnetic fields in formation of low-luminosity objects. Linear polarization arises due to dichroism of the background starlight projected on the cloud providing the plane-of-the sky magnetic field orientation. The offsets between mean magnetic field directions obtained towards L1415 and L1389 and the projected outflow axes are found to be 35° and 12°, respectively. The offset between cloud minor axes and mean envelope magnetic field direction in L1415 and L1389 are 50° and 87°, respectively. To estimate the magnetic field strength by using the updated Chandrasekhar-Fermi (CF) relation, we obtained the 12CO(J = 1-0) line velocity dispersion value towards L1415 cloud using the Taeduk Radio Astronomical Observatory single dish observations. The values of Bpos in L1415 and L1389 are found to be 28 and 149 μG using CF technique and 23 and 140 μG using structure function analysis, respectively. The values of Bpos in these clouds are found to be consistent using both the techniques. By combining the present results with those obtained from our previous study of magnetic fields in cores with Very Low Luminosity Objects (VeLLOs), we attempt to improve the sample of cores with low-luminosity protostars and bridge the gap between the understanding of importance of magnetic fields in cores with VeLLOs and low-luminosity protostars. The results of this work and that of our previous work show that the outflow directions are aligned with envelope magnetic fields of the clouds.

  4. Towards an optimal integrated reservoir system management for the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ruben; Gebretsadik, Henok Y.; Schütze, Niels

    2016-05-01

    Recently, the Kessem-Tendaho project is completed to bring about socioeconomic development and growth in the Awash River Basin, Ethiopia. To support reservoir Koka, two new reservoirs where built together with extensive infrastructure for new irrigation projects. For best possible socioeconomic benefits under conflicting management goals, like energy production at three hydropower stations and basin wide water supply at various sites, an integrated reservoir system management is required. To satisfy the multi-purpose nature of the reservoir system, multi-objective parameterization-simulation-optimization model is applied. Different Pareto-optimal trade-off solutions between water supply and hydro-power generation are provided for two scenarios (i) recent conditions and (ii) future planned increases for Tendaho and Upper Awash Irrigation projects. Reservoir performance is further assessed under (i) rule curves with a high degree of freedom - this allows for best performance, but may result in rules curves to variable for real word operation and (ii) smooth rule curves, obtained by artificial neuronal networks. The results show no performance penalty for smooth rule curves under future conditions but a notable penalty under recent conditions.

  5. Genetic differentiation among natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Teleostei, cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Agnèse, J F; Adépo-Gourène, B; Abban, E K; Fermon, Y

    1997-07-01

    We analysed the genetic differentiation among 17 natural populations of the Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) using allozymes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The populations studied, from the River Senegal to Lake Tana and from Lake Manzalla to Lake Baringo, represent all subspecies which have been previously described. Sixteen variable nuclear loci showed that these populations can be clustered in three groups: (1) West African populations (Senegal, Niger, Volta and Chad drainages), (2) Ethiopian Rift Valley populations (Lakes Awasa, Ziway, Koka and the Awash River) and (3) Nile drainage (Manzalla, Cairo, Lake Edward) and Kenyan Rift Valley populations (Lakes Turkana, Baringo and River Suguta). Nine different mtDNA haplotypes were found in the RFLP analysis of a 1 kb portion of the D-loop region. The network obtained showed that there are three geographically distinct groups; all West African populations and O. aureus are clustered, the two Ethiopian Rift Valley populations are distinct and between these two groups are the Kenyan and Ugandan Rift Valley populations. Nile populations show affinities both with West African populations and with specimens from Lakes Tana and Turkana. Taxonomic and biogeographical implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Hydrology and Mosquito Population Dynamics around a Hydropower Reservoir in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, N.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Malaria is associated with dams because their reservoirs provide mosquitoes, the vector of malaria, with permanent breeding sites. The risk of contracting malaria is likely to be enhanced following the increasing trend of hydropower dam construction to satisfy the expanding energy needs in developing countries. A close examination of its adverse health impacts is critical in the design, construction, and operation phases. We will present results of extensive field studies in 2012 and 2013 around the Koka Reservoir, Ethiopia. The results uncover the importance of reservoir management especially after the rainy seasons. Furthermore, we show the capability of a newly modified hydrology, entomology and malaria transmission simulator, HYDREMATS (Bomblies et al, 2008), and its potential as a tool for evaluating environmental management strategies to control malaria. HYDREMATS was developed to represent how the hydrology in nearby villages is impacted by the reservoir system, and the role of different types of vector ecologies associated with different Anopheles mosquito species. The hydrology component of HYDREMATS simulates three different mosquito breeding habitats: rain-fed pools, groundwater pools, and shoreline water. The entomology component simulates the life cycles of An. funestus and An. arabiensis, the two main vectors around the reservoir. The model was calibrated over the 2012-2013 period. The impact of reservoir water level management on the mosquito population is explored based on numerical model simulations and field experiments.

  7. Optimum Aeroelastic Characteristics for Composite Supermaneuverable Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-28

    Re- gime," J. Aero/Space Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 11, November 1959, pp. 703-716, 738. 2. Strutt , J.W. (Baron Rayleigh ), The Theory of Sound, Vol. 1...efforts of Mr. John Calle- 73 ja, a graduate student in the department and we thank Mrs. B. Hein for patiently typing the manuscript. 0 74 5.3.13...and Williams , M. It., "Linear/Non- ’Molenbrock, P.. "Uber einige Bewegungen eines Gases bei An- linear Behavior in Unsteady Transonic Aerodynamics

  8. Investigation of Schottky Barrier on GaAs and InP Using a Multi-Disciplined Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-29

    Press, NY and London, 1989. 27. V. Heine, Phys. Rev. A 13M 1689 (1965); G. Louie and M. L. Cohen, Phys. Rev. B 112461 (1976); C. Tejedor , F . Flores, and...8217 3 6 / 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 12a. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY STATEMENT12.CM Approved or public release: F E S 15 199U 1 3. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200...changes in barrier height were obtained by thermal annealing. Results are 2 f t indicated in Figures 1 and 2. In order to reduce the number of variables

  9. Rearrangement of 3-Membered 1,1,2-Trifluorobromonium and Iodonium Ions and Comparison of Trifluorochloronium to Fluorocarbeniuim Ions (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    The steric effect and repulsive forces from the lone-pair electrons on the fluorine atoms of 5 shield the carbon nucleus, rendering it resistant to... Electrophilic addition of Cl2 to alkene 2 gives 2% of rearranged product (Table 3, run 5). Intermediate 5 (Scheme 1, X ) Y ) Cl; Z ) Br) is 22.1 kcal...71 and 190. Chambers, R. D. Fluorine in Organic Chemistry; Wiley: New York, 1973; p 98. (4) (a) Heine, H. W.; Siegfried, W. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1954

  10. Simulator Sickness During Emergency Procedures Training in a Helicopter Simulator: Age, Flight Experience, and Amount Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    drivers are more susceptible than male drivers" (Hein, p. 610). Age. Walt Disney World’s "Mission: Space" thrill ride left some older riders gulping...since those with more flight hrs naturally tend to fall into older age groups. (McGuinness et al., 1981, p. 25) 3. The SS symptoms reported by the...symptomatology and are useful for determining the pattern of discomfort produced by a given simulator. All scores have as their lowest level a natural zero (no

  11. Theoretical Investigation of Point Defects of Mercury Cadmium Telluride.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    Phys .- JETP 43(2), 305 (1976). 41 . M. H. Cohen, and V. Heine, Phys . Rev. 122, 1821 (1961). 42 . B. J. Austin, V. Heind, and L...450 (1958). -12-77 57. E. M. Gershenzon, G. N. Gol’tsman, and A. P. Mel’nikov, Sov . Phys .- JETP Lett . 14, 185 (1971). 58. M. A. Gilleo, P. J. Bailey... Phys . Rev. Lett . 41 (13), 892 (1978). 15. J. Bernholc, N. 0. Lipari, and S. T. Pantelides, Phys . Rev. Lett . 41 (13), 895 (1978)

  12. Applications of Superconductivity to Avionics: Proceedings of a Conference Held in Bath, England on May 7-8, 1990 (Les Applications de la Supraconductivite dans le Domains de l’Avionique)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    and 7J. Tenbrtnk. K . Heine. H. Krauth . A. Szulcyzk flux pinning in BSCCO, need innovative solutions for and M. Th6ner. ’Entwicklung von Hoch- many...iquc 38521 St. Egrcve (’cdcx M~ien George R.Pearke. Bldg I hotnson ( Sl- ICR France Ottawa, Ontario, K I A l)K2 9140)4 OrsaN (’cdes Canada France Col...avionics systems. The field of superconductivity, which Is not a new field, having been created in 1911 with the discovery of the phenomenon by K . nnes, has

  13. Effects of laryngoscope handle light source on the light intensity from disposable laryngoscope blades.

    PubMed

    Milne, A D; Brousseau, P A; Brousseau, C A

    2014-12-01

    A bench-top study was performed to assess the effects of different laryngoscope handles on the light intensity delivered from disposable metal or plastic laryngoscope blades. The light intensity from both the handle light sources themselves and the combined handle and laryngoscope blade sets was measured using a custom-designed testing system and light meter. Five samples of each disposable blade type were tested and compared with a standard re-usable stainless steel blade using three different handle/light sources (Vital Signs LED, Heine 2.5 V Xenon and 3.5 V Xenon). The light intensity delivered by the disposable blades ranged from 790 to 3846 lux for the different handle types. Overall, the 3.5 V Heine handle delivered the highest light output (p < 0.007) in comparison with the other handles. For the disposable blades, the overall light output was significantly higher from the plastic than the metal blades (p < 0.001).

  14. Skin surface microscopy of port-wine stains: preliminary data on classification and assessment of laser therapy results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotteleur, Guy; Huan, P.; Mordon, Serge R.; Beacco, Claire; Brunetaud, Jean Marc

    1994-12-01

    In order to characterize port-wine stains (PWS) before and after laser-therapy, a study using epiluminescence microscopy is achieved. The technique consists in placing a thin layer of mineral oil on the skin surface and inspecting the PWS with a Delta 10 dermatoscope (HEINE). A contact microphotography is then performed in a similar manner by means of a Dermaphot optical module (HEINE). One hundred and sixteen patients have been explored prior to laser treatment. Twenty eight have been explored at the same place three months after the first treatment and four three months after two treatments. The preliminary results are compared with Jones, Shakespeare, and Carruth's studies on transcutaneous microscopy. It is possible to classify PWS according to their epiluminescence microscopic aspect. The classification proposed by the English authors is not ideal and some adaptations are desirable, regarding particularly the background condition. Some correlation can be established between the macroscopic and microscopic aspect of PWS. It is far too early to correlate epiluminescence aspect before treatment and long term results of laser-therapy.

  15. [Regazell-Energen: bioactivator in tumor treatment? Documentation No. 26 D].

    PubMed

    Hauser, S P; Allewelt, M C

    1996-12-17

    Regazell-Energen (RE) is a combination of drinking vials which contain gelée royale, ginseng, hawthorn, wheatgerm extract solved in mead, and capsules filled with mixed pollen. RE is recommended for revitalization and regeneration, regulation and stimulation of the immune system and in the early metaphylaxis of treated cancer patients. Two courses during 40 days per year should be taken. RE has practically no side effects. Only individuals with pollen allergy or alcohol intolerance should be cautious. A package for a 14-day course costs 170 Swiss francs. RE is produced by Bio-Naturkraft in Poing, Munich, and research is supported by the German Society for Matrix Research. The president is Prof. H. Heine from the Institute of Anatomy of the anthroposophic University Witten-Herdecke. The bioactivator RE ist claimed to be a 'new, autonomous therapeutic system' to 'increase physical and mental well-being ... helping to overcome stress and immune defects'. Heine claims that RE acts decisively on the 'regulation of the matrix' and fights cancer by activating the fibroblast-macrophage system via the healthy tissue. The three clinical investigations on the effect of RE in the oncological aftercare contain severe flaws in the collection of data and interpretation.

  16. Jaeumganghwa-Tang Induces Apoptosis via the Mitochondrial Pathway and Lactobacillus Fermentation Enhances Its Anti-Cancer Activity in HT1080 Human Fibrosarcoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aeyung; Im, Minju; Hwang, Youn-Hwan; Yang, Hye Jin; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2015-01-01

    Jaeumganghwa-tang (JGT, Zi-yin-jiang-huo-tang in Chinese and Jiin-koka-to in Japanese) is an oriental herbal formula that has long been used as a traditional medicine to treat respiratory and kidney diseases. Recent studies revealed that JGT exhibited potent inhibitory effects on allergies, inflammation, pain, convulsions, and prostate hyperplasia. Several constituent herbs in JGT induce apoptotic cancer cell death. However, the anti-cancer activity of JGT has not been examined. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of JGT using highly tumorigenic HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. In addition, we examined whether the Lactobacillus fermentation of JGT enhanced its anti-cancer activity using an in vivo xenograft model because fermentation of herbal extracts is thought to strengthen their therapeutic effects. Data revealed that JGT suppressed the growth of cancer cells efficiently by stimulating G1 cell cycle arrest and then inducing apoptotic cell death by causing mitochondrial damage and activating caspases. The phosphorylation of p38 and ERK also played a role in JGT-induced cell death. In vitro experiments demonstrated that JGT fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus, designated fJGT162, elicited similar patterns of cell death as did non-fermented JGT. Meanwhile, the daily oral administration of 120 mg/kg fJGT162 to HT1080-bearing BALB/c nude mice suppressed tumor growth dramatically (up to 90%) compared with saline treatment, whereas the administration of non-fermented JGT suppressed tumor growth by ~70%. Collectively, these results suggest that JGT and fJGT162 are safe and useful complementary and alternative anti-cancer herbal therapies, and that Lactobacillus fermentation improves the in vivo anti-cancer efficacy of JGT significantly. PMID:26020238

  17. Institutional trust in the national social security and municipal healthcare systems for the elderly in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Taguchi, Atsuko; Ryu, Shuhei; Nagata, Satoko; Murashima, Sachiyo

    2012-09-01

    Japanese social security systems and institutions for the elderly, as well as the general attitude toward elderly care services among the Japanese population, have been undergoing a dramatic change. By examining the association between institutional trust, which is a representative element of social capital, and anxiety regarding receiving elderly care, we can uncover clues toward building a more robust social security system for the elderly. This study examines the relationship between institutional trust, in the national social security and municipal healthcare systems for the elderly, and anxiety with respect to receiving elderly care among the general Japanese population. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire that was returned by mail in January and February 2005. The target population was 4735 community residents aged 20-75 years, who lived in the city of Koka, Shiga, Japan. A total of 2264 questionnaires were included in the analysis. A binominal logistic regression analysis showed that responses of 'trust' [odds ratio (OR): 2.09, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-4.30] and 'strongly trust' (OR: 3.80, 95% CI: 1.55-9.31) for the national system were associated with not having anxiety regarding elderly care, compared with the reference category of feeling strongly distrust. However, trust in the municipal system showed no association with this anxiety. These results indicate the importance of developing strategies to increase a common trust in the national care services for the elderly to reduce the anxiety people feel regarding whether they will be able to receive elderly care when required.

  18. [European paintings entitled "Jesus Christ as Pharmacist" in the Middle Ages and later].

    PubMed

    Okuda, J

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-eight pictures painted in the Middle Ages and later entitled "Christ as Pharmacist" are shown in a little German book (W. H. Hein, Christus als Apotheker, Govi-Verlag, Frankfurt am Main, 1974). In the three paintings shown here, Christ appears as a pharmacist standing behind a pharmacy table used to compound medicine, and he has a medicinal balance in his left hand. The Christian terms, such as faith, love, and hope, and the drug's name are written on each of the drug vase labels. It seems that the purpose of displaying these paintings in a pharmacy was both to propagate Christianity to the poor who bought medicine at their family pharmacy and to win their respect for the pharmacist.

  19. An exact solution of spherical mean-field plus a special separable pairing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Lianrong; Pan, Feng; Draayer, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    An exact solution of nuclear spherical mean-field plus a special orbit-dependent separable pairing model is studied, of which the separable pairing interaction parameters are obtained by a linear fitting in terms of the single-particle energies considered. The advantage of the model is that, similar to the standard pairing case, it can be solved easily by using the extended Heine-Stieltjes polynomial approach. With the analysis of the model in the ds- and pf-shell subspace, it is shown that this special separable pairing model indeed provides similar pair structures of the model with the original separable pairing interaction, and is obviously better than the standard pairing model in many aspects.

  20. Stochastic Approach to Phonon-Assisted Optical Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharias, Marios; Patrick, Christopher E.; Giustino, Feliciano

    2015-10-01

    We develop a first-principles theory of phonon-assisted optical absorption in semiconductors and insulators which incorporates the temperature dependence of the electronic structure. We show that the Hall-Bardeen-Blatt theory of indirect optical absorption and the Allen-Heine theory of temperature-dependent band structures can be derived from the present formalism by retaining only one-phonon processes. We demonstrate this method by calculating the optical absorption coefficient of silicon using an importance sampling Monte Carlo scheme, and we obtain temperature-dependent line shapes and band gaps in good agreement with experiment. The present approach opens the way to predictive calculations of the optical properties of solids at finite temperature.

  1. Development of an interdisciplinary model cluster for tidal water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Stephan; Winterscheid, Axel; Jens, Wyrwa; Hartmut, Hein; Birte, Hein; Stefan, Vollmer; Andreas, Schöl

    2013-04-01

    Global climate change has a high potential to influence both the persistence and the transport pathways of water masses and its constituents in tidal waters and estuaries. These processes are linked through dispersion processes, thus directly influencing the sediment and solid suspend matter budgets, and thus the river morphology. Furthermore, the hydrologic regime has an impact on the transport of nutrients, phytoplankton, suspended matter, and temperature that determine the oxygen content within water masses, which is a major parameter describing the water quality. This project aims at the implementation of a so-called (numerical) model cluster in tidal waters, which includes the model compartments hydrodynamics, morphology and ecology. For the implementation of this cluster it is required to continue with the integration of different models that work in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. The model cluster is thus suggested to lead to a more precise knowledge of the feedback processes between the single interdisciplinary model compartments. In addition to field measurements this model cluster will provide a complementary scientific basis required to address a spectrum of research questions concerning the integral management of estuaries within the Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG, Germany). This will in particular include aspects like sediment and water quality management as well as adaptation strategies to climate change. The core of the model cluster will consist of the 3D-hydrodynamic model Delft3D (Roelvink and van Banning, 1994), long-term hydrodynamics in the estuaries are simulated with the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model HAMSOM (Backhaus, 1983; Hein et al., 2012). The simulation results will be compared with the unstructured grid based SELFE model (Zhang and Bapista, 2008). The additional coupling of the BfG-developed 1D-water quality model QSim (Kirchesch and Schöl, 1999; Hein et al., 2011) with the morphological/hydrodynamic models is an

  2. Integrated Computer-Aided Manufacturing (ICAM) Architecture. Part 3. Volume 7. MFG01 Glossary.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    lat oe C % 000 Sj C4 le ’ 4, 4,4 2:4 tj t*K l- X: 44 0’~ k IW- C4 % 40 Go r 00 c ~ IL P v C c -. . v IL zl - 4 1 S . v I .I a w I 1 v c u > c- -FT U 4...CC c .C C aI o , 0 A Z . 6--c 0 cCrV 46 a .0 b. 1 c 1 . Ga, v 0 M 0 44 c c c f-V - 4 0 aLS C C - . l-l - 2 - 0 S- C (~ b , J O’~ 0 .4. hSV b... ~ b...RD-R144 426 INTEGRATED COMPUTER-AIDED MANUFACTURING (ICAM)_ 1 /3 ARCHITECTURE PART 3 VOLUME.. (U) SOFTECH INC WALTHAM MRR HEINE ET RL. SEP 83 RFWRL-TR

  3. [The human being from the point of view of animals or, "Who knows whether the breath of men goes upwards?" (Ecclesiastes 3:21)].

    PubMed

    Arendt, D

    1999-05-01

    The question of whether animals have souls has been asked since as early as the Old Testament. Where this is believed to be true, fiction has provided interesting models in literature: The human being as seen by animals has been a popular subject since Apuleius' 'Asinus aureus' and how man appears from the perspective of a donkey or a beetle, that is to say the perspective from below, becomes controversial. Examples may be found in all languages and centuries in Jonathan Swift, Miguel Cervantes, E. T. A. Hoffmann, Ludwig Tieck, Heinrich Heine, Viktor von Scheffel, Franz Kafka and others. Résumé at the end: How does man answer this question or his own self-questioning?

  4. Liberals think more analytically (more "WEIRD") than conservatives.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, Thomas; Haidt, Jonathan; Oishi, Shigehiro; Zhang, Xuemin; Miao, Felicity F; Chen, Shimin

    2015-02-01

    Henrich, Heine, and Norenzayan summarized cultural differences in psychology and argued that people from one particular culture are outliers: people from societies that are Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic (WEIRD). This study shows that liberals think WEIRDer than conservatives. In five studies with more than 5,000 participants, we found that liberals think more analytically (an element of WEIRD thought) than moderates and conservatives. Study 3 replicates this finding in the very different political culture of China, although it held only for people in more modernized urban centers. These results suggest that liberals and conservatives in the same country think as if they were from different cultures. Studies 4 to 5 show that briefly training people to think analytically causes them to form more liberal opinions, whereas training them to think holistically causes shifts to more conservative opinions.

  5. Quantum chemistry without diagonalization: An extension of the Lanczos method to molecules and solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedinger, Roland; Benard, Marc

    1991-01-01

    We implement here the recursion method and its extensions to the case of nonorthogonal bases (Riedinger et al., 1989) for determining the electronic structure of molecules of intermediate size. The recursion method, which is a variant of the Lanczos method, has been introduced by Heine, Haydock, and Kelly in solid state physics during the 1970s. It provides an invaluable tool for studying the electronic structure of solids and amorphs in direct space, without explicit diagonalization, in the case of orthogonal bases. Applications with nonorthogonal bases are made on the decavanadate ion (V10O28)6-, described within the extended Hückel model. Our extension of the recursion method may even be applied to molecules of large size or to infinite systems, where the usual methods of quantum chemistry fail. It applies to crystals as well as to glasses and molecules, for which no translational symmetry exists.

  6. Dynamical and anharmonic effects on the electron-phonon coupling and the zero-point renormalization of the electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonius, G.; Poncé, S.; Lantagne-Hurtubise, E.; Auclair, G.; Gonze, X.; Côté, M.

    2015-08-01

    The renormalization of the band structure at zero temperature due to electron-phonon coupling is explored in diamond, BN, LiF, and MgO crystals. We implement a dynamical scheme to compute the frequency-dependent self-energy and the resulting quasiparticle electronic structure. Our calculations reveal the presence of a satellite band below the Fermi level of LiF and MgO. We show that the renormalization factor (Z ), which is neglected in the adiabatic approximation, can reduce the zero-point renormalization (ZPR) by as much as 40 % . Anharmonic effects in the renormalized eigenvalues at finite atomic displacements are explored with the frozen-phonon method. We use a nonperturbative expression for the ZPR, going beyond the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory. Our results indicate that high-order electron-phonon coupling terms contribute significantly to the zero-point renormalization for certain materials.

  7. Commercial DNA Probes for Mycobacteria Incorrectly Identify a Number of Less Frequently Encountered Species▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tortoli, Enrico; Pecorari, Monica; Fabio, Giuliana; Messinò, Massimino; Fabio, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Although commercially available DNA probes for identification of mycobacteria have been investigated with large numbers of strains, nothing is known about the ability of these probes to identify less frequently encountered species. We analyzed, with INNO LiPA MYCOBACTERIA (Innogenetics) and with GenoType Mycobacterium (Hein), 317 strains, belonging to 136 species, 61 of which had never been assayed before. INNO LiPA misidentified 20 taxa, the majority of which cross-reacted with the probes specific for Mycobacterium fortuitum and the Mycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare-Mycobacterium scrofulaceum group. GenoType misidentified 28 taxa, most of which cross-reacted with M. intracellulare and M. fortuitum probes; furthermore, eight species were not recognized as members of the genus Mycobacterium. Among 54 strains investigated with AccuProbe (Gen-Probe), cross-reactions were detected for nine species, with the probes aiming at the M. avium complex being most involved in cross-reactions. PMID:19906898

  8. Fundamentals of charged devices: Energy changes in a capacitor medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, J. S.; Baudry, L.

    2013-03-01

    Capacitors and derivative devices continue to be as relevant as ever, both at the frontiers of scientific and technological research and in the development of commercial products. Central to such pursuits is the essential requirement that all aspects of the work done in charging or discharging capacitors are clearly understood. Surprisingly, there is a very significant disagreement among standard texts and journal publications regarding this topic. The present work elaborates a thorough analysis of energy changes in a capacitor medium in terms of thermodynamic work and its extension to the more general, electrostatic energy change. Our conclusions agree, for example, with those of Volker Heine, but not with texts by Pippard or Callen. We also note that electric and magnetic analogues are not equivalent.

  9. Exact solution of the two-axis countertwisting Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Feng; Zhang, Yao-Zhong; Draayer, Jerry P.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the two-axis countertwisting Hamiltonian is exactly solvable when the quantum number of the total angular momentum of the system is an integer after the Jordan-Schwinger (differential) boson realization of the SU(2) algebra. Algebraic Bethe ansatz is used to get the exact solution with the help of the SU(1,1) algebraic structure, from which a set of Bethe ansatz equations of the problem is derived. It is shown that solutions of the Bethe ansatz equations can be obtained as zeros of the Heine-Stieltjes polynomials. The total number of the four sets of the zeros equals exactly 2 J + 1 for a given integer angular momentum quantum number J, which proves the completeness of the solutions. It is also shown that double degeneracy in level energies may also occur in the J → ∞ limit for integer J case except a unique non-degenerate level with zero excitation energy.

  10. An empirical many-body potential-energy function for aluminum. Application to solid phases and microclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Roy L.; Fang, Jian-Yun

    1992-11-01

    An empirical two-plus-three-body potential, developed by Murrell and co-workers [J. N. Murrell and R. A. Rodriguez-Ruiz, Mol. Phys. 71, 823 (1990)], is applied to the study of fcc aluminum. The parameters in the potential are derived by fitting the experimental phonon-dispersion curves and elastic constants. Calculations, using this potential, on a number of one-, two- and three-dimensional extended systems give results which are in quantitative agreement with recent ab initio calculations [I. J. Robertson, M. C. Payne, and V. Heine, Europhys. Lett. 15, 301 (1991)]. Calculations on small- and medium-sized aluminum clusters give cluster geometries and growth patterns which agree qualitatively with previous ab initio molecular-orbital and density-functional studies.

  11. [Post-polio syndrome - a case report].

    PubMed

    Pastuszak, Żanna; Tomczykiewicz, Kazimierz; Stępień, Adam

    2015-07-01

    Post-polio syndrome occurs 30-40 years after polio virus infection. The main symptoms of PPS are slowly progressive muscle limbs paresis with muscle atrophy, joints pain, paresthesia. In 90% of patients the main symptom is fatigue that leads to physical and mental activity deterioration. The cause of disease remains unknown. Probably it is an effect of motoneurons damage during acute virus polio infection, their overloading and degeneration of remaining ones. In this study we described a case of man who developed PPS 36 years after Heine-Medin disease. The main symptom was intensification of right limb paresis and muscle atrophy. In electromyography there were damage features of muscle clinically affected and unaffected. Changes in lifestyle made possible to continue occupational activity.

  12. Asymptotic distribution of motifs in a stochastic context-free grammar model of RNA folding.

    PubMed

    Poznanović, Svetlana; Heitsch, Christine E

    2014-12-01

    We analyze the distribution of RNA secondary structures given by the Knudsen-Hein stochastic context-free grammar used in the prediction program Pfold. Our main theorem gives relations between the expected number of these motifs--independent of the grammar probabilities. These relations are a consequence of proving that the distribution of base pairs, of helices, and of different types of loops is asymptotically Gaussian in this model of RNA folding. Proof techniques use singularity analysis of probability generating functions. We also demonstrate that these asymptotic results capture well the expected number of RNA base pairs in native ribosomal structures, and certain other aspects of their predicted secondary structures. In particular, we find that the predicted structures largely satisfy the expected relations, although the native structures do not.

  13. The Transverse Effective Charge of the IV-VI Compound Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Shindo, Koichi

    1981-10-01

    Littlewood’s assumption in the calculation of the transverse effective charge (TEC) of IV-VI compound semiconductors is studied by the simple calculation at W-point on the Jones zone surfaces based on the Heine-Jones model. It is shown that the main peak of optical absorption spectrum cannot be assigned only to (111) component of the effective charge in contrast with Littlewood’s assumption. The TEC is directly calculated by executing the band calculation with the potential obtained by the EPM in the framework of Vogl’s expression. The calculated result gives better agreement with experiment than Littlewood’s. The acoustic sum rule is also studied by using the similar formulation given by Vogl.

  14. Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Nayan, Swapna; Tippanawar, Harshad K.; Patil, Gaurav I.; Jain, Ankita; Momin, Rizwan K.; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of herbal extract mouthwash and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: The subjects (60 healthy medical students aged ranges between 20 and 25 years) were randomly divided into two groups, that is, the herbal group and the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the two groups. Results: Our result showed that the chlorhexidine group shows a greater decrease in plaque score followed by herbal extract, but the result was statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The results indicate that herbal mouthwash may prove to be an effective agent owing to its ability to reduce plaque level, especially in low socioeconomic strata. PMID:26130940

  15. Study of thermodynamic properties of liquid binary alloys by a pseudopotential method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vora, Aditya M.

    2010-11-01

    On the basis of the Percus-Yevick hard-sphere model as a reference system and the Gibbs-Bogoliubov inequality, a thermodynamic perturbation method is applied with the use of the well-known model potential. By applying a variational method, the hard-core diameters are found which correspond to a minimum free energy. With this procedure, the thermodynamic properties such as the internal energy, entropy, Helmholtz free energy, entropy of mixing, and heat of mixing are computed for liquid NaK binary systems. The influence of the local-field correction functions of Hartree, Taylor, Ichimaru-Utsumi, Farid-Heine-Engel-Robertson, and Sarkar-Sen-Haldar-Roy is also investigated. The computed excess entropy is in agreement with available experimental data in the case of liquid alloys, whereas the agreement for the heat of mixing is poor. This may be due to the sensitivity of the latter to the potential parameters and dielectric function.

  16. The First Proto-Brown Dwarf Binary Candidate Identified through Dynamics of Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud; Wyrowski, Friedrich

    The formation mechanism of brown dwarfs (BDs) is one of the long-standing problems in star formation because the typical Jeans mass in molecular clouds is too large to form these substellar objects. To answer this question, it is crucial to study a BD at the embedded phase (proto-brown dwarf). IRAS16253 is classified as a Very Low Luminosity Object (VeLLO, L int < 0.1L ⊙), which is considered as a proto-brown dwarf candidate. We use the IRAM 30m, APEX telescopes and the SMA to probe the molecular jet/outflow driven by IRAS 16253 in CO (2-1), (6-5), and (7-6) and study its dynamical features and physical properties. We detect a wiggling pattern in the position-velocity diagrams of the jets. Assuming that this pattern is due to the orbital motion of a binary system, we obtain the current mass of the binary is ~0.026 M ⊙. Together with the low parent core mass, IRAS16253 will likely form one or two proto-BD in the future. This is the first time that the current mass of a proto-BD binary system is identified through the dynamics of the jets. Since IRAS16253 is located in an isolated environment, we suggest that BDs can form through fragmentation and collapse like low mass stars.

  17. Extremely Low Mass: The Circumstellar Envelope of a Potential Proto-Brown Dwarf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    What is the environment for planet formation around extremely low mass stars? Is the environment around brown dwarfs and extremely low mass stars conducive and sufficiently massive for planet production? The determining conditions may be set very early in the process of the host object's formation. IRAS 16253-2429, the source of the Wasp-Waist Nebula seen in Spitzer IRAC images, is an isolated, very low luminosity ("VeLLO") Class 0 protostar in the nearby rho Ophiuchi cloud. We present VLA ammonia mapping observations of the dense gas envelope feeding the central core accreting system. We find a flattened envelope perpendicular to the outflow axis, and gas cavities that appear to cradle the outflow lobes as though carved out by the flow and associated (apparently precessing) jet, indicating environmental disruption. Based on the NH3 (1,1) and (2,2) emission distribution, we derive the mass, velocity fields and temperature distribution for the envelope. We discuss the combined evidence for this source to be one of the youngest and lowest mass sources in formation yet known, and discuss the ramifications for planet formation potential in this extremely low mass system.

  18. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.

  19. Evidence for Neoarchaean extensional faults in the Vredefort Dome, South Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    mashabela, sello

    2013-04-01

    -2643 Ma) of the Ventersdorp Supergroup. The association potentially means that the Vredefort collar hosts rotated Ventersdorp-age extensional faults or a rift system of faults that predate impact-induced structures. 1. Manzi, M.S.D., Durrheim, R.J., Hein, K.A.A., King N., 2012. 3D edge detection seismic attributes used to map potential conduits for water and methane in deep gold mines in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. Geophysics 77 (5), 1-16. 2. Manzi, M., Gibson, M. A.S., Hein, K.A.A., King, N., Durrheim, R.J., 2012. Application of 3D Seismic techniques in evaluation of ore resources in the West Wits Line goldfield and portions of the West Rand Goldfield, South Africa. Geophysics 77, 1-9. 3. Manzi, M., Hein, K.A.A., King, N, Durrheim, R.J., submitted. NeoArchaean tectonic history of the Witwatersrand Basin and Ventersdorp Supergroup: New Constraints from high-resolution 3D seismic reflection data. Tectonophysics

  20. Retention of fluoride/triclosan in plaque following different modes of administration.

    PubMed

    Furuichi, Y; Birkhed, D

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to compare: (i) de novo plaque formation, and (ii) fluoride and triclosan concentration in approximal plaque, when a NaF/triclosan/Gantrez-containing dentifrice slurry or a mouthrinse were administrated during a 2-week period of no mechanical plaque control. 10 subjects rinsed for 60 s, 2x daily, for a 14-day period with one of the following 3 test products: (A) a dentifrice slurry including 1 ml of a NaF/triclosan/Gantrez dentifrice mixed with 10 ml of tap water, (B) 10 ml of a NaF/triclosan/ Gantrez mouthrinse, or (C) 10 ml of a NaF mouthrinse. De novo plaque formation was assessed on days 4, 7 and 14 using the Turesky's modification of the Quigley and Hein index system. Samples of approximal plaque were obtained immediately after clinical examination on day 14. The samples were analyzed with respect to concentration of fluoride and triclosan using an ion-specific electrode and a HPLC system, respectively. The 14-day period was repeated using another test product until all 10 subjects had used all 3 test products in a randomized order. The results showed that: (i) significantly more fluoride was retained in the approximal plaque following periods A and B than period C, and (ii) less plaque was formed during period B than periods A and C.

  1. Efficacy of chlorhexidine and green tea mouthwashes in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis: A comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Priya, B. Meena; Anitha, V.; Shanmugam, M.; Ashwath, B.; Sylva, Suganthi D.; Vigneshwari, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The intake of green tea has been increased recently due to its medicinal values. The antibacterial and antioxidant properties of green tea were found to be beneficial in the treatment of gingival and periodontal diseases. The aim of this comparative study was to compare the efficacy of the mouthwash containing green tea and chlorhexidine in the management of dental plaque-induced gingivitis. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients who participated in the study were divided randomly into two groups, each group of 15 patients was prescribed with either chlorhexidine or green tea mouthwash. Turesky modification of Quigley-Hein plaque index, Löe and Silness gingival index, Ainamo and Bay bleeding index, tooth stain, and tongue stain (TS) were recorded at baseline, 15 days, and 1 month. The subjects were asked to report any discomfort or alteration in taste. Results: There was a significant decrease in plaque index, gingival index, and bleeding index in both the groups. However, green tea mouthwash resulted in a statistically significant decrease in bleeding index compared to chlorhexidine group. There was no significant difference in tooth stain and TS in both the groups. Conclusion: The green tea-containing mouthwash is equally effective in reducing the gingival inflammation and plaque to chlorhexidine. PMID:26681856

  2. The effect of multidisciplinary team care on cancer management.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Ganiy Opeyemi

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, the multidisciplinary team management of many medical conditions especially cancers has increasingly taken a prominent role in patient management in many hospitals and medical centres in the developed countries. In the United Kingdom, it began to gain prominence following the Calman-Heine report in 1995 which suggested that each Cancer Unit in a hospital should have in place arrangements for non-surgical oncological input into services, with a role for a non-surgical oncologist. The report further suggested that a lead clinician with a well established interest in cancer care should be appointed to organise and coordinate the whole range of cancer services provided within the Cancer Unit. Many people have argued that the multidisciplinary team management of patients has resulted in better care and improved survival. However, there are barriers to the optimal effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team. This paper aims to review various studies on the effectiveness of the multidisciplinary team in the management of cancer patients and also discuss some of the barriers to the multidisciplinary team.

  3. An evaluation of a commercial chewing gum in combination with normal toothbrushing for reducing dental plaque and gingivitis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N C; Galustians, J H; Qaqish, J G

    2001-07-01

    New evidence suggests a beneficial outcome to chewing a sugarless gum as an added component to a regular, twice-daily toothbrushing regimen. Results of a 4-week study performed on 78 adults with preexisting gingivitis showed a significant reduction of dental plaque and gingivitis when the test group of 39 adults chewed 2 pieces of ARM & HAMMER Dental Care The Baking Soda Gum (AHDC)--a sugar-free chewing gum containing sorbitol, malitol, xylitol, and sodium bicarbonate--for 20 minutes twice a day in conjunction with once-daily toothbrushing for 60 seconds. The control group, also comprised of 39 adults, used breath mints (the study placebo) twice a day in conjunction with the same toothbrushing regimen. There were no statistically significant differences in plaque and gingivitis scores at the baseline examination. Using the Quigley-Hein Plaque Index, the test group experienced a 17% reduction in plaque over 4 weeks, while the control group reduced their plaque amounts by approximately 9% over the same period. Lobene's Mean Gingivitis Index scores were equally significant: a nearly 10% decline for the test group compared to almost 2% for the control group. This article describes the 4-week study and its promising results.

  4. In Vivo Antiplaque Effect of Three Edible Toothpastes

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Feijoo, Javier; Limeres, Jacobo; García-Caballero, Lucía; Abeleira, María T.; Diz, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyse the antibacterial and antiplaque activity of three edible toothpastes with the widest worldwide distribution: KidScents™, which contains essential oils; Browning B&B™, with medicinal plants; and Wysong Probiodent™, which contains probiotics. Study Design: The study group was formed of twenty healthy volunteers (dental students) with a good oral health status. Using a balanced randomisation system, all volunteers performed toothbrushing with four products (the three edible toothpastes and water) at intervals of one week. Bacterial vitality in the saliva was analysed by epifluorescence microscopy and plaque regrowth was evaluated using the Turesky-Quigley-Hein plaque index. Results: Bacterial vitality in the saliva was significantly higher after toothbrushing with water (positive control) than with the three toothpastes (P=0.002, P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The plaque index was significantly higher after using these three toothpastes than after toothbrushing with water (P=0.047, P=0.032 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: The three edible toothpastes analysed have some antimicrobial activity but favour plaque regrowth. Key words:Edible toothpaste, dental plaque, oral bacteria. PMID:23986022

  5. Effects of a Novel Dental Gel on Plaque and Gingivitis: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Dadkhah, M; Chung, NE; Ajdaharian, J; Wink, C; Klokkevold, P; Wilder-Smith, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of a novel dental gel on plaque and gingival health. The dental gel was designed to (1) break up and prevent re-accumulation of microbial biofilm, and (2) inhibit metal mediated inflammation. Materials and Methods Twenty-five subjects with moderate gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index ≥2) and pocket depths <4 were randomly assigned to brush twice daily for 21 days with the test or the control dental gel. On Days 0, 7, 14 and 21, plaque levels (Quigley-Hein, Turesky Modification Plaque Index), gingival inflammation (Löe and Silness Gingival Index) and gingival bleeding (modified Sulcus Bleeding Index) were determined by one blinded, investigator using a pressure sensitive probe. Results After 3 weeks, all 3 clinical indices were significantly improved in both groups (P<0.05) and significantly lower in the test group (P<0.05). Conclusion The novel dental gel formulation was provided effective plaque control and reduced gingival inflammation. Clinical Relevance A novel dentifrice formulation may be an effective tool for plaque removal and maintaining gingival health. PMID:26052472

  6. Comparative evaluation of the antiplaque effectiveness of green tea catechin mouthwash with chlorhexidine gluconate

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harjit; Jain, Sanjeev; Kaur, Amritpal

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to compare the antiplaque efficacy of green tea catechin mouthwash with chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash. Materials and Methods: A single blinded cross-over study was conducted among 30 participants in the age group of 18-25 years. The mouthwash samples for the study were previously labeled assigning the letters: A (0.25% of green tea catechin mouthwash) and B (0.12% of chlorhexidine mouthwash). The study subjects were randomly divided into two groups of 15 each and the study was divided into two phases. In phase I, the mouthwash A was given to one group and other group was given mouthwash B. After a 15 day washout period, in phase II, both groups were given other mouthwash. At the end of each phase of 1 week, plaque score was recorded by using Turesky modification of the Quigley-Hein plaque index. Results: The plaque scores were compared and the difference between the green tea catechin and chlorhexidine mouthwash was determined by t-test. The difference between plaque scores were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The results showed that both the groups that is green tea catechin mouthwash (0.25%) and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.12%) have comparable results in plaque reduction. Conclusion: This study supports the effectiveness of green tea catechin mouthwash as an antiplaque agent. It should be explored as a cost-effective, long-term antiplaque rinse with prophylactic benefits. PMID:24872625

  7. Dynamical and anharmonic effects on the electron-phonon coupling and the zero-point renormalization of the band structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonius, Gabriel; Poncé, Samuel; Lantagne-Hurtubise, Étienne; Auclair, Gabriel; Côté, Michel; Gonze, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The electron-phonon coupling in solids renormalizes the band structure, reducing the band gap by several tenths of an eV in light-atoms semiconductors. Using the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory (AHC), we compute the zero-point renormalization (ZPR) as well as the quasiparticle lifetimes of the full band structure in diamond, BN, LiF and MgO. We show how dynamical effects can be included in the AHC theory, and still allow for the use of a Sternheimer equation to avoid the summation over unoccupied bands. The convergence properties of the electron-phonon coupling self-energy with respect to the Brillouin zone sampling prove to be strongly affected by dynamical effects. We complement our study with a frozen-phonon approach, which reproduces the static AHC theory, but also allows to probe the phonon wavefunctions at finite displacements and include anharmonic effects in the self-energy. We show that these high-order components tend to reduce the strongest electron-phonon coupling elements, which affects significantly the band gap ZPR.

  8. Breaking the sound barrier: oral health education for children with hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vabitha; Kumar, Jithendra; Hegde, Amitha

    2014-01-01

    In our study, a visual oral health education (OHE) program was specially designed for children with hearing impairment. Its efficacy in improving their oral health status was evaluated after periods of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. One hundred and ten institutionalized children with moderate-to-severe hearing impairment aged 6-14 years were selected for the study. Oral health status was evaluated at the start of the study (pre-OHE level) using the Modified Gingival Index (MGI) and the Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index (MQPI). Salivary Streptococcus mutans levels of the children were also evaluated. Brushing skills were assessed using the Simmons index at the start of the study. Significant decreases were observed in the mean values of both the MGI and MQPI from the baseline up to the values obtained at the end of both periods of reinforcement and nonreinforcement. Significant reduction in S. mutans counts was observed, from Pre-OHE levels up to the levels at the end of the period of nonreinforcement. Brushing skills of children improved significantly at the end of study, notably in areas where brushing was previously deemed unsatisfactory. The OHE program specially formulated for the hearing impaired children was effective in improving their oral health status significantly.

  9. Illumination frame of reference in the object-reviewing paradigm: A case of luminance and lightness.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Anja; Moore, Cathleen M

    2015-12-01

    The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1992) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) to contrast the effects of objects' luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects' luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects. In contrast, when objects were presented on the checkershadow illusion background which provided an explanation for the luminance switch, a reliable object-specific preview benefit was observed. This suggests that object correspondence as measured by the object-reviewing paradigm can be influenced by scene-induced, perceived lightness of objects' surfaces. We replicated this finding and moreover showed that the scene context only influences the object-specific preview benefit if the objects are perceived as part of the background scene.

  10. RF waves - Measuring their energy (dBm) in three points into Baia Mare, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop-Vǎdean, A.; Pop, P. P.; Barz, C.; Lung, C.

    2016-02-01

    For the general public - and even for people with a science education - knowing to be subject to Radio Frequency (RF) radiation may arouse a feeling of uneasiness or even fear. Those feelings are instigated by the fact that you cannot see, hear, smell or feel RF radiation. Furthermore, the term „radiation” in itself has become very sensitive from the moment that the hazardous health effects of excessive radioactive decay (ionizing radiation) have become apparent. Media announcements of mostly unconfirmed scientific studies add to the feeling of uneasiness. So, naturally, whenever a new Global System of Mobile communications (GSM) base station is installed in an urban environment, the people living in the neighborhood may get worried. The same applies when we propose to use RF radiation for powering wireless sensors in office and home spaces using harvesting energy sistem (HE).In this paper we determine if the electromagnetic field intensity values, measured at certain points, respect the limits set by law, the protection against risks to human health.

  11. Electron-Phonon Renormalization of Electronic Band Structures of C Allotropes and BN Polymorphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutchton, Roxanne M.; Marchbanks, Christopher; Wu, Zhigang

    The effect of lattice vibration on electronic band structures has been mostly neglected in first-principles calculations because the electron-phonon (e-ph) renormalization of quasi-particle energies is often small (< 100 meV). However, in certain materials, such as diamond, the electron-phonon coupling reduces the band gap by nearly 0.5 eV, which is comparable to the many-body corrections of the electronic band structures calculated using the density functional theory (DFT). In this work, we compared two implementations of the Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the EPW code and the ABINIT package respectively. Our computations of Si and diamond demonstrate that the ABINIT implementation converges much faster. Using this method, the e-ph renormalizations of electronic structures of three C allotropes (diamond, graphite, graphene) and four BN polymorphs (zincblend, wurtzite, mono-layer, and layered-hexagonal) were calculated. Our results suggest that (1) all of the zero-point renormalizations of band gaps in these materials, except for graphene, are larger than 100 meV, and (2) there are large variations in e-ph renormalization of band gaps due to differences in crystal structure. This work was supported by a U.S. DOE Early Career Award (Grant No. DE-SC0006433). Computations were carried out at the Golden Energy Computing Organization at CSM and the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC).

  12. The presence of Spinoza in the exchanges between Sigmund Freud and Romain Rolland.

    PubMed

    Vermorel, Henri

    2009-12-01

    Although Freud recognized his profound affinity with Spinoza, we seldom find explicit and direct references to the philosopher in his works. The correspondence between Romain Rolland, the 'Christian without a church', and Freud, the 'atheist Jew', is full of Spinozian reminiscences that nourish their works of this period and are underpinned by their mutual transference. The Future of an Illusion is written according to a Spinozian blueprint and aims at replacing religion, qualified as superstition, by psychoanalysis. A quotation from Heine, 'brother in unbelief', is a direct reference to Spinoza. Concurring with Freud's critiques of dogmas and churches, Rolland proposes an analysis of the 'oceanic feeling' as a basis of the religious sentiment. Freud replies with Civilization and Its Discontents. In 1936, on the occasion of Rolland's 70th birthday, Freud sends him an open letter, A disturbance of memory on the Acropolis, where the strange feeling that he has experienced in front of the Parthenon refers inter alia to his double culture: Jewish and German. In the light of this correspondence, the creation of psychoanalysis turns out to be a quest for the sacred that has disappeared in modernity; Freud, though, was able to find it inside man's unconscious.

  13. Evaluation of several lightweight stochastic context-free grammars for RNA secondary structure prediction

    PubMed Central

    Dowell, Robin D; Eddy, Sean R

    2004-01-01

    Background RNA secondary structure prediction methods based on probabilistic modeling can be developed using stochastic context-free grammars (SCFGs). Such methods can readily combine different sources of information that can be expressed probabilistically, such as an evolutionary model of comparative RNA sequence analysis and a biophysical model of structure plausibility. However, the number of free parameters in an integrated model for consensus RNA structure prediction can become untenable if the underlying SCFG design is too complex. Thus a key question is, what small, simple SCFG designs perform best for RNA secondary structure prediction? Results Nine different small SCFGs were implemented to explore the tradeoffs between model complexity and prediction accuracy. Each model was tested for single sequence structure prediction accuracy on a benchmark set of RNA secondary structures. Conclusions Four SCFG designs had prediction accuracies near the performance of current energy minimization programs. One of these designs, introduced by Knudsen and Hein in their PFOLD algorithm, has only 21 free parameters and is significantly simpler than the others. PMID:15180907

  14. Effectiveness of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education in improving oral hygiene status and practices of urban and rural school children: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Damle, Satyawan G.; Patil, Anil; Jain, Saru; Damle, Dhanashree; Chopal, Nilika

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the oral health status and the impact of supervised toothbrushing and oral health education among school children of urban and rural areas of Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 school children in the age group 12-15 years were selected by stratified random sampling technique from two schools and were further divided into two groups: Group A (urban school) and Group B (rural school). Both the groups were again subdivided into control group and study group. Supervised toothbrushing was recommended for both the groups. The toothbrushing teaching program included session on oral health education, individual toothbrushing instructions, and supervised toothbrushing. Dental caries increment, plaque scores, and gingival status were assessed as per the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria (1997), Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index, and Loe-Silness Gingival Index (1963), respectively. Cronbach's alpha, Chi-square test, paired t-test, and unpaired t-test were utilized for data analysis. Results: The mean plaque and gingival score reduction was significantly higher in the study groups as compared to the control groups. An increase in the mean of Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and Decayed, missing, filled teeth and surfaces (DMFS) scores throughout the study period was seen in children who participated in study. Conclusion: Oral health education was effective in establishing good oral health habits among school children and also in enhancing the knowledge of their parents about good oral health. PMID:25374836

  15. Subsurface temperature signature of a large Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in the North Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, J.; Šafanda, J.; Gosnold, W.; Unsworth, M.

    2012-04-01

    Recent results from a 2.3km deep temperature log in northern Alberta, Canada acquired as part of the University of Alberta Helmholtz-Alberta Initiative (HAI) geothermal energy project in 2010-2011shows that there is a significant increase in thermal gradient in the granites. Inversion of the measured T-z profile between 550 - 2320 m indicates a temperature increase of 9.6 ± 0.3 °C, at 13.0 ± 0.6 ka and that the glacial base surface temperature was - 4.4± 0.3 °C. This inversion computation accounted for granite heat production of 3 µW/m3. This is the largest amplitude of Pleistocene - Holocene surface warming in Canada inferred from borehole temperature logs, and is compatible with the results of similar studies in Eurasia (KTB, Outokumpu, Torun-1 etc.) reported previously. Reference: Majorowicz, J., Unsworth, M., Chacko, T., Gray, A., Heaman L., Potter, D., Schmitt, D., and Babadagli, T., 2011. Geothermal energy as a source of heat for oilsands processing in northern Alberta, Canada, in: Hein, F. J., Leckie, D., Suter , J., and Larter, S., (Eds), Heavy Oil/Bitumen Petroleum Systems in Alberta and beyond, AAPG Mem., in press.

  16. Assessment of Effectiveness of Barleria prionitis on Oral Health

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Devanand; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Jain, Ankita; Bindhumadhav, Suresh; Sangeeta; Garg, Purnima; Chaturvedi, Saurabh; Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of Barleria prionitis extract mouthwash in comparison with gold standard chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash on the oral health. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects were randomly divided into two groups, B. prionitis group and the CHX gluconate mouthwash group. The data were collected at the baseline and 3 days. The plaque was disclosed using erythrosine disclosing agent and their scores were recorded using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was performed to compare the effect of the two drug regime. Results: Our result showed that the CHX and the B. prionitis were statistically equally effective against dental plaque. Although the action of CHX was more pronounced. Conclusions: This study has confirmed antimicrobial potential of the plant B. prionitis, thus supporting its folklore application as preventive remedy against oral microbial diseases. SUMMARY Within the limitation of this trial, herbal mouthwash has been shown to demonstrate similar effects on plaque as compared to the standard drug CHX. Further long term research needs to be done to check the efficacy and effectiveness of herbal products over standard drug regime. PMID:27365983

  17. Neutron scattering studies of short-range order, atomic displacements, and effective pair interactions in a null-matrix Ni0.5262Pt0.48 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. A.; Moss, S. C.; Robertson, J. L.; Copley, J. R. D.; Neumann, D. A.; Major, J.

    2006-09-01

    The best known exception to the Heine-Sampson and Bieber-Gauthier arguments for ordering effects in transition metal alloys (similar to the Hume-Rothery rules) is a NiPt alloy, whose phase diagram is similar to that of the CuAu system. Using neutron scattering we have investigated the local atomic order in a null-matrix Ni0.5262Pt0.48 single crystal. In a null-matrix alloy, the isotopic composition is adjusted so that the average neutron scattering length vanishes ( Ni62 has a negative scattering length nearly equal in magnitude to that of Pt). Consequently, all contributions to the total scattering depending on the average lattice are suppressed. The only remaining components of the elastic scattering are the short-range order (SRO) and size effect terms. These data permit the extraction of the SRO parameters (concentration-concentration correlations) as well as the displacement parameters (concentration-displacement correlations). Using the Krivoglaz-Clapp-Moss theory, we obtain the effective pair interactions (EPIs) between near neighbors in the alloy. The results can be used by theorists to model the alloy in the context of the electronic theory of alloy phase stability, including a preliminary evaluation of the local species-dependent displacements. Our maps of V(q) , the Fourier transform of the EPIs, show very similar shapes in the experimental and reconstructed data. This is of importance when comparing to electronic structure calculations.

  18. Temperature Dependence of the Energy Levels of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite from First-Principles.

    PubMed

    Saidi, Wissam A; Poncé, Samuel; Monserrat, Bartomeu

    2016-12-15

    Environmental effects and intrinsic energy-loss processes lead to fluctuations in the operational temperature of solar cells, which can profoundly influence their power conversion efficiency. Here we determine from first-principles the effects of temperature on the band gap and band edges of the hybrid pervoskite CH3NH3PbI3 by accounting for electron-phonon coupling and thermal expansion. From 290 to 380 K, the computed band gap change of 40 meV coincides with the experimental change of 30-40 meV. The calculation of electron-phonon coupling in CH3NH3PbI3 is particularly intricate as the commonly used Allen-Heine-Cardona theory overestimates the band gap change with temperature, and excellent agreement with experiment is only obtained when including high-order terms in the electron-phonon interaction. We also find that spin-orbit coupling enhances the electron-phonon coupling strength but that the inclusion of nonlocal correlations using hybrid functionals has little effect. We reach similar conclusions in the metal-halide perovskite CsPbI3. Our results unambiguously confirm for the first time the importance of high-order terms in the electron-phonon coupling by direct comparison with experiment.

  19. Cage-Core Interactions in Fullerenes Enclosing Metal Clusters with Multiple Scandium and Yttrium Atoms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan, Liu; Hagelberg, Frank

    2007-03-01

    Pronounced stability has been reported for metallofullerenes of the form NSc3@CN (N = 68, 78) /1/. In response of these and related findings, Density Functional Theory studies have been performed on the relation between cage-core interactions and the geometry as well as stability of endofullerenes with metal impurities containing Sc and Y. Substantial electron transfer from the metal core to the fullerene cage combines with electron backdonation, involving the interaction between the occupied orbitals of the negatively charged cage and the unoccupied d orbitals of the positively charged core. The Hueckel 4n+2 rule, well established in organic chemistry, is shown to provide a valuable heuristic tool for understanding the intramolecular electron transfer and the related stability gain /1/. The usefulness of the aromaticity concept for explaining and predicting the architecture of metallofullerenes is further exemplified by the units Sc2@C84 and Y2@C84 which were analyzed in spin triplet and singlet conditions. The Sc2 core turns out to be realized by two separated ions, while Y2 forms a bound subunit. These findings are in agreement with conclusions based on the 4n + 2 rule, assisted by Nucleus Independent Chemical Shift (NICS) calculations. /1/ Stevenson, S.; Fowler, P.W.; Heine, T.; Duchamp, J.C.; Rice, G.; Glass, T.; Harich, K.; Hadju, F.; Bible, R.; Dorn, H.C. Nature, 2000, 408, 427, /2/ S. S. Park, D. Liu, F. Hagelberg, J. Phys. Chem. A 109, 8865 (2005).

  20. Some results and a conjecture on the degree of ill-posedness for integration operators with weights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Bernd; von Wolfersdorf, Lothar

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we are looking for answers to the question whether a non-compact linear operator with non-closed range applied to a compact linear operator mapping between Hilbert spaces can, in a specific situation, destroy the degree of ill-posedness determined by the singular value decay rate of the compact operator. We partially generalize a result of Vu Kim Tuan and Gorenflo (1994 Inverse Problems 10 949-55) concerning the non-changing degree of ill-posedness of linear operator equations with fractional integral operators in L2(0, 1) when weight functions appear. For power functions m(t) = tα(α > -1), we prove the asymptotics \\sigma_n(A)\\sim \\frac{\\int_0^1 m(t)\\,dt}{\\pi n} for the singular values of the composite operator [Ax](s) = m(s)∫s0x(t) dt in L2(0, 1). We conjecture this asymptotic behaviour also for exponential functions m(t) = exp(-1/tα)(α > 0) that play some role for the local degree of ill-posedness for a nonlinear inverse problem in option pricing in Hein and Hofmann (2003 Inverse Problems 19 1319-38).

  1. Macroscopic character of composite high-temperature superconducting wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelson, S. A.; Spivak, B.

    2015-11-01

    The "d -wave" symmetry of the superconducting order in the cuprate high temperature superconductors is a well established fact [J. Tsuei and J. R. Kirtley, Rev. Mod. Phys. 72, 969 (2000), 10.1103/RevModPhys.72.969 and D. J. Vanharlingen, Rev. Mod. Phys. 67, 515 (1995), 10.1103/RevModPhys.67.515], and one which identifies them as "unconventional." However, in macroscopic contexts—including many potential applications (i.e., superconducting "wires")—the material is a composite of randomly oriented superconducting grains in a metallic matrix, in which Josephson coupling between grains mediates the onset of long-range phase coherence. [See, e.g., D. C. Larbalestier et al., Nat. Mater. 13, 375 (2014), 10.1038/nmat3887, A. P. Malozemoff, MRS Bull. 36, 601 (2011), 10.1557/mrs.2011.160, and K. Heine et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 2441 (1989), 10.1063/1.102295] Here we analyze the physics at length scales that are large compared to the size of such grains, and in particular the macroscopic character of the long-range order that emerges. While X Y -superconducting glass order and macroscopic d -wave superconductivity may be possible, we show that under many circumstances—especially when the d -wave superconducting grains are embedded in a metallic matrix—the most likely order has global s -wave symmetry.

  2. Are vegans the same as vegetarians? The effect of diet on perceptions of masculinity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Margaret A

    2016-02-01

    Food and food consumption matters in interpersonal interactions. Foods consumed can affect how a person is perceived by others in terms of morality, likeability, and gender. Food consumption can be used as a strategy for gendered presentation, either in terms of what foods are consumed or in the amount of food consumed. Finally, foods themselves are associated with gender. Previous research (Browarnik, 2012; Ruby & Heine, 2011) shows inconsistent patterns in the association between vegetarianism and masculinity. The current research conceptually replicates and extends this research by including the explicit label of vegetarian. The four studies in this article provide increased information about the effects of diet on gendered perceptions. Study 1 shows that vegetarian and omnivorous targets are rated equally in terms of masculinity. Study 2 shows that perceptions of vegetarians and vegans are similar, though comparing this research with past research indicates that perceptions of vegetarians are more variable. Study 3 shows that veganism leads perceptions of decreased masculinity relative to omnivores. Finally, Study 4 tests one possible mechanism for the results of Study 3, that it is the choice to be vegan that impacts perceptions of gender. Implications include increased knowledge about how meatless diets can affect the perceptions of gender in others. Multiple directions for future research are discussed.

  3. [History of artificial limbs for the leg].

    PubMed

    Wetz, H H; Gisbertz, D

    2000-12-01

    Following the development of prosthetics for the lower limb since the middle of the 18th century one will find very interesting similarities to modern prostheses. This becomes evident when looking at former knee and ankle joint mechanisms or socket designs. Also, the materials used for the prostheses underwent very interesting variations. In our paper we will describe the development of socket designs and several materials from the beginning of the 19th century. Several still obtainable books dealing with 200 years of prosthetics development, were reviewed. Charles White describes in the year 1761 a supramalleolar amputation using the flap technique and the specially built BK prostheses the socket. V. Brünninghausen describes in 1809 a socket made of tin sheet. It was built oval, as the normal transverse section of the thigh is. Stump adhesion was obtained when a shortly trimmed dog fur--panelling the socket and covering the stump--was attached like brushes end on end. A similar fitting was described by Heine in 1811, v. Dornblüth in 1831, and Mrs. Eichler in 1836. Hermann first mentioned the need of a perpendicular construction of prostheses. Parmelee developed in 1868 the first suction socket. The first tuber-enclosing socketdesign was made by Riedel in 1911. We will show documents from this time and will also show, that muscle-physiological aspects had a very important influence on socket designs.

  4. Illumination Frame of Reference in the Object-Reviewing Paradigm: A Case of Luminance and Lightness

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Anja; Moore, Cathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study combines the object-reviewing paradigm (Kahneman, Treisman, & Gibbs, 1990) with the checkershadow illusion (Adelson, 1995) in order to contrast the effects of objects’ luminance versus lightness on the object-specific preview benefit. To this end, we manipulated objects’ luminance and the amount of illumination given by an informative background scene in four experiments. In line with previous studies (Moore, Stephens, & Hein, 2010), there was no object-specific preview benefit when objects were presented on a uniformly colored background and luminance switched between objects. In contrast, when objects were presented on the checkershadow illusion background which provided an explanation for the luminance switch, a reliable object-specific preview benefit was observed. This suggests that object correspondence as measured by the object-reviewing paradigm can be influenced by scene-induced, perceived lightness of objects’ surfaces. We replicated this finding and moreover showed that the scene context only influences the object-specific preview benefit if the objects are perceived as part of the background scene. PMID:26280265

  5. A randomized clinical study for comparative evaluation of Aloe Vera and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash efficacy on de-novo plaque formation

    PubMed Central

    Chhina, Shivjot; Singh, Avnish; Menon, Ipseeta; Singh, Rickypal; Sharma, Anubhav; Aggarwal, Vartika

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To comparatively assess the antiplaque efficacy of Aloe vera mouthwash and 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash on de novo plaque formation. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized, single blind, parallel, controlled clinical study with 90 healthy participants, with mean age of 27.19 ± 12.08 years. After thorough oral prophylaxis, participants were instructed to discontinue mechanical plaque control. Participants were divided randomly into three groups; pure Aloe vera mouthwash was dispensed to the test group; control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash; in Placebo group, flavored distilled water was used as oral rinse twice daily. Effect on 4-day de novo plaque formation was assessed by comparing pre-rinsing Quigley Hein Modified Plaque Scores were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Student's t-test. Results: Post-rinsing control group showed the least plaque score which was comparable to the test group. Both the control group and test group showed significant difference with the placebo group. Conclusions: Herbal mouthwash containing Aloe vera mouthwash has comparable antiplaque efficacy as the gold standard 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate with fewer side effects and can be considered as an alternative. PMID:27382543

  6. Comparative evaluation of honey, chlorhexidine gluconate (0.2%) and combination of xylitol and chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.2%) on the clinical level of dental plaque: A 30 days randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Ankita; Bhaskar, Dara John; Gupta, Devanand; Agali, Chandan; Gupta, Vipul; Gupta, Rajendra Kumar; Yadav, Priyanka; Lavate, Akash B.; Chaturvedi, Mudita

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effect of honey, chlorhexidine mouthwash and combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine mouthwash on the dental plaque level. Materials and Methods: Ninety healthy dental students, both male and female, aged between 21 to 25 years participated in the study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. the honey group, the chlorhexidine gluconate mouthwash group and the combination of xylitol chewing gum and chlorhexidine (CHX) mouthwash group. The data was collected at the baseline, 15th day and 30th day; the plaque was disclosed using disclosing solution and their scores were recorded at six sites per tooth using the Quigley and Hein plaque index modified by Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman. Statistical analysis was carried out later to compare the effect of all the three groups. P ≤ 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: Our result showed that all the three groups were effective in reducing the plaque but post-hoc LSD (Least Significant Difference) showed that honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group were more effective than chlorhexidine group alone. The results demonstrated a significant reduction of plaque indices in honey group and chlorhexidine + xylitol group over a period of 15 and 30 days as compared to chlorhexidine. PMID:25657903

  7. Time-dependent density functional theory for charge-transfer dynamics: review of the causes of failure and success*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Johanna I.

    2016-10-01

    The present study is an effort to unveil and characterize the failure and success of real-time Time-dependent density functional theory simulated charge transfer dynamics. To this aim, we study two distinct examples found in the literature: a dramatic failure is reported in [S. Raghunathan, M. Nest, J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 7, 2492 (2011)] whereas in [C.A. Rozzi et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1602 (2013)] the simulations show good agreement with experiments. We find that the choice of Single Slater Determinant for the Kohn Sham initial state renders the simulation of charge transfer dynamics starting in the ground state very challenging. In contrast, starting the simulation in a photo-excited state facilitates the description and we show that even a simple functional can perform well. We formulate exact conditions to be satisfied by the exchange-correlation functional in order to keep the resonances of the system constant and relate the degree of their violation to the performance of a given functional approximation. We show that even the best possible ground state approximation to the exchange-correlation density functional violates the exact conditions, resulting in inaccurate dynamics. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Ψk Volker Heine Young Investigator Award - 2015 Finalists", edited by Angel Rubio and Risto Nieminen.

  8. Resolving Variations in Continental Weathering Flux From Changes in Continental Source Using Marine Radiogenic Isotope Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burton, K. W.; Gannoun, A.; Allegre, C. J.; Christensen, J. N.; Hein, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    effects. [1] J.C.G. Walker, P.B. Hays, J.F. Kasting. JGR. 86, 9776-9782 (1981). [2] M. Frank. Rev. Geophys. 40(1), 1001, 1-38 (2002).[3] H.-F. Ling, K.W. Burton, R.K. O'Nions, B.S. Kamber, F. von Blanckenburg. EPSL. 146, 1-12 (1997). [4] J.N. Christensen, A.N. Halliday, L.VC. Godfrey, J.R.Hein, D.K. Rea. Science 277, 913-918 (1997). [5] D.-C. Lee, A.N. Halliday, J.R. Hein, K.W. Burton, J.N. Christensen, D. Gunther. Science 285, 1052-1054 (1999). [6] J. Zachos, M. Pagani, L. Sloan, E. Thomas, K. Billups. Science 292, 686-693 (2001).

  9. Lipid Profile and Its Association with Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in the Highlanders of Lhasa, Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Deji; Stigum, Hein; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Luobu, Ouzhu; Thelle, Dag S.; Nafstad, Per; Bjertness, Espen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sherpa, Lhamo Y., Deji, Hein Stigum, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong, Ouzhu Luobu, Dag S. Thelle, Per Nafstad, and Espen Bjertness. Lipid profile and its association with risk factors for coronary heart disease in highlanders of Lhasa, Tibet. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:57–63, 2011.—The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of abnormal lipid levels and its association with selected coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in the Tibetan population living at 3660 meters above sea level in Lhasa, Tibet. Three hundred seventy one randomly selected male and female, aged 30 to 70 yr took part in the study. Based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme (NCED) adult treatment panel ATP-III 2004 criteria, the age-adjusted prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia was 12.0%; high triglycerides (TG), 33.4%; high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), 4.8%; and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C); 24.3%. After adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol, physical activity, diet, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), an increase in waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) by 0.1 unit was associated with a statistically significant increase in TG, total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C by 0.25 mmol/L, 0.24 mmol/L, and 0.18 mmol/L, respectively. Female gender increased HDL-C by 0.18 mmol/L when compared with males. Age-adjusted prevalences of Framingham CHD risk score for males and females were 16.3% and 0.6%, respectively. This study demonstrated a high prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia in males, a higher prevalence of low HDL-C in females, and a high hypercholesterolemia prevalence in both genders. However, further longitudinal studies assessing CHD risk factors in high altitude natives are required. PMID:21452966

  10. Comparison of the plaque removal efficacy of a new flossing aid (Quik Floss) to finger flossing.

    PubMed

    Carter-Hanson, C; Gadbury-Amyot, C; Killoy, W

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness and safety of a new dental flossing device (Quik Floss) to finger flossing in plaque removal, reduction of gingival inflammation and patient preference. 30 healthy, non-flossing adults with 20 natural teeth, a plaque index (PI) of at least 1.8 and a gingival index (GI) of 1.3 or greater participated in this two-phase crossover design study. Patients were randomly assigned to use either the new flossing device or finger flossing first in the sequence. At baseline, data were collected and patients were given flossing method instructions. The Silness & Löe GI, Quigley-Hein PI, Eastman Bleeding Index (BI) and trauma were assessed at baseline, 15 and 30 days for each treatment period. After the initial 30-day treatment phase, patients were instructed to cease all flossing during a 14-day "washout" period. Subjects were then assigned to the opposite treatment group during the 2nd treatment phase. A 3-factor repeated measures ANOVA analyzed data for differences within and between groups over time. Results revealed statistically significant (p < 0.01) within group improvement in PI, GI, and BI for both treatment groups over time. No statistically significant between group differences were found for either group at any time period. In addition, no significant gingival trauma was recorded and no differences were found between groups. Quik Floss was as effective as finger flossing. Subjects preferred (55%) Quik Floss over finger flossing. In conclusion, Quik Floss is a safe and effective oral hygiene measure for reducing plaque, inflammation and bleeding over time.

  11. The relationship between dental health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Betul; Kawas, Sausan Al

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of knowledge acquired in preventive aspects of dental education on dental students’ own health attitudes, oral hygiene and gingival status in the United Arab Emirates. Methods: To compare the self-reported oral health behavior of first year dental students in the University of Sharjah with their actual oral hygiene and gingival conditions, 93 volunteers who participated in the study completed the Hiroshima University-Dental Behavioral Inventory (HU-DBI) questionnaire. Subsequently a clinical examination for their Plaque Scores (Modified Quigley Hein Plaque Index) and Gingival Bleeding Index was performed by a calibrated dentist. Results: 29% of the participants reported bleeding gums; 83% were concerned by the color of their gums while 63% reported that it was impossible to prevent gum disease with brushing alone; and only 10% noticed some sticky white deposits on their teeth. However, approximately 92% were not in agreement that they would have false teeth when they grew older. 56% mentioned that they used dental floss regularly and 86% brushed twice daily or more. Male students had higher bleeding and plaque scores than female students. There appeared to be a significant relationship between plaque scores and HU-DBI responses; in addition to the significant relationship noted between recorded bleeding percentages and HU-DBI responses. Conclusion: Female students have shown better dental care behavior than male students. The dental students with better self-reported oral health attitudes were expected to have lower plaque scores but instead had moderate plaque and gingival bleeding scores. This indicates the need for more emphasis on preventive measures in oral health education. PMID:23408498

  12. A comparison of dermoscopic features among lentigo senilis/initial seborrheic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma on the face.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mustafa Turhan; Oztürkcan, Serap; Ermertcan, Aylin Türel; Güneş, Ali Tahsin

    2004-11-01

    Clinical differentiation of facial lentigo senilis/initial seborrheic keratosis (LS/ISK), seborrheic keratosis (SK), lentigo maligna (LM), and lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) can be difficult. Dermoscopy improves the diagnoses in pigmented skin lesions (PSLs), but it is not helpful for the sun-exposed face because of the flat rete ridges without network-derived features. Therefore, development of new diagnostic criteria for this particular localization is a current issue of dermatology. In this retrospective study, dermoscopic slides of facial pigmented skin lesions of 66 patients referred to two clinics in Turkey were evaluated. Our aim was to determine the reliability of dermoscopy in the differentiation of these entities. The facial PSLs of 66 patients (34 males and 32 females) (median age: 58.2) were photographed with a Dermaphot (Heine, Hersching, Germany) over a five year period from November of 1995 to May of 2000. All of the dermoscopic slides were analysed according to 27 dermoscopic criteria developed by Schiffner et al. This data set contained 22 histologically proven malignant (14 LM, 8 early LMM) and 44 benign (18 SK, 26 LS/ISK) PSLs. In general, asymmetric pigmented follicular openings, dark streaks, slate-gray streaks, dark globules, slate-gray globules, dark dots, dark rhomboidal structures, light brown rhomboidal structures, dark homogeneous areas and dark pseudonetworks were statistically significant for malignant growth. On the other hand, milia-like cysts, pseudofollicular openings, cerebriform structures, light brown globules, light brown dots, light brown homogeneous areas, yellow opaque homogeneous areas, and light brown pseudonetworks were statistically significant for benign growth. This research emphasizes that dermoscopic features on the face differ from criteria used in other locations of the body. Analysis of the data suggests that dermoscopy can be used in the differentiation of LS/ISK, SK, LM and LMM from each other.

  13. Theoretical Investigations of the Effects of Lithium Intercalation on the Properties of Indium Selenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes da Costa, Manuel Pedro Fernandes

    The effect of intercalating lithium into gamma-InSe and beta -InSe has been investigated. The energy bands of pure gamma -InSe and pure beta-InSe were calculated using an overlap-reduced semi-empirical tight-binding method. The parameters for the interactions of Li atoms with In and Se atoms were obtained using the atomic wave-functions of Clementi and Roetti and the Heine-Abarenkov model potential. We established the positions of minimum potential inside the unit cell of the two InSe polytypes where the lithium atoms are most likely to be found. By placing lithium atoms in these sites, we calculated the modifications of the energy bands produced by the introduction of one Li atom per unit cell in gamma-InSe and two lithium atoms per unit cell in beta -InSe. The activation energy for movement of a Li atom between local energy minima was also calculated. The results have been correlated with the optical absorption and photoluminescence data of InSe and Li-intercalated InSe. The lattice dynamics of both the pure gamma- and beta-polytypes of the layer compound InSe have been investigated using a model containing short-range central forces and long -range Coulomb interactions. The normal mode frequencies and eigenvectors were determined by diagonalizing the dynamical matrix. The results have been correlated with the infrared and Raman spectra in InSe. The procedure was then extended to include one lithium ion per unit cell in a site of minimum potential in both the gamma-InSe and the beta-InSe polytypes. The effect of intercalated Li atoms on the vibrational modes and on the infrared and Raman spectra was then investigated.

  14. New portable system for dental plaque measurement using a digital single-lens reflex camera and image analysis: Study of reliability and validation

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Guillermo Martin; Elizondo, Maria Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Background: The quantification of the dental plaque (DP) by indices has limitations: They depend on the subjective operator's evaluation and are measured in an ordinal scale. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a method to measure DP in a proportional scale. Materials and Methods: A portable photographic positioning device (PPPD) was designed and added to a photographic digital single-lens reflex camera. Seventeen subjects participated in this study, after DP disclosure with the erythrosine, their incisors, and a calibration scale ware photographed by two operators in duplicate, re-positioning the PPPD among each acquisition. A third operator registered the Quigley-Hein modified by Turesky DP index (Q-H/TPI). After tooth brushing, the same operators repeated the photographs and the Q-H/TPI. The image analysis system (IAS) technique allowed the measurement in mm2 of the vestibular total tooth area and the area with DP. Results: The reliability was determined with the intra-class correlation coefficient that was 0.9936 (P < 0.05) for the intra-operator repeatability and 0.9931 (P < 0.05) for inter-operator reproducibility. The validity was assessed using the Spearman's correlation coefficient that indicated a strong positive correlation with the Q-H/TPI rs = 0.84 (P < 0.01). The sensitivity of the IAS was evaluated with two sample sizes, only the IAS was able to detect significant differences (P < 0.05) with the sample of smaller size (n = 8). Conclusions: Image analysis system showed to be a reliable and valid method to measure the quantity of DP in a proportional scale, allowing a more powerful statistical analysis, thus facilitating trials with a smaller sample size. PMID:26229267

  15. A large format membrane-based x-ray mask for microfluidic chip fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Min; Desta, Yohannes; Melzak, J.; Wu, C. H.; Peng, Zhengchun

    2006-02-01

    X-ray lithography is a very good option for the fabrication of micro-devices especially when high aspect ratio patterns are required. Membrane-based x-ray masks are commonly used for high-resolution x-ray lithography. A thin layer of silicon nitride (Si3N4) or silicon carbide (SiC) film (1-2 µm) is normally used as the membrane material for x-ray mask fabrication (Wells G M, Reilly M, Nachman R, Cerrina F, El-Khakani M A and Chaker M 1993 Mater. Res. Soc. Conf. Proc. 306 81-9 Shoki T, Nagasawa H, Kosuga H, Yamaguchi Y, Annaka N, Amemiya I and Nagarekawa O 1993 SPIE Proc. 1924 450-6). The freestanding membrane window of an x-ray mask, which defines the exposing area of the x-ray mask, can be obtained by etching a pre-defined area on a silicon wafer from the backside (Wang L, Desta Y, Fettig R K, Goettert J, Hein H, Jakobs P and Chulz J 2004 J. Micromech. Microeng. 14 722-6). Usually, the window size of an x-ray mask is around 20 × 20 mm because of the low tensile stress of the membrane (10-100 MPa), and the larger window dimension of an x-ray mask may cause the deformation of membranes and lower the mask quality. However, x-ray masks with larger windows are preferred for micro-device fabrication in order to increase the productivity. We analyzed the factors which influence the flatness of large format x-ray masks and fabricated x-ray masks with a window size of 55 × 55 mm and 46 × 65 mm on 1 µm thick membranes by increasing the tensile stress of the membranes (>300 MPa) and optimizing the stress of the absorber layer. The large format x-ray mask was successfully applied for the fabrication of microfluidic chips.

  16. Comparison of soft toothbrush and new ultra-soft cleaner in ability to remove plaque from teeth.

    PubMed

    Stewart, William J; Gratzel, Kristen; Gearity, Erin J; Akerman, Meredith; Hill, Jennifer M

    2014-11-01

    In this single-blind, crossover study, the difference between a brushless tooth cleaner and a soft toothbrush was studied to compare plaque removal efficiency. The sample was composed of 15 human subjects who were categorized into two groups. Group 1 was composed of subjects randomly assigned to the brushless tooth cleaner for the first two weeks. Group 2 was composed of those randomly assigned to begin the study using the soft toothbrush. After two weeks of brushing with their assigned device, subjects returned to their normal modality to brush their teeth for one week. For the last two weeks of the study, subjects were told to brush with the opposite device they were originally assigned to at the beginning of the trial. Investigators recorded the subjects' gingival indices (based on probe depths) and Quigley scores (based on plaque indices using disclosing solution) at the beginning of week one, the end of week two, the end of week three and the end of week five. The main outcomes in this study were the Silness Loe Index (SLI) and the Quigley Hein Index (QHI). The SLI was assessed on the buccal, lingual, mesial and distal surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 24 surfaces. The QHI was assessed on the buccal and lingual surfaces of six teeth, for a total of 12 surfaces. Each index was measured at each visit by the sum total score divided by the total number of surfaces. The data were analyzed separately using a mixed-effects repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) for crossover designs. Results indicate that, according to the SLI, there is no significant difference between the two treatments after the first or second weeks. However, based on the QHI, statistically significant differences existed between the two treatments after week one and two. After week one, the soft toothbrush use had a higher QHI than the brushless tooth cleaner. After week two, the brushless tooth cleaner had a higher QHI than the soft toothbrush.

  17. Temperature dependence of the electronic structure of semiconductors and insulators

    SciTech Connect

    Poncé, S. Gillet, Y.; Laflamme Janssen, J.; Gonze, X.; Marini, A.; Verstraete, M.

    2015-09-14

    The renormalization of electronic eigenenergies due to electron-phonon coupling (temperature dependence and zero-point motion effect) is sizable in many materials with light atoms. This effect, often neglected in ab initio calculations, can be computed using the perturbation-based Allen-Heine-Cardona theory in the adiabatic or non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. After a short description of the recent progresses in this field and a brief overview of the theory, we focus on the issue of phonon wavevector sampling convergence, until now poorly understood. Indeed, the renormalization is obtained numerically through a slowly converging q-point integration. For non-zero Born effective charges, we show that a divergence appears in the electron-phonon matrix elements at q → Γ, leading to a divergence of the adiabatic renormalization at band extrema. This problem is exacerbated by the slow convergence of Born effective charges with electronic wavevector sampling, which leaves residual Born effective charges in ab initio calculations on materials that are physically devoid of such charges. Here, we propose a solution that improves this convergence. However, for materials where Born effective charges are physically non-zero, the divergence of the renormalization indicates a breakdown of the adiabatic harmonic approximation, which we assess here by switching to the non-adiabatic harmonic approximation. Also, we study the convergence behavior of the renormalization and develop reliable extrapolation schemes to obtain the converged results. Finally, the adiabatic and non-adiabatic theories, with corrections for the slow Born effective charge convergence problem (and the associated divergence) are applied to the study of five semiconductors and insulators: α-AlN, β-AlN, BN, diamond, and silicon. For these five materials, we present the zero-point renormalization, temperature dependence, phonon-induced lifetime broadening, and the renormalized electronic band structure.

  18. Increasing antiplaque/antigingivitis efficacy of an essential oil mouthrinse over time: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Charles, Christine A; McGuire, J A; Qaqish, James; Amini, Pejmon

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, observer-blind, parallel, controlled study determined the efficacy of an essential oils-containing (EO) antiseptic mouthrinse (in conjunction with toothbrushing) in reducing and/or controlling existing plaque or gingivitis over 6 months. Toothbrushing, combined with placebo rinsing, served as the control (C). Following ethics board approval (Biosci Research Canada, Ltd. Institutional Review Board), 139 healthy adults with mild to moderate plaque and gingivitis were randomized into EO or C groups. All subjects received oral/written instructions, monthly monitoring, and assigned unsupervised rinses. Efficacy variables were whole-mouth mean modified gingival index (MGI), Turesky modification of the Quigley Hein plaque index (PI), bleeding index (BI) at 6, 12, and 24 weeks, and data analysis through an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) model. The EO group provided greater and increasing MGI, PI, and BI reductions than did C group over all examination periods. Compared to the C group, at 6, 12, and 24 weeks, MGI reductions for the EO group were 4.7%, 9.1%, and 20.4%, and PI reductions were 7.6%, 12.6%, and 26.3%, respectively. BI scores decreased over time and were significant compared to those for the C group (P < 0.001). Additionally, the percentages of sites improved versus baseline MGI over time for EO were 14.1%, 26.4%, and 43.3%, respectively. This study demonstrated that an EO-containing mouthrinse can provide an increasing benefit over a period of 6 months with twice daily use. This study also confirmed that an antiseptic EO rinse can provide a clinically significant benefit in reducing existing plaque and gingivitis.

  19. Comparison of Dill Seed Oil Mouth Rinse and Chlorhexidine Mouth Rinse on Plaque Levels and Gingivitis - A Double Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eshwar, Shruthi; K, Rekha; Jain, Vipin; Manvi, Supriya; Kohli, Shivani; Bhatia, Shekhar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Mouthrinses have been in use for centuries as breath fresheners, medicaments, and antiseptics. Dill is said to be a good source of calcium, manganese and iron. It contains flavonoids known for their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties. Dill can help with microbial infections in the mouth; and its anti-oxidants minimize damage caused by free radicals to the gums and teeth. Being a good source of calcium, dill also helps with bone and dental health. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effectiveness of commercially available 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate mouthrinse and dill seed oil mouthrinse on plaque levels and gingivitis. Material and Methods: A randomized controlled, double blind parallel arm study was conducted over 90 days on 90 subjects. The subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups and baseline data was collected using Loe and Silness gingival index and Quigley Hein plaque index and oral prophylaxis was performed on all the subjects. The mouthrinses included in the present study were dill seed oil and Hexodent (0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate). Intervention regarding the mouthrinsing was given to the subjects and were followed up for 45 days and 90 days, after this post intervention changes were assessed using the respective indices. Results: It was observed that there is no significant difference in gingival & plaque scores among two mouthrinses from baseline to 45 days and 90 days. It was observed that there is statistical difference in gingival and plaque scores when compared with baseline to 45 days (p<0.001), baseline to 90 days (p<0.001) and 45 days to 90 days (p<0.001) when intergroup comparisons were done. Conclusion: It was concluded that dill seed oil and Hexodent (0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate) mouthrinse have similar antiplaque and antigingival effectiveness. PMID:27386006

  20. Plaque removal efficacy of Colgate 360 toothbrush: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Nageshwar; Chandna, Shalu; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Damle, Dhanashree; Loomba, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this clinical study was to confirm the plaque removal efficacy of the Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush. Study Design: This was a single-center, monadic, case–controlled study with the 7 days duration. Materials and Methods: A total of eighty participants (56 male and 24 female) aged between 18 and 45 years with a minimum of 20 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars) without any prosthetic crowns and an initial plaque score of minimum 1.5 as determined by Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index (1970) participated in the study. There were two dropouts during the study duration, one male and one female. The participants were instructed to brush for 1 min, after which plaque index was recorded again. They were then instructed to brush their teeth twice a day for 1 min with the assigned toothbrush (Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Toothbrush) and a commercially available fluoride toothpaste for the next 7 days. On the 7th day, all the participants were recalled for follow-up and plaque examination. The plaque index scores (pre- and post-brushing) were recorded, tabulated, and analyzed statistically. Results: The mean plaque indices reduced after brushing both on day 1 and day 7. There was also a reduction in mean plaque indices from day 1 to day 7. All these reductions were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reduction in plaque scores was independent of the gender of the participants however female participants showed lower scores as compared to male participants (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study demonstrated a significant reduction in plaque scores with the use of Colgate 360 Whole Mouth Clean Soft Toothbrush throughout the study period. Continued use resulted in a further significant reduction in plaque scores irrespective of the gender of participants. PMID:27630494

  1. Effect of Chlorhexidine with Fluoride Mouthrinse on Plaque Accumulation, Plaque pH - A Double Blind Parallel Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Sabyasachi; Singh, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Mouthwashes are important means used in chemical control of dental plaque. There is strong evidence suggestive of better effectiveness, when fluoride is added to chlorhexidine mouthwash. Aim To assess the anti-plaque efficacy of Chlorhexidine combined with Fluoride mouthwash and to measure its impact on plaque accumulation and on plaque pH. Materials and Methods Initially 100 subjects were screened. A double blind, parallel randomized clinical trial was conducted on 30 subjects after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria. Other independent variables were matched before randomly allocating them in three groups: Group A-Chlorhexidine as positive control, Group B-Chlorhexidine + Fluoride as test group and Group C- Distilled water as negative control. Oral prophylaxis of participants was done before onset of the study. Plaque pH was assessed before and immediately after rinsing at 0, 5 and 10 minutes interval and after 7 days with digital pH electrode (pHepR pH meter, Hanna Instruments R10285) and accumulation of plaque was recorded by Turesky et al., modification of Quigley Hein Plaque Index (1970). ANOVA test was used for statistical analysis. Results Although there was a statistically significant reduction in mean plaque scores from baseline to seven days in both Groups A and B, Group B showed better anti-plaque efficacy . Almost equal drop in plaque pH was seen for both the groups at 5 and 10 minutes. Conclusion Better anti-plaque efficacy was observed in Group B (Chlorhexidine and Fluoride combination) with minimum variation of plaque pH. PMID:27630956

  2. The efficacy of antiseptic mouth rinses in comparison with dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis

    PubMed Central

    Mythri, H.; Ananda, S. R.; Prashant, G. M.; Subba Reddy, V. V.; Chandu, G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Maintaining good oral hygiene is important to combat periodontal diseases. The use of tooth brush alone does not serve the purpose, especially in inaccessible areas like proximal embrasures, which demand the use of some adjuncts like proximal cleaning aids. Hence, the objective of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy of two antimicrobial mouth rinses (Cool mint Listerine and 0.2% Chlorhexidine gluconate) with dental floss in reducing interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque in an unsupervised condition. Materials and Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-blind (observer), parallel-group clinical trial in accordance with the ADA guidelines was conducted for a period of 6 months. Four index age groups (12, 15, 35–44, and 65–74 years) were divided into four groups, i.e., brushing, brushing and flossing, brushing and rinsing with Listerine, and brushing and rinsing with Chlorhexidine, so that each group comprised 40 subjects. Interproximal gingivitis and dental plaque were assessed using Modified Gingival Index, Turesky–Gilmore–Glickman modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index and Gingival Bleeding Index. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for multiple group comparisons, followed by Tukey's post hoc for group-wise comparisons. Results: Chlorhexidine and Listerine showed significant reduction in plaque and gingivitis level compared to others, the activity of Chlorhexidine being more significant. Conclusions: The level of interproximal gingivitis control efficacy provided by the Listerine and Chlorhexidine was “at least as good as” that provided by the dental floss. Hence, they can be recommended for the patients with gingivitis as an adjunctive to the usual home care routine. PMID:24478951

  3. The Future of Life on the Earth Ecosystems as Topological Spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounias, Michel; Bonaly, André

    Life, as well as any kind of matter, is embedded in mathematical spaces. The filters of Life spaces are filtered by finer filters in purely mathematical spaces. Therefore, the functioning of Life systems depends on the functionality of embedding mathematical spaces. The global planetary ecosystem and its subsystems own properties of a topological space (X, ⊥), provided with a set (X) of biotic and abiotic members and a combination rule (⊥) mapping interactions between any of the components of (X). Its optimum properties can be reached if and only if the space of the orbits of members of X by the set of functions in (⊥) is provided with appropriate topological properties, e.g. this space is compact and complete. These properties are fulfilled in discrete setting only within a finite time interval, whereas they are not if members of (X) and/or (⊥) are arbitrarily eliminated, through either space or time, both nonlinear. As a corollary of the Bolzano, Weierstrass, and Heine-Borel-Lebesgue theorems, it infers that a future for Life on Planet Earth lies on two major conditions: (i) maximization of complementarity in habitat occupation and resource utilization, and (ii) reciprocal contribution of subsystems in filling each other with components needed for improving their respective structures and functions, i.e. mutualism. Objective foundations for assessing features of a further "universal right" are derived from the need for all livings to fulfill the biological conditions necessary for life to be sustainably possible. In conclusion, should natural conditions hit some difficulties on the way to these accomplishments, it would be the honor of humankind to contribute to improving, rather than to impairing, the trends of evolution towards the goals of reaching "optimum states" in which competition is minimized and mutualism is generalized.

  4. Tectonic evolution of the Oudalan-Gorouol greenstone belt in NE Burkina Faso and Niger, West African craton.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tshibubudze, Asinne; Hein, Kim A. A.

    2010-05-01

    -2130 Ma (Hein, 2009). D2 involved a period of SE-NW crustal shortening and sinistral-reverse displacement on the MSZ, and is correlated to the Eburnean Orogeny ~2.1 Ga of Feybesse et al. (2006). Deformation in D2 is characterised by NE-trending regional folds (F2) and a pervasive NE-trending foliation (S2-C to S2). Since 2007 an identical tectonic history has been established for a number of shear zones in the OGGB including the north-trending Kargouna Shear Zone, which is subtended by NW- and NE-trending shears. However the metamorphic grade and mineral assemblages vary from one shear zone to the next. Structural studies completed adjacent to the Dori batholith have indicated that the MSZ forms a shear complex that was active during pluton emplacement. However, the MSZ has two main branches that join at the location of a mylonite zone located north west of Essakane. Southwest of Essakane, a NW-trending mylonite zone crosscuts the Dori batholith and near the village of Kargouna, which is situated southeast of Essakane, the Kargouna shear crosscuts and deforms the Dori batholith. It is thus likely that the Dori batholith was emplacement prior to D1 in the OGGB. Gold mineralization in the OGGB is generally hosted in the hanging-wall of NE-trending faults and or NW-trending folds in metasiltstone-sandstone-shale sequences. Nkuna (2009) concluded that the deposits can be classified as orogenic gold deposits under the sub-class of "intrusion related" due to their proximity to plutonic masses, which concurs with geophysical studies for the OGGB. References: Feybesse, J.L., Billa, M., Guerrot, C., Duguey, E., Lescuyer, J.L., Milési, J.P., Bouchot, V., 2006. The Palaeoproterozoic Ghanaian province: Geodynamic model and ore controls, including regional stress modelling. Precambrian Research 149, 149-196. Hein, K.A.A., 2009 (In press). Structural chronologies in the Goren Greenstone belt (Burkina Faso); Implications for West African tectonics. Journal of African Earth Sciences

  5. Molecular controls on Cu and Zn isotopic fractionation in Fe-Mn crusts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, S. H.; Sherman, D. M.; Vance, D.; Hein, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The isotopic systems of the transition metals are increasingly being developed as oceanic tracers, due to their tendency to be fractionated by biological and/or redox-related processes. However, for many of these promising isotope systems the molecular level controls on their isotopic fractionations are only just beginning to be explored. Here we investigate the relative roles of abiotic and biotic fractionation processes in controlling modern seawater Cu and Zn isotopic compositions. Scavenging to Fe-Mn oxides represents the principal output for Cu and Zn to sediments deposited under normal marine (oxic) conditions. Using Fe-Mn crusts as an analogue for these dispersed phases, we investigate the phase association and crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in such sediments. We present the results of an EXAFS study that demonstrate unequivocally that Cu and Zn are predominantly associated with the birnessite (δ-MnO2) phase in Fe-Mn crusts, as previously predicted from sequential leaching experiments (e.g., Koschinsky and Hein, 2003). The crystal chemistry of Cu and Zn in the crusts implies a reduction in coordination number in the sorbed phase relative to the free metal ion in seawater. Thus, theory would predict equilibrium fractionations that enrich the heavy isotope in the sorbed phase (e.g., Schauble, 2004). In natural samples, Fe-Mn crusts and nodules are indeed isotopically heavy in Zn isotopes (at ∼1‰) compared to deep seawater (at ∼0.5‰), consistent with the predicted direction of equilibrium isotopic fractionation based on our observations of the coordination environment of sorbed Zn. Further, ∼50% of inorganic Zn‧ is chloro-complexed (the other ∼50% is present as the free Zn2+ ion), and complexation by Cl- is also predicted to favour equilibrium partitioning of light Zn isotopes into the dissolved phase. The heavy Zn isotopic composition of Fe-Mn crusts and nodules relative to seawater can therefore be explained by an inorganic fractionation during

  6. Organic electrospun nanofibers as vehicles toward intelligent pheromone dispensers: characterization by laboratory investigations.

    PubMed

    Lindner, I; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Hummel, H E; Deuker, A; Vilcinskas, A; Leithold, G; Hellmann, C; Dersch, R; Wendorff, J H; Greiner, A

    2011-01-01

    Organic nanofibers have a history of technical application in various independent fields, including medical technology, filtration technology, and applications of pharmaceuticals via inhalation into the lungs. Very recently, in a joint effort with polymer chemists, agricultural applications have been added to this list of priorities. The aim is finding novel approaches to insect control. Pheromones, dispensed in a quantifiable way, are being used here in disrupting the mating communication between male and female pest insects, e.g. the European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), where current dispenser technology does not fully meet the high expectations of growers and environmentalists with respect to longevity of constant release, self decomposition, mechanical distribution, renewability as well as sustainability of resources. The methodology of electrospinning is exhaustively covered by Greiner and Wendorff (2007), with technical details reported by Hellmann et al. (2009), Hein et al. (2011), and Hummel et al. (2010). Wind tunnel studies were run within a tunnel with adjustable laminar flow and 0.5 m/sec air velocity. Mass losses of the electrospun fiber bundles were determined with a sensitive analytical balance 2-3 times per week and recorded as time vs. mass change. CLSA experiments were performed with a self developed glass apparatus (Lindner, 2010) based on various suggestions of previous authors. Microgram quantities of volatile pheromone (E,Z)-7,9-Dodecadienylacetate were absorbed on a filter of rigorously purified charcoal and desorbed by repeated micro extraction with a suitable solvent mixture. Aliquots of the solution were subjected to temperature programmed capillary GLC. Retention times were used for identification, whereas the area covered by the pheromone peak originating from a FID detector signal was integrated and compared with a carefully calibrated standard peak. Since these signals were usually in the low nanogram

  7. Small scale inhomogeneity in the mantle source of the Cape Verde hotspot is probably related to plume complexity: implications from Sr, Nd and high precision Pb isotopes and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, P. M.; Sørensen, R. V.

    2009-04-01

    The volcanic rocks of one of the major islands of the Cape Verde hotspot have been investigated in order to test mantle plume models. From the centre of the Cape Verde Rise an array of islands trend west, the northern HIMU-type Cape Verde Islands. Of these, São Nicolau (SN) is the easternmost and Santo Antão the westernmost. Sixty samples of primitive (MgO = 9-14 wt%) basanitic composition from SN that represent the four volcanic stages of the 9 - 0.1 Ma evolution of the island have been analysed for Sr, Nd and high precision Pb isotopic composition. Pb ranges to a less radiogenic composition than on SA [1] and has lower 8/4 than the rocks of the southern EM1-type Cape Verde islands. Most SN lavas have a young HIMU character with negative 7/4. The most radiogenic Pb at SN is less thorogenic than Pb at SA. Temporal variation is also evident: An intermediate age group of samples have particularly low La/Nb = 0.4 - 0.5 and the least LREE-enrichment for SN. The youngest group of rocks has the lowest Zr/Nb = 2.5 - 3.0 and the most unradiogenic Sr and radiogenic Nd in the archipelago. At least four of the mantle source components for the SN magmas are different from any found in the SA magmas. High precision Pb data allow identification of parallel trends for northern SN and the southern island Santiago, which therefore must have unrelated source components. For the northern Cape Verde islands source compositions vary from E to W as well as with time. This cannot be explained by stationary enriched lithosphere components. The derivation of melts from a complex plume source is modelled. [1] Holm P.M., Wilson J.R., Christensen B.P., Hansen S.L., Hein K.M., Mortensen A.K., Pedersen R., Plesner S., and Runge M.K. (2006) JPetrol 47, 145-189.

  8. EDITORIAL: Computational materials science Computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Gerhard; Kresse, Georg

    2011-10-01

    Special issue in honour of Jürgen Hafner On 30 September 2010, Jürgen Hafner, one of the most prominent and influential members within the solid state community, retired. His remarkably broad scientific oeuvre has made him one of the founding fathers of modern computational materials science: more than 600 scientific publications, numerous contributions to books, and a highly cited monograph, which has become a standard reference in the theory of metals, witness not only the remarkable productivity of Jürgen Hafner but also his impact in theoretical solid state physics. In an effort to duly acknowledge Jürgen Hafner's lasting impact in this field, a Festsymposium was held on 27-29 September 2010 at the Universität Wien. The organizers of this symposium (and authors of this editorial) are proud to say that a large number of highly renowned scientists in theoretical condensed matter theory—co-workers, friends and students—accepted the invitation to this celebration of Hafner's jubilee. Some of these speakers also followed our invitation to submit their contribution to this Festschrift, published in Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, a journal which Jürgen Hafner served in 2000-2003 and 2003-2006 as a member of the Advisory Editorial Board and member of the Executive Board, respectively. In the subsequent article, Volker Heine, friend and co-worker of Jürgen Hafner over many decades, gives an account of Hafner's impact in the field of theoretical condensed matter physics. Computational materials science contents Theoretical study of structural, mechanical and spectroscopic properties of boehmite (γ-AlOOH) D Tunega, H Pašalić, M H Gerzabek and H Lischka Ethylene epoxidation catalyzed by chlorine-promoted silver oxide M O Ozbek, I Onal and R A Van Santen First-principles study of Cu2ZnSnS4 and the related band offsets for photovoltaic applicationsA Nagoya, R Asahi and G Kresse Renormalization group study of random quantum magnetsIstván A Kovács and

  9. Global Paleobathymetry for the Cenomanian-Turonian (90 Ma)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, A.; Olson, P.; Hinnov, L. A.; Gnanadesikan, A.

    2014-12-01

    , C., Steinberger, B., Heine, C., 2008a, Science, 319, 1357-1362. Scotese, C., 2011, PALEOMAP Project, Arlington, Texas. Turcotte, D., Schubert, G., 2002, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 456 p. Whittaker, J., Goncharov, A., Williams, S., Müller, R., Leitchenkov, G., 2013, Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems. DOI:10.1002/ggge.20181

  10. The heat capacity and enthalpy of condensed UO 2: Critical review and assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyland, G. J.; Ohse, R. W.

    1986-09-01

    Having established the role of the heat capacity, Cp( T), of condensed UO 2 in various FBR accident scenarios, e.g. HCDA and PAHR, and having noted the unsatisfactory state of present knowledge concerning this basic thermophysical property of the fuel, all existing enthalpy and heat capacity data are collated and assessed, and certain recommendations made. The conventional method of obtaining Cp( T) by analytical differentiation of some adopted fit to this enthalpy data is then critically examined. The attendant problems are illustrated both for solid UO 2, where the contribution to Cp( T) from the weak, sigmoidal, enthalpy structure (which is just discernible in the data of Hein and Flagella) is missed and for molten UO 2, where not even the direction of the trend of Cp( T) with T can be definitively established, resulting, upon extrapolation to 5000 K, in Cp values which can differ by as much as 60 J mol -1K -1. Some recent progress towards a more acceptable, "model-independent" approach, known as quasi-local linear regression (QLLR), is then reviewed and applied to enthalpy data of UO 2 on both sides of its melting point, Tm. In the case of solid UO 2, a pronounced heat capacity peak, extending over about 100 K and centred on 2610 K., is revealed, whose magnitude and location is very similar to that found in other fluorite structured materials near 0.8 Tm wherein it indicates a (Bredig) transition to a state characterised by giant ionic conductivities. Whilst it is impossible to establish any definite T-dependence for the Cp(QLLR) values in molten UO 2, the tendency to slightly decrease appears to marginally outweigh the converse, in qualitative accord with the dependence advocated by Hoch and Vernardakis. In the post-transitional region Tt< T< Tm the opposite holds, as is necessary for consistency between the independently established T-dependences of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity, which requires that Cp( T) increases with T faster than the density

  11. [Sensitivity, precision and resolution of the optical microscope in the study of environmental pollution by asbestos fibers].

    PubMed

    Maddalon, G; Patroni, M; Trimarchi, R; Clerici, C; Occella, E

    1991-01-01

    The authors comment on the methods and equipment used in two Italian laboratories for sampling and microscopic phase contrast analysis of asbestos and other respirable fibres in the air of the general environment, i.e., the Dust Analysis Laboratory, Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology Department of the Institute of Occupational Health (Clinica del Lavoro), University of Milan and the Technical Microscopy Laboratory, Ground Resources and Land Control (Georisorse e Territorio) Department of Turin Polytechnic, which use identical methods. Airborne dust samples are taken with personal samplers, 1 l/min air flow (sample duration 4-8 h), filtering air on 25 mm diameter, 0.8 micropore cellulose filters (about 300 mm total net surface of dust deposit). The following equipment is used for counting and analysis of fibres: a) Clinica del Lavoro, Milan: Polyvar Reichert-Jung microscope, 500 magnitudes, Zernike positive phase contrast; numerical counting on 100 whole ocular fields, equal to 6.38% of the total net surface of dust deposit on the membrane; b) Turin Polytechnic: Leitz Ortholux microscope, 500 magnitudes, Heine and Zernike phase contrast with mean standard contrast; numerical counting on square grid, with explored surface total equal to 1.68% of the total net surface of dust deposit on the membrane. Measurements performed: Clinica del Lavoro, Milan: 2,980 since 1960; Turin Polytechnic: 875 since 1965. The sensitivity of the methods for counting airborne fibres is discussed, concluding that the methods used by the two laboratories have a sensitivity between 0.05 and 1.6 fibre/litre of air, according to the overall dustiness of the environment under study. Analysis of the accuracy of the optic determinations, based on the repeated counts, shows a repeatability of 0.4 (40%) within 95% confidence limits. A resolution power of 0.35 microns is reported; however, the possibility exists (and is normally achieved in analytical practice in both laboratories) of identifying and

  12. The miswak (chewing stick) and oral health. Studies on oral hygiene practices of urban Saudi Arabians.

    PubMed

    al-Otaibi, Meshari

    2004-01-01

    The miswak, a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth, is made from the plant Salvadora persica. For religious and cultural reasons, miswak use is firmly established and widespread in Saudi Arabia and most other Muslim countries. Only recently has scientific evaluation of the miswak been undertaken. The aims of the thesis were: 1) to explore current oral hygiene habits and oral health awareness among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and educational level (papers I and II); 2) to compare mechanical plaque removal and gingival health after miswak use and toothbrushing (paper III); 3) to compare the effect of miswak use and toothbrushing on subgingival plaque microflora (paper IV). In papers I and II, structured interviews were conducted with 1200 regular patients at two centres in the city of Makkah, providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age, into 6 age groups from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each centre. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subjects' age, gender, and educational levels and analysed statistically by a generalized linear model and ANOVA. In papers III and IV, the subjects comprised 15 healthy Saudi Arabian male volunteers aged 21 to 36 years, attending the Dental Center at Al-Noor Specialist Hospital in Makkah City. A single-blind, randomised crossover design was used. The Turesky modified Quigley-Hein plaque and Löe-Silness gingival indices and digital photographs of plaque distribution were recorded in Paper III and in Paper IV plaque was sampled for DNA-testing. Inhibition zones around miswak material were examined on agar plates with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and the leukotoxicity of this bacterium was analysed in a bioassay with macrophages +/- miswak extracts (paper IV). In papers I and II, 73% of the subjects used a toothbrush and 65% used a miswak daily

  13. Morphology, sedimentology and stratigraphic implication of debris-covered glacier deposits from the LGM and Lateglacial (Eastern Alps, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitner, Jürgen M.; Seidl, Sabrina; Wagreich, Michael

    2013-04-01

    the morphostratigraphic characteristics of Younger Dryas (Egesen) stadial with multiple, sharp crested moraine ridges (e.g. Ivy-Ochs et al. 2008), the unusual large glacier extent is due to the rock avalanche debris cover and its insulating effect. In both cases the maximum elevation of lateral moraines (MELM - method) gave the most reliable estimates of ELAs with reconstructed low AARs of around 0.5 compared to the standard assumption for Lateglacial glaciers with a ratio around 0.65. Thus, stratigraphic correlations of moraines should be done not until morphological features and lithofacies have been analyzed considering the whole geological setting. Ivy-Ochs, S., Kerschner, H., Reuther, A., Preusser, F., Heine, K., Maisch, M., Kubik, P.W. and Ch. Schlüchter (2008):Chronology of the last glacial cycle in the Northern European Alps. Journal of Quaternary Science 23(6-7), 559-573.

  14. First-principles models of equilibrium tellurium isotope fractionation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haghnegahdar, M. A.; Schauble, E. A.; Fornadel, A. P.; Spry, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    oxidation and reduction. Se- and S-isotope redox systems also show kinetically-controlled isotopic disequilibrium, and may serve as useful analogues. Among Te(-II) species, fractionations are smaller (< 1‰ at 100οC). (Au,Ag)Te2 minerals (calaverite, krennerite) and (Au,Ag)2Te minerals (petzite, hessite) are expected to have similar isotopic compositions to vapor-phase H2Te, and there appears to be little discernable effect from Ag,Au solid solution. Altaite (PbTe) will have somewhat lower 130Te/125Te. Calculated fractionation factors for gas-phase species like H2Te and TeF6, based on hybrid density functional theory (B3LYP), agree well with earlier estimates (2). For telluride-bearing crystals, cluster models are in qualitative agreement with periodic boundary condition calculations, especially when larger basis sets (e.g., aug-cc-PVDZ-PP) are used; however, cluster models tend to predict higher 130Te/125Te for reasons that are not yet clear. References: 1. Hein et al. (2003) GCA 67:6. 2. Smithers et al. (1968) Can. J. Chem. 46:4.

  15. Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Luke

    2013-04-01

    Volcanic facies and preliminary geochemical observations of the Goren greenstone belt, Burkina Faso L.F.H. Peters and K.A.A Hein School of Geosciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, South Africa. The Goren Greenstone Belt (GGB) is a Palaeoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary belt situated in the northeast of Burkina Faso in the West African craton (WAC). Basalt is the main volcanic constituent of the GGB, specifically mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBS), which have undergone pervasive greenschist facies metamorphism during at least 2 deformation including the Tangaean Event (2170-2130 Ma) and Eburnean Orogeny (2130-1980 Ma). Remarkably, many of the primary textures and minerals remain intact in less deformed regions of the GBB. Textural characteristics and petrographic analyses include aphyric and aphanitic textures, amygdales, hyaloclastic brecciation, pillow structures and preserved (chloritised) volcanic glass. Despite the ubiquitous presence of chlorite and epidote, plagioclase and clinopyroxene microlites are fairly common albeit altered. Phenocrysts (< 1 mm) of plagioclase and CPX are present in some samples but aphyric texture is dominant. These textures indicate that the basalts represent coherent units of sub-aqueous extrusion from a proximal volcanic facies setting relative to the original magma conduit. A repetitious succession of Fe-rich meta-siltstones, fine-grained, carbonaceous, Fe-rich exhalatives and volcaniclastic units is intercalated with the basalts. The volcaniclastic units contrast with the MORBs, which raises questions about the source region of the volcaniclastics. In hand sample, the volcaniclastic rocks show an array of various sized fragments, compared to the fine-grained nature of the MORBs. They are dominated by euhedral, zoned, brown volcanic hornblende, large (2.5-5 mm) euhedral plagioclase crystals, and sub-angular to rounded quartz grains in a poorly sorted volcanogenic sedimentary sequence. Due to the

  16. Early breakup of Gondwana: constraints from global plate motion models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seton, Maria; Zahirovic, Sabin; Williams, Simon; Whittaker, Joanne; Gibbons, Ana; Muller, Dietmar; Brune, Sascha; Heine, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Supercontinent break-up and amalgamation is a fundamental Earth cycle, contributing to long-term sea-level fluctuations, species diversity and extinction events, long-term greenhouse-icehouse cycles and changes in the long-wavelength density structure of the mantle. The most recent and best-constrained example involves the fragmentation of Gondwana, starting with rifting between Africa/Madagascar and Antarctica in the Early Jurassic and ending with the separation of the Lord Howe microcontinental blocks east of Australia in the Late Cretaceous. Although the first order configuration of Gondwana within modern reconstructions appears similar to that first proposed by Wegener a century ago, recent studies utilising a wealth of new geophysical and geological data provide a much more detailed picture of relative plate motions both during rifting and subsequent seafloor spreading. We present our latest global plate motion model that includes extensive, new regional analyses. These include: South Atlantic rifting, which started at 150 Ma and propagated into cratonic Africa by 145 Ma (Heine et al., 2013); rifting and early seafloor spreading between Australia, India and Antarctica, which reconciles the fit between Broken Ridge-Kergulean Plateau and the eastern Tasman region (Whittaker et al., 2013); rifting of continental material from northeastern Gondwana and its accretion onto Eurasia and SE Asia including a new model of microcontinent formation and early seafloor spreading in the eastern Indian Ocean (Gibbons et al., 2012; 2013; in review; Williams et al., 2013; Zahirovic et al., 2014); and a new model for the isolation of Zealandia east of Australia, with rifting initiating at 100 Ma until the start of seafloor spreading in the Tasman Sea at ~85 Ma (Williams et al., in prep). Using these reconstructions within the open-source GPlates software, accompanied by a set of evolving plates and plate boundaries, we can explore the factors that govern the behavior of plate

  17. Fluctuations in seafloor spreading predicted by tectonic reconstructions and mantle convection models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltice, Nicolas; Seton, Maria; Rolf, Tobias; Müller, R. Dietmar; Tackley, Paul J.

    2013-04-01

    "ground-truth" for modeling this parameter. Both kinematic reconstructions and geodynamic models suggest the rate of production of new seafloor can vary by a factor of 3 over a Wilson cycle, with concomitant changes of the shape of the area vs. age distribution. Geodynamic models show seafloor production time-series contain fluctuations of time scales exceeding 500My that depend on the strength of the lithosphere and the amount of basal heating. References Coltice, N., Rolf, T., Tackley P.J., Labrosse, S., Dynamic causes of the relation between area and age of the ocean floor, Science 336, 335-338 (2012). Moresi, L., Solomatov, V., Mantle convection with a brittle lithosphere: Thoughts on the global tectonic style of the Earth and Venus, Geophys. J. 133, 669-682 (1998). Parsons, B., 1982, Causes and consequences of the relation between area and age of the ocean floor, J. of Geophys. Res. 87, 289-302 (1982). Rowley, D. B., History of Plate Creation 180 Ma to Present, Geol. Soc. of America Bull. 114, 927-933 (2002). Seton, M., Gaina, C., Müller, R.D., and Heine, C., Mid Cretaceous Seafloor Spreading Pulse: Fact or Fiction?, Geology, 37, 687-690 (2009). Seton, M., Müller, R.D., Zahirovic, S., Gaina, C., Torsvik, T.H., Shephard, G., Talsma, A., Gurnis, M., Turner, M., Maus, S., Chandler, M. (2012), Global continental and ocean basin reconstructions since 200 Ma, Earth Sci. Rev. 113, 212-270 (2012). Tackley, P.J., Self-consistent generation of tectonic plates in time-dependent, three-dimensional mantle convection simulations, part 1: Pseudoplastic yielding, Geoch. Geophys. Geosys. 1 (2000a). Tackley, P.J., Self-consistent generation of tectonic plates in time-dependent, three-dimensional mantle convection simulations, part 2: Strain weakening and asthenosphere, Geochem. Geophys. Geosys. 1, (2000b).

  18. Felsic Magmatism in Intra-Oceanic Arcs: The Diamante Cross-chain in the Southern Mariana Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, R. J.; Tamura, Y.; Leybourne, M. I.; Nunokawa, A.; Kawabata, H.; Bloomer, S. H.; Embley, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Felsic lavas may be more abundant than commonly thought in intra-oceanic arcs, but the origins of these magmas remain enigmatic. The Diamante Cross-chain in the southern Mariana arc provides a useful perpective on such felsic magas. This cross-chain comprises three submarine volcanoes: E. Diamante lies along the magmatic front whereas Central Diamante and W. Diamante are rear-arc volcanoes that lie above a progressively deeper subducted Pacific plate. We investigated this cross-chain by surface surveys, dredging, and ROV diving. W. Diamante is a conical basaltic volcano whereas Central Diamante is a basaltic volcano affected by recent seismicity and has a morphology that is strongly modified by E-W normal faulting. E. Diamante is elongated E-W. These relationships indicate that the location and trend of the Diamante cross-chain is controlled by an E-W extensional zone. E. Diamante encloses a shallow (floor is ~600m b.s.l.) 5 x 10 km caldera. E. Diamante caldera contains a nest of resurgent dacite domes with an active hydrothermal field (see Hein et al., this meeting). Violent “Neptunian” submarine felsic eruptions from the E. Diamante caldera created an extensive field of megadunes that extend more than 20km distant from the caldera to the north of the volcano. The NE caldera wall is composed of Late Pleistocene - Recent limestones 300m thick, probably constructed on part of an older volcano. In contrast to the moderately fractionated (mean Mg# ~55) basaltic volcanoes of Central and W. Diamante, E. Diamante has erupted lavas that are bimodal in silica, with modes at 52% and 70% SiO2. Diamante cross-chain lavas define a medium-K suite, E. Diamante has a K55 (K2O at 55% SiO2) ~0.7, Central Diamante K55 ~0.9, and W. Diamante K55 ~0.95, showing a modest increase of K55 with depth to the subduction zone. E. Diamante felsic lavas plot show a lot of compositional scatter compared to mafic lavas. It is difficult to explain formation of felsic melts via fractionation of

  19. [Steadiness and progress. Medicine in Würzburg in the mirror of the centuries - a contribution to the foundation of the University of Würzburg 600 years ago].

    PubMed

    Vollmuth, Ralf; Keil, Gundolf

    2003-01-01

    his family (like his sons Johann Barthel and Adadam Elias von Siebold), reorganized the medical faculty, which had brought her in the byname 'Academia Sieboldiana". In the beginning of the 19th century the recovery of the faculty moved on more and more: OUtstanding representatives like Ignaz Döllinger, Johann Lukas Schoenlein and Franz von Rinecker founded by their great medical-scientific and organizational achievements, the high reputation of the medical faculty of Würzburg. Especially in the second half of the 19th century the University of Würzburg was in a leading position in a lot of traditional disciplines and in the developing and establishing of new medical fields, shown by names like Franz Kiwisch Ritter von Rotterau and Friedrich Wilhelm Scanzoni von Lichtenfels, Cajetan von Textor and Wenzel von Linhart, Rudolf Virchow, Albert Kölliker, Franz von Leydig, Carl Joseph von Ringelmann, Johann Joseph von Scherer, Johann Georg Heine, Adolf Fick or Carl Gerhardt.

  20. Fractures, not Plumes, Have Controlled Major Seamount Volcanism in the Pacific over 170 Million Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natland, J. H.; Winterer, E. L.

    2003-12-01

    shift laterally in response to whatever was occurring along its eastern spreading boundaries. A very consistent and strong stress regime therefore developed across the Pacific plate with a NNE direction of least principal stress. The change in stress orientation may have taken up to 10 million years, during an interval marked by little or no volcanic productivity at the western end of the Hawaiian chain. Since that time, the predominant alignment of both linear island chains and Puka Puka-type ridges, from the Kodiak-Bowie chain in the Gulf of Alaska to the Louisville Ridge south of the Antarctic convergence, has been orthogonal to this direction. Development of large-volume persistent chains and shorter small-volume chains indicates patterns of differential stress in the plate, variable fertility and geochemistry of the asthenosphere and/or shallow convective overturn of the asthenosphere rather than the action of mantle plumes of different sizes and depths of origin. Tapping of enriched mantle by widespread volcano clusters during the Mesozoic suggests the presence of a shallow asthenospheric source layer rather than multiple narrow conduits. (1) Hieronymus, C.F., and Bercovici, D. 2000. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 181, 539-554. (2) Davis, A.S., Gray, L.B., Clague, D.A., and Hein, J.R., 2002 Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 3: 10.1029/2001GC0000190, 1-28.

  1. The Lateglacial to Holocene transition as recorded by glacier fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindelwig, I.; Akçar, N.; Kubik, P. W.; Schlüchter, C.

    2009-04-01

    , the glacier at the Belalp shows multiple advances during the Lateglacial to early Holocene. 10Be exposure age data suggest that the outer moraine ridge can be an advance older than the Egesen stadial and younger than the LGM. This is in concert with other Younger Dryas related glacial landsystems in Switzerland (reviewing the outer moraine ages e.g. Julier Pass, Ivy-Ochs et al. 1996, 2008). A large number of Lateglacial moraines have been identified and relative correlations on the basis of elevation, equilibrium line altitude (Gross et al. 1977; Maisch, 1987) and morphological characteristics have been established. Nevertheless, it remains important to refine the absolute chronology in order to put further temporal constraints on these relative frameworks. This allows the allocation of such absolutely dated deposits to distinguished cold phases (Preboreal oscillation, Younger Dryas, Aegelsee oscillation) thus underlining their potential significance in the context of regional, as well as global Lateglacial climate conditions. The 10Be exposure ages from an inner moraine ridge are in a good agreement with the recalculated previously published 10Be exposure ages from the Egesen moraines in the Alps. This suggests a synchronicity of the Egesen stadial in the European Alps at the end of the Younger Dryas cold phase. REFERENCES Björck, S., Walker, M. J.C., Cwynar, L.C., Johnson, S., Knudsen, K-L., Lowe, J. J. & Wohlfarth, B. (1998): An event stratigraphy for the Last Termination in the North Atlantic region based on the Greenland ice-core record: a proposal by the INTIMATE group. Journal of Quarternary Science, 13, 283-292. Gross, G., Kerschner, H. & Patzelt, G. (1977): Methodische Untersuchungen über die Schneegrenze in alpinen Gletschergebieten. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 12, 223-251. Ivy-Ochs, S., Kerschner, H., Reuther, A., Preusser, F., Heine, K., Maisch, M., Kubik, P.W. & Schlüchter, C. (2008): Chronology of the last glacial cycle in the

  2. Editorial: Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Kaler, F.; Pfau, T.; Schmelcher, P.; Schleich, W.

    2010-06-01

    Atom optics employs the modern techniques of quantum optics and laser cooling to enable applications which often outperform current standard technologies. Atomic matter wave interferometers allow for ultra-precise sensors; metrology and clocks are pushed to an extraordinary accuracy of 17 digits using single atoms. Miniaturization and integration are driven forward for both atomic clocks and atom optical circuits. With the miniaturization of information-storage and -processing devices, the scale of single atoms is approached in solid state devices, where the laws of quantum physics lead to novel, advantageous features and functionalities. An upcoming branch of atom optics is the control of single atoms, potentially allowing solid state devices to be built atom by atom; some of which would be applicable in future quantum information processing devices. Selective manipulation of individual atoms also enables trace analysis of extremely rare isotopes. Additionally, sources of neutral atoms with high brightness are being developed and, if combined with photo ionization, even novel focused ion beam sources are within reach. Ultracold chemistry is fertilized by atomic techniques, when reactions of chemical constituents are investigated between ions, atoms, molecules, trapped or aligned in designed fields and cooled to ultra-low temperatures such that the reaction kinetics can be studied in a completely state-resolved manner. Focus on Atom Optics and its Applications Contents Sensitive gravity-gradiometry with atom interferometry: progress towards an improved determination of the gravitational constant F Sorrentino, Y-H Lien, G Rosi, L Cacciapuoti, M Prevedelli and G M Tino A single-atom detector integrated on an atom chip: fabrication, characterization and application D Heine, W Rohringer, D Fischer, M Wilzbach, T Raub, S Loziczky, XiYuan Liu, S Groth, B Hessmo and J Schmiedmayer Interaction of a propagating guided matter wave with a localized potential G L Gattobigio, A

  3. FOREWORD: Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science Some thoughts about Jürgen Hafner's work in computational materials science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, Volker

    2011-10-01

    and Kresse G 1994 Structral and electronic properties of clean and hydrogenated diamond (100) surfaces Europhys. Lett. 28 659-64 [10] Krajčí and Hafner J 2008 Ab-initio studies of quasicrystalline surfaces Quasicrystals (Handbook of Metal Physics vol 2) ed T Fujiwara and Y Ishii (Amsterdam: Elsevier) chapter 9, pp 313-55 [11] Raybaud P, Hafner J, Kresse G, Kasztelan S and Toulhoat H 2000 Structure, energetics and electronic properties of the surface of a promoted MoS2 catalyst: an ab-initio local-density-functional study J. Catalysis 190 128-43 [12] Hafner J, Benco L and Bucko T 2006 Acid-based catalysis in zeolites investigated by density-functional methods Top. Catalysis 37 41-54 [13] Hafner J 1989 Formation of polyanionic clusters in liquid potassium-lead alloys: a molecular-dynamics study J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 1 1133-40 [14] Meeks P E 1976 Vibrational spectra and topological structure of tetrahedrally bonded amorphous semiconductors Phil. Mag. 33 897-908 [15] See articles by Heine V, Bullet D, Haydock R and Kelly M J 1980 Solid State Physics—Advances in Research and Applications vol 35, ed H Ehrenreich, D Turnbull and F Seitz (New York: Academic) [16] Hafner J 1980 The dynamical properties of metallic glasses Liquids and Amorphous Metals (NATO-ASI Ser. E vol 36) ed E Lüscher and H Coufal (Sijthoff and Nordhoff: Alpen van Rijn) pp 199-209 [17] Hafner J 1987 From Hamiltonians to Phase Diagrams—The Electronic and Statistical-Mechanical Theory of sp-Bonded Metals and Alloys (Solid State Sciences Series vol 70) (Berlin: Springer) p 415 [18] Hafner J and Heine V 1983 The crystal structure of the elements: pseudopotential theory revisited J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 13 2479-501 [19] Hafner J and Kahl G 1984 The structure of the elements in the liquid state J. Phys. F: Met. Phys. 14 2259-78 [20] Denton A R and Hafner J 1997 Thermodynamically stable one-component quasicrystals: a density-functional survey of relative stabilities Phys. Rev. B 56 2469-82 [21] Hafner J

  4. Using geoinformatics and cultural anthropology to identify links between land change, driving forces and actors in the Okavango catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röder, Achim; Stellmes, Marion; Pröpper, Michael; Schneibel, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The recent acceleration of land use transformations, coupled with an increasing global population has manifested in an alteration of almost all terrestrial ecosystems (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In particular, the extension and intensification of agricultural and pastoral uses has supported unprecedented rates of population growth (Ellis and Ramankutty 2008). However, this development stands opposed to increased greenhouse gas emissions, declining biodiversity, declining air quality and increasing soil degradation, being reflected in the general reduction in ecosystem services and functions (Sala, Chapin III et al. 2000; Butchart, Walpole et al. 2010; Banwart 2011; Lal 2013). Such global change processes are to a large degree driven by land-use transformations or modifications (Foley, Defries et al. 2005). These are in turn a result of the complex interaction of factors playing out at different scales, varying from global market dynamics through national policies to regional planning and local traditions (Hein, van Koppen et al. 2006). The Okavango Basin represents a highly complex social-ecological system, where the variation in physio-geographic characteristics is reflected by manifold livelihood strategies in the three adjacent countries Angola, Namibia and Botswana. In mostly rural areas, small-scale subsistence agriculture, livestock-keeping and the utilization of natural resources such as thatch grass, timber, fruits etc. have traditionally formed the basis for human well-being. These strategies are juxtaposed by recent urban and transportation infrastructure developments, the expansion of commodity markets, the creation of commercial irrigated farming schemes and dams for energy production, or the growing role of tourism, in particular in the Delta region, as a major source of income generation. At present, the three countries bordering the river have individual legislations governing the use of natural resources, which usually originate at

  5. PREFACE: A tribute to Virginio Bortolani

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brivio, Gian Paolo

    2007-08-01

    published by Plenum Press in 1990, are still a classic in surface science, and we often refer to them as the 'red book' by the colour of its cover reminiscent of another more famous book. But I do not wish to dwell upon pleasant memories of my relationship with Virginio Bortolani any longer. We should better record a few important facts of his broad activity. J P Toennies will outline Bortolani's achievements in the field of surface phonons and vibrations in a review article of this volume. So I would like to stress other very important contributions of his to the scientific development in this country and to the international community. In the late seventies surface physics was being studied by very few and tiny groups in Italy (mainly at Genova, Milano and Roma Universities). But Bortolani was able to form the first theoretical group of international reputation in this field in Italy at Modena University. In this respect he was surely helped by his previous experience at the Cavendish Laboratory working with V Heine on the theory of pseudopotentials and with N Mott. This allowed him to be at the forefront of condensed matter theory so that to propose and carry out exciting research subjects. Bortolani also supervised all the initiatives in the 70s and 80s from which Modena has grown so much as to be now considered an internationally recognized centre of surface science and nanotechnology. Second, by organizing a conference in Modena every year the week before Christmas (the so-called Congressino di Modena by the Italian participants), he promoted the diffusion of surface physics in the country: it became soon traditional for bright young physicists to come to Modena on that occasion, and, because of the exciting and friendly atmosphere, to turn to surface investigations. The catalysing activity of Bortolani is also confirmed by the number of his students who have matured into excellent scientists or technologists: Carlo Calandra, Carlo Maria Bertoni, Franca Manghi

  6. FOREWORD: Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications Tackling inverse problems in a Banach space environment: from theory to applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Thomas; Hofmann, Bernd; Kaltenbacher, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    of concrete instances with special properties. The aim of this special section is to provide a forum for highly topical ongoing work in the area of regularization in Banach spaces, its numerics and its applications. Indeed, we have been lucky enough to obtain a number of excellent papers both from colleagues who have previously been contributing to this topic and from researchers entering the field due to its relevance in practical inverse problems. We would like to thank all contributers for enabling us to present a high quality collection of papers on topics ranging from various aspects of regularization via efficient numerical solution to applications in PDE models. We give a brief overview of the contributions included in this issue (here ordered alphabetically by first author). In their paper, Iterative regularization with general penalty term—theory and application to L1 and TV regularization, Radu Bot and Torsten Hein provide an extension of the Landweber iteration for linear operator equations in Banach space to general operators in place of the inverse duality mapping, which corresponds to the use of general regularization functionals in variational regularization. The L∞ topology in data space corresponds to the frequently occuring situation of uniformly distributed data noise. A numerically efficient solution of the resulting Tikhonov regularization problem via a Moreau-Yosida appriximation and a semismooth Newton method, along with a δ-free regularization parameter choice rule, is the topic of the paper L∞ fitting for inverse problems with uniform noise by Christian Clason. Extension of convergence rates results from classical source conditions to their generalization via variational inequalities with a priori and a posteriori stopping rules is the main contribution of the paper Regularization of linear ill-posed problems by the augmented Lagrangian method and variational inequalities by Klaus Frick and Markus Grasmair, again in the context of some

  7. Foreword: Sir John Pendry FRS Sir John Pendry FRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglesfield, John; Echenique, Pedro

    2008-07-01

    John Pendry John Inglesfield and Pedro Echenique write: John Pendry's 65th birthday is on 4 July 2008, and this issue of the Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter is dedicated to him, with articles by friends, colleagues, and former students. By any standards, John Pendry is a great scientist, who has made—and continues to make—an enormous contribution to physics; the wide range of his interests is reflected in the scope of these articles. Not many scientists can establish a completely new and unexpected area of research, but this has been John's achievement in the last few years in the field of metamaterials, materials whose electromagnetic properties depend on their structure rather than the materials of which the structure is built. In this way, structures with effectively negative electrical permittivity and negative magnetic permeability can be constructed, demonstrating negative refraction; through metamaterials scientists now have access to properties not found in nature, and never previously explored experimentally. Never a week goes by without a potential new application of metamaterials, whether it is perfect lensing, or the cloak of invisibility. This has certainly led to tremendous visibility for John himself, with guest lectures all over the world, and radio and television appearances. John Pendry's first paper was published exactly 40 years ago, 'Analytic properties of pseudopotentials' [1], and since then he has published 310 articles at the latest count. But this first paper already reflected something of the way John works. His PhD project, with Volker Heine at the Cavendish Laboratory, was to interpret the scattering of low energy electrons from surfaces, the technique of LEED which was to become the method of choice for determining surface structure. Although the energy of the electrons in LEED is relatively low—say 50 eV—it is much higher than the energy of the conduction electrons, for which pseudopotentials had been devised, and John