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Sample records for kola superdeep borehole

  1. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust in the region of superdeep boreholes of Yamal-Nenets autonomous district using the fields of natural and controlled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Petrishchev, M. S.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Kolobov, V. V.; Selivanov, V. N.; Barannik, M. B.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Grigoriev, V. F.; Sergushin, P. A.; Kopytenko, E. A.; Biryulya, M. A.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Esipko, O. A.; Damaskin, R. V.

    2013-11-01

    Electromagnetic soundings with the fields of natural (magnetotelluric (MT), and audio magnetotelluric (AMT)) and high-power controlled sources have been carried out in the region of the SG-6 (Tyumen) and SG-7 (En-Yakhin) superdeep boreholes in the Yamal-Nenets autonomous district (YaNAD). In the controlled-source soundings, the electromagnetic field was generated by the VL Urengoi-Pangody 220-kV industrial power transmission line (PTL), which has a length of 114 km, and ultralow-frequency (ULF) Zevs radiating antenna located at a distance of 2000 km from the signal recording sites. In the soundings with the Urengoi-Pangody PTL, the Energiya-2 generator capable of supplying up to 200 kW of power and Energiya-3 portable generator with a power of 2 kW were used as the sources. These generators were designed and manufactured at the Kola Science Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The soundings with the Energiya-2 generator were conducted in the frequency range from 0.38 to 175 Hz. The external generator was connected to the PTL in upon the agreement with the Yamal-Nenets Enterprise of Main Electric Networks, a branch of OAO FSK ES of Western Siberia. The connection was carried out by the wire-ground scheme during the routine maintenance of PTL in the nighttime. The highest-quality signals were recorded in the region of the SG-7 (En-Yakhin) superdeep borehole, where the industrial noise is lowest. The results of the inversion of the soundings with PTL and Zevs ULF transmitter completely agree with each other and with the data of electric logging. The MT-AMT data provide additional information about the deep structure of the region in the low-frequency range (below 1Hz). It is established that the section of SG-6 and SG-7 boreholes contains conductive layers in the depth intervals from 0.15 to 0.3 km and from 1 to 1.5 km. These layers are associated with the variations in the lithological composition, porosity, and fluid saturation of the rocks. The top of the

  2. Stishovite paradox in genesis of the superdeep diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Yuriy

    2013-04-01

    Stishovite was experimentally discovered [1] as high-density polymorph of SiO2 stable at 9 - 50 GPa. A paradoxical paragenesis of stishovite and magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O was disclosed among primary inclusions in lower-mantle superdeep diamonds [2]. This contradicts to a common knowledge that SiO2 and MgO paragenesis is forbidden for low-pressure SiO2 polymorphs - quartz and coesite. The "stishovite paradox" does not manifest itself in the lower mantle ultrabasic compositions as is seen from experimental pyrolite assembly magnesiowustite+Mg-perovskite+Ca-perovskite at 50 GPa. In basic basalt composition stishovite is formed together with Ca-perovskite, Mg-perovskite and Al-bearing phases under the lower mantle PT-parameters [3]. In this case stishovite is taken as product of oceanic basalt subducted into lower mantle, but not in situ lower-mantle primary mineral. Paragenesis of stishovite and superdeep diamond has opened up fresh opportunity for detailed study. Magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O inclusions in superdeep diamonds are characterized by a wide variation of FeO content between 10 and 64 mol. % [2]. It is interesting that ringwoodite (Mg,Fe)2SiO4 solid solutions are decomposed into Mg-perovskite (Mg,Fe)SiO3 + magnesiowustite (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 (within 30 - 42 mol. % Fe2SiO4) and magnesiowustite + stishovite (within 42 - 100 mol. % Fe2SiO4). Based on experimental data, melting phase diagram of MgO - SiO2 - FeO system at 30 GPa is constructed [4]. Subsolidus assembly includes solid solutions of (Mg,Fe)-perovskite and (Mg,Fe)O. With increase in FeO content in the system, liquidus relations are determined by two univariant cotectics L + (Mg,Fe)O + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 and L + SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 having come to invariant peritectic L + (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 + (Mg,Fe)SiO3. Mg-perovskite is eliminated by peritectic reaction L + (Mg,Fe)SiO3 = (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2 that gives rise to third univariant cotectic L + (Mg,Fe)O + SiO2. The physicochemical peritectic mechanism is also operating in the Mg

  3. Tracking Crust-Mantle Recycling through Superdeep Diamonds and their Mineral Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael; Bulanova, Galina; Smith, Chris; Thomson, Andrew; Kohn, Simon; Burnham, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Sublithospheric, or 'superdeep' diamonds, originate in the deep upper mantle, transition zone, and at least as deep as the shallow lower mantle. When diamonds crystallize in the mantle from fluids or melts they occasionally entrap coexisting mineral phases. Because of their great physical resiliency, diamonds can potentially preserve information over long distance- and time-scales, revealing important information about the petrologic, tectonic and geodynamic environment in which the diamonds grew and were transported. Superdeep diamonds and their inclusions have proven especially powerful for probing processes related to subduction of slabs into the deep mantle [1-3]. In contrast to lithospheric diamonds that are effectively frozen-in geodynamically, mineral inclusions in superdeep diamonds often record hundreds of kilometers of uplift in the convecting mantle from their original depth of origin [3-5]. The phase equilibria of unmixing of original deep mantle phases such as Ca- and Mg-perovskite, NAL-phase, CF-phase, CAS-phase, and majorite provide a means to establish amounts of uplift. The few available age constraints indicate superdeep diamond growth from the Proterozoic to the Cretaceous, and further dating can potentially lead to constraining mantle upwelling rates [4]. Here we will provide several examples showing how superdeep diamonds and their inclusions record processes of subduction and slab foundering, and ultimately recycling of slab material from the transition zone and lower mantle into the shallow upper mantle. 1. Harte, B., Mineralogical Magazine, 2010. 74: p. 189-215. 2. Tappert, R., et al., Geology, 2005. 33: p. 565-568. 3. Walter, M.J., et al., Science, 2011. 333: p. 54-57. 4. Bulanova, G.P., et al., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 2010. 160: p. 489-510. 5. Harte, B. and N. Cayzer, Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 2007.

  4. The characteristic photoluminescence and EPR features of superdeep diamonds (São-Luis, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuryeva, Olga P.; Rakhmanova, Mariana I.; Nadolinny, Vladimir A.; Zedgenizov, Dmitry A.; Shatsky, Vladislav S.; Kagi, Hiroyuki; Komarovskikh, Andrey Yu.

    2015-10-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) were used for the first time to characterize properties of superdeep diamonds from the São-Luis alluvial deposits (Brazil). The infrared measurements showed the low nitrogen content (>50 of 87 diamonds from this locality were nitrogen free and belonged to type IIa) and simultaneously the extremely high level of nitrogen aggregation (pure type IaB being predominant), which indicates that diamonds under study might have formed under high pressure and temperature conditions. In most cases, PL features excited at various wavelengths (313, 473, and 532 nm) were indicative of different growth and post-growth processes during which PL centers could be formed via interaction between vacancies and nitrogen atoms. The overall presence of the 490.7 nm, H3, and H4 centers in the luminescence spectra attests to strong plastic deformations in these diamonds. The neutral vacancy known as the GR1 center has probably occurred in a number of crystals due to radiation damage in the post-growth period. The 558.5 nm PL center is found to be one of the most common defects in type IIa samples which is accompanied by the EPR center with g-factor of 2.00285. The 536 and 576 nm vibronic systems totally dominated the PL spectra of superdeep diamonds, while none of "normal" diamonds from the Mir pipe (Yakutia) with similar nitrogen characteristics showed the latter three PL centers.

  5. Acoustic borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Medlin, W.L.; Manzi, S.J.

    1990-10-09

    This patent describes an acoustic borehole logging method. It comprises traversing a borehole with a borehole logging tool containing a transmitter of acoustic energy having a free-field frequency spectrum with at least one characteristic resonant frequency of vibration and spaced-apart receiver, repeatedly exciting the transmitter with a swept frequency tone burst of a duration sufficiently greater than the travel time of acoustic energy between the transmitter and the receiver to allow borehole cavity resonances to be established within the borehole cavity formed between the borehole logging tool and the borehole wall, detecting acoustic energy amplitude modulated by the borehole cavity resonances with the spaced-apart receiver, and recording an amplitude verses frequency output of the receiver in correlation with depth as a log of the borehole frequency spectrum representative of the subsurface formation comprising the borehole wall.

  6. Stable isotope evidence for crustal recycling as recorded by superdeep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, A. D.; Thomson, A. R.; Bulanova, G. P.; Kohn, S. C.; Smith, C. B.; Walter, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Sub-lithospheric diamonds from the Juina-5 and Collier-4 kimberlites and the Machado River alluvial deposit in Brazil have carbon isotopic compositions that co-vary with the oxygen isotopic compositions of their inclusions, which implies that they formed by a mixing process. The proposed model for this mixing process, based on interaction of slab-derived carbonate melt with reduced (carbide- or metal-bearing) ambient mantle, explains these isotopic observations. It is also consistent with the observed trace element chemistries of diamond inclusions from these localities and with the experimental phase relations of carbonated subducted crust. The 18O-enriched nature of the inclusions demonstrates that they incorporate material from crustal protoliths that previously interacted with seawater, thus confirming the subduction-related origin of superdeep diamonds. These samples also provide direct evidence of an isotopically anomalous reservoir in the deep (≥350 km) mantle.

  7. The Deep Mantle Volatile Cycle Revealed in Superdeep Diamonds and their Mineral Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Michael; Thomson, Andrew; Frost, Jennifer; Bulanova, Galina; Smith, Chris; Kohn, Simon; Burnham, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Diamonds crystallize in the mantle primarily as a consequence of fluid or melt metasomatism. In doing so they sample the fluid-melt-solid equilibria directly by incorporation of carbon and its isotopic flavours, and by entrapping other phases as they grow. Superdeep diamonds from the transition zone and lower mantle provide evidence for crystallization from melts derived from subducted materials [1, 2]. The presence of deeply subducted volatile components such as carbon and water are important because they lower the solidus of subducted materials. The source of carbon may ultimately be via deposition of biogenic or abiogenic carbon in subducted crust, and water may become available via dehydration of high-pressure hydrous phases in the slab (e.g. superhydrous B, Phase D) [3]. Foundering of slabs around 700 km due to density inversion and thermalization with surrounding mantle leads to the generation of low-degree, volatile-charged melts. Melts from subducted oceanic crust may be carbonated, and diamond crystallization occurs as a consequence of 'redox freezing' when the oxidized slab melts react with reducing mantle rocks [4]. Reaction of slab melts with mantle peridotite may precipitate phases such as Ca-perovskite, Mg-perovskite, majorite and ferropericlase. Here we will survey evidence from the chemistry of superdeep mineral inclusions for a record of this deep mantle reactive transport process, and speculate on the role of deep mantle volatiles. 1. Bulanova, G.P., et al., Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 2010. 160: p. 489-510. 2. Walter, M.J., et al., Nature, 2008. 454: p. 622-U30. 3. Harte, B., Mineralogical Magazine, 2010. 74: p. 189-215. 4. Rohrbach, A. and M.W. Schmidt, Nature, 2011. 472: p. 209-212.

  8. Potential use ofGarcinia kola as hop substitute in lager beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Aniche, G N; Uwakwe, G U

    1990-09-01

    The chemical, brewing and anti-microbial properties of a tropical seed,Garcinia kola, were compared with traditional hops. Treatment ofGarcinia kola with methanolic lead acetate produced a yellow precipitate from which organic acids (alpha acids) were contirmed to be present by thin-layer chromatography. Hops, however, had a higher concentration of organic acids thanGarcinia kola. Laboratory brewing trials withGarcinia kola and hops gave beers with simillar chemical properties. Organoleptically,Garcinia kola beer was as acceptable to tasters as hopped beer except that it had an improved bitterness.Garcinia kola and hop extracts exerted similar anti-microbial effects on two beer spollage micro-organisms (Lactobacillus delbruckii andCandida vini).

  9. Kimberlitic sources of super-deep diamonds in the Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminsky, Felix V.; Sablukov, Sergei M.; Belousova, Elena A.; Andreazza, Paulo; Tremblay, Mousseau; Griffin, William L.

    2010-01-01

    The Juina diamond field, in the 1970-80s, was producing up to 5-6 million carats per year from rich placer deposits, but no economic primary deposits had been found in the area. In 2006-2007, Diagem Inc. discovered a group of diamondiferous kimberlitic pipes within the Chapadão Plateau (Chapadão, or Pandrea cluster), at the head of a drainage system which has produced most of the alluvial diamonds mined in the Juina area. Diamonds from placer deposits and newly discovered kimberlites are identical; they have super-deep origins from the upper-mantle and transition zone. Field observations and petrographic studies have identified crater-facies kimberlitic material at seven separate localities. Kimberlitic material is represented by tuffs, tuffisites and various epiclastic sediments containing chrome spinel, picroilmenite, manganoan ilmenite, zircon and diamond. The diamond grade varies from 0.2-1.8 ct/m 3. Chrome spinel has 30-61 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Picroilmenite contains 6-14 wt.% MgO and 0.2-4 wt.% Cr 2O 3. Manganoan ilmenite has less than 3 wt.% MgO and 0.38-1.41 wt.% MnO. The 176Hf/ 177Hf ratio in kimberlitic zircons is 0.028288-0.28295 with ɛHf = 5.9-8.3, and lies on the average kimberlite trend between depleted mantle and CHUR. The previously known barren and weakly diamondiferous kimberlites in the Juina area have ages of 79-80 Ma. In contrast, zircons from the newly discovered Chapadão kimberlites have a mean 206Pb/ 238U age of 93.6 ± 0.4 Ma, corresponding to a time of magmatic activity related to the opening of the southern part of the Atlantic Ocean. The most likely mechanism of the origin of kimberlitic magma is super-deep subduction process that initiated partial melting of zones in lower mantle with subsequent ascent of proto-kimberlitic magma.

  10. Technology for NPP decantate treatment realized at Kola NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Stakhiv, Michael; Avezniyazov, Slava; Savkin, Alexander; Fedorov, Denis; Dmitriev, Sergei; Kornev, Vladimir

    2007-07-01

    At Moscow SIA 'Radon' jointly with JSC 'Alliance Gamma', the technology for NPP Decantate Treatment was developed, tested and realized at Kola NPP. This technology consists of dissolving the salt residue and subsequent treatment by ozonization, separation of the deposits formed from ozonization and selective cleaning by ferro-cyanide sorbents. The nonactive salt solution goes to an industrial waste disposal site or a repository specially developed at NPP sites for 'exempt waste' products by IAEA classification. This technology was realized at Kola NPP in December 2006 year. At this time more than 1000 m{sup 3} of decantates log time stored are treated. It allows solving very old problem to empty decantates' tanks at NPPs in environmentally safe manner and with high volume reduction factor. (authors)

  11. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, Oleg M.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole data transmission apparatus whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  12. Borehole data transmission apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1993-03-23

    A borehole data transmission apparatus is described whereby a centrifugal pump impeller(s) is used to provide a turbine stage having substantial pressure characteristics in response to changing rotational speed of a shaft for the pressure pulsing of data from the borehole through the drilling mud to the surface of the earth.

  13. Depth of formation of CaSiO3-walstromite included in super-deep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzolini, C.; Angel, R. J.; Merlini, M.; Derzsi, M.; Tokár, K.; Milani, S.; Krebs, M. Y.; Brenker, F. E.; Nestola, F.; Harris, J. W.

    2016-11-01

    "Super-deep" diamonds are thought to crystallize between 300 and 800 km depth because some of the inclusions trapped within them are considered to be the products of retrograde transformation from lower mantle or transition zone precursors. In particular, single inclusion CaSiO3-walstromite is believed to derive from CaSiO3-perovskite, although its real depth of origin has never been proven. Our aim is therefore to determine for the first time the pressure of formation of the diamond-CaSiO3-walstromite pair by "single-inclusion elastic barometry" and to determine whether CaSiO3-walstromite derives from CaSiO3-perovskite or not. We investigated several single phases and assemblages of Ca-silicate inclusions still trapped in a diamond coming from Juina (Brazil) by in-situ analyses (single-crystal X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman spectroscopy) and we obtained a minimum entrapment pressure of 5.7 GPa (∼ 180 km) at 1500 K. However, the observed coexistence of CaSiO3-walstromite, larnite (β-Ca2SiO4) and CaSi2O5-titanite in one multiphase inclusion within the same diamond indicates that the sample investigated is sub-lithospheric with entrapment pressure between 9.5 and 11.5 GPa at 1500 K, based on experimentally-determined phase equilibria. In addition, thermodynamic calculations suggested that, within a diamond, single inclusions of CaSiO3-walstromite cannot derive from CaSiO3-perovskite, unless the diamond around the inclusion expands by 30% in volume.

  14. Borehole induction coil transmitter

    DOEpatents

    Holladay, Gale; Wilt, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole induction coil transmitter which is a part of a cross-borehole electromagnetic field system that is used for underground imaging applications. The transmitter consists of four major parts: 1) a wound ferrite or mu-metal core, 2) an array of tuning capacitors, 3) a current driver circuit board, and 4) a flux monitor. The core is wound with several hundred turns of wire and connected in series with the capacitor array, to produce a tuned coil. This tuned coil uses internal circuitry to generate sinusoidal signals that are transmitted through the earth to a receiver coil in another borehole. The transmitter can operate at frequencies from 1-200 kHz and supplies sufficient power to permit the field system to operate in boreholes separated by up to 400 meters.

  15. Borehole geological assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuck, W. H., III (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A method and apparatus are discussed for performing geological assessments of a formation located along a borehole, and a boring tool that bores a pair of holes into the walls of the borehole and into the surrounding strata along with a pair of probes which are installed in the holes. One of the probes applies an input such as a current or pressured fluid, and the other probe senses a corresponding input which it receives from the strata.

  16. Superdeep vertical seismic profiling at the KTB deep drill hole (Germany): Seismic close-up view of a major thrust zone down to 8.5 km depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabbel, W.; Beilecke, T.; Bohlen, T.; Fischer, D.; Frank, A.; Hasenclever, J.; Borm, G.; Kück, J.; Bram, K.; Druivenga, G.; Lüschen, E.; Gebrande, H.; Pujol, J.; Smithson, S.

    2004-09-01

    The lowermost section of the continental superdeep drill hole German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB) (south Germany) has been investigated for the first time by vertical seismic profiling (VSP). The new VSP samples the still accessible range of 6-8.5 km depth. Between 7 and 8.5 km depth, the drill hole intersects a major cataclastic fault zone which can be traced back to the Earth's surface where it forms a lineament of regional importance, the Franconian line. To determine the seismic properties of the crust in situ, in particular within and around this deep fault zone, was one of the major goals of the VSP. For the measurements a newly developed high-pressure/high-temperature borehole geophone was used that was capable of withstanding temperatures and pressures up to 260°C and 140 MPa, respectively. The velocity-depth profiles and reflection images resulting from the VSP are of high spatial resolution due to a small geophone spacing of 12.5 m and a broad seismic signal spectrum. Compared to the upper part of the borehole, we found more than 10% decrease of the P wave velocity in the deep, fractured metamorphic rock formations. P wave velocity is ˜5.5 km/s at 8.5 km depth compared to 6.0-6.5 km/s at more shallow levels above 7 km. In addition, seismic anisotropy was observed to increase significantly within the deep fracture zone showing more than 10% shear wave splitting and azimuthal variation of S wave polarization. In order to quantify the effect of fractures on the seismic velocity in situ we compared lithologically identical rock units at shallow and large depths: Combining seismic velocity and structural logs, we could determine the elastic tensors for three gneiss sections. The analysis of these tensors showed that we need fracture porosity in the percent range in order to explain seismic velocity and anisotropy observed within the fault zone. The opening of significant pore space around 8 km depth can only be maintained by differential tectonic

  17. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  18. Prevalence and associated risk factors of Kola nut chewing among secondary school students in Osogbo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Erinfolami, Adebayo; Eegunranti, Adekunle; Ogunsemi, Olawale; Oguntuase, Akin; Akinbode, Abiola; Erinfolami, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and pattern of Kola nut use among secondary school students in Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria. The study also aimed to determine the association of socio-demographic variables (of the students and their parents) with kola nut chewing. A questionnaire consisting of socio-demographic variables, the stimulant use section of the WHO Students Drug Use Questionnaire was administered on three hundred and eighty-five (385) randomly selected students of the two Local Government Areas of Osogbo. The prevalence rate of kola nut use was calculated and some socio demographic variables were determined. The 30-day prevalence rate of kola nut use was 11.2%. The one-year prevalence of kola nut use was 29.1 percent and the lifetime rate was 74.8 percent. Majority of users started at age 14 years or below. Kola nut use was associated with lower age group, poor school attendance, polygamous background, low education of mother, high education of father and the description of mother as being too permissive. The findings suggest the need to increase the awareness of the dangers of kolanut use among adolescents. Control program are urgently needed to prevent student wastage. PMID:25478098

  19. CaSiO3-walstromite inclusions in super-deep diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzolini, Chiara; Nestola, Fabrizio; Milani, Sula; Brenker, Frank E.

    2015-04-01

    Diamonds are considered the unique way to trap and convey real fragments of deep material to the surface of our planet. Over the last thirty years, great strides have been made in understanding of Earth's lower mantle, mainly thanks to technological and instrumental advances; nevertheless, it is only in the last two decades that a whole range of inclusion parageneses derived from the lower mantle was discovered in diamonds from São Luiz (Brazil) (Kaminsky, 2008 and references therein), thereby establishing a 'window' into the lower mantle. These so-called super-deep diamonds form at depths greater than lithospheric diamonds, more precisely between 300 and 800 km depth, and contain mostly ferropericlase, enstatite (believed to be derived from MgSi-perovskite) and CaSiO3-walstromite (believed to be derived from CaSiO3-perovskite). Even though CaSiO3 not only adopts the perovskite structure with increased pressure and temperature, but also it is considered the dominant Ca-bearing phase in the Earth's lower mantle (Tamai and Yagi, 1989), at the present day there are no reliable literature data on the pressure at which CaSiO3 crystallizes within diamonds. In order to obtain for the first time a pressure of formation value for CaSiO3-walstromite, several inclusions still trapped in a diamond coming from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) were investigated both by in-situ microRaman spectroscopy and in-situ single-crystal X-ray diffraction. First, we applied 'single-inclusion elastic barometry' as improved by Angel et al. (2014) to determine the pressure of formation of the diamond-inclusion pairs. Starting from the maximum remnant pressure value ever reported (Joswig et al., 2003) and adopting the thermoelastic parameters already present in literature (Swamy and Dubrovinsky, 1997; Liu et al., 2012), we obtained an apparent entrapment pressure of ~7.1 GPa, corresponding to ~250 km, at 1500 K. The presence of fractures around the inclusions indicates this is a minimum estimate

  20. Instructions for borehole sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, K.D.; Lindsey, K.A.

    1994-11-11

    Geologic systems generally are complex with physical properties and trends that can be difficult to predict. Subsurface geology exerts a fundamental control on groundwater flow and contaminant transport. The primary source for direct observation of subsurface geologic information is a borehole. However, direct observations from a borehole essentially are limited to the diameter and spacing of boreholes and the quality of the information derived from the drilling. Because it is impractical to drill a borehole every few feet to obtain data, it is necessary to maximize the data gathered during limited drilling operations. A technically defensible balance between the customer`s data quality objectives and control of drilling costs through limited drilling can be achieved with proper conduct of operations. This report presents the minimum criteria for geologic and hydrologic characterization and sampling that must be met during drilling. It outlines the sampling goals that need to be addressed when drilling boreholes, and the types of drilling techniques that work best to achieve these goals under the geologic conditions found at Hanford. This report provides general guidelines for: (1) how sampling methods are controlled by data needs, (2) how minimum sampling requirements change as knowledge and needs change, and (3) when drilling and sampling parameters need to be closely controlled with respect to the specific data needs. Consequently, the report is divided into two sections that center on: (1) a discussion of basic categories of subsurface characterization, sampling, and sampling techniques, and (2) guidelines for determining which drilling and sampling techniques meet required characterization and sampling objectives.

  1. Ice-Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Carsey, Frank; Lane, Arthur; Engelhardt, Herman

    2006-01-01

    An instrumentation system has been developed for studying interactions between a glacier or ice sheet and the underlying rock and/or soil. Prior borehole imaging systems have been used in well-drilling and mineral-exploration applications and for studying relatively thin valley glaciers, but have not been used for studying thick ice sheets like those of Antarctica. The system includes a cylindrical imaging probe that is lowered into a hole that has been bored through the ice to the ice/bedrock interface by use of an established hot-water-jet technique. The images acquired by the cameras yield information on the movement of the ice relative to the bedrock and on visible features of the lower structure of the ice sheet, including ice layers formed at different times, bubbles, and mineralogical inclusions. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the system was just deployed in two boreholes on the Amery ice shelf in East Antarctica and after successful 2000 2001 deployments in 4 boreholes at Ice Stream C, West Antarctica, and in 2002 at Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska. The probe is designed to operate at temperatures from 40 to +40 C and to withstand the cold, wet, high-pressure [130-atm (13.20-MPa)] environment at the bottom of a water-filled borehole in ice as deep as 1.6 km. A current version is being outfitted to service 2.4-km-deep boreholes at the Rutford Ice Stream in West Antarctica. The probe (see figure) contains a sidelooking charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera that generates both a real-time analog video signal and a sequence of still-image data, and contains a digital videotape recorder. The probe also contains a downward-looking CCD analog video camera, plus halogen lamps to illuminate the fields of view of both cameras. The analog video outputs of the cameras are converted to optical signals that are transmitted to a surface station via optical fibers in a cable. Electric power is supplied to the probe through wires in the cable at a

  2. Piezotube borehole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Daley, Tom M; Solbau, Ray D; Majer, Ernest L

    2014-05-06

    A piezoelectric borehole source capable of permanent or semipermanent insertion into a well for uninterrupted well operations is described. The source itself comprises a series of piezoelectric rings mounted to an insulative mandrel internally sized to fit over a section of well tubing, the rings encased in a protective housing and electrically connected to a power source. Providing an AC voltage to the rings will cause expansion and contraction sufficient to create a sonic pulse. The piezoelectric borehole source fits into a standard well, and allows for uninterrupted pass-through of production tubing, and other tubing and electrical cables. Testing using the source may be done at any time, even concurrent with well operations, during standard production.

  3. Lifting liquid from boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, T.E.

    1983-05-17

    A device for lifting liquid from boreholes comprises a pump which is located downhole in the region of a production formation and which consists of a fluid-actuated, double-action piston. The pump is connected by fluid pressure lines to a source of fluid pressure disposed above ground and a switching valve is connected to provide fluid pressure to alternate sides of the piston to effect reciprocation thereof.

  4. Borehole radar for geothermal applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.W.; Caffey, T.W.H.

    1991-01-01

    An initial evaluation of a continuous wave borehole radar system with steerable antennas has been completed. Candidate antennas have been identified which meet the size requirements for borehole applications. The patterns of these antennas are not dependent on the properties of the surrounding media when the antenna dimensions are less than one-tenth wavelength. The beam patterns can be steered adequately to allow the volume of earth within several meters of a borehole to be investigated. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Borehole sealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hartley, James N.; Jansen, Jr., George

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for sealing boreholes in the earth. The borehole is blocked at the sealing level, and a sealing apparatus capable of melting rock and earth is positioned in the borehole just above seal level. The apparatus is heated to rock-melting temperature and powdered rock or other sealing material is transported down the borehole to the apparatus where it is melted, pooling on the mechanical block and allowed to cool and solidify, sealing the hole. Any length of the borehole can be sealed by slowly raising the apparatus in the borehole while continuously supplying powdered rock to the apparatus to be melted and added to the top of the column of molten and cooling rock, forming a continuous borehole seal. The sealing apparatus consists of a heater capable of melting rock, including means for supplying power to the heater, means for transporting powdered rock down the borehole to the heater, means for cooling the apparatus and means for positioning the apparatus in the borehole.

  6. Tuned borehole gravity gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    Lautzenhiser, T.V.; Nekut, A.G. Jr.

    1986-04-15

    A tuned borehole gravity gradiometer is described for detecting variations in gravity gradient which consists of: a suspended dipole mass system having symmetrically distributed dipole masses and suspension means for suspending the dipole masses such that the gravity gradient to be measured produces an angular displacement about a rotation axis of the dipole mass system from a reference position; and tuning means with the dipole mass system for selectively varying the sensitivity to angular displacements with respect to the rotation axis of the dipole mass system to variations in gravity gradient, wherein the tuning means includes means for selectively varying the metacentric height of the dipole mass system.

  7. Side hole drilling in boreholes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Jr., Earl R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for use in a borehole or other restricted space to bore a side hole into the strata surrounding the borehole, including a flexible shaft with a drill at its end, and two trains of sheathing members that can be progressively locked together into a rigid structure around the flexible shaft as it is directed sidewardly into the strata.

  8. Borehole Muon Detector Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, A.; Flygare, J.; Kouzes, R.; Lintereur, A.; Yamaoka, J. A. K.; Varner, G. S.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations have spurred investigation into carbon sequestration methods. One of the possibilities being considered, storing super-critical CO2 in underground reservoirs, has drawn more attention and pilot projects are being supported worldwide. Monitoring of the post-injection fate of CO2 is of utmost importance. Generally, monitoring options are active methods, such as 4D seismic reflection or pressure measurements in monitoring wells. We propose here to develop a 4-D density tomography of subsurface CO2 reservoirs using cosmic-ray muon detectors deployed in a borehole. Muon detection is a relatively mature field of particle physics and there are many muon detector designs, though most are quite large and not designed for subsurface measurements. The primary technical challenge preventing deployment of this technology in the subsurface is the lack of miniaturized muon-tracking detectors capable of fitting in standard boreholes and that will resist the harsh underground conditions. A detector with these capabilities is being developed by a collaboration supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Current simulations based on a Monte Carlo modeling code predict that the incoming muon angle can be resolved with an error of approximately two degrees, using either underground or sea level spectra. The robustness of the design comes primarily from the use of scintillating rods as opposed to drift tubes. The rods are arrayed in alternating layers to provide a coordinate scheme. Preliminary testing and measurements are currently being performed to test and enhance the performance of the scintillating rods, in both a laboratory and a shallow underground facility. The simulation predictions and data from the experiments will be presented.

  9. Deep Borehole Field Test Laboratory and Borehole Testing Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Brady, Patrick V.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Heath, Jason E.; Herrick, Courtney G.; Jensen, Richard P.; Gardner, W. Payton; Sevougian, S. David; Bryan, Charles R.; Jang, Je-Hun; Stein, Emily R.; Bauer, Stephen J.; Daley, Tom; Freifeld, Barry M.; Birkholzer, Jens; Spane, Frank A.

    2016-09-19

    Deep Borehole Disposal (DBD) of high-level radioactive wastes has been considered an option for geological isolation for many years (Hess et al. 1957). Recent advances in drilling technology have decreased costs and increased reliability for large-diameter (i.e., ≥50 cm [19.7”]) boreholes to depths of several kilometers (Beswick 2008; Beswick et al. 2014). These advances have therefore also increased the feasibility of the DBD concept (Brady et al. 2009; Cornwall 2015), and the current field test design will demonstrate the DBD concept and these advances. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Strategy for the Management and Disposal of Used Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Radioactive Waste (DOE 2013) specifically recommended developing a research and development plan for DBD. DOE sought input or expression of interest from States, local communities, individuals, private groups, academia, or any other stakeholders willing to host a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT). The DBFT includes drilling two boreholes nominally 200m [656’] apart to approximately 5 km [16,400’] total depth, in a region where crystalline basement is expected to begin at less than 2 km depth [6,560’]. The characterization borehole (CB) is the smaller-diameter borehole (i.e., 21.6 cm [8.5”] diameter at total depth), and will be drilled first. The geologic, hydrogeologic, geochemical, geomechanical and thermal testing will take place in the CB. The field test borehole (FTB) is the larger-diameter borehole (i.e., 43.2 cm [17”] diameter at total depth). Surface handling and borehole emplacement of test package will be demonstrated using the FTB to evaluate engineering feasibility and safety of disposal operations (SNL 2016).

  10. Genesis of peat-bog soils in the northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, V.V.

    1981-01-01

    The characteristics of soil formation processes in the Peat-Bog soils of waterlogged spruce phytocenoses on the Kola Peninsula are investigated. It is found that the ash composition of the peat layer is determined primarily by the composition of the buried plant residues. The effect of the chemical composition of water feeding the peat bogs is determined. (Refs. 7).

  11. Amino acid composition of two masticatory nuts (Cola acuminata and Garcinia kola) and a snack nut (Anacardium occidentale).

    PubMed

    Adeyeye, E I; Asaolu, S S; Aluko, A O

    2007-06-01

    The amino acid compositions of Cola acuminata, Garcinia kola and Anacardium occidentale were evaluated by ion-exchange chromatography. Glutamic acid was the most concentrated acid in the samples. In all the amino acids determined, A. occidentale had the most concentrated acid on a pairwise basis. The total amino acids were 356.24 mg/g protein, 112.90 mg/g protein and 659.17 mg/g protein for C. acuminata, G. kola and A. occidentale, respectively. The percentage total essential amino acids were 38.39% (C. acuminata), 47.05% (G. kola) and 51.04% (A. occidentale). Also the percentage total acidic amino acids were 38.16% (C. acuminata), 30.61% (G. kola) and 30.35% (A. occidentale). The calculated isoelectric points were 2.0 (C. acuminata), 0.7 (G. kola) and 3.9 (A. occidentale), showing they can all be precipitated at acidic pH. While threonine was the limiting amino acid in A. occidentale, it was valine in both C. acuminata and G. kola. The percentage cystine (Cys) levels in the total sulphur amino acid were 44.27% (C. acuminata), 37.75% (G. kola) and 50.51% (A. occidentale). The aim of this work was to compare the amino acid profile of the samples. It is recommended that C. acuminata and G. kola consumption be avoided by ulcer patients because of their high levels of acidic amino acids. A. occidentale amino acid scores ranged from 42% to 127%, suggesting that it could be used to enhance the protein quality of cereals through food complementation.

  12. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  13. Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate “Phase Egg” in superdeep diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso State, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Richard; Vollmer, Christian; Brenker, Frank; Matsyuk, Stanislav; Kaminsky, Felix

    2007-07-01

    Inclusions in alluvial diamond from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) have been investigated by TEM methods (electron diffraction, HRTEM, AEM, HAADF, EELS) and Raman spectroscopy. The inclusion paragenesis of Juina diamonds is dominated by ultrahigh-pressure ("superdeep") phases. One of these diamonds, sample #1.1/4, contains several micrometer-sized (approximately 200 μm by 50-70 μm) inclusions, which have been studied. TEM foils prepared applying Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique revealed that these inclusions consist of a porous, nanocrystalline groundmass, which is composed of nanometre-sized crystals of a hydrous aluminium silicate phase with Al:Si approximately 1:1 and chemical composition of phase "Egg" (AlSiO 3(OH)), a minor volume fraction of nanocrystalline stishovite and pore space, which was originally filled with a fluid or gas. The nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate phase is idiomorphic, randomly oriented (approximately 20-30 nm in size) predominantly with tetragonal crystal structure ( a0 = 0.743 nm, c0 = 0.706 nm). The monoclinic structure of synthetic phase "Egg" determined at ambient conditions [M.W. Schmidt, L.W. Finger, R.J. Ross, R.E. Dinnebier, Synthesis, crystal structure, and phase relations of AlSiO 3OH, a high-pressure hydrous phase, American Mineralogist 83 (1998) 881 - 888] is only occasionally observed. The fluid filling in the porosity has been released into the vacuum of the FIB during TEM specimen preparation. Quench products of the fluid containing minor concentrations of F- P- S- Cl- K- Ca and Ba were detected at the walls of the pores. In addition phase "Egg" is identified by μ-Raman spectroscopy within a second sample (RS 43a) from the same location. The presence of Phase "Egg" in the inclusions in diamond may suggest that crustal material has been subducted to a depth of the lower Transition Zone. Although, metastable growth of nanocrystalline high-pressure phases or extension of their respective stability fields to lower

  14. Neoproterozic Re-Os age of a sulfide inclusion in a superdeep diamond: Implications for mantle convection beneath Juina, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Smit, K.; Nestola, F.; Steele, A.; Bulanova, G.; Smith, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    Diamonds from the Juina area Brazil have long been known for their sublithospheric or superdeep (e.g. from depths of 300-800 km) origins. These diamonds have yielded new information about high pressure mantle mineralogy, deep crustal recycling, diamond source fluids, and mantle transition zone water content. A type II (low N) diamond (sample J1) from the 93.1±1.5 myr old (Heaman 7IKC 1998 ) Collier 4 kimberlite was studied previously (Walter et al. Nature 2008; Bulanova et al. CMP 2010) as part of a larger suite of eclogitic-composition, inclusion-bearing type II Collier 4 diamonds with complex internal growth structure. Major and trace element analyses of mineral inclusions in these diamonds include Ca-Ti-Si perovskite, Ca-rich majoritic-garnet, clinopyroxene, olivine, jeffbenite, minerals with stoichiometries of CAS and K-hollandite phases, SiO2, FeO, native iron, low-Ni sulfides, and Ca-Mg-carbonate. The C isotopic compositions of the diamond hosts range from a δ13C of -25 to -5‰ ( J1 being -15‰). Collier 4 diamonds have been interpreted to crystallize from carbonatitic melts derived from the recycling of oceanic lithosphere at TransitionZone depths (Walter et al. Nature 2008; Bulanova et al. CMP 2010). A rare Fe-sulfide inclusion in the core of diamond J1 has been dated with the Re-Os system in order to provide age and compositional constraints on the proposed oceanic slab recycling. The rim of J1 contained inclusions of Ca-Ti-Si perovskite that yielded U-Pb age of 101±7 Ma and eclogitic (low Cr, high Ca) majorite that yielded formation pressures (Si - Al+Cr geobarometry) >8 GPa (Bulanova et al. CMP 2010). The Fe-sulfide analyzed was low Ni pyrrhotite determined to be Fe10S11 of a rare 11T polytype by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 27 ug interior pyrrhotite had a high Re/Os (187Re/188Os = 854) typical of MORB (Re/Os ~100) and radiogenic Os isotopic composition (187Os/188Os = 8.50±1.38) that yields a 602±16 Ma model age relative to normal mantle

  15. Advanced Borehole Radar for Hydrogeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar is a useful tool for monitoring the hydrogeological environment. We have developed GPR systems which can be applied to these purposes, and we will demonstrate examples borehole radar measurements. In order to have longer radar detection range, frequency lower than100MHz has been normally adopted in borehole radar. Typical subsurface fractures of our interests have a few mm aperture and radar resolution is much poorer than a few cm in this frequency range. We are proposing and demonstrating to use radar polarimetry to solve this problem. We have demonstrated that a full-polarimetry borehole radar can be used for characterization of subsurface fractures. Together with signal processing for antenna characteristic compensation to equalize the signal by a dipole antenna and slot antennas, we could demonstrate that polarimetric borehole radar can estimate the surface roughness of subsurface fractures, We believe the surface roughness is closely related to water permeability through the fractures. We then developed a directional borehole radar, which uses optical field sensor. A dipole antenna in a borehole has omni-directional radiation pattern, and we cannot get azimuthal information about the scatterers. We use multiple dipole antennas set around the borehole axis, and from the phase differences, we can estimate the 3-diemnational orientation of subsurface structures. We are using optical electric field sensor for receiver of borehole radar. This is a passive sensor and connected only with optical fibers and does not require any electric power supply to operate the receiver. It has two major advantages; the first one is that the receiver can be electrically isolated from other parts, and wave coupling to a logging cable is avoided. Then, secondary, it can operate for a long time, because it does not require battery installed inside the system. It makes it possible to set sensors in fixed positions to monitor the change of environmental

  16. Unusual rocks and mineralisation in a new carbonatite complex at Kandaguba, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipiuk, A. N.; Ivanikov, V. V.; Bulakh, A. G.

    2001-04-01

    The paper presents the results from a reconnaissance investigation of carbonatites in a newly discovered alkaline complex in the Kola peninsula, Russia. The Kandaguba complex differs from other carbonatite plutons of the Kola alkaline province by (a) the absence of ultrabasic rocks, (b) widespread occurrence of nepheline-, cancrinite- and nepheline-cancrinite syenites and carbonatites and (c) presence of apatite-calcite ijolites and feldspar ijolites as separate intrusive phase. The Kandaguba carbonatites are notable for the predominance of late ferromagnesian varieties together with quartz and numerous accessory mineral species. The association of phosphates (monazite, gorseixite, goyazite, apatite), sulphides and tellurides (pyrite, sphalerite, galena, hessite), ilmenorutile, barite with quartz and ankerite is a remarkable feature of these carbonatites. The Kandaguba carbonatites are inferred to have been generated as the products of liquid immiscibility followed by differentiation of the carbonatite melt.

  17. Reconstruction of early Holocene paleoclimate and environment in the SW Kola region, Russian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grekov, Ivan; Kolka, Vasiliy; Syrykh, Liudmila; Nazarova, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    In the current period of the global climate change it becomes necessary to have a clear understanding of not only the changes taking place in the components of the natural environment, but also to understand development of all interactions between those components. Quaternary terrigenic sediments and lakes of the Kola Peninsula store information about the development of the region in the Late Glacial and Holocene: movements of the glacier, neotectonic activity, post-glacial rebound, formation and development of natural environments after deglaciation. Multi-proxy study of landscapes evolution of the Kola Peninsula in the Late Quaternary will help to establish a detailed reconstruction of climatic and environmental changes of this poor studied sector of the Arctic. Quaternary history on the Kola Peninsula is represented mainly by Late Pleistocene and Holocene sediments covering the Baltic Shield (Lavrova, 1960; Evzerov, 2015). Several palaeolimnological investigations in the Baltic Shield area have been performed earlier (Donner et al., 1977; Anundsen, 1985; Berglund, 2004). Studies of the southern coast of the Kola Peninsula have shown that marine transgression took place in the Late Pleistocene that was then replaced by a regression with variable speed. The slowdown of the uplift of the area took place between 8800 - 6800 BP (cal. years) and corresponded to the time of the Tapes transgression of the Arctic Ocean (Evzerov et al. 2010; Kolka, et al., 2013). Palaeoclimatic studies based on micro-paleontological analyzes indicate uneven development of the Kola Peninsula landscapes in the Late Glacial and Early Holocene. The northern coast of the Peninsula became free of ice first. In this area tundra-steppe vegetation was established for a short time and was later replaced by tundra (Snyder et al, 2000). Southern part of the Kola Peninsula was dependent on the conditions of deglaciation of the White Sea basin and cleared of ice much later (Evzerov et al., 2010; Kolka

  18. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Stemming boreholes. 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes. (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1322 - Stemming boreholes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Stemming boreholes 75.1322 Section 75.1322... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1322 Stemming boreholes (a) Only noncombustible material shall be used for stemming boreholes. (b) Stemming materials other...

  4. Borehole Effects in Triaxial Induction Logging

    SciTech Connect

    Bertete-Aguirre, H; Cherkaev, E; Tripp, A

    2000-09-15

    Traditional induction tools use source arrays in which both receiving and transmitting magnetic dipoles are oriented along the borehole axis. This orientation has been preferred for traditional isotropic formation evaluation in vertical boreholes because borehole effects are minimized by the source-receiver-borehole symmetry. However, this source-receiver geometry tends to minimize the response of potentially interesting geological features? such as bed resistivity anisotropy and fracturing which parallels the borehole. Traditional uniaxial tool responses are also ambiguous in highly deviated boreholes in horizontally layered formations. Resolution of these features would be enhanced by incorporating one or more source transmitters that are perpendicular to the borehole axis. Although these transmitters can introduce borehole effects, resistive oil-based muds minimize borehole effects for horizontal source data collection and interpretation. However, the use of oil based muds is contraindicated in environmentally sensitive areas. For this reason, it is important to be able to assess the influence of conductive water based muds on the new generation of triaxial induction tools directed toward geothermal resource evaluation and to develop means of ameliorating any deleterious effects. The present paper investigates the effects of a borehole on triaxial measurements. The literature contains a great deal of work on analytic expressions for the EM response of a magnetic dipole contained in a borehole with possible invasion zones. Moran and Gianzero (1979) for example investigate borehole effects using such an expression. They show that for conductive borehole fluids, the borehole response can easily swamp the formation response for horizontal dipoles. This is also true when the source dipoles are enclosed in a resistive cavity, as shown by Howard (1981) using a mode match modeling technique.

  5. Comprehensive paleoseismic geological studies in a key site in southwestern Kola Peninsula (Northeast of the Fennoscandian Shield)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaeva, S. B.; Nikonov, A. A.; Shvarev, S. V.; Rodkin, M. V.

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers the results of detailed paleoseismic and geological investigations in a key site in the wall of the Imandra Lake depression (Kola Peninsula Region, Northeast of the Fennoscandian Shield). Study of different groups of paleoseismic deformations developed in the fault zone and the application of new methods and techniques made it possible to identify a large seismotectonic zone characterized by great earthquakes at the end of the Late Glacial and in the Holocene. The investigation data are indicative of the necessity to estimate the seismic potential in the Kola Atomic plant area in a different way.

  6. The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, A.; Carsey, F.; Lane, A.; Engelhardt, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Antartic Ice Borehole Probe mission is a glaciological investigation, scheduled for November 2000-2001, that will place a probe in a hot-water drilled hole in the West Antartic ice sheet. The objectives of the probe are to observe ice-bed interactions with a downward looking camera, and ice inclusions and structure, including hypothesized ice accretion, with a side-looking camera.

  7. Borehole drilling fluid and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, D.B.; Lauzon, R.V.

    1981-11-17

    An improved drilling fluid and method for drilling a borehole, the drilling fluid comprising an aqueous dispersion of an emulsion polymerized latex comprised of an interpolymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer and at least one other, non-carboxylated polymerizable monomer, the latex being of a type which undergoes rapid increase in viscosity upon the addition of a sufficient amount of a basic material.

  8. Borehole drilling fluid and method

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, D. B.; Lauzon, R. V.

    1984-12-04

    An improved drilling fluid and method for drilling a borehole, the drilling fluid comprising an aqueous dispersion of an emulsion polymerized latex comprised of an interpolymer of an olefinically unsaturated carboxylic acid monomer and at least one other, non-carboxylated polymerizable monomer, the latex being of a type which undergoes rapid increase in viscosity upon the addition of a sufficient amount of a basic material.

  9. Electromagnetic fields in cased borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ki Ha; Kim, Hee Joon; Uchida, Toshihiro

    2001-07-20

    Borehole electromagnetic (EM) measurements, using fiberglass-cased boreholes, have proven useful in oil field reservoir characterization and process monitoring (Wilt et al., 1995). It has been presumed that these measurements would be impossible in steel-cased wells due to the very large EM attenuation and phase shifts. Recent laboratory and field studies have indicated that detection of EM signals through steel casing should be possible at low frequencies, and that these data provide a reasonable conductivity image at a useful scale. Thus, we see an increased application of this technique to mature oilfields, and an immediate extension to geothermal industry as well. Along with the field experiments numerical model studies have been carried out for analyzing the effect of steel casing to the EM fields. The model used to be an infinitely long uniform casing embedded in a homogeneous whole space. Nevertheless, the results indicated that the formation signal could be accurately recovered if the casing characteristics were independently known (Becker et al., 1998; Lee el al., 1998). Real steel-cased wells are much more complex than the simple laboratory models used in work to date. The purpose of this study is to develop efficient numerical methods for analyzing EM fields in realistic settings, and to evaluate the potential application of EM technologies to cross-borehole and single-hole environment for reservoir characterization and monitoring.

  10. Geoscience experiments in boreholes: instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    Drilling is the only method available to obtain unambiguous information on processes occurring in the earth's crust. When core and virgin formation fluid samples are available, the geological state of the formation may be defined in the vicinity of the borehole with little ambiguity. Unfortunately, core recovery is expensive and often not complete, and drilling muds contaminate formation fluids. Thus, investigations turn to downhole instrumentation systems to evaluate in situ formation parameters. Some such instruments and the associated interpretative techniques are well developed, especially if they find usage in the evaluation of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Other sytems, particularly those that yield geochemical information are, at best, shallow-hole devices, but they could be engineered for deep-hole applications. Interpretations of logs obtained in igneous and metamorphic systems are not well developed. Finally, measurements away from the immediate vicinity of the borehole are possible but the technology is primitive. In situ instrumentation capabilities and needs for research in boreholes will be reviewed; the review will include details from recent US and European discussions of instrumentation needs. The capability and availability of slim hole logging tools will be summarized. Temperature limitations of the overall logging system will be discussed (current limits are 300/sup 0/C) and options for measurements to 500/sup 0/C will be described.

  11. Alpine-type tectonics in the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudruk, S. V.; Balagansky, V. V.; Gorbunov, I. A.; Raevsky, A. B.

    2013-07-01

    The Kola region in the northeastern Baltic Shield is characterized by diverse Paleoproterozoic collision processes. The Keivy Terrane is one of the major tectonic units in the northeastern foreland of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Collisional Orogen, which markedly differs in a number of parameters from other tectonic units of the Kola region. The study of the Keivy Terrane allowed us to unravel one more basic difference: the large Paleoproterozoic sheath synform of the Serpovidny (Crescentic) Range localized in this terrane. Its core is occupied by volcanic and sedimentary rocks, which correlate with the fill of the Imandra-Varzuga Rift; the limbs are composed of metamorphosed mature sedimentary rocks known as Keivy paraschists of Neoarchean or Paleoproterozoic age. The lower limb of the Serpovidny Synform is strongly squeezed, whereas the upper limb consists of almost undeformed rocks. The deformed rocks underwent ductile flow under conditions of simple or general shear. In the degree of its asymmetry and main parameters, the Serpovidny Synform is similar to the plunging and recumbent anticlines in the Helvetic nappes of the Alps. It is concluded that the Paleoproterozoic core of the Serpovidny Sheath Synform, or plunging anticline, is a fragment of the almost completely eroded deep Serpovidny Nappe of the Helvetic type. During the collision related to the Lapland-Kola Orogeny (1.9-2.0 Ga), this nappe was pushed out northward from the Paleoproterozoic Imandra-Varzuga Rift, which is situated 50 km south of the Serpovidny structure, and thrust over the Keivy paraschists. The latter, together with underlying the Lebyazhka Gneiss, were folded in the process of thrusting and were involved in the structure of the Serpovidny Synform. The Keivy paraschists make up a para-autochthon or a separate nappe of the Pennine type. The Archean Lebyazhka metafelsic volcanics underlie the Keivy paraschists and overlie granitoids of the Archean basement that remained undeformed

  12. Garcinia kola seeds: is the aqueous extract a true aphrodisiac in male Wistar rats?

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Quadri, A L

    2012-01-01

    The age long acclaimed aphrodisiac potentials of Garcinia kola seeds in some parts of Western Nigeria has not been substantiated with scientific evidence. In this study, we have decided to evaluate the effect of aqueous seed extract of G. kola at the doses of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight on sexual behaviour of male rats. Male rats weighing 215.00 ± 18.58 g were randomized completely into four groups (A-D) of six animals each. Animals in group A received, orally, 0.5 ml of distilled water only while those in groups B, C and D received same volume containing 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight of the seed extract respectively. Frequencies of mount (MF), intromission (IF), genital toilet (GTF) and ejaculation (EF) as well as latencies of mount (ML), intromission (IL) and ejaculation (EL) were evaluated following the pairing of male rats (1:1) with non-oestrous female rats. The parameters were monitored for the first (15-30 min), second (75-90 min) and third (180195 min) observatory periods. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing (LH) and follicle stimulating hormones (FSH) were also determined. Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of saponins (2.78%), cardiac glycosides (0.26%), cardenolides and dienolides (0.24%), flavonoids (1.28%) and steroids (1.14%). The 25 and 100 mg/kg body weight increased (P<0.05) the MF whereas the ML was decreased by all the doses of the extract. MF and ML were not altered during the second observatory period whereas the 50 mg/kg body weight increased these parameters during the third observatory period. Other sexual behaviour parameters as well as serum testosterone, FSH and LH were not significantly altered throughout the observatory periods. Overall, the results revealed that G. kola seeds did not have sex enhancing potential as claimed. Therefore, the acclaimed pro sexual effect of Garcinia kola seeds is scientifically untrue. This study has refuted the claim that one of the rationales for consuming the seeds

  13. Hydraulically controlled discrete sampling from open boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater sampling from open boreholes in fractured-rock aquifers is particularly challenging because of mixing and dilution of fluid within the borehole from multiple fractures. This note presents an alternative to traditional sampling in open boreholes with packer assemblies. The alternative system called ZONFLO (zonal flow) is based on hydraulic control of borehole flow conditions. Fluid from discrete fractures zones are hydraulically isolated allowing for the collection of representative samples. In rough-faced open boreholes and formations with less competent rock, hydraulic containment may offer an attractive alternative to physical containment with packers. Preliminary test results indicate a discrete zone can be effectively hydraulically isolated from other zones within a borehole for the purpose of groundwater sampling using this new method.

  14. Impact of acid and trace metals deposition on freshwater invertebrates in north-eastern Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.

    1996-12-31

    Freshwater invertebrate communities in a total 400 lakes and streams in northeastern Norway, Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula, subjected to the atmospheric deposition were studied. The severe influence of toxic heavy metals, dusts from smelters and mineral enrichment factories were found in the Kola Peninsula. The negative acidification effects on benthic communities were found in the Jarfjord (Norway), Enontekio, Ranua-Posio and Kittila-Kolari (Finnish Lapland) areas and in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Taxa groups, known to be sensitive to acidification, such as gammarids, snails, mayflies, stone flies, were represented with few species and in a low abundance. Heavy metals accumulation in biota is recorded in areas surrounding nickel smelters in the Kola Peninsula. The metal concentration invertebrates in remote areas is rather wide and depend on an air deposition, characteristics of lake catchment areas, as well as water acidity. The environmental variables, such as lake hydrological type, altitude of lakes, dominant substratum type, abundance of macrophytes and mosses in sampling area, content of pollutants in water also show significant relationships with metal concentration in invertebrates. The most severe negative effects on biota were found in waters with low pH and simultaneously contaminated by heavy metals. The biological method for estimation of simultaneously water acidification and contamination is suggested.

  15. Shear wave transducer for boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, N.H.

    1984-08-23

    A technique and apparatus is provided for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data are used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  16. Borehole Summary Report for Core Hole C4998 – Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Garcia, Benjamin J.

    2006-12-15

    Seismic borehole C4998 was cored through the upper portion of the Columbia River Basalt Group and Ellensburg Formation to provide detailed lithologic information and intact rock samples that represent the geology at the Waste Treatment Plant. This report describes the drilling of borehole C4998 and documents the geologic data collected during the drilling of the cored portion of the borehole.

  17. ABCGheritage project - promoting geotourism in northern Finland, northern Norway and the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pihlaja, Jouni; Johansson, Peter; Lauri, Laura S.

    2014-05-01

    Nature tourism has been a growing business sector in the Barents area during the recent decades. With the purpose to develop nature tourism in a sustainable way, a cooperation project ABCGheritage - Arctic Biological, Cultural and Geological Heritage has been carried out. Project has received partial funding from the EU Kolarctic ENPI program. In the geoheritage part of the project the main activities were aimed to develop pro-environmental ways of geotourism in the area. The three main participants in the geoheritage part of the project are the Geological Survey of Finland, Northern Finland Office, the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Bioforsk Soil and Environment from northeastern Norway. The duration of the project is 2012-2014 and most of the work has already been completed even if most of the results are not published yet. Totally ten different tasks have been implemented in the geological part of the project. The largest task has been the preparation of a geological outdoor map and guide book of the Khibiny Tundra locating in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. In Finland already 11 such maps have been published, and the experiences gained during their production have been used in this project, too. Geological heritage trails to the Khibiny Tundra have also been created and they will be drawn on the map. The second concrete result is the Barents Tour for Geotourist -guide, which will be published as a guide book, web pages and an exhibition. The route comprises ca 35 best geological demonstration sites along the circle route from northern Finland to northeastern Norway, from there to Kola Peninsula and then back to Finland. Information of the route will be available for all interested travelers. In addition to the geological outdoor map of the Khibiny Tundra and "Barents Tour for Geotourists"-guide, the primary outputs of the project are the geological nature trails on the field, geological

  18. Backtracking urbanization from borehole temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Peter; Rivera, Jaime A.; Blum, Philipp; Rybach, Ladislaus

    2016-04-01

    The thermal regime in shallow ground is influenced by various factors such as short and long term climatic variations, atmospheric urban warming, land use change and geothermal energy use. Temperature profiles measured in boreholes represent precious archives of the past thermal conditions at the ground surface. Changes at the ground surface induce time-dependent variations in heat transfer. Consequently, instantaneous and persistent changes such as recent atmospheric climate change or paving of streets cause perturbations in temperature profiles, which now can be found in depths of hundred meters and even more. In our work, we focus on the influence of urbanization on temperature profiles. We inspect profiles measured in borehole heat exchanger (BHE) tubes before start of energy extraction. These were obtained at four locations in the city and suburbs of Zurich, Switzerland, by lowering a specifically developed temperature logging sensor in the 200-400 m long tubes. Increased temperatures indicate the existence of a subsurface urban heat island (SUHI). At the studied locations groundwater flow can be considered negligible, and thus conduction is the governing heat transport process. These locations are also favorable, as long-term land use changes and atmospheric temperature variations are well documented for more than the last century. For simulating transient land use changes and their effects on borehole temperature profiles, a novel analytical framework based on the superposition of Green's functions is presented. This allows flexible and fast computation of the long term three-dimensional evolution of the thermal regime in shallow ground. It also facilitates calibration of unknown spatially distributed parameter values and their correlation. With the given spatial and temporal discretization of land use and background atmospheric temperature variations, we are able to quantify the heat contribution by asphalt and buildings. By Bayesian inversion it is

  19. The primary circuit materials properties results analysis performed on archive material used in NPP V-1 and Kola NPP Units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Kupca, L.; Beno, P.

    1997-04-01

    A very brief summary is provided of a primary circuit piping material properties analysis. The analysis was performed for the Bohunice V-1 reactor and the Kola-1 and -2 reactors. Assessment was performed on Bohunice V-1 archive materials and primary piping material cut from the Kola units after 100,000 hours of operation. Main research program tasks included analysis of mechanical properties, corrosion stability, and microstructural properties. Analysis results are not provided.

  20. Kimberly Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimberly drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama and is located near the margin of the plain. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  1. Deep Borehole Disposal Safety Analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Stein, Emily; Price, Laura L.; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Tillman, Jack Bruce

    2016-10-01

    This report presents a preliminary safety analysis for the deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept, using a safety case framework. A safety case is an integrated collection of qualitative and quantitative arguments, evidence, and analyses that substantiate the safety, and the level of confidence in the safety, of a geologic repository. This safety case framework for DBD follows the outline of the elements of a safety case, and identifies the types of information that will be required to satisfy these elements. At this very preliminary phase of development, the DBD safety case focuses on the generic feasibility of the DBD concept. It is based on potential system designs, waste forms, engineering, and geologic conditions; however, no specific site or regulatory framework exists. It will progress to a site-specific safety case as the DBD concept advances into a site-specific phase, progressing through consent-based site selection and site investigation and characterization.

  2. Kimama Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2011-07-04

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Kimama drill site was set up to acquire a continuous record of basaltic volcanism along the central volcanic axis and to test the extent of geothermal resources beneath the Snake River aquifer. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  3. Efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works in the Kola Subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2014-05-01

    Remediation of the technogenic barrens around the Pechenganikel works on the Kola Peninsula resulted in the improvement of the soil properties, namely, in a decrease in acidity and enrichment with nutrients, which continued for several years. However, the reaction of most of the treated soils remained strongly acid, and the concentrations of available calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus were much lower than their background levels and the demands of the plants for nutrients (especially, for magnesium and potassium). The soils were depleted in available manganese and zinc. Most of the treated soils contained the same (or higher) amounts of available nickel and copper compounds in comparison with their untreated analogues. The willow plantations on the remediated plots were in a satisfactory state, but they experienced a deficit of magnesium, manganese, and zinc; they consumed elevated amounts of nickel and copper. Recommendations on the nutrient regime of the soils aimed at decreasing the mobility and biological availability of heavy metals were made.

  4. Alternative technologies for remediation of technogenic barrens in the Kola Subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koptsik, G. N.; Koptsik, S. V.; Smirnova, I. E.

    2016-11-01

    The efficiency of remediation of technogenic barrens under the reduction of air pollutant emissions from the Severonikel smelter in the Kola Subarctic is determined largely by the soil state and the technology applied. The covering of the contaminated soils with artificially made material based on organomineral substrates and the following liming and fertilization promoted a sharp and long-term reduction of acidity, decrease in the biological availability of heavy metals, increase in the supply with nutrients, and improvement of the life state of willow and birch plantations. The effect of economically more profitable chemo-phytostabilization is short-term; it requires constant maintenance. Under the current production and a high level of soil contamination, repeated measures are required to optimize the soil reaction, supply with nutrients, and to correct the availability of heavy metals in the soils based on the results of continuous monitoring

  5. An ecotoxicity assessment of contaminated forest soils from the Kola Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Paton, Graeme I; Viventsova, Ekaterina; Kumpene, Jurate; Wilson, Michael J; Weitz, Hedda J; Dawson, Julian J C

    2006-02-15

    Point source copper and nickel contamination emanating from smelters of the Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, has been observed since the mid-1960s. Previous studies have concentrated on the spatial distribution of heavy metals and their effects on forest ecology and indigenous mammals and birds. Soil is perceived as the major repository for the metal pollutants but there is a need to link the soil concentration of pollutants on the Kola Peninsula with biological parameters. Many standard methods currently used in soil ecotoxicology are developed and refined with artificial amendments and rarely modified for use in historically contaminated environments. In this study, forest soils were sampled along a 34 km transect from the smelter and analysed both chemically and with a range of ecologically relevant biological tests. Soil respiration, total nematode count, microbial heterotrophic numbers and minimal inhibitory concentrations to copper and nickel were carried out on bulk soil. The soil pore water was tested with bacterial and fungal bioluminescence-based biosensors. The heterotrophic numbers and their inhibitory concentration showed strong correlation with heavy metal concentrations while decreasing biosensor luminescence was related to increasing copper concentrations present in the pore waters. Overall, there were considerable impacts on some microbial parameters but other measures including respiration and nematode populations were insensitive to pollutant levels. While chemical analysis of heavy metals proved essential in defining the extent of contamination, environmentally relevant ecotoxicological tests complemented these data by demonstrating pollutant impact. Ecotoxicological approaches that study both the bulk soil and pore water may represent the key to understanding the fate of heavy metal in soils.

  6. Surveying of a borehole for position determination

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

    1985-04-02

    A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

  7. Deployment of the Oklahoma borehole seismic experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Rock, D.W.

    1989-01-20

    This paper discusses the Oklahoma borehole seismic experiment, currently in operation, set up by members of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Treaty Verification Program and the Oklahoma Geophysical Observatory to determine deep-borehole seismic characteristics in geology typical of large regions in the Soviet Union. We evaluated and logged an existing 772-m deep borehole on the Observatory site by running caliper, cement bonding, casing inspection, and hole-deviation logs. Two Teledyne Geotech borehole-clamping seismometers were placed at various depths and spacings in the deep borehole. Currently, they are deployed at 727 and 730 m. A Teledyne Geotech shallow-borehole seismometer was mounted in a 4.5-m hole, one meter from the deep borehole. The seismometers' system coherency were tested and found to be excellent to 35 Hz. We have recorded seismic noise, quarry blasts, regional earthquakes and teleseisms in the present configuration. We will begin a study of seismic noise and attenuation as a function of depth in the near future. 7 refs., 18 figs.

  8. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, Bruce P.; Sleefe, Gerard E.; Striker, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    A borehole seismic tool including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric meter in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  9. Advanced motor driven clamped borehole seismic receiver

    DOEpatents

    Engler, B.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Striker, R.P.

    1993-02-23

    A borehole seismic tool is described including a borehole clamp which only moves perpendicular to the borehole. The clamp is driven by an electric motor, via a right angle drive. When used as a seismic receiver, the tool has a three part housing, two of which are hermetically sealed. Accelerometers or geophones are mounted in one hermetically sealed part, the electric motor in the other hermetically sealed part, and the clamp and right angle drive in the third part. Preferably the tool includes cable connectors at both ends. Optionally a shear plate can be added to the clamp to extend the range of the tool.

  10. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4993

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Colleen F.; Barnett, D. BRENT; Bowles, Nathan A.; Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    A core hole (C4998) and three boreholes (C4993, C4996, and C4997) were drilled to acquire stratigraphic and downhole seismic data to model potential seismic impacts and to refine design specifications and seismic criteria for the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) under construction on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4993 was completed through the Saddle Mountains Basalt, the upper portion of the Wanapum Basalt, and associated sedimentary interbeds, to provide a continuous record of the rock penetrated by all four holes and to provide access to the subsurface for geophysical measure¬ment. Presented and compiled in this report are field-generated records for the deep mud rotary borehole C4993 at the WTP site. Material for C4993 includes borehole logs, lithologic summary, and record of rock chip samples collected during drilling through the months of August through early October. The borehole summary report also includes documentation of the mud rotary drilling, borehole logging, and sample collection.

  11. Nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola (Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota): An underutilised fruit.

    PubMed

    Ene-Obong, Henrietta N; Okudu, Helen O; Asumugha, Ukamaka V

    2016-02-15

    The nutrient and phytochemical composition of two varieties of Monkey kola: Cola parchycarpa and Cola lepidota were determined. The pulps were extracted, grated and dried using solar dryer. Dried pulps were milled into flour with attrition milling machine (0.5mm sieve size). The nutrient compositions were determined using standard AOAC methods. Gravimetric and spectrophotometric methods were used for phytochemical determinations. There were significant (p<0.05) differences in the proximate and some mineral and vitamin composition of the two varieties. Most abundant minerals were calcium (195-199mg for C. parchycarpa), potassium (204-209mg/100g for C. lepidota) and β-carotene (2755-5028μg/100g for C. parchycarpa). Calcium:phosphorus and sodium:potassium ratios were adequate (>1.0 and ⩽0.06, respectively). Monkey kola had substantial amounts of iron, zinc, and copper; the B-vitamins and vitamin C. The phytochemical contents were quiet high, the most abundant being flavonoids (415-494mg/100g). Monkey kola is a fruit that should be fully exploited for its potential health benefits.

  12. Effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed on selected serum electrolytes and trace metals in male Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agada, P O; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    The effects of various doses of dietary intake of Garcinia kola seed powder [incorporated in animal feed at levels of 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w and fed daily for six weeks] on serum levels of selected electrolytes [K+, Na+, CI-, HCO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+] and trace metals [Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+] were studied in male Albino rats [100-150 g body wt]. The pair-fed controls received basal feed diet daily for six weeks. Results showed a significant [P<0.05] dose dependent elevation of serum CI-, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+. These findings point to a possible relationship with already documented histopathology of various organs [such as the gonads] induced by Garcinia kola seed. It is also conjectured that the documented antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, antidiabetic and antifertility effects of Garcinia kola seed may have underlying involvement of alterations in body levels of trace metals and electrolytes.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1318 - Loading boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) When loading boreholes drilled at an angle of 45 degrees or greater from the horizontal in solid rock or loading long holes drilled upward in anthracite mines— (1) The first cartridge in each...

  18. Borehole Deformation and Failure in Anisotropic Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaede, Oliver; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Lumley, David

    2010-05-01

    Borehole breakouts develop due to compressive shear failure along the borehole wall and subsequent spalling of near wellbore rock. These compressive shear failures can occur during drilling and lead to a borehole enlargement in the direction of the minimum horizontal stress. In order to investigate the initiation of borehole breakouts in anisotropic media a numerical analysis of the borehole deformation has been performed. The numerical model is based on an extensive geophysical and geomechanical dataset, provided by BHP Billiton Petroleum. This dataset was established during the development and production phase of an oil reservoir on the North West Shelf, Western Australia. The aim of this study is to estimate the severity of the influence of anisotropy on the breakout process. It is proposed that there is a hierarchy among the possible influences on the breakout process: 1. The regional stress field has a first order effect on the borehole breakout direction. 2. This is followed by a preferential fracture direction or anisotropic failure criterion of the medium. 3. And finally the elastic anisotropy of the medium affecting the local stress field around the borehole. A clear separation of these influences through methods of observation is not always trivial. Firstly, the preferential fracture direction and the elastic anisotropy, at least to some degree, are functions of the regional stress field. Secondly, most of the knowledge we have about the regional stress field in relatively aseismic regions is inferred from borehole breakout data. Therefore a numerical simulation is chosen as a method of study. Material properties like elastic anisotropy or failure criterion and even their dependency on the stress field can easily be manipulated. This geophysical and geomechanical data is used to populate the numerical model. The regional stress field is implemented as a boundary condition. The commercial Finite Element package ABAQUS is used to obtain the stress / strain

  19. Borehole Summary Report for Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Borehole C4996

    SciTech Connect

    Adams , S. C.; Ahlquist, Stephen T.; Fetters, Jeffree R.; Garcia, Ben; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-01-28

    This report presents the field-generated borehole log, lithologic summary, and the record of samples collected during the recent drilling and sampling of the basalt interval of borehole C4996 at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site. Borehole C4996 was one of four exploratory borings, one core hole and three boreholes, drilled to investigate and acquire detailed stratigraphic and down-hole seismic data. This data will be used to define potential seismic impacts and refine design specifications for the Hanford Site WTP.

  20. Archean to Paleoproterozoic polymetamorphic history of the Salma eclogite in Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imayama, Takeshi; Oh, Chang-Whan; Park, Chan-Soo; Yi, Keewook; Jung, Haemyeong

    2015-04-01

    One of the most important questions in the Earth Science is when and how plate tectonics operate in the Precambrian time. The tectonic and thermal evolution of the Precambrian eclogite is significant key for understanding the Precambrian geodynamic mechanisms. Eclogites in Kola Peninsula, Russia are some of the oldest eclogites of the world, but there has been much debate about the timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism: Archean (e.g. Volodichev et al. 2004; Mints et al., 2010) or Paleoproterozoic (e.g. Skublob et al., 2011, 2012). The controversy is mainly because of the lack of zircon dating coupled with the formation of garnet and omphacite. In this study, we present geochronological, petrographic, and geochemical data from the Salma eclogites in the Kola Peninsula, Russia to characterize subduction and collision processes in the Precambrian. Microstructural observations, P-T analyses, zircon inclusion analyses, and U-Pb zircon dating revealed multiple metamorphic stages that the Salma eclogite underwent. The amphibolite facies metamorphic event firstly occurred at 2.73-2.72 Ga during Archean. In the Paleoproterozoic period, the Salma eclogites underwent prograde stage of epidote-amphibolite facies metamorphism. The eclogite facies metamorphic event took place under the P-T condition of 16-18 kbar and 740-770 °C at 1.89-1.88 Ga, with a subsequent granulite facies metamorphism during decompression stage from 18 kbar to 9-12 kbar. Finally, later amphibolite facies metamorphism occurred at 8-10 kbar and 590-610 °C on cooling. The Archean metamorphic zircons that contain inclusions of Grt + Am + Bt + Pl + Qtz + Rt are unzoned grains with dark CL, and they are relatively enriched in HREE. In contrast, the 1.89-1.88 Ga sector or concentric zoned zircons with pale-grey CL include inclusions of Grt + Omp + Ca-Cpx + Am + Bt + Qtz + Rt, and they have the flat pattern of HREE due to the amounts of abundant garnet during the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Whole rock

  1. Igneous layering in the peralkaline intrusions ,Kola Peninsula :leading role of gravitational differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogarko, L. N..

    2012-04-01

    In the center of Kola Peninsula there are two large layered intrusions of agpaitic nepheline syenites - Khibina and Lovozero. . The Khibina alkaline massif (Kola Peninsula,Russia) hosts the world's largest and economically most important apatite deposit. The Khibina massif is a complex multiphase body built up from a number of ring-like and conical intrusions. The apatite bearing intrusion is ring-like and is represented by a layered body of ijolitic composition with a thickness of about 1 - 2 km. The upper zone is represented by different types of apatite ores. These rocks consist of 60-90% euhedral very small (tenths of mm)apatite crystals. The lower zone has mostly ijolitic composition. The lower zone grades into underlying massive urtite consisting of 75-90% large (several mm) euhedral nepheline. Our experimental studies of systems with apatite demonstrated the near-eutectic nature of the apatite-bearing intrusion, resulting in practically simultaneous crystallization of nepheline, apatite and pyroxene. The mathematical model of the formation of the layered apatite-bearing intrusion based on the processes of sedimentation under the conditions of steady state convection taking account of crystal sizes is proposed. Under the conditions of steady-state convection large crystals of nepheline continuously had been settling forming massive underlying urtite whereas smaller crystals of pyroxenes, nepheline and apatite had been stirred in the convecting melt. During the cooling the intensity of convection decreased causing a settling of smaller crystals of nepheline and pyroxene and later very small crystalls of apatite in the upper part of alkaline magma chamber. The Lovozero massif, the largest of the Globe layered peralkaline intrusion, comprises super-large rare-metal (Nb, Ta, REE) deposit. The main ore mineral is loparite (Na, Ce, Ca)2 (Ti, Nb)2O6 which was mined during many years. The composition of cumulus loparite changed systematically upward through the

  2. The comparative effects of chronic consumption of kola nut (Cola nitida) and caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice.

    PubMed

    Umoren, E B; Osim, E E; Udoh, P B

    2009-06-01

    The comparative effects of chronic [28 days] consumption of kola nut and its active constituent, caffeine diets on locomotor behaviour and body weights in mice were investigated. Thirty adult Swiss white mice [15-30 g body weight], were used for the study. The open field-maze was employed for the evaluation of locomotor behaviour. Mice in the control group [n=10] were fed normal rodent chow, mice in the kola nut-fed group [n=10] were fed kola diet [25 % wt/wt of rodent chow] while those in the caffeine-fed group [n=10] were fed caffeine diet [0.66% wt/wt of rodent chow] for 4 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Daily food intake, water intake and body weight change were also measured. Daily food intake in the kola nut and caffeine-fed group of mice was significantly [P<0.001 respectively] lower than the control. There was also a significant [P<0.001] decrease in daily water intake in the caffeine-fed group compared to the control whereas, the apparent decrease of water intake in the kola nut-fed group was not significantly different from the control. Body weight change was also significantly [P<0.001 and P<0.05 respectively] lower in the kola nut and caffeine-fed groups of mice when compared to the control. The frequency of rearing in the open field was significantly [P<0.01] lower in the caffeine-fed group of mice when compared to the control. The frequency of grooming was also significantly [P<0.05] lower in the caffeine-fed group of mice when compared to the control. There was also a significant [P<0.05] decrease in the frequency of light-dark transitions in the light/dark transition box for the caffeine-fed group when compared to the control. The results showed that chronic consumption of kola nut and caffeine diets caused decrease in food intake and body weight. Consumption of caffeine-diet also significantly decreased water intake and locomotor activity. The effect of kola nut-diets on water intake and locomotor activity was

  3. Raman spectra of probably shock-metamorphosed zircon in structures of the Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaulina, Tatiana; Nerovich, Luidmila; Lialina, Luidmila; Il'chenko, Vadim; Bocharov, Vladimir; Kunakkuzin, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Zircon crystals were studied by means of Raman spectroscopy from certain structures of the Kola Peninsula, for which impact events are expected according to geological and geochemical data: circular structure in Javrozersky area of the Tanaelv belt and granophyres of Jarva-Varaka layered massif of the Monchegorsky ore district. Zircons from anorthosites of the Javrozersky area showed some features of impact zircons: wavy extinction, blurred "aurora-like" CL image and a presence of additional bands in the Raman spectrum, which may indicate the presence of ZrSiO4 with the scheelite-type structure (reidite) surrounded by zircon material. Zircon crystals of Yavra-Varaka granophyres showed variation of Raman spectra from the core part of crystals with typical zircon Raman pattern to complete absence of spectral bands in the marginal parts and rims. There was also a transition zone between cores and marginal parts of crystals, where the Raman spectrum is "blurred". Such pattern may be associated with the transformation of crystalline zircon to diaplectic glass under the influence of shock metamorphism, since the Jarva-Varaka massif according to geological and geochemical data is compared with the Sudbury structure, for which impact origin is assumed. The work is supported by RSF grant N 16-17-10051.

  4. Time of formation and genesis of yttrium-zirconium mineralization in the Sakharjok massif, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrin, V. R.; Skublov, S. G.; Balashov, Yu. A.; Lyalina, L. M.; Rodionov, N. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Kola geotectonic province in the northeastern Fennoscandian Shield accommodates a significant number of alkaline rock massifs differing in age. They are of mantle and mantle-crustal origin (alkali and nepheline syenites, carbonatites) and related to crustal sources (Neoarchean alkali granites). Among them, the Neoarchean Sakharjok nepheline syenite massif is related to the oldest intrusions of this kind bearing yttrium-zirconium mineralization. The crystallization of alkali syenite pertaining to the first intrusive phase of the intrusive Sakharjok massif is dated to 2645 ± 7 Ma, and this implies that this syenite postdated alkali granites (2.66-2.67 Ga). To date the yttrium-zirconium ore, we applied the local U-Pb method to zircon crystals occurring in the mineralized block hosted in nepheline syenite. The earliest fragments of zircon crystallized 1832 ± 7 Ma ago; the age of metamorphism is estimated at 1784 ± 13 Ma. These dates indicate the Paleoproterozoic age of the yttrium-zirconium mineralization, which was formed as a product of fluid reworking of the Neoarchean nepheline syenite of the Sakharjok massif.

  5. BASIMO - Borehole Heat Exchanger Array Simulation and Optimization Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Borehole heat exchangers represent a well-established technology, which pushes for new fields of applications and novel modifications. Current simulation tools cannot - or only to some extent - describe features like inclined or partly insulated boreholes unless they run fully discretized models of the borehole heat exchangers. However, fully discretized models often come at a high computational cost, especially for large arrays of borehole heat exchangers. We present a tool, which uses one dimensional thermal resistance and capacity models for the borehole heat exchangers coupled with a numerical finite element model for the subsurface heat transport. An unstructured tetrahedral mesh bypasses the limitations of structured grids for borehole path geometries, while the thermal resistance and capacity model is improved to account for borehole heat exchanger properties changing with depth. The presented tool benefits from the fast analytical solution of the thermal interactions within the boreholes while still allowing for a detailed consideration of the borehole heat exchanger properties.

  6. Optimization of Borehole Heat Exchanger Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Daniel; Rühaak, Wolfram; Welsch, Bastian; Oladyshkin, Sergey; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Arrays of borehole heat exchangers are an increasingly popular source for renewable energy. Furthermore, they can serve as borehole thermal energy storages for seasonally fluctuating heat sources like solar thermal energy or district heating grids. However, the uncertainty of geological parameters and the nonlinear behavior of the complex system make it difficult to simulate and predict the required design of borehole heat exchanger arrays. As a result, the arrays easily turn out to be over or undersized, which compromises the economic feasibility of these systems. Here, we present a novel optimization strategy for the design of borehole thermal energy storages. The arbitrary polynomial chaos expansion method is used to build a proxy model from a set of numerical training simulations, which allows for the consideration of parameter uncertainties. Thus, the resulting proxy model bypasses the problem of excessive computation time for the numerous function calls required for a mathematical optimization. Additionally, we iteratively refine the proxy model during the optimization procedure using additional numerical simulation runs. With the presented solution, many aspects of borehole heat exchanger arrays can be optimized under geological uncertainty.

  7. Borehole survey system utilizing strapdown inertial navigation

    SciTech Connect

    Hulsing, R.H.

    1989-03-14

    A signal processing method is described for use in borehole surveys, consisting of: (a) transforming the acceleration signals in the first coordinate system to obtain inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in a second coordinate system that is fixed relative to the earth, the inertial signals in the second coordinate system including probe velocity signals; (b) generating a signal representative of the amount of cable being fed into the entrance opening of the borehole; (c) processing the signal representative of the amount of cable being feed into the entrance opening of the borehole; (d) transforming the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the second coordinate system into inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the first coordinate system; (e) combining the signal representative of the progress of the probe along the borehole with the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the first coordinate system to obtain error signals; (f) transforming the error signals into the second coordinate system to obtain error correction signals; (g) combining the error correction signals with the inertial signals representative of movement of the probe in the second coordinate system to obtain corrected probe velocity signals; and (h) integrating the corrected probe velocity signals to obtain signals representative of the course of the borehole relative to the second coordinate system.

  8. Gamma-ray spectral calculations for uranium borehole logging

    SciTech Connect

    Close, D.A.; Evans, M.L.; Jain, M.

    1980-06-01

    Gamma-ray transport calculations were performed to determine the energy distribution of gamma rays inside a borehole introduced into an infinite medium. The gamma rays from the naturally occurring radioactive isotopes of potassium, thorium, and uranium were uniformly distributed in a sandstone formation (having a porosity of 0.30 and a saturation of 1.0) surrounding the borehole. A sonde was placed coaxially inside the borehole. Parametric studies were done to determine how the borehole radius, borehole fluid, and borehole casing influence the gamma-ray flux inside the sonde.

  9. Excess plutonium disposition: The deep borehole option

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.L.

    1994-08-09

    This report reviews the current status of technologies required for the disposition of plutonium in Very Deep Holes (VDH). It is in response to a recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) report which addressed the management of excess weapons plutonium and recommended three approaches to the ultimate disposition of excess plutonium: (1) fabrication and use as a fuel in existing or modified reactors in a once-through cycle, (2) vitrification with high-level radioactive waste for repository disposition, (3) burial in deep boreholes. As indicated in the NAS report, substantial effort would be required to address the broad range of issues related to deep bore-hole emplacement. Subjects reviewed in this report include geology and hydrology, design and engineering, safety and licensing, policy decisions that can impact the viability of the concept, and applicable international programs. Key technical areas that would require attention should decisions be made to further develop the borehole emplacement option are identified.

  10. Using borehole geophysics and cross-borehole flow testing to define hydraulic connections between fracture zones in bedrock aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1993-01-01

    Nearly a decade of intensive geophysical logging at fractured rock hydrology research sites indicates that geophysical logs can be used to identify and characterize fractures intersecting boreholes. However, borehole-to-borehole flow tests indicate that only a few of the apparently open fractures found to intersect boreholes conduct flow under test conditions. This paper presents a systematic approach to fracture characterization designed to define the distribution of fractures along boreholes, relate the measured fracture distribution to structure and lithology of the rock mass, and define the nature of fracture flow paths across borehole arrays. Conventional electrical resistivity, gamma, and caliper logs are used to define lithology and large-scale structure. Borehole wall image logs obtained with the borehole televiewer are used to give the depth, orientation, and relative size of fractures in situ. High-resolution flowmeter measurements are used to identify fractures conducting flow in the rock mass adjacent to the boreholes. Changes in the flow field over time are used to characterize the hydraulic properties of fracture intersections between boreholes. Application of this approach to an array of 13 boreholes at the Mirror Lake, New Hamsphire site demonstrates that the transient flow analysis can be used to distinguish between fractures communicating with each other between observation boreholes, and those that are hydraulically isolated from each other in the surrounding rock mass. The Mirror Lake results also demonstrate that the method is sensitive to the effects of boreholes on the hydraulic properties of the fractured-rock aquifer. Experiments conducted before and after the drilling of additional boreholes in the array and before and after installation of packers in existing boreholes demonstrate that the presence of new boreholes or the inflation of packers in existing boreholes has a large effect on the measured hydraulic properties of the rock mass

  11. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2002-01-01

    To understand better how a borehole antenna radiates radar waves into a formation, this phenomenon is simulated numerically using the finite-difference, time-domain method. The simulations are of two different antenna models that include features like a driving point fed by a coaxial cable, resistive loading of the antenna, and a water-filled borehole. For each model, traces are calculated in the far-field region, and then, from these traces, radiation patterns are calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave is strongly affected by its frequency, its propagation direction, and the resistive loading of the antenna.

  12. Single-hole borehole radar detection of layered structures orthogonal to the borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, W.; Williams, C.; Lewis, C.; Josh, M.

    2000-04-01

    A vertical borehole may pass through natural layered structures which are orthogonal or near-orthogonal to the borehole. Such structures, particularly if they are layers with a smooth surface, can be very difficult to detect with a borehole radar which has the required long range and low center frequency for remote structure detection. Methods of supplementing the radar data are discussed and include the use of an additional radar with a much higher center frequency, the use of a dielectric probe and the use of a look-ahead radar.

  13. A borehole jack for deformability, strength, and stress measurements in a 2-inch borehole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, R. E.; Hovland, H. J.; Chirapuntu, S.

    1971-01-01

    A borehole jack devised for lunar exploration is described and results of its use in simulated lunar solids are presented. A hydraulic cylinder mounted between two stiff plates acts to spread the plates apart against the borehole walls when pressured. The spreading is measured by a displacement transducer and the load is measured hydraulically. The main improvement over previous instruments is the increased stroke, which allows large deformations of the borehole. Twenty-eight pistons are used to obtain a high hydraulic efficiency, and three return pistons are also provided. Pressure-deformation curves were obtained for each test on Lunar Soil Simulant No. 2, a light gray silty basalt powder.

  14. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, Patrick W.

    1985-10-22

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  15. Method for isolating two aquifers in a single borehole

    DOEpatents

    Burklund, P.W.

    1984-01-20

    A method for isolating and individually instrumenting separate aquifers within a single borehole is disclosed. A borehole is first drilled from the ground surface, through an upper aquifer, and into a separating confining bed. A casing, having upper and lower sections separated by a coupling collar, is lowered into the borehole. The borehole is grouted in the vicinity of the lower section of the casing. A borehole is then drilled through the grout plug and into a lower aquifer. After the lower aquifer is instrumented, the borehole is grouted back into the lower portion of the casing. Then the upper section of the casing is unscrewed via the coupling collar and removed from the borehole. Finally, instrumentation is added to the upper aquifer and the borehole is appropriately grouted. The coupling collar is designed to have upper right-hand screw threads and lower left-hand screw thread, whereby the sections of the casing can be readily separated.

  16. Perspectives of humic substances application in remediation of highly heavy metals contaminated soils in Kola Subarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tregubova, Polina; Turbaevskaya, Valeria; Zakharenko, Andrey; Kadulin, Maksim; Smirnova, Irina; Stepanov, Andrey; Koptsik, Galina

    2016-04-01

    Northwestern part of Russia, the Kola Peninsula, is one of the most heavy metals (HM) contaminated areas in the northern hemisphere. The main polluters, mining-and-metallurgical integrated works "Pechenganikel" and "Severonikel", are surrounded by heavily damaged barren lands that require remediation. The main contaminating metals are Ni and Cu. Using of exogenous humic substances could be possible effective and cost-efficient solution of HM contamination problem. Rational application of humates (Na-K salts of humic acids) can result in improvement of soil properties, localization of contamination and decreasing bioavailability through binding HM in relatively immobile organic complexes. Our research aim was to evaluate the influence of increasing doses of different origin humates on i) basic properties of contaminated soils; ii) mobility and bioavailability of HMs; iii) vegetation state and chemistry. In summer 2013 a model field experiment was provided in natural conditions of the Kola Peninsula. We investigated the Al-Fe-humus abrazem, soil type that dominates in technogenic barren lands around the "Severonikel" work. These soils are strongly acid: pHH2O was 3.7-4.1; pHKCl was 3.4-4.0. The exchangeable acidity is low (0.8-1.6 cmol(+)/kg) due to the depletion of fine particles and organic matter, being the carriers of exchange positions. The abrazems of barrens had lost organic horizon. 12 sites were created in 1 km from the work. In those sites, except 2 controls, various amendments were added: i) two different by it's origin types of humates: peat-humates and coal-humates, the last were in concentrations 0.5% and 1%; ii) lime; iii) NPK-fertilizer; iv) biomates (organic degradable cover for saving warm and erosion protection). As a test-culture a grass mixture with predominance of Festuca rubra and Festuca ovina was sowed. As a result we concluded that humates of different origin have unequal influence on soil properties and cause decreasing as well as

  17. Assessment of current exposure levels in different population groups of the Kola Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Travnikova, I G; Shutov, V N; Bruk, G Ya; Balonov, M I; Skuterud, L; Strand, P; Pogorely, Ju A; Burkova, T F

    2002-01-01

    Activity concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr in samples of vegetation and natural food products collected in the Kola Peninsula in 1998 and 1999 indicate a very slow decrease in contamination levels during the last decade, mainly due to the physical decay of the radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat decreased with a half-life of about 9 years. 137Cs in lichen, moss and fungi is significantly higher than in natural vegetation (grasses) and agricultural plants (potatoes). The activity concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat were two orders of magnitude higher than those in locally produced beef and pork. Consumption of reindeer meat, fish, mushrooms and berries constituted the main contribution to the internal dose from 137Cs and 90Sr for reindeer-breeders in the Lovozero area. The estimated committed doses due to 137Cs intake in this group were about 10 microSv per month in summer 1998 and 15 microSv per month in winter, 1999. There was good agreement between internal dose estimates based on intake assessment and whole body measurements. The population of Umba settlement, which is not involved in reindeer breeding, received individual committed doses due to 137Cs intake of about 0.5 microSv per month, about a factor of 20 less than the reindeer-breeders in Lovozero. In this case, the main contribution to the internal dose of the general population came from consumption the of 137Cs in mushrooms and forest berries. The contribution of 90Sr to the internal dose varied from 1% to 5% in the different population groups studied.

  18. Radiation pattern of a borehole radar antenna

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellefsen, K.J.; Wright, D.L.

    2005-01-01

    The finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate radar waves that were generated by a transmitting antenna inside a borehole. The simulations were of four different models that included features such as a water-filled borehole and an antenna with resistive loading. For each model, radiation patterns for the far-field region were calculated. The radiation patterns show that the amplitude of the radar wave was strongly affected by its frequency, the water-filled borehole, the resistive loading of the antenna, and the external metal parts of the antenna (e.g., the cable head and the battery pack). For the models with a water-filled borehole, their normalized radiation patterns were practically identical to the normalized radiation pattern of a finite-length electric dipole when the wavelength in the formation was significantly greater than the total length of the radiating elements of the model antenna. The minimum wavelength at which this criterion was satisfied depended upon the features of the antenna, especially its external metal parts. ?? 2005 Society of Exploration Geophysicists. All rights reserved.

  19. BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS: FIELD APPLICATION AND DATA ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews application of borehole flowmeters in granular and fractured rocks. Basic data obtained in the field are the ambient flow log and the pumping-induced flow log. These basic logs may then be used to calculate other quantities of interest. The paper describes the ...

  20. Entry Boreholes Summary Report for the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, Jake A.

    2007-02-28

    This report describes the 2006 fiscal year field activities associated with the installation of four cable-tool-drilled boreholes located within the boundary of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP), DOE Hanford site, Washington. The cable-tool-drilled boreholes extend from surface to ~20 ft below the top of basalt and were utilized as cased entry holes for three deep boreholes (approximately 1400 ft) that were drilled to support the acquisition of sub-surface geophysical data, and one deep corehole (1400 ft) that was drilled to acquire continuous core samples from underlying basalt and sedimentary interbeds. The geophysical data acquired from these boreholes will be integrated into a seismic response model that will provide the basis for defining the seismic design criteria for the WTP facilities.

  1. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1315 - Boreholes for explosives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes for explosives. 75.1315 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Explosives and Blasting § 75.1315 Boreholes for explosives. (a) All explosives fired underground shall be confined in boreholes except— (1)...

  6. Deep Borehole Field Test Research Activities at LBNL

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Kneafsey, Timothy; Borglin, Sharon; Piceno, Yvette; Andersen, Gary; Nakagawa, Seiji; Nihei, Kurt; Rutqvist, Jonny; Doughty, Christine; Reagan, Matthew

    2016-08-19

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy Used Fuel Disposition’s (UFD) Deep Borehole Field Test is to drill two 5 km large-diameter boreholes: a characterization borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 8.5 inches and a field test borehole with a bottom-hole diameter of 17 inches. These boreholes will be used to demonstrate the ability to drill such holes in crystalline rocks, effectively characterize the bedrock repository system using geophysical, geochemical, and hydrological techniques, and emplace and retrieve test waste packages. These studies will be used to test the deep borehole disposal concept, which requires a hydrologically isolated environment characterized by low permeability, stable fluid density, reducing fluid chemistry conditions, and an effective borehole seal. During FY16, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientists conducted a number of research studies to support the UFD Deep Borehole Field Test effort. This work included providing supporting data for the Los Alamos National Laboratory geologic framework model for the proposed deep borehole site, conducting an analog study using an extensive suite of geoscience data and samples from a deep (2.5 km) research borehole in Sweden, conducting laboratory experiments and coupled process modeling related to borehole seals, and developing a suite of potential techniques that could be applied to the characterization and monitoring of the deep borehole environment. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  7. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  8. [Impact of industrial pollution on emission of carbon dioxide by soils in the Kola Subarctic Region].

    PubMed

    Koptsik, G N; Kadulin, M S; Zakharova, A I

    2015-01-01

    Soil emission of carbon dioxide, the key component of carbon cycle and the characteristic of soil biological activity, has been studied in background and polluted ecosystems in the Kola subarctic, the large industrial region of Russia. Long-term air pollution by emissions of "Pechenganikel" smelter, the largest source of sulphur dioxide and heavy metals in Northern Europe, has caused the technogenic digression of forest ecosystems. As a result of the digression, the tree layer was destructed, the number of plant species was diminished, the activity of soil biota was weakened, the soils were polluted and exhausted, biogeochemical cycles of elements were disturbed and productivity of ecosystems shrunk. Field investigations revealed the decrease of the in.situ soil respiration in average from 190-230 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background pine forests to 130-160, 100, and 20 mg C-CO2/m2.per h at the stages of pine defoliation, sparse pine forest and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. The soil respira- tion in birch forests was more intense than in pine forests and tended to decrease from about 290 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in background forests to 210-220 and 170-190 mg C-CO2/m2 x per h in defoliating forests and technogenic sparse forests, respectively. Due to high spatial variability of soil respiration in both pine and birch forests significant differences from the background level were found only in technogenic sparse forests and barrens. Soil respiration represents total production of carbon dioxide by plant roots and soil microorganisms. The decrease in share of root respiration in the total soil respiration with the rise of pollution from 38-57% in background forests up to zero in technogenic barrens has been revealed for the first time for this region. This indicates that plants seem to be more sensitive to pollution as compared to relatively resistant microorganisms. Soil respiration and the contribution of roots to the total respiration

  9. Efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% Aqueous Eye Drops in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma or Ocular Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Adefule-Ositelu, Adebukunola O.; Adegbehingbe, Bernice O.; Adefule, Adebayo K.; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka O.; Samaila, Elsie; Oladigbolu, Kehinde

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of Garcinia kola 0.5% aqueous solution eye drops in patients with newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (POAG/OH). Materials and Methods: A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, active-controlled prospective study. Patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned in equal numbers to receive Timolol 0.5% eye drops as a control medication (A = Group 1 eyes) or Garcinia kola 0.5% eye drops as the study medication (B = Group 2 eyes). All drops were instilled at 6 am and 6 pm daily. Goldman applanation tonometry was performed at 9 am, 12 pm and 3 pm at baseline, week-6, week-12 and week-24 visits. Voluntary and actively elicited reports of adverse events were documented. The mean change in IOP over 24 weeks was the primary outcome measure. Both groups were compared for statistically significant differences at all visits. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 178 patients were randomly assigned to G. kola and Timolol groups. At baseline there were no differences in mean IOP between groups, based on age, sex, or diagnosis. At the end of the study period (24th week), the mean (± SD) reduction in IOP was 12.93 ± 2.3 mmHg (47.8% ± 0.8% reduction) in G. Kola group and 13.09 ± 2.8 mm Hg (48.2% ± 1.03% reduction) in the Timolol group (P > 0.05). Adverse events were mild in nature with no statistically significant differences between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Garcinia kola ophthalmic solution significantly reduces IOP as compared to baseline. The IOP lowering effect of both treatments was equivalent. PMID:20543944

  10. BOREHOLE NEUTRON ACTIVATION: THE RARE EARTHS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Senftle, F.E.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-induced borehole gamma-ray spectroscopy has been widely used as a geophysical exploration technique by the petroleum industry, but its use for mineral exploration is not as common. Nuclear methods can be applied to mineral exploration, for determining stratigraphy and bed correlations, for mapping ore deposits, and for studying mineral concentration gradients. High-resolution detectors are essential for mineral exploration, and by using them an analysis of the major element concentrations in a borehole can usually be made. A number of economically important elements can be detected at typical ore-grade concentrations using this method. Because of the application of the rare-earth elements to high-temperature superconductors, these elements are examined in detail as an example of how nuclear techniques can be applied to mineral exploration.

  11. Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, James D; McClung, David W

    2006-11-06

    This report describes the preliminary design and the effort to date of Phase II of a Low Noise Borehole Triaxial Seismometer for use in networks of seismic stations for monitoring underground nuclear explosions. The design uses the latest technology of broadband seismic instrumentation. Each parameter of the seismometer is defined in terms of the known physical limits of the parameter. These limits are defined by the commercially available components, and the physical size constraints. A theoretical design is proposed, and a preliminary prototype model of the proposed instrument has been built. This prototype used the sensor module of the KS2000. The installation equipment (hole locks, etc.) has been designed and one unit has been installed in a borehole. The final design of the sensors and electronics and leveling mechanism is in process. Noise testing is scheduled for the last quarter of 2006.

  12. Disposition of plutonium in deep boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W.G.; Jardine, L.J.; Walter, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    Substantial inventories of excess plutonium are expected to result from dismantlement of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons. Disposition of this material should be a high priority in both countries. A variety of disposition options are under consideration. One option is to place the plutonium either directly or in an immobilized form at the bottom of a deep borehole that is then sealed. Deep-borehole disposition involves placing plutonium several kilometers deep into old, stable, rock formations that have negligible free water present. Containment assurance is based on the presence of ancient groundwater indicating lack of migration and communication with the biosphere. Recovery would be extremely difficult (costly) and impossible to accomplish clandestinely.

  13. Promising pneumatic punchers for borehole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Lipin

    2005-03-15

    The state of borehole drilling by downhole pneumatic punchers and their potential use in open and underground mining as well as in exploration for reliable sampling are analyzed. Performance specification is presented for the new-generation pneumatic punchers equipped with a pin tool, effectively operating at a compressed-air pressure of 0.5-0.7 MPa, and with an additional extended exhaust from the power stroke chamber during working cycle.

  14. Advances in borehole geophysics for hydrology

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.

    1982-01-01

    Borehole geophysical methods provide vital subsurface information on rock properties, fluid movement, and the condition of engineered borehole structures. Within the first category, salient advances include the continuing improvement of the borehole televiewer, refinement of the electrical conductivity dipmeter for fracture characterization, and the development of a gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic propagation tool for water saturation measurements. The exploration of the rock mass between boreholes remains a challenging problem with high potential; promising methods are now incorporating high-density spatial sampling and sophisticated data processing. Flow-rate measurement methods appear adequate for all but low-flow situations. At low rates the tagging method seems the most attractive. The current exploitation of neutron-activation techniques for tagging means that the wellbore fluid itself is tagged, thereby eliminating the mixing of an alien fluid into the wellbore. Another method uses the acoustic noise generated by flow through constrictions and in and behind casing to detect and locate flaws in the production system. With the advent of field-recorded digital data, the interpretation of logs from sedimentary sequences is now reaching a sophisticated level with the aid of computer processing and the application of statistical methods. Lagging behind are interpretive schemes for the low-porosity, fracture-controlled igneous and metamorphic rocks encountered in the geothermal reservoirs and in potential waste-storage sites. Progress is being made on the general problem of fracture detection by use of electrical and acoustical techniques, but the reliable definition of permeability continues to be an elusive goal.

  15. Deep Borehole Field Test Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest L.

    2016-09-30

    This report documents conceptual design development for the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), including test packages (simulated waste packages, not containing waste) and a system for demonstrating emplacement and retrieval of those packages in the planned Field Test Borehole (FTB). For the DBFT to have demonstration value, it must be based on conceptualization of a deep borehole disposal (DBD) system. This document therefore identifies key options for a DBD system, describes an updated reference DBD concept, and derives a recommended concept for the DBFT demonstration. The objective of the DBFT is to confirm the safety and feasibility of the DBD concept for long-term isolation of radioactive waste. The conceptual design described in this report will demonstrate equipment and operations for safe waste handling and downhole emplacement of test packages, while contributing to an evaluation of the overall safety and practicality of the DBD concept. The DBFT also includes drilling and downhole characterization investigations that are described elsewhere (see Section 1). Importantly, no radioactive waste will be used in the DBFT, nor will the DBFT site be used for disposal of any type of waste. The foremost performance objective for conduct of the DBFT is to demonstrate safe operations in all aspects of the test.

  16. Apatite Fission Track Thermochronology of Khibina Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia): Implications for post-Devonian Tectonics of the NE Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, R. V.; Thomson, S. N.; Arzamastsev, A.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal history of the Kola Peninsula area of NE Fennoscandia remains almost fully unknown because of absence of any thermochronological data such as apatite and/or zircon fission track or (U-Th)/He ages. In order to fill this gap and to constrain the post-Devonian erosion and exhumation history of this region, we present the results of apatite fission track (AFT) dating of eleven samples selected from the cores taken from different depths of the northern part of the Khibina intrusive massif. This alkaline magmatic complex is located at the center of Kola Peninsula and formed at about 370 Ma (Kramm and Kogarko, 1994). Samples were analyzed from depths between +520 to -950 meters and yielded AFT ages between 290-268 Ma with an average age uncertainty (1σ) of ±30 Ma. Mean track lengths (MTL) lie between 12.5-14.4 μm. We used the most reliable AFT ages and distribution of MTL in two samples, corresponding to depths of +280 and -920 m, to conduct inverse time-temperature modelling of the Khibina massif. Thermal histories that best predict the measured data show three stages: (1) 290-250 Ma - rapid cooling from >110°C to 70°C/50°C for lower/upper sample correspondingly; (2) 250-50 Ma - a stable temperature stage; (3) 50-0 Ma - slightly increased cooling rates down to modern temperatures. We propose that the first cooling stage is related to late-Hercynian orogenesis; the second cooling stage may be associated with tectonics accompanying with opening of Arctic oceanic basin. The obtained data show that geothermal gradient at the center of Kola Peninsula has remained close to the modern value of 20°C/km for at least the last 250 Myr. AFT data show that the Khibina massif has been exhumed not more then 5-6 km in the last 290 Myr. This study was funded by grants 15-35-20599, 15-05-02116, 15-05-01860 and 13-05-01033 from the Russian Foundation of Basic Research, grant 3.38.224.2015 from the St. Petersburg State University, grant 14.Z50.31.0017 from the Government

  17. Effect of borehole design on electrical impedance tomography measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffari, Amirpasha; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Treichel, Andrea; Zimmermann, Egon; Kelter, Matthias; Vereecken, Harry

    2015-04-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a sophisticated non-invasive tool to investigate the subsurface in engineering and environmental studies. To increase the depth of investigation, EIT measurements can be made in boreholes. However, the presence of the borehole may affect EIT measurements. Here, we aim to investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements using 2,5-D and 3D finite element modeling and unstructured meshes. To investigate the effect of different borehole components on EIT measurements, a variety of scenarios were designed. In particular, the effect of the water-filled borehole, the PVC casing, and the gravel filter were investigated relative to complex resistivity simulations for a homogenous medium with chain and electrode modules. It was found that the results of the complex resistivity simulations were best understood using the sensitivity distribution of the electrode configuration under consideration. In all simulations, the sensitivity in the vicinity of the borehole was predominantly negative. Therefore, the introduction of the water-filled borehole caused an increase in the real part of the impedance, and a decrease (more negative) in the imaginary part of the simulated impedance. The PVC casing mostly enhanced the effect of the water-filled borehole described above, although this effect was less clear for some electrode configuration. The effect of the gravel filter mostly reduced the effect of the water-filled borehole with PVC casing. For EIT measurements in a single borehole, the highest simulated phase error was 12% for a Wenner configuration with electrode spacing of 0.33 m. This error decreased with increasing electrode spacing. In the case of cross-well configurations, the error in the phase shit was as high as 6%. Here, it was found that the highest errors occur when both current electrodes are located in the same borehole. These results indicated that cross-well measurements are less affected by the

  18. Effects of the deviation characteristics of nuclear waste emplacement boreholes on borehole liner stresses; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Glowka, D.A.

    1990-09-01

    This report investigates the effects of borehole deviation on the useability of lined boreholes for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste at the proposed Yucca Mountain Repository in Nevada. Items that lead to constraints on borehole deviation include excessive stresses that could cause liner failure and possible binding of a waste container inside the liner during waste emplacement and retrieval operations. Liner stress models are developed for two general borehole configurations, one for boreholes drilled with a steerable bit and one for boreholes drilled with a non-steerable bit. Procedures are developed for calculating liner stresses that arise both during insertion of the liner into a borehole and during the thermal expansion process that follows waste emplacement. The effects of borehole curvature on the ability of the waste container to pass freely inside the liner without binding are also examined. Based on the results, specifications on borehole deviation allowances are developed for specific vertical and horizontal borehole configurations of current interest. 11 refs., 22 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Attenuation of free spheroidal oscillations of the Earth after the M = 9 earthquake in Sumatra and super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk: II. interpretation of the observed Q-factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, S. M.; Molodenskii, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    In the first part of the paper, the range of the admissible values of the Q-factor for the fundamental spheroidal modes and overtones was calculated from the records of the free oscillations of the Earth after the earthquake with M = 9 in Sumatra and the super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk. Below, the interpretation of the data obtained in the first part of the paper is presented. By orthogonalization of the functional derivatives of the eigenfrequencies with respect to the density and Q-factor of the mantle, the model distributions of these parameters which best fit the whole set of the data about the attenuation of the free oscillations and the phases of forced nutations of the Earth are reconstructed. The use of the attenuation data for the free oscillations recorded after the super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk on May 24, 2013 significantly improves the accuracy of the Q-factor reconstruction at different depths in the mantle. The implications of the free oscillations' attenuation data for the solution of the inverse problem of reconstructing the profiles of density and creep function of the mantle in the interval of periods from 1 s to one day are studied. Without the allowance for the attenuation data, the reconstruction errors for the density profiles were about 0.1 g/cm3, and for the shear moduli at the oscillation period of 200 s, about 4 × 109 dyn/cm2. The use of the free oscillation attenuation data largely removes this uncertainty. Although the relative measurement accuracy of the Q-factor is by about two orders of magnitude lower than the measurement accuracy of all eigenfrequencies, the weights of relative residuals of Q in the minimand functional of the weighted mean square deviations should be of the same order of magnitude as the weights for the relative changes in the free oscillation frequencies. With the allowance for the new attenuation data obtained in the first part of the paper, the reconstruction errors for these parameters

  20. [Occupational morbidity among miners engaged into contemporary method of extracting copper-nickel ores in Kola Transpolar regions].

    PubMed

    Siurin, S A; Shilov, V V

    2014-01-01

    The risks for developing occupational pathology and its specific features were studied in 358 Kola Transpolar copper-nickel miners who were diagnosed with 722 cases of occupational diseases (OD) in the years 1990-2013. The highest risk for developing OD, which are dominated by the diseases of the musculoskeletal system, has been found in tunnellers (OR = 12,8) and operators of drilling rigs (OR = 10,4). A significant increase in the risk of OD has been established in miners with length of service at 11-15 years and over 25 years. The conclusion is made about the need to improve the technical, medical and organizational measures targetted at preventing health problems in this group of workers.

  1. Changes in the molecular hydrogen concentration in an underground mine (Lovozero rare-metal deposit, Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivin, V. A.; Pukha, V. V.; Lovchikov, A. V.; Rakhimov, R. G.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term monitoring yielded significant variations in the hydrogen volume concentration in an underground mine at the developed Lovozero rare-metal deposit of the nepheline-syenite massif in the Kola Peninsula. The deposit is characterized by emission of natural combustible gases. Basic structural elements of the time series obtained include relatively stable and long ranges of low background concentrations, low- and medium-amplitude rises of various duration, and short-term, commonly high-amplitude peaks. The range structure is characterized by a general decreasing trend, a low intensity random noise component, and seasonal and off-seasonal periodic and other cyclical components. Periodic circadian and semidiurnal harmonics are the most pronounced.

  2. Minerals of zirconolite group from fenitized xenoliths in nepheline syenites of Khibiny and Lovozero plutons, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menshikov, Yu. P.; Mikhailova, Yu. A.; Pakhomovsky, Ya. A.; Yakovenchuk, V. N.; Ivanyuk, G. Yu.

    2015-12-01

    Zirconolite, its Ce-, Nd-, and Y-analogs, and laachite, another member of the zirconolite group, are typomorphic minerals of the fenitized xenoliths in nepheline syenite and foidolite of the Khibiny-Lovozero Complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia. All these minerals are formed at the late stage of fenitization as products of ilmentie alteration under the effect of Zr-bearing fluids. The diversity of these minerals is caused by the chemical substitutions of Na and Ca for REE, Th, and U compensated by substitution of Ti and Zr for Nb, Fe and Ta, as well as by the redistribution of REE between varieties enriched in Ti (HREE) or Nb (LREE). The results obtained can be used in the synthesis of Synroc-type titanate ceramics assigned for the immobilization of actinides.

  3. Effectiveness of Gotu Kola Extract 750 mg and 1000 mg Compared with Folic Acid 3 mg in Improving Vascular Cognitive Impairment after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wibowo, Samekto

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of gotu kola (Centella asiatica) in improving cognitive function in patients with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Subjects in this study were patients with poststroke cognitive impairment who were treated at two hospitals in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The number of subjects was 48: 17 subjects were treated with 1000 mg/day of gotu kola extract, 17 subjects treated with 750 mg/day of gotu kola extract, and 14 subjects treated with 3 mg/day of folic acid for 6 weeks. A Montreal Cognitive Assessment-Indonesian version (MoCA-Ina) was conducted at the beginning of treatment and after 6 weeks of therapy. It was found that all trials effectively improved poststroke VCI based on MoCA-Ina scores over the course of the study. There is no significant difference in ΔMoCA-Ina (score at the 6th week of treatment − score at the beginning) mean score among the three groups, indicating that gotu kola is as effective as folic acid in improving poststroke VCI. Gotu kola was shown to be more effective than folic acid in improving memory domain. This study suggested that gotu kola extract is effective in improving cognitive function after stroke. PMID:27340413

  4. Distribution relations of tectonical stresses in the upper part of the Earth's crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrev, A. A.; Savchenko, S. N.

    2009-11-01

    Due to an analysis of the data in the literature on stress measurements in mining sites in the former Soviet Union, including those performed in the mines of the Kola Peninsula and the Kola Superdeep Borehole SG-3, the subhorizontal tectonic stresses were reported to exceed the lithostatic stresses. As a rule, tectonic stresses are attributed to the interaction boundaries of blocks of different sizes: from lithosphere platforms to blocks of IV-V ranks. The tectonically stressed blocks are distinguished by increased rate gradients of the contemporary elevation of the Earth’s crust, higher seismic activity, and abnormal values of rock pressure in mining holes and underground elaborations at relatively small depths. The stressed state of block structures located in the European part of the Eurasian lithospheric platform, Fennoscandia, Kola Peninsula, and the circular geological structures of the Khibini highland were studied by computer modeling. For more than 80% of the cases, the calculated directions of maximal compression matched those obtained by measurements of European block systems with a precision of ±25°.

  5. Canister, Sealing Method And Composition For Sealing A Borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2005-06-28

    Method and composition for sealing a borehole. A chemically bonded phosphate ceramic sealant for sealing, stabilizing, or plugging boreholes is prepared by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form slurry. The slurry is introduced into the borehole where the seal, stabilization or plug is desired, and then allowed to set up to form the high strength, minimally porous sealant, which binds strongly to itself and to underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  6. Platinum-Group Element Mineralization in the Fedorovatundra layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groshev, Nikolay; Subbotin, Victor; Korchagin, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    The 2526 to 2485 Ma Fedorovatundra layered mafic intrusion in the central part of the Kola Peninsula, Russia, is the western massif of the Fedorova-Pana Complex (2526-2446 Ma), which is situated along the northern contact of the Early Proterozoic Imandra-Varzuga rift and Archean granite gneiss. The Fedorovatundra intrusion of approximately 4 km thick has two major parts: (1) located at the bottom of the intrusion Taxitic series (10 to 900 m) and composing the main volume of the massif Layered series (4000 m). The Taxitic series is distinctive, due to its predominant vary-textured often quartz-saturated norites and gabbronorites (with fewer amounts of leucogabbro, melanorite and Ol-gabbronorite) and abundant pyroxenite, less harzburgite xenoliths. Medium to coarse-grained mottled or massive leucocratic gabbronorite and leucogabbro prevails in the Layered series with mesocratic gabbronorite, pyroxenite and troctolite as subordinate rocks. Depending on its localization, geochemical features, mineral composition and economic value platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization of the Fedorovatundra intrusion is divided into 'marginal' (basal, contact) and 'reef' types. 'Marginal' type of mineralization is presented by irregular disseminated interstitial sulfides (1-2 vol. %) of pentlandite-pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite association (Cu/Ni = 1.8) in the Taxitic series. Less sulfides occur as uniformly disseminated aggregates, thin massive lenses and nests. PGE and base metals are concentrated in several ore horizons of 3.5 km long complicated structure. Thickness of ore horizons varies generally within 10-150 m, but it can rise up to 280 m in bulges. In the most common ore-bearing rock (taxitic gabbronorite) average Pt + Pd content is 1.6 ppm (Pd/Pt 4.5). The pyroxenite xenoliths occurring within the Taxitic series are practically barren of sulfide and can dilute higher PGE and base metal grades in the gabbronorite matrix. 'Marginal' mineralization of the Fedorovotundrovsky

  7. Digital relief 3D model of the Khibiny massive (Kola peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2015-04-01

    at the bottom and at the edge of the valley. Changing these parameters for different climatic seasons allows us to estimate the duration of the existence of gas in homogeneities in the aerial under soil and up soil layers. Complex ring structure site and manifestations of recent tectonic movements allow it to allocate more closed areas with different plant-land cover and different geomorphological features. In particular stand out - bogs, forest area on the slopes and riparian forest zone, the zone of mountain tundra and rocky plateau. Designated areas should be considered together with the full history of the evolution relief Khibin, processes of decrease glaciers and their occurrence. One of the results of the work performed is the allocation within the array of closed circuses, paleo-ice landforms drumlin and moraine ridges. These landforms represent the latest stage of the glacial history of glaciation on the Kola Peninsula and the Arctic coast. Estimated areal characteristics of different forms. In some cases it was possible to separate a sequence of glacial relief forms, which suggests staging a retreat of glaciers in the area. The project highlighted areas open mining apatite ores in Khibiny massif. Career located in the inner part of the massif form a closed area drain mine water pollution and wind. While the new career located on the border of the array and the forest zone characterized by a single watershed and accordingly included in the ecological life support cycle of residential villages and towns of Kirovsk and Apatity. This fact forces us to view mining activity as a powerful source of contamination. Designed GIS project thus can be used to solve a number of problems geomorphological orientation. In addition a number of application issues - the environment, paleoclimatology, geotectonic can be successfully addressed on the basis of the digital 3D model.

  8. Modeling and visualizing borehole information on virtual globes using KML

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Zhang, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Advances in virtual globes and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) are providing the Earth scientists with the universal platforms to manage, visualize, integrate and disseminate geospatial information. In order to use KML to represent and disseminate subsurface geological information on virtual globes, we present an automatic method for modeling and visualizing a large volume of borehole information. Based on a standard form of borehole database, the method first creates a variety of borehole models with different levels of detail (LODs), including point placemarks representing drilling locations, scatter dots representing contacts and tube models representing strata. Subsequently, the level-of-detail based (LOD-based) multi-scale representation is constructed to enhance the efficiency of visualizing large numbers of boreholes. Finally, the modeling result can be loaded into a virtual globe application for 3D visualization. An implementation program, termed Borehole2KML, is developed to automatically convert borehole data into KML documents. A case study of using Borehole2KML to create borehole models in Shanghai shows that the modeling method is applicable to visualize, integrate and disseminate borehole information on the Internet. The method we have developed has potential use in societal service of geological information.

  9. Borehole sounding device with sealed depth and water level sensors

    DOEpatents

    Skalski, Joseph C.; Henke, Michael D.

    2005-08-02

    A borehole device having proximal and distal ends comprises an enclosure at the proximal end for accepting an aircraft cable containing a plurality of insulated conductors from a remote position. A water sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the enclosure and contains means for detecting water, and sending a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating water has been detected. A bottom sensing enclosure is sealingly attached to the water sensing enclosure for determining when the borehole device encounters borehole bottom and sends a signal on the cable to the remote position indicating that borehole bottom has been encountered.

  10. Mountain Home Well - Borehole Geophysics Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-11-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  11. Phase Identification of Seismic Borehole Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Riley, Brian J.

    2006-11-01

    This report documents the phase identification results obtained by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of samples taken from borehole C4998 drilled at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) on the Hanford Site (REF). XRD samples were taken from fractures and vesicles or are minerals of interest at areas of interest within the basalt formations cored. The samples were powder mounted and analyzed. Search-match software was used to select the best match from the ICDD mineral database based on peak locations and intensities.

  12. Fiber optic communication in borehole applications

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, R.J.; Morgan, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    The Telemetry Technology Development Department have, in support of the Advanced Geophysical Technology Department and the Oil Recovery Technology Partnership, developed a fiber optic communication capability for use in borehole applications. This environment requires the use of packaging and component technologies to operate at high temperature (up to 175{degrees}C) and survive rugged handling. Fiber optic wireline technology has been developed by The Rochester Corporation under contract to Sandia National Labs and produced a very rugged, versatile wireline cable. This development has utilized commercial fiber optic component technologies and demonstrated their utility in extreme operating environments.

  13. Borehole measurement of the Newtonian gravitational constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-08-01

    Gravimetric measurements in a borehole within the Michigan Basin, obtained in September 1983, were utilized to estimate the Newtonian gravitational constant. Gravitational constants are computed using gravity measurements from two stations along the same vertical and by knowing the total rock mass sandwiched between these two stations. The calculation of rock formation density using a gamma-gamma density log is described. The gravity values are analyzed in terms of reference surface values, and it is observed that the gravity increases with depth. Borehole measurement determined gravity constant values ranged from 6.6901 + or - 0.0668 x 10 to the -11th cu m/kg sec sq (at station separation 264.5 + or - 0.5 m) to 6.7000 + or - 0.0650 x 10 to the -11th cu m/kg sec sq (at 1163.5 + or - 0.5 m), which are higher than the laboratory value of Luther and Towler (1982) of 6.672 + or - 0.0004 x 10 to the -11th cu m/kg sec sq. It is noted that the data correlate well with the values of Stacey (1981).

  14. Regulatory issues for deep borehole plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, W.G.

    1995-03-01

    As a result of recent changes throughout the world, a substantial inventory of excess separated plutonium is expected to result from dismantlement of US nuclear weapons. The safe and secure management and eventual disposition of this plutonium, and of a similar inventory in Russia, is a high priority. A variety of options (both interim and permanent) are under consideration to manage this material. The permanent solutions can be categorized into two broad groups: direct disposal and utilization. The deep borehole disposition concept involves placing excess plutonium deep into old stable rock formations with little free water present. Issues of concern include the regulatory, statutory and policy status of such a facility, the availability of sites with desirable characteristics and the technologies required for drilling deep holes, characterizing them, emplacing excess plutonium and sealing the holes. This white paper discusses the regulatory issues. Regulatory issues concerning construction, operation and decommissioning of the surface facility do not appear to be controversial, with existing regulations providing adequate coverage. It is in the areas of siting, licensing and long term environmental protection that current regulations may be inappropriate. This is because many current regulations are by intent or by default specific to waste forms, facilities or missions significantly different from deep borehole disposition of excess weapons usable fissile material. It is expected that custom regulations can be evolved in the context of this mission.

  15. Second ILAW Site Borehole Characterization Plan

    SciTech Connect

    SP Reidel

    2000-08-10

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low-activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized. The low-activity vitrified waste will be disposed of in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. This report is a plan to drill and characterize the second borehole for the Performance Assessment. The first characterization borehole was drilled in 1998. The plan describes data collection activities for determining physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and saturated zone on the northeast side of the proposed disposal site. These data will then be used in the 2005 Performance Assessment.

  16. An unusually rich scuttle fly fauna (Diptera, Phoridae) from north of the Arctic Circle in the Kola Peninsula, N. W. Russia.

    PubMed

    Disney, R H L

    2013-01-01

    64 species of Phoridae, in 6 genera, are reported from the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle. The new species Megaselia elenae and Megaselia kozlovi are described. 33 species of Megaselia, only known from females, are given code numbers. Keys to the species of all the females of Megaselia and Phora are provided; and also a key to the males European Megaselia species with a notopleural cleft.

  17. A combined surface and borehole seismic survey at the COSC-1 borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) focuses on the mid Paleozoic Caledonide Orogen in Scandinavia in order to better understand orogenic processes, from the past and in recent active mountain belts. The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision. Surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of the Caledonian structure, including the allochthon and the underlying autochthon, as well as the shallow W-dipping décollement surface that separates the two and consist of a thin skin of Cambrian black shales. During spring/summer 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was drilled to approx. 2.5 km depth near the town of Åre (western Jämtland/Sweden) with nearly 100 % of core recovery and cores in best quality. After the drilling was finished, a major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Besides a high resolution zero-offset VSP (Vertical Seismic Profiling) experiment also a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP survey took place. For the latter the source points were distributed along three profile lines centered radially around the borehole. For the central part up to 2.5 km away from the borehole, a hydraulic hammer source was used, which hits the ground for about 20 s with an linear increasing hit rate. For the far offset shots up to 5 km, explosive sources were used. The wavefield of both source types was recorded in the borehole using an array of 15 three-component receivers with a geophone spacing of 10 m. This array was deployed at 7 different depth levels during the survey. At the same time the wavefield was also recorded at the surface by 180 standalone three-component receivers placed along each of the three up to 10 km long lines, as well as with a 3D array of single-component receivers in the central part of the survey area around the borehole. Here

  18. The results of marine electromagnetic sounding with a high-power remote source in the Kola Bay in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, V. F.; Korotaev, S. M.; Kruglyakov, M. S.; Orekhova, D. A.; Popova, I. V.; Tereshchenko, E. D.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Schors, Yu. G.

    2013-05-01

    The first Russian six-component seafloor electromagnetic (EM) receivers were tested in an experiment carried out in Kola Bay in the Barents Sea. The signals transmitted by a remote high-power ELF source at several frequencies in the decahertz range were recorded by six receivers deployed on the seafloor along the profile crossing the Kola Bay. Although not all the stations successfully recorded all the six components due to technical failures, the quality of the data overall is quite suitable for interpretation. The interpretation was carried out by the three-dimensional (3D) modeling of an electromagnetic field with neural network inversion. The a priori geoelectrical model of Kola Bay, which was reconstructed by generalizing the previous geological and geophysical data, including the data of the ground magnetotelluric sounding and magnetovariational profiling, provided the EM fields that are far from those measured in the experiment. However, by a step-by-step modification of the initial model, we achieved quite a satisfactory fit. The resulting model provides the basis for introducing the corrections into the previous notions concerning the regional geological and geophysical structure of the region and particularly the features associated with fault tectonics.

  19. INSTALLATION OF A POST-ACCIDENT CONFINEMENT HIGH-LEVEL RADIATION MONITORING SYSTEM IN THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    SciTech Connect

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-09-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Post-Accident Confinement High-Level Radiation Monitoring System'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.6 (Attachment 1). This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians in reducing risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Unit 2, through improved accident detection capability, specifically by the installation of a dual train high-level radiation detection system in the confinement of Unit 2 of the Kola NPP. The major technical objective of this project was to provide, install and make operational the necessary hardware inside the confinement of the Kola NPP Unit 2 to provide early and reliable warning of the release of radionuclides from the reactor into the confinement air space as an indication of the occurrence of a severe accident at the plant. In addition, it was intended to provide hands-on experience and training to the Russian plant workers in the installation, operation, calibration and maintenance of the equipment in order that they may use the equipment without continued US assistance as an effective measure to improve reactor safety at the plant.

  20. Morphological and biochemical investigation into the possible neuroprotective effects of kolaviron (Garcinia kola bioflavonoid) on the brains of rats exposed to vanadium.

    PubMed

    Igado, Olumayowa O; Olopade, James O; Adesida, Adebukola; Aina, Oluwasanmi O; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2012-10-01

    In this study, the morphological and biochemical susceptibility of the rat brain to vanadium, in the form of sodium metavanadate, and the comparative ameliorative effect of Garcinia kola and kolaviron (G. kola extract), was examined. Brain regions examined were the cerebrum, cerebellum, hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. We showed that vanadium administration caused cellular vacuolation, congestion, and Purkinje cell degeneration and a marked reduction in myelin tracts. Biochemical tests revealed increased lipid peroxidation induced by vanadium, which was ameliorated with the administration of G. kola and kolaviron. Vanadium administration caused an increase in thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the cerebrum and hippocampus, whereas the administration of kolaviron resulted in a reduction of the TBARS level by 65.7 and 80%, respectively, in the regions aforementioned. Also, the administration of kolaviron resulted in an increased activity of superoxide dismutase (61.24%) in all brain regions assessed, when compared with the group administered vanadium alone. Results obtained from this study led to the conclusion that kolaviron reduces vanadium-induced oxidative stress in the brain.

  1. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  2. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  3. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  4. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  5. 30 CFR 75.388 - Boreholes in advance of mining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boreholes in advance of mining. 75.388 Section... of mining. (a) Boreholes shall be drilled in each advancing working place when the working place... cannot be examined, and before mining continues, a certified person shall, if possible, determine—...

  6. Geomechanical Considerations for the Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, B. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is under consideration as a potential alternative to shallower mined repositories. The disposal concept consists of drilling a borehole into crystalline basement rocks to a depth of 5 km, emplacement of canisters containing solid waste in the lower 2 km, and plugging and sealing the upper 3 km of the borehole. Crystalline rocks such as granites are particularly attractive for borehole emplacement because of their low permeability and porosity at depth, and high mechanical strength to resist borehole deformation. In addition, high overburden pressures contribute to sealing of some of the fractures that provide transport pathways. We present geomechanical considerations during construction (e.g., borehole breakouts, disturbed rock zone development, and creep closure), relevant to both the smaller-diameter characterization borehole (8.5") and the larger-diameter field test borehole (17"). Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. First quarter chemical borehole studies in the drift scale test

    SciTech Connect

    DeLoach, L., LLNL

    1998-05-19

    The chemistry boreholes of the Drift Scale Test (DST) have been designed to gather geochemical information and assess the impact of thermal perturbations on gas and liquid phases present in pore spaces and fractures within the rock. There are a total of ten boreholes dedicated to these chemical studies. Two arrays of five boreholes each were drilled from the access/observation drift (AOD) in planes which run normal to the heater drift and which are located approximately 15 and 45% of the way along the length of the drift as measured from the bulkhead. The boreholes each have a length of about 40 meters and have been drilled at low angles directed just above or just below the heater plane. In each array, three boreholes are directed at increasingly steeper angles (< 25-) above the line of wing heaters and two are directed at shallow angles below the wing heater plane.

  8. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  9. Martian alkaline basites chemically resemble basic rocks of the Lovozero alkaline massif, Kola peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G.

    " (syenite, granite) for Mars [5]. Actually the martian missions successively discovered andesite, dacite, low-Fe highlands. Now "Spirit" has found on a small outlier of highlands -Columbia Hills -a batch of thinly layered gently dipping light rocks that surely are not impact melts as at very short distance there is a sharp transition from light Fe-poor to ultrabasic rocks (on opposite slopes of this small hill) [6]. This layered sequence of more or less altered and weathered rocks resembles differentiated sequences of Lovozero and other alkaline and UB-alkaline massifs of Kola Peninsula (though fresh and much richer in alkalis). Here we compare compositions of alkaline basic rocks of Columbia Hills (dyke or sill [4]) with that of basic volcanics and a later dyke at Lovozero. 5 analyses in wt.%: 1-Backstay (tra1 chybasalt) & 2-Irvine (basalt) of CH, 3-augiteporphyrite, 4-essexite-porphyrite, 5- alkali- lamprophyre dyke of Lovozero. SiO2 -49.9, 47.7, 45.78, 48.09, 41.57; TiO2 - 0.93, 1.07, 7.80, 2.35, 2.92; Al2 O3 -13.2; 10.8, 8.08; 13.74; 11.77; Fe2 O3 -3.40, 7.79 (4.99), 5.90, 6.00, 4.53; FeO -10.6, 12.5 (15.0), 8.65, 7.60, 8.28; MnO -0.25, 0.37, 0.12, 0.17, 0.28; MgO -8.36, 10.8, 7.61, 7.19, 10.59; CaO -6.09, 6.12, 10.73, 8.77, 11.24; Na2 O -4.02, 2.72, 2.80, 2.84, 3.63; K2 O -1.02, 0.69, 1.97, 2.09, 1.38. Compositional similarities between basites occurring in alkaline conditions on both planets can be found. References: [1] Kochemasov G.G. (1999) Theorems of wave planetary tectonics // Geophys. Res. Abstr., v. 1, # 3, 700; [2] Gellert R. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v. 111, #E2, EO2505; [3] Squyres S.W. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, v.111, #E2, EO2511; [4] McSween H.Y. et al. (2006) JGR Planets, submitted ; [5] Kochemasov G. G. (1995) Golombek M.P., Edgett K.S., Rice J.W. Jr. (Eds). Mars Pathfinder Landing Site Workshop II: Characteristics of the Ares Vallis Region and Field trips to the Channeled Scabland, Washington. LPI Tech. Rpt. 95-01. Pt.1.LPI, Houston, 1995, 63 pp.; [6

  10. Head assembly for multiposition borehole extensometer

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Donald N.

    1983-01-01

    A head assembly for a borehole extensometer and an improved extensometer for measuring subsurface subsidence. A plurality of inflatable anchors provide discrete measurement points. A metering rod is fixed to each of the anchors which are displaced when subsidence occurs, thereby translating the attached rod. The head assembly includes a sprocket wheel rotatably mounted on a standpipe and engaged by a chain which is connected at one end to the metering rod and at the other end to a counterweight. A second sprocket wheel connected to the standpipe also engages the chain and drives a connected potentiometer. The head assembly converts the linear displacement of the metering rod to the rotary motion of the second sprocket wheel, which is measured by the potentiometer, producing a continuous electrical output.

  11. Borehole hydraulic coal mining system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The borehole hydraulic coal mining system accesses the coal seam through a hole drilled in the overburden. The mining device is lowered through the hole into the coal seam where it fragments the coal with high pressure water jets which pump it to the surface as a slurry by a jet pump located in the center of the mining device. The coal slurry is then injected into a pipeline for transport to the preparation plant. The system was analyzed for performance in the thick, shallow coal seams of Wyoming, and the steeply pitching seams of western Colorado. Considered were all the aspects of the mining operation for a 20-year mine life, producing 2,640,000 tons/yr. Effects on the environment and the cost of restoration, as well as concern for health and safety, were studied. Assumptions for design of the mine, the analytical method, and results of the analysis are detailed.

  12. Corrosion tests in the Marchwood geothermal borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, P. F.

    1982-03-01

    Corrosion tests in the high salinity brine produced during a production test at the Marchwood borehole. These tests were intended to obtain preliminary information on the corrosion of a range of metals and alloys most likely to be used for downhole service, heat exchangers and associated equipment, if hot water from this aquifer is used to provide a long-term energy source. Specimens of appropriate candidate materials were exposed to flowing brine in the surface pipework and also downhole at a depth of 663 m. The brine was pumped to the surface by a multi-stage electric submersible pump. The downhole specimens, which were installed with the pump, were exposed for a period of 83 days. The surface specimens were exposed during the well production test for 33.3 days. The product brine was around three times sea water concentration, at a temperature of 72 C and pH 6.2.

  13. Borehole plugging materials development program, report 2

    SciTech Connect

    Gulick, C.W. Jr.; Boa, J.A. Jr.; Walley, D.M.; Buck, A.D.

    1980-02-01

    The data for 2 yr of grout mixtures durability studies developed for the borehole plugging program of the Nuclear Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) are reported. In addition, data for 1 yr of durability studies of grout mixture field samples used to plug the ERDA No. 10 exploratory drill hole near the WIPP site are included. The grout samples and the data do not show any evidence of deterioration during the durability studies that include exposure to brine at both ambient and elevated temperatures. The data include strength, compressional wave velocity, dynamic modulus, expansion, weight change, porosity, permeability, bond strength, chemical analysis of cements, and petrographic examinations. The work was performed at the Concrete Division of the Structures Laboratory of the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiments Station (WES), Vicksburg, Mississippi. The work is continuing at WES.

  14. Development of a hydraulic borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.

    1998-04-01

    This report describes a 5 year, $10 million Sandia/Industry project to develop an advanced borehole seismic source for use in oil and gas exploration and production. The development Team included Sandia, Chevron, Amoco, Conoco, Exxon, Raytheon, Pelton, and GRI. The seismic source that was developed is a vertically oriented, axial point force, swept frequency, clamped, reaction-mass vibrator design. It was based on an early Chevron prototype, but the new tool incorporates a number of improvements which make it far superior to the original prototype. The system consists of surface control electronics, a special heavy duty fiber optic wireline and draw works, a cablehead, hydraulic motor/pump module, electronics module, clamp, and axial vibrator module. The tool has a peak output of 7,000 lbs force and a useful frequency range of 5 to 800 Hz. It can operate in fluid filled wells with 5.5-inch or larger casing to depths of 20,000 ft and operating temperatures of 170 C. The tool includes fiber optic telemetry, force and phase control, provisions to add seismic receiver arrays below the source for single well imaging, and provisions for adding other vibrator modules to the tool in the future. The project yielded four important deliverables: a complete advanced borehole seismic source system with all associated field equipment; field demonstration surveys funded by industry showing the utility of the system; industrial sources for all of the hardware; and a new service company set up by their industrial partner to provide commercial surveys.

  15. Development of a magnetostrictive borehole seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.P.; Sleefe, G.E.; Keefe, R.G.

    1997-04-01

    A magnetostrictive borehole seismic source was developed for use in high resolution crosswell surveys in environmental applications. The source is a clamped, vertical-shear, swept frequency, reaction-mass shaker design consisting of a spring pre-loaded magnetostrictive rod with permanent magnet bias, drive coils to induce an alternating magnetic field, and an integral tungsten reaction mass. The actuator was tested extensively in the laboratory. It was then incorporated into an easily deployable clamped downhole tool capable of operating on a standard 7 conductor wireline in borehole environments to 10,000{degrees} deep and 100{degrees}C. It can be used in either PVC or steel cased wells and the wells can be dry or fluid filled. It has a usable frequency spectrum of {approx} 150 to 2000 Hz. The finished tool was successfully demonstrated in a crosswell test at a shallow environmental site at Hanford, Washington. The source transmitted signals with a S/N ratio of 10-15 dB from 150-720 Hz between wells spaced 239 feet apart in unconsolidated gravel. The source was also tested successfully in rock at an oil field test site, transmitting signals with a S/N ratio of 5-15 dB over the full sweep spectrum from 150-2000 Hz between wells spaced 282 feet apart. And it was used successfully on an 11,000{degrees} wireline at a depth of 4550{degrees}. Recommendations for follow-on work include improvements to the clamp, incorporation of a higher sample rate force feedback controller, and increases in the force output of the tool.

  16. Long-term aerosol and trace gas measurements in Eastern Lapland, Finland: the impact of Kola air pollution to new particle formation and potential CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyrö, Ella-Maria; Väänänen, Riikka; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Virkkula, Aki; Asmi, Ari; Nieminen, Tuomo; Dal Maso, Miikka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Keronen, Petri; Aalto, Pasi; Riipinen, Ilona; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Hari, Pertti; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Sulphur and primary emissions have been decreasing largely all over Europe, resulting in improved air quality and decreased direct radiation forcing by aerosols. The smelter industry in Kola Peninsula is one of largest sources of anthropogenic SO2 within the Arctic domain and since late 1990s the sulphur emissions have been decreasing rapidly (Paatero et al., 2008; Prank et al., 2010). New particle formation (NPF) is tightly linked with the oxidizing product of SO2, namely sulphuric acid (H2SO4), since it is known to be the key component in atmospheric nucleation (Sipilä et al., 2010). Thus, decreasing sulphur pollution may lead to less NPF. However, low values of condensation sink (CS), which is determined by the amount of pre-existing particles, favours NPF. We used 14 years (1998-2011) of aerosol number size distribution and trace gas data from SMEAR I station in Eastern Lapland, Finland, to investigate these relationships between SO2, NPF and CS. The station is a clean background station with occasional sulphur pollution episodes when the air masses arrive over Kola Peninsula. We found that while SO2 decreased by 11.3 % / year, the number of clear NPF event days was also decreasing by 9.9 % / year. At the same time, CS was decreasing also (-8.0 % / year) leading to formation of more particles per single NPF event (J3 increased by 29.7 % / year in 2006-2011) but the low vapour concentrations of H2SO4 (proxy decreased by 6.2 % / year) did not allow them to grow into climatically relevant sizes. Over the time, concentrations of potential CCN (cloud condensing nuclei) were also decreasing with more moderate pace, -4.0 % / year. The events started on average earlier after sunrise when the SO2 concentration during the start of the event was higher and NPF occurred more frequently in air masses which were travelling over Kola. Despite the total decrease in sulphur pollution originating from Kola there is currently no evidence of cleaning of the emissions, rather the

  17. Instruments and methods acoustic televiewer logging in glacier boreholes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Descamps, G.E.; Cecil, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The acoustic televiewer is a geophysical logging instrument that is deployed in a water-filled borehole and operated while trolling. It generates a digital, magnetically oriented image of the borehole wall that is developed from the amplitudes and transit times of acoustic waves emitted from the tool and reflected at the water-wall interface. The transit-time data are also converted to radial distances, from which cross-sectional views of the borehole shape can be constructed. Because the televiewer is equipped with both a three-component magnetometer and a two-component inclinometer, the borehole's trajectory in space is continuously recorded as well. This instrument is routinely used in mining and hydrogeologic applications, but in this investigation it was deployed in two boreholes drilled into Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, U.S.A. The acoustic images recorded in this glacial setting are not as clear as those typically obtained in rocks, due to a lower reflection coefficient for water and ice than for water and rock. Results indicate that the depth and orientation of features intersecting the boreholes can be determined, but that interpreting their physical nature is problematic and requires corroborating information from inspection of cores. Nevertheless, these data can provide some insight into englacial structural characteristics. Additional information derived from the cross-sectional geometry of the borehole, as well as from its trajectory, may also be useful in studies concerned with stress patterns and deformation processes.

  18. Determining Aquifer Storage Properties Using Borehole Geophysical Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wempe, W.; Clayton, N.; Coulibaly, K.

    2006-12-01

    Specific yield and specific storage are essential parameters for groundwater management planning. These storage properties can be determined using a number of methods, however they are typically interpreted from multi-well aquifer pump tests. The interpretation of storage properties using pump tests can be strongly influenced and biased by small-scale hydrostratigraphic heterogeneities and boundary effects. We investigate using high resolution geophysical data collected in boreholes to provide depth-continuous logs of storage properties within heterogeneous aquifers. The advantage of using borehole geophysical data to interpret storage properties is that the estimates are unaffected by boundary conditions and that small-scale heterogeneities around the borehole can be resolved and then incorporated in more advanced interpretations of pump tests, which sample away from the borehole wall. This improved interpretation of storage properties ultimately leads to improved groundwater management planning and optimal well design, thus reducing economic risks associated with high cost production or aquifer storage and recovery wells. Our interpretations of specific yield are based on measurements of effective porosity that are made using borehole nuclear magnetic resonance tools and our interpretations of specific storage are based on measurements of aquifer compressibility that are made using borehole dipole shear sonic tools. With several case studies, we demonstrate how to interpret storage properties from these types of borehole geophysical data and show the benefits of incorporating the heterogeneity of storage properties in groundwater management planning.

  19. The buckling of drillstrings in curved sections of boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, J.H.B. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    A model for the buckling of drillstrings within curved boreholes is important in the drilling of extended reach and horizontal wells. It has been noted in drilling operations that a curved borehole increases the buckling resistance of the drillstring compared to a straight borehole. The effects of the curvature, however, cannot be correctly determined from the current buckling models developed for straight boreholes, from where the current models for curved boreholes in the literature borrow their fundamentals. A mathematical model for analyzing buckling of drillstring within curved boreholes has been developed. This model predicts the unloading buckling force of a drillstring. The results show that one can apply higher axial forces at the bit and obtain longer extended reach or horizontal sections without putting the drillstring under risk of helical buckling and the consequent lock-up of the column. The model presented here, called the Hypergeometric Model, uses an analytical method employing an inclined beam-column theory with moving boundary conditions. The boundaries are numerically adjusted until a fit between the buckled section and the curved borehole is obtained. The buckling force varies with the inclination along the curved section of a borehole. Thus buckling force curves as functions of inclination can be derived and used in simulations and drillstring design. Excellent experimental results compared to the predictions support the model. This model also includes friction effects between the drillstring and the borehole wall. In this paper, the author presents the mathematics of the Hypergeometric Model with an illustrative result. The experimental results, simulations and field applications are deferred to a following presentation.

  20. Geomechanical Engineering Concepts Applied to Deep Borehole Disposal Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, C. G.; Haimson, B. C.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Deep borehole disposal (DBD) of certain defense-generated radioactive waste forms is being considered by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as an alternative to mined repositories. The 17 inch diameter vertical boreholes are planned to be drilled in crystalline basement rock. As part of an initial field test program, the DOE will drill a demonstration borehole, to be used to test equipment for handling and emplacing prototype nonradioactive waste containers, and a second smaller diameter borehole, to be used for site characterization. Both boreholes will be drilled to a depth of 5 km. Construction of such boreholes is expected to be complex because of their overall length, large diameter, and anticipated downhole conditions of high temperatures, pore pressures, and stress regimes. It is believed that successful development of DBD boreholes can only be accomplished if geologic and tectonic conditions are characterized and drill activities are designed based on that understanding. Our study focuses primarily on using the in situ state of stress to mitigate borehole wall failure, whether tensile or compressive. The measured stresses, or their constrained estimates, will include pore pressure, the vertical stress, the horizontal stresses and orientations, and thermally induced stresses. Pore pressure will be measured directly or indirectly. Horizontal stresses will be estimated from hydraulic fracturing tests, leak off tests, and breakout characteristics. Understanding the site stress condition along with the rock's strength characteristics will aid in the optimization of mud weight and casing design required to control borehole wall failure and other drilling problems.Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6552A

  1. Sampling and Analysis Plan - Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve P.

    2006-05-26

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities.

  2. Emission of CO2 by soils in the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter in the Kola subarctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadulin, M. S.; Koptsik, G. N.

    2013-11-01

    The intensity of the in situ soil respiration in the background northern taiga spruce forests of the Kola subarctic region reaches 120-290 mg C-CO2/m2 per h. In the impact zone of the Severonikel smelter, it decreases to 90-140, 30, and 15-30 mg C-CO2/m2 per h at the stages of spruce defoliation, spruce-birch woodland, and technogenic barrens of the technogenic succession, respectively. For the first time, the impact of the industrial pollution on root respiration has been assessed, and the dependences of the CO2 emission, the contribution of mineral soil horizons to this process, the microbial biomass, and root respiration on the concentrations of available nickel and copper compounds have been determined. The efficiency of two remediation technologies applied to technogenic barrens near the smelter has been evaluated on the basis of four parameters of the soil biological activity. The results indicate that remediation with the creation of a new filled soil layer is more efficient than chemical and phytoremediation methods.

  3. Emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula and at Noril'sk, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Ron; Barnes, S.-J.; De Caritat, P.; Chekushin, V.A.; Melezhik, V.A.; Reimann, C.; Zientek, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Published estimates for base metal emissions from the copper-nickel industry on the Kola Peninsula are re-examined in the light of (a) chemical data on the composition of the ores; (b) official emission figures for 1994; and (c) modelled emissions based on dry and wet deposition estimates derived from data for snow and rain samples collected in 1994. The modelled emissions, official emission figures and chemical data are mutually compatible for Ni, Cu and Co and show that previously published figures underestimated the emissions of the major elements, Ni and Cu (though within the same order of magnitude) and overestimated the emissions of As, Pb, Sb and Zn by up to several orders of magnitude, in some cases exceeding the calculated total input to the plants. Published estimates have neglected information on the nature and chemistry of the ores processed in metallurgical industries in the Noril'sk area of Siberia and the Urals. Revised emission estimates for 1994, using knowledge of the chemistry of the ores, are proposed: taken with published information on total emissions up to 2000 these data give an indication of emission levels in more recent years. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Autumn migration and wintering areas of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus nesting on the Kola Peninsula, northern Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganusevich, S.A.; Maechtle, T.L.; Seegar, W.S.; Yates, M.A.; McGrady, M.J.; Fuller, M.; Schueck, L.; Dayton, J.; Henny, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    Four female Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus breeding on the Kola Peninsula, Russia, were fitted with satellite-received transmitters in 1994. Their breeding home ranges averaged 1175 (sd = ??714) km2, and overlapped considerably. All left their breeding grounds in September and migrated generally south-west along the Baltic Sea. The mean travel rate for three falcons was 190 km/day. Two Falcons wintered on the coasts of France and in southern Spain, which were, respectively, 2909 and 4262 km from their breeding sites. Data on migration routes suggested that Falcons took a near-direct route to the wintering areas. No prolonged stopovers were apparent. The 90% minimum convex polygon winter range of a bird that migrated to Spain encompassed 213 km2 (n = 54). The area of the 50% minimum convex polygon was 21.5 km2 (n = 29). Data from this study agree with others from North America that show that Falcons breeding in a single area do not necessarily follow the same migratory path southward and do not necessarily use the same wintering grounds.

  5. BoreholeAR: A mobile tablet application for effective borehole database visualization using an augmented reality technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangho; Suh, Jangwon; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Boring logs are widely used in geological field studies since the data describes various attributes of underground and surface environments. However, it is difficult to manage multiple boring logs in the field as the conventional management and visualization methods are not suitable for integrating and combining large data sets. We developed an iPad application to enable its user to search the boring log rapidly and visualize them using the augmented reality (AR) technique. For the development of the application, a standard borehole database appropriate for a mobile-based borehole database management system was designed. The application consists of three modules: an AR module, a map module, and a database module. The AR module superimposes borehole data on camera imagery as viewed by the user and provides intuitive visualization of borehole locations. The map module shows the locations of corresponding borehole data on a 2D map with additional map layers. The database module provides data management functions for large borehole databases for other modules. Field survey was also carried out using more than 100,000 borehole data.

  6. Methods for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2007-02-20

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  7. Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Donald W.; Wagh, Arun S.

    2003-05-13

    Canister, sealing method and composition for sealing a borehole. The canister includes a container with slurry inside the container, one or more slurry exits at one end of the container, a pump at the other end of the container, and a piston inside that pushes the slurry though the slurry exit(s), out of the container, and into a borehole. An inflatable packer outside the container provides stabilization in the borehole. A borehole sealing material is made by combining an oxide or hydroxide and a phosphate with water to form a slurry which then sets to form a high strength, minimally porous material which binds well to itself, underground formations, steel and ceramics.

  8. Seismic investigations for high resolution exploration ahead and around boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaksch, Katrin; Giese, Ruediger; Kopf, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    Deep reservoirs usually will be explored with a surface seismic survey often in combination with borehole seismic measurements like VSP or SWD which can improve the velocity model of the underground. Reservoirs especially in geothermal fields are often characterized by small-scale structures. Additionally, with depth the need for exploration methods with a high resolution increases because standard methods like borehole seismic measurements cannot improve their resolution with depth. To localize structures with more accuracy methods with higher resolution in the range of meters are necessary. Within the project SPWD - Seismic Prediction While Drilling a new exploration method will be developed. With an implementation of seismic sources and receivers in one device an exploration method ahead and around the borehole will be enabled. Also, a high resolution independent from the depth will be achieved. Therefore active and powerful seismic sources are necessary to reach an acceptable penetration depth. Step by step seismic borehole devices were developed, which can be used under different conditions. Every borehole device contains four seismic sources and several three-component geophones. A small distance between actuators and geophones allows detecting also the high frequency content of the wave field reflected at geological structures. Also, exploration with a high resolution is possible. A first borehole device was developed for basic conditions in horizontal boreholes without special terms to temperature or pressure. In a mine first methodical measurements for the initiated wave field were performed. Therefor an existing seismic test area at the research and education mine of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg was extended with boreholes. In the seismic test area, consisting of a dense geophone array with three-component geophone anchors, two horizontal and one vertical borehole was drilled. To achieve a radiation pattern in predefined directions by constructive

  9. Method and apparatus for suppressing waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-10-04

    Methods and apparatus for suppression of wave energy within a fluid-filled borehole using a low pressure acoustic barrier. In one embodiment, a flexible diaphragm type device is configured as an open bottomed tubular structure for disposition in a borehole to be filled with a gas to create a barrier to wave energy, including tube waves. In another embodiment, an expandable umbrella type device is used to define a chamber in which a gas is disposed. In yet another embodiment, a reverse acting bladder type device is suspended in the borehole. Due to its reverse acting properties, the bladder expands when internal pressure is reduced, and the reverse acting bladder device extends across the borehole to provide a low pressure wave energy barrier.

  10. Explicit infiltration function for boreholes under constant head conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnell, A. C.; Lazarovitch, N.; Warrick, A. W.

    2009-10-01

    Infiltration per unit area of the source region from discs, strips and furrows has previously been shown to be the sum of the one-dimensional infiltration and an edge effect term. Here we apply the same approach to examine infiltration under a constant head from boreholes (both lined and unlined). A critical empirical parameter (γ) in the edge effect term is related to the radius of the borehole, soil hydraulic properties, boundary and initial conditions. For lined boreholes, γ has a narrow range and for the examples investigated, a constant value of 1.06 introduces less than 5% error compared to using the case-specific γ value. For unlined boreholes, γ is larger, ranging between 1.02 and 3.16 for the examples investigated, and should be estimated for specific conditions.

  11. Geophysical borehole logging in the unsaturated zone, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich; Nelson, Philip H.; ,

    1991-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logging for site characterization in the volcanic rocks at the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires data collection under rather unusual conditions. Logging tools must operate in rugose, dry holes above the water table in the unsaturated zone. Not all logging tools will operate in this environment, therefore; careful consideration must be given to selection and calibration. A sample suite of logs is presented that demonstrates correlation of geological formations from borehole to borehole, the definition of zones of altered mineralogy, and the quantitative estimates of rock properties. We show the results of an exploratory calculation of porosity and water saturation based upon density and epithermal neutron logs. Comparison of the results with a few core samples is encouraging, particularly because the logs can provide continuous data in boreholes where core samples are not available.

  12. Data Qualification Report: Borehole Straigraphic Contacts

    SciTech Connect

    R.W. Clayton; C. Lum

    2000-04-18

    The data set considered here is the borehole stratigraphic contacts data (DTN: M09811MWDGFM03.000) used as input to the Geologic Framework Model. A Technical Assessment method used to evaluate these data with a two-fold approach: (1) comparison to the geophysical logs on which the contacts were, in part, based; and (2) evaluation of the data by mapping individual units using the entire data set. Qualification of the geophysical logs is being performed in a separate activity. A representative subset of the contacts data was chosen based on importance of the contact and representativeness of that contact in the total data set. An acceptance window was established for each contact based on the needs of the data users. Data determined to be within the acceptance window were determined to be adequate for their intended use in three-dimensional spatial modeling and were recommended to be Qualified. These methods were chosen to provide a two-pronged evaluation that examines both the origin and results of the data. The result of this evaluation is a recommendation to qualify all contacts. No data were found to lie outside the pre-determined acceptance window. Where no geophysical logs are available, data were evaluated in relation to surrounding data and by impact assessment. These data are also recommended to be qualified. The stratigraphic contact data contained in this report (Attachment VII; DTN: M00004QGFMPICK.000) are intended to replace the source data, which will remain unqualified.

  13. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  14. Application of Borehole SIP Technique to Sulfide Mineral Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Changryol; Park, Mi Kyung; Park, Samgyu; Sung, Nak Hoon; Shin, Seung Wook

    2016-04-01

    In the study, SIP (Spectral Induced Polarization) well logging probe system was developed to rapidly locate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals in the boreholes. The newly developed SIP logging probe employed the non-polarizable electrodes, consisting of zinc chloride (ZnCl2), sodium chloride (NaCl), gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O), and water (H2O), instead of existing copper electrodes, leading to eliminating the EM coupling effect in the IP surveys as much as possible. In addition, the SIP logging system is designed to make measurements down to maximum 500 meters in depth in the boreholes. The SIP well logging was conducted to examine the applicability of the SIP probe system to the boreholes at the ore mine in Jecheon area, Korea. The boreholes used in the SIP logging are known to have penetrated the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals from the drilling investigations. The ore mine of the study area is the scarn deposits surrounded by the limestone or lime-silicate rocks in Ordovician period. The results of the SIP well logging have shown that the borehole segments with limestone or lime-silicate rocks yielded the insignificant SIP responses while the borehole segments with sulfide minerals (e.g. pyrite) provided the significant phase shifts of the SIP responses. The borehole segments penetrating the metal ore body, so-called cupola, have shown very high response of the phase shift, due to the high contents of the sulfide mineral pyrite. The phase shifts of the SIP response could be used to estimate the grade of the ore bodies since the higher contents of the sulfide minerals, the higher magnitudes of the phase shifts in the SIP responses. It is, therefore, believed that the borehole SIP technique can be applied to investigate the metal ore bodies with sulfide minerals, and that could be used to estimate the ore grades as a supplementary tool in the future.

  15. Optical instruments for a combined seismic and geodetic borehole observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zumberge, Mark; Agnew, Duncan; Berger, Jonathan; Hatfield, William; Wyatt, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Optical interferometry offers displacement sensing with the unusual combination of high sensitivity, linearity, and wide dynamic range, and it can be adapted to high temperature environments. We have applied interferometric technology to inertial seismic instruments and to optical fibers for strain measurements. When combining these methods into a single borehole package the result is a system that provides three components of observatory quality seismic recordings, two components of tilt, gravity, and vertical strain. The borehole package is entirely passive with the need for only optical fibers to connect the sensor sonde with surface electronics. One of the sensors in the system is an optical fiber strainmeter, which consists of an optical fiber cable elastically stretched between two borehole anchor points separated by 100 m or more. The fiber's length is recorded optically, enabling sub-nanostrain detection of crustal deformations. A second sensor system uses laser interferometry to record the displacements of inertial mechanical suspensions - spring-mass for the vertical component and pendulums for the horizontal components - housed in a borehole sonde. The combined system is able to measure vertical and horizontal ground velocities, gravity, and tilt with sensitivities that compare favorably with any existing borehole system over time scales from 10 Hz to many days; because the downhole components are entirely passive, the instrument will have a long lifetime and could be made usable at high downhole temperatures. The simplicity and longevity of the metal and glass borehole sonde make it suitable for permanent cementation into a borehole to achieve good coupling and stability. Several versions of the borehole inertial system have been deployed on land with excellent results, and a number of our optical fiber strainmeters have been deployed - both onshore and offshore. The combined system is currently under development.

  16. Observations of joint persistence and connectivity across boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Thapa, B.B.; Karasaki, K.

    1996-01-01

    Observations of joint persistence and connectivity are made by comparison of digital borehole wall images of fractures, fluid conductivity logs and hydraulic injections test results. The fractures were found to be generally impersistent across vertical boreholes about 8 m apart. Many hydraulic connections were found in the same volume of rock. Direct connections through single fractures seem to be rare and connectivity appears to be controlled by fracture networks, even over small volumes.

  17. The experimental results and analysis of a borehole radar prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Sixin; Wu, Junjun; Dong, Hang; Fu, Lei; Wang, Fei

    2012-04-01

    A prototype of borehole radar has been successfully tested in three sites for different purposes under a field condition. The objective of the prototype is providing an effective down-hole tool for detecting targets in deep boreholes situated in a relatively high conductivity area such as the metal ores. The first testing site is at a geothermal field. The fractures extending more than 20 m from the borehole are delineated by the borehole radar in the single-hole reflection mode. The second testing site is located in a jade mine for basement evaluation. The cross-hole measurement mode was used to detect the cavities made by previous unorganized mining activities. Several high-velocity anomalies were found in the velocity profile and presumably the targets of the mine shafts and tunnels. The third test site is located in a mineralized belt characterized by low resistivity less than 1000 Ohm m, the surface-borehole measurement was carried out and the data were processed with velocity tomography. The low-velocity zone corresponds to a mineralized zone from geological records. The three testing results proved the readiness of this borehole radar prototype for further deployment in more complicated and realistic field situations.

  18. Magmatic evolution of the differentiated ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion of Vuoriyarvi (Kola Peninsula, Russia). A LA-ICP-MS study of apatite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassinnes, S.; Balaganskaya, E.; Demaiffe, D.

    2005-11-01

    The nature of the petrogenetic links between carbonatites and associated silicate rocks is still under discussion (i.e., [ Gittins J., Harmer R.E., 2003. Myth and reality of the carbonatite-silicate rock "association". Period di Mineral. 72, 19-26.]). In the Paleozoic Kola alkaline province (NW Russia), the carbonatites are spatially and temporally associated to ultramafic cumulates (clinopyroxenite, wehrlite and dunite) and alkaline silicate rocks of the ijolite-melteigite series [ Kogarko, L.N., 1987. Alkaline rocks of the eastern part of the Baltic Shield (Kola Peninsula). In: Fitton, J.G., and Upton, B.G.J. (eds). Alkaline igneous rocks. Geol. Soc. Special Publication 30, 531-544; Kogarko, L.N., Kononova, V.A., Orlova, M.P., Woolley, A.R., 1995. Alkaline rocks and carbonatites of the world. Part 2. Former USSR. Chapman and Hall, London, 225 pp; Verhulst, A., Balaganskya, E., Kirnarsky, Y., Demaiffe, D., 2000. Petrological and geochemical (trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes) characteristics of the Paleozoic Kovdor ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite intrusion (Kola Peninsula, NW Russia). Lithos 51, 1-25; Dunworth, E.A., Bell, K., 2001. The Turiy Massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia; isotopic and geochemical evidence for a multi-source evolution. J. Petrol. 42, 377-405; Woolley, A.R., 2003. Igneous silicate rocks associated with carbonatites: their diversity, relative abundances and implications for carbonatite genesis. Period. di Mineral. 72, 9-17)]. In the small (≈ 20 km 2) Vuoriyarvi massif, apatite is typically a liquidus phase during the magmatic evolution and so it can be used to test genetic relationships. Trace elements contents have been obtained for both whole rocks and apatite (by LA-ICP-MS). The apatites define a single continuous chemical evolution marked by an increase in REE and Na (belovite-type of substitution, i.e., 2Ca 2+ = Na + + REE 3+). This evolution possibly reflects a fractional crystallisation process of a single batch of isotopically

  19. Borehole sampling of fracture populations - compensating for borehole sampling bias in crystalline bedrock aquifers, Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, G.D.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Barton, C.C.; Johnson, C.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clustering of orientations of hydraulically conductive fractures in bedrock at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire fractured rock study site was investigated by comparing the orientations of fracture populations in two subvertical borehole arrays with those mapped on four adjacent subvertical roadcuts. In the boreholes and the roadcuts, the orientation of fracture populations appears very similar after borehole data are compensated for undersampling of steeply dipping fractures. Compensated borehole and pavement fracture data indicate a northeast-striking population of fractures with varying dips concentrated near that of the local foliation in the adjacent rock. The data show no correlation between fracture density (fractures/linear meter) and distance from lithologic contacts in both the boreholes and the roadcuts. The population of water-producing borehole fractures is too small (28 out of 610 fractures) to yield meaningful orientation comparisons. However, the orientation of large aperture fractures (which contains all the producing fractures) contains two or three subsidiary clusters in orientation frequency that are not evident in stereographic projections of the entire population containing all aperture sizes. Further, these subsidiary orientation clusters do not coincide with the dominant (subhorizontal and subvertical) regional fracture orientations.

  20. Induced seismicity after borehole fluid injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenbruch, Cornelius; Shapiro, Serge

    2010-05-01

    We present a model for the temporal distribution of microseismic events induced by borehole fluid injections into reservoirs. We put the focus on seismicity induced after the stop of fluid injections. Here, our main concern is the identification of parameters controlling the decay rate of seismicity after injection stops. The particular importance of a theoretical model for the occurrence of seismicity after stop of injection is underlined by observations after stimulations of geothermal reservoirs at different locations. These stimulations have shown that the post injection phase contains a high seismic risk, which is up to now uncontrollable, because the processes leading to the occurrence of post injection events are not well understood. Based on the assumption that pore pressure diffusion is the governing mechanism leading to the triggering of seismic events, we develop a method to calculate the seismicity rate during and after fluid injections. We show that the obtained solution after injection is very similar to the frequency scaling law of aftershocks, namely the Omori law. We propose a modified Omori law, which describes how post injection seismicity depends on parameters of injection source and reservoir rock and the strength of a pre-existing fracture system in the reservoir. We analyze two end members of fracture strength, representing stable and unstable pre-existing fracture systems. Our results shows, that the decay rate of post injection seismicity is highly dependent on the strength of the fracture system. Furthermore, we show that the existence of an unstable fracture system in a reservoir results in a critical trend of seismic activity, which explains the occurrence of events with the largest magnitude close after the stop of injection. This result coincides with observations made after the stimulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). We verify our theoretical model by an application to synthetic data sets resulting from finite element

  1. The Plate Boundary Observatory Borehole Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasting, M.; Eakins, J.; Anderson, G.; Hodgkinson, K.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Smith, S.; Jackson, M.; Prescott, W.

    2006-12-01

    As part of the NSF-funded EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory, UNAVCO will install and operate 103 borehole seismic stations throughout the western United States. These stations continuously record three- component seismic data at 100 samples per second, using Geo-Space HS-1-LT 2-HZ geophones in a sonde developed by SONDI and Consultants (Duke University). Each seismic package is connected to an uphole Quanterra Q330 data logger and Marmot external buffer, from which UNAVCO retrieves data in real time. UNAVCO uses the Antelope software suite from Boulder Real-Time Technologies (BRTT) for all data collection and transfer, metadata generation and distribution, and monitoring of the network. The first stations were installed in summer 2005, with 19 stations installed by September 2006, and a total of 28 stations expected by December 2006. In a prime example of cooperation between the PBO and USArray components of EarthScope, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF), operated by UC San Diego, handled data flow and network monitoring for the PBO seismic stations in the initial stages of network operations. We thank the ANF staff for their gracious assistance over the last several months. Data flow in real time from the remote stations to the UNAVCO Boulder Network Operations Center, from which UNAVCO provides station command and control; verification and distribution of metadata; and basic quality control for all data. From Boulder, data flow in real time to the IRIS DMC for final quality checks, archiving, and distribution. Historic data are available from June 2005 to the present, and are updated in real time with typical latencies of less than ten seconds. As of 1 September 2006, the PBO seismic network had returned 60 GB of raw data. Please visit http://pboweb.unavco.org for additional information on the PBO seismic network.

  2. The electrical resistivity method in cased boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Schenkel, C.J.

    1991-05-01

    The use of downhole current sources in resistivity mapping can greatly enhance the detection and delineation of subsurface features. The purpose of this work is to examine the resistivity method for current sources in wells cased with steel. The resistivity method in cased boreholes with downhole current sources is investigated using the integral equation (IE) technique. The casing and other bodies are characterized as conductivity inhomogeneities in a half-space. For sources located along the casing axis, an axially symmetric Green's function is used to formulate the surface potential and electric field (E-field) volume integral equations. The situations involving off-axis current sources and three-dimensional (3-D) bodies is formulated using the surface potential IE method. The solution of the 3-D Green's function is presented in cylindrical and Cartesian coordinate systems. The methods of moments is used to solve the Fredholm integral equation of the second kind for the response due to the casing and other bodies. The numerical analysis revealed that the current in the casing can be approximated by its vertical component except near the source and the axial symmetric approximation of the casing is valid even for the 3-D problem. The E-field volume IE method is an effective and efficient technique to simulate the response of the casing in a half-space, whereas the surface potential approach is computationally better when multiple bodies are involved. Analyzing several configurations of the current source indicated that the casing response is influenced by four characteristic factors: conduction length, current source depth,casing depth, and casing length. 85 refs., 133 figs., 11 tabs.

  3. Structural characterization and composition of Y-rich hainite from Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyalina, L.; Zolotarev, A.; Selivanova, E.; Savchenko, Ye.; Zozulya, D.; Krivovichev, S.; Mikhailova, Yu.

    2015-08-01

    Y-rich hainite occurs in nepheline syenite pegmatite of the Sakharjok massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). It forms euhedral prismatic crystals up to 2 mm in length as well as rims around an unidentified mineral phase (silicate of Ca, Y, Zr and Ti). The mineral is triclinic, space group P-1, a 9.6054(10), b 5.6928(6), c 7.3344(7) Å, α 89.903(2), β 101.082(2), γ 100.830(2)°, V 386.32(7) Å3, Z = 1. The calculated density is 3.39 g/cm3. Chemical composition of Sakharjok hainite is different from the previously published data by much higher Y and Nb contents up to 0.72 and 0.20 atoms per formula unit, respectively, by the two- to five-fold depletion in the LREEs and by the strong enrichment of the HREEs. From the single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, there is a significant amount of Y in the M1 site associated with the absence of Zr in it. Nb and Zr are concentrated in the M5 site substituting Ti. Combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and electron microprobe data give the empirical formula (Ca1.04Y0.63REE0.24Mn0.02)∑1.93(Na0.92Ca0.77)∑1.69Ca2.00(Na0.65Ca0.10)∑0.75(Ti0.60Zr0.21Nb0.15Fe0.03)∑0.99((Si4.00Al0.02)∑4.02O14) (F2.61O1.39)∑4.00.

  4. Organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and PCBs in peregrine falcon Falco peregrinus eggs from the Kola peninsula, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Ganusevich, S.A.; Ward, F.P.; Schwartz, T.R.; Meyburg, B-U.; Chancellor, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    Nesting of a bog-associated population of mlgfatory Peregrine Falcons, Falco peregrinus, along the Ponoy River depression, Kola Peninsula, Russia, has been studied since 1977. In 1987 91 production rates averaged 1.94 young per active nest and the number of breeding pairs increased from 4 to 10. In 1991, most eyrie sites were visited during the egg stage and a 'sample' egg was collected for contaminant analysis. Eight Peregrine Falcon eggs contained relatively low concentrations of p,p' -DOE (DOE) (geometric mean 3.5 g/g) and of other organochlorine pesticides. These DOE concentrations are similar to those reported in Peregrine Falcon eggs from an Alaskan population that had also showed a recent population increase. Eggshell thinning (11.4%) was similar to that found in Alaska. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were higher than DOE concentrations, comparable to the contamination profile shown by Peregrine Falcon populations in Fennoscandia, and were higher than those found in Alaskan birds. Before this study, no Peregrine Falcon eggs from Russia had 'been analyzed for PCB congeners, polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins (PCDDs), or pol ychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCD Fs). Conversions of analytical concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), other PCDDs, PCDFs and PCB congeners based on relative aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase induction potencies allowed the estimation of total 2,3,7,8- TCDD equivalents (TEQs). The TEQs are in the range that is associated with embryonic mortality in other species. Even though the Peregrine Falcon population now seems to be released from decades of a DOT problem, exposure to other contaminant continues. There is an obvious need to assess further the sources and longer-term trends of the PCBs. We also report residue concentrations from one White-tailed Eagle, Haliaeetus albicilla, egg.

  5. Urinary Schistosomiasis among Children in Murbai and Surbai Communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area, Taraba State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Agere, H.; Wama, B. E.; Bingbeng, J. B.; Amuta, E. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence, intensity of infection, and risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis among children in Murbai and Surbai communities of Ardo-Kola Local Government Area (LGA), Taraba State, Nigeria. Methods. Urine samples were analysed by the standard filtration technique using 10 ml syringe, Swinnex polypropylene filter holder (13 mm diameter), and polycarbonate membrane filters (12 μm porosity). Sociodemographic data and water contact activities were collated from children using structured questionnaires. Results. A point prevalence of 58.54% was reported out of the urine samples examined. Males were significantly more infected than their female counterparts (71.15% versus 43.66%, χ2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). The age-related prevalence showed 6–10 and 11–15 years significantly infected with 78.70% and 73.02%, respectively (χ2 = 89.12, p = 0.000). Light intensity of infection, 62.51%, was significantly higher than heavy intensity, 37.48%, among the infected children (χ2 = 365.8, p = 0.000). Water contact activities such as fishing (OR = 4.01, CI = 3.04–5.61, p = 0.000), rice farming (OR = 4.01, CI = 2.96–5.36, p = 0.000), and dry season farming (OR = 4.78, CI = 3.68–6.22, p = 0.000) were the risk factors exposing children to infection in the area. Conclusion. There is an urgent need to undertake a large scale deworming control programme using praziquantel in the area. PMID:28096819

  6. Methane Emissions from Abandoned Boreholes in South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, S. J.; Fry, R.; Dell'Amico, M.; Williams, D.; Halliburton, B.; Element, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Surat Basin in south-eastern Queensland is one of Australia's main coal bed methane production areas. It has also been subject to coal exploration over many years and consequently there are thousands of abandoned exploration boreholes throughout the region. Here, we present some results of field measurements aimed at locating leaking legacy exploration boreholes in the Surat Basin and to quantify their emission rates. We also discuss emission measurements made on abandoned CBM wells in Queensland and NSW that have been decommissioned according to modern practices. Leaking boreholes were located using a Picarro 2301 CH4 analyser mounted in a vehicle that was driven through gas fields in the Surat Basin. Where surface emissions were indicated by elevated ambient CH4 levels, the emission rate was measured using soil flux chambers at each site. For comparison, soil gas flux measurements were also made on natural surfaces and agricultural land throughout the study areas. Ten borehole sources were located during the surveys, yielding emission rates from less than 0.1 kg CH4 day-1 to more than 100 kg CH4 day-1. A number of other known exploration borehole sites were examined which had no detectable CH4 emissions. Plugged and abandoned CBM wells showed no CH4 emissions except in two cases where emission rates of about 0.07 g CH4 day-1 were detected, which were comparable to natural wetland CH4 emissions. Preliminary results suggest that modern decommissioning practices appear to be effective in preventing CH4 leakage from CBM abandoned wells. However, legacy coal exploration boreholes may represent a significant source of CH4 in the Surat Basin, although the proportion of these holes leaking CH4 is yet to be determined. Moreover, it is not yet clear if emissions from boreholes are affected by changes in groundwater induced by water extraction associated with gas production and agriculture. This is an area requiring further research.

  7. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. BRENT; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Fecht, Karl R.; Lanigan, David C.; Reidel, Steve; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-02-28

    In 2006, DOE-ORP initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct Vs measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) confirmation of the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the corehole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt was also penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of movement and less than 15 feet of repeated section. Most of the

  8. Process for establishing a clear horizontal borehole in a subterranean formation

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, W.L.; Henderson, R.L.; Aul, G.N.; Pauley, B.W.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a process for establishing a clear, generally horizontal borehole path in a subterranean formation having sloughing or caving characteristics. The process comprises the steps of: drilling a generally horizontal borehole into a subterranean formation having sloughing or caving characteristics using a drill bit and drill pipe; lubricating the drill bit and drill pipe with a mud capable of forming a cake on the borehole walls; withdrawing the drill bit and drill pipe and replacing the drill bit with a casing shoe. The cake maintains the borehole wall integrity while the drill pipe is removed from the borehole; inserting the casing shoe and drill pipe into the borehole; simultaneously inserting a liner into the generally horizontal borehole inside of the drill pipe; and removing the drill pipe and casing shoe while holding the liner within the borehole, the casing shoe passing on the outside of the liner as it is removed, the liner providing a clean path through the borehole.

  9. An in-well heat-tracer-test method for evaluating borehole flow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, Stephen M.; Hart, David J.; Bahr, Jean M.

    2015-12-01

    An improved method is presented for characterizing vertical borehole flow conditions in open boreholes using in-well heat tracer tests monitored by a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system. This flow logging method uses an electrical resistance heater to warm slugs of water within bedrock boreholes and DTS monitoring of subsequent heat migration to measure borehole flow characteristics. Use of an electrical resistance heater allows for controlled test initiation, while the DTS allows for detailed monitoring of heat movement within the borehole. The method was evaluated in bedrock boreholes open to Cambrian sandstone formations in south-central Wisconsin (USA). The method was successfully used to measure upward flow, downward flow, and zero flow, and to identify changes in borehole flow rates associated with fracture flow and porous media flow. The main benefits of the DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer test method of borehole flow logging are (1) borehole flow direction and changes in borehole fluid velocity are readily apparent from a simple plot of the field data, (2) the case of zero vertical borehole flow is easily and confidently identified, and (3) the ability to monitor temperatures over the full borehole length simultaneously and in rapid succession provides detailed flow data with minimal disturbance of the borehole flow. The results of this study indicate that DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer tests are an effective method of characterizing borehole flow conditions.

  10. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector.

  11. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This document presents design requirements and controlled assumptions intended for use in the engineering development and testing of: 1) prototype packages for radioactive waste disposal in deep boreholes; 2) a waste package surface handling system; and 3) a subsurface system for emplacing and retrieving packages in deep boreholes. Engineering development and testing is being performed as part of the Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT; SNL 2014a). This document presents parallel sets of requirements for a waste disposal system and for the DBFT, showing the close relationship. In addition to design, it will also inform planning for drilling, construction, and scientific characterization activities for the DBFT. The information presented here follows typical preparations for engineering design. It includes functional and operating requirements for handling and emplacement/retrieval equipment, waste package design and emplacement requirements, borehole construction requirements, sealing requirements, and performance criteria. Assumptions are included where they could impact engineering design. Design solutions are avoided in the requirements discussion. Deep Borehole Field Test Requirements and Controlled Assumptions July 21, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This set of requirements and assumptions has benefited greatly from reviews by Gordon Appel, Geoff Freeze, Kris Kuhlman, Bob MacKinnon, Steve Pye, David Sassani, Dave Sevougian, and Jiann Su.

  12. Uemachi flexure zone investigated by borehole database and numeical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, N.; Kitada, N.; Takemura, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Uemachi fault zone extending north and south, locates in the center of the Osaka City, in Japan. The Uemachi fault is a blind reverse fault and forms the flexure zone. The effects of the Uemachi flexure zone are considered in constructing of lifelines and buildings. In this region, the geomorphological survey is difficult because of the regression of transgression. Many organizations have carried out investigations of fault structures. Various surveys have been conducted, such as seismic reflection survey in and around Osaka. Many borehole data for construction conformations have been collected and the geotechnical borehole database has been constructed. The investigation with several geological borehole data provides the subsurface geological information to the geotechnical borehole database. Various numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the growth of a blind reverse fault in unconsolidated sediments. The displacement of the basement was given in two ways. One is based on the fault movement, such as dislocation model, the other is a movement of basement block of hanging wall. The Drucker-Prager and elastic model were used for the sediment and basement, respectively. The simulation with low and high angle fault movements, show the good agree with the actual distribution of the marine clay inferred from borehole data in the northern and southern Uemachi fault flexure zone, respectively. This research is partly funded by the Comprehensive Research on the Uemachi Fault Zone (from FY2010 to FY2012) by The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT).

  13. Three-component borehole wall-locking seismic detector

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.

    1994-04-12

    A seismic detector for boreholes is described that has an accelerometer sensor block for sensing vibrations in geologic formations of the earth. The density of the seismic detector is approximately matched to the density of the formations in which the detector is utilized. A simple compass is used to orient the seismic detector. A large surface area shoe having a radius approximately equal to the radius of the borehole in which the seismic detector is located may be pushed against the side of the borehole by actuating cylinders contained in the seismic detector. Hydraulic drive of the cylinders is provided external to the detector. By using the large surface area wall-locking shoe, force holding the seismic detector in place is distributed over a larger area of the borehole wall thereby eliminating concentrated stresses. Borehole wall-locking forces up to ten times the weight of the seismic detector can be applied thereby ensuring maximum detection frequency response up to 2,000 hertz using accelerometer sensors in a triaxial array within the seismic detector. 5 figures.

  14. Rare gas isotopes and parent trace elements in ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes, Kola Peninsula: identification of lower mantle plume component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikhin, I. N.; Kamensky, I. L.; Marty, B.; Nivin, V. A.; Vetrin, V. R.; Balaganskaya, E. G.; Ikorsky, S. V.; Gannibal, M. A.; Weiss, D.; Verhulst, A.; Demaiffe, D.

    2002-03-01

    During the Devonian magmatism (370 Ma ago) ˜20 ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite complexes (UACC) were formed in the Kola Peninsula (north-east of the Baltic Shield). In order to understand mantle and crust sources and processes having set these complexes, rare gases were studied in ˜300 rocks and mineral separates from 9 UACC, and concentrations of parent Li, K, U, and Th were measured in ˜70 samples. 4He/ 3He ratios in He released by fusion vary from pure radiogenic values ˜10 8 down to 6 × 10 4. The cosmogenic and extraterrestrial sources as well as the radiogenic production are unable to account for the extremely high abundances of 3He, up to 4 × 10 -9 cc/g, indicating a mantle-derived fluid in the Kola rocks. In some samples helium extracted by crushing shows quite low 4He/ 3He = 3 × 10 4, well below the mean ratio in mid ocean ridge basalts (MORB), (8.9 ± 1.0) × 10 4, indicating the contribution of 3He-rich plume component. Magnetites are principal carriers of this component. Trapped 3He is extracted from these minerals at high temperatures 1100°C to 1600°C which may correspond to decrepitation or annealing primary fluid inclusions, whereas radiogenic 4He is manly released at a temperature range of 500°C to 1200°C, probably corresponding to activation of 4He sites degraded by U, Th decay. Similar 4He/ 3He ratios were observed in Oligocene flood basalts from the Ethiopian plume. According to a paleo-plate-tectonic reconstruction, 450 Ma ago the Baltica (including the Kola Peninsula) continent drifted not far from the present-day site of that plume. It appears that both magmatic provinces could relate to one and the same deep-seated mantle source. The neon isotopic compositions confirm the occurrence of a plume component since, within a conventional 20Ne/ 22Ne versus 21Ne/ 22Ne diagram, the regression line for Kola samples is indistinguishable from those typical of plumes, such as Loihi (Hawaii). 20Ne/ 22Ne ratios (up to 12.1) correlate well with 40

  15. Analysis of borehole-radar reflection logs from selected HC boreholes at the Project Shoal area, Churchill County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lane, J.W.; Joesten, P.K.; Pohll, G.M.; Mihevic, Todd

    2001-01-01

    Single-hole borehole-radar reflection logs were collected and interpreted in support of a study to characterize ground-water flow and transport at the Project Shoal Area (PSA) in Churchill County, Nevada. Radar logging was conducted in six boreholes using 60-MHz omni-directional electric-dipole antennas and a 60-MHz magnetic-dipole directional receiving antenna.Radar data from five boreholes were interpreted to identify the location, orientation, estimated length, and spatial continuity of planar reflectors present in the logs. The overall quality of the radar data is marginal and ranges from very poor to good. Twenty-seven reflectors were interpreted from the directional radar reflection logs. Although the range of orientation interpreted for the reflectors is large, a significant number of reflectors strike northeast-southwest and east-west to slightly northwest-southeast. Reflectors are moderate to steeply dipping and reflector length ranged from less than 7 m to more than 133 m.Qualitative scores were assigned to each reflector to provide a sense of the spatial continuity of the reflector and the characteristics of the field data relative to an ideal planar reflector (orientation score). The overall orientation scores are low, which reflects the general data quality, but also indicates that the properties of most reflectors depart from the ideal planar case. The low scores are consistent with reflections from fracture zones that contain numerous, closely spaced, sub-parallel fractures.Interpretation of borehole-radar direct-wave velocity and amplitude logs identified several characteristics of the logged boreholes: (1) low-velocity zones correlate with decreased direct-wave amplitude, indicating the presence of fracture zones; (2) direct-wave amplitude increases with depth in three of the boreholes, suggesting an increase in electrical resistivity with depth resulting from changes in mineral assemblage or from a decrease in the specific conductance of ground

  16. Electrical resistivity borehole measurements: application to an urban tunnel site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, A.; Marache, A.; Obellianne, T.; Breysse, D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper shows how it is possible to use wells drilled during geotechnical pre-investigation of a tunneling site to obtain a 2-D image of the resistivity close to a tunnel boring machine. An experimental apparatus is presented which makes it possible to perform single and borehole-to-borehole electrical measurements independent of the geological and hydrogeological context, which can be activated at any moment during the building of the tunnel. This apparatus is first demonstrated through its use on a test site. Numerical simulations and data inversion are used to analyse the experimental results. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography and single-borehole measurements on a tunneling site are presented. Experimental results show the viability of the apparatus and the efficiency of the inverse algorithm, and also highlight the limitations of the electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for geotechnical investigation in urban areas.

  17. Deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Joshua S.; Freeze, Geoffrey A.; Brady, Patrick Vane; Swift, Peter N.; Rechard, Robert Paul; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2009-07-01

    Preliminary evaluation of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel indicates the potential for excellent long-term safety performance at costs competitive with mined repositories. Significant fluid flow through basement rock is prevented, in part, by low permeabilities, poorly connected transport pathways, and overburden self-sealing. Deep fluids also resist vertical movement because they are density stratified. Thermal hydrologic calculations estimate the thermal pulse from emplaced waste to be small (less than 20 C at 10 meters from the borehole, for less than a few hundred years), and to result in maximum total vertical fluid movement of {approx}100 m. Reducing conditions will sharply limit solubilities of most dose-critical radionuclides at depth, and high ionic strengths of deep fluids will prevent colloidal transport. For the bounding analysis of this report, waste is envisioned to be emplaced as fuel assemblies stacked inside drill casing that are lowered, and emplaced using off-the-shelf oilfield and geothermal drilling techniques, into the lower 1-2 km portion of a vertical borehole {approx}45 cm in diameter and 3-5 km deep, followed by borehole sealing. Deep borehole disposal of radioactive waste in the United States would require modifications to the Nuclear Waste Policy Act and to applicable regulatory standards for long-term performance set by the US Environmental Protection Agency (40 CFR part 191) and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (10 CFR part 60). The performance analysis described here is based on the assumption that long-term standards for deep borehole disposal would be identical in the key regards to those prescribed for existing repositories (40 CFR part 197 and 10 CFR part 63).

  18. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  19. Reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation Project, boreholes 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Cadoret, N.A.

    1991-01-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) has been undertaken by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in fulfillment of obligations and commitments made under the National Environmental Policy Act and the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. This restoration program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility reclamation. Detailed descriptions of these reclamation projects may be found in a number of previous reports. This report describes the second phase of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes and analyzes its success relative to the reclamation objective. 6 refs., 14 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Observing ETS Evolution With Borehole Strainmeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Dragert, H.; Roeloffs, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The behaviour of along-strike propagation was recognized in the first report of the discovery of Cascadia slow slip [Dragert et al., 2001]. Even with very few and sparsely distributed GPS stations, it could be estimated that the slow slip in 1999 propagated in the northwest direction at ~6 km/day. It was later established that the occurrence of tremor at Cascadia tracks the along-strike propagation of the slips. Recent introduction of Gladwin borehole strainmeters (BSM) as well as the densification of GPS coverage under the Plate Boundary Observatory has enabled more detailed monitoring of the slip migration. In this study we analyze the behaviour of strategically located BSMs in ETS episodes and use the strain records to examine the along-strike migration of prolonged ETS in northern Cascadia. Consistent with the conclusion of a tidal calibration study [Roeloffs, 2010], we found that the BSM areal strains in this area are generally unusable, but the shear strains yield useful information. Although tidal calibration was conducted only for a subset of the BSMs, there appears to be a general correspondence between BSMs that yield good results in the tidal calibration and those that yield clear signals in multiple ETS episodes. BSMs are sensitive to many tectonic and nontectonic processes. Long-term trends caused by time-dependent adjustment of the surrounding formation and seasonal variations caused by surface and subsurface fluid pressure changes may be removed by analysis of long data records in conjunction with supplementary data, such as streamflow, from individual sites. Such corrections reduce uncertainties in the net strain remaining after a slow slip event. When detailed corrections are not feasible or possible, very simple processing of BSM data still provides useful information on the timing of the sudden change due to the slow slip and the sign of that change (increase or decrease). Despite various limitations, the BSM data have improved the

  1. Soil organic carbon sequestration as affected by afforestation: the Darab Kola forest (north of Iran) case study.

    PubMed

    Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Zaccone, Claudio; Jalilvand, Hamid; Hojjati, Seyed Mohammad

    2012-09-01

    Following the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol, afforestation of formerly arable lands and/or degraded areas has been acknowledged as a land-use change contributing to the mitigation of increasing atmospheric CO(2) concentration in the atmosphere. In the present work, we study the soil organic carbon sequestration (SOCS) in 21 year old stands of maple (Acer velutinum Bioss.), oak (Quercus castaneifolia C.A. Mey.), and red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) in the Darab Kola region, north of Iran. Soil samples were collected at four different depths (0-10, 10-20, 20-30, and 30-40 cm), and characterized with respect to bulk density, water content, electrical conductivity, pH, texture, lime content, total organic C, total N, and earthworm density and biomass. Data showed that afforested stands significantly affected soil characteristics, also raising SOCS phenomena, with values of 163.3, 120.6, and 102.1 Mg C ha(-1) for red pine, oak and maple stands, respectively, vs. 83.0 Mg C ha(-1) for the control region. Even if the dynamics of organic matter (OM) in soil is very complex and affected by several pedo-climatic factors, a stepwise regression method indicates that SOCS values in the studied area could be predicted using the following parameters, i.e., sand, clay, lime, and total N contents, and C/N ratio. In particular, although the chemical and physical stabilization capacity of organic C by soil is believed to be mainly governed by clay content, regression analysis showed a positive correlation between SOCS and sand (R = 0.86(**)), whereas a negative correlation with clay (R = -0.77(**)) was observed, thus suggesting that most of this organic C occurs as particulate OM instead of mineral-associated OM. Although the proposed models do not take into account possible changes due to natural and anthropogenic processes, they represent a simple way that could be used to evaluate and/or monitor the potential of each forest plantation in immobilizing organic C in soil (thus

  2. Pressure-induced brine migration into an open borehole in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Chambre, P.L.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This report provides some solutions to models that predict the brine accumulation in an open borehole. In this model, brine flow rates are controlled by pressure differences between the salt and the borehole. (TEM)

  3. Methods for enhancing the efficiency of creating a borehole using high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zediker, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F.

    2014-06-24

    Methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena to enhance the formation of Boreholes. Methods for the laser operations to reduce the critical path for forming a borehole in the earth. These methods can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  4. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    DOEpatents

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  5. Deep Borehole Disposal Remediation Costs for Off-Normal Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, John T.; Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-08-17

    This memo describes rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) cost estimates for a set of off-normal (accident) scenarios, as defined for two waste package emplacement method options for deep borehole disposal: drill-string and wireline. It summarizes the different scenarios and the assumptions made for each, with respect to fishing, decontamination, remediation, etc.

  6. Intrinsic germanium detector used in borehole sonde for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Boynton, G.R.; Philbin, P.W.; Baicker, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    A borehole sonde (~1.7 m long; 7.3 cm diameter) using a 200 mm2 planar intrinsic germanium detector, mounted in a cryostat cooled by removable canisters of frozen propane, has been constructed and tested. The sonde is especially useful in measuring X- and low-energy gamma-ray spectra (40–400 keV). Laboratory tests in an artificial borehole facility indicate its potential for in-situ uranium analyses in boreholes irrespective of the state of equilibrium in the uranium series. Both natural gamma-ray and neutron-activation gamma-ray spectra have been measured with the sonde. Although the neutron-activation technique yields greater sensitivity, improvements being made in the resolution and efficiency of intrinsic germanium detectors suggest that it will soon be possible to use a similar sonde in the passive mode for measurement of uranium in a borehole down to about 0.1% with acceptable accuracy. Using a similar detector and neutron activation, the sonde can be used to measure uranium down to 0.01%.

  7. Development of a mobile borehole investigation software using augmented reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J.; Lee, S.; Oh, M.; Yun, D. E.; Kim, S.; Park, H. D.

    2015-12-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is one of the most developing technologies in smartphone and IT areas. While various applications have been developed using the AR, there are a few geological applications which adopt its advantages. In this study, a smartphone application to manage boreholes using AR has been developed. The application is consisted of three major modules, an AR module, a map module and a data management module. The AR module calculates the orientation of the device and displays nearby boreholes distributed in three dimensions using the orientation. This module shows the boreholes in a transparent layer on a live camera screen so the user can find and understand the overall characteristics of the underground geology. The map module displays the boreholes on a 2D map to show their distribution and the location of the user. The database module uses SQLite library which has proper characteristics for mobile platforms, and Binary XML is adopted to enable containing additional customized data. The application is able to provide underground information in an intuitive and refined forms and to decrease time and general equipment required for geological field investigations.

  8. Conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to channel waves in coal

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; Albright, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for the mode conversion of borehole Stoneley waves to stratigraphically guided channel waves was discovered in data from a crosswell acoustic experiment conducted between wells penetrating thin coal strata located near Rifle, Colorado. Traveltime moveout observations show that borehole Stoneley waves, excited by a transmitter positioned at substantial distances in one well above and below a coal stratum at 2025 m depth, underwent partial conversion to a channel wave propagating away from the well through the coal. In an adjacent well the channel wave was detected at receiver locations within the coal, and borehole Stoneley waves, arising from a second partial conversion of channel waves, were detected at locations above and below the coal. The observed channel wave is inferred to be the third-higher Rayleigh mode based on comparison of the measured group velocity with theoretically derived dispersion curves. The identification of the mode conversion between borehole and stratigraphically guided waves is significant because coal penetrated by multiple wells may be detected without placing an acoustic transmitter or receiver within the waveguide. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Borehole Tilt Measurements at the Charlevoix Observatory, Quebec.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-31

    the added length. The Earth Physics Branch also drilled a nearby deep water well. The borehole was drilled by Les Puits de Quebec under subcontract...Geophys. Res. Letters, 5, 477-479. El-Sabh, M .1., T.S. Murty, et L. Levesque, 1979, Mouvements des eaux induits par la maree et le vent dans l’estuaire du

  10. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, W.D.; Ramirez, A.L.

    1999-06-22

    An electrical resistance tomography method is described which uses steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constrain the models. 2 figs.

  11. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Daily, William D.; Ramirez, Abelardo L.

    1999-01-01

    An electrical resistance tomography method using steel cased boreholes as electrodes. The method enables mapping the electrical resistivity distribution in the subsurface from measurements of electrical potential caused by electrical currents injected into an array of electrodes in the subsurface. By use of current injection and potential measurement electrodes to generate data about the subsurface resistivity distribution, which data is then used in an inverse calculation, a model of the electrical resistivity distribution can be obtained. The inverse model may be constrained by independent data to better define an inverse solution. The method utilizes pairs of electrically conductive (steel) borehole casings as current injection electrodes and as potential measurement electrodes. The greater the number of steel cased boreholes in an array, the greater the amount of data is obtained. The steel cased boreholes may be utilized for either current injection or potential measurement electrodes. The subsurface model produced by this method can be 2 or 3 dimensional in resistivity depending on the detail desired in the calculated resistivity distribution and the amount of data to constain the models.

  12. Application of linear inverse theory to borehole gravity data

    SciTech Connect

    Burkhard, N.R.

    1991-09-01

    Traditional borehole gravity interpretations are based upon an earth model which assumes horizontal, laterally infinite, uniformly thick, and constant density layers. I apply discrete stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the density distribution directly from borehole gravity observations that have been corrected for drift, tide, and terrain. The stabilization is the result of including a priori data about the free-air gradient and the density structure in the inversion process. The discrete generalized linear inverse approach enables one to solve for a density distribution using all of the borehole gravity data. Moreover, the data need not be free-air corrected. An important feature of the approach is that density estimates are not required to be density averages between adjacent borehole gravity observations as in the traditional method. This approach further permits the explicit incorporation of independent density information from gamma-gamma logging tools or laboratory core measurements. Finally, explicit linear constraints upon the density and/or free-air gradient can also be handled. The non-uniqueness of the density structure determined by the inversion process is represented in a resolution matrix. 12 refs., 11 figs.

  13. DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF BOREHOLE FLOWMETERS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to understand the origin of contaminant plumes and infer their future migration, one requires a knowledge of the hydraulic conductivity (K) distribution. n many aquifers, the borehole flowmeter offers the most direct technique available for developing a log of hydraulic ...

  14. Cross-borehole fracture mapping using electromagnetic geotomography

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A L; Deadrick, F J; Lytle, R J

    1982-05-12

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is evaluating high resolution geophysical techniques for characterization of nuclear waste repository sites. This report presents the results of the first phase of this project. We describe the evaluation of a new geophysical technique used to map fractures remotely between boreholes: electromagnetic geotomography used in conjunction with water tracers. Salt water is forced into the fractured rock mass, attenuating the high frequency electromagnetic waves used for probing. The locations in the rock where the salt water has induced signal losses are then mapped by geotomography. An experiment using this technique has been performed near Oracle, Arizona, in a granitic rock mass. The data obtained were reduced to gray level images, which show the calculated signal transmission properties of the rock mass. We analyzed these images and compared them with borehole geophysical data: neutron logs, acoustic velocity logs, caliper logs, and acoustic televiewer logs. Comparisons between the images and the borehole geophysical data suggest that geotomography has merit when used to map fracture in granite. Image anomalies, which can be indicative of fracturing along the borehole walls, usually coincide with geophysical log anomalies. Under the conditions of the Oracle experiment, available data indicate that clusters of fracture zones were detected. Single fractures were not detected. The thickness of the smallest recognizable fractured zone was 0.6 m (2 ft).

  15. Thermal modeling of bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzarotto, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The accurate prediction of the thermal behavior of bore fields for shallow geothermal applications is necessary to carry out a proper design of such systems. A classical methodology to perform this analysis is the so-called g-function method. Most commercial tools implementing this methodology are designed to handle only bore fields configurations with vertical boreholes. This is a limitation since this condition might not apply in a real installation. In a recent development by the author, a semi-analytical method to determine g-function for bore fields with arbitrarily oriented boreholes was introduced. The strategy utilized is based on the idea introduced by Cimmino of representing boreholes as stacked finite line sources. The temperature along these finite lines is calculated by applying the superposition of the effects of each linear heat source in the field. This modeling technique allows to approximate uneven heat distribution along the boreholes which is a key feature for the calculation of g-functions according to Eskilson's boundary conditions. The method has been tested for a few simple configurations and showed results that are similar compare to previous results computed numerically by Eskilson. The method has been then successfully applied to the g-function calculation of an existing large scale highly asymmetrical bore field.

  16. Sampling and Analysis Plan Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes Project.

    SciTech Connect

    Brouns, Thomas M.

    2007-07-15

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) describes planned data collection activities for four entry boreholes through the sediment overlying the Saddle Mountains Basalt, up to three new deep rotary boreholes through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds, and one corehole through the Saddle Mountains Basalt and sedimentary interbeds at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The SAP will be used in concert with the quality assurance plan for the project to guide the procedure development and data collection activities needed to support borehole drilling, geophysical measurements, and sampling. This SAP identifies the American Society of Testing Materials standards, Hanford Site procedures, and other guidance to be followed for data collection activities. Revision 3 incorporates all interim change notices (ICN) that were issued to Revision 2 prior to completion of sampling and analysis activities for the WTP Seismic Boreholes Project. This revision also incorporates changes to the exact number of samples submitted for dynamic testing as directed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Revision 3 represents the final version of the SAP.

  17. Characterization of Permeable Zones by the Measurement of Borehole Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Tung-Lin; Chuang, Po-Yu; Lee, Tsai-Ping; Chia, Yeeping

    2015-04-01

    Subsurface temperature distribution has become an important issue in hydrogeologic studies. The major heat transfer mechanisms in porous medium are conduction and convection. Temperature profile in geological formations with different thermal conductivity would be controlled primarily by heat conduction. The temperature change related to water flows is caused by heat convection. Consequently, temperature profiles are affected by a variety of factors, such as surface temperature change, well diameter, groundwater level change, and water flows inside the borehole. In this study, we use temperature probe as a well logging device to investigate the borehole conditions. There is the depth correction for the time lag problem resulting from the equilibration time of the sensors during the logging process. Then the field measurement was conducted in a 60-m deep well in a gravelly aquifer to characterize the temperature profile of screened zone. In the shallow depth, the change of temperature is primarily influenced by seasonal variation and daily fluctuation. Below the depth of 30-m, the change of temperature was subject to geothermal gradient. However, the slope of temperature profiles changed at approximately 42-m deep, the top of well screen, and it indicated the effects of heat convection in the aquifer. In addition, the measured temperature in the borehole may not represent the actual temperature of aquifer. The measured temperature in the screened section changed continuously in response to pumping, but stabilized an hour data when 2 to 3 times of the borehole water volume is extracted. This phenomenon is related to the temperature mixing with the upper borehole water and aquifer permeability. On the other hand, if the aquifer permeability is high enough, it may influence the temperature profile in borehole through the high flow velocity. The test results indicated that, in order to obtain the actual temperature or chemical constituents, we have to pump 2 to 3 times

  18. Geology of the Waste Treatment Plant Seismic Boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, D. Brent; Fecht, Karl R.; Reidel, Stephen P.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Lanigan, David C.; Rust, Colleen F.

    2007-05-11

    In 2006, the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the Seismic Boreholes Project (SBP) to emplace boreholes at the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) site in order to obtain direct shear wave velocity (Vs) measurements and other physical property measurements in Columbia River basalt and interbedded sediments of the Ellensburg Formation. The goal was to reduce the uncertainty in the response spectra and seismic design basis, and potentially recover design margin for the WTP. The characterization effort within the deep boreholes included 1) downhole measurements of the velocity properties of the suprabasalt, basalt, and sedimentary interbed sequences, 2) downhole measurements of the density of the subsurface basalt and sediments, and 3) geologic studies to confirm the geometry of the contact between the various basalt and interbedded sediments through examination of retrieved core from the core hole and data collected through geophysical logging of each borehole. This report describes the results of the geologic studies from three mud-rotary boreholes and one cored borehole at the WTP. All four boreholes penetrated the entire Saddle Mountains Basalt and the upper part of the Wanapum Basalt where thick sedimentary interbeds occur between the lava flows. The basalt flows penetrated in Saddle Mountains Basalt included the Umatilla Member, Esquatzel Member, Pomona Member, and the Elephant Mountain Member. The underlying Priest Rapids Member of the Wanapum Basalt also was penetrated. The Ellensburg Formation sediments consist of the Mabton Interbed, the Cold Creek Interbed, the Selah Interbed, and the Rattlesnake Ridge Interbed; the Byron Interbed occurs between two flows of the Priest Rapids Member. The Mabton Interbed marks the contact between the Wanapum and Saddle Mountains Basalts. The thicknesses of the basalts and interbedded sediments were within expected limits. However, a small reverse fault was found in the Pomona Member flow top. This fault has three periods of

  19. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O; Moxley, Joel F

    2014-01-28

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  20. 30 CFR 57.12083 - Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes... NONMETAL MINES Electricity Underground Only § 57.12083 Support of power cables in shafts and boreholes. Power cables in shafts and boreholes shall be fastened securely in such a manner as to prevent...

  1. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  2. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  3. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  5. 30 CFR 57.22241 - Advance face boreholes (I-C mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). 57.22241... Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22241 Advance face boreholes (I-C mines). (a) Boreholes shall be drilled at least 25 feet in advance of a face whenever the work place...

  6. Methods and apparatus for removal and control of material in laser drilling of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Rinzler, Charles C.; Zediker, Mark S.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Moxley, Joel F.

    2016-12-06

    The removal of material from the path of a high power laser beam during down hole laser operations including drilling of a borehole and removal of displaced laser effected borehole material from the borehole during laser operations. In particular, paths, dynamics and parameters of fluid flows for use in conjunction with a laser bottom hole assembly.

  7. Optimization of Deep Borehole Systems for HLW Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Driscoll, Michael; Baglietto, Emilio; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Lester, Richard; Brady, Patrick; Arnold, B. W.

    2015-09-09

    This is the final report on a project to update and improve the conceptual design of deep boreholes for high level nuclear waste disposal. The effort was concentrated on application to intact US legacy LWR fuel assemblies, but conducted in a way in which straightforward extension to other waste forms, host rock types and countries was preserved. The reference fuel design version consists of a vertical borehole drilled into granitic bedrock, with the uppermost kilometer serving as a caprock zone containing a diverse and redundant series of plugs. There follows a one to two kilometer waste canister emplacement zone having a hole diameter of approximately 40-50 cm. Individual holes are spaced 200-300 m apart to form a repository field. The choice of verticality and the use of a graphite based mud as filler between the waste canisters and the borehole wall liner was strongly influenced by the expectation that retrievability would continue to be emphasized in US and worldwide repository regulatory criteria. An advanced version was scoped out using zinc alloy cast in place to fill void space inside a disposal canister and its encapsulated fuel assembly. This excludes water and greatly improves both crush resistance and thermal conductivity. However the simpler option of using a sand fill was found adequate and is recommended for near-term use. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the low permeability and porosity host rock and its small (≤ 1%) saline water content showed that vertical convection induced by the waste’s decay heat should not transport nuclides from the emplacement zone up to the biosphere atop the caprock. First order economic analysis indicated that borehole repositories should be cost-competitive with shallower mined repositories. It is concluded that proceeding with plans to drill a demonstration borehole to confirm expectations, and to carry out priority experiments, such as retention and replenishment of in-hole water is in order.

  8. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  9. Borehole climatology: a discussion based on contributions from climate modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Rouco, J. F.; Beltrami, H.; Zorita, E.; Stevens, M. B.

    2009-03-01

    Progress in understanding climate variability through the last millennium leans on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Exercises blending both approaches present a great potential for answering questions relevant both for the simulation and reconstruction of past climate, and depend on the specific peculiarities of proxies and methods involved in climate reconstructions, as well as on the realism and limitations of model simulations. This paper explores research specifically related to paleoclimate modeling and borehole climatology as a branch of climate reconstruction that has contributed significantly to our knowledge of the low frequency climate evolution during the last five centuries. The text flows around three main issues that group most of the interaction between model and geothermal efforts: the use of models as a validation tool for borehole climate reconstructions; comparison of geothermal information and model simulations as a means of either model validation or inference about past climate; and implications of the degree of realism on simulating subsurface climate on estimations of future climate change. The use of multi-centennial simulations as a surrogate reality for past climate suggests that within the simplified reality of climate models, methods and assumptions in borehole reconstructions deliver a consistent picture of past climate evolution at long time scales. Comparison of model simulations and borehole profiles indicate that borehole temperatures are responding to past external forcing and that more realism in the development of the soil model components in climate models is desirable. Such an improved degree of realism is important for the simulation of subsurface climate and air-ground interaction; results indicate it could also be crucial for simulating the adequate energy balance within climate change scenario experiments.

  10. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  11. Study of borehole probing methods to improve the ground characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naeimipour, Ali

    Collecting geological information allows for optimizing ground control measures in underground structures. This includes understanding of the joints and discontinuities and rock strength to develop rock mass classifications. An ideal approach to collect such information is through correlating the drilling data from the roofbolters to assess rock strength and void location and properties. The current instrumented roofbolters are capable of providing some information on these properties but not fully developed for accurate ground characterization. To enhance existing systems additional instrumentation and testing was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. However, to define the geology along the boreholes, the use of probing was deemed to be most efficient approach for locating joints and structures in the ground and evaluation of rock strength. Therefore, this research focuses on selection and evaluation of proper borehole probes that can offer a reliable assessment of rock mass structure and rock strength. In particular, attention was paid to borehole televiewer to characterize rock mass structures and joints and development of mechanical rock scratcher for determination of rock strength. Rock bolt boreholes are commonly drilled in the ribs and the roof of underground environments. They are often small (about 1.5 inches) and short (mostly 2-3 meter). Most of them are oriented upward and thus, mostly dry or perhaps wet but not filled with water. No suitable system is available for probing in such conditions to identify the voids/joints and specifically to measure rock strength for evaluation of rock mass and related optimization of ground support design. A preliminary scan of available borehole probes proved that the best options for evaluation of rock structure is through analysis of borehole images, captured by optical televiewers. Laboratory and field trials with showed that these systems can be used to facilitate measurement of the location, frequency and

  12. Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage.

  13. Evaluation of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae for the control of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) and Sitophilus zeamais (Mots).

    PubMed

    Ogunleye, R F; Adefemi, S O

    2007-12-01

    Insecticidal effects of different doses of the dust and methanol extracts of Garcinia kolae on Callosobruchus maculatus and Sitophilus zeamais were tested. The dust had no significant effect on the two insects; none of them died even at 3 d after treatment. The methanol extracts, however, had rapid lethal effects on both C. maculatus and S. zeamais. The mortality of C. maculatus by the lowest concentration of methanol extracts ranged from 95%~100% whereas in S. zeamais, the mortality ranged from 87.5% to approximately 100% and 70% to approximately 100% in concentrations of 1 g extract+3 ml methanol and 1 g extract+5 ml methanol, respectively, from 24 to 48 h. The least concentration of 1 g extract+15 ml methanol had no significant lethal effect on Sitophilus zeamais.

  14. Was the Devonian geomagnetic field dipolar or multipolar? Palaeointensity studies of Devonian igneous rocks from the Minusa Basin (Siberia) and the Kola Peninsula dykes, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakova, V. V.; Biggin, A. J.; Veselovskiy, R. V.; Shatsillo, A. V.; Hawkins, L.; Shcherbakov, V. P.; Zhidkov, G. V.

    2017-02-01

    Defining variations in the behaviour of the geomagnetic field through geological time is critical to understanding the dynamics of Earth's core and its response to mantle convection and planetary evolution. Furthermore, the question of whether the axial dipole dominance of the recent palaeomagnetic field persists through the whole of Earth's history is fundamental to determining the reliability of palaeogeographic reconstructions and the efficacy of the magnetosphere in shielding Earth from solar wind radiation. Previous palaeomagnetic directional studies have suggested that the palaeofield had a complex configuration in the Devonian period (419-359 Ma). Here we present new palaeointensity determinations from rocks aged between 408 and 375 Ma from the Minusa Basin (southern Siberia), and the Kola Peninsula to investigate the strength of the field during this enigmatic period. Palaeointensity experiments were performed using the thermal Thellier, microwave Thellier, and Wilson methods on 165 specimens from 25 sites. Six out of eight successful sites from the Minusa Basin and all four successful sites from the Kola Peninsula produced extremely low palaeointensities (< 10 μT). These findings challenge the uniformitarian view of the palaeomagnetic field: field intensities of nearly an order of magnitude lower than Neogene values (except during relatively rare geomagnetic excursions and reversals) together with the widespread appearance of strange directions found in the Devonian suggest that the Earth's field during this time may have had a dominantly multipolar geometry. A persistent, low intensity multipolar magnetic field and associated diminished magnetosphere would increase the impact of solar particles on the Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere and atmosphere with potential major implications for Earth's climate and biosphere.

  15. Kyanoxalite, a new cancrinite-group mineral species with extraframework oxalate anion from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Olysych, L. V.; Massa, W.; Yakubovich, O. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Rastsvetaeva, R. K.; Vigasina, M. F.

    2010-12-01

    Kyanoxalite, a new member of the cancrinite group, has been identified in hydrothermally altered hyperalkaline rocks and pegmatites of the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. It was found at Mount Karnasurt (holotype) in association with nepheline, aegirine, sodalite, nosean, albite, lomonosovite, murmanite, fluorapatite, loparite, and natrolite and at Mt. Alluaiv. Kyanoxalite is transparent, ranging in color from bright light blue, greenish light blue and grayish light blue to colorless. The new mineral is brittle, with a perfect cleavage parallel to (100). Mohs hardness is 5-5.5. The measured and calculated densitiesare 2.30(1) and 2.327 g/cm3, respectively. Kyanoxalite is uniaxial, negative, ω = 1.794(1), ɛ = 1.491(1). It is pleochroic from colorless along E to light blue along O. The IR spectrum indicates the presence of oxalate anions C2O{4/2-} and water molecules in the absence of CO{3/2-} Oxalate ions are confirmed by anion chromatography. The chemical composition (electron microprobe; water was determined by a modified Penfield method and carbon was determined by selective sorption from annealing products) is as follows, wt %: 19.70 Na2O, 1.92 K2O, 0.17 CaO, 27.41 Al2O3, 38.68 SiO2, 0.64 P2O5, 1.05 SO3, 3.23 C2O3, 8.42 H2O; the total is 101.18. The empirical formula (Z = 1) is (Na6.45K0.41Ca0.03)Σ6.89(Si6.53Al5.46O24)[(C2O4)0.455(SO4)0.13(PO4)0.09(OH)0.01]Σ0.68 · 4.74H2O. The idealized formula is Na7(Al5-6Si6-7O24)(C2O4)0.5-1 · 5H2O. Kyanoxalite is hexagonal, the space group is P63, a = 12.744(8), c = 5.213(6) -ray powder diffraction pattern are as follows, [ d, [A] ( I, %)( hkl)]: 6.39(44) (110), 4.73 (92) (101), 3.679 (72) (300), 3.264 (100) (211, 121), 2.760 (29) (400), 2.618 (36) (002), 2.216, (29) (302, 330). According to the X-ray single crystal study ( R = 0.033), two independent C2O4 groups statistically occupy the sites on the axis 63. The new mineral is the first natural silicate with an additional organic anion and is the most

  16. The features of element concentration in natural waters of the Kola North in conditions of environmental contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazova, Mariya; Moiseenko, Tatyana

    2016-04-01

    The intensive use of fossil fuels and industrial development in last century led to the formation of acid rain and water acidification. The problem of water acidification greatly was denoted in the middle of last century in North America and in Europe as a result of air emissions of acid gases, primarily sulfur dioxide. The process of water acidification due to the interaction of two factors: 1) the high deposition of acidifying substances, taking into account the duration of exposure; 2) the sensitivity of the natural catchment area of geological, landscape, geographic and climatic characteristics (Moiseenko, 2005). The effects of acid rains on metal migration and cycling were discussed in a number of previous studies (Jeffries, 1997; Moiseenko, 1999; Manio, 2001; Moiseenko, Gashkina, 2007). The distribution of elements in water lakes has been mixed and due to the change of geochemical cycles of elements occurring in the catchment area and in water. On the Kola Peninsula as a result of long-term operation of the copper-nickel smelter was the anthropogenic acidification and water pollution metals. Increased contents of elements due to the combined effect of three factors: 1) landscape-geochemical characteristics of watersheds; 2) dispersion with flue emissions; 3) leaching elements and bonding of metals with organic matter, especially in forested watersheds and wetlands. This region is subject to long-term effects of mining and smelting industries, and therefore difficult to find of water bodies, which can serve as a background lakes. It is proved that manmade acid rain lead to leach into the water of a large group of elements entering the water as a result of man-made streams, as well as the elements that consist of the rocks forming the watersheds. In order to identify the relationships between the components of the elemental composition of the water in the lake was made a factor analysis using a computer program «STATISTICA 10". Factor analysis revealed the

  17. Uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola Peninsula, Russia) using LA-ICP-MS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, E.; Camacho, A.; Yang, P.; Chakhmouradian, A. R.; Halden, N. M.

    2009-04-01

    ) The application of laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to in situ U-Pb zircon geochronology. Chem. Geol.,211, 47-69. Kramm, U., Kogarko, L.N., Kononova, V.A. and Vartiainen, H. (1993) The Kola alkaline province of the CIS and Finland. Lithos, 30, 33-44. Tera, F. and Wasserburg, G.J. (1972) U-Th-Pb systematics in three Apollo 14 basalts and the problem of initial Pb in lunar rocks. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 14, 281-304.

  18. Measuring and interpretation of three-component borehole magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, C.; Ehmann, S.; Hördt, A.; Leven, M.; Steveling, E.

    2012-04-01

    Three-component borehole magnetics provides important additional information compared with total field or horizontal and vertical measurements. The "Göttinger Bohrloch Magnetometer" (GBM) is capable of recording the vector of the magnetic field along with the orientation of the tool using three fluxgate magnetometers and fibre-optic gyros. The GBM was successfully applied in the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (OKU R2500), Finland in September 2008 and in the Louisville Seamount Trail (IODP Expedition 330) from December 2010 until February 2011, and in several shallower boreholes. With the declination of the magnetic field, the GBM provides additional information compared to conventional tools, which reduces the ambiguity for structural interpretation. The position of ferromagnetic objects in the vicinity of the borehole can be computed with higher accuracy. In the case of drilled-through structures, three-component borehole magnetics allow the computation of the vector of magnetization. Using supplementary susceptibility data, the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) vector can be derived, which yields information about the apparent polar wander curve and/or about the structural evolution of the rock units. The NRM vector can further be used to reorient core samples in regions of strong magnetization. The most important aspect in three-component borehole magnetics is the knowledge of the orientation of the probe along the drillhole. With the GBM we use three fibre-optic gyros (FOG), which are aligned orthogonal to each other. These instruments record the turning rate about the three main axes of the probe. The FOGs benefit from a high resolution (< 9 · 10-4 °) and a low drift (< 2 °/h). However, to reach optimal results, extensive data processing and calibration measurements are necessary. Properties to be taken into account are the misalignment, scaling factors and offsets of the fluxgate and FOG triplet, temperature dependent drift of the FOGs, misalignment of the

  19. Borehole Measurements of Interfacial and Co-seismic Seismoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, K. E.; Dupuis, J. C.; Kepic, A. W.; Harris, B. D.

    2006-12-01

    We have recently carried out a series of seismoelectric field experiments employing various hammer seismic sources on surface and a multi-electrode `eel' lowered into slotted PVC-cased boreholes penetrating porous sediments. Deploying grounded dipole receivers in boreholes has a number of advantages over surface-based measurements. Ambient noise levels are reduced because earth currents from power lines and other sources tend to flow horizontally, especially near the surface. The earth also provides natural shielding from higher frequency spherics and radio frequency interference while the water-filled borehole significantly decreases the electrode contact impedance which in turn reduces Johnson noise and increases resilience to capacitively- coupled noise sources. From a phenomenological point of view, the potential for measuring seismoelectric conversions from various geological or pore fluid contacts at depth can be assessed by lowering antennas directly through those interfaces. Furthermore, co-seismic seismoelectric signals that are normally considered to be noise in surface measurements are of interest for well logging in the borehole environment. At Fredericton, Canada, broadband co-seismic effects, having a dominant frequency of 350-400 Hz were measured at quarter meter intervals in a borehole penetrating glacial sediments including tills, sands, and a silt/clay aquitard. Observed signal strengths of a few microvolts/m were found to be consistent with the predictions of a simplified theoretical model for the co-seismic effect expected to accompany the regular `fast' P-wave. In Australia we have carried out similar vertical profiling experiments in hydrogeological monitoring boreholes that pass through predominantly sandy sediments containing fresh to saline water near Ayr, QLD and Perth, WA. While co-seismic effects are generally seen to accompany P-wave and other seismic arrivals, the most interesting result has been the observation, at three sites, of

  20. Borehole cylindrical noise during hole-surface and hole-hole resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osiensky, James L.; Nimmer, Robin; Binley, Andrew M.

    2004-04-01

    Drilled boreholes generally are the only feasible means to access the subsurface for the emplacement of downhole electrodes for most hole-hole and hole-surface resistivity experiments. However, the very existence of the borehole itself creates the potential for significant noise due to the inevitable conductivity contrast that develops between the borehole walls and the formation. Borehole cylindrical noise develops whenever a current source is placed in a drilled borehole. Borehole geometries may range from nearly perfect cylinders to highly, irregular, rugose holes in consolidated rock, to relatively minor, collapsed, disturbed zones in caving sediments. Boreholes in non-caving formations generally are filled with artificial, conductive materials to afford crucial, electrical continuity between downhole electrodes and the borehole walls. Filled boreholes form cylindrically shaped heterogeneities that create significant noise due to preferential current flow up and down the conductive columns. Selected conditions are simulated with a finite difference model to illustrate the significance of borehole cylindrical noise on hole-hole and hole-surface mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials near a current electrode. Mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials measured during a field tracer experiment also are presented. These measurements are used to illustrate significant errors may develop in the interpretation of apparent resistivity estimates out to a distance of several meters from the current source if borehole cylindrical noise is not recognized and accounted for in the analysis of electrical potential data.

  1. PARTICLE DISPLACEMENTS ON THE WALL OF A BOREHOLE FROM INCIDENT PLANE WAVES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    Particle displacements from incident plane waves at the wall of a fluid-filled borehole are formulated by applying the seismic reciprocity theorem to far-field displacement fields. Such displacement fields are due to point forces acting on a fluid-filled borehole under the assumption of long wavelengths. The displacement fields are analyzed to examine the effect of the borehole on seismic wave propagation, particularly for vertical seismic profiling (VSP) measurements. When the shortest wavelength of interest is approximately 25 times longer than the borehole's diameter, the scattered displacements are proportional to the first power of incident frequency and borehole diameter. When the shortest wavelength of interest is about 40 times longer than the borehole's diameter, borehole effects on VSP measurements using a wall-locking geophone are negligible.

  2. The influence of wellbore inflow on electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clemo, T.; Barrash, W.; Reboulet, E.C.; Johnson, T.C.; Leven, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a combined field, laboratory, and numerical study of electromagnetic borehole flowmeter measurements acquired without the use of a packer or skirt to block bypass flow around the flowmeter. The most significant finding is that inflow through the wellbore screen changes the ratio of flow through the flowmeter to wellbore flow. Experiments reveal up to a factor of two differences in this ratio for conditions with and without inflow through the wellbore screen. Standard practice is to assume the ratio is constant. A numerical model has been developed to simulate the effect of inflow on the flowmeter. The model is formulated using momentum conservation within the borehole and around the flowmeter. The model is embedded in the MODFLOW-2000 ground water flow code. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Performance of a Borehole XRF Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; WIllard-Schmoe, Ella

    2007-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole XRF Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program. It will be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary performance metrics for the instrument are the lower limits of detection over a wide range of the periodic table. Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight parts-per-million for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  4. Borehole observations of continuous strain and fluid pressure: Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roeloffs, Evelyn A.; Linde, A.T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain is expansion, contraction, or distortion of the volcanic edifice and surrounding crust. As a result of magma movement, volcanoes may undergo enormous strain prior to and during eruption. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations can in principle be used to determine strain by taking the difference between two nearby observations and dividing by the distance between them. Two GPS stations 1 km apart, each providing displacement information accurate to the nearest millimeter, could detect strain as small as 2 mm km-1, or 2 × 10-6. It is possible, however, to measure strains at least three orders of magnitude smaller using borehole strainmeters. In fact, it is even possible to measure strains as small as 10-8 using observations of groundwater levels in boreholes.

  5. Deriving historical total solar irradiance from lunar borehole temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyahara, Hiroko; Wen, Guoyong; Cahalan, Robert F.; Ohmura, Atsumu

    2008-01-01

    We study the feasibility of deriving historical TSI (Total Solar Irradiance) from lunar borehole temperatures. As the Moon lacks Earth's dynamic features, lunar borehole temperatures are primarily driven by solar forcing. Using Apollo observed lunar regolith properties, we computed present-day lunar regolith temperature profiles for lunar tropical, mid-latitude, and polar regions for two scenarios of solar forcing reconstructed by Lean (2000) and Wang et al. (2005). Results show that these scenarios can be distinguished by small but potentially detectable differences in temperature, on the order of 0.01 K and larger depending on latitude, within ~10 m depth of the Moon's surface. Our results provide a physical basis and guidelines for reconstructing historical TSI from data obtainable in future lunar exploration.

  6. Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David

    2015-08-07

    This letter report outlines a methodology and provides resource information for the Deep Borehole Emplacement Mode Hazard Analysis (DBEMHA). The main purpose is identify the accident hazards and accident event sequences associated with the two emplacement mode options (wireline or drillstring), to outline a methodology for computing accident probabilities and frequencies, and to point to available databases on the nature and frequency of accidents typically associated with standard borehole drilling and nuclear handling operations. Risk mitigation and prevention measures, which have been incorporated into the two emplacement designs (see Cochran and Hardin 2015), are also discussed. A key intent of this report is to provide background information to brief subject matter experts involved in the Emplacement Mode Design Study. [Note: Revision 0 of this report is concentrated more on the wireline emplacement mode. It is expected that Revision 1 will contain further development of the preliminary fault and event trees for the drill string emplacement mode.

  7. New UK in-situ stress orientation for northern England and controls on borehole wall deformation identified using borehole imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingdon, Andrew; Fellgett, Mark W.; Waters, Colin N.

    2016-04-01

    The nascent development of a UK shale gas industry has highlighted the inadequacies of previous in-situ stress mapping which is fundamental to the efficacy and safety of potential fracturing operations. The limited number of stress inversions from earthquake focal plane mechanisms and overcoring measurements of in-situ stress in prospective areas increases the need for an up-to-date stress map. Borehole breakout results from 36 wells with newly interpreted borehole imaging data are presented. Across northern England these demonstrate a consistent maximum horizontal stress orientation (SHmax) orientation of 150.9° and circular standard deviation of 13.1°. These form a new and quality assured evidence base for both industry and its regulators. Widespread use of high-resolution borehole imaging tools has facilitated investigation of micro-scale relationships between stress and lithology, facilitating identification of breakouts as short as 25 cm. This is significantly shorter than those identified by older dual-caliper logging (typically 1-10+ m). Higher wall coverage (90%+ using the highest resolution tools) and decreasing pixel size (down to 4mm vertically by 2° of circumference) also facilitates identification of otherwise undetectable sub-centimetre width Drilling Induced Tensile Fractures (DIFs). Examination of borehole imaging from wells in North Yorkshire within the Carboniferous Pennine Coal Measures Group has showed that even though the stress field is uniform, complex micro-stress relationships exist. Different stress field indicators (SFI) are significantly affected by geology with differing failure responses from adjacent lithologies, highlighted by borehole imaging on sub-metre scales. Core-log-borehole imaging integration over intervals where both breakouts and DIFs have been identified allows accurate depth matching and thus allows a synthesis of failure for differing lithology and micro-structures under common in-situ conditions. Understanding these

  8. 24 CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method of emplacing the array in a long, horizontal borehole. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  9. Research on One Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    XIA, Bairu; ZENG, Xiping; MAO, Zhixin

    The Borehole Hydraulic Coal Mining System (BHCMS) causes fragmentation of coal seams and removes coal slump through a drilled hole using high-pressure water jet. Then the mixture of coal and water as slurry are driven out of the borehole by hydraulic or air-lifting method, and are separated at the surface. This paper presents a case study of hydraulic borehole coal mining. The three key techniques of the BHCMS, namely, hydraulic lift of jet pump, air lift, and water jet disintegration are discussed and analyzed in this paper based on theoretical analysis and field experiments. Some useful findings have been obtained: (1) The design of jet pump, air lift system, and water jet has to be integrated appropriately in order to improve mining efficiency and coal recovery rate, and to decrease energy consumption. The design of hydraulic lift jet pump must meet the requirement of the minimum floating speed of coal particles. The optimization of nondimensional parameters and prevention of cavitation have to be considered in the design; (2) With regard to selecting the nozzle types of jet pump, center nozzle or annular nozzle can be selected according to the size of the removed particles; (3) Through air-lift and back pressure, the water head can be decreased to improve the lift capacity of jet pump and decrease the power loss. The air lift has great limitation if it is used solely to extract coal, but if it is employed in conjunction with jet pump, the lift capacity of jet pump can be increased greatly; (4) With water jets, the air lift can improve the fragmentation radius and capacity. The main factors that affect the effect of water jet are the submergible status of jet, jet pressure, and flowrate. The ideal jet of the monitor in the borehole hydraulic coal-mining system is a nonsubmergible free jet. Through air lift, the nonsubmergible free jet can be set up in the mining hole.

  10. Shear wave transducer for stress measurements in boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Nai-Hsien

    1987-01-01

    A technique and apparatus for estimating in situ stresses by measuring stress-induced velocity anisotropy around a borehole. Two sets each of radially and tangentially polarized transducers are placed inside the hole with displacement directions either parallel or perpendicular to the principal stress directions. With this configuration, relative travel times are measured by both a pulsed phase-locked loop technique and a cross correlation of digitized waveforms. The biaxial velocity data is used to back-calculate the applied stress.

  11. Non-contact infrared temperature measurements in dry permafrost boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Ralf; Grigoriev, Mikhail N.; Kaul, Norbert

    2008-04-01

    While planning the COAST Expedition to the Siberian Laptev Sea in 2005, the question of how to make a short equilibrium temperature measurement in a dry borehole arose. As a result, an infrared borehole tool was developed and used in three dry boreholes (up to 60.2 m deep) in the coastal transition zone from terrestrial to sub-sea permafrost near Mamontovy Klyk in the western Laptev Sea. A depth versus temperature profile was acquired with equilibration times of 50 × 10-3 s at each depth interval. Comparison with a common resistor string revealed an offset due to limitations of accuracy of the infrared technique and the influence of the probe's massive steel housing. Therefore it was necessary to calibrate the infrared sensor with a high precision temperature logger in each borehole. The results of the temperature measurements show a highly dynamic transition zone with temperature gradients up to -0.092°C/m and heat flow of -218 mW/m. A period of submergence of only 600 years the drilled sub-sea permafrost is approaching the overlying seawater temperature at -1.61°C with a temperature gradient of 0.021°C/m and heat flow of 49 mW/m. Further offshore, 11 km from the coastline, a temperature gradient of 0.006°C/m and heat flow of 14 mW/m occur. Thus the sub-sea permafrost in the Mamontovy Klyk region has reached a critical temperature for the presence of interstitial ice. The aim of this article is to give a brief feasibility study of infrared downhole temperature measurements and to present experiences and results of its successful application.

  12. Chemical energy system for a borehole seismic source. [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engelke, R.; Hedges, R.O.

    1996-03-01

    We describe a detonation system that will be useful in the seismological examination of geological structures. The explosive component of this system is produced by the mixing of two liquids; these liquids are classified as non-explosive materials by the Department of Transportation. This detonation system could be employed in a borehole tool in which many explosions are made to occur at various points in the borehole. The explosive for each explosion would be mixed within the tool immediately prior to its being fired. Such an arrangement ensures that no humans are ever in proximity to explosives. Initiation of the explosive mixture is achieved with an electrical slapper detonator whose specific parameters are described; this electrical initiation system does not contain any explosive. The complete electrical/mechanical/explosive system is shown to be able to perform correctly at temperatures {le}120{degrees}C and at depths in a water-filled borehole of {le} 4600 ft (i.e., at pressures of {le}2000 psig).

  13. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  14. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as long electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Daily, W; Newmark, R L; Ramirez, A

    1999-07-20

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. Several possibilities can be considered. The first case we investigated uses an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. The second case uses an array of traditional point borehole electrodes combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes but the merits depend strongly on details of each application. Field tests using these configurations are currently being conducted.

  15. Comparison of climate model simulated and observed borehole temperature profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Rouco, J. F.; Stevens, M. B.; Beltrami, H.; Goosse, H.; Rath, V.; Zorita, E.; Smerdon, J.

    2009-04-01

    Advances in understanding climate variability through the last millennium lean on simulation and reconstruction efforts. Progress in the integration of both approaches can potentially provide new means of assessing confidence on model projections of future climate change, of constraining the range of climate sensitivity and/or attributing past changes found in proxy evidence to external forcing. This work addresses specifically possible strategies for comparison of paleoclimate model simulations and the information recorded in borehole temperature profiles (BTPs). First efforts have allowed to design means of comparison of model simulated and observed BTPs in the context of the climate of the last millennium. This can be done by diffusing the simulated temperatures into the ground in order to produce synthetic BTPs that can be in turn assigned to collocated, real BTPs. Results suggest that there is sensitivity of borehole temperatures at large and regional scales to changes in external forcing over the last centuries. The comparison between borehole climate reconstructions and model simulations may also be subjected to non negligible uncertainties produced by the influence of past glacial and Holocene changes. While the thermal climate influence of the last deglaciation can be found well below 1000 m depth, such type of changes can potentially exert an influence on our understanding of subsurface climate in the top ca. 500 m. This issue is illustrated in control and externally forced climate simulations of the last millennium with the ECHO-G and LOVECLIM models, respectively.

  16. Characterization of magnetized ore bodies based on three-component borehole magnetic and directional borehole seismic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virgil, Christopher; Neuhaus, Martin; Hördt, Andreas; Giese, Rüdiger; Krüger, Kay; Jurczyk, Andreas; Juhlin, Christopher; Juhojuntti, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    In the last decades magnetic prospecting using total field data was used with great success for localization and characterization of ferromagnetic ore bodies. Especially borehole magnetic measurements reveal important constraints on the extent and depth of potential mining targets. However, due to the inherent ambiguity of the interpretation of magnetic data, the resulting models of the distribution of magnetized material, such as iron ore bodies, are not entirely reliable. Variations in derived parameters like volume and estimated ore content of the expected body have significant impact on the economic efficiency of a planned mine. An important improvement is the introduction of three-component borehole magnetic sondes. Modern tools comprise orientation modules which allow the continuous determination of the tool's heading regardless of the well inclination and independent of the magnetic field. Using the heading information the recorded three-component magnetic data can be transferred from the internal tool's frame to the geographic reference frame. The vector information yields a more detailed and reliable description of the ore bodies compared to total field or horizontal and vertical field data. Nevertheless complementary information to constrain the model is still advisable. The most important supplementary information for the interpretation of magnetic data is the knowledge of the structural environment of the target regions. By discriminating dissimilar rock units, a geometrical starting model can be derived, constraining the magnetic interpretation and leading to a more robust estimation of the rock magnetizations distribution. The most common approach to reveal the lithological setting rests upon seismic measurements. However, for deep drilling targets surface seismic and VSP lack the required spatial resolution of 10s of meters. A better resolution is achieved by using directed sources and receivers inside the borehole. Here we present the application of

  17. Sampling technology for gas hydrates by borehole bottom freezing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wei; Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Liu, Baochang; Yu, Ping; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    Exploiting gas hydrate is based on sample drilling, the most direct method to evaluate gas hydrates. At present, the pressure-tight core barrel is a main truth-preserving core sampling tool. This paper puts forward a new gas hydrate-borehole bottom freezing sampling technique. The new sampling technique includes three key components: sampler by borehole bottom freezing, mud cooling system and low temperature mud system. The sampler for gas hydrates by borehole bottom freezing presents a novel approach to the in-situ sampling of gas hydrate. This technique can significantly reduce the sampling pressure and prevent decomposition of the hydrate samples due to the external cold source which may freeze the hydrate cores on the bottom of borehole. The freezing sampler was designed and built based on its thermal-mechanical properties and structure, which has a single action mechanism, control mechanism and freezing mechanism. The technique was tested with a trial of core drilling. Results demonstrate that the new technique can be applied to obtain freezing samples from the borehole bottom. In the sampling process of gas hydrate, mud needs to be kept at a low temperature state to prevent the in-situ decomposition of the hydrate if the temperature of mud is too high. Mud cooling system is an independent system for lowing the temperature of mud that returns to the surface. It can cool mud rapidly, maintain its low temperature steadily, and ensure the temperature of the inlet well mud to meet the gas hydrate drilling operation requirement. The mud cooling system has been applied to the drilling engineering project in the Qilian mountain permafrost in northwest China, and achieved the gas hydrates in permafrost. The ordinary mud could not meet the requirements of good performance at low temperature. Low temperature mud system for NaCl and KCl is developed, whose resistance to the temperature is as low as 20 below zero.In-situ sampling of gas hydrates can be achieved through

  18. Third Party Borehole Seismic Experiments During the Ocean Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, S. A.; Stephen, R. A.; Hoskins, H.; Bolmer, T.

    2003-12-01

    Third party borehole seismic experiments on the Ocean Drilling Program began with an oblique seismic experiment on Leg 102 at Site 418 in the Western Atlantic. Upper ocean crust here is characterized by a normal seismic layer 2 vertical velocity gradient, lateral velocity variations, azimuthal anisotropy, and azimuth dependent scattering. A normal incidence VSP was run on Leg 118 in the gabbro sequence at Hole 735B on the Southwest Indian Ridge. The vertical seismic velocity inferred from arrival times is similar to that observed horizontally by refraction in ocean layer 3, but attenuation is anomalously high, which prompted the hypothesis that the gabbro cored may not actually represent the bulk of Layer 3 material. The VSP data acquired at Hole 504B in the eastern equatorial Pacific on Legs 111 and 148 helped to constrain the P and S velocity structure at the site and showed that upper layer 3 at this site, at a depth of over 2 km into the crust, consisted of the lower portion of the sheeted dikes rather than gabbro. Both offset and normal incidence VSPs were run on Leg 164 to study the seismic velocity structure of gas hydrates on the Blake Ridge. A new innovation on ODP was the deployment of broadband seismometers in boreholes. Whereas the conventional VSPs and offset VSPs mentioned above operate in the frequency range from 1 to 100Hz, broadband seismometers are used in earthquake seismology and operate in the range from 0.001 to 10Hz. The first broadband seismometer test was carried out from the drill ship on Leg 128 in the Japan Sea. Subsequently 4 permanent broadband borehole seismic observatories were installed in the Western Pacific and Japan Trench on Legs 186, 191 and 195. The ODP era also saw the development of systems for re-entering boreholes from conventional research vessels after the drill ship left the site. Borehole seismic experiments and installations that used this wireline re-entry technology were carried out in DSDP Holes 534 (Blake

  19. Quantification of large vertical tree roots with borehole radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butnor, J. R.; Johnsen, K. H.; Wikström, P.; Lundmark, T.; Linder, S.

    2004-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar can be used to detect tree roots provided there is sufficient electromagnetic contrast to separate roots from soil. Forest researchers need root biomass, distribution and architecture data to assess the effects of forest management practices on productivity and resource allocation in trees. Ground-penetrating radar is a non-destructive alternative to laborious excavations that are commonly employed. Tree roots are not ideal subjects for radar studies; clutter from non-target materials can degrade the utility of GPR profiles. On amenable soils, rapid root biomass surveys provide valuable information in a short period time, though some destructive ground-truthing may be required. Surface-based GPR can provide excellent resolution of lateral roots. However, some forest trees have significant allocation to large vertical taproots roots (i.e. loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., longleaf pine, Pinus palustris Mill.), which cannot be accurately assessed by surface measures. A collaborative project between the USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Radarteam AB and the Swedish Experimental Forest system was undertaken in 2003 to assess the potential of high-frequency borehole radar to detect vertical near surface reflectors (0-2 m). A variety of borehole methods were assessed to identify the most promising technique to image large vertical roots. We used a 1000 mhz transducer (Radarteam tubewave-1000) along with a GSSI ground-penetrating radar unit (Sir-20) to collect reflective data in boreholes adjacent to trees as well as cross-hole travel time measurements. This research was conducted near Vindeln in northern Sweden in August 2003. Six trees (Pinus sylvestris) whose DBH ranged from approximately 20-60 cm were intensively measured to provide information on a variety of size classes. On either side of each tree a 5 cm diameter hole was excavated to a depth of 2 m with a soil auger. One antenna was configured as a transmitter (Tx), the other

  20. Use of Digital Elevation Models to understand map landforms and history of the magmatism Khibiny Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesalova, Elena; Asavin, Alex

    2016-04-01

    most intense free gas emission. The technical possibilities that are offered by Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) facilitate the geomorphological investigation of inhospitable and inaccessible mountain areas Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are valuable tools for approximation of the real world's continuous surface. They allow a visual analysis of the earth's surface morphology, quanti?cation of sediment volumes and the calculation of topographic derivatives such as the slope gradient, slope aspect and pro?le curvature that consume ?eld investigations and optimize time The project has been sponsored by programmm Presidium of RAS P44. Reference Ivanyuk G, Kalashnikov A, Mikhailova J, Konoplyova N, Goryainov P, Yakovenchuk V, Pakhomovsky Y. Self-Organization of the Khibiny Alkaline Massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). In Earth Sciences, Dr. Imran Ahmad Dar(Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-861-8, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/earth-sciences/self-organization-of-the-khibiny-alkaline -massif -kolapeninsula-russia INTECH Open Access Publisher; 2012, Head7, P.131-156.

  1. Plume-derived rare gases in 380 Ma carbonatites from the Kola region (Russia) and the argon isotopic composition in the deep mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, Bernard; Tolstikhin, Igor; Kamensky, Igor L.; Nivin, Valentin; Balaganskaya, Elena; Zimmermann, Jean-Louis

    1998-12-01

    In an effort to document the source of the parental melts to carbonatites, we have measured rare gases in 380 Ma carbonatites and associated mineral assemblages from the Kola Peninsula, eastern part of the Baltic shield in Russia. These series were emplaced during widespread Devonian magmatism when several large ultrabasic-alkaline-carbonatite massifs were formed. 4He/ 3He ratios vary from 1×10 6 to 1×10 7 in the bulk He extracted by melting of samples from three localities, including the large Kovdor massif. A comparison of measured abundances of 3He and 4He with those expected from in-situ production revealed a large (up to 10 5 times) excess of 3He, implying a significant contribution from a mantle-derived 3He-bearing fluid. Crushing of these samples allowed extraction of fluids with 4He/ 3He ratios down to 38,000, lower than those of mid-ocean ridge basalts and in the range of 4He/ 3He observed in 3He-rich ocean island basalts (OIBs) related to mantle plumes. 20Ne/ 22Ne up to 12.1±0.2 are higher than the atmospheric value of 9.80, implying the occurrence of primordial (solar-type) neon in the carbonatite source. 20Ne/ 22Ne and 21Ne/ 22Ne ratios display a good correlation, with the regression line close to (slightly to the right of) the Loihi Seamount correlation. Extrapolation of the regression to solar 20Ne/ 22Ne of 13.8 gives a 21Ne/ 22Ne of 0.045 for the plume end-member, well below the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source (upper mantle) end-member of 0.07. The measured 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios up to 2790 correlate very well with the Ne isotopic ratios, and the best estimate of the 40Ar/ 36Ar ratio of the plume source is within 5000±1000. Although the 3He/ 22Ne ratio in the plume source appears to be comparable to the solar value within a factor of 2, the 22Ne/ 36Ar ratio, computed from Ne-Ar isotope correlation, is two orders of magnitude lower than the solar value. Such difference is unlikely to be due to magmatic fractionation since the observed 4He/ 40Ar

  2. Method and apparatus for coupling seismic sensors to a borehole wall

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.

    2005-03-15

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  3. Well construction, lithology, and geophysical logs for boreholes in Bear Creek Valley near Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, Z.C.; Hanchar, D.W.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-four wells were constructed at nine sites at Bear Creek Valley to provide geologic and hydrologic information. Lithologic samples and suits of geophysical logs were obtained from the deepest boreholes at six of the sites. Two of these boreholes at the base of Chestnut Ridge were completed in the Maynardville Limestone and two were completed in the Nolichucky Shale. Two boreholes along Pine Ridge were completed in the Rome Formation. Zones of similar lithology within a borehole were delineated from rock cutting refined by examination of geophysical logs. The contact between the Maynardville Limestone and Nolichucky Shale was identified in two of the boreholes. Fractures and cavities were readily identifiable on the acoustic-televiewer and caliper logs. Distinct water-bearing intervals were also identified from the temperature, fluid resistance, and resistivity logs. Depths at which the drilling encounterd a thrust were identified in two boreholes in the Rome Formation from both rock cutting and geophysical logs. (USGS)

  4. Method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Vinegar, H. J.; Wellington, S. L.

    1985-09-24

    A method of correlating a core sample with its original position in a borehole. The borehole is logged to determine the bulk density of the formation surrounding the borehole. The core sample is scanned with a computerized axial tomographic scanner (CAT) to determine the attenuation coefficients at a plurality of points in a plurality of cross sections along the core sample. The bulk density log is then compared with the attenuation coefficients to determine the position to which the core sample correlates in the borehole. Alternatively, the borehole can be logged to determine the photoelectric absorption of the formation surrounding the borehole, and this log can be compared with data derived from scanning the core sample with a CAT at two different energy levels.

  5. Challenges and opportunities for fractured rock imaging using 3D cross-borehole electrical resistivity

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Judith; Johnson, Timothy C.; Slater, Lee D.

    2015-02-02

    There is an increasing need to characterize discrete fractures away from boreholes to better define fracture distributions and monitor solute transport. We performed a 3D evaluation of static and time-lapse cross-borehole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data sets from a limestone quarry in which flow and transport are controlled by a bedding-plane feature. Ten boreholes were discretized using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh, and 2D panel measurements were inverted for a 3D distribution of conductivity. We evaluated the benefits of 3D versus 2.5D inversion of ERT data in fractured rock while including the use of borehole regularization disconnects (BRDs) and borehole conductivity constraints. High-conductivity halos (inversion artifacts) surrounding boreholes were removed in static images when BRDs and borehole conductivity constraints were implemented. Furthermore, applying these constraints focused transient changes in conductivity resulting from solute transport on the bedding plane, providing a more physically reasonable model for conductivity changes associated with solute transport at this fractured rock site. Assuming bedding-plane continuity between fractures identified in borehole televiewer data, we discretized a planar region between six boreholes and applied a fracture regularization disconnect (FRD). Although the FRD appropriately focused conductivity changes on the bedding plane, the conductivity distribution within the discretized fracture was nonunique and dependent on the starting homogeneous model conductivity. Synthetic studies performed to better explain field observations showed that inaccurate electrode locations in boreholes resulted in low-conductivity halos surrounding borehole locations. These synthetic studies also showed that the recovery of the true conductivity within an FRD depended on the conductivity contrast between the host rock and fractures. Our findings revealed that the potential exists to improve imaging of fractured

  6. A strategy to seal exploratory boreholes in unsaturated tuff; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, J.A.; Case, J.B.; Givens, C.A.; Carney, B.C.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents a strategy for sealing exploratory boreholes associated with the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. Over 500 existing and proposed boreholes have been considered in the development of this strategy, ranging from shallow (penetrating into alluvium only) to deep (penetrating into the groundwater table). Among the comprehensive list of recommendations are the following: Those boreholes within the potential repository boundary and penetrating through the potential repository horizon are the most significant boreholes from a performance standpoint and should be sealed. Shallow boreholes are comparatively insignificant and require only nominal sealing. The primary areas in which to place seals are away from high-temperature zones at a distance from the potential repository horizon in the Paintbrush nonwelded tuff and the upper portion of the Topopah Spring Member and in the tuffaceous beds of the Calico Hills Unit. Seals should be placed prior to waste emplacement. Performance goals for borehole seals both above and below the potential repository are proposed. Detailed construction information on the boreholes that could be used for future design specifications is provided along with a description of the environmental setting, i.e., the geology, hydrology, and the in situ and thermal stress states. A borehole classification scheme based on the condition of the borehole wall in different tuffaceous units is also proposed. In addition, calculations are presented to assess the significance of the boreholes acting as preferential pathways for the release of radionuclides. Design calculations are presented to answer the concerns of when, where, and how to seal. As part of the strategy development, available technologies to seal exploratory boreholes (including casing removal, borehole wall reconditioning, and seal emplacement) are reviewed.

  7. Borehole Geophysical Logging Program: Incorporating New and Existing Techniques in Hydrologic Studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wacker, Michael A.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2008-01-01

    The borehole geophysical logging program at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS)-Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) provides subsurface information needed to resolve geologic, hydrologic, and environmental issues in Florida. The program includes the acquisition, processing, display, interpretation, and archiving of borehole geophysical logs. The borehole geophysical logging program is a critical component of many FISC investigations, including hydrogeologic framework studies, aquifer flow-zone characterization, and freshwater-saltwater interface delineation.

  8. One Year of Data of Scimpi Borehole Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insua, T. L.; Moran, K.; Kulin, I.; Farrington, S.; Newman, J. B.; Riedel, M.; Scherwath, M.; Heesemann, M.; Pirenne, B.; Iturrino, G. J.; Masterson, W.; Furman, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Simple Cabled Instrument for Measuring Parameters In-Situ (SCIMPI) is a new subseafloor observatory designed to study dynamic processes in the subseabed using a simple and low-cost approach compared to a Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK). SCIMPI was successfully installed at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1416 during IODP Expedition 341S in May 2013. SCIMPI is designed to measure pore pressure, temperature and electrical resistivity over time in a borehole. The first SCIMPI prototype comprises nine modules joined in a single array by flexible cables. Multiple floats keep the system taut against a sinker bar weight located on SCIMPI and resting on the bottom of the borehole. All the modules record temperature and electrical resistivity, and three are also equipped with pressure sensors. Currently, SCIMPI operates as an autonomous instrument with a data logger that is recovered using an ROV. The second recovery of the SCIMPI data logger took place during the Ocean Networks Canada maintenance cruise, Wiring the Abyss 2014, on May 25th, 2014. The pressure sensor data show a stable trend in which tidal effects are observed in through the one year deployment. The temperature measurements in all the modules became stable over time with smaller variations over the last several months. The only temperature sensor differing from this trend is the shallowest, located at 8 meters below seafloor. This module shows a sudden spike of ~20°C that on April 5th, 2014, an event that was repeated several times from April 25th until recovery of modules. The electrical resistivity sensors show variations over time that could be related to gas hydrate dynamics at the Site. Interpretation of these data is speculative at this time but borehole-sealing processes as well as the formation of gas hydrate are potential processes influencing the recordings. SCIMPI will soon be connected to Ocean Networks Canada's NEPTUNE observatory at Clayoquot Slope node to

  9. Quantifying The Quality Of PBO Borehole Strainmeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Mencin, D.; Phillips, D. A.; Gallaher, W. W.; Johnson, W.; Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, E.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    UNAVCO operates a network of 75 borehole strainmeter as part of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), the geodetic component of the Earthscope program. The quality of the borehole strainmeter data is monitored both to inform UNAVCO's field engineers of possible instrument problems and to convey to the community the level of confidence they can have in recorded signals when they incorporate the data into geophysical models. In this presentation we describe the metrics developed to track data quality and show how the results have varied since completion of the network in October 2008. The metrics are designed to assess performance across the broad range of frequencies over which a strainmeter operates: the ability to record teleseisms, the signal to noise ratio in the tidal bands, the state of compression of the borehole and the presence of offsets in the time series. Strainmeters are designed to have optimal performance at periods of minutes to days, their purpose in PBO is to provide a temporal and spatial resolution of strain transients that cannot be obtained with GPS or seismology. Embedded within a network of over 1100 continuously operating GPS sites and collocated with seismometers, the strainmeter network completes the spectrum of plate boundary deformation signals that PBO can detect. We will explore the application of techniques now standard for seismic data, power spectral density analysis, to the strain data set. Creating a spectral fingerprint for each instrument could allow identification of changes in site characteristics and enable researchers to select strainmeters that are good candidates for detecting particular strain events such as aseismic creep or Episodic Tremor and Slip strain pulses.

  10. Flow modeling and permeability estimation using borehole flow logs in heterogeneous fractured formations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical model of flow in the vicinity of a borehole is used to analyze flowmeter data obtained with high-resolution flowmeters. The model is designed to (1) precisely compute flow in a borehole, (2) approximate the effects of flow in surrounding aquifers on the measured borehole flow, (3) allow for an arbitrary number (N) of entry/exit points connected to M < N far-field aquifers, and (4) be consistent with the practical limitations of flowmeter measurements such as limits of resolution, typical measurement error, and finite measurement periods. The model is used in three modes: (1) a quasi-steady pumping mode where there is no ambient flow, (2) a steady flow mode where ambient differences in far-field water levels drive flow between fracture zones in the borehole, and (3) a cross-borehole test mode where pumping in an adjacent borehole drives flow in the observation borehole. The model gives estimates of transmissivity for any number of fractures in steady or quasi-steady flow experiments that agree with straddle-packer test data. Field examples show how these cross-borehole-type curves can be used to estimate the storage coefficient of fractures and bedding planes and to determine whether fractures intersecting a borehole at different locations are hydraulically connected in the surrounding rock mass.

  11. Subsurface structure around Omi basin using borehole database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, N.; Ito, H.; Takemura, K.; Mitamura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Kansai Geo-informatics Network (KG-NET) is organized as a new system of management of GI-base in 2005. This organization collects the geotechnical and geological information of borehole data more than 60,000 data. GI-base is the database system of the KG-NET and platform to use these borehole data. Kansai Geo-informatics Research Committee (KG-R) is tried to explain the geotechnical properties and geological environment using borehole database in Kansai area. In 2014, KG-R established the 'Shin-Kansai Jiban Omi plain', and explain the subsurface geology and characteristics of geotechnical properties. In this study we introduce this result and consider the sedimental environment and characteristics in this area. Omi Basin is located in the central part of Shiga Prefecture which includes the largest lake in Japan called Lake Biwa. About 15,000 borehole data are corrected to consider the subsurface properties. The outline of topographical and geological characteristics of the basin is divided into west side and east side. The west side area is typical reverse fault called Biwako-Seigan fault zone along the lakefront. From Biwako-Seigan fault, the Omi basin is tilting down from east to west. Otherwise, the east areas distribute lowland and hilly area comparatively. The sedimentary facies are also complicate and difficult to be generally evaluated. So the discussion has been focused about mainly the eastern and western part of Lake Biwa. The widely dispersed volcanic ash named Aira-Tn (AT) deposited before 26,000-29,000 years ago (Machida and Arai, 2003), is sometimes interbedded the humic layers in the low level ground area. However, because most of the sediments are comprised by thick sand and gravels whose deposit age could not be investigated, it is difficult to widely identify the boundary of strata. Three types of basement rocks are distributed mainly (granite, sediment rock, rhyolite), and characteristics of deposit are difference of each backland basement rock

  12. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Parra, J.O.

    1992-01-14

    This patent describes a seismic detector for high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile measurements when placed in a shallow borehole in a geological formation of interest that contains a seismic source and connected to a seismograph. It comprises a framework; accelerometer sensors for X, Y, and Z axis, means for electrically connecting the accelerometers to the seismograph to record seismic waves received by the accelerometer sensors form the seismic source; heating elements secured to, but electrically insulated from, the framework; power means for supplying power to the heating elements; and meltable substance encapsulating the seismic detector.

  13. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2002-08-01

    This report describes the technical progress on a project to design and construct a multi-channel geophone array that improves tomographic imaging capabilities in both surface and underground mines. Especially important in the design of the array is sensor placement. One issue related to sensor placement is addressed in this report: the method for clamping the sensor once it is emplaced in the borehole. If the sensors (geophones) are not adequately coupled to the surrounding rock mass, the resulting data will be of very poor quality. Improved imaging capabilities will produce energy, environmental, and economic benefits by increasing exploration accuracy and reducing operating costs.

  14. Joint inversion of surface and borehole magnetic amplitude data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zelin; Yao, Changli; Zheng, Yuanman; Yuan, Xiaoyu

    2016-04-01

    3D magnetic inversion for susceptibility distribution is a powerful tool in quantitative interpretation of magnetic data in mineral exploration. However, the inversion and interpretation of such data are faced with two problems. One problem is the poor imaging results of deep sources when only surface data are inverted. The other is the unknown total magnetization directions of sources when strong remanence exists. To deal with these problems simultaneously, we propose a method through the joint inversion of surface and borehole magnetic amplitude data. In this method, we first transform both surface and borehole magnetic data to magnetic amplitude data that are less sensitive to the directions of total magnetization, and then preform a joint inversion of the whole amplitude data to generate a 3D susceptibility distribution. The amplitude inversion algorithm uses Tikhonov regularization and imposes a positivity constraint on the effective susceptibility defined as the ratio of magnetization magnitude over the geomagnetic field strength. In addition, a distance-based weighting function is used to make the algorithm applicable to joint data sets. To solve this positivity-constraint inversion problem efficiently, an appropriate optimization method must be chosen. We first use an interior-point method to incorporate the positivity constraint into the total objective function, and then minimize the objective function via a Gauss-Newton method due to the nonlinearity introduced by the positivity constraint and the amplitude data. To further improve the efficiency of the inversion algorithm, we use a conjugate gradient method to carry out the fast matrix-vector multiplication during the minimization. To verify the utility of the proposed method, we invert the synthetic and field data using three inversion methods, including the joint inversion of surface and borehole three-component magnetic data, the inversion of surface magnetic amplitude data, and the proposed joint

  15. Ceramic Borehole Seals for Nuclear Waste Disposal Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, B.; Coates, K.; Wohletz, K.; Dunn, S.; Patera, E.; Duguid, A.; Arnold, B.; Zyvoloski, G.; Groven, L.; Kuramyssova, K.

    2015-12-01

    Sealing plugs are critical features of the deep borehole system design. They serve as structural platforms to bear the weight of the backfill column, and as seals through their low fluid permeability and bond to the borehole or casing wall. High hydrostatic and lithostatic pressures, high mineral content water, and elevated temperature due to the waste packages and geothermal gradient challenge the long term performance of seal materials. Deep borehole nuclear waste disposal faces the added requirement of assuring performance for thousands of years in large boreholes, requiring very long term chemical and physical stability. A high performance plug system is being developed which capitalizes on the energy of solid phase reactions to form a ceramic plug in-situ. Thermites are a family of self-oxidized metal/oxide reactions with very high energy content and the ability to react under water. When combined with engineered additives the product exhibits attractive structural, sealing, and corrosion properties. In the initial phase of this research, exploratory and scaled tests demonstrated formulations that achieved controlled, fine grained, homogeneous, net shape plugs composed predominantly of ceramic material. Laboratory experiments produced plug cores with confined fluid permeability as low as 100 mDarcy, compressive strength as high as 70 MPa (three times the strength of conventional well cement), with the inherent corrosion resistance and service temperature of ceramic matrices. Numerical thermal and thermal/structural analyses predicted the in-situ thermal performance of the reacted plugs, showing that they cooled to ambient temperature (and design strength) within 24 to 48 hours. The current development effort is refining the reactant formulations to achieve desired performance characteristics, developing the system design and emplacement processes to be compatible with conventional well service practices, and understanding the thermal, fluid, and structural

  16. Britholite-group minerals as sensitive indicators of changing fluid composition during pegmatite formation: evidence from the Keivy alkaline province, Kola peninsula, NW Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zozulya, Dmitry R.; Lyalina, Lyudmila M.; Savchenko, Yevgeny E.

    2017-01-01

    The Keivy alkaline province, Kola Peninsula, NW Russia, consists of vast alkali granite massifs and several dike-like nepheline syenite bodies. It contains numerous rare-metal occurrences, formed by a complex sequence of magmatic, late-magmatic and post-magmatic (including pegmatitic) processes. The Sakharjok nepheline syenite pegmatite contains a remarkably diverse number of britholite group minerals, pointing to different physico-chemical conditions in the fluid. REE and actinides distribution in the host rock indicates that the late-magmatic (and pegmatitic) fluids were alkaline, with significant amounts of F and CO2. From REE and F variations of the britholite group minerals possible fluid compositions at different stages are suggested. The earliest fluorbritholite-(Ce) formed locally from a late magmatic, high temperature F-rich fluid. Fluorbritholite-(Y) presumably crystallized from a F-bearing and CO2-rich fluid; marked F saturation resulted in precipitation of abundant fluorite due to a temperature drop. Variations in REE and F contents in the most abundant fluorcalciobritholite indicate a successive decrease of F in the fluid during its evolution. The relationship between intergrown fluorapatite and fluorcalciobritholite and the presence of zones with a REE-rich fluorapatite between them indicate a continuous to sudden crystallization in this mineral sequence. The crystallization of the latest "calciobritholite" is related to the input into the fluid of CO2 and/or H2O.

  17. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  18. Sealing of boreholes using natural, compatible materials: Granular salt

    SciTech Connect

    Finley, R.E.; Zeuch, D.H.; Stormont, J.C.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1994-05-01

    Granular salt can be used to construct high performance permanent seals in boreholes which penetrate rock salt formations. These seals are described as seal systems comprised of the host rock, the seal material, and the seal rock interface. The performance of these seal systems is defined by the complex interactions between these seal system components through time. The interactions are largely driven by the creep of the host formation applying boundary stress on the seal forcing host rock permeability with time. The immediate permeability of these seals is dependent on the emplaced density. Laboratory test results suggest that careful emplacement techniques could results in immediate seal system permeability on the order of 10{sup {minus}16} m{sup 2} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2} (10{sup {minus}4} darcy to 10{sup {minus}6}). The visco-plastic behavior of the host rock coupled with the granular salts ability to ``heal`` or consolidate make granular salt an ideal sealing material for boreholes whose permanent sealing is required.

  19. Electrical resistance tomography using steel cased boreholes as electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R L; Daily, W; Ramirez, A

    1999-03-22

    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) using multiple electrodes installed in boreholes has been shown to be useful for both site characterization and process monitoring. In some cases, however, installing multiple downhole electrodes is too costly (e.g., deep targets) or risky (e.g., contaminated sites). For these cases we have examined the possibility of using the steel casings of existing boreholes as electrodes. The first case we investigated used an array of steel casings as electrodes. This results in very few data and thus requires additional constraints to limit the domain of possible inverse solutions. Simulations indicate that the spatial resolution and sensitivity are understandably low but it is possible to coarsely map the lateral extent of subsurface processes such as steam floods. A hybrid case uses traditional point electrode arrays combined with long-conductor electrodes (steel casings). Although this arrangement provides more data, in many cases it results in poor reconstructions of test targets. Results indicate that this method may hold promise for low resolution imaging where steel casings can be used as electrodes.

  20. Experimental assessment of borehole wall drilling damage in basaltic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-06-01

    Ring tension tests, permeability tests, and microscopic fracture studies have been performed to investigate the borehole damage induced at low confining pressure by three drilling techniques (diamond, percussion and rotary). Specimens are drilled with three hole sizes (38, 76, and 102 mm diameter) in Pomona basalt and Grande basaltic andesite. The damaged zone is characterized in terms of fractures and fracture patterns around the hole, and in terms of tensile strength reduction of the rock around the holes. Experimental results show that the thickness of the damaged zone around the hole ranges from 0.0 to 1.7 mm. A larger drill bit induces more wall damage than does a smaller one. Different drilling techniques show different damage characteristics (intensity and distribution). Damage characteristics are governed not only by drilling parameters (bit size, weight on bit, rotational speed, diamond radius, and energy), but also by properties of the rock. The weaker rock tends to show more intense damage than does the stronger one. Cracks within grains or cleavage fractures are predominant in slightly coarser grained rock (larger than 0.5 mm grain size) while intergranular cracks are predominant in very fine grained rock (smaller than 0.01 mm grain size). The damaged zones play no significant role in the flow path around a borehole plug.

  1. Interim reclamation report, Basalt Waste Isolation project: Boreholes, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-03-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. An extensive site characterization program was begun to determine the feasibility of using the basalts beneath the Hanford Site for the repository. Site research focused primarily on determining the direction and speed of groundwater movement, the uniformity of basalt layers, and tectonic stability. Some 98 boreholes were sited, drilled, deepened, or modified by BWIP between 1977 and 1988 to test the geologic properties of the Site. On December 22, 1987, President Reagan signed into law the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, which effectively stopped all repository-related activities except reclamation of disturbed lands at the Hanford Site. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the BWIP boreholes, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 48 refs., 28 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Development of a borehole directional antenna at VHF

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, H.T.; Scott, L.

    1984-03-01

    The feasibility of constructing a directional VHF (30 MH/sub z/ to 300 MH/sub z/) antenna to physically fit into a small borehole is investigated. The study was carried out in a test chamber containing a 15 cm diameter borehole surrounded by sand which can be moistened with water or brine to adjust the dielectric constant and electrical conductivity. Electric field measurements were made for an eccentrically positioned monopole, a corner reflector and a two-element array for a number of possible configurations. Using an eccentric monopole, the best beamwidth obtained was 78/sup 0/ and the front-to-back ratio was 3.5 db. The front-to-back ratio was increased to 8.5 db when two element arrays were arranged in such a way as to provide the optimum radiation pattern. However, the best results were achieved using a corner reflector: 60/sup 0/ beamwidth and 13 db front-to-back ratio. It is concluded that a directional VHF antenna can be designed for downhole application.

  3. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas E.; Parra, Jorge O.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method of high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile (VSP) measurements is shown. By encapsulating the seismic detector and heaters in a meltable substance (such as wax), the seismic detector can be removably secured in a borehole in a manner capable of measuring high resolution signals in the 100 to 1000 hertz range and higher. The meltable substance is selected to match the overall density of the detector package with the underground formation, yet still have relatively low melting point and rigid enough to transmit vibrations to accelerometers in the seismic detector. To minimize voids in the meltable substance upon solidification, the meltable substance is selected for minimum shrinkage, yet still having the other desirable characteristics. Heaters are arranged in the meltable substance in such a manner to allow the lowermost portion of the meltable substance to cool and solidify first. Solidification continues upwards from bottom-to-top until the top of the meltable substance is solidified and the seismic detector is ready for use. To remove, the heaters melt the meltable substance and the detector package is pulled from the borehole.

  4. Integrated borehole logging methods for wellhead protection applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Pedler, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    Modeling of ground water infiltration and movement in the wellhead area is a critical part of an effective wellhead protection program. Such models depend on an accurate description of the aquifer in the wellhead area so that reliable estimates of contaminant travel times can be used in defining a protection area. Geophysical and hydraulic measurements in boreholes provide one of the most important methods for obtaining the data needed to specify wellhead protection measures. Most effective characterization of aquifers in the wellhead vicinity results when a variety of geophysical and hydraulic measurements are made where geophysical measurements can be calibrated in terms of hydraulic variables, and where measurements are made at somewhat different scales of investigation. The application of multiple geophysical measurements to ground water flow in the wellhead area is illustrated by examples in alluvial, fractured sedimentary, and fractured crystalline rock aquifers. Data obtained from a single test well are useful, but cannot indicate how conductive elements in the aquifer are connected to form large-scale flow paths. Geophysical and hydraulic measurements made in arrays of observation boreholes can provide information about such large-scale flow paths, and are especially useful in specifying aquifer properties in wellhead protection studies.

  5. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  6. 30 CFR 250.907 - Where must I locate foundation boreholes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where must I locate foundation boreholes? 250.907 Section 250.907 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT... Platforms and Structures Platform Approval Program § 250.907 Where must I locate foundation boreholes?...

  7. 30 CFR 250.907 - Where must I locate foundation boreholes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where must I locate foundation boreholes? 250.907 Section 250.907 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE... Approval Program § 250.907 Where must I locate foundation boreholes? (a) For fixed or...

  8. Laboratory research of hydraulic fracturing with tangential loading of borehole wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlenya, MV; Patutin, AV; Rybalkin, LA; Serdyukov, SV; Shilova, TV

    2017-02-01

    Under study is transverse fracturing of an organic glass block through secondary shearing stress applied to the borehole wall. To this effect, a system composed of a press sealer and a collet anchor manufactured in two options has been designed. It is shown than an anchor with a circular groove allows reducing breakdown pressure and enables effective transverse fracture at the borehole bottom.

  9. Borehole Miner - Extendible Nozzle Development for Radioactive Waste Dislodging and Retrieval from Underground Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    CW Enderlin; DG Alberts; JA Bamberger; M White

    1998-09-25

    This report summarizes development of borehole-miner extendible-nozzle water-jetting technology for dislodging and retrieving salt cake, sludge} and supernate to remediate underground storage tanks full of radioactive waste. The extendible-nozzle development was based on commercial borehole-miner technology.

  10. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  11. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  12. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  13. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  14. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  15. Strengthening Borehole Configuration from the Retaining Roadway for Greenhouse Gas Reduction: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Fei; Zhang, Nong; Feng, Xiaowei; Zheng, Xigui; Kan, Jiaguang

    2015-01-01

    A monitoring trial was carried out to investigate the effect of boreholes configuration on the stability and gas production rate. These boreholes were drilled from the retaining roadway at longwall mining panel 1111(1) of the Zhuji Coalmine, in China. A borehole camera exploration device and multiple gas parameter measuring device were adopted to monitor the stability and gas production rate. Research results show that boreholes 1~8 with low intensity and thin casing thickness were broken at the depth of 5~10 m along the casing and with a distance of 2~14 m behind the coal face, while boreholes 9~11 with a special thick-walled high-strength oil casing did not fracture during the whole extraction period. The gas extraction volume is closely related to the boreholes stability. After the stability of boreholes 9~11 being improved, the average gas flow rate increased dramatically 16-fold from 0.13 to 2.21 m3/min, and the maximum gas flow rate reached 4.9 m3/min. Strengthening boreholes configuration is demonstrated to be a good option to improve gas extraction effect. These findings can make a significant contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the coal mining industry. PMID:25633368

  16. Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

    2011-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

  17. Low-frequency radiation from point sources in a fluid-filled borehole.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    Far-field displacement fields have been derived for an impulsive point force acting on a fluid-filled borehole wall under the assumption that the borehole diameter is small compared to the wavelength involved. The displacements due to an arbitrary source can be computed easily by combining the solutions for the impulsive sources. In general, the borehole source generates not only longitudinal and vertically polarized shear waves, but also horizontally polarized shear waves. This study also indicates that only the axisymmetric motion around the borehole due to normal stress is affected by the fluid in the borehole. In the long-wavelength limit, the presence of the fluid does not affect the radiation from tangential sources into the surrounding medium. -Author

  18. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  19. Thermal Performance Analysis of a Geologic Borehole Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Reagin, Lauren

    2016-08-16

    The Brazilian Nuclear Research Institute (IPEN) proposed a design for the disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources (DSRS) based on the IAEA Borehole Disposal of Sealed Radioactive Sources (BOSS) design that would allow the entirety of Brazil’s inventory of DSRS to be disposed in a single borehole. The proposed IPEN design allows for 170 waste packages (WPs) containing DSRS (such as Co-60 and Cs-137) to be stacked on top of each other inside the borehole. The primary objective of this work was to evaluate the thermal performance of a conservative approach to the IPEN proposal with the equivalent of two WPs and two different inside configurations using Co-60 as the radioactive heat source. The current WP configuration (heterogeneous) for the IPEN proposal has 60% of the WP volume being occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source and the remaining 40% as vacant space. The second configuration (homogeneous) considered for this project was a homogeneous case where 100% of the WP volume was occupied by a nuclear radioactive heat source. The computational models for the thermal analyses of the WP configurations with the Co-60 heat source considered three different cooling mechanisms (conduction, radiation, and convection) and the effect of mesh size on the results from the thermal analysis. The results of the analyses yielded maximum temperatures inside the WPs for both of the WP configurations and various mesh sizes. The heterogeneous WP considered the cooling mechanisms of conduction, convection, and radiation. The temperature results from the heterogeneous WP analysis suggest that the model is cooled predominantly by conduction with effect of radiation and natural convection on cooling being negligible. From the thermal analysis comparing the two WP configurations, the results suggest that either WP configuration could be used for the design. The mesh sensitivity results verify the meshes used, and results obtained from the thermal analyses were close to

  20. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Wefer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. We here report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: The development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MeBo seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, Univ. Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK, is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. Of these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: The CORK-A (A = autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference). The CORK-B (B = bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by ROV and utilises a hotstab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hostab connection from beneath which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect pore water in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner. Instead of transferring data upon command using an acoustic modem, the MeBoPUPPI contains a pop-up telemetry with Iridium link. After a

  1. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-08

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating within a borehole an intermittent low frequency vibration that propagates as a tube wave longitudinally to the borehole and induces a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a longitudinal axis of the borehole; generating within the borehole a sequence of high frequency pulses directed such that they travel longitudinally to the borehole within the surrounding material; and receiving, at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole, a signal that includes components from the low frequency vibration and the sequence of high frequency pulses during intermittent generation of the low frequency vibration, to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  2. Preliminary results from hot-water drilling and borehole instrumentation on Store Glacier, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, S. H.; Christoffersen, P.; Hubbard, B. P.; Young, T. J.; Hofstede, C. M.; Box, J.; Todd, J.; Bougamont, M. H.; Hubbard, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Subglacial Access and Fast Ice Research Experiment (SAFIRE) pressurised hot water was used to drill four 603-616 m-long boreholes to the bed of the Greenland Ice Sheet at a site located 30 km from the calving front of fast-flowing, marine-terminating Store Glacier (70° N, ~1000 m elevation). Despite the boreholes freezing within hours, 4 wired sensor strings were successfully deployed in three of the boreholes. These included a thermistor string to obtain the englacial temperature profile installed in the same borehole as a string of tilt sensors to measure borehole deformation, and two sets of water pressure, electrical conductivity and turbidity sensors installed just above the bed in separate, adjacent boreholes. The boreholes made a strong hydrological connection to the bed during drilling, draining rapidly to ~80 m below the ice surface. The connection of subsequent boreholes was observed as a perturbation in water pressure and temperature recorded in neighbouring boreholes, indicating an effective hydrological sub- or en-glacial connection between them. The sensors, which were all connected to loggers at the surface by cables, operated for between ~30 and 80+ days before indications suggest that the cables stretched and then snapped - with the lowermost sensors failing first. The records obtained from these sensors reveal (i) high and increasing water pressure varying diurnally close to overburden albeit of a small magnitude (~ 0.3 m H2O), (ii) a minimum extrapolated englacial temperature of -21°C with above-freezing temperatures at the bed, and (iv) high rates of internal deformation and strain increasing towards the bed as evinced by increasing tilt with depth. These borehole observations are complemented by GPS measurements of ice motion, meteorological data, and seismic and radar surveys.

  3. Probe for temperature logging of deep cold boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangirolami, M.; Cavagnero, G.; Rossi, A.

    2003-04-01

    A new probe has been developed for measuring some physical parameters in deep cold boreholes such as those of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA), which is targeted to drill two holes through the ice sheet down to the bedrock at DOME C and at Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The probe is operative in the temperature range 0 to -60^oC and for pressures up to 35 MPa, down to 3500 m depth and in the presence of aggressive fluid filling. The probe is equipped with : 1) a set of four thermometers. Three are fitted in the expandable arms of the probe, to log the temperature of the ice-wall. The fourth thermometer is fitted into a static arm in a central position, between the previous three, and logs the temperature of the borehole fluid, for comparison. Thermistor-type sensors have been selected, with a resolution of 2 mK in the interval near 0^oC. During laboratory tests a time constant of 2.7 s was obtained for the thermal sensors fitted in their protective case. After final assemblage of the probe the sensors were calibrated in the laboratory against a standard precision thermometer, over the range 0 to -60^oC; 2) a sensor for differential measurement of the pressure of the liquid column of the drill fluid, with a resolution of a few 10-6 MPa, sufficient to detect any convective cells, induced by the dishomogeneous composition of the mixing fluids; 3) a manometer (strain gauge) for measuring the hydrostatic pressure of the fluid column in the full range 0 to 35 MPa, from the surface to bottom hole, with a resolution better than 0.001 of the full range; 4) a vertical depth meter for direct measurement of depth on the wall of the borehole, to eliminate any uncertainties caused by variations in the length of the electro-mechanical drilling wire due to the fatigue and strain of drilling operations. The progressive depths are measured by a wheel counter and encoder on the upper arms of the probe, with an expected resolution better than 10-3; 5) a

  4. A novel muon detector for borehole density tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard T.; Yamaoka, Jared; Rowe, Charlotte; Guardincerri, Elena; Durham, J. Matthew; Morris, Christopher L.; Poulson, Daniel C.; Plaud-Ramos, Kenie; Morley, Deborah J.; Bacon, Jeffrey D.; Bynes, James; Cercillieux, Julien; Ketter, Chris; Le, Khanh; Mostafanezhad, Isar; Varner, Gary; Flygare, Joshua; Lintereur, Azaree T.

    2017-04-01

    Muons can be used to image the density of materials through which they pass, including geological structures. Subsurface applications of the technology include tracking fluid migration during injection or production, with increasing concern regarding such timely issues as induced seismicity or chemical leakage into aquifers. Current density monitoring options include gravimetric data collection and active or passive seismic surveys. One alternative, or complement, to these methods is the development of a muon detector that is sufficiently compact and robust for deployment in a borehole. Such a muon detector can enable imaging of density structure to monitor small changes in density - a proxy for fluid migration - at depths up to 1500 m. Such a detector has been developed, and Monte Carlo modeling methods applied to simulate the anticipated detector response. Testing and measurements using a prototype detector in the laboratory and shallow underground laboratory demonstrated robust response. A satisfactory comparison with a large drift tube-based muon detector is also presented.

  5. Commercialization of atom interferometers for borehole gravity gradiometry

    SciTech Connect

    Clauser, J.F.

    1993-01-30

    Perform a mathematical analysis of the tomography inversion problem for various configurations of a borehole gravity gradiometer. Our simulations typically call for logging a hole for about 4km of depth. Within the limits imposed by our presumed detector sensitivity, the device appears to be capable of measuring the 0.1 g/cm[sup 3] density in all rings to about 10% accuracy, with the rings extending out to about 500 meters from the hole. At this range, the vertical resolution has dropped to about 50m. Closer to the hole, the resolution improves so that we can determine the density in each of about 400 rings. We anticipate that this most important task (No. l) will be complete within the next quarter.

  6. Integrating borehole logs and aquifer tests in aquifer characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Reese, R.S.

    2000-01-01

    Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the surficial aquifer system in and around Big Cypress National Preserve in eastern Collier County, Florida. Borehole flowmeter tests provide qualitative permeability profiles in most of 26 boreholes drilled in the Study area. Flow logs indicate the depth of transmissive units, which are correlated across the study area. Comparison to published studies in adjacent areas indicates that the main limestone aquifer of the 000000Tamiami Formation in the study area corresponds with the gray limestone aquifer in western Dade County and the water table and lower Tamiami Aquifer in western Collier County. Four strategically located, multiwell aquifer tests are used to quantify the qualitative permeability profiles provided by the flowmeter log analysis. The hydrostratigraphic model based on these results defines the main aquifer in the central part of the study area as unconfined to semiconfined with a transmissivity as high as 30,000 m2/day. The aquifer decreases in transmissivity to less than 10,000 m2/day in some parts of western Collier County, and becomes confined to the east and northeast of the study area, where transmissivity decreases to below 5000 m2/day.Integration of lithologic logs, geophysical logs, and hydraulic tests is critical in characterizing heterogeneous aquifers. Typically only a limited number of aquifer tests can be performed, and these need to be designed to provide hydraulic properties for the principle aquifers in the system. This study describes the integration of logs and aquifer tests in the development of a hydrostratigraphic model for the

  7. Numerical modeling of radionuclide migration through a borehole disposal site.

    PubMed

    Yeboah, Serwaa; Akiti, Thomas T; Fletcher, John J

    2014-01-01

    The migration of radionuclides from a borehole repository located about 20 km from the Akwapim fault line which lies in an area of high seismicity was analyzed for some selected radionuclides. In the event of a seismic activity, fractures and faults could be rejuvenated or initiated resulting in container failure leading to the release of radionuclides. A numerical model was solved using a two-dimensional finite element code (Comsol Multiphysics) by taking into account the effect of heterogeneities. Results showed that, the fractured medium created preferential pathways indicating that, fault zones generated potential paths for released radionuclides from a radioactive waste repository. The results obtained showed that variations in hydraulic conductivity as a result of the heterogeneity considered within the domain significantly affected the direction of flow.

  8. COSC-1 technical operations: drilling and borehole completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Bjelm, Leif; Larsson, Stellan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    COSC-1, the first out of the two planned fully cored boreholes within the COSC-project, was completed in late August 2014. Drilling was performed using the national scientific drilling infrastructure, the so called Riksriggen, operated by Lund University, and resulted in a 2495.8 m deep borehole with almost 100 % core recovery. The rig is an Atlas Copco CT20C diamond core-drill rig, a rig type commonly used for mineral exploration. A major advantage with this type of drill rig compared to conventional rotary rigs is that it can operate on very small drill sites. Thus, it leaves a small environmental footprint, in this case around 1000 m2. The rig was operated by 3 persons over 12 hour shifts. Before the core drilling started a local drilling company installed a conductor casing down to 103 m, which was required for the installation of a Blow Out Preventer (BOP). The core drilling operation started using H-size and a triple tube core barrel (HQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 96 mm and a core diameter of 61.1 mm down to 1616 m. In general, the drilling using HQ3 was successful with 100 % core recovery and core was acquired at rate on the order 30-60 m/day when the drilling wasn't interrupted by other activities, such as bit change, servicing or testing. The HRQ-drill string was installed as a temporary casing from surface down to 1616 m. Subsequently, drilling was conducted down to 1709 m with N-size and a triple tube core barrel (NQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 45 mm. At 1709 m the coring assembly was changed to N-size double tube core barrel (NQ), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 47.6 mm and the core barrel extended to 6 m. In this way precious time was saved and the good rock quality ensured high core recovery even with the double tube. In general, the drilling using NQ3 and NQ was successful with 100 % core recovery at around 36 m/day by the end of the drilling operation. The main problem

  9. OSL-thermochronometry of feldspar from the KTB borehole, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guralnik, Benny; Jain, Mayank; Herman, Frédéric; Ankjærgaard, Christina; Murray, Andrew S.; Valla, Pierre G.; Preusser, Frank; King, Georgina E.; Chen, Reuven; Lowick, Sally E.; Kook, Myungho; Rhodes, Edward J.

    2015-08-01

    The reconstruction of thermal histories of rocks (thermochronometry) is a fundamental tool both in Earth science and in geological exploration. However, few methods are currently capable of resolving the low-temperature thermal evolution of the upper ∼2 km of the Earth's crust. Here we introduce a new thermochronometer based on the infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from feldspar, and validate the extrapolation of its response to artificial radiation and heat in the laboratory to natural environmental conditions. Specifically, we present a new detailed Na-feldspar IRSL thermochronology from a well-documented thermally-stable crustal environment at the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB). There, the natural luminescence of Na-feldspar extracted from twelve borehole samples (0.1-2.3 km depth, corresponding to 10-70 °C) can be either (i) predicted within uncertainties from the current geothermal gradient, or (ii) inverted into a geothermal palaeogradient of 29 ± 2 °C km-1, integrating natural thermal conditions over the last ∼65 ka. The demonstrated ability to invert a depth-luminescence dataset into a meaningful geothermal palaeogradient opens new venues for reconstructing recent ambient temperatures of the shallow crust (<0.3 Ma, 40-70 °C range), or for studying equally recent and rapid transient cooling in active orogens (<0.3 Ma, >200 °C Ma-1 range). Although Na-feldspar IRSL is prone to field saturation in colder or slower environments, the method's primary relevance appears to be for borehole and tunnel studies, where it may offer remarkably recent (<0.3 Ma) information on the thermal structure and history of hydrothermal fields, nuclear waste repositories and hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  10. Processing and Visualization of Borehole data in GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrova, Lucie

    2013-04-01

    Poster deals with the advances in the research on possibilities in the field of data modelling and visualization of borehole data and derived geological data and maps in geographic information systems (GIS). Borehole data naturally contains 3D information, describing the geological structure of an area of interest. This information is very valuable for assessing the deposits of groundwater, possibilities of underground storage of CO2, for mining or civil engineering companies, or simply to better understand the geological subsurface environment. Therefore, it is strongly demanded by experts as well as the broad public to display the geological maps and models in 3D. Focus of the poster is put on the storage of data in a geodatabase, possibilities of processing the data (interpretation, classification, creation of geological cross-sections), and visualization by means of widely-used GIS software. Data model is the key aspect for an effective use of data and its visualization. The intention is to use company and international community standards as much as possible, which makes the data interoperable in community and international data infrastructures. Research works will continue further on sharing of the multidimensional data with the geological community across Europe or the whole world, which might lead to some additional modifications of the data model in terms of unification of terminology or data structure. Also, the INSPIRE directive establishing an infrastructure for spatial information in Europe will definitely change the data model a bit - when the final documents on data specifications for geological data are available (expected during the year of 2013), the current data model will have to be revised and modified.

  11. Analysis of Borehole-Radar Reflection Data from Machiasport, Maine, December 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    In December 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole-radar reflection logs in two boreholes in Machiasport, Maine. These bedrock boreholes were drilled as part of a hydrogeologic investigation of the area surrounding the former Air Force Radar Tracking Station site on Howard Mountain near Bucks Harbor. The boreholes, MW09 and MW10, are located approximately 50 meters (m) from, and at the site of, respectively, the locations of former buildings where trichloroethylene was used as part of defense-site operations. These areas are thought to be potential source areas for contamination that has been detected in downgradient bedrock wells. This investigation focused on testing borehole-radar methods at this site. Single-hole radar-reflection surveys were used to identify the depth, orientation, and spatial continuity of reflectors that intersect and surround the boreholes. In addition, the methods were used to (1) identify the radial depth of penetration of the radar waves in the electrically resistive bimodal volcanic formation at the site, (2) provide information for locating additional boreholes at the site, and (3) test the potential applications of borehole-radar methods for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of source-area remediation efforts. Borehole-radar reflection logging uses a pair of downhole transmitting and receiving antennas to record the reflected wave amplitude and transit time of high-frequency electromagnetic waves. For this investigation, 60- and 100-megahertz antennas were used. The electromagnetic waves emitted by the transmitter penetrate into the formation surrounding the borehole and are reflected off of a material with different electromagnetic properties, such as a fracture or change in rock type. Single-hole directional radar surveys indicate the bedrock surrounding these boreholes is highly fractured, because several reflectors were identified in the radar

  12. Fiber optic DTS in sealed and heated boreholes for active groundwater flow characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas; Parker, Beth; Cherry, John; Mondanos, Michael

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, advances in technology have allowed temperature profiling to evolve to offer new insight into fractured rock hydrogeology. Temperature profiles in open boreholes within fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation and/or in the borehole. An advance in temperature logging makes use of precision temperature profiles collected using wireline trolling methods in a heated borehole to identify fractures with active groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. A second development is based on collecting wireline temperature profiles within a sealed borehole to eliminate short circuiting effects caused by the open borehole conduit. The borehole is temporarily sealed with a flexible impervious fabric liner so that the water column in the borehole is static and cross-connection is eliminated. Though highly precise temperature and spatial measurements are possible using these techniques, the temporal resolution is limited by the rate at which the wireline probe can be raised and lowered in the borehole. There is a need to measure temperature profiles continuously over time to characterize transient processes. Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a technique that allows for collecting temperature profiles continuously. This tool was advanced by the oil and gas industry for collecting temperature data in multi kilometer deep boreholes over relatively coarse measurement scales. In contrast, very fine spatial and temperature resolutions are needed for freshwater contaminant fractured rock hydrogeology where the scale of interest is much more acute. Recent advances in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolution of DTS systems allow this technology to be adapted well to the shallow subsurface environment. This project demonstrates the first application of DTS used in conjunction with flexible borehole liners in a heated borehole environment. The

  13. Completion summary for borehole USGS 136 near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Bartholomay, Roy C.; Hodges, Mary K.V.

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, cored and completed borehole USGS 136 for stratigraphic framework analyses and long-term groundwater monitoring of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer at the Idaho National Laboratory. The borehole was initially cored to a depth of 1,048 feet (ft) below land surface (BLS) to collect core, open-borehole water samples, and geophysical data. After these data were collected, borehole USGS 136 was cemented and backfilled between 560 and 1,048 ft BLS. The final construction of borehole USGS 136 required that the borehole be reamed to allow for installation of 6-inch (in.) diameter carbon-steel casing and 5-in. diameter stainless-steel screen; the screened monitoring interval was completed between 500 and 551 ft BLS. A dedicated pump and water-level access line were placed to allow for aquifer testing, for collecting periodic water samples, and for measuring water levels. Geophysical and borehole video logs were collected after coring and after the completion of the monitor well. Geophysical logs were examined in conjunction with the borehole core to describe borehole lithology and to identify primary flow paths for groundwater, which occur in intervals of fractured and vesicular basalt. A single-well aquifer test was used to define hydraulic characteristics for borehole USGS 136 in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Specific-capacity, transmissivity, and hydraulic conductivity from the aquifer test were at least 975 gallons per minute per foot, 1.4 × 105 feet squared per day (ft2/d), and 254 feet per day, respectively. The amount of measureable drawdown during the aquifer test was about 0.02 ft. The transmissivity for borehole USGS 136 was in the range of values determined from previous aquifer tests conducted in other wells near the Advanced Test Reactor Complex: 9.5 × 103 to 1.9 × 105 ft2/d. Water samples were analyzed for cations, anions, metals, nutrients, total organic

  14. Kolaviron, a biflavonoid complex of Garcinia kola seeds modulates apoptosis by suppressing oxidative stress and inflammation in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats.

    PubMed

    Ayepola, Omolola R; Cerf, Marlon E; Brooks, Nicole L; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-12-15

    Diabetic nephropathy is a complex disease that involves increased production of free radicals which is a strong stimulus for the release of pro-inflammatory factors. We evaluated the renal protective effect of kolaviron (KV) - a Garcinia kola seed extract containing a mixture of 5 flavonoids, in diabetes-induced nephrotoxic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: untreated controls (C); normal rats treated with kolaviron (C+KV); untreated diabetic rats (D); kolaviron treated diabetic rats (D+KV). A single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 50mg/kg) was used for the induction of diabetes. Renal function parameters were estimated in a clinical chemistry analyzer. Markers of oxidative stress in the kidney homogenate were analyzed in a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader and Bio-plex Promagnetic bead-based assays was used for the analysis of inflammatory markers. The effect of kolaviron on diabetes-induced apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay. In the diabetic rats, alterations in antioxidant defenses such as an increase in lipid peroxidation, glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity and a decrease in catalase (CAT) activity, glutathione (GSH) levels and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were observed. There was no difference in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Diabetes induction increased apoptotic cell death and the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α with no effect on IL-10. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes, reduced lipid peroxidation and increased ORAC and GSH concentration in renal tissues. Kolaviron treatment of diabetic rats also suppressed renal IL-1β. The beneficial effects of kolaviron on diabetes-induced kidney injury may be due to its inhibitory action on oxidative stress, IL-1β production and apoptosis.

  15. Paleomagnetism of Devonian dykes in the northern Kola Peninsula and its bearing on the apparent polar wander path of Baltica in the Precambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselovskiy, Roman V.; Bazhenov, Mikhail L.; Arzamastsev, Andrey A.

    2016-04-01

    Mafic dykes and large alkaline and carbonatite intrusions of Middle-Late Devonian age are widespread on the Kola Peninsula in NE Fennoscandia. These magmatic rocks are well characterized with petrographic, geochemical and geochronological data but no paleomagnetic results have been reported yet. We studied dolerite dykes from the northern part of the Peninsula and isolated three paleomagnetic components in these rocks. A low-temperature component is aligned along the present-day field, while a major constituent of natural remanent magnetization is an intermediate-temperature component (Decl. = 79.6°, Inc. = 78.5°, α95 = 5,9°, N = 17 sites) that is present in most Devonian dykes but is found in some baked metamorphic rocks and Proterozoic dykes too. Finally, a primary Devonian component could be reliably isolated from two dykes only. Rock-magnetic studies point to presumably primary low-Ti titanomagnetite and/or pure magnetite as the main remanence carriers but also reveal alteration of the primary minerals and the formation of new magnetic phases. The directions of a major component differ from the Middle Paleozoic reference data for Baltica but closely match those for the 190 ± 10 Ma interval recalculated from the apparent polar wander path of the craton. We assume that this Early Jurassic component is a low-temperature overprint of chemical origin. The main impact of the new results is not to mid-Paleozoic or Early Mesozoic times but to much older epochs. Analysis of paleomagnetic data shows that the directionally similar remanences are present in objects with the ages ranging from 500 Ma to 2 Ga over entire Fennoscandia. Hence we argue that an Early Jurassic remagnetization is of regional extent but cannot link it to a certain process and a certain tectonic event. If true, this hypothesis necessitates a major revision of the APWP for Baltica over a wide time interval.

  16. Geological structure and ore mineralization of the South Sopchinsky and Gabbro-10 massifs and the Moroshkovoe Lake target, Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pripachkin, Pavel V.; Rundkvist, Tatyana V.; Miroshnikova, Yana A.; Chernyavsky, Alexey V.; Borisenko, Elena S.

    2016-12-01

    The South Sopchinsky massif (SSM), Gabbro-10 (G-10) massif, and Moroshkovoe Lake (ML) target Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, are located at the junction of the Monchepluton and Monchetundra layered intrusions. The intrusions were studied in detail as they are targets for platinum-group element (PGE) mineralization. The rocks in these targets comprise medium- to coarse-grained mesocratic to leucocratic gabbronorites, medium-grained mesocratic to melanocratic norites and pyroxenites, and various veins mainly comprising norite, plagioclase-amphibole-magnetite rocks, and quartz-magnetite rocks. The veins contain Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization associated with magnetite and chromite. In all targets, the contacts between gabbronorite and norite-pyroxenite are undulating, and the presence of magmatic (intrusive) breccias suggests that these rocks formed through mingling of two distinct magmatic pulses. In places, the gabbronorites clearly crosscut the modal layering of the norites and pyroxenites. Trace element data indicate that the gabbronorites have similar compositions to rocks of the upper part of the Monchetundra intrusion, whereas the norites and pyroxenites resemble rocks from the lower to intermediate stratigraphic levels of the Monchepluton, such as in the Nude-Poaz and Sopcha massifs. Sulfide mineralization in the studied targets principally consists of secondary bornite, millerite, and chalcopyrite. In contrast, the primary sulfide assemblage within the layered sequence of the adjacent Monchepluton is characterized by pentlandite, chalcopyrite, and pyrrhotite. Therefore, the mineralization in the studied targets is interpreted to be of a contact style. We argue that the studied area represents the contact zone between gabbronorites of the Monchetundra intrusion and norites and pyroxenites of the Monchepluton. In addition, the rocks were overprinted by postmagmatic veining and remobilization of contact style sulfide and PGE mineralization.

  17. Trace-element study and uranium-lead dating of perovskite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex, Kola Peninsula (Russia) using LA-ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reguir, Ekaterina P.; Camacho, Alfredo; Yang, Panseok; Chakhmouradian, Anton R.; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Halden, Norman M.

    2010-11-01

    The U-Pb geochronology of perovskite is a powerful tool in constraining the emplacement age of silica-undersaturated rocks. The trace-element and U-Pb isotopic compositions of perovskite from clinopyroxenite and silicocarbonatite from the Afrikanda plutonic complex (Kola, Russia) were determined by laser-ablation inductively-coupled mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). In addition, the Sr isotopic composition of perovskite was measured by isotope-dilution mass-spectrometry to better constrain the relations between its host rocks. Perovskite from the two rock types shows a different degree of enrichment in Na, Mg, Mn, Pb, Fe, Al, V, rare-earth elements, Zr, Hf, Th, U and Ta. The perovskite 87Sr/86Sr values are within analytical uncertainty of one another and fall within the range of mantle values. The 206Pb/238U ages (corrected for common lead using 207Pb-method) of perovskite from silicocarbonatite statistically yield a single population with a weighted mean of 371 ± 8 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.071). This age is indistinguishable, within uncertainty, to the clinopyroxenite weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 374 ± 10 Ma (2σ; MSWD = 0.18). Our data are in good agreement with the previous geochronological study of the Afrikanda complex. The observed variations in trace-element composition of perovskite from silicocarbonatite and clinopyroxenite indicate that these rocks are not related by crystal fractionation. The Sr isotopic ratios and the fact that the two rocks are coeval suggest that they were either produced from a single parental melt by liquid immiscibility, or from two separate magmas derived at different degrees of partial melting from an isotopically equilibrated, but modally complex mantle source.

  18. Borehole geophysical investigation of a formerly used defense site, Machiasport, Maine, 2003-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Mondazzi, Remo A.; Joesten, Peter K.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, collected borehole geophysical logs in 18 boreholes and interpreted the data along with logs from 19 additional boreholes as part of an ongoing, collaborative investigation at three environmental restoration sites in Machiasport, Maine. These sites, located on hilltops overlooking the seacoast, formerly were used for military defense. At each of the sites, chlorinated solvents, used as part of defense-site operations, have contaminated the fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole geophysical techniques and hydraulic methods were used to characterize bedrock lithology, fractures, and hydraulic properties. In addition, each geophysical method was evaluated for effectiveness for site characterization and for potential application for further aquifer characterization and (or) evaluation of remediation efforts. Results of borehole geophysical logging indicate the subsurface is highly fractured, metavolcanic, intrusive, metasedimentary bedrock. Selected geophysical logs were cross-plotted to assess correlations between rock properties. These plots included combinations of gamma, acoustic reflectivity, electromagnetic induction conductivity, normal resistivity, and single-point resistance. The combined use of acoustic televiewer (ATV) imaging and natural gamma logs proved to be effective for delineating rock types. Each of the rock units in the study area could be mapped in the boreholes, on the basis of the gamma and ATV reflectivity signatures. The gamma and mean ATV reflectivity data were used along with the other geophysical logs for an integrated interpretation, yielding a determination of quartz monzonite, rhyolite, metasedimentary units, or diabase/gabbro rock types. The interpretation of rock types on the basis of the geophysical logs compared well to drilling logs and geologic mapping. These results may be helpful for refining the geologic framework at depth. A stereoplot of all fractures

  19. Thermal-Mechanical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, B. W.; Clayton, D. J.; Herrick, C. G.; Hadgu, T.

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 °C and 180 °C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  20. Thermal-mechanical modeling of deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Bill Walter; Hadgu, Teklu

    2010-12-01

    Disposal of high-level radioactive waste, including spent nuclear fuel, in deep (3 to 5 km) boreholes is a potential option for safely isolating these wastes from the surface and near-surface environment. Existing drilling technology permits reliable and cost-effective construction of such deep boreholes. Conditions favorable for deep borehole disposal in crystalline basement rocks, including low permeability, high salinity, and geochemically reducing conditions, exist at depth in many locations, particularly in geologically stable continental regions. Isolation of waste depends, in part, on the effectiveness of borehole seals and potential alteration of permeability in the disturbed host rock surrounding the borehole. Coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrologic processes induced by heat from the radioactive waste may impact the disturbed zone near the borehole and borehole wall stability. Numerical simulations of the coupled thermal-mechanical response in the host rock surrounding the borehole were conducted with three software codes or combinations of software codes. Software codes used in the simulations were FEHM, JAS3D, Aria, and Adagio. Simulations were conducted for disposal of spent nuclear fuel assemblies and for the higher heat output of vitrified waste from the reprocessing of fuel. Simulations were also conducted for both isotropic and anisotropic ambient horizontal stress in the host rock. Physical, thermal, and mechanical properties representative of granite host rock at a depth of 4 km were used in the models. Simulation results indicate peak temperature increases at the borehole wall of about 30 C and 180 C for disposal of fuel assemblies and vitrified waste, respectively. Peak temperatures near the borehole occur within about 10 years and decline rapidly within a few hundred years and with distance. The host rock near the borehole is placed under additional compression. Peak mechanical stress is increased by about 15 MPa (above the assumed ambient

  1. Groundwater flow characterization in a fractured bedrock aquifer using active DTS tests in sealed boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas I.; Parker, Beth L.; Maldaner, Carlos H.; Mondanos, Michael J.

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, wireline temperature profiling methods have evolved to offer new insight into fractured rock hydrogeology. Important advances in wireline temperature logging in boreholes make use of active line source heating alone and then in combination with temporary borehole sealing with flexible impervious fabric liners to eliminate the effects of borehole cross-connection and recreate natural flow conditions. Here, a characterization technique was developed based on combining fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) with active heating within boreholes sealed with flexible borehole liners. DTS systems provide a temperature profiling method that offers significantly enhanced temporal resolution when compared with conventional wireline trolling-based techniques that obtain a temperature-depth profile every few hours. The ability to rapidly and continuously collect temperature profiles can better our understanding of transient processes, allowing for improved identification of hydraulically active fractures and determination of relative rates of groundwater flow. The advantage of a sealed borehole environment for DTS-based investigations is demonstrated through a comparison of DTS data from open and lined conditions for the same borehole. Evidence for many depth-discrete active groundwater flow features under natural gradient conditions using active DTS heat pulse testing is presented along with high resolution geologic and geophysical logging and hydraulic datasets. Implications for field implementation are discussed.

  2. Room Q data report: Test borehole data from April 1989 through November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, A.L.; Howard, C.L.

    1993-03-01

    Pore-pressure and fluid-flow tests were performed in 15 boreholes drilled into the bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation from within the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The tests measured fluid flow and pore pressure within the Salado. The boreholes were drilled into the previously undisturbed host rock around a proposed cylindrical test room, Room Q, located on the west side of the facility about 655 m below ground surface. The boreholes were about 23 m deep and ranged over 27.5 m of stratigraphy. They were completed and instrumented before excavation of Room Q. Tests were conducted in isolated zones at the end of each borehole. Three groups of 5 isolated zones extend above, below, and to the north of Room Q at increasing distances from the room axis. Measurements recorded before, during, and after the mining of the circular test room provided data about borehole closure, pressure, temperature, and brine seepage into the isolated zones. The effects of the circular excavation were recorded. This data report presents the data collected from the borehole test zones between April 25, 1989 and November 25, 1991. The report also describes test development, test equipment, and borehole drilling operations.

  3. Spatial scale analysis in geophysics - Integrating surface and borehole geophysics in groundwater studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Singhroy V.H.Hansen D.T.Pierce R, R

    2002-01-01

    Integration of geophysical data obtained at various scales can bridge the gap between localized data from boreholes and site-wide data from regional survey profiles. Specific approaches to such analysis include: 1) comparing geophysical measurements in boreholes with the same measurement made from the surface; 2) regressing geophysical data obtained in boreholes with water-sample data from screened intervals; 3) using multiple, physically independent measurements in boreholes to develop multivariate response models for surface geophysical surveys; 4) defining subsurface cell geometry for most effective survey inversion methods; and 5) making geophysical measurements in boreholes to serve as independent verification of geophysical interpretations. Integrated analysis of surface electromagnetic surveys and borehole geophysical logs at a study site in south Florida indicates that salinity of water in the surficial aquifers is controlled by a simple wedge of seawater intrusion along the coast and by a complex pattern of upward brine seepage from deeper aquifers throughout the study area. This interpretation was verified by drilling three additional test boreholes in carefully selected locations.

  4. Summary Report of Geophysical Logging For The Seismic Boreholes Project at the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant.

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Martin G.; Price, Randall K.

    2007-02-01

    During the period of June through October 2006, three deep boreholes and one corehole were drilled beneath the site of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The boreholes were drilled to provide information on ground-motion attenuation in the basalt and interbedded sediments underlying the WTP site. This report describes the geophysical logging of the deep boreholes that was conducted in support of the Seismic Boreholes Project, defined below. The detailed drilling and geological descriptions of the boreholes and seismic data collected and analysis of that data are reported elsewhere.

  5. Geologic and geochemical results from boreholes drilled in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 2007 and 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaworowski, Cheryl; Susong, David; Heasler, Henry; Mencin, David; Johnson, Wade; Conrey, Rick; Von Stauffenberg, Jennipher

    2016-06-01

    After drilling the seven PBO boreholes, cuttings were examined and selected for preparation of grain mounts, thin sections, and geochemical analysis. Major ions and trace elements (including rare earth elements) of selected cuttings were determined by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS); the ICP-MS provided more precise trace-element analysis than XRF. A preliminary interpretation of the results of geochemical analyses generally shows a correlation between borehole cuttings and previously mapped geology. The geochemical data and borehole stratigraphy presented in this report provide a foundation for future petrologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies.

  6. A model for classifying and interpreting logs of boreholes that intersect faults in stratified rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Mulvany, P.S. )

    1992-06-01

    A model reveals eleven fundamental relationships between the character of well logs and the geometry of borehole-strata-fault (BSF) intersections. Within limits, the model has two important practical applications. First, it provides a convenient way to classify logs of boreholes that intersect faults in stratified rocks. The different kinds of logs are given names, which can be used in informal and formal discourse to succinctly describe faulted logs. Second, the model can be used to interpret the geometry of BSF intersections directly from well logs. Knowledge of BSF geometry can be useful in interpreting faults in structure. Persons involved in highly deviated and horizontal boreholes should find the model particularly helpful.

  7. Catalog of borehole lithologic logs from the 600 Area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, K R; Lillie, J T

    1982-03-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) geoscientists are studying the Hanford Site subsurface environment to assure safe management operations, disposal, and storage of radioactive waste. As part of this effort, geoscientists have collected geotechnical data from about 3000 boreholes drilled on the Hanford Site since the early 1900s. These boreholes have been used for subsurface geologic, hydrologic, and engineering investigation, water supply, ground-water monitoring, and natural gas production. This report is a catalog of all obtainable (about 800) lithologic logs from boreholes in a portion of the Hanford Site known as the 600 Area.

  8. Experimental research on sealing of boreholes, shafts and ramps in welded tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Fuenkajorn, K.

    1996-04-01

    Laboratory and in-situ experiments have been conducted to determine the mechanical and hydraulic performance of cement borehole seals in densely welded Apache Leap tuff. Test results indicate that under saturated conditions, commercial expansive cement can provide good bond strength and adequate hydraulic performance for borehole seal under changing stress conditions. The cement seal should be installed at the intact portion of the opening, and should have a length-to-diameter ratio greater than four. Drying increases borehole plug permeability and decreases mechanical and hydraulic bonds at the plug-rock interface. In-situ testing indicates that installation procedure may significantly affect the cement plug performance.

  9. Conceptual waste packaging options for deep borehole disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Jiann -Cherng; Hardin, Ernest L.

    2015-07-01

    This report presents four concepts for packaging of radioactive waste for disposal in deep boreholes. Two of these are reference-size packages (11 inch outer diameter) and two are smaller (5 inch) for disposal of Cs/Sr capsules. All four have an assumed length of approximately 18.5 feet, which allows the internal length of the waste volume to be 16.4 feet. However, package length and volume can be scaled by changing the length of the middle, tubular section. The materials proposed for use are low-alloy steels, commonly used in the oil-and-gas industry. Threaded connections between packages, and internal threads used to seal the waste cavity, are common oilfield types. Two types of fill ports are proposed: flask-type and internal-flush. All four package design concepts would withstand hydrostatic pressure of 9,600 psi, with factor safety 2.0. The combined loading condition includes axial tension and compression from the weight of a string or stack of packages in the disposal borehole, either during lower and emplacement of a string, or after stacking of multiple packages emplaced singly. Combined loading also includes bending that may occur during emplacement, particularly for a string of packages threaded together. Flask-type packages would be fabricated and heat-treated, if necessary, before loading waste. The fill port would be narrower than the waste cavity inner diameter, so the flask type is suitable for directly loading bulk granular waste, or loading slim waste canisters (e.g., containing Cs/Sr capsules) that fit through the port. The fill port would be sealed with a tapered, threaded plug, with a welded cover plate (welded after loading). Threaded connections between packages and between packages and a drill string, would be standard drill pipe threads. The internal flush packaging concepts would use semi-flush oilfield tubing, which is internally flush but has a slight external upset at the joints. This type of tubing can be obtained with premium, low

  10. Breakthroughs in Seismic and Borehole Characterization of Basalt Sequestration Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, E. C.; Hardage, Bob A.; McGrail, B. Peter; Davis, Klarissa N.

    2011-04-01

    Mafic continental flood basalts form a globally important, but under-characterized CO2 sequestration target. The Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in the northwestern U.S. is up to 5 km thick and covers over 168,000 km2. In India, flood basalts are 3 km thick and cover greater than 500,000 km2. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that the CRBG and other basalts react with formation water and super critical (sc) CO2 to precipitate carbonates, thus adding a potential mineral trapping mechanism to the standard trapping mechanisms of most other types of CO2 sequestration reservoirs. Brecciated tops of individual basalt flows in the CRBG form regional aquifers that locally have greater than 30% porosity and three Darcies of permeability. Porous flow tops are potential sites for sequestration of gigatons of scCO2 in areas where the basalts contain unpotable water and are at depths greater than 800 m. In this paper we report on the U.S. DOE Big Sky Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership surface seismic and borehole geophysical characterization that supports a field test of capacity, integrity, and geochemical reactivity of CRBG reservoirs in eastern Washington, U.S.A. Traditional surface seismic methods have had little success in imaging basalt features in on-shore areas where the basalt is thinly covered by sediment. Processing of the experimental 6.5 km, 5 line 3C seismic swath included constructing an elastic wavefield model, identifying and separating seismic wave modes, and processing the swath as a single 2D line. Important findings include: (1) a wide variety of shear wave energy modes swamp the P-wave seismic records; (2) except at very short geophone offsets, ground roll overprints P-wave signal; and (3) because of extreme velocity contrasts, P-wave events are refracted at incidence angles greater than 7-15 degrees. Subsequent removal of S-wave and other noise during processing resulted in tremendous improvement in image quality. The application of wireline

  11. Simple, affordable and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.

    2014-12-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. We here report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK, is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. Of these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A = autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference). The CORK-B (B = bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by ROV and utilises a hotstab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hotstab connection from beneath which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect pore water in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner. Instead of transferring data upon command using an acoustic modem, the MeBoPUPPI contains a pop-up telemetry with Iridium link

  12. Simple, affordable, and sustainable borehole observatories for complex monitoring objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Bergenthal, M.; Lange, M.; Fleischmann, T.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Seiter, C.; Wefer, G.

    2015-05-01

    Seafloor drill rigs are remotely operated systems that provide a cost-effective means to recover sedimentary records of the upper sub-seafloor deposits. Recent increases in their payload included downhole logging tools or autoclave coring systems. Here we report on another milestone in using seafloor rigs: the development and installation of shallow borehole observatories. Three different systems have been developed for the MARUM-MeBo (Meeresboden-Bohrgerat) seafloor drill, which is operated by MARUM, University of Bremen, Germany. A simple design, the MeBoPLUG, separates the inner borehole from the overlying ocean by using o-ring seals at the conical threads of the drill pipe. The systems are self-contained and include data loggers, batteries, thermistors and a differential pressure sensor. A second design, the so-called MeBoCORK (Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit), is more sophisticated and also hosts an acoustic modem for data transfer and, if desired, fluid sampling capability using osmotic pumps. In these MeBoCORKs, two systems have to be distinguished: the CORK-A (A stands for autonomous) can be installed by the MeBo alone and monitors pressure and temperature inside and above the borehole (the latter for reference); the CORK-B (B stands for bottom) has a higher payload and can additionally be equipped with geochemical, biological or other physical components. Owing to its larger size, it is installed by a remotely operated underwater vehicle (ROV) and utilises a hot-stab connection in the upper portion of the drill string. Either design relies on a hot-stab connection from beneath in which coiled tubing with a conical drop weight is lowered to couple to the formation. These tubes are fluid-saturated and either serve to transmit pore pressure signals or collect porewater in the osmo-sampler. The third design, the MeBoPUPPI (Pop-Up Pore Pressure Instrument), is similar to the MeBoCORK-A and monitors pore pressure and temperature in a self-contained manner

  13. Borehole-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Carole D.; Haeni, F.P.; Lane, Jr., John W.; White, Eric A.

    2002-01-01

    A borehole-geophysical investigation was conducted to help characterize the hydrogeology of the fractured-rock aquifer and the distribution of unconsolidated glacial deposits near the former landfill and chemical waste-disposal pits at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut. Eight bedrock boreholes near the landfill and three abandoned domestic wells located nearby were logged using conventional and advanced borehole-geophysical methods from June to October 1999. The conventional geophysical-logging methods included caliper, gamma, fluid temperature, fluid resistivity, and electromagnetic induction. The advanced methods included deviation, optical and acoustic imaging of the borehole wall, heat-pulse flowmeter, and directional radar reflection. Twenty-one shallow piezometers (less than 50-feet deep) were logged with gamma and electromagnetic induction tools to delineate unconsolidated glacial deposits. Five additional shallow bedrock wells were logged with conventional video camera, caliper, electromagnetic induction, and fluid resistivity and temperature tools. The rock type, foliation, and fracturing of the site were characterized from high-resolution optical-televiewer (OTV) images of rocks penetrated by the boreholes. The rocks are interpreted as fine- to medium-grained quartz-feldspar-biotite-garnet gneiss and schist with local intrusions of quartz diorite and pegmatite and minor concentrations of sulfide mineralization similar to rocks described as the Bigelow Brook Formation on regional geologic maps. Layers containing high concentrations of sulfide minerals appear as high electrical conductivity zones on electromagnetic-induction and borehole-radar logs. Foliation in the rocks generally strikes to the northeast-southwest and dips to the west, consistent with local outcrop observations. The orientation of foliation and small-scale gneissic layering in the rocks, however, varies locally and with depth in some of the boreholes. In two of the

  14. Observation and Scaling of Microearthquakes from TCDP Borehole Seismometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Ma, K.; Oye, V.; Tanaka, H.

    2009-12-01

    Microearthquakes with magnitude down to 0.5 were detected by the Taiwan Chelungpu-ault Drilling Project Borehole Seismometers (TCDPBHS). A location software (MIMO) was used to determine P- and S-wave onset times, incidence and azimuth angles for the locations of the microevents. Regardless of the large co-seismic slip of 12 m at the drill site during the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, our studies show very less seismicity near the drill site from the TCDPBHS recording. The microevents clustered at a depth of 8-10 km, where the 30 degree dipping of the Chelungpu thrust fault becomes flat to a decollement of the Taiwan fold-and-thrust tectonic structure. As a continuous GPS survey did not observe post-slip at the large slip region, and as no seismicity was observed near the drill site, we suggest that the thrust belt above the decollement during the interseismic period is locked. A Fluid Injection Test (FIT) pumping high pressure fluid into hole C with hole A as observation well was carried out at the TCDP boreholes in November 2006, and January, March and April 2007. Compared with background seismicity in November 2007, the observation did not show significant correlation of the FIT related seismicity, despite the distinct observations on the arrival of gas and chemical monitoring through FIT. It is possible that the injected fluid rate of FIT experiments is too deficient to trigger microevents. The low fluid rate indicated the low permeability of the fault zone. We also examined the scaling of the source parameters of the small earthquakes in stress drops and seismic moments. The source parameters of 150 microevents were examined from the source spectra using Brune ω-2 model for a constant Q model. The scaling of the magnitude to the Brune stress drop is a significant positive correlation. However, there has been a debate that this positive relationship might be biased for without Q correction. Fortunately, we had observed 65 clusters showing similar waveforms. The path

  15. Numerical Modeling of a Shallow Borehole Thermal Energy Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catolico, N.; Ge, S.; Lu, N.; McCartney, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    Borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) combined with solar thermal energy harvesting is an economic technological system to garner and store energy as well as an environmentally-sustainable alternative for the heating of buildings. The first community-scale BTES system in North America was installed in 2007 in the Drake Landing Solar Community (DLSC), about 35 miles south of Calgary, Canada. The BTES system involves direct circulation of water heated from solar thermal panels in the summer into a storage tank, after which it is circulate within an array of 144 closed-loop geothermal heat exchangers having a depth of 35 m and a spacing of 2.5 m. In the winter the circulation direction is reversed to supply heat to houses. Data collection over a six year period indicates that this system can supply more than 90% of the winter heating energy needs for 52 houses in the community. One major challenge facing the BTES system technology is the relatively low annual efficiency, i.e., the ratio of energy input and output is in the range of 15% to 40% for the system in Drake Landing. To better understand the working principles of BTES and to improve BTES performance for future applications at larger scales, a three-dimensional transient coupled fluid and heat transfer model is established using TOUGH2. The time-dependent injection temperatures and circulation rate measured over the six years of monitoring are used as model input. The simulations are calibrated using soil temperature data measured at different locations over time. The time-dependent temperature distributions within the borehole region agree well with the measured temperatures for soil with an intrinsic permeability of 10e-19 m2, an apparent thermal conductivity of 2.03 W/m°C, and a volumetric heat capacity of 2.31 MJ/m-3°C. The calibrated model serves as the basis for a sensitivity analysis of soil and operational parameters on BTES system efficiency preformed with TOUGH2. Preliminary results suggest 1) BTES

  16. Attenuation of free spheroidal oscillations of the Earth after the M = 9 Earthquake in Sumatra and the super-deep Earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk: I. the Admissible Q-factor range for the fundamental mode and overtones of the free spheroidal oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, S. M.; Molodenskaya, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    The problem of reconstructing the depth distribution of density and the depth and frequency dependences of the mechanical Q-factor in the Earth's mantle from the entire set of the present-day seismic and astrometric data on the travel times and periods of seismic waves and the amplitudes and phases of forced nutations is considered. The solution of the problem is refined by including the new data about the attenuation of the free oscillations of the Earth excited by the Sumatra earthquake ( M = 9) and super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk. The actual accuracy of the Q-factor is studied in the first part of the paper. To this end, we analyze (1) the convergence of the Q-factor estimated from the time series of different length shifted along the time axis and (2) the convergence of the results based on the different data. Since the accuracy of identifying all the periods and attenuation factors for the free oscillations from the Sumatra earthquake is significantly higher than for the earthquake with M = 9 in Japan, the data are only compared for the Sumatra and Okhotsk events. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is analyzed based on the records from different Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations including the station in Obninsk, the Kurchatov station in Kazakhstan, and the main ERM and MAJO stations in Japan. It is found that the highest SNR was observed in Obninsk. The inverse problem of reconstructing the density and Q-factor is solved for the frequency dependent real parts of the shear moduli with allowance for the most accurate data about the attenuation factors for the fundamental spheroidal modes of the free oscillations of the Earth.

  17. New developments in high resolution borehole seismology and their applications to reservoir development and management

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1997-08-01

    Single-well seismology, Reverse Vertical Seismic Profiles (VSP`s) and Crosswell seismology are three new seismic techniques that we jointly refer to as borehole seismology. Borehole seismic techniques are of great interest because they can obtain much higher resolution images of oil and gas reservoirs than what is obtainable with currently used seismic techniques. The quality of oil and gas reservoir management decisions depend on the knowledge of both the large and the fine scale features in the reservoirs. Borehole seismology is capable of mapping reservoirs with an order of magnitude improvement in resolution compared with currently used technology. In borehole seismology we use a high frequency seismic source in an oil or gas well and record the signal in the same well, in other wells, or on the surface of the earth.

  18. Methods and apparatus for use in detecting seismic waves in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    West, Phillip B.; Fincke, James R.; Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-05-23

    The invention provides methods and apparatus for detecting seismic waves propagating through a subterranean formation surrounding a borehole. In a first embodiment, a sensor module uses the rotation of bogey wheels to extend and retract a sensor package for selective contact and magnetic coupling to casing lining the borehole. In a second embodiment, a sensor module is magnetically coupled to the casing wall during its travel and dragged therealong while maintaining contact therewith. In a third embodiment, a sensor module is interfaced with the borehole environment to detect seismic waves using coupling through liquid in the borehole. Two or more of the above embodiments may be combined within a single sensor array to provide a resulting seismic survey combining the optimum of the outputs of each embodiment into a single data set.

  19. Importance of neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis in relatively dry, low-porosity rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Moxham, R.M.; Tanner, A.B.; Philbin, P.W.; Boynton, G.R.; Wager, R.E.

    1977-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of variations in the neutron energy distribution in borehole activation analysis, capture gamma-ray measurements were made in relatively dry, low-porosity gabbro of the Duluth Complex. Although sections of over a meter of solid rock were encountered in the borehole, there was significant fracturing with interstitial water leading to a substantial variation of water with depth in the borehole. The linear-correlation coefficients calculated for the peak intensities of several elements compared to the chemical core analyses were generally poor throughout the depth investigated. The data suggest and arguments are given which indicate that the variation of the thermal-to-intermediate-to-fast neutron flux density as a function of borehole depth is a serious source of error and is a major cause of the changes observed in the capture gamma-ray peak intensities. These variations in neutron energy may also cause a shift in the observed capture gamma-ray energy.

  20. Acoustic and optical borehole-wall imaging for fractured-rock aquifer studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.

    2004-01-01

    Imaging with acoustic and optical televiewers results in continuous and oriented 360?? views of the borehole wall from which the character, relation, and orientation of lithologic and structural planar features can be defined for studies of fractured-rock aquifers. Fractures are more clearly defined under a wider range of conditions on acoustic images than on optical images including dark-colored rocks, cloudy borehole water, and coated borehole walls. However, optical images allow for the direct viewing of the character of and relation between lithology, fractures, foliation, and bedding. The most powerful approach is the combined application of acoustic and optical imaging with integrated interpretation. Imaging of the borehole wall provides information useful for the collection and interpretation of flowmeter and other geophysical logs, core samples, and hydraulic and water-quality data from packer testing and monitoring. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Stanley H.

    1989-01-01

    Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth.

  2. Modifying Moveout-Based Anisotropic Spreading Correction for Borehole Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamimi, N.

    2015-12-01

    The higher signal-to-noise ratio of borehole seismic data compared to surface seismic data makes them suitable for amplitude-related analyses and reflection seismic imaging. However, sometimes removing undesirable effects from the amplitude information is necessary. Energy decay due to wavefront spreading (called geometrical spreading) is one of the effects that should be removed before amplitude analysis and imaging in exploration seismic, and it needs special considerations, where the subsurface medium is highly anisotropic. One of the successful surface seismic techniques to compensate for energy decay or amplitude distortion due to geometrical spreading is MASC (Moveout-Based Anisotropic Spreading Correction). However, this technique cannot be used for borehole seismic data easily and needs some modifications. Here, we modified this valuable technique for borehole seismic and applied it to a real field case study. The results show that the modified MASC technique can be applied to borehole seismic data easily with minimum subsurface velocity information.

  3. The effect of error in theoretical Earth tide on calibration of borehole strainmeters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langbein, John

    2010-01-01

    Since the installation of borehole strainmeters into the ground locally distorts the strain in the rock, these strainmeters require calibration from a known source which typically is the Earth tide. Consequently, the accuracy of the observed strain changes from borehole strainmeters depends upon the calibration derived from modeling the Earth tide. Previous work from the mid-1970s, which is replicated here, demonstrate that the theoretical tide can differ by 30% from the tide observed at surface-mounted, long-baseline strainmeters. In spite of possible inaccurate tidal models, many of the 74 borehole strainmeters installed since 2005 can be “calibrated”. However, inaccurate tidal models affect the amplitude and phase of observed transient strain changes which needs to be considered along with the precision of the data from the inherent drift of these borehole instruments. In particular, the error from inaccurate tidal model dominates the error budget in the observation of impulsive, sub-daily, strain-transients.

  4. Borehole data package for the 100-K area ground water wells, CY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, B.A.

    1994-12-27

    Borehole, hydrogeologic and geophysical logs, drilling, as-built diagrams, sampling, and well construction information and data for RCRA compliant groundwater monitoring wells installed in CY 1994 at the 100-K Basins.

  5. Borehole Gravity Measurements In The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. The borehole gravimetric densities matched the well logs, but the surface gradient was found to be 0.0040 mgal/m higher than expected. When the borehole observations are corrected for the observed free air gradient above ground, they produce densities which are nearly uniformly higher than log densities by about 0.07 gm/cm{sup 3}. These measurements require densities in the depth range .5 to 3 km, for a radius of a few kilometers around State 2-14 to be as dense as those found in State 2-14. Combining the borehole gravity and calculated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, we find that this densified zone covers much of a broad thermal anomaly to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

  6. Calibration models for density borehole logging - construction report

    SciTech Connect

    Engelmann, R.E.; Lewis, R.E.; Stromswold, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Two machined blocks of magnesium and aluminum alloys form the basis for Hanford`s density models. The blocks provide known densities of 1.780 {plus_minus} 0.002 g/cm{sup 3} and 2.804 {plus_minus} 0.002 g/cm{sup 3} for calibrating borehole logging tools that measure density based on gamma-ray scattering from a source in the tool. Each block is approximately 33 x 58 x 91 cm (13 x 23 x 36 in.) with cylindrical grooves cut into the sides of the blocks to hold steel casings of inner diameter 15 cm (6 in.) and 20 cm (8 in.). Spacers that can be inserted between the blocks and casings can create air gaps of thickness 0.64, 1.3, 1.9, and 2.5 cm (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 in.), simulating air gaps that can occur in actual wells from hole enlargements behind the casing.

  7. Borehole-inclusion stressmeter measurements in bedded salt

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.W.; Ames, E.S.

    1980-07-01

    Sandia purchased borehole-inclusion stressmeters from a commercial supplier to measure in situ stress changes in bedded salt. However, the supplied stressmeters were difficult to set in place and gave erratic results in bedded salt. These problems were overcome with a new extended platen design. Also a straingaged transducer was designed which can be read with a conventional data logger. Due to the nonlinear behavior of bedded salt under uniaxial loading, a new empirical calibration scheme was devised. In essence, the stressmeters are calibrated as force transducers and this calibration curve is then used to determine the relationship between uniaxial stress changes in bedded salt and the gage's output. The stressmeter and calibration procedures have been applied under mine conditions and produced viable results. Future work will involve finite element analysis to calculate the observed behavior of the stressmeters. The response of the stressmeters in bedded salt is neither that of a true stressmeter or of a true strainmeter. However, repeatable calibrations make the gages very useful.

  8. A novel muon detector for borehole density tomography

    DOE PAGES

    Bonneville, Alain; Kouzes, Richard T.; Yamaoka, Jared; ...

    2017-02-01

    Muons can be used to image the density of materials through which they pass, including geological structures. Subsurface applications of the technology include tracking fluid migration during injection or production, with increasing concern regarding such timely issues as induced seismicity or chemical leakage into aquifers. Current density monitoring options include gravimetric data collection and active or passive seismic surveys. One alternative, or complement, to these methods is the development of a muon detector that is sufficiently compact and robust for deployment in a borehole. Such a muon detector can enable imaging of density structure to monitor small changes in densitymore » – a proxy for fluid migration – at depths up to 1500 m. Such a detector has been developed, and Monte Carlo modeling methods applied to simulate the anticipated detector response. Testing and measurements using a prototype detector in the laboratory and shallow underground laboratory demonstrated robust response. Lastly, a satisfactory comparison with a large drift tube-based muon detector is also presented.« less

  9. 24-CHANNEL GEOPHONE ARRAY FOR HORIZONTAL OR VERTICAL BOREHOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Erik C. Westman

    2003-10-24

    Improved ground-imaging capabilities have enormous potential to increase energy, environmental, and economic benefits by improving exploration accuracy and reducing energy consumption during the mining cycle. Seismic tomography has been used successfully to monitor and evaluate geologic conditions ahead of a mining face. A primary limitation to existing seismic tomography, however, is the placement of sensors. The goal of this project is to develop an array of 24 seismic sensors capable of being mounted in either a vertical or horizontal borehole. Development of this technology reduces energy usage in excavation, transportation, ventilation, and processing phases of the mining operation because less waste is mined and the mining cycle suffers fewer interruptions. This new technology benefits all types of mines, including metal/nonmetal, coal, and quarrying. The primary research tasks focused on sensor placement method, sensor housing and clamping design, and cabling and connector selection. An initial design is described in the report. Following assembly, a prototype was tested in the laboratory as well as at a surface stone quarry. Data analysis and tool performance were used for subsequent design modifications. A final design is described, of which several components are available for patent application. Industry partners have shown clear support for this research and demonstrated an interest in commercialization following project completion.

  10. Analysis of induced temperature anomalies along borehole heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Michael; Schelenz, Sophie; Stollberg, Reiner; Gossel, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Over the last years, the thermal use of the shallow subsurface for heat generation, cooling, and thermal energy storage has increased. However, the injection or extraction of heat potentially drives changes in the subsurface temperature regime; especially in urban areas. The presented case study investigates the intensive use of borehole heat exchangers (BHE) and their potential thermal impacts on subsurface temperatures, as well as thermal interactions between individual BHE's for a residential neighborhood in Cologne, Germany. Based on on-site subsurface parameterization, a 3D subsurface model was designed, using the finite element software FEFLOW (DHI WASY). The model contains five BHE, extracting 8.2 kW, with a maximum BHE depth of 38 m, whereby the thickness of the unsaturated zone is 22 m. The simulated time span is 10 years. This study focusses on two questions: How will different BHE arrangements vary in terms of temperature plume formation and potential system interaction and what is the influence of seasonal subsurface heat storage on soil and ground water temperatures.

  11. In-well hydraulics of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter

    SciTech Connect

    Dinwiddie, C.L.; Foley, N.A.; Molz, F.J.

    1999-03-01

    Previous studies have suggested that head losses associated with the application of the electromagnetic borehole flowmeter (EBF) can have important and detrimental effects on the use of the instrument for measurement of hydraulic conductivity (K) profiles. Head losses associated with flow through the meter may cause bypass flow around the packer if the well is gravel packed. In any type of well, changing head losses with meter position can cause changes in flow into the well that are not related directly to the K distribution. Such flow changes, or redistribution, can cause errors in the calculation of the K profile. Numerical simulations, based on measured head losses, indicate that bypass flow in gravel packed systems increases with increasing flow rate through the meter, increasing gravel pack conductivity, and increasing gravel pack thickness. Ideally, the EBF should not be used in gravel packed wells, due to the occurrence of bypass flow. Investigations into the flow redistribution phenomenon indicate that the top portion of the aquifer is where the greatest over-estimation of K occurs. The portion of the well below the flowmeter is isolated from the observed drawdown as measured from the surface. In this region, the well experiences a reduced drawdown, which differs from the observed drawdown by an amount equal to the head loss at that meter position. Flow redistribution causes a more pronounced effect in more highly conductive mediums and may be almost negligible in mediums of low conductivity.

  12. An acousto-electric effect logging detector in boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junqiang; Ju, Xiaodong; Men, Baiyong; Zhao, Honglin; Qiao, Wenxiao; Duan, Wenxing

    2017-03-01

    An acousto-electric effect logging detector in boreholes is introduced. The detector can measure the first and second type of acousto-electric effect in the downhole. The acoustic transducer of the detector is composed of a transmitting transducer T and a receiving transducer array R1, R2, and R3, and the electrode is composed of power supply electrodes A and B, and measuring electrodes E1, E2, E3, and E4. The minimum spacing between the transmitter transducer T and the receiving transducer R1 is 2500 mm, and the spacing between the receiving transducer is 300 mm. The spacing of the power supply electrode is 1500 mm, and the spacing of the measuring electrode is 300 mm. The detector circuits include the acoustic transducer excitation circuit, power supply electrode excitation circuit, acoustic signal-processing and acquisition circuit, electrical signal-processing and acquisition circuit, system main control circuit, and telemetry interface circuit. Laboratory and field tests were conducted. The sound pressure of the acoustic transmitting transducer at 1 m is up to 70 kPa. The typical acousto-electric logging signal has been observed from the field test in the downhole formation.

  13. Advances in directional borehole radar data analysis and visualization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.V.G.; Brown, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is developing a directional borehole radar (DBOR) tool for mapping fractures, lithologic changes, and underground utility and void detection. An important part of the development of the DBOR tool is data analysis and visualization, with the aim of making the software graphical user interface (GUI) intuitive and easy to use. The DBOR software system consists of a suite of signal and image processing routines written in Research Systems' Interactive Data Language (IDL). The software also serves as a front-end to many widely accepted Colorado School of Mines Center for Wave Phenomena (CWP) Seismic UNIX (SU) algorithms (Cohen and Stockwell, 2001). Although the SU collection runs natively in a UNIX environment, our system seamlessly emulates a UNIX session within a widely used PC operating system (MicroSoft Windows) using GNU tools (Noer, 1998). Examples are presented of laboratory data acquired with the prototype tool from two different experimental settings. The first experiment imaged plastic pipes in a macro-scale sand tank. The second experiment monitored the progress of an invasion front resulting from oil injection. Finally, challenges to further development and planned future work are discussed.

  14. Multi-scale groundwater modelling for the assessment of sustainable borehole yields under drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Kirsty; Butler, Adrian; Jackson, Chris; Jones, Mike

    2014-05-01

    A new multi-scale groundwater modelling methodology is presented for simulating abstraction boreholes in regional groundwater models. This provides a robust tool for assessing the sustainable yield of supply boreholes, thus improving our understanding of groundwater availability during droughts. The yield of an abstraction well is dependent on a number of factors. These include antecedent recharge and groundwater conditions; the properties of a regional aquifer system; requirements on a groundwater system to maintain river flows or sites of ecological significance; the properties of an individual abstraction borehole; small-scale aquifer heterogeneity around a borehole; the rate of abstraction; and the way in which neighboring abstraction boreholes interact. These factors can all be represented in the multi-scale model, which couples a small-scale radial flow model of an abstraction borehole with a regional-scale groundwater model. The regional groundwater model, ZOOMQ3D, represents the large-scale groundwater system, including lateral and vertical aquifer heterogeneity, rivers, and spatially varying recharge. The 3D radial flow model, SPIDERR, represents linear and non-linear flow to a borehole, local vertical heterogeneity, well storage and pump location. The multi-scale model is applied to a supply borehole (operated by Thames Water) located in the Chalk aquifer within the catchment of the River Thames in southern England. Groundwater abstraction from the Chalk aquifer accounts for 40-70% of the total public water supply in this region. Drought is a recurring feature of the UK climate, and in particular the south and east of England. Since 1850, nine major groundwater droughts have occurred, all of which lasted longer than one year. The most recent occurred in 2010-2012, during which seven water supply companies introduced water usage restrictions, affecting over 20 million people. The radial flow model is initially calibrated against pumping test data from the

  15. Using borehole flow logging to optimize hydraulic-test procedures in heterogeneous fractured aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, F.L.

    1995-01-01

    Hydraulic properties of heterogeneous fractured aquifers are difficult to characterize, and such characterization usually requires equipment-intensive and time-consuming applications of hydraulic testing in situ. Conventional coring and geophysical logging techniques provide useful and reliable information on the distribution of bedding planes, fractures and solution openings along boreholes, but it is often unclear how these locally permeable features are organized into larger-scale zones of hydraulic conductivity. New boreholes flow-logging equipment provides techniques designed to identify hydraulically active fractures intersecting boreholes, and to indicate how these fractures might be connected to larger-scale flow paths in the surrounding aquifer. Potential complications in interpreting flowmeter logs include: 1) Ambient hydraulic conditions that mask the detection of hydraulically active fractures; 2) Inability to maintain quasi-steady drawdowns during aquifer tests, which causes temporal variations in flow intensity to be confused with inflows during pumping; and 3) Effects of uncontrolled background variations in hydraulic head, which also complicate the interpretation of inflows during aquifer tests. Application of these techniques is illustrated by the analysis of cross-borehole flowmeter data from an array of four bedrock boreholes in granitic schist at the Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, research site. Only two days of field operations were required to unambiguously identify the few fractures or fracture zones that contribute most inflow to boreholes in the CO borehole array during pumping. Such information was critical in the interpretation of water-quality data. This information also permitted the setting of the available string of two packers in each borehole so as to return the aquifer as close to pre-drilling conditions as possible with the available equipment.

  16. Determining resistivity of a geological formation using circuitry located within a borehole casing

    DOEpatents

    Vail III, William Banning

    2006-01-17

    Geological formation resistivity is determined. Circuitry is located within the borehole casing that is adjacent to the geological formation. The circuitry can measure one or more voltages across two or more voltage measurement electrodes associated with the borehole casing. The measured voltages are used by a processor to determine the resistivity of the geological formation. A common mode signal can also be reduced using the circuitry.

  17. Closed form flow model of a damped slug test in a fractured bedrock borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, David W.; Lukas, William G.; Hinlein, Erich S.

    2015-10-01

    An existing closed form model is modified to describe the damped response of groundwater in a fractured bedrock borehole with variable apertures and dips to a slug test. The existing theory, which requires single sized horizontal fractures, is accurately calibrated by slug test data from three uncased bedrock boreholes in the Dedham Granite and an observation well screened just below the contact surface with a till drumlin. Apertures and dips vary however, so the ability of the modified theory to accommodate different sizes and inclinations improves upon the physical validity of its predecessor when fracture information accompanies slug test data. Geophysical logs identify a large number and dip of fractures in the uncased boreholes in the Dedham Granite in this regard. A lognormally distributed, horizontal aperture calibration of the slug tests in the uncased boreholes retains the accuracy of the single size model, and yields aperture statistics more consistent with literature values. The slug test in the screened observation well is accurately calibrated with the modified horizontal theory for discrete (two) sizes, based upon the average fracture spacing found in the uncased boreholes. All four results yield comparable compressibility estimates, which depend on fracture spacing but not size or dip. The calibrated aperture size and calculated fracture porosity and permeability decrease with length of the borehole into the Dedham Granite. The measured dip and aperture for flowing and nonflowing fractures in one of the boreholes accurately calibrates the modified theory. The inclusion of dip reduces the calibrated permeability because of the increased ellipsoidal area at the interface of the borehole and the inclined fractures.

  18. Quantification of Natural Gradient Flow Using Active Fiber Optic DTS in Sealed Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, T. I.; Parker, B. L.; Munn, J. D.; Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature has been used for many years to characterize flow in fractured rock systems. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was adopted by the oil/gas industry over two decades ago for monitoring processes in deep fractured rock environments. Improvements in DTS system resolutions, methodology advancements, and improved data processing techniques have caused recent popularity for shallow fractured rock hydrogeologic applications. A powerful advance in DTS methodology is the use of response data collected during active cable heating. When applied to borehole applications active heating creates a thermal disequilibrium in the aquifer system that enhances the detection of groundwater flow. Active DTS has been applied to open borehole environments; however, characterization methods based on open borehole measurements are limited in that only the effects of unnatural flow (i.e. vertical cross-connection and redistribution of flow creating local, induced flows) can be observed. To characterize natural gradient flow processes borehole effects need to be minimized.The literature shows borehole sealing using flexible impervious fabric liners creates a static water column in the well that eliminates the negative effects of cross-connection. Measurements in this sealed environment have been shown by others to be representative of natural gradient flow conditions, rather than the conditions created by the borehole short circuiting units or fractures with varying hydraulic head. A new method for flow system characterization using active DTS in sealed boreholes has been developed with excellent prospects for quantitation of natural gradient groundwater fluxes and related hydraulic properties. This project demonstrates the utility of using an analytical solution for calculating apparent thermal conductivities and natural gradient groundwater fluxes at depth-discrete intervals observed continuously along a borehole using active DTS. Groundwater flux data can then be

  19. Impedance loading and radiation of finite aperture multipole sources in fluid filled boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geerits, Tim W.; Kranz, Burkhard

    2017-04-01

    In the exploration of oil and gas finite aperture multipole borehole acoustic sources are commonly used to excite borehole modes in a fluid-filled borehole surrounded by a (poro-) elastic formation. Due to the mutual interaction of the constituent sources and their immediate proximity to the formation it has been unclear how and to what extent these effects influence radiator performance. We present a theory, based on the equivalent surface source formulation for fluid-solid systems that incorporates these 'loading' effects and allows for swift computation of the multipole source dimensionless impedance, the associated radiator motion and the resulting radiated wave field in borehole fluid and formation. Dimensionless impedance results are verified through a comparison with finite element modeling results in the cases of a logging while drilling tool submersed in an unbounded fluid and a logging while drilling tool submersed in a fluid filled borehole surrounded by a fast and a slow formation. In all these cases we consider a monopole, dipole and quadrupole excitation, as these cases are relevant to many borehole acoustic applications. Overall, we obtain a very good agreement.

  20. Permeameter studies of water flow through cement and clay borehole seals in granite, basalt and tuff

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.L.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1986-10-01

    Boreholes near a repository must be sealed to prevent rapid migration of radionuclide-contaminated water to the accessible environment. The objective of this research is to assess the performance of borehole seals under laboratory conditions, particularly with regard to varying stress fields. Flow through a sealed borehole is compared with flow through intact rock. Cement or bentonite seals have been tested in granite, basalt, and welded tuff. The main conclusion is that under laboratory conditions, existing commercial materials can form high quality seals. Triaxial stress changes about a borehole do not significantly affect seal performance if the rock is stiffer than the seal. Temperature but especially moisture variations (drying) significantly degrade the quality of cement seals. Performance partially recovers upon resaturation. A skillfully sealed borehole may be as impermeable as the host rock. Analysis of the influence of relative seal-rock permeabilities shows that a plug with permeability one order of magnitude greater than that of the rock results in a flow increase through the hole and surrounding rock of only 1-1/2 times compared to the undisturbed rock. Since a borehole is only a small part of the total rock mass, the total effect is even less pronounced. The simplest and most effective way to decrease flow through a rock-seal system is to increase the seal length, assuming it can be guaranteed that no dominant by-pass flowpath through the rock exists.

  1. Development of the Borehole 2-D Seismic Tomography Software Using MATLAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, A. D.; Syahputra, A.; Fatkhan, F.; Sule, R.; Hendriyana, A.

    2011-12-01

    We developed 2-D borehole seismic tomography software that we called "EARTHMAX-2D TOMOGRAPHY" to image subsurface physical properties including P-wave and S-wave velocities between two boreholes. We used Graphic User Interface (GUI) facilities of MATLAB programming language to create the software. In this software, we used travel time of seismic waves from source to receiver by using pseudo bending ray tracing method as input for tomography inversion. We can also set up a model parameterization, initial velocity model, ray tracing processes, conduct borehole seismic tomography inversion, and finally visualize the inversion results. The LSQR method was applied to solve of tomography inversion solution. We provided the Checkerboard Test Resolution (CTR) to evaluate the model resolution of the tomography inversion. As validation of this developed software, we tested it for geotechnical purposes. We then conducted data acquisition in the "ITB X-field" that is located on ITB campus. We used two boreholes that have a depth of 39 meters. Seismic wave sources were generated by impulse generator and sparker and then they were recorded by borehole hydrophone string type 3. Later on, we analyzed and picked seismic arrival time as input for tomography inversion. As results, we can image the estimated weathering layer, sediment layer, and basement rock in the field depicted by seismic wave structures. More detailed information about the developed software will be presented. Keywords: borehole, tomography, earthmax-2D, inversion

  2. Evaluation of borehole geophysical logs at the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund site, Mercer County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McAuley, Steven D.

    2004-01-01

    On April 14?15, 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in five open-borehole wells in and adjacent to the Sharon Steel Farrell Works Superfund Site, Mercer County, Pa. Geophysical-logging tools used included caliper, natural gamma, single-point resistance, fluid temperature, and heatpulse flowmeter. The logs were used to determine casing depth, locate subsurface fractures, identify water-bearing fractures, and identify and measure direction and rate of vertical flow within the borehole. The results of the geophysical logging were used to determine the placement of borehole screens, which allows monitoring of water levels and sampling of water-bearing zones so that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency can conduct an investigation of contaminant movement in the fractured bedrock. Water-bearing zones were identified in three of five boreholes at depths ranging from 46 to 119 feet below land surface. Borehole MR-3310 (MW03D) showed upward vertical flow from 71 to 74 feet below land surface to a receiving zone at 63-68 feet below land surface, permitting potential movement of ground water, and possibly contaminants, from deep to shallow zones. No vertical flow was measured in the other four boreholes.

  3. Cyclic high temperature heat storage using borehole heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boockmeyer, Anke; Delfs, Jens-Olaf; Bauer, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The transition of the German energy supply towards mainly renewable energy sources like wind or solar power, termed "Energiewende", makes energy storage a requirement in order to compensate their fluctuating production and to ensure a reliable energy and power supply. One option is to store heat in the subsurface using borehole heat exchangers (BHEs). Efficiency of thermal storage is increasing with increasing temperatures, as heat at high temperatures is more easily injected and extracted than at temperatures at ambient levels. This work aims at quantifying achievable storage capacities, storage cycle times, injection and extraction rates as well as thermal and hydraulic effects induced in the subsurface for a BHE storage site in the shallow subsurface. To achieve these aims, simulation of these highly dynamic storage sites is performed. A detailed, high-resolution numerical simulation model was developed, that accounts for all BHE components in geometrical detail and incorporates the governing processes. This model was verified using high quality experimental data and is shown to achieve accurate simulation results with excellent fit to the available experimental data, but also leads to large computational times due to the large numerical meshes required for discretizing the highly transient effects. An approximate numerical model for each type of BHE (single U, double U and coaxial) that reduces the number of elements and the simulation time significantly was therefore developed for use in larger scale simulations. The approximate numerical model still includes all BHE components and represents the temporal and spatial temperature distribution with a deviation of less than 2% from the fully discretized model. Simulation times are reduced by a factor of ~10 for single U-tube BHEs, ~20 for double U-tube BHEs and ~150 for coaxial BHEs. This model is then used to investigate achievable storage capacity, injection and extraction rates as well as induced effects for

  4. Application of borehole geophysics in defining the wellhead protection area for a fractured crystalline bedrock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vernon, J.H.; Paillet, F.L.; Pedler, W.H.; Griswold, W.J.

    1993-01-01

    Wellbore geophysical techniques were used to characterize fractures and flow in a bedrock aquifer at a site near Blackwater Brook in Dover, New Hampshire. The primary focus ofthis study was the development of a model to assist in evaluating the area surrounding a planned water supply well where contaminants introduced at the land surface might be induced to flow towards a pumping well. Well logs and geophysical surveys used in this study included lithologic logs based on examination of cuttings obtained during drilling; conventional caliper and natural gamma logs; video camera and acoustic televiewer surveys; highresolution vertical flow measurements under ambient conditions and during pumping; and borehole fluid conductivity logs obtained after the borehole fluid was replaced with deionized water. These surveys were used for several applications: 1) to define a conceptual model of aquifer structure to be used in groundwater exploration; 2) to estimate optimum locations for test and observation wells; and 3) to delineate a wellhead protection area (WHPA) for a planned water supply well. Integration of borehole data with surface geophysical and geological mapping data indicated that the study site lies along a northeast-trending intensely fractured contact zone between surface exposures of quartz monzonite and metasedimentary rocks. Four of five bedrock boreholes at the site were estimated to produce more than 150 gallons per minute (gpm) (568 L/min) of water during drilling. Aquifer testing and other investigations indicated that water flowed to the test well along fractures parallel to the northeast-trending contact zone and along other northeast and north-northwest-trending fractures. Statistical plots of fracture strikes showed frequency maxima in the same northeast and north-northwest directions, although additional maxima occurred in other directions. Flowmeter surveys and borehole fluid conductivity logging after fluid replacement were used to identify water

  5. Multimode Rayleigh wave profiling by hybrid surface and borehole methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Shibin; Ashlock, Jeramy C.

    2014-05-01

    To improve the accuracy of shallow seismic shear wave velocity profiling, we propose a minimally invasive hybrid surface-and-borehole method that enhances the detection of higher modes of Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The new method combines techniques from the multichannel analysis of surface waves and multichannel simulation with one receiver (MSOR) methods to record components of Rayleigh wave motion at the surface as well as at shallow depths within the soil mass. The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated through computational and experimental studies. We show that individual modes of Rayleigh waves can exhibit different dominant depths at which their motion is most significant. This is demonstrated through a numerical study of eigenvectors of layered soil profiles via the stiffness matrix method, and confirmed by a finite element simulation of the apparent dispersion trends recorded at shallow depths using MSOR. Upon superimposing dispersion data recorded via the receivers at various depths, the resulting multimode dispersion data is used in a multi-objective inverse analysis, for which the difference between experimental and theoretical dispersive phase-velocity spectra are minimized for multiple modes simultaneously. In the numerical study, we demonstrate that the resulting inverted profiles and theoretical dispersion data have improved accuracy relative to single-mode inversion. Preliminary field tests are performed using the new hybrid method, and the results are shown to support the conclusions of the numerical study and confirm the feasibility of the proposed technique. Although the use of multiple modes in surface wave testing is not new, the proposed hybrid method can provide more accurate and complete multimodal dispersion data than achieved with surface-only Rayleigh wave methods. As a result, errors because of misidentification or partial measurement of higher modes may be minimized, thus reducing statistical uncertainty in the

  6. Borehole geophysics applied to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keys, W.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this manual is to provide hydrologists, geologists, and others who have the necessary background in hydrogeology with the basic information needed to apply the most useful borehole-geophysical-logging techniques to the solution of problems in ground-water hydrology. Geophysical logs can provide information on the construction of wells and on the character of the rocks and fluids penetrated by those wells, as well as on changes in the character of these factors over time. The response of well logs is caused by petrophysical factors, by the quality, temperature, and pressure of interstitial fluids, and by ground-water flow. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of analog records and computer analysis of digitized logs are used to derive geohydrologic information. This information can then be extrapolated vertically within a well and laterally to other wells using logs. The physical principles by which the mechanical and electronic components of a logging system measure properties of rocks, fluids, and wells, as well as the principles of measurement, must be understood if geophysical logs are to be interpreted correctly. Plating a logging operation involves selecting the equipment and the logs most likely to provide the needed information. Information on well construction and geohydrology is needed to guide this selection. Quality control of logs is an important responsibility of both the equipment operator and the log analyst and requires both calibration and well-site standardization of equipment. Logging techniques that are widely used in ground-water hydrology or that have significant potential for application to this field include spontaneous potential, resistance, resistivity, gamma, gamma spectrometry, gamma-gamma, neutron, acoustic velocity, acoustic televiewer, caliper, and fluid temperature, conductivity, and flow. The following topics are discussed for each of these techniques: principles and instrumentation, calibration and standardization

  7. Borehole dilatometer installation, operation, and maintenance at sites in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myren, G.D.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Mueller, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In response to concerns about the potential hazard of Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii, the USGS began efforts in 1998 to add four high-resolution borehole sites. Located at these sites are; strainmeters, tiltmeters, seismometers, accelerometers and other instrumentation. These instruments are capable of providing continuous monitoring of the magma movement under Mauna Loa. Each site was planned to provide multi-parameter monitoring of volcanic activity. In June of 2000, a contract was let for the core drilling of three of these four sites. They are located at Hokukano (west side of Mauna Loa) above Captain Cook, Hawaii; at Mauna Loa Observatory (11,737 feet near the summit), and at Mauna Loa Strip Road (east side of Mauna Loa). Another site was chosen near Halema'uma u' and Kilauea's summit, in the Keller deep well. (See maps). The locations of these instruments are shown in Figure 1 with their latitude and longitude in Table 1. The purpose of this network is to monitor crustal deformation associated with volcanic intrusions and earthquakes on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes. This report describes the methods used to locate sites, install dilatometers, other instrumentation, and telemetry. We also provide a detailed description of the electronics used for signal amplification and telemetry, plus techniques used for instrument maintenance. Instrument sites were selected in regions of hard volcanic rock where the expected signals from magmatic activity were calculated to be a maximum and the probability of earthquakes with magnitude 4 or greater is large. At each location, an attempt was made to separate tectonic and volcanic signals from known noise sources for each instrument type.

  8. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196, and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28, and 4.52. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the second of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. Finally, the measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared with a nearby borehole drilled in 1993, 299- W10-196, through the tank T-106 leak plume.

  9. Description of borehole geophysical and geologist logs, Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Low, Dennis J.; Conger, Randall W.

    2003-01-01

    Between October 2002 and January 2003, geophysical logging was conducted in six boreholes at the Berks Sand Pit Superfund Site, Longswamp Township, Berks County, Pa., to determine (1) the waterproducing zones, water-receiving zones, zones of vertical borehole flow, orientation of fractures, and borehole and casing depth; and (2) the hydraulic interconnection between the six boreholes and the site extraction well. The boreholes range in depth from 61 to 270 feet. Geophysical logging included collection of caliper, natural-gamma, single-point-resistance, fluid-temperature, fluid-flow, and acoustic-televiewer logs. Caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs were used to locate fractures, joints, and weathered zones. Inflections on fluid-temperature and single-point-resistance logs indicated possible water-bearing fractures, and flowmeter measurements verified these locations. Single-point-resistance, natural-gamma, and geologist logs provided information on stratigraphy. Flowmeter measurements were conducted while the site extraction well was pumping and when it was inactive to determine the hydraulic connections between the extraction well and the boreholes. Borehole geophysical logging and heatpulse flowmetering indicate active flow in the boreholes. Two of the boreholes are in ground-water discharge areas, two boreholes are in ground-water recharge areas, and one borehole is in an intermediate regime. Flow was not determined in one borehole. Heatpulse flowmetering, in conjunction with the geologist logs, indicates highly weathered zones in the granitic gneiss can be permeable and effective transmitters of water, confirming the presence of a two-tiered ground-water-flow system. The effort to determine a hydraulic connection between the site extraction well and six logged boreholes was not conclusive. Three boreholes showed decreases in depth to water after pumping of the site extraction well; in two boreholes, the depth to water increased. One borehole was cased its

  10. Insights into aquifer vulnerability and potential recharge zones from the borehole response to barometric pressure changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Araby, Mahmoud; Odling, Noelle; Clark, Roger; West, Jared

    2010-05-01

    Borehole water levels fluctuate in response to deformation of the surrounding aquifer caused by surface loading due to barometric pressure or strain caused by Earth and ocean tides. The magnitude and nature of this response mainly depend on the hydraulic properties of the aquifer and overlying units and borehole design. Thus water level responses reflect the effectiveness of a confining unit as a protective layer against aquifer contamination (and therefore groundwater vulnerability) and to potential aquifer recharge/discharge zones. In this study, time series of borehole water levels and barometric pressure are being investigated using time series analysis and signal processing techniques with the aim of developing a methodology for assessing recharge/discharge distribution and groundwater vulnerability in the confined/semi-confined part of the Chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire, UK. The chalk aquifer in East Yorkshire is an important source for industrial and domestic water supply. The aquifer water quality is threatened by surface pollution particularly by nitrates from agricultural fertilizers. The confined/semi-confined part of this aquifer is covered by various types of superficial deposits resulting in a wide range of the aquifer's degree of confinement. A number of boreholes have been selected for monitoring to cover all these various types of confining units. Automatic pressure transducers are installed to record water levels and barometric pressure measurements at each borehole on 15 minutes recording intervals. In strictly confined aquifers, borehole water level response to barometric pressure is an un-drained instantaneous response and is a constant fraction of the barometric pressure changes. This static confined constant is called the barometric efficiency which can be estimated simply by the slope of a regression plot of water levels versus barometric pressure. However, in the semi confined aquifer case this response is lagged due to water movement

  11. The derivation of an anisotropic velocity model from combined surface and borehole seismic experiments at the COSC-1 borehole, central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Helge; Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Buske, Stefan; Giese, Rüdiger; Juhlin, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved example of a Paleozoic continent-continent collision, where the surface geology in combination with geophysical data provide control of the geometry of parts of the Caledonian structure. The project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) investigates the structure and physical conditions of the orogen units and the underlying basement with two approximately 2.5 km deep fully cored boreholes in western Jämtland, central Sweden. In 2014 the COSC-1 borehole was successfully drilled through the Seve Nappe Complex. This unit, mainly consisting of gneisses, belongs to the so-called Middle Allochthons and has been ductilely deformed and transported during collisional orogeny. A major seismic survey was conducted in and around the COSC-1 borehole which comprised both seismic reflection and transmission experiments. Combined with core analysis and downhole logging, the survey will allow extrapolation of the structures away from the borehole. The survey consisted of three parts: 1) a high-resolution zero-offset Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP), 2) a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP in combination with three long offset surface receiver lines, and 3) a limited 3D seismic survey. Data from the multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP experiment and the long offset surface lines were used to derive a detailed velocity model around the borehole from the inversion of first arrival traveltimes. The comparison of velocities from these tomography results with a velocity function calculated from the zero-offset VSP revealed clear differences in velocities for mainly horizontally and vertically traveling waves. Therefore, an anisotropic VTI model was constructed, using the P-wave velocity function from zero-offset VSP and the Thomson parameters ɛ and δ. The latter were partly derived from ultrasonic lab measurements on COSC-1 core samples. Traveltimes were calculated with an anisotropic eikonal solver and serve as the basis

  12. Monitoring borehole flow dynamics using heated fiber optic DTS in a fractured rock aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, Thomas; Chalari, Athena; Parker, Beth; Munn, Jonathan; Mondanos, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Temperature profiles in fractured rock have long been used to identify and characterize flow in the rock formation or in the borehole. Fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) is a tool that allows for continuous borehole temperature profiling in space and time. Recent technology advancements in the spatial, temperature, and temporal resolutions of DTS systems now allow temperature profiling methods to offer improved insight into fractured rock hydrogeologic processes. An innovation in shallow borehole temperature logging utilizes high resolution DTS temperature profiling in sealed and heated boreholes to identify fractures with natural gradient groundwater flow by creating a thermal disequilibrium and monitoring the temperature response. This technique can also be applied to open well conditions to monitor borehole flow distributions caused by hydraulic perturbations such as pumping or injection. A field trial was conducted in Guelph, Ontario, Canada to determine the capabilities of heated DTS for flow monitoring in both open and sealed wells. Intelligent distributed acoustic sensing (iDAS) measurements for vertical seismic profiling were carried out simultaneously with the DTS measurements to assist with characterization of the fractured aquifer system. DTS heat pulse tests were conducted in a single well under sealed conditions for natural gradient flow measurements and open conditions to monitor flow distributions during injection and pumping. The results of these tests indicate that borehole flow distributions can be monitored using DTS and that active heating allows for further information about the hydrogeologic system to be determined than from the passive measurements alone. Depth-continuous transmissivity data from the borehole correlate well with the DTS testing results. DTS based flow monitoring systems may be useful for monitoring transient production and injection processes for a variety of applications including groundwater remediation

  13. Evolution of stress-induced borehole breakout in inherently anisotropic rock: Insights from discrete element modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, K.; Kwok, C. Y.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to better understand the mechanisms controlling the initiation, propagation, and ultimate pattern of borehole breakouts in shale formation when drilled parallel with and perpendicular to beddings. A two-dimensional discrete element model is constructed to explicitly represent the microstructure of inherently anisotropic rocks by inserting a series of individual smooth joints into an assembly of bonded rigid discs. Both isotropic and anisotropic hollow square-shaped samples are generated to represent the wellbores drilled perpendicular to and parallel with beddings at reduced scale. The isotropic model is validated by comparing the stress distribution around borehole wall and along X axis direction with analytical solutions. Effects of different factors including the particle size distribution, borehole diameter, far-field stress anisotropy, and rock anisotropy are systematically evaluated on the stress distribution and borehole breakout propagation. Simulation results reveal that wider particle size distribution results in the local stress perturbations which cause localization of cracks. Reduction of borehole diameter significantly alters the crack failure from tensile to shear and raises the critical pressure. Rock anisotropy plays an important role on the stress state around wellbore which lead to the formation of preferred cracks under hydrostatic stress. Far-field stress anisotropy plays a dominant role in the shape of borehole breakout when drilled perpendicular to beddings while a secondary role when drilled parallel with beddings. Results from this study can provide fundamental insights on the underlying particle-scale mechanisms for previous findings in laboratory and field on borehole stability in anisotropic rock.

  14. Reference design and operations for deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrick, Courtney Grant; Brady, Patrick Vane; Pye, Steven; Arnold, Bill Walter; Finger, John Travis; Bauer, Stephen J.

    2011-10-01

    A reference design and operational procedures for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste in deep boreholes have been developed and documented. The design and operations are feasible with currently available technology and meet existing safety and anticipated regulatory requirements. Objectives of the reference design include providing a baseline for more detailed technical analyses of system performance and serving as a basis for comparing design alternatives. Numerous factors suggest that deep borehole disposal of high-level radioactive waste is inherently safe. Several lines of evidence indicate that groundwater at depths of several kilometers in continental crystalline basement rocks has long residence times and low velocity. High salinity fluids have limited potential for vertical flow because of density stratification and prevent colloidal transport of radionuclides. Geochemically reducing conditions in the deep subsurface limit the solubility and enhance the retardation of key radionuclides. A non-technical advantage that the deep borehole concept may offer over a repository concept is that of facilitating incremental construction and loading at multiple perhaps regional locations. The disposal borehole would be drilled to a depth of 5,000 m using a telescoping design and would be logged and tested prior to waste emplacement. Waste canisters would be constructed of carbon steel, sealed by welds, and connected into canister strings with high-strength connections. Waste canister strings of about 200 m length would be emplaced in the lower 2,000 m of the fully cased borehole and be separated by bridge and cement plugs. Sealing of the upper part of the borehole would be done with a series of compacted bentonite seals, cement plugs, cement seals, cement plus crushed rock backfill, and bridge plugs. Elements of the reference design meet technical requirements defined in the study. Testing and operational safety assurance requirements are also defined. Overall

  15. Vadose Zone Characterization and Monitoring Beneath Waste Disposal Pits Using Horizontal Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, S. G.; Newman, B. D.; Broxton, D. E.

    2004-12-01

    Vadose zone characterization and monitoring immediately below landfills using horizontal boreholes is an emerging technology. However, this topic has received little attention in the peer-reviewed literature. The value of this approach is that activities are conducted below the waste, providing clear and rapid verification of containment. Here we report on two studies that examined the utility of horizontal boreholes for environmental characterization and monitoring under radioactive waste disposal pits. Both studies used core sample analyses to determine the presence of various radionuclides, organics, or metals. At one borehole site, water content and pore-water chloride concentrations were also used to interpret vadose zone behavior. At another site, we examined the feasibility of using flexible membrane liners in uncased boreholes for periodic monitoring. For this demonstration, these retrievable liners were air-injected into boreholes on multiple occasions carrying different combinations of environmental surveillance equipment. Instrument packages included a neutron logging device to measure volumetric water at regular intervals, high-absorbency collectors that wicked available water from borehole walls, or vent tubes that were used to measure air permeability and collect air samples. The flexible and retrievable liner system was an effective way to monitor water content and collect air permeability data. The high-absorbency collectors were efficient at extracting liquid water for contaminant analyses even at volumetric water contents below 10 percent, and revealed vapor-phase tritium migration at one disposal pit. Both demonstration studies proved that effective characterization and periodic monitoring in horizontal boreholes is both feasible and adaptable to many waste disposal problems and locations.

  16. Device and method for imaging of non-linear and linear properties of formations surrounding a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Paul A; Tencate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves; Guyer, Robert; Vu, Cung Khac; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-11-05

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method and an apparatus is disclosed for investigating material surrounding the borehole. The method includes generating a first low frequency acoustic wave within the borehole, wherein the first low frequency acoustic wave induces a linear and a nonlinear response in one or more features in the material that are substantially perpendicular to a radius of the borehole; directing a first sequence of high frequency pulses in a direction perpendicularly with respect to the longitudinal axis of the borehole into the material contemporaneously with the first acoustic wave; and receiving one or more second high frequency pulses at one or more receivers positionable in the borehole produced by an interaction between the first sequence of high frequency pulses and the one or more features undergoing linear and nonlinear elastic distortion due to the first low frequency acoustic wave to investigate the material surrounding the borehole.

  17. Summary of lithologic logging of new and existing boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, March 1994 to June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Geslin, J.K.; Moyer, T.C.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes lithologic logging of core from boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, conducted from March 1994 to June 1994. Units encountered during logging include Quaternary-Tertiary alluvium and colluvium, Tertiary Rainier Mesa Tuff, all units in the Tertiary Paintbrush Group, and Tertiary Calico Hills Formation. Logging results are presented in a table of contact depths for core from unsaturated zone neutron (UZN) boreholes and graphic lithologic logs for core from north ramp geology (NRG) boreholes.

  18. Drag-out effect of piezomagnetic signals due to a borehole: The Mogi source as an example

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasai, Y.; Johnston, M.J.S.; Tanaka, Y.; Mueller, R.; Hashimoto, T.; Utsugi, M.; Sakanaka, S.; Uyeshima, M.; Zlotnicki, J.; Yvetot, P.

    2007-01-01

    We show that using borehole measurements in tectonomagnetic experiments allows enhancement of the observed signals. New magnetic dipoles, which vary with stress changes from mechanical sources, are produced on the walls of the borehole. We evaluate such an effect quantitatively. First we formulate a general expression for the borehole effect due to any arbitrary source models. This is valid everywhere above the ground surface as well as within the cylindrical hole. A first-order approximate solution is given by a line of horizontal dipoles and vertical quadrupoles along the central axis of the borehole, which is valid above the ground surface and a slightly away (several tens of cm) from the top of the borehole. Selecting the Mogi model as an example, we numerically evaluated the borehole effect. It turned out that the vertical quadrupoles produce two orders of magnitude more intense magnetic field than the horizontal dipoles. The borehole effect is very local, i.e. detectable only within a few m from its outlet, since it is of the same order or more than the case without a borehole. However, magnetic lines of force cannot reach the ground surface from a deeper portion (> 10 m) of a borehole.

  19. Cross-borehole flow analysis to characterize fracture connections in the Melechov Granite, Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Williams, John H.; Urik, Joseph; Lukes, Joseph; Kobr, Miroslav; Mares, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Application of the cross-borehole flow method, in which short pumping cycles in one borehole are used to induce time-transient flow in another borehole, demonstrated that a simple hydraulic model can characterize the fracture connections in the bedrock mass between the two boreholes. The analysis determines the properties of fracture connections rather than those of individual fractures intersecting a single borehole; the model contains a limited number of adjustable parameters so that any correlation between measured and simulated flow test data is significant. The test was conducted in two 200-m deep boreholes spaced 21 m apart in the Melechov Granite in the Bohemian-Moravian Highland, Czech Republic. Transient flow was measured at depth stations between the identified transmissive fractures in one of the boreholes during short-term pumping and recovery periods in the other borehole. Simulated flows, based on simple model geometries, closely matched the measured flows. The relative transmissivity and storage of the inferred fracture connections were corroborated by tracer testing. The results demonstrate that it is possible to assess the properties of a fracture flow network despite being restricted to making measurements in boreholes in which a local population of discrete fractures regulates the hydraulic communication with the larger-scale aquifer system.

  20. Initial Borehole Accelerometer Array Observations Near the North Portal of the ESF

    SciTech Connect

    David von Seggern

    2005-08-17

    This report addresses observed ground motions at the site of the proposed surface facilities associated with the designated repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In 2003 an accelerometer array was installed at three boreholes on the pad of the north portal of the ESF (Exploratory Studies Facility) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, by the Nevada Seismological Laboratory (NSL). These boreholes, roughly 150 m apart and initially used for extensive geological and geophysical surveys, were ideal locations to measure the subsurface ground motions at the proposed site of surface facilities such as the Waste Handling Building. Such measurements will impact the design of the facilities. Accelerometer emplacement depths of approximately 15 m from the surface and then at the bottom of the boreholes, roughly 100 m, were chosen. Accelerometers were also placed at the surface next to the boreholes, for a total of nine accelerometers, all three-component. Data recording was accomplished with onsite recorders, with the onsite data transmitted to a central computer at a trailer on the pad. All requirements were met to qualify these data as ''Q''. Due to the lack of significant recordings during 2003, several low signal-to-noise (S/N) quality events were chosen for processing. The maximum horizontal peak ground acceleration (PGA) recorded at the pad was approximately 1 cm/s2 in 2003; the corresponding peak ground velocity (PGV) was approximately 0.01 cm/s. PGA and PGV were obtained at all nine accelerometers for most of these events, and spectra were computed. Ground motion amplitudes varied significantly across the boreholes. Higher ground amplifications were observed at the surface for the two boreholes that penetrated a thick amount ({approx} 30 m) of fill and Quaternary alluvium compared to the one that had less than 2 m of such. Additionally, surface-to-deep recordings showed as much as a factor of five amplification at these two boreholes. Signal

  1. A Fiber-Optic Borehole Seismic Vector Sensor System for Geothermal Site Characterization and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Paulsson, Bjorn N.P.; Thornburg, Jon A; He, Ruiqing

    2015-04-21

    Seismic techniques are the dominant geophysical techniques for the characterization of subsurface structures and stratigraphy. The seismic techniques also dominate the monitoring and mapping of reservoir injection and production processes. Borehole seismology, of all the seismic techniques, despite its current shortcomings, has been shown to provide the highest resolution characterization and most precise monitoring results because it generates higher signal to noise ratio and higher frequency data than surface seismic techniques. The operational environments for borehole seismic instruments are however much more demanding than for surface seismic instruments making both the instruments and the installation much more expensive. The current state-of-the-art borehole seismic instruments have not been robust enough for long term monitoring compounding the problems with expensive instruments and installations. Furthermore, they have also not been able to record the large bandwidth data available in boreholes or having the sensitivity allowing them to record small high frequency micro seismic events with high vector fidelity. To reliably achieve high resolution characterization and long term monitoring of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) sites a new generation of borehole seismic instruments must therefore be developed and deployed. To address the critical site characterization and monitoring needs for EGS programs, US Department of Energy (DOE) funded Paulsson, Inc. in 2010 to develop a fiber optic based ultra-large bandwidth clamped borehole seismic vector array capable of deploying up to one thousand 3C sensor pods suitable for deployment into ultra-high temperature and high pressure boreholes. Tests of the fiber optic seismic vector sensors developed on the DOE funding have shown that the new borehole seismic sensor technology is capable of generating outstanding high vector fidelity data with extremely large bandwidth: 0.01 – 6,000 Hz. Field tests have shown

  2. Estimation of the sustainable yields of boreholes in fractured rock formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tonder, G. J.; Botha, J. F.; Chiang, W.-H.; Kunstmann, H.; Xu, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The simplest way to derive an estimate for the sustainable yield of a borehole is to study the behaviour of drawdowns observed during a hydraulic (also known as a pumping test) of the borehole, through an appropriate conceptual model. The choice of this model is probably the most difficult choice that the analyst of such a hydraulic test has to make, since a wrong model can only lead to the wrong conclusions and failure of the borehole. This paper discusses a semi-analytical and two numerical methods that can be used to simplify the analyses of hydraulic tests in fractured rock formations. The first method, called the Method of Derivative Fitting (MDF), uses a new approach to identify the conceptual model needed in such analyses. This is achieved by characterizing the various flow periods in fractured rock aquifers with numerical approximations of the first logarithmic derivative of the observed drawdown (the derivative of the drawdown with respect to the logarithm of the time). Semi-analytical expressions are used to estimate the influence that boundaries may have on the observed drawdown and the sustainable yield of a borehole — the rate at which a borehole can be pumped without lowering the water level below a prescribed limit. An effort has also been made to quantify errors in the estimates introduced by uncertainties in the parameters, such as the transmissivity and storativity, through a Gaussian error propagation analysis. These approximations and the MDF, called the Flow Characteristics Method (FCM) have been implemented in a user-friendly EXCEL notebook, and used to estimate the sustainable yield of a borehole on the Campus Test Site at the University of the Orange Free State. The first numerical method, a two-dimensional radial flow model, is included here because it allows the user more freedom than the FCM, although it requires more information. One particular advantage of the method is that it allows one to obtain realistic estimates of the

  3. Determination of thermal dispersivity using a borehole heat exchanger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, V.; Bayer, P.; Bisch, G.; Braun, J.; Klaas, N.; Blum, P.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow geothermal energy is a popular option for the heating and air-conditioning of buildings, because it is a regenerative energy and modern heat-pump-based low-enthalpy geothermal systems are often economically advantageous to alternative technologies. Geothermal systems extract heat from the ground, or inject waste heat. This may cause temperature anomalies in the subsurface, and when shallow aquifers exist, these anomalies can be observed in the groundwater. To ensure an efficiently operating, and in the long-run, sustainable, geothermal system, a precise knowledge of the evolving temperature anomaly is desirable. When planning a system, among the subsurface heat transport processes, advection due to flowing groundwater is not often considered. Accordingly, the role of thermal dispersion is rarely inspected. To determine the thermal dispersion influencing the temperature plume around a borehole heat extractor (BHE), a geothermal lab experiment is performed in an artificial aquifer. The size of the aquifer is 9 m × 6 m × 4.5 m, it is heterogeneous and composed of five different sand layers. In the lab, a specific hydraulic gradient is imposed. A BHE is installed in this aquifer, and the exact size and temporal evolution of the induced temperature anomaly is measured by a monitoring network of over 100 temperature sensors. Based on the known hydraulic and thermal properties of the different sand layers, a high-resolution finite element model is built, which simulates the transient conditions during the experiment. This model contains a fully discretized BHE, with an integrated heat carrier fluid flow inside the U-pipes, located inside the BHE. Therefore, the model is able to consider the coupled processes between the temperature development of the heat carrier fluid and the heat propagation in the subsurface. Except the longitudinal and transversal dispersivity, all material properties and boundary conditions are known, thus the dispersivities can be

  4. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite (Mg,Mn2+)5(Ba, Sr)(PO4)4·8H2O from Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Theiss, Federick L.; Aarão, Guilherme Marcos; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    We have studied aspect of the molecular structure of the phosphate mineral rimkorolgite from Zheleznyi iron mine, Kovdor massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia, using SEM with EDX and vibrational spectroscopy. Qualitative chemical analysis shows a homogeneous phase, composed by P, Mg, Ba, Mn and Ca. Small amounts of Si were also observed. An intense Raman peak at 975 cm-1 is assigned to the PO43- ν1 symmetric stretching mode. The Raman band at 964 cm-1 is attributed to the HPO42- ν1 symmetric stretching vibration. Raman bands observed at 1016, 1035, 1052, 1073, 1105 and 1135 cm-1 are attributed to the ν3 antisymmetric stretching vibrations of the HPO42- and PO43- units. Complexity in the spectra of the phosphate bending region is observed. The broad Raman band at 3272 cm-1 is assigned to the water stretching vibration. Vibrational spectroscopy enables aspects on the molecular structure of rimkorolgite to be undertaken.

  5. In situ capture gamma-ray analysis of coal in an oversize borehole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mikesell, J.L.; Dotson, D.W.; Senftle, F.E.; Zych, R.S.; Koger, J.; Goldman, L.

    1983-01-01

    In situ capture gamma-ray analysis in a coal seam using a high resolution gamma-ray spectrometer in a close-fitting borehole has been reported previously. In order to check the accuracy of the method under adverse conditions, similar measurements were made by means of a small-diameter sonde in an oversize borehole in the Pittsburgh seam, Greene County, Pennsylvania. The hole was 5 times the diameter of the sonde, a ratio that substantially increased the contribution of water (hydrogen) to the total spectral count and reduced the size of the sample measured by the detector. The total natural count, the 40K,count, and the intensities of capture gamma rays from Si, Ca, H, and Al were determined as a function of depth above, through, and below the coal seam. From these logs, the depth and width of the coal seam and its partings were determined. Spectra were accumulated in the seam for 1 h periods by using neutron sources of different strengths. From the spectra obtained by means of several 252Cf neutron sources of different sizes, the ultimate elemental analysis and ash content were determined. The results were not as good as those obtained previously in a close-fitting borehole. However, the results did improve with successively larger source-to-detector distances, i.e.,as the count contribution due to hydrogen in the water decreased. It was concluded that in situ borehole analyses should be made in relatively close-fitting boreholes. ?? 1983.

  6. Using the Hypergeometric Model to analyze the buckling of drillstrings in curved boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Sampaio, J.H.B. Jr.; Eustes, A.W. III

    1998-12-31

    Current methodologies for analytically determining the onset of buckling of drillstrings within curved boreholes are limited. In this paper, the Hypergeometric Model is shown to be an effective model to determine drillstring buckling within curved boreholes. With the Hypergeometric Model, the analysis of drillstring buckling results in curves expressing the local buckling force versus the angle of inclination. The local buckling force alone, however, does not contain all the information required for a practical analysis. From the local buckling force curve, the positional buckling force is derived. The positional buckling force considers the distributed weight of the drillstring and the friction between the drillstring and the borehole wall. From this curve, the point of minimum resistance to buckling of the drillstring is determined. Using the local and positional buckling force curves, experimental results and simulations are presented. When multiple configurations exist (for example tapered drillstrings, tapered boreholes, multi-curved boreholes, or any combination of these), the analysis procedure uses superposition of two or more single configuration curves and a graphical algorithm. The Hypergeometric Model permits the optimization of the position of the crossing points (cross-over positioning, casing-shoe positioning, and change of curvature) to achieve extended reach with less risk and cost. The procedure for this model and examples are presented in this paper.

  7. An automatic recognition and parameter extraction method for structural planes in borehole image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chuanying; Zou, Xianjian; Han, Zengqiang; Wang, Yiteng; Wang, Jinchao

    2016-12-01

    As a breakthrough in borehole imaging technology, digital panoramic borehole camera technology has been widely employed. The high-resolution panoramic borehole images can accurately reproduce the geometric features of structural planes. However, the detection of these features is usually done manually, which is both time-consuming and introduces human errors. To solve this problem, this paper presents a method for the automatic recognition and parameter extraction of borehole geometric features of camera images. In this method, the image's gray and gradient level, and also their projection on the depth axis are used to identify the locations of structural planes. Afterwards, iterative matching is employed by using a template of sinusoidal function to search for structural planes in the identified image blocks. Finally, optimal sine curves are selected as the feature curves of structural planes, and their related parameters are converted into structural plane parameters required for engineering, such as their positions, dip directions, dip angles and fracture widths. The method can automatically identify all of structural planes throughout the whole borehole camera image in a continuous and rapid manner, and obtain the corresponding structural parameters. It has proven highly reliable, accurate and efficient.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Deep Borehole Disposal Performance: Influence of Regional Hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, E. R.; Hammond, G. E.; Freeze, G. A.; Hadgu, T.

    2015-12-01

    Long-term waste isolation at a deep borehole disposal facility is most favorable at a site where the crystalline basement is hydraulically isolated and groundwater flow is negligible. Site suitability guidelines include evidence of lack of fluid flow in basement, for example lack of significant topographic relief, or evidence of ancient and/or saline groundwater at depth. However, lack of local topographic relief does not preclude regional hydraulic gradients created by recharge and discharge at distant outcrops; and precisely because of hydraulic isolation, the crystalline basement has the potential to be over- or under-pressured relative to overlying units. In the absence of previous boreholes in the area of a potential site, hydraulic gradients at depth are difficult to predict, and the possibility remains that a deep borehole drilled for the disposal of waste will encounter vertical or lateral driving forces for fluid flow. This study asks the question: How large a driving force can be tolerated while still maintaining repository performance? We use PFLOTRAN (an open source, massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport code) and a 3-D model domain (representing a disposal borehole in crystalline basement overlain by sedimentary strata) to examine the influence of horizontal and vertical hydraulic gradients on the long-term performance of a deep borehole radioactive waste repository. Simulations include steady-state lateral hydraulic gradients and transient vertical hydraulic gradients, and predict radionuclide concentrations in an overlying aquifer to quantify the potential influence of regional hydraulic gradients on repository performance.

  9. Combination of surface and borehole seismic data for robust target-oriented imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; van der Neut, Joost; Arntsen, Børge; Wapenaar, Kees

    2016-05-01

    A novel application of seismic interferometry (SI) and Marchenko imaging using both surface and borehole data is presented. A series of redatuming schemes is proposed to combine both data sets for robust deep local imaging in the presence of velocity uncertainties. The redatuming schemes create a virtual acquisition geometry where both sources and receivers lie at the horizontal borehole level, thus only a local velocity model near the borehole is needed for imaging, and erroneous velocities in the shallow area have no effect on imaging around the borehole level. By joining the advantages of SI and Marchenko imaging, a macrovelocity model is no longer required and the proposed schemes use only single-component data. Furthermore, the schemes result in a set of virtual data that have fewer spurious events and internal multiples than previous virtual source redatuming methods. Two numerical examples are shown to illustrate the workflow and to demonstrate the benefits of the method. One is a synthetic model and the other is a realistic model of a field in the North Sea. In both tests, improved local images near the boreholes are obtained using the redatumed data without accurate velocities, because the redatumed data are close to the target.

  10. Geostatistical borehole image-based mapping of karst-carbonate aquifer pores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael Sukop,; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the character and spatial distribution of porosity in carbonate aquifers is important as input into computer models used in the calculation of intrinsic permeability and for next-generation, high-resolution groundwater flow simulations. Digital, optical, borehole-wall image data from three closely spaced boreholes in the karst-carbonate Biscayne aquifer in southeastern Florida are used in geostatistical experiments to assess the capabilities of various methods to create realistic two-dimensional models of vuggy megaporosity and matrix-porosity distribution in the limestone that composes the aquifer. When the borehole image data alone were used as the model training image, multiple-point geostatistics failed to detect the known spatial autocorrelation of vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes, which were only 10 m apart. Variogram analysis and subsequent Gaussian simulation produced results that showed a realistic conceptualization of horizontal continuity of strata dominated by vuggy megaporosity and matrix porosity among the three boreholes.

  11. Ar/Ar age data of muscovite from the Keivy Terrane (central Kola Peninsula, arctic European Russia) imply a prolonged fluid-assisted recrystallisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, K.; Ruffet, G.; Marker, M.

    2012-04-01

    Single grain muscovite 40Ar/39Ar age data from metasediments of the Keivy Terrane point to a prolonged recrystallisation, and imply that the younger age set in metamorphic terranes with a long history cannot always be simply interpreted as due to late and slow cooling. The Keivy terrane is an element of the Palaeoproterozoic Lapland-Kola collisional belt developed along the northern margin of the Fennoscandian (Baltic) Shield. It comprises a lower series of late Archaean meta-volcanic rocks, intruded by earliest Palaeoproterozoic alkali granites that are covered by strongly deformed quartz-rich kyanite-staurolite-garnet-micaschists of the Keivy unit that have yielded magmatic zircons as young as ~2.35 Ga, which were derived from the substratum's alkaline granite. 40Ar/39Ar step-heating dating with a defocussed laser beam of muscovite grains from seven metasediments of the Keivy unit yielded saddle-shaped age spectra in most experiments. In five out of seven cases the base of the saddle corresponded to a plateau age in the range of 1667 to 1593 Ma (60-90% of the gas release; 1 sigma errors: 1.0-1.2 Ma). We do not simply interpret these 40Ar/39Ar ages in the classical way as due to cooling, because the saddle shape of the spectra enables a more complete and detailed interpretation. Saddle-shaped age spectra may result from the presence of different argon reservoirs in partially recrystallised and chemically distinct micas that degas over a different energy interval: a primary, not recrystallised or inherited domain (low and high temperature steps) and a newly formed or recrystallised one (saddle minimum in the intermediate steps). The younger subdomains formed by growth or recrystallisation could characterise the last isotopic record during an extended (re)crystallisation history. It is striking that 1612 and 1615 Ma saddle minimum ages in two samples correspond to a plateau age of 1612 Ma in another sample. Also elevated high and/or low temperature apparent ages of

  12. Yegorovite, Na4[Si4O8(OH)4]·7H2O, a new mineral from the Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekov, I. V.; Zubkova, N. V.; Chukanov, N. V.; Zadov, A. E.; Grishin, V. G.; Pushcharovsky, D. Yu.

    2010-12-01

    A new mineral, yegorovite, has been identified in the late hydrothermal, low-temperature assemblage of the Palitra hyperalkaline pegmatite at Mt. Kedykverpakhk, Lovozero alkaline pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. The mineral is intimately associated with revdite and megacyclite, earlier natrosilite, microcline, and villiaumite. Yegorovite occurs as coarse, usually split prismatic (up to 0.05 × 0.15 × 1 mm) or lamellar (up to 0.05 × 0.7 × 0.8 mm) crystals. Polysynthetic twins and parallel intergrowths are typical. Mineral individuals are combined in bunches or chaotic groups (up to 2 mm); radial-lamellar clusters are less frequent. Yegorovite is colorless, transparent with vitreous luster. Cleavage is perfect parallel to (010) and (001). Fracture is splintery; crystals are readily split into acicular fragments. The Mohs hardness is ˜2. Density is 1.90(2) g/cm3 (meas) and 1.92 g/cm3 (calc). Yegorovite is biaxial (-), with α = 1.474(2), β = 1.479(2), and γ = 1.482(2), 2 V meas > 70°, 2 V calc = 75°. The optical orientation is X ∧ a ˜ 15°, Y = c, Z = b. The IR spectrum is given. The chemical composition determined using an electron microprobe (H2O determined from total deficiency) is (wt %): 23.28 Na2O, 45.45 SiO2, 31.27 H2Ocalc; the total is 100.00. The empirical formula is Na3.98Si4.01O8.02(OH)3.98 · 7.205H2O. The idealized formula is Na4[Si4O8(OH)4] · 7H2O. Yegorovite is monoclinic, space group P21/ c. The unit-cell dimensions are a = 9.874, b= 12.398, c = 14.897 Å, β = 104.68°, V = 1764.3 Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder pattern ( d, Å ( I, %)([ hkl]) are 7.21(70)[002], 6.21(72)[012, 020], 4.696(44)[022], 4.003(49)[211], 3.734(46)[ bar 2 13], 3.116(100)[024, 040], 2.463(38)[ bar 4 02, bar 2 43]. The crystal structure was studied by single-crystal method, R hkl = 0.0745. Yegorovite is a representative of a new structural type. Its structure consists of single chains of Si tetrahedrons [Si4O8(OH)4]∞ and sixfold polyhedrons

  13. Method for locating underground anomalies by diffraction of electromagnetic waves passing between spaced boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Lytle, R. Jeffrey; Lager, Darrel L.; Laine, Edwin F.; Davis, Donald T.

    1979-01-01

    Underground anomalies or discontinuities, such as holes, tunnels, and caverns, are located by lowering an electromagnetic signal transmitting antenna down one borehole and a receiving antenna down another, the ground to be surveyed for anomalies being situated between the boreholes. Electronic transmitting and receiving equipment associated with the antennas is activated and the antennas are lowered in unison at the same rate down their respective boreholes a plurality of times, each time with the receiving antenna at a different level with respect to the transmitting antenna. The transmitted electromagnetic waves diffract at each edge of an anomaly. This causes minimal signal reception at the receiving antenna. Triangulation of the straight lines between the antennas for the depths at which the signal minimums are detected precisely locates the anomaly. Alternatively, phase shifts of the transmitted waves may be detected to locate an anomaly, the phase shift being distinctive for the waves directed at the anomaly.

  14. Control of stacking loads in final waste disposal according to the borehole technique

    SciTech Connect

    Feuser, W.; Barnert, E.; Vijgen, H.

    1996-12-01

    The semihydrostatic model has been developed in order to assess the mechanical toads acting on heat-generating ILW(Q) and HTGR fuel element waste packages to be emplaced in vertical boreholes according to the borehole technique in underground rock salt formations. For the experimental validation of the theory, laboratory test stands reduced in scale are set up to simulate the bottom section of a repository borehole. A comparison of the measurement results with the data computed by the model, a correlation between the test stand results, and a systematic determination of material-typical crushed salt parameters in a separate research project will serve to derive a set of characteristic equations enabling a description of real conditions in a future repository.

  15. Assessment of geophysical logs from borehole USW G-2, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, P.H.; Schimschal, U.

    1993-05-01

    Commercial logging contractors, Western Atlas, Schlumberger, and Edcon obtained borehole geophysical logs at the site of a potential high level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drill hole USW-G2 was picked for this test of suitable logging tools and logging technology, both representing state-of-the-art technology by these commercial companies. Experience gained by analysis of existing core data and a variety of logs obtained earlier by Birdwell and Dresser Atlas served as a guide to a choice of logs to be obtained. Logs were obtained in water-filled borehole in zeolitized tuff (saturated zone) and in air-filled borehole largely in unaltered welded tuff (unsaturated zone).

  16. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency and the second frequency; and transmitting the collimated beam through a diverging acoustic lens to compensate for a refractive effect caused by the curvature of the borehole.

  17. Understanding the relationship between audiomagnetotelluric data and models, and borehole data in a hydrological environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Pellerin, L.

    2008-01-01

    Audiomagnetotelluric (AMT) data and resulting models are analyzed with respect to geophysical and geological borehole logs in order to clarify the relationship between the two methodologies of investigation of a hydrological environment. Several profiles of AMT data collected in basins in southwestern United States are being used for groundwater exploration and hydrogeological framework studies. In a systematic manner, the AMT data and models are compared to borehole data by computing the equivalent one-dimensional AMT model and comparing with the two-dimensional (2-D) inverse AMT model. The spatial length is used to determine if the well is near enough to the AMT profile to quantify the relationship between the two datasets, and determine the required resolution of the AMT data and models. The significance of the quality of the borehole data when compared to the AMT data is also examined.

  18. Failure development around a borehole in an orthorhombic thermo-elastoplastic rock medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piłacik, Alicja; Dąbrowski, Marcin

    2016-04-01

    The elastic anisotropy of a rock medium is one of the main factors affecting stress distribution around the borehole. It governs the initiation and propagation of the technologically induced compressive and tensile failure zones, and reopening of natural mechanical discontinuities. We conducted a two-dimensional analysis of failure around a pressurized horizontal borehole in an orthorhombic elastic rock medium subject to variable far-field loads. The analytical solution to the thermoelastic problem was derived. An elastoplastic finite element method code was developed using MILAMIN platform (milamin.org) and implemented in MATLAB. Various yield functions were used, including von Mises, Mohr-Coulomb, Drucker-Prager and Hoek-Brown failure criteria. The analysis was augmented by introducing rock heterogeneities and discrete mechanical discontinuities in the vicinity of the borehole.

  19. Physical and chemical changes to rock near electrically heated boreholes at Spent Fuel Test-Climax

    SciTech Connect

    Beiriger, J.M.; Durham, W.B.; Ryerson, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sections of Climax Stock quartz monzonite taken from the vicinity of two electrically heated boreholes at Spent Fuel Test-Climax (SFT-C) have been studied by scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy for signs of changes in crack structure and in mineralogy resulting from operations at SFT-C. The crack structure, as measured by density of cracks and average crack lengths was found not to have changed as a result of heating, regardless of distance from the heater hole. However, rock near the heater borehole sampled in the north heater drift was found to be more cracked than rock near the borehole sampled in the south heater drift. Mineralogically, the post-test samples are identical to the pre-test samples. No new phases have been formed as a result of the test. 10 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  20. Petrophysical properties, mineralogy, fractures, and flow tests in 25 deep boreholes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Kibler, Joyce E.

    2014-01-01

    As part of a site investigation for the disposal of radioactive waste, numerous boreholes were drilled into a sequence of Miocene pyroclastic flows and related deposits at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This report contains displays of data from 25 boreholes drilled during 1979–1984, relatively early in the site investigation program. Geophysical logs and hydrological tests were conducted in the boreholes; core and cuttings analyses yielded data on mineralogy, fractures, and physical properties; and geologic descriptions provided lithology boundaries and the degree of welding of the rock units. Porosity and water content were computed from the geophysical logs, and porosity results were combined with mineralogy from x-ray diffraction to provide whole-rock volume fractions. These data were composited on plates and used by project personnel during the 1990s. Improvements in scanning and computer technology now make it possible to publish these displays.

  1. Impact of Groundwater Flow and Energy Load on Multiple Borehole Heat Exchangers.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, S Emad; Schincariol, Robert A; Olofsson, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The effect of array configuration, that is, number, layout, and spacing, on the performance of multiple borehole heat exchangers (BHEs) is generally known under the assumption of fully conductive transport. The effect of groundwater flow on BHE performance is also well established, but most commonly for single BHEs. In multiple-BHE systems the effect of groundwater advection can be more complicated due to the induced thermal interference between the boreholes. To ascertain the influence of groundwater flow and borehole arrangement, this study investigates single- and multi-BHE systems of various configurations. Moreover, the influence of energy load balance is also examined. The results from corresponding cases with and without groundwater flow as well as balanced and unbalanced energy loads are cross-compared. The groundwater flux value, 10(-7) m/s, is chosen based on the findings of previous studies on groundwater flow interaction with BHEs and thermal response tests. It is observed that multi-BHE systems with balanced loads are less sensitive to array configuration attributes and groundwater flow, in the long-term. Conversely, multi-BHE systems with unbalanced loads are influenced by borehole array configuration as well as groundwater flow; these effects become more pronounced with time, unlike when the load is balanced. Groundwater flow has more influence on stabilizing loop temperatures, compared to array characteristics. Although borehole thermal energy storage (BTES) systems have a balanced energy load function, preliminary investigation on their efficiency shows a negative impact by groundwater which is due to their dependency on high temperature gradients between the boreholes and surroundings.

  2. Origin of elevated water levels encountered in Pahute Mesa emplacement boreholes: Preliminary investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Brikowski, T.; Chapman, J.; Lyles, B.; Hokett, S.

    1993-11-01

    The presence of standing water well above the predicted water table in emplacement boreholes on Pahute Mesa has been a recurring phenomenon at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). If these levels represent naturally perched aquifers, they may indicate a radionuclide migration hazard. In any case, they can pose engineering problems in the performance of underground nuclear tests. The origin of these elevated waters is uncertain. Large volumes of water are introduced during emplacement drilling, providing ample source for artificially perched water, yet elevated water levels can remain constant for years, suggesting a natural origin instead. In an effort to address the issue of unexpected standing water in emplacement boreholes, three different sites were investigated in Area 19 on Pahute Mesa by Desert Research Institute (DRI) staff from 1990-93. These sites were U-19az, U-19ba, and U-19bh. As of this writing, U-19bh remains available for access; however, nuclear tests were conducted at the former two locations subsequent to this investigations. The experiments are discussed in chronological order. Taken together, the experiments indicate that standing water in Pahute Mesa emplacement holes originates from the drainage of small-volume naturally perched zones. In the final study, the fluids used during drilling of the bottom 100 m of emplacement borehole U-19bh were labeled with a chemical tracer. After hole completion, water level rose in the borehole, while tracer concentration decreased. In fact, total mass of tracer in the borehole remained constant, while water levels rose. After water levels stabilized in this hole, no change in tracer mass was observed over two years, indicating that no movement of water out of the borehole is taking place (as at U- 19ba). Continued labeling tests of standing water are recommended to confirm the conclusions made here, and to establish their validity throughout Pahute Mesa.

  3. The ICDP Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project: preliminary overview of borehole geophysics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Douglas R.; Liberty, Lee M.; Kessler, James E.; Kuck, Jochem; Kofman, Randolph; Bishop, Ross; Shervais, John W.; Evans, James P.; Champion, Duane E.

    2012-01-01

    Hotspot: The Snake River Geothermal Drilling Project was undertaken to better understand the geothermal systems in three locations across the Snake River Plain with varying geological and hydrological structure. An extensive series of standard and specialized geophysical logs were obtained in each of the wells. Hydrogen-index neutron and γ-γ density logs employing active sources were deployed through the drill string, and although not fully calibrated for such a situation do provide semi-quantitative information related to the ‘stratigraphy’ of the basalt flows and on the existence of alteration minerals. Electrical resistivity logs highlight the existence of some fracture and mineralized zones. Magnetic susceptibility together with the vector magnetic field measurements display substantial variations that, in combination with laboratory measurements, may provide a tool for tracking magnetic field reversals along the borehole. Full waveform sonic logs highlight the variations in compressional and shear velocity along the borehole. These, together with the high resolution borehole seismic measurements display changes with depth that are not yet understood. The borehole seismic measurements indicate that seismic arrivals are obtained at depth in the formations and that strong seismic reflections are produced at lithological contacts seen in the corresponding core logging. Finally, oriented ultrasonic borehole televiewer images were obtained over most of the wells and these correlate well with the nearly 6 km of core obtained. This good image log to core correlations, particularly with regards to drilling induced breakouts and tensile borehole and core fractures will allow for confident estimates of stress directions and or placing constraints on stress magnitudes. Such correlations will be used to orient in core orientation giving information useful in hydrological assessments, paleomagnetic dating, and structural volcanology.

  4. Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone.

    PubMed

    Sterling, S N; Parker, B L; Cherry, J A; Williams, J H; Lane, J W; Haeni, F P

    2005-01-01

    Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were conducted in the open borehole, and a removable multilevel monitoring system was installed to provide hydraulic-head and ground water samples from discrete fracture zones. The borehole was later reamed to complete a well screened from 89 to 100 mbgs; persistent TCE concentrations at this depth ranged from 2100 to 33,000 microg/L. Rock-core analyses, combined with the other types of borehole information, show that nearly all of this deep contamination was due to the lingering effects of the downward flow of dissolved TCE from shallower depths during the few days of open-hole conditions that existed prior to installation of the multilevel system. This study demonstrates that transfer of contaminant mass to the matrix by diffusion can cause severe cross contamination effects in sedimentary rocks, but these effects generally are not identified from information normally obtained in fractured-rock investigations, resulting in potential misinterpretation of site conditions.

  5. Vertical cross contamination of trichloroethylene in a borehole in fractured sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sterling, S.N.; Parker, B.L.; Cherry, J.A.; Williams, J.H.; Lane, J.W.; Haeni, F.P.

    2005-01-01

    Boreholes drilled through contaminated zones in fractured rock create the potential for vertical movement of contaminated ground water between fractures. The usual assumption is that purging eliminates cross contamination; however, the results of a field study conducted in a trichloroethylene (TCE) plume in fractured sandstone with a mean matrix porosity of 13% demonstrates that matrix-diffusion effects can be strong and persistent. A deep borehole was drilled to 110 m below ground surface (mbgs) near a shallow bedrock well containing high TCE concentrations. The borehole was cored continuously to collect closely spaced samples of rock for analysis of TCE concentrations. Geophysical logging and flowmetering were conducted in the open borehole, and a removable multilevel monitoring system was installed to provide hydraulic-head and ground water samples from discrete fracture zones. The borehole was later reamed to complete a well screened from 89 to 100 mbgs; persistent TCE concentrations at this depth ranged from 2100 to 33,000 ??g/L. Rock-core analyses, combined with the other types of borehole information, show that nearly all of this deep contamination was due to the lingering effects of the downward flow of dissolved TCE from shallower depths during the few days of open-hole conditions that existed prior to installation of the multilevel system. This study demonstrates that transfer of contaminant mass to the matrix by diffusion can cause severe cross contamination effects in sedimentary rocks, but these effects generally are not identified from information normally obtained in fractured-rock investigations, resulting in potential misinterpretation of site conditions. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  6. Numerical modelling of resolution and sensitivity of ERT in horizontal boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsen, Berit E.; Dahlin, Torleif

    2010-03-01

    Resistivity in horizontal boreholes can give useful detailed information about the geological conditions for construction in rock, i.e. in front of a tunnel bore machine. This paper is an attempt to identify a suitable methodology for an effective measuring routine for this type of geophysical measurements under actual construction site conditions. Prior to any measurements numerical modelling was done in order to evaluate the resolution of different electrode arrays. Four different arrays were tested; dipole-pole, cross-hole dipole-dipole, cross-hole pole-tripole and multiple gradient array. Additionally the resolution of a combination of cross-hole dipole-dipole and multiple gradient was assessed. The 2D sensitivity patterns for various arrangements of the cross-hole dipole-dipole and multiple gradient array were examined. The sensitivity towards inaccurate borehole geometry and the influence of water in the boreholes were also investigated. Based on the model study the cross-hole dipole-dipole array, multiple gradient array and a combination of these were found to give the best result and therefore were used for test measurements in horizontal boreholes. The boreholes were 28.5 m long and drilled 6.5 m apart. Prototypes of semi-rigid borehole cables made it possible to insert multi electrode cables in an efficient way, allowing fast measurement routines. These measurements were then studied to determine their accuracy and applicability. The results showed a high resistivity rock mass at the site. A transition from high resistivity to slightly lower resistivity coincides well with a change in lithology from gneiss-granite to gneiss. It is likely that the shotcrete on the tunnel wall is seen as a low resistivity zone. The measurements are a valuable tool, but further development of the cables and streamlining of measuring routines have to be performed before the resistivity tomography can be used routinely in pilot holes during construction in rocks.

  7. Intermediate scale borehole (Room C): In situ data report (January 1989--June 1993)

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Christian-Frear, T.L.; Baird, G.T.; Labreche, D.A.; Ball, J.R.

    1994-11-01

    Data are presented from the intermediate scale borehole test, an in situ test fielded in the pillar separating Rooms C1 and C2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The test was to provide data on the influence of scale, if any, on the structural behavior of underground openings in salt. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1989, with the drilling of the intermediate scale borehole in December 1990. Gage data in this report cover the period from January 1989 through June 1993.

  8. Influence of flow rate and heating power in effective thermal conductivity applied in borehole heat exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Śliwa, T.; Sapińska-Śliwa, A.; Wiśniowski, R.; Piechówka, Z.; Krzemień, M.; Pycha, D.; Jaszczur, M.

    2016-09-01

    In borehole heat exchanging systems one of the most important parameters necessary to estimate its efficiency is the effective thermal conductivity. One of the methods for determining it is thermal response test. Such a test may be performed with respect to various parameters. The most important ones include flow rate and heating power. The article summarizes the results of TRT research in Palecznica village, Poland which was performed in boreholes located there in the already operating installation. It presents the established methodology. Also, there is an attempt to determine the relation between the mentioned parameters and the effective thermal conductivity. The research indicates the dependence of the conductivity with the test parameters.

  9. Deep Drilling Into the Chicxulub Impact Crater: Pemex Oil Exploration Boreholes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L.

    2007-05-01

    The Chicxulub structure was recognized in the 1940´s from gravity anomalies in oil exploration surveys by Pemex. Geophysical anomalies occur over the carbonate platform in NW Yucatan, where density and magnetic susceptibility contrasts with the carbonates suggested a buried igneous complex or basement uplift. The exploration program developed afterwards included several boreholes, starting with the Chicxulub-1 in 1952 and eventually comprising eight deep boreholes completed through the 1970s. The investigations showing Chicxulub as a large impact crater formed at the K/T boundary have relayed on the Pemex decades-long exploration program. Despite frequent reference to Pemex information, original data have not been openly available for detailed evaluation and incorporation with results from recent efforts. Logging data and core samples remain to be analyzed, reevaluated and integrated in the context of recent marine, aerial and terrestrial geophysical surveys and the drilling/coring projects of UNAM and ICDP. In this presentation we discuss the paleontological data, stratigraphic columns and geophysical logs for the Chicxulub-1 (1582m), Sacapuc-1 (1530m), Yucatan-6 (1631m) and Ticul-1 (3575m) boreholes. These boreholes remain the deepest ones drilled in Chicxulub and the only ones providing samples of the melt-rich breccias and melt sheet. Other boreholes include the Y1 (3221m), Y2 (3474m), Y4 (2398m) and Y5A (3003m), which give information on pre-impact stratigraphy and crystalline basement. We concentrate on log and microfossil data, stratigraphic columns, lateral correlation, integration with UNAM and ICDP borehole data, and analyses of sections of melt, impact breccias and basal Paleocene carbonates. Current plans for deep drilling in Chicxulub crater focus in the peak ring zone and central sector, with proposed marine and on-land boreholes to the IODP and ICDP programs. Future ICDP borehole will be located close to Chicxulub-1 and Sacapuc-1, which intersected

  10. Mathematical model of gamma-ray spectrometry borehole logging for quantitative analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimschal, Ulrich

    1981-01-01

    A technique for analyzing gamma-ray spectral-logging data has been developed, in which a digital computer is used to calculate the effects of gamma-ray attentuation in a borehole environment. The computer model allows for the calculation of the effects of lithology, porosity, density, and the thickness of a horizontal layer of uniformly distributed radioactive material surrounding a centralized probe in a cylindrical borehole. The computer program also contains parameters for the calculation of the effects of well casing, drilling fluid, probe housing, and losses through the sodium-iodide crystal. Errors associated with the commonly used mathematical assumption of a point detector are eliminated in this model. (USGS)

  11. Climate change inferred from borehole temperatures: minimal "snow effect" from North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, M. G.; Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.

    2004-05-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain information about surface ground temperature histories over time scales of several centuries and in particular prior to the widespread availability of surface air temperature records [Huang et al, Nature, 2000; Harris and Chapman, GRL, 2001]. Borehole-based reconstructions on the regional and hemispheric scale yield significantly different magnitudes of warming in the past 500 years when compared to proxy-based reconstructions. Borehole reconstructions suggest that the Northern Hemisphere warming has been about 1.1 ° C while proxy methods indicate warming closer to 0.7 ° C [Mann et al, Nature, 1999]. One suggested reconciliation of borehole and proxy reconstructions is that long-term variations in seasonal snow cover may bias the borehole record. A spurious long-term warming signal relative to SAT trends could be introduced by alteration of the duration or onset of seasonal snow cover over the course of decades or longer. We have developed a "snow effect" model that predicts transient warming or cooling of the surface ground temperature due to changes in the onset, duration, and depth of snow events [Bartlett et al, in review]. We use our model to compute the response of ground temperatures at the regional scale to seasonal snow cover of the past century in North America. Snow and air temperature data used in the model come from the United States Historical Climatology Network (NOAA-NCDC NDP-070) and the Canadian Daily Climatic Dataset (CDCD). Results indicate that variations in snow onset and duration have had the greatest influence in Central North America, leading to ground warming on the order of 0.1-0.2 ° C / 100 yrs in this region relative to SAT trends. Other regions within North America have experienced negligible effects over the past century. We conclude that the magnitude of the snow effect in North America is insufficient to reconcile completely regional borehole and proxy reconstructions of climate change

  12. Disposition of excess weapon plutonium in deep boreholes - site selection handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Heiken, G.; Woldegabriel, G.; Morley, R.; Plannerer, H.; Rowley, J.

    1996-09-01

    One of the options for disposing of excess weapons plutonium is to place it near the base of deep boreholes in stable crystalline rocks. The technology needed to begin designing this means of disposition already exists, and there are many attractive sites available within the conterminous United States. There are even more potential sites for this option within Russia. The successful design of a borehole system must address two criteria: (1) how to dispose of 50 metric tons of weapons plutonium while making it inaccessible for unauthorized retrieval, and (2) how to prevent contamination of the accessible biosphere, defined here as the Earth`s surface and usable groundwaters.

  13. Visualization of hydraulic connections using Borehole Array around LPG Underground Storage Cavern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimo, M.; Mashimo, H.; Maejima, T.; Aoki, K.

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to visualize the hydraulic connections within the fractured rock mass around the underground LPG storage caverns using array of water injection boreholes. By taking advantage that water injection boreholes are located so as to cover the storage caverns, a complete sketch of hydraulic conditions around the caverns, such as locations of water conducting fractures, hydraulic conductivity and groundwater pressure can be obtained. Applicability of the proposed techniques have been tested in an on-going construction project operated by JOGMEC, Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation, at Namikata, Western part of Japan. Three 26m x 30m x 485m caverns, located at 150 - 200 m below the ground surface in a granitic rock, are under construction. By systematically monitoring the pressure responses between the neighboring boreholes during drilling of total 387 boreholes around the two propane caverns, a spatial profile of the hydraulic connections and hydraulic conductivity around the caverns has been successfully obtained. Locations of localized depressurized zones created during an arch excavation have been detected by monitoring pressure in each borehole after stopping water supply to that borehole temporarily. Measurement has been conducted using each one of the 302 boreholes, one at a time. Observation shows that there is a clear correlation between total pressure drop and pressure gradient versus time curve on semi-logarithmic plot, dH/log10t, as expected by the numerical prediction. Regions where dH/log10t is larger than a certain criteria, determined by a numerical simulation for flow around a cavern in a rock with uniform hydraulic conductivity, have been evaluated as a depressurized zone caused by insufficient water supply, possibly due to existence of the high permeable zones. Separate pore pressure measurement around the caverns also supports this interpretation that a low pressure is prevailing near the borehole

  14. Overview of high-temperature batteries for geothermal and oil/gas borehole power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidotti, Ronald A.; Reinhardt, Frederick W.; Odinek, Judy

    Batteries currently used as power supplies for measurement while drilling (MWD) equipment in boreholes for oil and gas exploration use a modified lithium/thionyl chloride technology. These batteries are limited to operating temperatures below 200 °C. At higher temperatures, the batteries and the associated electronics must be protected by a dewar. Sandia National Laboratories has been actively engaged in developing suitable alternative technologies for geothermal and oil/gas borehole power sources that are based on both ionic liquid and solid-state electrolytes. In this paper, we present the results of our studies to date and the directions of future efforts.

  15. Project HOTSPOT: Borehole geophysics log interpretation from the Snake River Plain, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. D.; Schmitt, D. R.; Chen, X.; Shervais, J. W.; Liberty, L. M.; Potter, K. E.; Kessler, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberely, and (3) Mountain Home. The most eastern drill hole is Kimama located along the central volcanic axis of the SRP and documents basaltic volcanism. The Kimberely drill hole was selected to document continuous volcanism when analysed in conjunction with the Kimama drill hole and is located near the margin of the plain. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. A suite of ground and borehole geophysical surveys were carried out within the SRP between 2010 and 2012. The borehole geophysics logs included gamma ray (spectral and natural), neutron hydrogen index, electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, ultrasonic borehole televiewer imaging, full waveform sonic, and vertical seismic profile. The borehole geophysics logs were qualitatively assessed through visual interpretation of lithological horizons and quantitatively through physical property specialized software and digital signal processing automated filtering process to identify step functions and high frequency anomalies. Preliminary results were published by Schmitt et al. (2012), Potter et al. (2012), and Shervais et al. (2013). The results are continuously being enhanced as more information is qualitatively and quantitatively delineated from the borehole geophysics logs. Each drill hole encounters three principal units: massive basalt flows, rhyolite, and sediments. Basalt has a low to moderate porosity and is

  16. Particle Size Distribution Data From Existing Boreholes at the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Site

    SciTech Connect

    Valenta, Michelle M.; Martin, Maria B.; Moreno, Jorge R.; Ferri, Rosalie M.; Horton, Duane G.; Reidel, Stephen P.

    2000-09-25

    This report provides particle size distribution data for samples near the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Site that were archived in the Hanford Geotechnical Sample Library. Seventy-nine sediment samples were analyzed from four boreholes. Samples were collected from every ten feet in the boreholes. Eightly percent of the samples were classified as slightly gravelly sand. Fifteen percent were classified as gravelly sand, gravelly silty sand, or sandy gravels. These data indicate that the particle size of the sediment is consistent across the ILAW site and is dominated by sand in the upper part of the Hanford formation with more gravel rich units in the lower part.

  17. Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huawei; Sun, Jianmeng; Wang, Jiaxin; Gardner, Robin P

    2011-09-01

    A new pulsed neutron gamma density (NGD) logging has been developed to replace radioactive chemical sources in oil logging tools. The present paper describes studies of near and far density measurement accuracy of NGD logging at two spacings and the borehole influences using Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of near density is not as good as far density. It is difficult to correct this for borehole effects by using conventional methods because both near and far density measurement is significantly sensitive to standoffs and mud properties.

  18. Borehole Strain Measurements on Volcanoes: Insights from Montserrat and Hekla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linde, A. T.; Sacks, S. I.

    2010-12-01

    In Fall 2000 we reported that data from Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters allowed a short term (~20 minutes) warning of an eruption of Hekla, Iceland, in 2000 and showed clear changes before an eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986. In 2002-2003 (CALIPSO program) we installed a small net of strainmeters near Montserrat’s Soufriere Hills Volcano, an active andesitic dome building volcano. We have sites in Long Valley and Hawaii (with USGS); at Vesuvius, Campi Flegrei area, Stromboli and (planned) Etna (with Italian colleagues). Gladwin strainmeters have been installed at Yellowstone and Mt. St. Helens (PBO). Our recent volcano research efforts have been on Montserrat and Hekla. Analyses of a very large dome collapse (Montserrat) in July 2003 (Voight et al, 2006) and an explosion in March 2004 (Linde et al., 2010) reveal a reservoir at about 5 km with a NW-SE trending dike extending from the reservoir to about 1.5 km from the surface. A number of explosions require only a narrow conduit (15 m radius) that extends from the top of the dike to the surface (Voight et al. 2010); others have a different strain signature and require deeper sources. A 1 month long clear strain excursion required an additional contribution from a reservoir at about 11 km (Hautmann et al. in prep). Many small signals with similar strain change patterns take place over much shorter time scales (2 - 20 mins) are presumably due to gas transfer. We now realize, from the 2000 eruption of Hekla, that the magma geometry is quite different from that in all earlier models. The reservoir is about 11 km deep but the dike that breaks the surface in Hekla's characteristic fissure eruption does not extend to the reservoir as had been thought; but to no more than about 1 km. Although undetectable by any available surface measurements, there must be a conduit to connect the reservoir to the dike. In Sturkell et al. (in prep) we propose that this conduit is now sufficiently large in diameter to remain

  19. Methods and apparatus for measuring a length of cable suspending a well logging tool in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Broding, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    A system is described for measuring depth from the mouth of a borehole to a well logging tool connected to one end of an electrically conductive cable suspended in the borehole comprising: means for applying an initial electrical time pulse signal to one end of the cable, whereby the initial electrical time pulse signal propagates the length of the cable to one end of the cable to the well logging tool connected to the other end of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole, which is intermediate both ends of the cable, the passage of the initial electrical time pulse signal along the length of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole a subsequent electrical time pulse propagating along the length of the cable reflected from the other end of the cable; means for determining a time interval between the detection of the initial electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole and the detection of the subsequent electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole; and means for correlating the time interval with the depth to which the well logging tool is suspended in the borehole as measured from the mouth of the borehole.

  20. System and method to estimate compressional to shear velocity (VP/VS) ratio in a region remote from a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Vu, Cung; Nihei, Kurt T; Schmitt, Denis P; Skelt, Christopher; Johnson, Paul A; Guyer, Robert; TenCate, James A; Le Bas, Pierre-Yves

    2012-10-16

    In some aspects of the disclosure, a method for creating three-dimensional images of non-linear properties and the compressional to shear velocity ratio in a region remote from a borehole using a conveyed logging tool is disclosed. In some aspects, the method includes arranging a first source in the borehole and generating a steered beam of elastic energy at a first frequency; arranging a second source in the borehole and generating a steerable beam of elastic energy at a second frequency, such that the steerable beam at the first frequency and the steerable beam at the second frequency intercept at a location away from the borehole; receiving at the borehole by a sensor a third elastic wave, created by a three wave mixing process, with a frequency equal to a difference between the first and second frequencies and a direction of propagation towards the borehole; determining a location of a three wave mixing region based on the arrangement of the first and second sources and on properties of the third wave signal; and creating three-dimensional images of the non-linear properties using data recorded by repeating the generating, receiving and determining at a plurality of azimuths, inclinations and longitudinal locations within the borehole. The method is additionally used to generate three dimensional images of the ratio of compressional to shear acoustic velocity of the same volume surrounding the borehole.

  1. DEFORMATION AND FRACTURE OF POORLY CONSOLIDATED MEDIA - Borehole Failure Mechanisms in High-Porosity Sandstone

    SciTech Connect

    Bezalel c. Haimson

    2005-06-10

    We investigated failure mechanisms around boreholes and the formation of borehole breakouts in high-porosity sandstone, with particular interest to grain-scale micromechanics of failure leading to the hitherto unrecognized fracture-like borehole breakouts and apparent compaction band formation in poorly consolidated granular materials. We also looked at a variety of drilling-related factors that contribute to the type, size and shape of borehole breakouts. The objective was to assess their effect on the ability to establish correlations between breakout geometry and in situ stress magnitudes, as well as on borehole stability prediction, and hydrocarbon/water extraction in general. We identified two classes of medium to high porosity (12-30%) sandstones, arkosic, consisting of 50-70% quartz and 15 to 50% feldspar, and quartz-rich sandstones, in which quartz grain contents varied from 90 to 100%. In arkose sandstones critical far-field stress magnitudes induced compressive failure around boreholes in the form of V-shaped (dog-eared) breakouts, the result of dilatant intra-and trans-granular microcracking subparallel to both the maximum horizontal far-field stress and to the borehole wall. On the other hand, boreholes in quartz-rich sandstones failed by developing fracture-like breakouts. These are long and very narrow (several grain diameters) tabular failure zones perpendicular to the maximum stress. Evidence provided mainly by SEM observations suggests a failure process initiated by localized grain-bond loosening along the least horizontal far-field stress springline, the packing of these grains into a lower porosity compaction band resembling those discovered in Navajo and Aztec sandstones, and the emptying of the loosened grains by the circulating drilling fluid starting from the borehole wall. Although the immediate several grain layers at the breakout tip often contain some cracked or even crushed grains, the failure mechanism enabled by the formation of the

  2. Some logistical considerations in designing a system of deep boreholes for disposal of high-level radioactive waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Genetha Anne; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2012-09-01

    Deep boreholes could be a relatively inexpensive, safe, and rapidly deployable strategy for disposing Americas nuclear waste. To study this approach, Sandia invested in a three year LDRD project entitled %E2%80%9CRadionuclide Transport from Deep Boreholes.%E2%80%9D In the first two years, the borehole reference design and backfill analysis were completed and the supporting modeling of borehole temperature and fluid transport profiles were done. In the third year, some of the logistics of implementing a deep borehole waste disposal system were considered. This report describes what was learned in the third year of the study and draws some conclusions about the potential bottlenecks of system implementation.

  3. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. JEFFREY; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2006-10-18

    The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to Tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. Sediments from borehole 299-E27-22 were considered to be background uncontaminated sediments against which to compare contaminated sediments for the C Tank Farm characterization effort. This report also presents our interpretation of the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the A-AX, C and U Waste Management Area field investigation report(a) in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. A core log was generated for both boreholes and a geologic evaluation of all core samples was performed at the time of opening. Aliquots of sediment from the borehole core samples were analyzed and characterized in the laboratory for the following parameters: moisture content, gamma-emitting radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Two key radiocontaminants

  4. Estimate of rock mass stability in surface–borehole mining of high-grade iron ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sammal, AS; Antsiferov, SV; Deev, PV; Sergeev, SV

    2017-02-01

    Under consideration is the estimate of rock mass stability around underground openings generated as a result of hydraulic borehole mining of iron ore. The authors use analytical solutions of two plane elasticity problems on stress state of infinite media with the zone of weakening in the form of one or two circular holes, given initial stresses are set in the study domains.

  5. Critical states of drill strings in the channels of inclined boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrusenko, E. N.; Gulyaev, V. I.; Shlyun', N. V.

    2016-03-01

    The problem of determining the critical states and the postbuckling deformation of drill strings in the cavities of curvilinear boreholes is posed. The process of elastic bending of the drill string is associated with the motion of its axial line along the corresponding channel surface. On the basis of the theory of flexible curvilinear rods, a specially chosen moving system of axes is used to construct nonlinear ordinary differential equations describing the contact interaction between the drill string tube and the borehole wall. Themoving reference system allows us to separate the desired variables and decrease the order of the resolving equations. As an example, we solve the problem of stability of drill strings lying at the bottom of a cylindrical cavity in a rectilinear inclined borehole. The critical values of the axial forces are determined and the buckling modes are constructed. It is also shown that they have the form of edge effects typical of singularly perturbed equations. The developedmethods can be used in design of a curvilinear borehole and its possible driving conditions to determine the admissible values of the axial force and the torque at the point of the drill string suspension so as to prevent its bifurcation buckling.

  6. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1998-01-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  7. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Bevan, J.E.; King, G.W.

    1998-12-08

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole. 8 figs.

  8. Hydrochemical borehole logs characterizing fluoride contamination in a crystalline aquifer (Maheshwaram, India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauwels, Hélène; Négrel, Philippe; Dewandel, Benoit; Perrin, Jerome; Mascré, Cédric; Roy, Stéphane; Ahmed, Shakeel

    2015-06-01

    Hydrochemical borehole-loggings with a submersible Idronaut Ocean Seven 302 multiparameter probe equipped of F- and NO3-ion-selective electrodes in combination with EC, pH and dissolved oxygen, were applied for characterizing fluoride (F) contamination in a crystalline (hard-rock) aquifer of a small Indian agricultural watershed where groundwater is intensively abstracted for rice irrigation. A high accuracy of F concentrations determined in-situ-shown by comparing with laboratory analyses-was obtained through using conductivity logs for ionic strength consideration. Large variations in chemical composition and particularly of F-concentration were observed inside boreholes, though restricted to the weathered/fractured layer down to 30-35 m depth. This conforms to the hydrogeological model of a crystalline aquifer where most groundwater flow occurs in the shallow part of the fractured zone. The general trend of increasing F content with depth results from F accumulation through water-rock interaction, but the shape of the F profile depends on the connectivity of the fracture network close to the borehole. The concentrations seen within the water-table fluctuation zone locally suggest F input from fertilizers in groundwater, in addition to the earlier-demonstrated role of evaporation from irrigation return flow. It is also likely that, locally, the deepening of boreholes has contributed to increasing the population's vulnerability by tapping F-enriched groundwater at depth.

  9. Rapid acquisition of high resolution full wave-field borehole seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Harding, R.S. Jr.; Fairborn, J.W.; Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1993-04-01

    An essential requirement for both Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and Cross-Hole Seismic Profiling (CHSP) is the rapid acquisition of high resolution borehole seismic data. Additionally, full wave-field recording using three-component receivers enables the use of both transmitted and reflected elastic wave events in the resulting seismic images of the subsurface. To this end, an advanced three- component multi-station borehole seismic receiver system has been designed and developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and OYO Geospace. The system requires data from multiple three-component wall-locking accelerometer packages and telemeters digital data to the surface in real-time. Due to the multiplicity of measurement stations and the real-time data link, acquisition time for the borehole seismic survey is significantly reduced. The system was tested at the Chevron La Habra Test Site using Chevron`s clamped axial borehole vibrator as the seismic source. Several source and receiver fans were acquired using a four-station version of the advanced system. For comparison purposes, an equivalent data set was acquired using a standard analog wall-locking geophone receiver. The test data indicate several enhancements provided by the multi-station receiver relative to the standard, drastically improved signal-to-noise ratio, increased signal bandwidth, the detection of multiple reflectors, and a true 4:1 reduction in survey time.

  10. Multi-array borehole resistivity and induced polarization method with mathematical inversion of redundant data

    DOEpatents

    Ward, S.H.

    1989-10-17

    Multiple arrays of electric or magnetic transmitters and receivers are used in a borehole geophysical procedure to obtain a multiplicity of redundant data suitable for processing into a resistivity or induced polarization model of a subsurface region of the earth. 30 figs.

  11. Advanced Coupled Simulation of Borehole Thermal Energy Storage Systems and Above Ground Installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Bastian; Rühaak, Wolfram; Schulte, Daniel O.; Bär, Kristian; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal thermal energy storage in borehole heat exchanger arrays is a promising technology to reduce primary energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. These systems usually consist of several subsystems like the heat source (e.g. solarthermics or a combined heat and power plant), the heat consumer (e.g. a heating system), diurnal storages (i.e. water tanks), the borehole thermal energy storage, additional heat sources for peak load coverage (e.g. a heat pump or a gas boiler) and the distribution network. For the design of an integrated system, numerical simulations of all subsystems are imperative. A separate simulation of the borehole energy storage is well-established but represents a simplification. In reality, the subsystems interact with each other. The fluid temperatures of the heat generation system, the heating system and the underground storage are interdependent and affect the performance of each subsystem. To take into account these interdependencies, we coupled a software for the simulation of the above ground facilities with a finite element software for the modeling of the heat flow in the subsurface and the borehole heat exchangers. This allows for a more realistic view on the entire system. Consequently, a finer adjustment of the system components and a more precise prognosis of the system's performance can be ensured.

  12. Initial seismic observations from a deep borehole drilled into the Canadian Shield in northeast Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Judith; Schmitt, Douglas R.

    2015-09-01

    The availability of a deep borehole in northeastern Alberta provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the in situ metamorphic craton rocks. This borehole reaches a depth of 2.4 km, with 1.8 km in the crystalline rocks, and is the only known borehole allowing access into the deeper rocks of the metamorphic Canadian Shield. In 2011, a zero-offset vertical seismic profile (VSP) was acquired to assist in the interpretation of seismic reflection data and geophysical logs. Three sets of upgoing tube waves interpreted from the raw profile correspond to the small-scale fluctuations in the borehole diameters and fracture zone in the crystalline rocks. A comparison between sonic log velocities and VSP velocities reveals a zone with increased velocity that could be due to the change in rock composition and texture in the basement rocks. The final processed profile is used to generate corridor stacks for differentiating between primary reflections and multiples in the seismic reflection profile. Analysis of the zero-offset VSP verifies existing log interpretation on the presence of fractures and the possible lithological changes in the metamorphic rocks of the Canadian Shield.

  13. Development of a Universal Canister for Disposal of High-Level Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Laura L.; Gomberg, Steve

    2015-11-01

    The mission of the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and government-sponsored nuclear energy research. Some of the wastes that must be managed have been identified as good candidates for disposal in a deep borehole in crystalline rock. In particular, wastes that can be disposed of in a small package are good candidates for this disposal concept. A canister-based system that can be used for handling these wastes during the disposition process (i.e., storage, transfer, transportation, and disposal) could facilitate the eventual disposal of these wastes. Development of specifications for the universal canister system will consider the regulatory requirements that apply to storage, transportation, and disposal of the capsules, as well as operational requirements and limits that could affect the design of the canister (e.g., deep borehole diameter). In addition, there are risks and technical challenges that need to be recognized and addressed as Universal Canister system specifications are developed. This paper provides an approach to developing specifications for such a canister system that is integrated with the overall efforts of the DOE’s Used Fuel Disposition Campaign's Deep Borehole Field Test and compatible with planned storage of potential borehole-candidate wastes.

  14. Analysis of emplacement borehole rock and liner behavior for a repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Lorig, L.J.; Dasgupta, B.

    1989-09-01

    This report presents the results of studies aimed at assessing the quasi-static behavior of both the rock surrounding an emplacement borehole and the lining within an emplacement borehole for a nuclear waste repository in tuff. Two-dimensional thermomechanical analyses of conditions similar to those representative of the horizontal emplacement option were performed using a distinct element code. Three different behavior models (equivalent continuum, wedge, and parallel joint) were used to investigate the state of deformation at 0 and 100 years following waste emplacement. Three different rock strength assumptions were studied corresponding to ``design,`` ``recommended`` and ``limit`` values given in the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project Site Characterization Plan Conceptual Design Report (MacDougall et al., 1987). The ground reaction curve concept is introduced to study the potential liner loading resulting from thermally induced borehole closure. The report concludes that for the conditions and parameters assumed, liners may not be significantly loaded by borehole closure, because predicted closures will likely be less than tolerances required to install the lining. The report also concludes that gravity loading of linings by blocks which fall from the surrounding rock should not over-stress the lining. 25 refs., 51 figs., 14 tabs.

  15. Piezometer completion report for borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20, and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow, Sentinel Gap flow top, Ginkgo flow top, Rocky Coulee flow top, Cohassett flow top and Umtanum flow top. The D-series piezometer monitors the Mabton interbed. The B-series pumping well was completed in the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Large scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foged, N.; Marker, P. A.; Christansen, A. V.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jørgensen, F.; Høyer, A.-S.; Auken, E.

    2014-02-01

    We present an automatic method for parameterization of a 3-D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models through an inverse optimization, with the objective of further detailing for geological models or as direct input to groundwater models. The parameter of interest is the clay fraction, expressed as the relative length of clay-units in a depth interval. The clay fraction is obtained from lithological logs and the clay fraction from the resistivity is obtained by establishing a simple petrophysical relationship, a translator function, between resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity dataset and the borehole dataset in one variable. Finally, we use k means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the concept to the Norsminde survey in Denmark integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey in the parameterization of the 3-D model covering 156 km2. The final five-cluster 3-D model differentiates between clay materials and different high resistive materials from information held in resistivity model and borehole observations respectively.

  17. Large-scale 3-D modeling by integration of resistivity models and borehole data through inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foged, N.; Marker, P. A.; Christansen, A. V.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.; Jørgensen, F.; Høyer, A.-S.; Auken, E.

    2014-11-01

    We present an automatic method for parameterization of a 3-D model of the subsurface, integrating lithological information from boreholes with resistivity models through an inverse optimization, with the objective of further detailing of geological models, or as direct input into groundwater models. The parameter of interest is the clay fraction, expressed as the relative length of clay units in a depth interval. The clay fraction is obtained from lithological logs and the clay fraction from the resistivity is obtained by establishing a simple petrophysical relationship, a translator function, between resistivity and the clay fraction. Through inversion we use the lithological data and the resistivity data to determine the optimum spatially distributed translator function. Applying the translator function we get a 3-D clay fraction model, which holds information from the resistivity data set and the borehole data set in one variable. Finally, we use k-means clustering to generate a 3-D model of the subsurface structures. We apply the procedure to the Norsminde survey in Denmark, integrating approximately 700 boreholes and more than 100 000 resistivity models from an airborne survey in the parameterization of the 3-D model covering 156 km2. The final five-cluster 3-D model differentiates between clay materials and different high-resistivity materials from information held in the resistivity model and borehole observations, respectively.

  18. Nonrotating, self-centering anchor assembly for anchoring a bolt in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Bevan, John E.; King, Grant W.

    1997-12-01

    An expandable anchor assembly is provided for anchoring the threaded end portion of an elongated roof bolt in a borehole. The anchoring assembly includes a hollow outer sleeve in the form of a plurality of symmetrically arranged, longitudinal segmented wall portions with exterior gripping teeth and an inner expander sleeve in the form of a corresponding plurality of longitudinal wall portions symmetrically arranged about a central axis to define an inner threaded cylindrical section. The inner sleeve is captured within and moveable axially relative to the outer sleeve. As the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt is inserted into the inner threaded cylindrical section of the inner sleeve from the trailing end to the leading end thereof, the inner sleeve expands over and clamps around the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt. Thereafter, partial withdrawal of the elongated bolt from the borehole causes the inner sleeve to axially move relative to the outer sleeve from the leading end toward the trailing end of the outer sleeve in a wedging action to cause the outer sleeve to radially expand and force engagement of the gripping teeth against the sidewall of the borehole to thereby secure the expandable anchor assembly and therewith the threaded end portion of the elongated bolt within the borehole.

  19. Application of short-radius horizontal boreholes in the naturally fractured Yates field

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, J.R.; Rothkopf, B.W. ); Bowzer, J.L. )

    1995-02-01

    This paper discusses the performance and simulation of short-radius horizontal boreholes being used in the Marathon-operated Yates field Unit in west Texas to minimize drawdown and therefore to reduce gas and water coning in a thin oil column. Yates is a very prolific field with extensive fracturing and high-quality reservoir rock. Superimposed on a high-density orthogonal fracture network are widely spaced regional joints with a strong directional tendency. Major questions are how these directional joints affect the horizontal-well performance and whether wells should be drilled parallel or perpendicular to the joints. Dual-permeability reservoir simulation studies were performed to study optimum orientation of the borehole with respect to the natural fracture network. Additionally, optimum well-completion elevation was studied. Forty-six vertical wells have been recompleted as short-radius horizontal boreholes since 1986. The large productivity increase of the horizontal boreholes compared with the previous vertical completions indicates that the wells are intersecting the regional joints.

  20. Vadose zone flow model parameterisation using cross-borehole radar and resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binley, Andrew; Cassiani, Giorgio; Middleton, Roy; Winship, Peter

    2002-10-01

    Cross-borehole geoelectrical imaging, in particular electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and transmission radar tomography, can provide high-resolution images of hydrogeological structures and, in some cases, detailed assessment of dynamic processes in the subsurface environment. Through appropriate petrophysical relationships, these tools offer data suitable for parameterising and constraining models of groundwater flow. This is demonstrated using cross-borehole radar and resistivity measurements collected during a controlled vadose zone tracer test, performed at a field site in the UK Sherwood Sandstone. Both methods show clearly the vertical migration of the tracer over a 200 h monitoring period. By comparing first and second spatial moments of changes in moisture content predicted from a numerical simulation of vadose zone flow with equivalent statistics from two- and three-dimensional ERT and cross-borehole radar profiles the effective hydraulic conductivity is estimated to be approximately 0.4 m/d. Such a value is comparable to field estimates from borehole hydraulic tests carried out in the saturated zone at the field site and provides valuable information that may be utilised to parameterise pollutant transport models of the site.

  1. Vadose Zone Flow Model Parameterisation Using Cross-Borehole Radar and Resistivity Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binley, A.; Cassiani, G.; Middleton, R.; Winship, P.

    2001-12-01

    Cross-borehole geoelectrical imaging, in particular electrical resistivity tomography and transmission radar tomography, can provide high resolution images of hydrogeological structures and, in some cases, detailed assessment of dynamic processes in the subsurface environment. Through appropriate petrophysical relationships, these tools offer data suitable for parameterizing and constraining models of groundwater flow. This is demonstrated using cross-borehole radar and resistivity measurements collected during a controlled vadose zone tracer test, performed at a field site in the UK Sherwood Sandstone. Both methods show clearly the vertical migration of the tracer over a 200 hour monitoring period. By comparing first and second spatial moments of changes in moisture content predicted from a numerical simulation of vadose zone flow with equivalent statistics from 2- and 3-D electrical resistivity tomography and cross-borehole radar profiles the effective hydraulic conductivity is estimated to be approximately 0.4 m d-1. Such a value is comparable to field estimates from borehole hydraulic tests carried out in the saturated zone at the field site and provides valuable information that may be utilized to parameterise pollutant transport models of the site.

  2. Rock Mass Characterization by High-Resolution Sonic and GSI Borehole Logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, F.; Sapigni, M.; Crosta, G. B.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the relationships between the in situ P-wave velocity (Vp) of rock masses, measured by borehole acoustic logging, and their Geological Strength Index (GSI), to support a reliable assessment of equivalent continuum rock mass properties at depth. We quantified both Vp and GSI in three deep boreholes drilled in a crystalline core complex of the central Italian Alps. The boreholes were driven up to 400 m in depth and provided high-quality drill cores in gneiss, schist and metasedimentary rocks with variable lithology. Geological and geomechanical logging was carried out for over 800 m of cores, and acoustic logging was performed for more than 600 m of borehole length. High-resolution core logging in terms of GSI was obtained using an original quantitative approach. Candidate empirical correlation functions linking Vp and GSI were tested by a two-step statistical analysis of the experimental dataset, including outlier removal and nonlinear regression analysis. We propose a sigmoid Vp-GSI equation valid over a depth range between 100 and 400 m. This accounts for extremely variable lithological, weathering and rock mass damage conditions, complementing existing shallow-depth approaches and showing potential for practical applications in different engineering settings.

  3. Letter Report: Borehole Flow and Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity with Depth at Well ER-12-4

    SciTech Connect

    Phil L. Oberlander; Charles E. Russell

    2005-12-31

    Borehole flow and fluid temperature during pumping were measured at well ER-12-4 at the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada. This well was constructed to characterize the carbonate aquifer. The well is cased from land surface to the total depth at 1,132 m (3,713 ft bgs) below ground surface (bgs). The screened section of the well consists of alternating sections of slotted well screen and blank casing from 948 to 1,132 m bgs (3,111 to 3,713 ft bgs). Borehole flow velocity (LT-1) with depth was measured with an impeller flowmeter from the top of the screened section to the maximum accessible depth while the well was pumped and under ambient conditions. A complicating factor to data interpretation is that the well was not filter packed and there is upward and downward vertical flow in the open annulus under ambient and pumping conditions. The open annulus in the well casing likely causes the calculated borehole flow rates being highly nonrepresentative of inflow from the formation. Hydraulic conductivities calculated under these conditions would require unsupportable assumptions and would be subject to very large uncertainties. Borehole hydraulic conductivities are not presented under these conditions.

  4. Borehole flowmeter logging for the accurate design and analysis of tracer tests.

    PubMed

    Basiricò, Stefano; Crosta, Giovanni B; Frattini, Paolo; Villa, Alberto; Godio, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Tracer tests often give ambiguous interpretations that may be due to the erroneous location of sampling points and/or the lack of flow rate measurements through the sampler. To obtain more reliable tracer test results, we propose a methodology that optimizes the design and analysis of tracer tests in a cross borehole mode by using vertical borehole flow rate measurements. Experiments using this approach, herein defined as the Bh-flow tracer test, have been performed by implementing three sequential steps: (1) single-hole flowmeter test, (2) cross-hole flowmeter test, and (3) tracer test. At the experimental site, core logging, pumping tests, and static water-level measurements were previously carried out to determine stratigraphy, fracture characteristics, and bulk hydraulic conductivity. Single-hole flowmeter testing makes it possible to detect the presence of vertical flows as well as inflow and outflow zones, whereas cross-hole flowmeter testing detects the presence of connections along sets of flow conduits or discontinuities intercepted by boreholes. Finally, the specific pathways and rates of groundwater flow through selected flowpaths are determined by tracer testing. We conclude that the combined use of single and cross-borehole flowmeter tests is fundamental to the formulation of the tracer test strategy and interpretation of the tracer test results.

  5. Leaky modes and the first arrivals in cased boreholes with poorly bonded conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, XiuMei; Wang, XiuMing; Zhang, HaiLan

    2016-02-01

    The generation mechanism of the first arrivals in the cased boreholes for the poorly bonded conditions is investigated. Based on the analyses of the Riemann surface structure of the characteristic function, the dispersion features, excitation spectra and contributions of modes excited in the cased boreholes with different cementing types are studied. The phase velocity dispersion studies of leaky modes show that high-order modes form "plateau" regions with one approximate velocity denoted by v separated by their cutoff frequencies, in which the phase velocity changes little with a considerable frequency range, while the group velocity keeps a relatively constant high value. Usually, the operation frequency range of a specific cementing evaluation acoustic logging tool is covered by such a "plateau" region. Mode excitation and contribution analyses show that the first arrivals in the cased boreholes for the poorly bonded conditions are the contributions from leaky modes, where the traveling velocity of the first arrivals processed by slowness time coherence (STC) method is equal to the approximated velocity v. Analyses on generation of leaky modes in the cased boreholes supplement the understanding of the generation mechanism of the first arrivals.

  6. Geohydrology of the Stockton Formation and cross-contamination through open boreholes, Hatboro Borough and Warminster Township, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Macchiaroli, Paola; Towle, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    The study area consists of a 9-square-mile area underlain by sedimentary rocks of the middle arkose member of the Stockton Formation of Upper Triassic age. In the Hatboro area, the Stockton Formation strikes approximately N. 65 degrees E. and dps approximately 9 degrees NW. The rocks are chiefly arkosic sandstone and siltstone. Rocks of the Stocton Formation form a complex, heterogeneous, multiaquifer system consisting of a series of gently dipping lithologic units with different hydraulic properties. Most ground water in the unweathered zone moves through a network of interconnecting secondary openigns-fractures, bedding plans, and joints. Ground water is unconfined in the shallower part of the aquifer and semiconfined or confined in the deeper part of the aquifer. Nearly all deep wells in the Stockton Formation are open to several water-bearing zones and are multiaquifer wells. Each water-bearing zone usually has a different hydraulic head. Where differences in hydraulic head exist between water-bearing zones, water in the well bore flows under nonpumping conditions in the direction of decreasing head. Determination of the potential for borehole flow was based on caliper, natural-gamma, single- point-resistance, fluid-resistivity, and (or) fluid-temperature logs that were run in 162 boreholes 31 to 655 feet deep. The direction and rate of borehole-fluid movement were determined in 83 boreholes by the bring-tracing method and in 10 boreholes by use of a heat-pulse flowmeter. Borehole flow was measurable in 65 of the 93 boreholes (70 percent). Fluid movement at rates up to 17 gallons per minute was measured. Downward flow was measured in 36 boreholes, and upward flow was measured in 23 boreholes, not including those boreholes in which two directions of flow were measured. Both upward and downward vertical flow was measured in six boreholes; these boreholes are 396 to 470 feet deep and were among the deepest boreholes logged. Fluid movement was upward in the upper

  7. MODELING OF THE GROUNDWATER TRANSPORT AROUND A DEEP BOREHOLE NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY

    SciTech Connect

    N. Lubchenko; M. Rodríguez-Buño; E.A. Bates; R. Podgorney; E. Baglietto; J. Buongiorno; M.J. Driscoll

    2015-04-01

    The concept of disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock is gaining renewed interest and consideration as a viable mined repository alternative. A large amount of work on conceptual borehole design and preliminary performance assessment has been performed by researchers at MIT, Sandia National Laboratories, SKB (Sweden), and others. Much of this work relied on analytical derivations or, in a few cases, on weakly coupled models of heat, water, and radionuclide transport in the rock. Detailed numerical models are necessary to account for the large heterogeneity of properties (e.g., permeability and salinity vs. depth, diffusion coefficients, etc.) that would be observed at potential borehole disposal sites. A derivation of the FALCON code (Fracturing And Liquid CONvection) was used for the thermal-hydrologic modeling. This code solves the transport equations in porous media in a fully coupled way. The application leverages the flexibility and strengths of the MOOSE framework, developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The current version simulates heat, fluid, and chemical species transport in a fully coupled way allowing the rigorous evaluation of candidate repository site performance. This paper mostly focuses on the modeling of a deep borehole repository under realistic conditions, including modeling of a finite array of boreholes surrounded by undisturbed rock. The decay heat generated by the canisters diffuses into the host rock. Water heating can potentially lead to convection on the scale of thousands of years after the emplacement of the fuel. This convection is tightly coupled to the transport of the dissolved salt, which can suppress convection and reduce the release of the radioactive materials to the aquifer. The purpose of this work has been to evaluate the importance of the borehole array spacing and find the conditions under which convective transport can be ruled out as a radionuclide transport mechanism

  8. Moving to Google Cloud: Renovation of Global Borehole Temperature Database for Climate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Y.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    Borehole temperature comprises an independent archive of information on climate change which is complementary to the instrumental and other proxy climate records. With support from the international geothermal community, a global database of borehole temperatures has been constructed for the specific purpose of the study on climate change. Although this database has become an important data source in climate research, there are certain limitations partially because the framework of the existing borehole temperature database was hand-coded some twenty years ago. A database renovation work is now underway to take the advantages of the contemporary online database technologies. The major intended improvements include 1) dynamically linking a borehole site to Google Earth to allow for inspection of site specific geographical information; 2) dynamically linking an original key reference of a given borehole site to Google Scholar to allow for a complete list of related publications; and 3) enabling site selection and data download based on country, coordinate range, and contributor. There appears to be a good match between the enhancement requirements for this database and the functionalities of the newly released Google Fusion Tables application. Google Fusion Tables is a cloud-based service for data management, integration, and visualization. This experimental application can consolidate related online resources such as Google Earth, Google Scholar, and Google Drive for sharing and enriching an online database. It is user friendly, allowing users to apply filters and to further explore the internet for additional information regarding the selected data. The users also have ways to map, to chart, and to calculate on the selected data, and to download just the subset needed. The figure below is a snapshot of the database currently under Google Fusion Tables renovation. We invite contribution and feedback from the geothermal and climate research community to make the

  9. Using borehole images for target-zone evaluation in horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, N.F.; Carlson, J.L. ); Thorn, D.R. ); Eichelberger, L.W. )

    1994-02-01

    Horizontal wells are rarely horizontal. Instead, operators commonly try to drill such wells into particular rock layers, or target zones, which may or may not be truly horizontal. Thicknesses of target zones commonly range from a few feet to a few tens of feet (1-10 m). Target-zone evaluation concerns whether a horizontal well was successfully located and drilled in a given rock layer. Borehole-imaging logs provide a powerful tool for stratigraphic interpretation and target-zone evaluation in the Austin Chalk, Niobrara Formation, San Andres Formation, and other units. This study uses borehole images generated by Schlumberger's Formation MicroScanner (FMS), a microconductivity logging device. Open fractures and clay-rich interbeds appear as dark, high-conductivity tracers on the FMS log. These traces can be fit with sinusoidal curves and oriented on a computer workstation. The shape of the sinusoidal curve that fits a particular bedding plane tells the interpreter whether the borehole was moving upward or downward through the strata. STRATLOG (trademark of Sierra Geophysics, Inc., a Halliburton Company) software has been used to display borehole profiles by combining FMS data on fracture intensities and bedding-plane intersections with gamma-ray logs, mud logs, and borehole-deviation surveys. To aid in planning future wells, multiple penetrations of the same horizon can be detected and used to calculate highly accurate bedding-plane dips. Fault interpretation, including the detection of rollover beds, it also possible. Finally, stratigraphic interpretation can be combined with observed fractures to determine which rock layers are most highly fractured, and, therefore, should be target zones.9 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Combined use of straddle packer testing and FLUTe profiling for hydraulic testing in fractured rock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Patryk; Cherry, John A.; Parker, Beth L.

    2015-05-01

    A combination of high resolution hydraulic tests using straddle packers and transmissivity (T) profiling using the FLUTe flexible liner method (liner profiling) in densely fractured rock boreholes is shown to be efficient for the determination of the vertical distribution of T along the entire hole. The liner T profiling method takes a few hours or less to scan the entire borehole length resulting in a T profile. Under favorable conditions this method has good reliability for identifying the highest T zones identified by distinct decreases in liner velocity when these zones are covered by the descending liner. In contrast, for one short test interval (e.g., 1-2 m) the multiple-test, straddle-packer method takes a few hours to measure T with good precision and accuracy using a combination of steady-state and transient tests (e.g., constant head step tests, slug tests, and constant rate pumping tests). Because of the time consuming aspect of this multiple-test method, it is most efficient in each borehole to conduct straddle packer testing only in priority zones selected after assessment of other borehole data collected prior to packer testing. The T profile from the liner method is instrumental in selecting high permeable zones for application of the multiple-test method using straddle packers, which in turn, refines the T estimation from the liner profile. Results from three boreholes in densely fractured sandstone demonstrate this approach showing the synergistic use of the methods with emphasis on information important for determining hydraulic apertures.

  11. Semi-analytical model of cross-borehole flow experiments for fractured medium characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roubinet, D.; Irving, J.; Day-Lewis, F. D.

    2014-12-01

    The study of fractured rocks is extremely important in a wide variety of research fields where the fractures and faults can represent either rapid access to some resource of interest or potential pathways for the migration of contaminants in the subsurface. Identification of their presence and determination of their properties are critical and challenging tasks that have led to numerous fracture characterization methods. Among these methods, cross-borehole flowmeter analysis aims to evaluate fracture connections and hydraulic properties from vertical-flow-velocity measurements conducted in one or more observation boreholes under forced hydraulic conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that analysis of these data can provide important information on fracture connectivity, transmissivity, and storativity. Estimating these properties requires the development of analytical and/or numerical modeling tools that are well adapted to the complexity of the problem. Quantitative analysis of cross-borehole flowmeter experiments, in particular, requires modeling formulations that: (i) can be adapted to a variety of fracture and experimental configurations; (ii) can take into account interactions between the boreholes because their radii of influence may overlap; and (iii) can be readily cast into an inversion framework that allows for not only the estimation of fracture hydraulic properties, but also an assessment of estimation error. To this end, we present a new semi-analytical formulation for cross-borehole flow in fractured media that links transient vertical-flow velocities measured in one or a series of observation wells during hydraulic forcing to the transmissivity and storativity of the fractures intersected by these wells. Our model addresses the above needs and provides a flexible and computationally efficient semi-analytical framework having strong potential for future adaptation to more complex configurations. The proposed modeling approach is demonstrated

  12. Hydrogeologic Testing During Drilling of COSC-1 Borehole: Application of FFEC Logging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Sharma, Prabhakar; Niemi, Auli; Juhlin, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrogeologic testing during the drilling period. The only time hydraulic testing is done during the drilling operations is when drilling experiences a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid representing encountering of a large-transmissivity zone. Then, either the zone is cemented for drilling to continue or drilling is stopped for conducting, for example, a drill-stem test (DST), which involves installation of a packer above the drilling depth and performing a pressure or flow transient test. The first alternative means loss of critical information on in-situ hydraulic transmissivities and the second option enables the study of only the one high-transmissivity zone, with a significant delay of the drilling schedule. The drilling of the COSC-1 borehole at Åre, Northern Sweden, presented an opportunity of conducting a particular hydraulic testing with negligible impact on drilling schedule, yet providing important and accurate information on in-situ hydraulic conductivities on both high- and low-transmissivity zones, already during the drilling period. This information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling programs and future detailed borehole testing. The particular testing method used is the Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity (FFEC) Logging Method, which has the capability of identifying large and small hydraulically active zones and providing data for estimating their transmissivity values and local formation water salinity. In this paper, the method will be described and its application to the drilling of COSC-1 borehole presented. Results show that from 300 m to the borehole bottom at 2500 m, there are eight hydraulic active zones in COSC-1, with very low transmissivity values which range over one order of magnitude.

  13. A gas sampling system for withdrawing humid gases from deep boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, J.P.; Thordarson, W.; Kurzmack, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    A gas sampling system, designed to withdraw nearly vapor-saturated gases (93 to 100% relative humidity) from deep, unsaturated zone boreholes, was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for use in the unsaturated zone borehole instrumentation and monitoring program at Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada. This gas sampling system will be used to: (1) sample formation rock gases in support of the unsaturated zone hydrochemical characterization program; and (2) verify downhole, thermocouple psychrometer measurements of water potential in support of the unsaturated zone borehole instrumentation and monitoring program. Using this sampling system, nearly vapor-saturated formation rock-gases can be withdrawn from deep boreholes without condensing water vapor in the sampling tubes, and fractionating heavy isotopes of oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon. The sampling system described in this paper uses a dry carrier-gas (nitrogen) to lower the dew point temperature of the formation rock-gas at its source. Mixing of the dry carrier gas with the source gas takes place inside a specially designed downhole instrument station apparatus (DISA). Nitrogen inflow is regulated in a manner that lowers the dew point temperature of the source gas to a temperature that is colder than the coldest temperature that the mixed gas will experience in moving from warmer, deeper depths, to colder, shallower depths near the land surface. A test of this gas sampling system was conducted in December, 1992, in a 12.2 meter deep borehole that was instrumented in October, 1991. The water potential calculated using this system reproduced in-situ measurements of water potential to within five percent of the average value, as recorded by two thermocouple psychrometers that had been in operation for over 12 months.

  14. Effective Stress and Permeability Redistributions Induced by Successive Roadway and Borehole Excavations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shengyong; Zhou, Fubao; Liu, Yingke; Xia, Tongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Methane extraction from in-seam boreholes is the main approach for recovering methane in China. However, the methane concentration for this method is generally lower than 30 %, which incurs a risk of methane outbursts during pipeline transportation. To increase the methane concentration, we first conducted permeability experiments to investigate the relationships between the permeability and the effective stress at different stages in the complete effective stress-strain process. We then adopted FLAC3D software to calculate the stress distributions around roadways and boreholes after their consecutive excavations and thereby divided the coal mass around the roadway and borehole according to different effective stress stages to understand the gas flow characteristics. The results show that the coal mass along the radial direction of the roadway and borehole can be sequentially divided into four zones, including the full flow zone (FFZ), the transitive flow zone (TFZ), the flow-shielding zone (FSZ), and the in situ rock flow zone (IRFZ), which have been proven correct by field experiments. The methane in the IRFZ was difficult to extract because of the low permeability of coal mass in this zone. The permeability of the FSZ was lower than that of the IRFZ. The permeability along the interface between the FSZ and TFZ was nearly one time as low as that of the IRFZ, while the permeability of the FFZ was two orders of magnitude higher than that of the IRFZ. This four-zone division demonstrates the decaying mechanism of methane extraction concentration and flow in the in-seam borehole and can provide theoretical guidance for improvement of methane extraction.

  15. Hydrogeologic Characterization of Fractured Crystalline Bedrock on the Southern Part of Manhattan, New York, Using Advanced Borehole Geophysical Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stumm, F.; Chu, A.; Joesten, P. K.; Lane, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    ABSTRACT. Advanced borehole-geophysical methods were used to assess the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline bedrock in 31 of 64 boreholes on the southern part of Manhattan Island, N.Y. The majority of boreholes penetrated gneiss, schist, and other crystalline bedrock, and had an average depth of 591 ft (180 m) below land surface (BLS). In this study we use a combination of advanced and conventional borehole geophysical logs, and hydraulic measurements to characterize the fractured-rock ground-water flow system in southern Manhattan, N.Y. Borehole-geophysical logs collected in this study included natural gamma, single-point-resistance (SPR), short-normal resistivity (R), mechanical and acoustic caliper, magnetic susceptibility, borehole-fluid temperature and resistivity, specific conductance (SpC), dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, redox, heat-pulse flowmeter (at eight selected boreholes), borehole deviation, acoustic and optical televiewer (ATV and OTV), and directional borehole radar (at 23 selected boreholes). A new geophysical probe that collects multiple fluid parameters, included fluid- temperature, SpC, DO, pH, and redox logs; these were used to help delineate transmissive fractures in the boreholes. All boreholes penetrated moderately fractured bedrock that contained medium and large fractures. A total of 208 large fractures were delineated in the 31 boreholes logged with the OTV. Stereonet analysis of the large fractures indicates most are part of a subhorizontal population cluster with a mean orientation of N43 degrees E, 07 degrees SE and a smaller secondary population cluster dipping toward the northwest. A total of 53 faults were delineated with two major population clusters--one with a mean orientation of N12 degrees W, 66 degrees W and the other with a mean orientation of N11 degrees W, 70 degrees E. Foliation was fairly consistent throughout the study area with dip azimuths ranging from northwest to southwest and dip angles ranging from 30 to 70 degrees

  16. Characterization of Preferential Flow Paths from Single and Cross-borehole Flowmeter tests in a Fractured Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Paillet, F.; Caudal, J.

    2006-12-01

    The structure of the permeability field and in particular the connectivity of preferential flow paths controls the fluxes at large scale as well as the transport properties. However, this information is rarely available in the field unless intensive and time-consuming packer testing is achieved. In this study, we present a characterization of flow paths connectivity at the Plumeur fractured crystalline aquifer from cross-borehole flowmeter tests. We also compare hydraulic properties estimates obtained from single borehole flowmeter experiments, cross borehole flowmeter experiments and long term pumping tests. Cross borehole flowmeter tests have been recently proposed as an efficient technique to characterize the connectivity of fractures between boreholes. Cross borehole flowmeter tests consist of measuring transient vertical flow in an observation borehole when the pumping rate is changed in a nearby pumping well. The rate of change in borehole flow between flow zones intersected by the borehole depends on the connectivity and hydraulic properties of the flow zones between the two boreholes. Flow measurements were achieved with a calibrated heat-pulse flowmeter whose principle is to measure the time for a heat pulse to travel from a heat grid to a thermistor located a few cm above or below the heat source. We combined this method with single borehole flowmeter tests and long-term pumping tests to characterize the connectivity, geometry and hydraulic properties of large scale flow paths at the Plumeur aquifer where long-screened observation boreholes does not allow the use of packers. The aquifer is located on the south coast of Brittany in crystalline bedrock terrain characterized by igneous and metamorphic rocks. We restrict our analysis to the boreholes that are the closest to a pumping station within an area of approximately 600 meters in diameter. These boreholes react relatively rapidly to the pumping variations even for large borehole separations. Most

  17. Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS) Updated User’s Guide for Web-based Data Access and Export

    SciTech Connect

    Mackley, Rob D.; Last, George V.; Allwardt, Craig H.

    2008-09-24

    The Hanford Borehole Geologic Information System (HBGIS) is a prototype web-based graphical user interface (GUI) for viewing and downloading borehole geologic data. The HBGIS is being developed as part of the Remediation Decision Support function of the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project, managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington. Recent efforts have focused on improving the functionality of the HBGIS website in order to allow more efficient access and exportation of available data in HBGIS. Users will benefit from enhancements such as a dynamic browsing, user-driven forms, and multi-select options for selecting borehole geologic data for export. The need for translating borehole geologic data into electronic form within the HBGIS continues to increase, and efforts to populate the database continue at an increasing rate. These new web-based tools should help the end user quickly visualize what data are available in HBGIS, select from among these data, and download the borehole geologic data into a consistent and reproducible tabular form. This revised user’s guide supersedes the previous user’s guide (PNNL-15362) for viewing and downloading data from HBGIS. It contains an updated data dictionary for tables and fields containing borehole geologic data as well as instructions for viewing and downloading borehole geologic data.

  18. Simulations of a spectral gamma-ray logging tool response to a surface source distribution on the borehole wall

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.

    1991-12-01

    We have developed Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates simulation models for the large-detector spectral gamma-ray (SGR) logging tool in use at the Nevada Test Site. Application of the simulation models produced spectra for source layers on the borehole wall, either from potassium-bearing mudcakes or from plate-out of radon daughter products. Simulations show that the shape and magnitude of gamma-ray spectra from sources distributed on the borehole wall depend on radial position with in the air-filled borehole as well as on hole diameter. No such dependence is observed for sources uniformly distributed in the formation. In addition, sources on the borehole wall produce anisotropic angular fluxes at the higher scattered energies and at the source energy. These differences in borehole effects and in angular flux are important to the process of correcting SGR logs for the presence of potassium mudcakes; they also suggest a technique for distinguishing between spectral contributions from formation sources and sources on the borehole wall. These results imply the existence of a standoff effect not present for spectra measured in air-filled boreholes from formation sources. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  19. Analysis of the results of hydraulic-fracture stimulation of two crystalline bedrock boreholes, Grand Portage, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Dr. Fredrick L.; Olson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    Hydraulic fracture-stimulation procedures typical of those provided by contractors in the water-well industry were applied to two boreholes in basaltic and gabbroic rocks near Grand Portage, Minnesota.These boreholes were considered incapable of supplying adequate ground water for even a single household although geophysical logs showed both boreholes were intersected by many apparently permeable fractures. Tests made before and after stimulation indicated that the two boreholes would produce about 0.05 and 0.25 gallon per minute before stimulation, and about 1.5 and 1.2 gallons per minute after stimulation. These increases would be enough to obtain adequate domestic water supplies from the two boreholes but would not furnish enough water for more than a single household from either borehole. Profiles of high-resolution flow made during pumping after stimulation indicated that the stimulation enhanced previously small inflows or stimulated new inflow from seven fractures or fracture zones in one borehole and from six fractures or fracture zones in the other.Geophysical logs obtained after stimulation showed no specific changes in these 13 fractures that could be related to stimulation other than the increases in flow indicated by the flowmeter logs. The results indicate that the stimulation has increased inflow to the two boreholes by improving the connectivity of favorably orientated fractures with larger scale flow zones in the surrounding rocks. Three of four possible diagnostics related to measured pressure and flow during the stimulation treatments were weakly correlated with the increases in production associated with each treatment interval. These correlations are not statistically significant on the basis of the limited sample of 16 treatment intervals in two boreholes, but the results indicate that significant correlations might be established from a much larger data set.

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the T Tank Farm: Boreholes C4104, C4105, 299-W10-196 and RCRA Borehole 299-W11-39

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R JEFFREY.; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; LeGore, Virginia L.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Orr, Robert D.; Brown, Christopher F.

    2004-09-01

    This report contains geologic, geochemical, and physical characterization data collected on sediment recovered from boreholes C4104 and C4105 in the T Tank Farm, and 299-W-11-39 installed northeast of the T Tank Farm. The measurements on sediments from borehole C4104 are compared to a nearby borehole 299-W10-196 placed through the plume from the 1973 T-106 tank leak. This report also presents the data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone and groundwater below the T Tank Farm. Sediment samples were characterized for: moisture content, gamma-emission radionuclides, one-to-one water extracts (which provide soil pH, electrical conductivity, cation, trace metal, radionuclide and anion data), total carbon and inorganic carbon content, and 8 M nitric acid extracts (which provide a measure of the total leachable sediment content of contaminants). Overall, our analyses showed that common ion exchange is a key mechanism that influences the distribution of contaminants within that portion of the vadose zone affected by tank liquor. We observed slight elevated pH values in samples from borehole C4104. The sediments from the three boreholes, C4104, C4105, and 299-W10-196 do show that sodium-, nitrate-, and sulfate-dominated fluids are present below tank T-106 and have formed a salt plume. The fluids are more dilute than tank fluids observed below tanks at the SX and BX Tank Farms and slightly less than those from the most saline porewater found in contaminated TX tank farm sediments. The boreholes could not penetrate below the gravel-rich strata of the Ringold Formation Wooded Island member (Rwi) (refusal was met at about 130 ft bgs); therefore, we could not identify the maximum vertical penetration of the tank related plumes. The moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, and technetium-99 profiles versus depth in the three

  1. Uranium in Hanford Site 300 Area: Extraction Data on Borehole Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindberg, Michael J.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Wang, Zheming; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-11-26

    In this study, sediments collected from boreholes drilled in 2010 and 2011 as part of a remedial investigation/feasibility study were characterized. The wells, located within or around two process ponds and one process trench waste site, were characterized in terms of total uranium concentration, mobile fraction of uranium, particle size, and moisture content along the borehole depth. In general, the gravel-dominated sediments of the vadose zone Hanford formation in all investigated boreholes had low moisture contents. Based on total uranium content, a total of 48 vadose zone and periodically rewetted zone sediment samples were selected for more detailed characterization, including measuring the concentration of uranium extracted with 8 M nitric acid, and leached using bicarbonate mixed solutions to determine the liable uranium (U(VI)) contents. In addition, water extraction was conducted on 17 selected sediments. Results from the sediment acid and bicarbonate extractions indicated the total concentrations of anthropogenic labile uranium in the sediments varied among the investigated boreholes. The peak uranium concentration (114.84 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions was found in borehole 399 1-55, which was drilled directly in the southwest corner of the North Process Pond. Lower uranium concentrations (~0.3–2.5 µg/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions were found in boreholes 399-1-57, 399-1-58, and 399-1-59, which were drilled either near the Columbia River or inland and upgradient of any waste process ponds or trenches. A general trend of “total” uranium concentrations was observed that increased as the particle size decreased when relating the sediment particle size and acid extractable uranium concentrations in two selected sediment samples. The labile uranium bicarbonate leaching kinetic experiments on three selected sediments indicated a two-step leaching rate: an initial rapid release, followed by a slow continual release of uranium from

  2. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    Classified transuranic material that cannot be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico is stored in Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site on the Nevada Test Site. A performance assessment was completed for the transuranic inventory in the boreholes and submitted to the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group. The performance assessment was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office using an iterative methodology that assessed radiological releases from the intermediate depth disposal configuration against the regulatory requirements of the 1985 version of 40 CFR 191 of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The transuranic materials are stored at 21 to 37 m depth (70 to 120 ft) in large diameter boreholes constructed in the unsaturated alluvial deposits of Frenchman Flat. Hydrologic processes that affect long- term isolation of the radionuclides are dominated by extremely slow upward rates of liquid/vapor advection and diffusion; there is no downward pathway under current climatic conditions and there is no recharge to groundwater under future ''glacial'' climatic conditions. A Federal Review Team appointed by the Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group reviewed the Greater Confinement Disposal performance assessment and found that the site met the majority of the regulatory criteria of the 1985 and portions of the 1993 versions of 40 CFR 191. A number of technical and procedural issues required development of supplemental information that was incorporated into a final revision of the performance assessment. These issues include inclusion of radiological releases into the complementary cumulative distribution function for the containment requirements associated with drill cuttings from inadvertent human intrusion, verification of mathematical models used in the performance

  3. Protecting coastal abstraction boreholes from seawater intrusion using self-potential data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Malcolm; Butler, Adrian; MacAllister, Donald John; Vinogradov, Jan; Ijioma, Amadi; Jackson, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    We investigate whether the presence and transport of seawater can influence self-potentials (SPs) measured within coastal groundwater boreholes, with a view to using SP monitoring as part of an early warning system for saline intrusion. SP data were collected over a period of 18 months from a coastal groundwater borehole in the fractured Chalk of England. Spectral analysis of the results shows semi-diurnal fluctuations that are several orders of magnitude higher than those observed from monitoring of the Chalk more than 60 km inland, indicating a strong influence from oceanic tides. Hydrodynamic and geoelectric modelling of the coastal aquifer suggests that observed pressure changes (giving rise to the streaming potential) are not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the observed SP fluctuations. Simulation of the exclusion-diffusion potential, produced by changes in concentration across the saline front, is required to match the SP data from the borehole, despite the front being located some distance away. In late summer of 2013 and 2014, seawater intrusion occurred in the coastal monitoring borehole. When referenced to the shallowest borehole electrode, there was a characteristic increase in SP within the array, several days before any measurable increase in salinity. The size of this precursor increased steadily with depth, typically reaching values close to 0.3 mV in the deepest electrode. Numerical modelling suggests that the exclusion-diffusion potential can explain the magnitude of the precursor, but that the polarity of the change in SP cannot be replicated assuming a homogeneous aquifer. Small-scale models of idealised Chalk blocks were used to simulate the effects of discrete fractures on the distribution of SP. Initial results suggest that comparatively large reductions in voltage can develop in the matrix ahead of the front, in conjunction with a reduced or absent precursor in the vicinity of a fracture. Geophysical logging indicates the presence of a

  4. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

    2012-12-01

    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  5. Characterization of mudstone, clayey rock and argillite towards stabilisation of boreholes by developing new drilling strategies for geothermal resources exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witthaus, M.; Lempp, Ch.; Röckel, Th.; Hecht, Ch.; Herold, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, relating to the BMU Project „ borehole stabilisation as an important factor for the utilization of deep geothermal resources" (Project No. 0327594), sediment rocks with comparable lithology to the pelite beds of the Upper Rhine zone were investigated by a number of geomechanical tests. The investigation will provide detailed information on the geomechanical behaviour (brittle and ductile deformation) of clay stone formations in order to find out critical reasons for the instability of boreholes at a depth of about 2000 m. The main aspect of the study is to develop improved technical options in order to increase borehole stability. Many geothermal energy projects started near the Upper Rhine Rift in order to produce electricity, as the geothermal gradient rises there to about 150° C at 3 - 4 km depth. For these enhanced geothermal systems it is necessary to drill deep boreholes to install geothermal heat exchangers, so that the injected cold water conducts the high temperature of the rocks (Hot Dry Rock-Technology). The drillings have to be intersected through different rock layers that are influenced by varying regional stress fields respective to their depth. Between depths of 1500 to 2000 m within the Upper Rhine zone some of the drilled boreholes were in some parts very unstable, especially in formations where mud- and clay stones were dominant, as well as in interbedded strata with sandstones. As the maximum load capacity of these clays is very low and due to their ductile as well as brittle deformation behaviour, borehole convergence and borehole breakouts are detected. These changes were also caused by deep injection of drilling fluid into the rock formation, increasing the pore pressure there, so that hydraulic tension cracks were induced (hydraulic fracturing). This occurred mainly during drilling and it is the reason why there is an imminent risk of the stability of geothermal boreholes in geological formations composed of mudstones, clay

  6. Analysis of aquifer tests conducted in boreholes USW WT-10, UE-25 WT No. 12, and USW SD-7, 1995-96, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, G.M.

    1997-09-01

    Single-borehole aquifer tests were conducted in three boreholes in the Yucca Mountain area between March 1995 and January 1996 to obtain estimates of borehole specific capacity and aquifer transmissivity. Analysis of aquifer testing in borehole USW SD-7 also resulted in an estimate of reservoir volume. Aquifer-test data were analyzed with the Cooper and Jacob straight-line method, two modified Theis nonequilibrium equation solutions, and a modified reservoir-limit solution. The highest estimates of transmissivity were in borehole USW WT-10, completed in the Topopah Spring Tuff. Mean transmissivity, based on the results of three drawdown tests, was 1,600 meters squared per day. Mean specific capacity in borehole USW WT-10 after 5 hours of pumping was 1,100 meters squared per day, and was estimated to be 740 meters squared per day after 24 hours of pumping. Aquifer testing in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12 appeared to be significantly affected by well losses. A mean transmissivity of 7 meters squared per day was obtained on the basis of analysis of three drawdown tests in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12. Mean specific capacity in borehole UE-25 WT No. 12, after 24 hours of pumping, was 7 meters squared per day. Borehole UE-25 WT No. 12 seemed to be producing water from fractures that could provide only a limited amount of water to the borehole.

  7. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the TX Tank Farm: Boreholes C3830, C3831, C3832 and RCRA Borehole 299-W10-27

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Clayton, Ray E.; Legore, Virginia L.; Orr, Robert D.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Baum, Steven R.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.8, 4.28,4.43, and 4.59. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in April 2004. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at Hanford. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) T-TX-TY. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from boreholes C3830, C3831, and C3832 in the TX Tank Farm, and from borehole 299-W-10-27 installed northeast of the TY Tank Farm.

  8. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediments Below the C Tank Farm: Borehole C4297 and RCRA Borehole 299-E27-22

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Christopher F.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Horton, Duane G.; Lanigan, David C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Vickerman, Tanya S.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Geiszler, Keith N.; Baum, Steven R.; Parker, Kent E.; Lindberg, Michael J.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.7 and 4.25. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in September 2006. The overall goal of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities at the Hanford Site. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. tasked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediments from within Waste Management Area (WMA) C. This report is the first of two reports written to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physiochemical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from borehole C4297, installed adjacent to tank C-105, and from borehole 299-E27-22, installed directly north of the C Tank Farm. This report also presents the interpretation of data in the context of sediment types, the vertical extent of contamination, the migration potential of the contaminants, and the likely source of the contamination in the vadose zone below the C Tank Farm. The information presented in this report supports the WMA A-AX, C, and U field investigation report in preparation by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc.

  9. Analysis of well test data from selected intervals in Leuggern deep borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Karasaki, K. )

    1990-07-01

    Applicability of the PTST technique was verified by conducting a sensitivity study to the various parameters. The study showed that for ranges of skin parameters the true formation permeability was still successfully estimated using the PTST analysis technique. The analysis technique was then applied to field data from the deep borehole in Leuggern, Northern Switzerland. The analysis indicated that the formation permeability may be as much as one order of magnitude larger than the value based on no-skin analysis. Swabbing data from the Leuggern deep borehole were also analyzed assuming that they are constant pressure tests. The analysis of the swabbing data indicates that the formation transmissivity is as much as 20 times larger than the previously obtained value. This study is part of an investigation of the feasibility of geologic isolation of nuclear wastes being carried out by the US Department of Energy and the National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste of Switzerland.

  10. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Overmier, David K.

    1985-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurement of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  11. Method of measuring material properties of rock in the wall of a borehole

    DOEpatents

    Overmier, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    To measure the modulus of elasticity of the rock in the wall of a borehole, a plug is cut in the borehole wall. The plug, its base attached to the surrounding rock, acts as a short column in response to applied forces. A loading piston is applied to the top of the plug and compression of the plug is measured as load is increased. Measurements of piston load and plug longitudinal deformation are made to determine the elastic modulus of the plug material. Poisson's ratio can be determined by simultaneous measurements of longitudinal and lateral deformation of the plug in response to loading. To determine shear modulus, the top of the plug is twisted while measurements are taken of torsional deformation.

  12. Canister cryogenic system for cooling germanium semiconductor detectors in borehole and marine probes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boynton, G.R.

    1975-01-01

    High resolution intrinsic and lithium-drifted germanium gamma-ray detectors operate at about 77-90 K. A cryostat for borehole and marine applications has been designed that makes use of prefrozen propane canisters. Uses of such canisters simplifies cryostat construction, and the rapid exchange of canisters greatly reduces the time required to restore the detector to full holding-time capability and enhances the safety of a field operation where high-intensity 252Cf or other isotopic sources are used. A holding time of 6 h at 86 K was achieved in the laboratory in a simulated borehole probe in which a canister 3.7 cm diameter by 57 cm long was used. Longer holding times can be achieved by larger volume canisters in marine probes. ?? 1975.

  13. A dielectric logging tool with insulated collar for formation fluid detection around borehole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Li, Kang; Kong, Fan-Min; Zhao, Jia

    2015-08-01

    A dielectric tool with insulated collar for analyzing fluid saturation outside a borehole was introduced. The UWB (ultra-wideband) antenna mounted on the tool was optimized to launch a transient pulse. The broadband evaluation method provided more advantages when compared with traditional dielectric tools. The EM (electromagnetic) power distribution outside the borehole was studied, and it was shown that energy was propagated in two modes. Furthermore, the mechanism of the modes was discussed. In order to increase this tools' investigation depth, a novel insulated collar was introduced. In addition, operation in difference formations was discussed and this tool proved to be able to efficiently launch lateral EM waves. Response voltages indicated that the proposed scheme was able to evaluate the fluid saturation of reservoir formations and dielectric dispersion properties. It may be used as an alternative tool for imaging logging applications.

  14. Generalized poroviscoelastic model based on effective Biot theory and its application to borehole guided wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xu; Greenhalgh, Stewart; Zhou, Bing; Heinson, Graham

    2016-12-01

    A method using modified attenuation factor function is suggested to determine the parameters of the generalized Zener model approximating the attenuation factor function. This method is applied to constitute the poroviscoelastic model based on the effective Biot theory which considers the attenuative solid frame of reservoir. In the poroviscoelastic model, frequency-dependent bulk modulus and shear modulus of solid frame are represented by generalized Zener models. As an application, the borehole logging dispersion equations from Biot theory are extended to include effects from the intrinsic body attenuation in formation media in full-frequency range. The velocity dispersions of borehole guided waves are calculated to investigate the influence from attenuative bore fluid, attenuative solid frame of the formation and impermeable bore wall.

  15. Ground Water Level Measurements in Selected Boreholes Near the Site of the Proposed Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Page, H. Scott

    2007-11-29

    The Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) acquired quarterly and continuous data on water levels from approximately 26 boreholes that comprise a periodic monitoring network (Table 1) between October 2003 and September 2007. During this period we continued to observe and analyze short and long-term ground water level trends in periodically monitored boreholes. In this report we summarize and discuss four key findings derived from analysis of water level data acquired during this period: 1. Rapid ground water level rise after storm events in Forty Mile Canyon; 2. Seismically-induced ground water level fluctuations; 3. A sample of synoptic observations and barometric influences on short term fluctuations; and 4. Long term ground water level trends observed from mid-2001 through late-2005.

  16. The research on borehole stability in depleted reservoir and caprock: using the geophysics logging data.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Junliang; Deng, Jingen; Luo, Yong; Guo, Shisheng; Zhang, Haishan; Tan, Qiang; Zhao, Kai; Hu, Lianbo

    2013-01-01

    Long-term oil and gas exploitation in reservoir will lead to pore pressure depletion. The pore pressure depletion will result in changes of horizontal in-situ stresses both in reservoirs and caprock formations. Using the geophysics logging data, the magnitude and orientation changes of horizontal stresses in caprock and reservoir are studied. Furthermore, the borehole stability can be affected by in-situ stresses changes. To address this issue, the dehydration from caprock to reservoir and roof effect of caprock are performed. Based on that, the influence scope and magnitude of horizontal stresses reduction in caprock above the depleted reservoirs are estimated. The effects of development on borehole stability in both reservoir and caprock are studied step by step with the above geomechanical model.

  17. Visual texture for automated characterisation of geological features in borehole televiewer imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sit, Waleed; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Marelli, Matteo; Al-Ataby, Ali

    2015-08-01

    Detailed characterisation of the structure of subsurface fractures is greatly facilitated by digital borehole logging instruments, the interpretation of which is typically time-consuming and labour-intensive. Despite recent advances towards autonomy and automation, the final interpretation remains heavily dependent on the skill, experience, alertness and consistency of a human operator. Existing computational tools fail to detect layers between rocks that do not exhibit distinct fracture boundaries, and often struggle characterising cross-cutting layers and partial fractures. This paper presents a novel approach to the characterisation of planar rock discontinuities from digital images of borehole logs. Multi-resolution texture segmentation and pattern recognition techniques utilising Gabor filters are combined with an iterative adaptation of the Hough transform to enable non-distinct, partial, distorted and steep fractures and layers to be accurately identified and characterised in a fully automated fashion. This approach has successfully detected fractures and layers with high detection accuracy and at a relatively low computational cost.

  18. Information on stress conditions in the oceanic crust from oval fractures in a deep borehole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Oval images etched into the wall of a deep borehole were detected in DSDP Hole 504B, eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean, from analysis of an acoustic televiewer log. A systematic inspection of these ovals has identified intriguing consistencies in appearance that cannot be explained satisfactorily by a random, coincidental distribution of pillow lavas. As an alternative hypothesis, Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used to account for the generation and orientation of similarly curved, stress-induced fractures. Consequently, these oval features can be interpreted as fractures and related directly to stress conditions in the oceanic crust at this site. The azimuth of the oval center corresponds to the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress (SH), and the oval width, which spans approximately 180?? of the borehole, is aligned with the azimuth of minimum horizontal principal stress (Sh). The oval height is controlled by the fracture angle and thus is a function of the coefficient of internal friction of the rock. -from Author

  19. Device and method for generating a beam of acoustic energy from a borehole, and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Vu, Cung Khac; Sinha, Dipen N.; Pantea, Cristian; Nihei, Kurt T.; Schmitt, Denis P.; Skelt, Chirstopher

    2013-10-15

    In some aspects of the invention, a method of generating a beam of acoustic energy in a borehole is disclosed. The method includes generating a first acoustic wave at a first frequency; generating a second acoustic wave at a second frequency different than the first frequency, wherein the first acoustic wave and second acoustic wave are generated by at least one transducer carried by a tool located within the borehole; transmitting the first and the second acoustic waves into an acoustically non-linear medium, wherein the composition of the non-linear medium produces a collimated beam by a non-linear mixing of the first and second acoustic waves, wherein the collimated beam has a frequency based upon a difference between the first frequency range and the second frequency, and wherein the non-linear medium has a velocity of sound between 100 m/s and 800 m/s.

  20. Borehole data package for well 699-37-47A, PUREX Plant Cribs, CY 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, J.W.; Williams, B.A.; Spane, F.A.

    1997-02-01

    A new groundwater monitoring well (699-37-47A) was installed in 1996 as a downgradient well near the PUREX Plant Cribs Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facility at Hanford. This document provides data from the well drilling and construction operations, as well as data from subsequent characterization of groundwater and sediment samples collected during the drilling process. The data include: well construction documentation, geologist`s borehole logs, results of laboratory analysis of groundwater samples collected during drilling and of physical tests conducted on sediment samples collected during drilling, borehole geophysics, and results of aquifer testing including slug tests and flowmeter analysis. This well (699-37-47A) was constructed in support of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-24-00H and interim milestone M-24-35 (Ecology et al. 1994), and was funded under Project W-152.

  1. Moisture logging in cased boreholes using capture gamma-ray spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robert D.; Randall, Russell R.; Meisner, James E.; Boles, Jason L.; Reynolds, Kent D.

    1999-10-01

    A nuclear logging tool has been developed that determines the moisture content of subsurface earth formations by measuring the gamma rays produced by thermal neutron capture in hydrogen. The tool employs a 252Cf fast neutron source and a hyperpure germanium gamma-ray detector. The tool has demonstrated excellent sensitivity to changes in formation moisture content when used in air-filled boreholes cased with steel. The tool is also sensitive to other elements that produce neutron capture gamma rays, such as silicon, calcium, aluminum, sodium, chlorine, chromium, cadmium and mercury. Extensive computer modeling of the tool has been done to aid its design and in the interpretation of logging data taken under a variety of conditions. The logging tool has been calibrated for its moisture and chlorine response in a set of physical models and is now in use logging boreholes at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site.

  2. Determination of Groundwater Velocity and Dispersion Parameters by Borehole Wall Multielectrode Geoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessels, W.; Wuttke, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    A single well technique to determine groundwater flow values and transport parameters is presented. Multielectrode arrays are placed at the filtered casing depth by an inflatable packer or are installed on the borehole wall behind the casing.Tracer water with a higher or lower specific electrical conductivity (salinity) which is injected between the electrodes. This tracer plume then moves into the natural groundwater flow field. The observation of this movement by geoelectric logging enables the determination of the groundwater velocity and salinity. The transport parameters "effective porosity" and "dispersion length" can also be derived. The geoelectric logging uses n borehole electrodes and two grounding electrodes. Thus, either n independent two point measurements or n*(n-1)/2 pole-to-pole measurements can be conducted to obtain a full set of geoelectric measurements. This set is used to derive all electrode combinations by applying the law of superposition and reciprocity. The tracer distribution around the borehole during and after injection depends on the hydraulic and transport parameters of the aquifer and the filter sand. The transport parameter "porosity" plus the total injected tracer volume determines the tracer distribution around the borehole. The transport parameter "dispersivity" determines the abruptness of the tracer front. The method was tested by undertaking measurements in a lab aquifer filled with sand. The results are discussed and the limitations of the method are shown. Multielectrode installations behind casing were tested in situ in the two scientific boreholes CAT-LUD-1 and CAT- LUD-1A drilled in the northern part of Germany. A multielectrode packer system was designed, built and tested in these boreholes. The results are compared with colloid observations in the borehole and hydraulic triangulation in surrounded observation wells. Here, the interpretation of these in situ measurements is mainly restricted to two point geoelectric

  3. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, III, William B.

    1989-01-01

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes.

  4. Methods and apparatus for measurement of the resistivity of geological formations from within cased boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Vail, W.B. III.

    1989-04-11

    Methods and apparatus are disclosed which allow measurement of the resistivity of a geological formation through borehole casing which may be surrounded by brine saturated cement. A.C. current is passed from an electrode in electrical contact with the interior of the borehole casing to an electrode on the surface of the earth. The A.C. voltage difference is measured between two additional vertically disposed electrodes on the interior of the casing which provides a measure of the resistivity of the geological formation. A calibration and nulling procedure is presented which minimizes the influence of variations in the thickness of the casing. The procedure also minimizes the influence of inaccurate placements of the additional vertically disposed electrodes. 3 figs.

  5. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest

    2015-11-01

    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward–Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into “strings” and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  6. Borehole Temperatures and a Baseline for 20th-Century Global Warming Estimates

    PubMed

    Harris; Chapman

    1997-03-14

    Lack of a 19th-century baseline temperature against which 20th-century warming can be referenced constitutes a deficiency in understanding recent climate change. Combination of borehole temperature profiles, which contain a memory of surface temperature changes in previous centuries, with the meteorological archive of surface air temperatures can provide a 19th-century baseline temperature tied to the current observational record. A test case in Utah, where boreholes are interspersed with meteorological stations belonging to the Historical Climatological Network, yields a noise reduction in estimates of 20th-century warming and a baseline temperature that is 0.6° ± 0.1°C below the 1951 to 1970 mean temperature for the region.

  7. Application of advanced borehole geophysical logging to managed aquifer recharge investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maliva, Robert G.; Clayton, Edward A.; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2009-09-01

    Communities and water utilities are increasingly being forced to implement more hydrogeologically complex alternative water supply and storage options to meet increasing freshwater demands. The performance of managed aquifer recharge projects, including aquifer storage and recovery, is controlled by the movement and mixing of stored freshwater and native groundwater, and fluid-rock interactions, which, in turn, are strongly influenced by aquifer heterogeneity. Advanced borehole geophysical logging techniques developed for the oil and gas industry such as neutron-gamma ray spectroscopy, microresistivity imaging, and nuclear magnetic resonance, can provide hitherto unavailable fine-scale data on porosity (total and effective), hydraulic conductivity, salinity, and the mineralogical composition of aquifers. Data on aquifer heterogeneity obtained from advanced borehole geophysics logs, combined with information on larger-scale aquifer hydraulics obtained from pumping tests, have the potential for improving aquifer characterization and modeling needed for feasibility assessments and the design and optimization of the operation of managed aquifer recharge systems.

  8. Borehole seismic in crystalline environment at the COSC-project in Central Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauß, Felix; Hedin, Peter; Almqvist, Bjarne; Simon, Helge; Giese, Rüdiger; Buske, Stefan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning

    2016-04-01

    As support for the COSC drilling project (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), an extensive seismic survey took place during September and October 2014 in and around the newly drilled 2.5 km deep COSC-1 borehole. The main aim of the COSC project is to better understand orogenic processes in past and recently active mountain belts. For this, the Scandinavian Caledonides provide a well preserved case of Paleozoic collision of the Laurentia and Baltica continental plates. Surface geology and geophysical data provide knowledge about the geometry of the Caledonian structure. The reflectivity geometry of the upper crust was imaged by regional seismic data and the resistivity structure by magnetotelluric methods. The crustal model was refined by seismic pre-site surveys in 2010 and 2011 to define the exact position of the first borehole, COSC-1. The completely cored COSC-1 borehole was drilled in Central Sweden through the Seve Nappe Complex, a part of the Middle Allochthon of the Scandinavian Caledonides that comprises units originating from the outer margin of Baltica. The upper 2350 m consist of alternating layers of highly strained felsic and calc-silicate gneisses and amphibolites. Below 1710 m the mylonite content increases successively and indicates a high strain zone of at least 800 m thickness. At ca. 2350 m, the borehole leaves the Seve Nappe Complex and enters underlying mylonitised lower grade metasedimentary units of unknown tectonostratigraphic position. The seismic survey consisted of three parts: a limited 3D-survey, a high resolution zero-offset VSP (vertical seismic profile) and a multi-azimuthal walkaway VSP (MSP) experiment with sources and receivers along three surface profiles and receivers at seven different depth levels of the borehole. For the zero-offset VSP (ZVSP) a hydraulic hammer source was used and activated over a period of 20 s as a sequence of impacts with increasing hit frequency. The wave field was recorded with 3

  9. The Research on Borehole Stability in Depleted Reservoir and Caprock: Using the Geophysics Logging Data

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Jingen; Luo, Yong; Guo, Shisheng; Zhang, Haishan; Tan, Qiang; Zhao, Kai; Hu, Lianbo

    2013-01-01

    Long-term oil and gas exploitation in reservoir will lead to pore pressure depletion. The pore pressure depletion will result in changes of horizontal in-situ stresses both in reservoirs and caprock formations. Using the geophysics logging data, the magnitude and orientation changes of horizontal stresses in caprock and reservoir are studied. Furthermore, the borehole stability can be affected by in-situ stresses changes. To address this issue, the dehydration from caprock to reservoir and roof effect of caprock are performed. Based on that, the influence scope and magnitude of horizontal stresses reduction in caprock above the depleted reservoirs are estimated. The effects of development on borehole stability in both reservoir and caprock are studied step by step with the above geomechanical model. PMID:24228021

  10. Portable apparatus and method for assisting in the removal and emplacement of pipe strings in boreholes

    DOEpatents

    Mitchell, Brian R.

    2005-03-22

    A portable pipe installation/removal support apparatus for assisting in the installation/removal of a series of connectable pipe strings from a ground-level borehole. The support apparatus has a base, an upright extending from the base, and, in an exemplary embodiment, a pair of catch arms extending from the upright to define a catch platform. The pair of catch arms serves to hold an upper connector end of a pipe string at an operator-convenient standing elevation by releasably catching an underside of a pipe coupler connecting two pipe strings of the series of connectable pipe strings. This enables an operator to stand upright while coupling/uncoupling the series of connectable pipe strings during the installation/removal thereof from the ground-level borehole. Additionally, a process for installing and a process for removing a series of connectable pipe strings is disclosed utilizing such a support apparatus.

  11. Performance of a Borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelliher, Warren C.; Carlberg, Ingrid A.; Elam, W. T.; Willard-Schmoe, Ella

    2008-01-01

    We have designed and constructed a borehole X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) as part of the Mars Subsurface Access program [1]. It can be used to determine the composition of the Mars regolith at various depths by insertion into a pre-drilled borehole. The primary requirements and performance metrics for the instrument are to obtain parts-per-million (ppm) lower limits of detection over a wide range of elements in the periodic table (Magnesium to Lead). Power consumption during data collection was also measured. The prototype instrument is complete and preliminary testing has been performed. Terrestrial soil Standard Reference Materials were used as the test samples. Detection limits were about 10 weight ppm for most elements, with light elements being higher, up to 1.4 weight percent for magnesium. Power consumption (excluding ground support components) was 12 watts.

  12. Horizontal compressive stress regime on the northern Cascadia margin inferred from borehole breakouts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, M.; Malinverno, A.; Wang, K.; Goldberg, D.; Guerin, G.

    2016-09-01

    During Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 311 five boreholes were drilled across the accretionary prism of the northern Cascadia subduction zone. Logging-while-drilling borehole images are utilized to determine breakout orientations to define maximum horizontal compressive stress orientations. Additionally, wireline logging data at two of these sites and from Site 889 of Ocean Drilling Program Leg 146 are used to define breakouts from differences in the aperture of caliper arms. At most sites, the maximum horizontal compressive stress SHmax is margin-normal, consistent with plate convergence. Deviations from this trend reflect local structural perturbations. Our results do not constrain stress magnitudes. If the margin-normal compressional stress is greater than the vertical stress, the margin-normal SHmax direction we observe may reflect current locking of a velocity-weakening shallow megathrust and thus potential for trench-breaching, tsunamigenic rupture in a future megathrust earthquake.

  13. The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes, Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, G.G.; Brikowski, T.H.

    1993-12-01

    The origin of elevated water levels in emplacement boreholes at Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, is uncertain. If the water is from naturally perched aquifers, then presumed ``above water table`` weapons tests may directly impact the groundwater quality. The purpose of this study is to determine the probable source of the elevated water in boreholes by comparing modeled seepage of infiltrated drilling fluids, and the seepage from a simulated naturally perched aquifer with the observed water level history. In the model, large volumes of water are infiltrated, yet return flow of fluids back into the hole stops within three days after the end of drilling and is insufficient to produce observed standing water. Return flow is limited for two reasons: (1) the volume of the saturated rock next to the borehole is small; (2) pressure head gradient direct unsaturated flow away from the borehole. Simulation of seepage from a naturally perched aquifer readily reproduces the observed water levels.

  14. 30 CFR 75.1321 - Permits for firing more than 20 boreholes and for use of nonpermissible blasting units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... miners in the mine from the hazards of methane and other explosive gases during each multiple shot, e.g... of nonpermissible blasting units. (a) Applications for permits for firing more than 20 boreholes in...

  15. Correction of steel casing effect for density log using numerical and experimental methods in the slim borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Kim, Jongman; Won, Byeongho

    2015-03-10

    Density log is widely applied for a variety of fields such as the petroleum exploration, mineral exploration, and geotechnical survey. The logging condition of density log is normally open holes but there are frequently cased boreholes. The primary calibration curve by slim hole logging manufacturer is normally the calibration curves for the variation of borehole diameter. In this study, we have performed the correction of steel casing effects using numerical and experimental methods. We have performed numerical modeling using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code based on Monte Carlo method, and field experimental method from open and cased hole log. In this study, we used the FDGS (Formation Density Gamma Sonde) for slim borehole with a 100 mCi 137Cs source, three inch borehole and steel casing. The casing effect between numerical and experimental method is well matched.

  16. Pneumatic testing in 45-degree-inclined boreholes in ash-flow tuff near Superior, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, G.D.

    1995-11-01

    Matrix permeability values determined by single-hole pneumatic testing in nonfractured ash-flow tuff ranged from 5.1 to 20.3*10{sup -16} m{sup 2} (meters squared), depending on the gas-injection rate and analysis method used. Results from the single-hole tests showed several significant correlations between permeability and injection rate and between permeability and test order. Fracture permeability values determined by cross-hole pneumatic testing in fractured ash-flow tuff ranged from 0.81 to 3.49 x 10{sup -14} m{sup 2}, depending on injection rate and analysis method used. Results from the cross-hole tests monitor intervals showed no significant correlation between permeability and injection rate; however, results from the injection interval showed a significant correlation between injection rate and permeability. Porosity estimates from the cross-hole testing range from 0.8 to 2.0 percent. The maximum temperature change associated with the pneumatic testing was 1.2{degrees}C measured in the injection interval during cross-hole testing. The maximum temperature change in the guard and monitor intervals was 0.1{degrees}C. The maximum error introduced into the permeability values due to temperature fluctuations is approximately 4 percent. Data from temperature monitoring in the borehole indicated a positive correlation between the temperature decrease in the injection interval during recovery testing and the gas-injection rate. The thermocouple psychrometers indicated that water vapor was condensing in the boreholes during testing. The psychrometers in the guard and monitor intervals detected the drier injected gas as an increase in the dry bulb reading. The relative humidity in the test intervals was always higher than the upper measurement limit of the psychrometers. Although the installation of the packer system may have altered the water balance of the borehole, the gas-injection testing resulted in minimal or no changes in the borehole relative humidity.

  17. The Effect of Borehole Flow on Salinity Profiles From Deep Monitor Wells in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotzoll, K.; Hunt, C. D.; El-Kadi, A. I.

    2008-12-01

    Ground-water resource management in Hawaii is based partly on salinity profiles from deep wells that are used to monitor the thickness of freshwater lenses and the transition zone between freshwater and saltwater. Vertical borehole flow in these wells may confound understanding of the actual salinity-depth profiles in the basaltic aquifers and lead to m