Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for spatially correlated data
Olea, R.A.; Pawlowsky-Glahn, V.
2009-01-01
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is a convenient method for investigating whether two underlying univariate probability distributions can be regarded as undistinguishable from each other or whether an underlying probability distribution differs from a hypothesized distribution. Application of the test requires that the sample be unbiased and the outcomes be independent and identically distributed, conditions that are violated in several degrees by spatially continuous attributes, such as topographical elevation. A generalized form of the bootstrap method is used here for the purpose of modeling the distribution of the statistic D of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The innovation is in the resampling, which in the traditional formulation of bootstrap is done by drawing from the empirical sample with replacement presuming independence. The generalization consists of preparing resamplings with the same spatial correlation as the empirical sample. This is accomplished by reading the value of unconditional stochastic realizations at the sampling locations, realizations that are generated by simulated annealing. The new approach was tested by two empirical samples taken from an exhaustive sample closely following a lognormal distribution. One sample was a regular, unbiased sample while the other one was a clustered, preferential sample that had to be preprocessed. Our results show that the p-value for the spatially correlated case is always larger that the p-value of the statistic in the absence of spatial correlation, which is in agreement with the fact that the information content of an uncorrelated sample is larger than the one for a spatially correlated sample of the same size. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.
Weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov test: accounting for the tails.
Chicheportiche, Rémy; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe
2012-10-01
Accurate goodness-of-fit tests for the extreme tails of empirical distributions is a very important issue, relevant in many contexts, including geophysics, insurance, and finance. We have derived exact asymptotic results for a generalization of the large-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, well suited to testing these extreme tails. In passing, we have rederived and made more precise the approximate limit solutions found originally in unrelated fields, first in [L. Turban, J. Phys. A 25, 127 (1992)] and later in [P. L. Krapivsky and S. Redner, Am. J. Phys. 64, 546 (1996)].
Weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov test: Accounting for the tails
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chicheportiche, Rémy; Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe
2012-10-01
Accurate goodness-of-fit tests for the extreme tails of empirical distributions is a very important issue, relevant in many contexts, including geophysics, insurance, and finance. We have derived exact asymptotic results for a generalization of the large-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, well suited to testing these extreme tails. In passing, we have rederived and made more precise the approximate limit solutions found originally in unrelated fields, first in [L. Turban, J. Phys. A1361-644710.1088/0305-4470/25/3/008 25, 127 (1992)] and later in [P. L. Krapivsky and S. Redner, Am. J. Phys.AJPIAS0002-950510.1119/1.18152 64, 546 (1996)].
A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for the molecular clock based on Bayesian ensembles of phylogenies
Antoneli, Fernando; Passos, Fernando M.; Lopes, Luciano R.
2018-01-01
Divergence date estimates are central to understand evolutionary processes and depend, in the case of molecular phylogenies, on tests of molecular clocks. Here we propose two non-parametric tests of strict and relaxed molecular clocks built upon a framework that uses the empirical cumulative distribution (ECD) of branch lengths obtained from an ensemble of Bayesian trees and well known non-parametric (one-sample and two-sample) Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) goodness-of-fit test. In the strict clock case, the method consists in using the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test to directly test if the phylogeny is clock-like, in other words, if it follows a Poisson law. The ECD is computed from the discretized branch lengths and the parameter λ of the expected Poisson distribution is calculated as the average branch length over the ensemble of trees. To compensate for the auto-correlation in the ensemble of trees and pseudo-replication we take advantage of thinning and effective sample size, two features provided by Bayesian inference MCMC samplers. Finally, it is observed that tree topologies with very long or very short branches lead to Poisson mixtures and in this case we propose the use of the two-sample KS test with samples from two continuous branch length distributions, one obtained from an ensemble of clock-constrained trees and the other from an ensemble of unconstrained trees. Moreover, in this second form the test can also be applied to test for relaxed clock models. The use of a statistically equivalent ensemble of phylogenies to obtain the branch lengths ECD, instead of one consensus tree, yields considerable reduction of the effects of small sample size and provides a gain of power. PMID:29300759
Huang, Shuguang; Yeo, Adeline A; Li, Shuyu Dan
2007-10-01
The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is a statistical method often used for comparing two distributions. In high-throughput screening (HTS) studies, such distributions usually arise from the phenotype of independent cell populations. However, the K-S test has been criticized for being overly sensitive in applications, and it often detects a statistically significant difference that is not biologically meaningful. One major reason is that there is a common phenomenon in HTS studies that systematic drifting exists among the distributions due to reasons such as instrument variation, plate edge effect, accidental difference in sample handling, etc. In particular, in high-content cellular imaging experiments, the location shift could be dramatic since some compounds themselves are fluorescent. This oversensitivity of the K-S test is particularly overpowered in cellular assays where the sample sizes are very big (usually several thousands). In this paper, a modified K-S test is proposed to deal with the nonspecific location-shift problem in HTS studies. Specifically, we propose that the distributions are "normalized" by density curve alignment before the K-S test is conducted. In applications to simulation data and real experimental data, the results show that the proposed method has improved specificity.
Sequential detection of influenza epidemics by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test
2012-01-01
Background Influenza is a well known and common human respiratory infection, causing significant morbidity and mortality every year. Despite Influenza variability, fast and reliable outbreak detection is required for health resource planning. Clinical health records, as published by the Diagnosticat database in Catalonia, host useful data for probabilistic detection of influenza outbreaks. Methods This paper proposes a statistical method to detect influenza epidemic activity. Non-epidemic incidence rates are modeled against the exponential distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimate for the decaying factor λ is calculated. The sequential detection algorithm updates the parameter as new data becomes available. Binary epidemic detection of weekly incidence rates is assessed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on the absolute difference between the empirical and the cumulative density function of the estimated exponential distribution with significance level 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. Results The main advantage with respect to other approaches is the adoption of a statistically meaningful test, which provides an indicator of epidemic activity with an associated probability. The detection algorithm was initiated with parameter λ0 = 3.8617 estimated from the training sequence (corresponding to non-epidemic incidence rates of the 2008-2009 influenza season) and sequentially updated. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test detected the following weeks as epidemic for each influenza season: 50−10 (2008-2009 season), 38−50 (2009-2010 season), weeks 50−9 (2010-2011 season) and weeks 3 to 12 for the current 2011-2012 season. Conclusions Real medical data was used to assess the validity of the approach, as well as to construct a realistic statistical model of weekly influenza incidence rates in non-epidemic periods. For the tested data, the results confirmed the ability of the algorithm to detect the start and the end of epidemic periods. In general, the proposed test could be applied to other data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durato, M. V.; Albano, A. M.; Rapp, P. E.; Nawang, S. A.
2015-06-01
The validity of ERPs as indices of stable neurophysiological traits is partially dependent on their stability over time. Previous studies on ERP stability, however, have reported diverse stability estimates despite using the same component scoring methods. This present study explores a novel approach in investigating the longitudinal stability of average ERPs—that is, by treating the ERP waveform as a time series and then applying Euclidean Distance and Kolmogorov-Smirnov analyses to evaluate the similarity or dissimilarity between the ERP time series of different sessions or run pairs. Nonlinear dynamical analysis show that in the absence of a change in medical condition, the average ERPs of healthy human adults are highly longitudinally stable—as evaluated by both the Euclidean distance and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test.
Power of tests of normality for detecting contaminated normal samples
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Thode, H.C. Jr.; Smith, L.A.; Finch, S.J.
1981-01-01
Seventeen tests of normality or goodness of fit were evaluated for power at detecting a contaminated normal sample. This study used 1000 replications each of samples of size 12, 17, 25, 33, 50, and 100 from six different contaminated normal distributions. The kurtosis test was the most powerful over all sample sizes and contaminations. The Hogg and weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were second. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov, chi-squared, Anderson-Darling, and Cramer-von-Mises tests had very low power at detecting contaminated normal random variables. Tables of the power of the tests and the power curves of certain tests are given.
Goodness-of-fit tests for discrete data: a review and an application to a health impairment scale.
Horn, S D
1977-03-01
We review the advantages and disadvantages of several goodness-of-fit tests which may be used with discrete data: the multinomial test, the likelihood ratio test, the X2 test, the two-stage X2 test and the discrete Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Although the X2 test is the best known and most widely used of these tests, its use with small sample sizes is controversial. If one has data which fall into ordered categories, then the discrete Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is an exact test which uses the information from the ordering and can be used for small sample sizes. We illustrate these points with an example of several analyses of health impairment data.
K-S Test for Goodness of Fit and Waiting Times for Fatal Plane Accidents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gwanyama, Philip Wagala
2005-01-01
The Kolmogorov?Smirnov (K-S) test for goodness of fit was developed by Kolmogorov in 1933 [1] and Smirnov in 1939 [2]. Its procedures are suitable for testing the goodness of fit of a data set for most probability distributions regardless of sample size [3-5]. These procedures, modified for the exponential distribution by Lilliefors [5] and…
Van Bockstaele, Femke; Janssens, Ann; Piette, Anne; Callewaert, Filip; Pede, Valerie; Offner, Fritz; Verhasselt, Bruno; Philippé, Jan
2006-07-15
ZAP-70 has been proposed as a surrogate marker for immunoglobulin heavy-chain variable region (IgV(H)) mutation status, which is known as a prognostic marker in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The flow cytometric analysis of ZAP-70 suffers from difficulties in standardization and interpretation. We applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistical test to make analysis more straightforward. We examined ZAP-70 expression by flow cytometry in 53 patients with CLL. Analysis was performed as initially described by Crespo et al. (New England J Med 2003; 348:1764-1775) and alternatively by application of the KS statistical test comparing T cells with B cells. Receiver-operating-characteristics (ROC)-curve analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values for ZAP-70 measured by the two approaches. ZAP-70 protein expression was compared with ZAP-70 mRNA expression measured by a quantitative PCR (qPCR) and with the IgV(H) mutation status. Both flow cytometric analyses correlated well with the molecular technique and proved to be of equal value in predicting the IgV(H) mutation status. Applying the KS test is reproducible, simple, straightforward, and overcomes a number of difficulties encountered in the Crespo-method. The KS statistical test is an essential part of the software delivered with modern routine analytical flow cytometers and is well suited for analysis of ZAP-70 expression in CLL. (c) 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology.
Kitkungvan, Danai; Lai, Dejian; Zhu, Hongjian; Roby, Amanda E; Johnson, Nils P; Steptoe, Derek D; Patel, Monica B; Kirkeeide, Richard; Gould, K Lance
2017-02-01
Different adenosine stress imaging protocols have not been systemically validated for absolute myocardial perfusion and coronary flow reserve (CFR) by positron emission tomography, where submaximal stress precludes assessing physiological severity of coronary artery disease. In 127 volunteers, serial rest-stress positron emission tomography scans using rubidium-82 with various adenosine infusion protocols identified (1) the protocol with maximum stress perfusion and CFR, (2) test-retest precision in same subject, (3) stress perfusion and CFR after adenosine compared with dipyridamole, (4) heterogeneity of coronary flow capacity combining stress perfusion and CFR, and (5) potential relevance for patients with risk factors or coronary artery disease. The adenosine 6-minute infusion with rubidium-82 injection at 3 minutes caused CFR that was significantly 15.7% higher than the 4-minute adenosine infusion with rubidium-82 injection at 2 minutes and significantly more homogeneous by Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis for histograms of 1344 pixel range of perfusion in paired positron emission tomographies. In a coronary artery disease cohort separate from volunteers of this study, compared with the 3/6-minute protocol, the 2/4-minute adenosine protocol would potentially have changed 332 of 1732 (19%) positron emission tomographies at low-risk physiological severity CFR ≥2.3 to CFR <2.0, thereby implying high-risk quantitative severity potentially appropriate for interventions but because of suboptimal stress of the 2/4 protocol in some patients. The 6-minute adenosine infusion with rubidium-82 activation at 3 minutes produced CFR that averaged 15.7% higher than that in the 2/4-minute protocol, thereby potentially providing essential information for personalized management in some patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Correlation between Na/K ratio and electron densities in blood samples of breast cancer patients.
Topdağı, Ömer; Toker, Ozan; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Bursalıoğlu, Ertuğrul Osman; Öz, Ersoy; Eyecioğlu, Önder; Demir, Mustafa; İçelli, Orhan
2018-05-31
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the electron densities and Na/K ratio which has important role in breast cancer disease. Determinations of sodium and potassium concentrations in blood samples performed with inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Electron density values of blood samples were determined via ZXCOM. Statistical analyses were performed for electron densities and Na/K ratio including Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality tests, Spearman's rank correlation test and Mann-Whitney U test. It was found that the electron densities significantly differ between control and breast cancer groups. In addition, statistically significant positive correlation was found between the electron density and Na/K ratios in breast cancer group.
Statistical homogeneity tests applied to large data sets from high energy physics experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trusina, J.; Franc, J.; Kůs, V.
2017-12-01
Homogeneity tests are used in high energy physics for the verification of simulated Monte Carlo samples, it means if they have the same distribution as a measured data from particle detector. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, χ 2, and Anderson-Darling tests are the most used techniques to assess the samples’ homogeneity. Since MC generators produce plenty of entries from different models, each entry has to be re-weighted to obtain the same sample size as the measured data has. One way of the homogeneity testing is through the binning. If we do not want to lose any information, we can apply generalized tests based on weighted empirical distribution functions. In this paper, we propose such generalized weighted homogeneity tests and introduce some of their asymptotic properties. We present the results based on numerical analysis which focuses on estimations of the type-I error and power of the test. Finally, we present application of our homogeneity tests to data from the experiment DØ in Fermilab.
An alternative to traditional goodness-of-fit tests for discretely measured continuous data
KaDonna C. Randolph; Bill Seaver
2007-01-01
Traditional goodness-of-fit tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and x2 tests are easily applied to data of the continuous or discrete type, respectively. Occasionally, however, the case arises when continuous data are recorded into discrete categories due to an imprecise measurement system. In this instance, the traditional goodness-of-fit...
Appropriate Statistical Analysis for Two Independent Groups of Likert-Type Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warachan, Boonyasit
2011-01-01
The objective of this research was to determine the robustness and statistical power of three different methods for testing the hypothesis that ordinal samples of five and seven Likert categories come from equal populations. The three methods are the two sample t-test with equal variances, the Mann-Whitney test, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In…
A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic
Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing
2016-01-01
Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals. PMID:27413364
A Fast Framework for Abrupt Change Detection Based on Binary Search Trees and Kolmogorov Statistic.
Qi, Jin-Peng; Qi, Jie; Zhang, Qing
2016-01-01
Change-Point (CP) detection has attracted considerable attention in the fields of data mining and statistics; it is very meaningful to discuss how to quickly and efficiently detect abrupt change from large-scale bioelectric signals. Currently, most of the existing methods, like Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and so forth, are time-consuming, especially for large-scale datasets. In this paper, we propose a fast framework for abrupt change detection based on binary search trees (BSTs) and a modified KS statistic, named BSTKS (binary search trees and Kolmogorov statistic). In this method, first, two binary search trees, termed as BSTcA and BSTcD, are constructed by multilevel Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT); second, three search criteria are introduced in terms of the statistic and variance fluctuations in the diagnosed time series; last, an optimal search path is detected from the root to leaf nodes of two BSTs. The studies on both the synthetic time series samples and the real electroencephalograph (EEG) recordings indicate that the proposed BSTKS can detect abrupt change more quickly and efficiently than KS, t-statistic (t), and Singular-Spectrum Analyses (SSA) methods, with the shortest computation time, the highest hit rate, the smallest error, and the highest accuracy out of four methods. This study suggests that the proposed BSTKS is very helpful for useful information inspection on all kinds of bioelectric time series signals.
Nucleation and growth in one dimension. I. The generalized Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jun, Suckjoon; Zhang, Haiyang; Bechhoefer, John
2005-01-01
Motivated by a recent application of the Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (KJMA) model to the study of DNA replication, we consider the one-dimensional (1D) version of this model. We generalize previous work to the case where the nucleation rate is an arbitrary function I(t) and obtain analytical results for the time-dependent distributions of various quantities (such as the island distribution). We also present improved computer simulation algorithms to study the 1D KJMA model. The analytical results and simulations are in excellent agreement.
Estimation of a closed population size of tadpoles in temporary pond.
Lima, M S C S; Pederassi, J; Souza, C A S
2018-05-01
The practice of capture-recapture to estimate the diversity is well known to many animal groups, however this practice in the larval phase of anuran amphibians is incipient. We aimed at evaluating the Lincoln estimator, Venn diagram and Bayes theorem in the inference of population size of a larval phase anurocenose from lotic environment. The adherence of results was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The marking of tadpoles for later recapture and methods measurement was made with eosin methylene blue. When comparing the results of Lincoln-Petersen estimator corresponding to the Venn diagram and Bayes theorem, we detected percentage differences per sampling, i.e., the proportion of sampled anuran genera is kept among the three methods, although the values are numerically different. By submitting these results to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test we have found no significant differences. Therefore, no matter the estimator, the measured value is adherent and estimates the total population. Together with the marking methodology, which did not change the behavior of tadpoles, the present study helps to fill the need of more studies on larval phase of amphibians in Brazil, especially in semi-arid northeast.
Equivalent refractive-index structure constant of non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Li, Yujie; Zhu, Wenyue; Wu, Xiaoqing; Rao, Ruizhong
2015-09-07
The relationship between the non-Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant and the Kolmogorov refractive-index structure constant is derived by using the refractive-index structure function and the variance of refractive-index fluctuations. It shows that the non-Kolmogorov structure constant is proportional to the Kolmogorov structure constant and the scaling factor depends on the outer scale and the spectral power law. For a fixed Kolmogorov structure constant, the non-Kolmogorov structure constant increases with a increasing outer scale for the power law less than 11/3, the trend is opposite for the power law greater than 11/3. This equivalent relation provides a way of obtaining the non-Kolmogorov structure constant by using the Kolmogorov structure constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okeniyi, Joshua Olusegun; Nwadialo, Christopher Chukwuweike; Olu-Steven, Folusho Emmanuel; Ebinne, Samaru Smart; Coker, Taiwo Ebenezer; Okeniyi, Elizabeth Toyin; Ogbiye, Adebanji Samuel; Durotoye, Taiwo Omowunmi; Badmus, Emmanuel Omotunde Oluwasogo
2017-02-01
This paper investigates C3H7NO2S (Cysteine) effect on the inhibition of reinforcing steel corrosion in concrete immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4, for simulating industrial/microbial environment. Different C3H7NO2S concentrations were admixed, in duplicates, in steel-reinforced concrete samples that were partially immersed in the acidic sulphate environment. Electrochemical monitoring techniques of open circuit potential, as per ASTM C876-91 R99, and corrosion rate, by linear polarization resistance, were then employed for studying anticorrosion effect in steel-reinforced concrete samples by the organic hydrocarbon admixture. Analyses of electrochemical test-data followed ASTM G16-95 R04 prescriptions including probability distribution modeling with significant testing by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and student's t-tests statistics. Results established that all datasets of corrosion potential distributed like the Normal, the Gumbel and the Weibull distributions but that only the Weibull model described all the corrosion rate datasets in the study, as per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test-statistics. Results of the student's t-test showed that differences of corrosion test-data between duplicated samples with the same C3H7NO2S concentrations were not statistically significant. These results indicated that 0.06878 M C3H7NO2S exhibited optimal inhibition efficiency η = 90.52±1.29% on reinforcing steel corrosion in the concrete samples immersed in 0.5 M H2SO4, simulating industrial/microbial service-environment.
Kolmogorov and scalar spectral regimes in numerical turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kerr, R. M.
1985-01-01
Velocity and passive-scalar spectra for turbulent fields generated by a forced three-dimensional simulation and Taylormicroscale Reynolds numbers up to 83 are shown to have distinct spectral regimes, including a Kolmogorov inertial subrange. Both one- and three-dimensional spectra are shown for comparison with experiment and theory, respectively. When normalized by the Kolmogorov dissipation scales velocity spectra collapse to a single curve and a high-wavenumber bulge is seen. The bulge leads to an artificially high Kolmogorov constant, but is consistent with recent measurements of the velocity spectrum in the dissipation regime and the velocity-derivative skewness. Scalar spectra, when normalized by the Oboukov-Corrsin scales, collapse to curves which depend only on Prandtl number and show a universal inertial-convective subrange, independent of Prandtl number. When normalized by the Batchelor scales, the scalar spectra show a universal dissipation regime which is independent of Prandtl numbers from 0.1 to 1.0. The time development of velocity spectra is illustrated by energy-transfer spectra in which distinct pulses propagate to high wavenumbers.
Utility of Reference Change Values for Delta Check Limits.
Ko, Dae-Hyun; Park, Hae-Il; Hyun, Jungwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Min-Jeong; Shin, Dong Hoon
2017-10-01
To assess the utility of reference change values (RCVs) as delta check limits. A total of 1,650,518 paired results for 23 general chemistry test results from June 1, 2014, to October 31, 2016, were analyzed. The RCVs for each analyte were calculated from the analytical imprecision and within-subject biological variation. The percent differences between two consecutive results in one patient were categorized into one of four groups: outpatients, inpatients, emergency care, and general health care. For each, 2.5th and 97.5th percentile values were computed and compared with their RCVs. The distributions were assessed for normality using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Most of the estimated limits were larger than the corresponding RCVs and, furthermore, with notable differences across the groups. Patients in the emergency care group usually demonstrated larger delta percent values than those in the other groups. None of the distributions of the percent differences passed tests of normality when subjected to Kolmogorov-Smirnov analysis. Comparison of estimated RCVs and real-world patient data revealed the pitfalls of applying RCVs in clinical laboratories. Laboratory managers should be aware of the limitations of RCVs and exercise caution when using them. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim
2008-01-01
Nine statistical strategies for selecting equating functions in an equivalent groups design were evaluated. The strategies of interest were likelihood ratio chi-square tests, regression tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, and significance tests for equated score differences. The most accurate strategies in the study were the likelihood ratio tests…
Distributional Tests for Gravitational Waves from Core-Collapse Supernovae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szczepanczyk, Marek; LIGO Collaboration
2017-01-01
Core-Collapse Supernovae (CCSN) are spectacular and violent deaths of massive stars. CCSN are some of the most interesting candidates for producing gravitational-waves (GW) transients. Current published results focus on methodologies to detect single GW unmodelled transients. The advantages of these tests are that they do not require a background for which we have an analytical model. Examples of non-parametric tests that will be compared are Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney, chi squared, and asymmetric chi squared. I will present methodological results using publicly released LIGO-S6 data recolored to the design sensitivity of Advanced LIGO and that will be time lagged between interferometers sites so that the resulting coincident events are not GW.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazirah S., Z.; Maizura, I.; Rajinder, S.; Mohd Isa Z., A.; Ismanizan, I.
2014-09-01
A study was carried out to generate a linkage map of oil palm dura x pisifera (DXP) population. A subset of sample from a DXP mapping family was screened using 325 SSR primers, of which 221 were informative. To date, 150 SSRs have been genotyped across the entire DxP population via capillary sequencer, where 73 SSRs had 1:1 segregation ratio, 64 had 1:1:1:1, 3 had 3:1 and ten had 1:2:1 segregation ratios. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests by SPSS revealed that most of the bunch quality components had normal distribution which fulfilled one of the pre-requisites to carry out phenotype-genotype correlation association.
Giner, Anna; Aldaba, Mikel; Arjona, Montserrat; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume
2015-10-01
To evaluate the usefulness of an infrared open-field autorefractor as a predictor of the refractive error when fitting multifocal contact lenses (MCL). Objective and subjective measurements of the non-cycloplegic distance refractive error were compared in patients wearing MCL. We used the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor for the objective measurements. Three commercially available MCL were tested. Twenty-one eyes of sixteen healthy adults were included in the study. Over-refraction was evaluated in terms of spherical equivalent (SE) and astigmatic vectors (J0 and J45). The mean difference±SD of each parameter was calculated. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to verify the normal distribution. Pearson's correlation, Bland and Altman plot and paired sample t test were used to compare the results obtained with both methods. The mean difference between objective and subjective results of the SE over-refraction was 0.13±0.42D; for astigmatic vectors J0 and J45 were 0.03±0.32D and -0.00±0.17D, respectively. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed a normal distribution for all parameters. The highest Pearson's correlation coefficients were obtained for the SE with values of 0.98 without MCL and 0.97 with MCL. The lowest were obtained for J45 with values of 0.65 without MCL and 0.75 with MCL. Significant correlations were obtained for each parameter. The paired sample t test failed to show significant differences in analyzed parameters except for J0 without MCL. The Grand Seiko WAM-5500 can be used as a screening method of over-refraction in the clinical fitting of MCL. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoon, Dukyong; Schuemie, Martijn J; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Dong Ki; Park, Man Young; Ahn, Eun Kyoung; Jung, Eun-Young; Park, Dong Kyun; Cho, Soo Yeon; Shin, Dahye; Hwang, Yeonsoo; Park, Rae Woong
2016-03-01
Distributed research networks (DRNs) afford statistical power by integrating observational data from multiple partners for retrospective studies. However, laboratory test results across care sites are derived using different assays from varying patient populations, making it difficult to simply combine data for analysis. Additionally, existing normalization methods are not suitable for retrospective studies. We normalized laboratory results from different data sources by adjusting for heterogeneous clinico-epidemiologic characteristics of the data and called this the subgroup-adjusted normalization (SAN) method. Subgroup-adjusted normalization renders the means and standard deviations of distributions identical under population structure-adjusted conditions. To evaluate its performance, we compared SAN with existing methods for simulated and real datasets consisting of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, serum potassium, and total bilirubin. Various clinico-epidemiologic characteristics can be applied together in SAN. For simplicity of comparison, age and gender were used to adjust population heterogeneity in this study. In simulations, SAN had the lowest standardized difference in means (SDM) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values for all tests (p < 0.05). In a real dataset, SAN had the lowest SDM and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values for blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, hemoglobin, and serum potassium, and the lowest SDM for serum creatinine (p < 0.05). Subgroup-adjusted normalization performed better than normalization using other methods. The SAN method is applicable in a DRN environment and should facilitate analysis of data integrated across DRN partners for retrospective observational studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
One-sided truncated sequential t-test: application to natural resource sampling
Gary W. Fowler; William G. O' Regan
1974-01-01
A new procedure for constructing one-sided truncated sequential t-tests and its application to natural resource sampling are described. Monte Carlo procedures were used to develop a series of one-sided truncated sequential t-tests and the associated approximations to the operating characteristic and average sample number functions. Different truncation points and...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nursamsiah; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Suprijanto, Jusup; Munasik; Yulianto, Bambang
2018-02-01
The information of extreme wave height return level was required for maritime planning and management. The recommendation methods in analyzing extreme wave were better distributed by Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Seasonal variation was often considered in the extreme wave model. This research aims to identify the best model of GPD by considering a seasonal variation of the extreme wave. By using percentile 95 % as the threshold of extreme significant wave height, the seasonal GPD and non-seasonal GPD fitted. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to identify the goodness of fit of the GPD model. The return value from seasonal and non-seasonal GPD was compared with the definition of return value as criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test result shows that GPD fits data very well both seasonal and non-seasonal model. The seasonal return value gives better information about the wave height characteristics.
On the Kolmogorov constant in stochastic turbulence models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinz, Stefan
2002-11-01
The Kolmogorov constant is fundamental in stochastic models of turbulence. To explain the reasons for observed variations of this quantity, it is calculated for two flows by various methods and data. Velocity fluctuations are considered as the sum of contributions due to anisotropy, acceleration fluctuations and stochastic forcing that is controlled by the Kolmogorov constant. It is shown that the effects of anisotropy and acceleration fluctuations are responsible for significant variations of the Kolmogorov constant. It is found near 2 for flows where anisotropy and acceleration fluctuations contribute to the energy budget, and near 6 if such contributions disappear.
Study on constant-step stress accelerated life tests in white organic light-emitting diodes.
Zhang, J P; Liu, C; Chen, X; Cheng, G L; Zhou, A X
2014-11-01
In order to obtain reliability information for a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED), two constant and one step stress tests were conducted with its working current increased. The Weibull function was applied to describe the OLED life distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and its iterative flow chart were used to calculate shape and scale parameters. Furthermore, the accelerated life equation was determined using the least squares method, a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to assess if the white OLED life follows a Weibull distribution, and self-developed software was used to predict the average and the median lifetimes of the OLED. The numerical results indicate that white OLED life conforms to a Weibull distribution, and that the accelerated life equation completely satisfies the inverse power law. The estimated life of a white OLED may provide significant guidelines for its manufacturers and customers. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
On the Universality of the Kolmogorov Constant in Numerical Simulations of Turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeung, P. K.; Zhou, Ye
1997-01-01
Motivated by a recent survey of experimental data, we examine data on the Kolmogorov spectrum constant in numerical simulations of isotropic turbulence, using results both from previous studies and from new direct numerical simulations over a range of Reynolds numbers (up to 240 on the Taylor scale) at grid resolutions up to 512(exp 3). It is noted that in addition to k(exp -5/3) scaling, identification of a true inertial range requires spectral isotropy in the same wavenumber range. We found that a plateau in the compensated three-dimensional energy spectrum at k(eta) approx. = 0.1 - -0.2, commonly used to infer the Kolmogorov constant from the compensated three-dimensional energy spectrum, actually does not represent proper inertial range behavior. Rather, a proper, if still approximate, inertial range emerges at k(eta) approx. = 0.02 - 0.05 when R(sub lambda) increases beyond 140. The new simulations indicate proportionality constants C(sub 1) and C in the one- and three-dimensional energy spectra respectively about 0.60 and 1.62. If the turbulence were perfectly isotropic then use of isotropy relations in wavenumber space (C(sub 1) = 18/55 C) would imply that C(sub 1) approx. = 0.53 for C = 1.62, in excellent agreement with experiments. However the one- and three-dimensional estimates are not fully consistent, because of departures (due to numerical and statistical limitations) from isotropy of the computed spectra at low wavenumbers. The inertial scaling of structure functions in physical space is briefly addressed. Since DNS is still restricted to moderate Reynolds numbers, an accurate evaluation of the Kolmogorov constant is very difficult. We focus on providing new insights on the interpretation of Kolmogorov 1941 similarity in the DNS literature and do not consider issues pertaining to the refined similarity hypotheses of Kolmogorov (K62).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duari, Debiprosad; Gupta, Patrick D.; Narlikar, Jayant V.
1992-01-01
An overview of statistical tests of peaks and periodicities in the redshift distribution of quasi-stellar objects is presented. The tests include the power-spectrum analysis carried out by Burbidge and O'Dell (1972), the generalized Rayleigh test, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the 'comb-tooth' test. The tests reveal moderate to strong evidence for periodicities of 0.0565 and 0.0127-0.0129. The confidence level of the periodicity of 0.0565 in fact marginally increases when redshifts are transformed to the Galactocentric frame. The same periodicity, first noticed in 1968, persists to date with a QSO population that has since grown about 30 times its original size. The prima facie evidence for periodicities in 1n(1 + z) is found to be of no great significance.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zimmerman, Donald W.
2012-01-01
In order to circumvent the influence of correlation in paired-samples and repeated measures experimental designs, researchers typically perform a one-sample Student "t" test on difference scores. That procedure entails some loss of power, because it employs N - 1 degrees of freedom instead of the 2N - 2 degrees of freedom of the…
A Direct Comparison of Two Densely Sampled HIV Epidemics: The UK and Switzerland
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ragonnet-Cronin, Manon L.; Shilaih, Mohaned; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Hodcroft, Emma B.; Böni, Jürg; Fearnhill, Esther; Dunn, David; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Aubert, Vincent; Yang, Wan-Lin; Brown, Alison E.; Lycett, Samantha J.; Kouyos, Roger; Brown, Andrew J. Leigh
2016-09-01
Phylogenetic clustering approaches can elucidate HIV transmission dynamics. Comparisons across countries are essential for evaluating public health policies. Here, we used a standardised approach to compare the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database and the Swiss HIV Cohort Study while maintaining data-protection requirements. Clusters were identified in subtype A1, B and C pol phylogenies. We generated degree distributions for each risk group and compared distributions between countries using Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) tests, Degree Distribution Quantification and Comparison (DDQC) and bootstrapping. We used logistic regression to predict cluster membership based on country, sampling date, risk group, ethnicity and sex. We analysed >8,000 Swiss and >30,000 UK subtype B sequences. At 4.5% genetic distance, the UK was more clustered and MSM and heterosexual degree distributions differed significantly by the KS test. The KS test is sensitive to variation in network scale, and jackknifing the UK MSM dataset to the size of the Swiss dataset removed the difference. Only heterosexuals varied based on the DDQC, due to UK male heterosexuals who clustered exclusively with MSM. Their removal eliminated this difference. In conclusion, the UK and Swiss HIV epidemics have similar underlying dynamics and observed differences in clustering are mainly due to different population sizes.
A New Goodness of Fit Test for Normality with Mean and Variance Unknown.
1981-12-01
be realized, since fewer random deviates may have to be generated in order to get consistent critical values at the desired a levels . Plotting... a - levels n * -straightforward .20 .15 .10 .05 .01 * =reflection ..... 10 * .5710 .5120 .4318 .3208 .1612 10 ** .3670 .2914 .2206 .1388 .0390 25...Population Is Cauchy Actual Population: Cauchy Statistic: Kolmogorov-Smirnov Calculation method Powers at a - levels n = straightforwar .20 .15 .10 .05
Extension of a Kolmogorov Atmospheric Turbulence Model for Time-Based Simulation Implementation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McMinn, John D.
1997-01-01
The development of any super/hypersonic aircraft requires the interaction of a wide variety of technical disciplines to maximize vehicle performance. For flight and engine control system design and development on this class of vehicle, realistic mathematical simulation models of atmospheric turbulence, including winds and the varying thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere, are needed. A model which has been tentatively selected by a government/industry group of flight and engine/inlet controls representatives working on the High Speed Civil Transport is one based on the Kolmogorov spectrum function. This report compares the Dryden and Kolmogorov turbulence forms, and describes enhancements that add functionality to the selected Kolmogorov model. These added features are: an altitude variation of the eddy dissipation rate based on Dryden data, the mapping of the eddy dissipation rate database onto a regular latitude and longitude grid, a method to account for flight at large vehicle attitude angles, and a procedure for transitioning smoothly across turbulence segments.
An investigation of the role of job satisfaction in employees' organizational citizenship behavior.
Talachi, Rahil Kazemi; Gorji, Mohammad Bagher; Boerhannoeddin, Ali Bin
2014-06-01
Job satisfaction, as an integral part of organizational environment, can affect organizational citizenship behavior. Therefore, the present paper aimed at determination of the relationship between these two factors among the employees to provide an appropriate model. The population of this study consisted of all employees of Golestan Province industry, mine and trade organization (Iran), the number of whom is 154, out of which, 120 employees were selected as a sample by the simple random sampling method. For collecting the data, two questionnaires of job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior were applied, and the obtained data was analyzed using the statistical methods of Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman's correlation, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Regression analysis, F-test and T-test. From the results, it was found that the variable of job satisfaction had a significant positive relationship with organizational citizenship behavior and one unit increase in organizational citizenship behavior is resulted from 0.622 unit increase in job satisfaction.
Shear bond strength of one-step self-etch adhesives: pH influence
Poggio, Claudio; Beltrami, Riccardo; Scribante, Andrea; Colombo, Marco; Chiesa, Marco
2015-01-01
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the shear bond strength of four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values to enamel and dentin. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 200 bovine permanent mandibular incisors were used. Four one-step self-etch adhesives with different pH values were tested both on enamel and on dentin: Adper™ Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive (pH = 0.8-1), Futurabond NR (pH=2), G-aenial Bond (pH = 1.5), Clearfil S3 Bond (pH = 2.7). After adhesive systems application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the bonded surface. The specimens were placed in a universal testing machine. The shear bond strength was performed at a cross-head speed of 1 mm/min until the sample rupture. The shear bond strength values (MPa) of the different groups were compared with analysis of variance after that Kolmogorov and Smirnov tests were applied to assess normality of distributions. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: In enamel shear bond strength, the highest shear bond strength values were reported with Futurabond NR (P < 0.01); however, no significant differences were found with Clearfil S3 Bond. The others adhesive systems showed lower shear bond strength values with significant differences between them (P < 0.05). When comparing the dentin shear bond strength, the lowest shear bond strength values were reported with Clearfil S3 Bond (P < 0.05), while there were no significant differences among the other three products (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The pH values of adhesive systems did not influence significantly their shear bond strength to enamel or dentin. PMID:26005459
The range and valence of a real Smirnov function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Timothy; Ross, William T.
2018-02-01
We give a complete description of the possible ranges of real Smirnov functions (quotients of two bounded analytic functions on the open unit disk where the denominator is outer and such that the radial boundary values are real almost everywhere on the unit circle). Our techniques use the theory of unbounded symmetric Toeplitz operators, some general theory of unbounded symmetric operators, classical Hardy spaces, and an application of the uniformization theorem. In addition, we completely characterize the possible valences for these real Smirnov functions when the valence is finite. To do so we construct Riemann surfaces we call disk trees by welding together copies of the unit disk and its complement in the Riemann sphere. We also make use of certain trees we call valence trees that mirror the structure of disk trees.
Best Statistical Distribution of flood variables for Johor River in Malaysia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salarpour Goodarzi, M.; Yusop, Z.; Yusof, F.
2012-12-01
A complex flood event is always characterized by a few characteristics such as flood peak, flood volume, and flood duration, which might be mutually correlated. This study explored the statistical distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume at Rantau Panjang gauging station on the Johor River in Malaysia. Hourly data were recorded for 45 years. The data were analysed based on water year (July - June). Five distributions namely, Log Normal, Generalize Pareto, Log Pearson, Normal and Generalize Extreme Value (GEV) were used to model the distribution of all the three variables. Anderson-Darling and Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit tests were used to evaluate the best fit. Goodness-of-fit tests at 5% level of significance indicate that all the models can be used to model the distribution of peakflow, flood duration and flood volume. However, Generalize Pareto distribution is found to be the most suitable model when tested with the Anderson-Darling test and the, Kolmogorov-Smirnov suggested that GEV is the best for peakflow. The result of this research can be used to improve flood frequency analysis. Comparison between Generalized Extreme Value, Generalized Pareto and Log Pearson distributions in the Cumulative Distribution Function of peakflow
The Kolmogorov-Obukhov Statistical Theory of Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birnir, Björn
2013-08-01
In 1941 Kolmogorov and Obukhov postulated the existence of a statistical theory of turbulence, which allows the computation of statistical quantities that can be simulated and measured in a turbulent system. These are quantities such as the moments, the structure functions and the probability density functions (PDFs) of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper we will outline how to construct this statistical theory from the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation. The additive noise in the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is generic noise given by the central limit theorem and the large deviation principle. The multiplicative noise consists of jumps multiplying the velocity, modeling jumps in the velocity gradient. We first estimate the structure functions of turbulence and establish the Kolmogorov-Obukhov 1962 scaling hypothesis with the She-Leveque intermittency corrections. Then we compute the invariant measure of turbulence, writing the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation as an infinite-dimensional Ito process, and solving the linear Kolmogorov-Hopf functional differential equation for the invariant measure. Finally we project the invariant measure onto the PDF. The PDFs turn out to be the normalized inverse Gaussian (NIG) distributions of Barndorff-Nilsen, and compare well with PDFs from simulations and experiments.
Sample Size Determination for One- and Two-Sample Trimmed Mean Tests
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen; Guo, Jiin-Huarng
2008-01-01
Formulas to determine the necessary sample sizes for parametric tests of group comparisons are available from several sources and appropriate when population distributions are normal. However, in the context of nonnormal population distributions, researchers recommend Yuen's trimmed mean test, but formulas to determine sample sizes have not been…
2016-12-01
KS and AD Statistical Power via Monte Carlo Simulation Statistical power is the probability of correctly rejecting the null hypothesis when the...Select a caveat DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Determining the Statistical Power...real-world data to test the accuracy of the simulation. Statistical comparison of these metrics can be necessary when making such a determination
Self-preservation relation to the Kolmogorov similarity hypotheses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Djenidi, Lyazid; Antonia, Robert A.; Danaila, Luminita
2017-05-01
The relation between self-preservation (SP) and the Kolmogorov similarity hypotheses (Kolmogorov, The local structure of turbulence in incompressible viscous fluid for very large Reynolds numbers, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 30, 301 (1941) [Proc. R. Soc. London A 434, 9 (1991), 10.1098/rspa.1991.0075]) is investigated through the transport equations for the second- and third-order moments of the longitudinal velocity increments [ δ u (r ,t )=u (x ,t )-u (x +r ,t ) , where x ,t , and r are the spatial point and the time and longitudinal separation between two points, respectively]. It is shown that the fluid viscosity ν and the mean turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate ɛ ¯ (the overbar represents an ensemble average) emerge naturally from the equations of motion as controlling parameters for the velocity increment moments when SP is assumed. Consequently, the Kolmogorov length scale η [≡(ν3/ɛ¯) 1 /4] and velocity scale vK [≡(νɛ ¯) 1 /4] also emerge as natural scaling parameters in conformity with SP, indicating that Kolmogorov's first hypothesis is subsumed under the more general hypothesis of SP. Further, the requirement for a very large Reynolds number is also relaxed, at least for the first similarity hypothesis. This requirement however is still necessary to derive the two-thirds law (or the four-fifths law) from the analysis. These analytical results are supported by experimental data in wake, jet, and grid turbulence. An expression for the fourth-order moment of the longitudinal velocity increments (δu ) 4¯ is derived from the analysis carried out in the inertial range. The expression, which involves the product of (δu ) 2 and ∂ δ p /∂ x , does not require the use the volume-averaged dissipation ɛ¯r, introduced by Oboukhov [Oboukhov, Some specific features of atmospheric turbulence, J. Fluid Mech. 13, 77 (1962), 10.1017/S0022112062000506] on a phenomenological basis and used by Kolmogorov to derive his refined similarity hypotheses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angraini, L. M.; Kartasasmita, B.; Dasari, D.
2017-02-01
This study examined the university students’ mathematically critical thinking ability through Concept Attainment Model learning. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene test, t test, ANOVA one and two ways were used to analyse the data. The results of this study showed that (1) there is no difference grade on the student’s mathematical critical thinking ability between experimental group and conventional group as a whole, (2) there is no difference on the students’ mathematical critical thinking ability of experimental classes based on their mathematical early ability (3) there is no interaction between the learning that is used with the students’ mathematical early ability on the students’ mathematical critical thinking ability.
A method to calculate the volume of palatine tonsils.
Prim, M P; De Diego, J I; García-Bermúdez, C; Pérez-Fernández, E; Hardisson, D
2010-12-01
The purpose of this study was to obtain a mathematical formula to calculate the tonsillar volume out of its measurements assessed on surgical specimens. Thirty consecutive surgical specimens of pediatric tonsils were studied. The maximum lengths ("a"), widths ("b"), and depths ("c") of the dissected specimens were measured in millimeters, and the volume of each tonsil was measured in milliliters. One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality of the sample. To calculate the reproducibility of the quantitative variables, intraclass correlation coefficients were used. Two formulas with high reproducibility (coefficient R between 0.75 and 1) were obtained: 1) [a*b*c* 0.5236] with R = 0.8688; and 2) [a*b*b* 0.3428] with R = 0.9073. It is possible to calculate the volume of the palatine tonsils in surgical specimens precisely enough based on their three measures, or their two main measures (length and width).
Art of war hidden in Kolmogorov's equations.
Lauren, Michael K; McIntosh, Gregory C; Perry, Nigel; Moffat, James
2007-03-01
Here we discuss how Kolmogorov's work on turbulence can be used as the inspiration for a new description of battlefield dynamics. The method presented may also represent a new way of describing self-organizing dynamical systems, in place of conventional differential equation approaches. The key finding is that the rate of attrition in a battle appears to be a function of the fractal dimension of the opposing forces. It is suggested that, this being the case, the fractal dimension could be used as a surrogate to represent the organizational efficiency of one force relative to another, commonly called Command and Control.
Abedi, G; Molazadeh-Mahali, Q A; Mirzaian, B; Nadi-Ghara, A; Heidari-Gorji, A M
2016-01-01
Todays people are spending most of their time life in their workplace therefore investigation for job satisfaction related factors is necessities of researches. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of manager's personality traits on employee job satisfaction. The present study is a descriptive and causative-comparative one utilized on a statistical sample of 44 managers and 119 employees. It was examined and analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics of Student's t -test (independent T), one-way ANOVA, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Findings showed that the managers and supervisors with personality traits of extraversion, eagerness to new experiences, adaptability, and dutifulness had higher subordinate employee job satisfaction. However, in the neurotic trait, the result was different. The results showed that job satisfaction was low in the aspect of neurosis. Based on this, it is suggested that, before any selection in managerial and supervisory positions, candidates receive a personality test and in case an individual has a neurotic trait, appropriate interference takes place both in this group and the employees' one.
A Poisson process approximation for generalized K-5 confidence regions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arsham, H.; Miller, D. R.
1982-01-01
One-sided confidence regions for continuous cumulative distribution functions are constructed using empirical cumulative distribution functions and the generalized Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance. The band width of such regions becomes narrower in the right or left tail of the distribution. To avoid tedious computation of confidence levels and critical values, an approximation based on the Poisson process is introduced. This aproximation provides a conservative confidence region; moreover, the approximation error decreases monotonically to 0 as sample size increases. Critical values necessary for implementation are given. Applications are made to the areas of risk analysis, investment modeling, reliability assessment, and analysis of fault tolerant systems.
Kolmogorov Behavior of Near-Wall Turbulence and Its Application in Turbulence Modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shih, Tsan-Hsing; Lumley, John L.
1992-01-01
The near-wall behavior of turbulence is re-examined in a way different from that proposed by Hanjalic and Launder and followers. It is shown that at a certain distance from the wall, all energetic large eddies will reduce to Kolmogorov eddies (the smallest eddies in turbulence). All the important wall parameters, such as friction velocity, viscous length scale, and mean strain rate at the wall, are characterized by Kolmogorov microscales. According to this Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence, the turbulence quantities, such as turbulent kinetic energy, dissipation rate, etc. at the location where the large eddies become Kolmogorov eddies, can be estimated by using both direct numerical simulation (DNS) data and asymptotic analysis of near-wall turbulence. This information will provide useful boundary conditions for the turbulent transport equations. As an example, the concept is incorporated in the standard k-epsilon model which is then applied to channel and boundary flows. Using appropriate boundary conditions (based on Kolmogorov behavior of near-wall turbulence), there is no need for any wall-modification to the k-epsilon equations (including model constants). Results compare very well with the DNS and experimental data.
Gontscharuk, Veronika; Landwehr, Sandra; Finner, Helmut
2015-01-01
The higher criticism (HC) statistic, which can be seen as a normalized version of the famous Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has a long history, dating back to the mid seventies. Originally, HC statistics were used in connection with goodness of fit (GOF) tests but they recently gained some attention in the context of testing the global null hypothesis in high dimensional data. The continuing interest for HC seems to be inspired by a series of nice asymptotic properties related to this statistic. For example, unlike Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, GOF tests based on the HC statistic are known to be asymptotically sensitive in the moderate tails, hence it is favorably applied for detecting the presence of signals in sparse mixture models. However, some questions around the asymptotic behavior of the HC statistic are still open. We focus on two of them, namely, why a specific intermediate range is crucial for GOF tests based on the HC statistic and why the convergence of the HC distribution to the limiting one is extremely slow. Moreover, the inconsistency in the asymptotic and finite behavior of the HC statistic prompts us to provide a new HC test that has better finite properties than the original HC test while showing the same asymptotics. This test is motivated by the asymptotic behavior of the so-called local levels related to the original HC test. By means of numerical calculations and simulations we show that the new HC test is typically more powerful than the original HC test in normal mixture models. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Automatic detection of MLC relative position errors for VMAT using the EPID-based picket fence test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christophides, Damianos; Davies, Alex; Fleckney, Mark
2016-12-01
Multi-leaf collimators (MLCs) ensure the accurate delivery of treatments requiring complex beam fluences like intensity modulated radiotherapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy. The purpose of this work is to automate the detection of MLC relative position errors ⩾0.5 mm using electronic portal imaging device-based picket fence tests and compare the results to the qualitative assessment currently in use. Picket fence tests with and without intentional MLC errors were measured weekly on three Varian linacs. The picket fence images analysed covered a time period ranging between 14-20 months depending on the linac. An algorithm was developed that calculated the MLC error for each leaf-pair present in the picket fence images. The baseline error distributions of each linac were characterised for an initial period of 6 months and compared with the intentional MLC errors using statistical metrics. The distributions of median and one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value exhibited no overlap between baseline and intentional errors and were used retrospectively to automatically detect MLC errors in routine clinical practice. Agreement was found between the MLC errors detected by the automatic method and the fault reports during clinical use, as well as interventions for MLC repair and calibration. In conclusion the method presented provides for full automation of MLC quality assurance, based on individual linac performance characteristics. The use of the automatic method has been shown to provide early warning for MLC errors that resulted in clinical downtime.
Orbital-angular-momentum photons for optical communication in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Mei-Song; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin; Hu, Zheng-Da
2018-06-01
We investigate the effects of non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence on the transmission of orbital-angular-momentum single photons for different turbulence aberrations in optical communication, via the channel capacity. For non-Kolmogorov model, the characteristics of atmosphere turbulence may be determined by different cases, including the increasing altitude, the mutative index-of-refraction structure constant and the power-law exponent of non-Kolmogorov spectrum. It is found that the influences of low-order aberrations, including Z-tilt, defocus, astigmatism, and coma aberrations, are different and the turbulence Z-tilt aberration plays a more important role in the decay of the signal.
A note on the misuses of the variance test in meteorological studies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hazra, Arnab; Bhattacharya, Sourabh; Banik, Pabitra; Bhattacharya, Sabyasachi
2017-12-01
Stochastic modeling of rainfall data is an important area in meteorology. The gamma distribution is a widely used probability model for non-zero rainfall. Typically the choice of the distribution for such meteorological studies is based on two goodness-of-fit tests—the Pearson's Chi-square test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Inspired by the index of dispersion introduced by Fisher (Statistical methods for research workers. Hafner Publishing Company Inc., New York, 1925), Mooley (Mon Weather Rev 101:160-176, 1973) proposed the variance test as a goodness-of-fit measure in this context and a number of researchers have implemented it since then. We show that the asymptotic distribution of the test statistic for the variance test is generally not comparable to any central Chi-square distribution and hence the test is erroneous. We also describe a method for checking the validity of the asymptotic distribution for a class of distributions. We implement the erroneous test on some simulated, as well as real datasets and demonstrate how it leads to some wrong conclusions.
Markov vs. Hurst-Kolmogorov behaviour identification in hydroclimatic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Gournari, Naya; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris
2016-04-01
Hydroclimatic processes are usually modelled either by exponential decay of the autocovariance function, i.e., Markovian behaviour, or power type decay, i.e., long-term persistence (or else Hurst-Kolmogorov behaviour). For the identification and quantification of such behaviours several graphical stochastic tools can be used such as the climacogram (i.e., plot of the variance of the averaged process vs. scale), autocovariance, variogram, power spectrum etc. with the former usually exhibiting smaller statistical uncertainty as compared to the others. However, most methodologies including these tools are based on the expected value of the process. In this analysis, we explore a methodology that combines both the practical use of a graphical representation of the internal structure of the process as well as the statistical robustness of the maximum-likelihood estimation. For validation and illustration purposes, we apply this methodology to fundamental stochastic processes, such as Markov and Hurst-Kolmogorov type ones. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.
Data re-arranging techniques leading to proper variable selections in high energy physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kůs, Václav; Bouř, Petr
2017-12-01
We introduce a new data based approach to homogeneity testing and variable selection carried out in high energy physics experiments, where one of the basic tasks is to test the homogeneity of weighted samples, mainly the Monte Carlo simulations (weighted) and real data measurements (unweighted). This technique is called ’data re-arranging’ and it enables variable selection performed by means of the classical statistical homogeneity tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, or Pearson’s chi-square divergence test. P-values of our variants of homogeneity tests are investigated and the empirical verification through 46 dimensional high energy particle physics data sets is accomplished under newly proposed (equiprobable) quantile binning. Particularly, the procedure of homogeneity testing is applied to re-arranged Monte Carlo samples and real DATA sets measured at the particle accelerator Tevatron in Fermilab at DØ experiment originating from top-antitop quark pair production in two decay channels (electron, muon) with 2, 3, or 4+ jets detected. Finally, the variable selections in the electron and muon channels induced by the re-arranging procedure for homogeneity testing are provided for Tevatron top-antitop quark data sets.
Propagation factors of multi-sinc Schell-model beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
Song, Zhenzhen; Liu, Zhengjun; Zhou, Keya; Sun, Qiongge; Liu, Shutian
2016-01-25
We derive several analytical expressions for the root-mean-square (rms) angular width and the M(2)-factor of the multi-sinc Schell-model (MSSM) beams propagating in non-Kolmogorov turbulence with the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function. Numerical results show that a MSSM beam with dark-hollow far fields in free space has advantage over the one with flat-topped or multi-rings far fields for reducing the turbulence-induced degradation, which will become more obvious with larger dark-hollow size. Beam quality of MSSM beams can be further improved with longer wavelength and larger beam width, or under the condition of weaker turbulence. We also demonstrate that the non-Kolmogorov turbulence has significantly less effect on the MSSM beams than the Gaussian Schell-model beam.
Rochon, Justine; Kieser, Meinhard
2011-11-01
Student's one-sample t-test is a commonly used method when inference about the population mean is made. As advocated in textbooks and articles, the assumption of normality is often checked by a preliminary goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. In a paper recently published by Schucany and Ng it was shown that, for the uniform distribution, screening of samples by a pretest for normality leads to a more conservative conditional Type I error rate than application of the one-sample t-test without preliminary GOF test. In contrast, for the exponential distribution, the conditional level is even more elevated than the Type I error rate of the t-test without pretest. We examine the reasons behind these characteristics. In a simulation study, samples drawn from the exponential, lognormal, uniform, Student's t-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom (t(2) ) and the standard normal distribution that had passed normality screening, as well as the ingredients of the test statistics calculated from these samples, are investigated. For non-normal distributions, we found that preliminary testing for normality may change the distribution of means and standard deviations of the selected samples as well as the correlation between them (if the underlying distribution is non-symmetric), thus leading to altered distributions of the resulting test statistics. It is shown that for skewed distributions the excess in Type I error rate may be even more pronounced when testing one-sided hypotheses. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.
Exact intervals and tests for median when one sample value possibly an outliner
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keller, G. J.; Walsh, J. E.
1973-01-01
Available are independent observations (continuous data) that are believed to be a random sample. Desired are distribution-free confidence intervals and significance tests for the population median. However, there is the possibility that either the smallest or the largest observation is an outlier. Then, use of a procedure for rejection of an outlying observation might seem appropriate. Such a procedure would consider that two alternative situations are possible and would select one of them. Either (1) the n observations are truly a random sample, or (2) an outlier exists and its removal leaves a random sample of size n-1. For either situation, confidence intervals and tests are desired for the median of the population yielding the random sample. Unfortunately, satisfactory rejection procedures of a distribution-free nature do not seem to be available. Moreover, all rejection procedures impose undesirable conditional effects on the observations, and also, can select the wrong one of the two above situations. It is found that two-sided intervals and tests based on two symmetrically located order statistics (not the largest and smallest) of the n observations have this property.
Goodness-of-Fit Tests for Generalized Normal Distribution for Use in Hydrological Frequency Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Samiran
2018-04-01
The use of three-parameter generalized normal (GNO) as a hydrological frequency distribution is well recognized, but its application is limited due to unavailability of popular goodness-of-fit (GOF) test statistics. This study develops popular empirical distribution function (EDF)-based test statistics to investigate the goodness-of-fit of the GNO distribution. The focus is on the case most relevant to the hydrologist, namely, that in which the parameter values are unidentified and estimated from a sample using the method of L-moments. The widely used EDF tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Cramer von Mises, and Anderson-Darling (AD) are considered in this study. A modified version of AD, namely, the Modified Anderson-Darling (MAD) test, is also considered and its performance is assessed against other EDF tests using a power study that incorporates six specific Wakeby distributions (WA-1, WA-2, WA-3, WA-4, WA-5, and WA-6) as the alternative distributions. The critical values of the proposed test statistics are approximated using Monte Carlo techniques and are summarized in chart and regression equation form to show the dependence of shape parameter and sample size. The performance results obtained from the power study suggest that the AD and a variant of the MAD (MAD-L) are the most powerful tests. Finally, the study performs case studies involving annual maximum flow data of selected gauged sites from Irish and US catchments to show the application of the derived critical values and recommends further assessments to be carried out on flow data sets of rivers with various hydrological regimes.
Robust non-parametric one-sample tests for the analysis of recurrent events.
Rebora, Paola; Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia
2010-12-30
One-sample non-parametric tests are proposed here for inference on recurring events. The focus is on the marginal mean function of events and the basis for inference is the standardized distance between the observed and the expected number of events under a specified reference rate. Different weights are considered in order to account for various types of alternative hypotheses on the mean function of the recurrent events process. A robust version and a stratified version of the test are also proposed. The performance of these tests was investigated through simulation studies under various underlying event generation processes, such as homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, autoregressive and renewal processes, with and without frailty effects. The robust versions of the test have been shown to be suitable in a wide variety of event generating processes. The motivating context is a study on gene therapy in a very rare immunodeficiency in children, where a major end-point is the recurrence of severe infections. Robust non-parametric one-sample tests for recurrent events can be useful to assess efficacy and especially safety in non-randomized studies or in epidemiological studies for comparison with a standard population. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
1985-12-01
statistics, each of the a levels fall. The mirror image of this is to work with the percentiles, or the I - a levels . These then become the minimum...To be valid, the power would have to be close to the *-levels, and that Is the case. The powers are not exactly equal to the a - levels , but that is a...Information available increases with sample size. When a - levels are analyzed, for a = .0 1, the only reasonable power Is 33 L 4 against the
Effective equations and the inverse cascade theory for Kolmogorov flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weinan, E.; Shu, Chi-Wang
1992-01-01
We study the two dimensional Kolmogorov flows in the limit as the forcing frequency goes to infinity. Direct numerical simulation indicates that the low frequency energy spectrum evolves to a universal kappa (exp -4) decay law. We derive effective equations governing the behavior of the large scale flow quantities. We then present numerical evidence that with smooth initial data, the solution to the effective equation develops a kappa (exp -4) type singularity at a finite time. This gives a convenient explanation for the kappa (exp -4) decay law exhibited by the original Kolmogorov flows.
Shaping Ability of Single-file Systems with Different Movements: A Micro-computed Tomographic Study.
Santa-Rosa, Joedy; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Versiani, Marco Aurelio; Nevares, Giselle; Xavier, Felipe; Romeiro, Kaline; Cassimiro, Marcely; Leoni, Graziela Bianchi; de Menezes, Rebeca Ferraz; Albuquerque, Diana
2016-01-01
This study aimed to perform a rigorous sample standardization and also evaluate the preparation of mesiobuccal (MB) root canals of maxillary molars with severe curvatures using two single-file engine-driven systems (WaveOne with reciprocating motion and OneShape with rotary movement), using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). Ten MB roots with single canals were included, uniformly distributed into two groups (n=5). The samples were prepared with a WaveOne or OneShape files. The shaping ability and amount of canal transportation were assessed by a comparison of the pre- and post-instrumentation micro-CT scans. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t-tests were used for statistical analysis. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Instrumentation of canals increased their surface area and volume. Canal transportation occurred in coronal, middle and apical thirds and no statistical difference was observed between the two systems (P>0.05). In apical third, significant differences were found between groups in canal roundness (in 3 mm level) and perimeter (in 3 and 4 mm levels) (P<0.05). The WaveOne and One Shape single-file systems were able to shape curved root canals, producing minor changes in the canal curvature.
Life prediction for white OLED based on LSM under lognormal distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jianping; Liu, Fang; Liu, Yu; Wu, Helen; Zhu, Wenqing; Wu, Wenli; Wu, Liang
2012-09-01
In order to acquire the reliability information of White Organic Light Emitting Display (OLED), three groups of OLED constant stress accelerated life tests (CSALTs) were carried out to obtain failure data of samples. Lognormal distribution function was applied to describe OLED life distribution, and the accelerated life equation was determined by Least square method (LSM). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was performed to verify whether the white OLED life meets lognormal distribution or not. Author-developed software was employed to predict the average life and the median life. The numerical results indicate that the white OLED life submits to lognormal distribution, and that the accelerated life equation meets inverse power law completely. The estimated life information of the white OLED provides manufacturers and customers with important guidelines.
Uncertainty Analysis of Power Grid Investment Capacity Based on Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qin, Junsong; Liu, Bingyi; Niu, Dongxiao
By analyzing the influence factors of the investment capacity of power grid, to depreciation cost, sales price and sales quantity, net profit, financing and GDP of the second industry as the dependent variable to build the investment capacity analysis model. After carrying out Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, get the probability distribution of each influence factor. Finally, obtained the grid investment capacity uncertainty of analysis results by Monte Carlo simulation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yonggen; Dan, Youquan; Yu, Jiayi; Cai, Yangjian
2017-10-01
General analytical formulae for the kurtosis parameters K (K parameters) of the arbitrary electromagnetic (AE) beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence are derived, and according to the unified theory of polarization and coherence, the effect of degree of polarization (DOP) of an electromagnetic beam on the K parameter is studied. The analytical formulae can be given by the second-order moments and fourth-order moments of the Wigner distribution function for AE beams at source plane, the two turbulence quantities relating to the spatial power spectrum, and the propagation distance. Our results can also be extended to the arbitrary beams and the arbitrary spatial power spectra of Kolmogorov turbulence or non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Taking the stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model (SEGSM) beam as an example, the numerical examples indicate that the K parameters of a SEGSM beam in non-Kolmogorov turbulence depend on propagation distance, the beam parameters and turbulence parameters. The K parameter of a SEGM beam is more sensitive to effect of turbulence with smaller inner scale and generalized exponent parameter. A non-polarized light has the strongest ability of resisting turbulence (ART), however, a fully polarized SEGSM beam has the poorest ART.
Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein
2013-05-01
The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.
30+ New & Known SB2s in the SDSS-III/APOGEE M Dwarf Ancillary Science Project Sample
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skinner, Jacob; Covey, Kevin; Bender, Chad; De Lee, Nathan Michael; Chojnowski, Drew; Troup, Nicholas; Badenes, Carles; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Terrien, Ryan
2018-01-01
Close stellar binaries can drive dynamical interactions that affect the structure and evolution of planetary systems. Binary surveys indicate that the multiplicity fraction and typical orbital separation decrease with primary mass, but correlations with higher order architectural parameters such as the system's mass ratio are less well constrained. We seek to identify and characterize double-lined spectroscopic binaries (SB2s) among the 1350 M dwarf ancillary science targets with APOGEE spectra in the SDSS-III Data Release 13. We quantitatively measure the degree of asymmetry in the APOGEE pipeline cross-correlation functions (CCFs), and use those metrics to identify a sample of 44 high-likelihood candidate SB2s. Extracting radial velocities (RVs) for both binary components from the CCF, we then measure mass ratios for 31 SB2s; we also use Bayesian techniques to fit orbits for 4 systems with 8 or more distinct APOGEE observations. The (incomplete) mass ratio distribution of this sample rises quickly towards unity. Two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests find probabilities of 13.8% and 14.2% that the M dwarf mass ratio distribution is consistent with those measured by Pourbaix et al. (2004) and Fernandez et al. (2017), respectively. The samples analyzed by Pourbaix et al. and Fernandez et al. are dominated by higher-mass solar type stars; this suggests that the mass ratio distribution of close binaries is not strongly dependent on primary mass.
Evidence for Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects in solar neutrino flavor transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fogli, G. L.; Lisi, E.; Marrone, A.; Palazzo, A.
2004-03-01
We point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects. More precisely, one can safely reject the null hypothesis of no MSW interaction energy in matter, despite the fact that the interaction amplitude (formally treated as a free parameter) is still weakly constrained by the current phenomenology. Such a constraint can be improved, however, by future data from the KamLAND experiment. In the standard MSW case, we also perform an updated analysis of two-family active oscillations of solar and reactor neutrinos.
Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics (in Geology)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vermeesch, Pieter
2009-11-01
According to Karl Popper's epistemology of critical rationalism, scientists should formulate falsifiable hypotheses rather than produce ad hoc answers to empirical observations. In other words, we should predict and test rather than merely explain [Popper, 1959]. Sometimes, statistical tests such as chi-square, t, or Kolmogorov-Smirnov are used to make deductions more “objective.” Such tests are used in a wide range of geological subdisciplines [see Reimann and Filzmoser, 2000; Anderson and Johnson, 1999; Lørup et al., 1998; Sircombe and Hazelton, 2004].
Traveling-Wave Solutions of the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pikulin, S. V.
2018-02-01
We consider quasi-stationary solutions of a problem without initial conditions for the Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov (KPP) equation, which is a quasilinear parabolic one arising in the modeling of certain reaction-diffusion processes in the theory of combustion, mathematical biology, and other areas of natural sciences. A new efficiently numerically implementable analytical representation is constructed for self-similar plane traveling-wave solutions of the KPP equation with a special right-hand side. Sufficient conditions for an auxiliary function involved in this representation to be analytical for all values of its argument, including the endpoints, are obtained. Numerical results are obtained for model examples.
Test of Lorentz and CPT violation with short baseline neutrino oscillation excesses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MiniBooNE Collaboration; Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; Van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.
2013-01-01
The sidereal time dependence of MiniBooNE νe and ν appearance data is analyzed to search for evidence of Lorentz and CPT violation. An unbinned Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test shows both the νe and ν appearance data are compatible with the null sidereal variation hypothesis to more than 5%. Using an unbinned likelihood fit with a Lorentz-violating oscillation model derived from the Standard Model Extension (SME) to describe any excess events over background, we find that the νe appearance data prefer a sidereal time-independent solution, and the ν appearance data slightly prefer a sidereal time-dependent solution. Limits of order 10-20 GeV are placed on combinations of SME coefficients. These limits give the best limits on certain SME coefficients for νμ→νe and ν→ν oscillations. The fit values and limits of combinations of SME coefficients are provided.
Diagnosis of Misalignment in Overhung Rotor using the K-S Statistic and A2 Test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garikapati, Diwakar; Pacharu, RaviKumar; Munukurthi, Rama Satya Satyanarayana
2018-02-01
Vibration measurement at the bearings of rotating machinery has become a useful technique for diagnosing incipient fault conditions. In particular, vibration measurement can be used to detect unbalance in rotor, bearing failure, gear problems or misalignment between a motor shaft and coupled shaft. This is a particular problem encountered in turbines, ID fans and FD fans used for power generation. For successful fault diagnosis, it is important to adopt motor current signature analysis (MCSA) techniques capable of identifying the faults. It is also useful to develop techniques for inferring information such as the severity of fault. It is proposed that modeling the cumulative distribution function of motor current signals with respect to appropriate theoretical distributions, and quantifying the goodness of fit with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic and A2 test offers a suitable signal feature for diagnosis. This paper demonstrates the successful comparison of the K-S feature and A2 test for discriminating the misalignment fault from normal function.
Drag reduction in the turbulent Kolmogorov flow.
Boffetta, Guido; Celani, Antonio; Mazzino, Andrea
2005-03-01
We investigate the phenomenon of drag reduction in a viscoelastic fluid model of dilute polymer solutions. By means of direct numerical simulations of the three-dimensional turbulent Kolmogorov flow we show that drag reduction takes place above a critical Reynolds number Re(c). An explicit expression for the dependence of Re(c) on polymer elasticity and diffusivity is derived. The values of the drag coefficient obtained for different fluid parameters collapse onto a universal curve when plotted as a function of the rescaled Reynolds number Re/ Re(c). The analysis of the momentum budget allows us to gain some insight on the physics of drag reduction, and suggests the existence of a Re-independent value of the drag cofficient--lower than the Newtonian one--for large Reynolds numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sujadi, Imam; Kurniasih, Rini; Subanti, Sri
2017-05-01
In the era of 21st century learning, it needs to use technology as a learning media. Using Edmodo as a learning media is one of the options as the complement in learning process. However, this research focuses on the effectiveness of learning material using Edmodo. The aim of this research to determine whether the level of student's probabilistic thinking that use learning material with Edmodo is better than the existing learning materials (books) implemented to teach the subject of students grade 8th. This is quasi-experimental research using control group pretest and posttest. The population of this study was students grade 8 of SMPN 12 Surakarta and the sampling technique used random sampling. The analysis technique used to examine two independent sample using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The obtained value of test statistic is M=0.38, since 0.38 is the largest tabled critical one-tailed value M0.05=0.011. The result of the research is the learning materials with Edmodo more effectively to enhance the level of probabilistic thinking learners than the learning that use the existing learning materials (books). Therefore, learning material using Edmodo can be used in learning process. It can also be developed into another learning material through Edmodo.
A novel method for correcting scanline-observational bias of discontinuity orientation
Huang, Lei; Tang, Huiming; Tan, Qinwen; Wang, Dingjian; Wang, Liangqing; Ez Eldin, Mutasim A. M.; Li, Changdong; Wu, Qiong
2016-01-01
Scanline observation is known to introduce an angular bias into the probability distribution of orientation in three-dimensional space. In this paper, numerical solutions expressing the functional relationship between the scanline-observational distribution (in one-dimensional space) and the inherent distribution (in three-dimensional space) are derived using probability theory and calculus under the independence hypothesis of dip direction and dip angle. Based on these solutions, a novel method for obtaining the inherent distribution (also for correcting the bias) is proposed, an approach which includes two procedures: 1) Correcting the cumulative probabilities of orientation according to the solutions, and 2) Determining the distribution of the corrected orientations using approximation methods such as the one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The inherent distribution corrected by the proposed method can be used for discrete fracture network (DFN) modelling, which is applied to such areas as rockmass stability evaluation, rockmass permeability analysis, rockmass quality calculation and other related fields. To maximize the correction capacity of the proposed method, the observed sample size is suggested through effectiveness tests for different distribution types, dispersions and sample sizes. The performance of the proposed method and the comparison of its correction capacity with existing methods are illustrated with two case studies. PMID:26961249
The ideal Kolmogorov inertial range and constant
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhou, YE
1993-01-01
The energy transfer statistics measured in numerically simulated flows are found to be nearly self-similar for wavenumbers in the inertial range. Using the measured self-similar form, an 'ideal' energy transfer function and the corresponding energy flux rate were deduced. From this flux rate, the Kolmogorov constant was calculated to be 1.5, in excellent agreement with experiments.
Measurement of Hubble constant: non-Gaussian errors in HST Key Project data
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Singh, Meghendra; Gupta, Shashikant; Pandey, Ashwini
2016-08-01
Assuming the Central Limit Theorem, experimental uncertainties in any data set are expected to follow the Gaussian distribution with zero mean. We propose an elegant method based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic to test the above; and apply it on the measurement of Hubble constant which determines the expansion rate of the Universe. The measurements were made using Hubble Space Telescope. Our analysis shows that the uncertainties in the above measurement are non-Gaussian.
Juhel-Gaugain, M; McEvoy, J D; VanGinkel, L A
2000-12-01
The experimental design of a material certification programme is described. The matrix reference materials (RMs) comprised chlortetracycline (CTC)-containing and CTC-free lyophilised porcine liver, kidney and muscle produced under the European Commission's Standards Measurements and Testing (SMT) programme. The aim of the certification programme was to determine accurately and precisely the concentration of CTC and 4-epi-chlortetracycline (epi-CTC) contained in the RMs. A multi-laboratory approach was used to certify analyte concentrations. Participants (n = 19) were instructed to strictly adhere to previously established guidelines. Following the examination of analytical performance criteria, statistical manipulation of results submitted by 13 laboratories, (6 withdrew) allowed an estimate to be made of the true value of the analyte content. The Nalimov test was used for detection of outlying results. The Cochran and Bartlett tests were employed for testing the homogeneity of variances. The normality of results distribution was tested according to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-Lilliefors test. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to calculate the within and between-laboratory standard deviations, the overall mean and confidence interval for the CTC and epi-CTC content of each of the RMs. Certified values were within or very close to the target concentration ranges specified in the SMT contract. These studies have demonstrated the successful production and certification of CTC-containing and CTC-free porcine RMs.
A Cancer Gene Selection Algorithm Based on the K-S Test and CFS.
Su, Qiang; Wang, Yina; Jiang, Xiaobing; Chen, Fuxue; Lu, Wen-Cong
2017-01-01
To address the challenging problem of selecting distinguished genes from cancer gene expression datasets, this paper presents a gene subset selection algorithm based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test and correlation-based feature selection (CFS) principles. The algorithm selects distinguished genes first using the K-S test, and then, it uses CFS to select genes from those selected by the K-S test. We adopted support vector machines (SVM) as the classification tool and used the criteria of accuracy to evaluate the performance of the classifiers on the selected gene subsets. This approach compared the proposed gene subset selection algorithm with the K-S test, CFS, minimum-redundancy maximum-relevancy (mRMR), and ReliefF algorithms. The average experimental results of the aforementioned gene selection algorithms for 5 gene expression datasets demonstrate that, based on accuracy, the performance of the new K-S and CFS-based algorithm is better than those of the K-S test, CFS, mRMR, and ReliefF algorithms. The experimental results show that the K-S test-CFS gene selection algorithm is a very effective and promising approach compared to the K-S test, CFS, mRMR, and ReliefF algorithms.
Heart Rate Variability Dynamics for the Prognosis of Cardiovascular Risk
Ramirez-Villegas, Juan F.; Lam-Espinosa, Eric; Ramirez-Moreno, David F.; Calvo-Echeverry, Paulo C.; Agredo-Rodriguez, Wilfredo
2011-01-01
Statistical, spectral, multi-resolution and non-linear methods were applied to heart rate variability (HRV) series linked with classification schemes for the prognosis of cardiovascular risk. A total of 90 HRV records were analyzed: 45 from healthy subjects and 45 from cardiovascular risk patients. A total of 52 features from all the analysis methods were evaluated using standard two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS-test). The results of the statistical procedure provided input to multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks, radial basis function (RBF) neural networks and support vector machines (SVM) for data classification. These schemes showed high performances with both training and test sets and many combinations of features (with a maximum accuracy of 96.67%). Additionally, there was a strong consideration for breathing frequency as a relevant feature in the HRV analysis. PMID:21386966
Quantile rank maps: a new tool for understanding individual brain development.
Chen, Huaihou; Kelly, Clare; Castellanos, F Xavier; He, Ye; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Reiss, Philip T
2015-05-01
We propose a novel method for neurodevelopmental brain mapping that displays how an individual's values for a quantity of interest compare with age-specific norms. By estimating smoothly age-varying distributions at a set of brain regions of interest, we derive age-dependent region-wise quantile ranks for a given individual, which can be presented in the form of a brain map. Such quantile rank maps could potentially be used for clinical screening. Bootstrap-based confidence intervals are proposed for the quantile rank estimates. We also propose a recalibrated Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for detecting group differences in the age-varying distribution. This test is shown to be more robust to model misspecification than a linear regression-based test. The proposed methods are applied to brain imaging data from the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland Sample and from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tables of Significance Points for the Variance-Weighted Kolmogorov-Smirnov Statistics.
1981-02-19
neN x; 1; ( := 0 for all z Vo0 For the values of a function V: N0 IR we use both notations V(i) and vi " ii Tables of Significance Points for the...satisfying 0 < V0 < 10 and v, < Vi -i ¥i IN,* The following functions define a 4-Sheffer sequence (see (A.12)) for the derivative operator D: d i if x ɘ f(,c...S U(i ) < Ii ¥ Vi l,...,M)IMl 7 i7- 1.2. Recursions. For this section we assume p’ 1 without loss of generality.M With qn-k(x)- x n-k/(n-k)! in (A.13
Test of Lorentz and CPT violation with short baseline neutrino oscillation excesses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aguilar-Arevalo, A. A.; Anderson, C. E.; Bazarko, A. O.; Brice, S. J.; Brown, B. C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J. M.; Cox, D. C.; Curioni, A.; Dharmapalan, R.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D. A.; Fleming, B. T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F. G.; Garvey, G. T.; Grange, J.; Green, C.; Green, J. A.; Hart, T. L.; Hawker, E.; Huelsnitz, W.; Imlay, R.; Johnson, R. A.; Karagiorgi, G.; Kasper, P.; Katori, T.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kourbanis, I.; Koutsoliotas, S.; Laird, E. M.; Linden, S. K.; Link, J. M.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Marsh, W.; Mauger, C.; McGary, V. T.; McGregor, G.; Metcalf, W.; Meyers, P. D.; Mills, F.; Mills, G. B.; Monroe, J.; Moore, C. D.; Mousseau, J.; Nelson, R. H.; Nienaber, P.; Nowak, J. A.; Osmanov, B.; Ouedraogo, S.; Patterson, R. B.; Pavlovic, Z.; Perevalov, D.; Polly, C. C.; Prebys, E.; Raaf, J. L.; Ray, H.; Roe, B. P.; Russell, A. D.; Sandberg, V.; Schirato, R.; Schmitz, D.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shoemaker, F. C.; Smith, D.; Soderberg, M.; Sorel, M.; Spentzouris, P.; Spitz, J.; Stancu, I.; Stefanski, R. J.; Sung, M.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tayloe, R.; Tzanov, M.; Van de Water, R. G.; Wascko, M. O.; White, D. H.; Wilking, M. J.; Yang, H. J.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.; MiniBooNE Collaboration
2013-01-01
The sidereal time dependence of MiniBooNE νe and νbare appearance data is analyzed to search for evidence of Lorentz and CPT violation. An unbinned Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test shows both the νe and νbare appearance data are compatible with the null sidereal variation hypothesis to more than 5%. Using an unbinned likelihood fit with a Lorentz-violating oscillation model derived from the Standard Model Extension (SME) to describe any excess events over background, we find that the νe appearance data prefer a sidereal time-independent solution, and the νbare appearance data slightly prefer a sidereal time-dependent solution. Limits of order 10-20 GeV are placed on combinations of SME coefficients. These limits give the best limits on certain SME coefficients for νμ →νe and νbarμ →νbare oscillations. The fit values and limits of combinations of SME coefficients are provided.
Kolmogorov Flow in Three Dimensions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shebalin, John V.; Woodruff, Stephen L.
1996-01-01
A numerical study of the long-time evolution of incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence forced at a single long-wavelength Fourier mode, i.e., a Kolmogorov flow, has been completed. The boundary conditions are periodic in three dimensions and the forcing is effected by imposing a steady, two-dimensional, sinusoidal shear velocity which is directed along the x-direction and varies along the z-direction. A comparison with experimental data shows agreement with measured cross-correlations of the turbulent velocity components which lie in the mean-flow plane. A statistical analysis reveals that the shear-driven turbulence studied here has significant spectral anisotropy which increases with wave number.
Norris, Darren; Fortin, Marie-Josée; Magnusson, William E.
2014-01-01
Background Ecological monitoring and sampling optima are context and location specific. Novel applications (e.g. biodiversity monitoring for environmental service payments) call for renewed efforts to establish reliable and robust monitoring in biodiversity rich areas. As there is little information on the distribution of biodiversity across the Amazon basin, we used altitude as a proxy for biological variables to test whether meso-scale variation can be adequately represented by different sample sizes in a standardized, regular-coverage sampling arrangement. Methodology/Principal Findings We used Shuttle-Radar-Topography-Mission digital elevation values to evaluate if the regular sampling arrangement in standard RAPELD (rapid assessments (“RAP”) over the long-term (LTER [“PELD” in Portuguese])) grids captured patters in meso-scale spatial variation. The adequacy of different sample sizes (n = 4 to 120) were examined within 32,325 km2/3,232,500 ha (1293×25 km2 sample areas) distributed across the legal Brazilian Amazon. Kolmogorov-Smirnov-tests, correlation and root-mean-square-error were used to measure sample representativeness, similarity and accuracy respectively. Trends and thresholds of these responses in relation to sample size and standard-deviation were modeled using Generalized-Additive-Models and conditional-inference-trees respectively. We found that a regular arrangement of 30 samples captured the distribution of altitude values within these areas. Sample size was more important than sample standard deviation for representativeness and similarity. In contrast, accuracy was more strongly influenced by sample standard deviation. Additionally, analysis of spatially interpolated data showed that spatial patterns in altitude were also recovered within areas using a regular arrangement of 30 samples. Conclusions/Significance Our findings show that the logistically feasible sample used in the RAPELD system successfully recovers meso
Robust joint score tests in the application of DNA methylation data analysis.
Li, Xuan; Fu, Yuejiao; Wang, Xiaogang; Qiu, Weiliang
2018-05-18
Recently differential variability has been showed to be valuable in evaluating the association of DNA methylation to the risks of complex human diseases. The statistical tests based on both differential methylation level and differential variability can be more powerful than those based only on differential methylation level. Anh and Wang (2013) proposed a joint score test (AW) to simultaneously detect for differential methylation and differential variability. However, AW's method seems to be quite conservative and has not been fully compared with existing joint tests. We proposed three improved joint score tests, namely iAW.Lev, iAW.BF, and iAW.TM, and have made extensive comparisons with the joint likelihood ratio test (jointLRT), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, and the AW test. Systematic simulation studies showed that: 1) the three improved tests performed better (i.e., having larger power, while keeping nominal Type I error rates) than the other three tests for data with outliers and having different variances between cases and controls; 2) for data from normal distributions, the three improved tests had slightly lower power than jointLRT and AW. The analyses of two Illumina HumanMethylation27 data sets GSE37020 and GSE20080 and one Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC data set GSE107080 demonstrated that three improved tests had higher true validation rates than those from jointLRT, KS, and AW. The three proposed joint score tests are robust against the violation of normality assumption and presence of outlying observations in comparison with other three existing tests. Among the three proposed tests, iAW.BF seems to be the most robust and effective one for all simulated scenarios and also in real data analyses.
Statistical analyses support power law distributions found in neuronal avalanches.
Klaus, Andreas; Yu, Shan; Plenz, Dietmar
2011-01-01
The size distribution of neuronal avalanches in cortical networks has been reported to follow a power law distribution with exponent close to -1.5, which is a reflection of long-range spatial correlations in spontaneous neuronal activity. However, identifying power law scaling in empirical data can be difficult and sometimes controversial. In the present study, we tested the power law hypothesis for neuronal avalanches by using more stringent statistical analyses. In particular, we performed the following steps: (i) analysis of finite-size scaling to identify scale-free dynamics in neuronal avalanches, (ii) model parameter estimation to determine the specific exponent of the power law, and (iii) comparison of the power law to alternative model distributions. Consistent with critical state dynamics, avalanche size distributions exhibited robust scaling behavior in which the maximum avalanche size was limited only by the spatial extent of sampling ("finite size" effect). This scale-free dynamics suggests the power law as a model for the distribution of avalanche sizes. Using both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and a maximum likelihood approach, we found the slope to be close to -1.5, which is in line with previous reports. Finally, the power law model for neuronal avalanches was compared to the exponential and to various heavy-tail distributions based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and by using a log-likelihood ratio test. Both the power law distribution without and with exponential cut-off provided significantly better fits to the cluster size distributions in neuronal avalanches than the exponential, the lognormal and the gamma distribution. In summary, our findings strongly support the power law scaling in neuronal avalanches, providing further evidence for critical state dynamics in superficial layers of cortex.
Two-sample tests and one-way MANOVA for multivariate biomarker data with nondetects.
Thulin, M
2016-09-10
Testing whether the mean vector of a multivariate set of biomarkers differs between several populations is an increasingly common problem in medical research. Biomarker data is often left censored because some measurements fall below the laboratory's detection limit. We investigate how such censoring affects multivariate two-sample and one-way multivariate analysis of variance tests. Type I error rates, power and robustness to increasing censoring are studied, under both normality and non-normality. Parametric tests are found to perform better than non-parametric alternatives, indicating that the current recommendations for analysis of censored multivariate data may have to be revised. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Adibsereshki, Narges; Nesayan, Abbas; Asadi Gandomani, Roghayeh; Karimlou, Masood
2015-01-01
Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) tend to have problems in establishing and maintaining their social relationships. Some professionals believe this social impairment is the result of deficit in Theory of Mind (ToM). This study was conducted to explore the effectiveness of ToM training on such children. A quasi-experimental method, pre- test, post-test with control group was used. The sample included of 12 girls and 12 boys with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASD). Two instruments were used as follows: the Theory of Mind test and the social skills questionnaire (1). The samples were randomly placed in the experimental and control groups. The experimental groups had 15 sessions of ToM training and the control groups had just regular school program. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov, independent t- and twoway- variance tests. The scores for social skills in the experimental group were significantly more than the control group. ToM training might improve the social skills of children with autism spectrum disorders.
Can power-law scaling and neuronal avalanches arise from stochastic dynamics?
Touboul, Jonathan; Destexhe, Alain
2010-02-11
The presence of self-organized criticality in biology is often evidenced by a power-law scaling of event size distributions, which can be measured by linear regression on logarithmic axes. We show here that such a procedure does not necessarily mean that the system exhibits self-organized criticality. We first provide an analysis of multisite local field potential (LFP) recordings of brain activity and show that event size distributions defined as negative LFP peaks can be close to power-law distributions. However, this result is not robust to change in detection threshold, or when tested using more rigorous statistical analyses such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Similar power-law scaling is observed for surrogate signals, suggesting that power-law scaling may be a generic property of thresholded stochastic processes. We next investigate this problem analytically, and show that, indeed, stochastic processes can produce spurious power-law scaling without the presence of underlying self-organized criticality. However, this power-law is only apparent in logarithmic representations, and does not survive more rigorous analysis such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The same analysis was also performed on an artificial network known to display self-organized criticality. In this case, both the graphical representations and the rigorous statistical analysis reveal with no ambiguity that the avalanche size is distributed as a power-law. We conclude that logarithmic representations can lead to spurious power-law scaling induced by the stochastic nature of the phenomenon. This apparent power-law scaling does not constitute a proof of self-organized criticality, which should be demonstrated by more stringent statistical tests.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hizanidis, Kyriakos; Vlahos, L.; Polymilis, C.
1989-01-01
The relativistic motion of an ensemble of electrons in an intense monochromatic electromagnetic wave propagating obliquely in a uniform external magnetic field is studied. The problem is formulated from the viewpoint of Hamiltonian theory and the Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov approach analyzed by Hizanidis (1989), leading to a one-dimensional diffusive acceleration along paths of constant zeroth-order generalized Hamiltonian. For values of the wave amplitude and the propagating angle inside the analytically predicted stochastic region, the numerical results suggest that the diffusion probes proceeds in stages. In the first stage, the electrons are accelerated to relatively high energies by sampling the first few overlapping resonances one by one. During that stage, the ensemble-average square deviation of the variable involved scales quadratically with time. During the second stage, they scale linearly with time. For much longer times, deviation from linear scaling slowly sets in.
García-Roncero, Herminio; Caballé-Serrano, Jordi; Cano-Batalla, Jordi; Cabratosa-Termes, Josep; Figueras-Álvarez, Oscar
2015-04-01
In this study, a temporal abutment fixation screw, designed to fracture in a controlled way upon application of an occlusal force sufficient to produce critical micromotion was developed. The purpose of the screw was to protect the osseointegration of immediate loaded single implants. Seven different screw prototypes were examined by fixing titanium abutments to 112 Mozo-Grau external hexagon implants (MG Osseous®; Mozo-Grau, S.A., Valladolid, Spain). Fracture strength was tested at 30° in two subgroups per screw: one under dynamic loading and the other without prior dynamic loading. Dynamic loading was performed in a single-axis chewing simulator using 150,000 load cycles at 50 N. After normal distribution of obtained data was verified by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, fracture resistance between samples submitted and not submitted to dynamic loading was compared by the use of Student's t-test. Comparison of fracture resistance among different screw designs was performed by the use of one-way analysis of variance. Confidence interval was set at 95%. Fractures occurred in all screws, allowing easy retrieval. Screw Prototypes 2, 5 and 6 failed during dynamic loading and exhibited statistically significant differences from the other prototypes. Prototypes 2, 5 and 6 may offer a useful protective mechanism during occlusal overload in immediate loaded implants.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angraini, L. M.; Kusumah, Y. S.; Dahlan, J. A.
2018-05-01
This study aims to see the enhancement of mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the university students through concept attainment model learning based on overall and Prior Mathematical Knowledge (PMK) and interaction of both. Quasi experiments with the design of this experimental-controlled equivalent group involved 54 of second semester students at the one of State Islamic University. The instrument used is pretest-postest. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Levene test, t test, two-way ANOVA test were used to analyse the data. The result of this study includes: (1) The enhancement of the mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the students who gets the learning of concept attainment model is better than the enhancement of the mathematical analogical reasoning ability of the students who gets the conventional learning as a whole and based on PMK; (2) There is no interaction between the learning that is used and PMK on enhancing mathematical analogical reasoning ability.
Tygert, Mark
2010-09-21
We discuss several tests for determining whether a given set of independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) draws does not come from a specified probability density function. The most commonly used are Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, particularly Kuiper's variant, which focus on discrepancies between the cumulative distribution function for the specified probability density and the empirical cumulative distribution function for the given set of i.i.d. draws. Unfortunately, variations in the probability density function often get smoothed over in the cumulative distribution function, making it difficult to detect discrepancies in regions where the probability density is small in comparison with its values in surrounding regions. We discuss tests without this deficiency, complementing the classical methods. The tests of the present paper are based on the plain fact that it is unlikely to draw a random number whose probability is small, provided that the draw is taken from the same distribution used in calculating the probability (thus, if we draw a random number whose probability is small, then we can be confident that we did not draw the number from the same distribution used in calculating the probability).
Influence of non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence on the beam quality of vortex beams.
Li, Jinhong; Wang, Weiwei; Duan, Meiling; Wei, Jinlin
2016-09-05
Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the definition of second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function (WDF), the analytical expressions for the propagation factors (M^{2}-factors) and Strehl ratio S_{R} of the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams and GSM non-vortex beams propagation through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence are derived, and used to study the influence of non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence on beam quality of the GSM vortex beams. It is shown that the smaller the generalized structure constant and the outer scale of turbulence are, and the bigger the inner scale of turbulence is, the smaller the normalized propagation factor is, the bigger the Strehl ratio is, and the better the beam quality of GSM vortex beams in atmospheric turbulence is. The variation of beam quality with the generalized exponent α is nonmonotonic, when α = 3.11, the beam quality of the GSM vortex beams is the poorest through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. GSM vortex beams is less affected by turbulence than GSM non-vortex beams under certain condition, and will be useful in long-distance free-space optical communications.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahyuni, A.
2018-05-01
This research is aimed to find out whether the model of cooperative learning type Student Team Achievement Division (STAD) is more effective than cooperative learning type Think-Pair-Share in SMP Negeri 7 Yogyakarta. This research was a quasi-experimental research, using two experimental groups. The population of research was all students of 7thclass in SMP Negeri 7 Yogyakarta that consists of 5 Classes. From the population were taken 2 classes randomly which used as sample. The instrument to collect data was a description test. Measurement of instrument validity use content validity and construct validity, while measuring instrument reliability use Cronbach Alpha formula. To investigate the effectiveness of cooperative learning type STAD and cooperative learning type TPS on the aspect of student’s mathematical method, the datas were analyzed by one sample test. Comparing the effectiveness of cooperative learning type STAD and TPS in terms of mathematical communication skills by using t-test. Normality test was not conducted because the sample of research more than 30 students, while homogeneity tested by using Kolmogorov Smirnov test. The analysis was performed at 5% confidence level.The results show as follows : 1) The model of cooperative learning type STAD and TPS are effective in terms of mathematical method of junior high school students. 2). STAD type cooperative learning model is more effective than TPS type cooperative learning model in terms of mathematical methods of junior high school students.
Sample Holder for Cryogenic Adhesive Shear Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ledbetter, F. E.; Clemons, J. M.; White, W. T.; Penn, B.; Semmel, M. L.
1983-01-01
Five samples tested in one cooldown. Holder mounted in testing machine. Submerged in cryogenic liquid held in cryostat. Movable crosshead of testing machine moves gradually downward. Samples placed under tension, one after another, starting with top one; each sample fails in turn before next is stressed.
A.N. Kolmogorov’s defence of Mendelism
Stark, Alan; Seneta, Eugene
2011-01-01
In 1939 N.I. Ermolaeva published the results of an experiment which repeated parts of Mendel’s classical experiments. On the basis of her experiment she concluded that Mendel’s principle that self-pollination of hybrid plants gave rise to segregation proportions 3:1 was false. The great probability theorist A.N. Kolmogorov reviewed Ermolaeva’s data using a test, now referred to as Kolmogorov’s, or Kolmogorov-Smirnov, test, which he had proposed in 1933. He found, contrary to Ermolaeva, that her results clearly confirmed Mendel’s principle. This paper shows that there were methodological flaws in Kolmogorov’s statistical analysis and presents a substantially adjusted approach, which confirms his conclusions. Some historical commentary on the Lysenko-era background is given, to illuminate the relationship of the disciplines of genetics and statistics in the struggle against the prevailing politically-correct pseudoscience in the Soviet Union. There is a Brazilian connection through the person of Th. Dobzhansky. PMID:21734813
The limitations of simple gene set enrichment analysis assuming gene independence.
Tamayo, Pablo; Steinhardt, George; Liberzon, Arthur; Mesirov, Jill P
2016-02-01
Since its first publication in 2003, the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis method, based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic, has been heavily used, modified, and also questioned. Recently a simplified approach using a one-sample t-test score to assess enrichment and ignoring gene-gene correlations was proposed by Irizarry et al. 2009 as a serious contender. The argument criticizes Gene Set Enrichment Analysis's nonparametric nature and its use of an empirical null distribution as unnecessary and hard to compute. We refute these claims by careful consideration of the assumptions of the simplified method and its results, including a comparison with Gene Set Enrichment Analysis's on a large benchmark set of 50 datasets. Our results provide strong empirical evidence that gene-gene correlations cannot be ignored due to the significant variance inflation they produced on the enrichment scores and should be taken into account when estimating gene set enrichment significance. In addition, we discuss the challenges that the complex correlation structure and multi-modality of gene sets pose more generally for gene set enrichment methods. © The Author(s) 2012.
Seasonal variation of fecal indicator bacteria in storm events within the US stormwater database.
Pan, Xubin; Jones, Kim D
2012-01-01
Bacteria are one of the major causes of surface water impairments in the USA. Over the past several years, best management practices, including detention basins, manufactured devices, grass swales, filters and bioretention cells have been used to remove bacteria and other pollutants from stormwater runoff. However, there are data gaps in the comprehensive studies of bacteria concentrations in stormwater runoff. In this paper, the event mean concentration (EMC) of fecal indicator bacteria (Enterococcus, Escherichia coli, fecal Streptococcus group bacteria, and fecal coliform) across the USA was retrieved from the international stormwater best management practices database to analyze the seasonal variations of inflow and outflow event mean concentrations and removal efficiencies. The Kruskal-Wallis test was employed to determine the seasonal variations of bacteria indicator concentrations and removals, and the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for comparing different seasonal outcomes. The results indicate that all the inflow EMC of FIB in stormwater runoff is above the water quality criteria. The seasonal differences of fecal Streptococcus group bacteria and fecal coliform are significant. Summer has the potential to increase the bacteria EMC and illustrate the seasonal differences.
Reproducible segmentation of white matter hyperintensities using a new statistical definition.
Damangir, Soheil; Westman, Eric; Simmons, Andrew; Vrenken, Hugo; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Spulber, Gabriela
2017-06-01
We present a method based on a proposed statistical definition of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), which can work with any combination of conventional magnetic resonance (MR) sequences without depending on manually delineated samples. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, FLAIR, and PD sequences acquired at 1.5 Tesla from 119 subjects from the Kings Health Partners-Dementia Case Register (healthy controls, mild cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease) were used. The segmentation was performed using a proposed definition for WMH based on the one-tailed Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The presented method was verified, given all possible combinations of input sequences, against manual segmentations and a high similarity (Dice 0.85-0.91) was observed. Comparing segmentations with different input sequences to one another also yielded a high similarity (Dice 0.83-0.94) that exceeded intra-rater similarity (Dice 0.75-0.91). We compared the results with those of other available methods and showed that the segmentation based on the proposed definition has better accuracy and reproducibility in the test dataset used. Overall, the presented definition is shown to produce accurate results with higher reproducibility than manual delineation. This approach can be an alternative to other manual or automatic methods not only because of its accuracy, but also due to its good reproducibility.
Tao, Rumao; Si, Lei; Ma, Yanxing; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin
2012-08-10
The propagation properties of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays with beam distortions through non-Kolmogorov turbulence are studied in detail both analytically and numerically. The analytical expressions for the average intensity and the beam width of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays with beam distortions propagating through turbulence are derived based on the combination of statistical optics methods and the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. The effect of beam distortions, such as amplitude modulation and phase fluctuation, is studied by numerical examples. The numerical results reveal that phase fluctuations have significant influence on the spreading of coherently combined truncated laser beam arrays in non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the effects of the phase fluctuations can be negligible as long as the phase fluctuations are controlled under a certain level, i.e., a>0.05 for the situation considered in the paper. Furthermore, large phase fluctuations can convert the beam distribution rapidly to a Gaussian form, vary the spreading, weaken the optimum truncation effects, and suppress the dependence of spreading on the parameters of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence.
JCMT COADD: UKT14 continuum and photometry data reduction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, David; Oliveira, Firmin J.; Tilanus, Remo P. J.; Jenness, Tim
2014-11-01
COADD was used to reduce photometry and continuum data from the UKT14 instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in the 1990s. The software can co-add multiple observations and perform sigma clipping and Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical analysis. Additional information on the software is available in the JCMT Spring 1993 newsletter (large PDF).
Why Flash Type Matters: A Statistical Analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mecikalski, Retha M.; Bitzer, Phillip M.; Carey, Lawrence D.
2017-09-01
While the majority of research only differentiates between intracloud (IC) and cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes, there exists a third flash type, known as hybrid flashes. These flashes have extensive IC components as well as return strokes to ground but are misclassified as CG flashes in current flash type analyses due to the presence of a return stroke. In an effort to show that IC, CG, and hybrid flashes should be separately classified, the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test was applied to the flash sizes, flash initiation, and flash propagation altitudes for each of the three flash types. The KS test statistically showed that IC, CG, and hybrid flashes do not have the same parent distributions and thus should be separately classified. Separate classification of hybrid flashes will lead to improved lightning-related research, because unambiguously classified hybrid flashes occur on the same order of magnitude as CG flashes for multicellular storms.
Kipiński, Lech; König, Reinhard; Sielużycki, Cezary; Kordecki, Wojciech
2011-10-01
Stationarity is a crucial yet rarely questioned assumption in the analysis of time series of magneto- (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). One key drawback of the commonly used tests for stationarity of encephalographic time series is the fact that conclusions on stationarity are only indirectly inferred either from the Gaussianity (e.g. the Shapiro-Wilk test or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) or the randomness of the time series and the absence of trend using very simple time-series models (e.g. the sign and trend tests by Bendat and Piersol). We present a novel approach to the analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series by applying modern statistical methods which were specifically developed in econometrics to verify the hypothesis that a time series is stationary. We report our findings of the application of three different tests of stationarity--the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Schin (KPSS) test for trend or mean stationarity, the Phillips-Perron (PP) test for the presence of a unit root and the White test for homoscedasticity--on an illustrative set of MEG data. For five stimulation sessions, we found already for short epochs of duration of 250 and 500 ms that, although the majority of the studied epochs of single MEG trials were usually mean-stationary (KPSS test and PP test), they were classified as nonstationary due to their heteroscedasticity (White test). We also observed that the presence of external auditory stimulation did not significantly affect the findings regarding the stationarity of the data. We conclude that the combination of these tests allows a refined analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.
2013-07-01
The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broadmore » spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described. (authors)« less
Security authentication using phase-encoded nanoparticle structures and polarized light.
Carnicer, Artur; Hassanfiroozi, Amir; Latorre-Carmona, Pedro; Huang, Yi-Pai; Javidi, Bahram
2015-01-15
Phase-encoded nanostructures such as quick response (QR) codes made of metallic nanoparticles are suggested to be used in security and authentication applications. We present a polarimetric optical method able to authenticate random phase-encoded QR codes. The system is illuminated using polarized light, and the QR code is encoded using a phase-only random mask. Using classification algorithms, it is possible to validate the QR code from the examination of the polarimetric signature of the speckle pattern. We used Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test and Support Vector Machine algorithms to authenticate the phase-encoded QR codes using polarimetric signatures.
Nongaussian distribution curve of heterophorias among children.
Letourneau, J E; Giroux, R
1991-02-01
The purpose of this study was to measure the distribution curve of horizontal and vertical phorias among children. Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness of fit tests showed that these distribution curves were not Gaussian among (N = 2048) 6- to 13-year-old children. The distribution curve of horizontal phoria at far and of vertical phorias at far and at near were leptokurtic; the distribution curve of horizontal phoria at near was platykurtic. No variation of the distribution curve of heterophorias with age was observed. Comparisons of any individual findings with the general distribution curve should take the nonGaussian distribution curve of heterophorias into account.
2015-01-01
PURPOSE In this study, a temporal abutment fixation screw, designed to fracture in a controlled way upon application of an occlusal force sufficient to produce critical micromotion was developed. The purpose of the screw was to protect the osseointegration of immediate loaded single implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS Seven different screw prototypes were examined by fixing titanium abutments to 112 Mozo-Grau external hexagon implants (MG Osseous®; Mozo-Grau, S.A., Valladolid, Spain). Fracture strength was tested at 30° in two subgroups per screw: one under dynamic loading and the other without prior dynamic loading. Dynamic loading was performed in a single-axis chewing simulator using 150,000 load cycles at 50 N. After normal distribution of obtained data was verified by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, fracture resistance between samples submitted and not submitted to dynamic loading was compared by the use of Student's t-test. Comparison of fracture resistance among different screw designs was performed by the use of one-way analysis of variance. Confidence interval was set at 95%. RESULTS Fractures occurred in all screws, allowing easy retrieval. Screw Prototypes 2, 5 and 6 failed during dynamic loading and exhibited statistically significant differences from the other prototypes. CONCLUSION Prototypes 2, 5 and 6 may offer a useful protective mechanism during occlusal overload in immediate loaded implants. PMID:25932315
Asymmetric optical image encryption using Kolmogorov phase screens and equal modulus decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta; Quan, Chenggen
2017-11-01
An asymmetric technique for optical image encryption is proposed using Kolmogorov phase screens (KPSs) and equal modulus decomposition (EMD). The KPSs are generated using the power spectral density of Kolmogorov turbulence. The input image is first randomized and then Fresnel propagated with distance d. Further, the output in the Fresnel domain is modulated with a random phase mask, and the gyrator transform (GT) of the modulated image is obtained with an angle α. The EMD is operated on the GT spectrum to get the complex images, Z1 and Z2. Among these, Z2 is reserved as a private key for decryption and Z1 is propagated through a medium consisting of four KPSs, located at specified distances, to get the final encrypted image. The proposed technique provides a large set of security keys and is robust against various potential attacks. Numerical simulation results validate the effectiveness and security of the proposed technique.
Laterality as an indicator of emotional stress in ewes and lambs during a separation test.
Barnard, Shanis; Matthews, Lindsay; Messori, Stefano; Podaliri-Vulpiani, Michele; Ferri, Nicola
2016-01-01
We assessed motor laterality in sheep to explore species-specific brain hemi-field dominance and how this could be affected by genetic or developmental factors. Further, we investigated whether directionality and strength of laterality could be linked to emotional stress in ewes and their lambs during partial separation. Forty-three ewes and their singleton lambs were scored on the (left/right) direction of turn in a y-maze to rejoin a conspecific (laterality test). Further, their behavioural response (i.e. time spent near the fence, vocalisations, and activity level) during forced separation by an open-mesh fence was assessed (separation test). Individual laterality was recorded for 44.2% ewes (significant right bias) and 81.4% lambs (equally biased to the left and the right). There was no significant association in side bias between dams and offspring. The Chi-squared test revealed a significant population bias for both groups (p < 0.05). Evolutionary adaptive strategies or stimuli-related visual laterality may provide explanation for this decision-making process. Absolute strength of laterality (irrespective of side) was high (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, dams: D = 0.2; p < 0.001; lambs: D = 0.36, p < 0.0001). The Wilcoxon test showed that lateralised lambs and dams spent significantly more time near each other during separation than non-lateralised animals (p < 0.05), and that lateralised dams were also more active than non-lateralised ones. Arguably, the lateralised animals showed a greater attraction to their pair because they were more disturbed and thus required greater reassurance. The data show that measures of laterality offer a potential novel non-invasive indicator of separation stress.
Evaluation of statistical distributions to analyze the pollution of Cd and Pb in urban runoff.
Toranjian, Amin; Marofi, Safar
2017-05-01
Heavy metal pollution in urban runoff causes severe environmental damage. Identification of these pollutants and their statistical analysis is necessary to provide management guidelines. In this study, 45 continuous probability distribution functions were selected to fit the Cd and Pb data in the runoff events of an urban area during October 2014-May 2015. The sampling was conducted from the outlet of the city basin during seven precipitation events. For evaluation and ranking of the functions, we used the goodness of fit Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests. The results of Cd analysis showed that Hyperbolic Secant, Wakeby and Log-Pearson 3 are suitable for frequency analysis of the event mean concentration (EMC), the instantaneous concentration series (ICS) and instantaneous concentration of each event (ICEE), respectively. In addition, the LP3, Wakeby and Generalized Extreme Value functions were chosen for the EMC, ICS and ICEE related to Pb contamination.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Poje, Andrew C.; Ã-zgökmen, Tamay M.; Bogucki, Darek J.; Kirwan, A. D.
2017-02-01
Using two-point velocity and position data from the near-simultaneous release of O(100) GPS-tracked surface drifters in the northern Gulf of Mexico, we examine the applicability of classical turbulent scaling laws to upper ocean velocity fields. The dataset allows direct estimates of both velocity structure functions and the temporal evolution of the distribution of particle pair separations. On 100 m-10 km spatial scales, and time scales of order 1-10 days, all metrics of the observed surface fluctuations are consistent with standard Kolmogorov turbulence theory in an energy cascade inertial-range regime. The sign of the third-order structure function is negative and proportional to the separation distance for scales ≲10 km where local, fluctuating Rossby numbers are found to be larger than 0.1. The scale-independent energy dissipation rate, or downscale spectral flux, estimated from Kolmogorov's 4/5th law in this regime closely matches nearby microscale dissipation measurements in the near-surface. In contrast, similar statistics derived from a like-sized set of synthetic drifters advected by purely geostrophic altimetric AVISO data agree well with Kolmogorov-Kraichnan scaling for 2D turbulence in the forward enstrophy cascade range.
Monte Carlo exploration of Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein solutions to the solar neutrino problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shi, X.; Schramm, D. N.; Bahcall, J. N.
1992-01-01
The paper explores the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) solution by calculating the allowed MSW solutions for 1000 different solar models with a Monte Carlo selection of solar model input parameters, assuming a full three-family MSW mixing. Applications are made to the chlorine, gallium, Kamiokande, and Borexino experiments. The initial GALLEX result limits the mixing parameters to the upper diagonal and the vertical regions of the MSW triangle. The expected event rates in the Borexino experiment are also calculated, assuming the MSW solutions implied by GALLEX.
Organizational Justice and the Shortage of Nurses in Medical & Educational Hospitals, in Urmia-2014
Fathabad, Heidar Sharifi; Yazdanpanah, Abbas; Hessam, Somayeh; Chimeh, Elham Ehsani; Aghlmand, Siamak
2016-01-01
Objective: One of the most important reasons of turnover is perceptions of organizational justice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived organizational justice and its components on turnover intentions of nurses in hospitals of Urmia University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was among nurses. 310 samples were estimated according to Morgan Table. Two valid and reliable questionnaires of turnover and organizational justice were used. Data analysis was performed using the software SPSS20. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the normality and relationship between variables with Pearson and Spearman correlation test were analyzed. Results: Most people were married and aged between 26 and 35 years, BA and were hired with contraction. The mean score of organizational justice variable was 2.59. The highest average was the interactional justice variable (2.81) and then Procedural fairness variable (2.75) and distributive justices (2.03) were, respectively. The mean range of turnover variable was 3.10. The results showed weak and negative relationship between various dimensions of organizational justice and turnover in nurses. Conclusion: Organizational justice and turnover had inverse relationship with each other. Therefore how much organizational justice in the organization is more; employees tend to stay more. Finally, suggestions for improvement of justice proposed. PMID:26383199
Organizational Justice and the Shortage of Nurses in Medical & Educational Hospitals, in Urmia-2014.
Fathabad, Heidar Sharifi; Yazdanpanah, Abbas; Hessam, Somayeh; Chimeh, Elham Ehsani; Aghlmand, Siamak
2015-06-12
One of the most important reasons of turnover is perceptions of organizational justice. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of perceived organizational justice and its components on turnover intentions of nurses in hospitals of Urmia University of Medical Sciences. This cross-sectional study was among nurses. 310 samples were estimated according to Morgan Table. Two valid and reliable questionnaires of turnover and organizational justice were used. Data analysis was performed using the software SPSS20. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, the normality and relationship between variables with Pearson and Spearman correlation test were analyzed. Most people were married and aged between 26 and 35 years, BA and were hired with contraction. The mean score of organizational justice variable was 2.59. The highest average was the interactional justice variable (2.81) and then Procedural fairness variable (2.75) and distributive justices (2.03) were, respectively. The mean range of turnover variable was 3.10. The results showed weak and negative relationship between various dimensions of organizational justice and turnover in nurses. Organizational justice and turnover had inverse relationship with each other. Therefore how much organizational justice in the organization is more; employees tend to stay more. Finally, suggestions for improvement of justice proposed.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Yao, R; Chisela, W; Dorbu, G
2016-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate clinical usefulness of AlignRT (Vision RT Ltd., London, UK) in reducing patient positioning errors in breast irradiation. Methods: 60 patients undergoing whole breast irradiation were selected for this study. Patients were treated to the left or right breast lying on Qfix Access breast board (Qfix, Avondale, PA) in supine position for 28 fractions using tangential fields. 30 patients were aligned using AlignRT by aligning a breast surface region of interest (ROI) to the same area from a reference surface image extracted from planning CT. When the patient’s surface image deviated from the reference by more than 3mmmore » on one or more translational and rotational directions, a new reference was acquired using AlignRT in-room cameras. The other 30 patients were aligned to the skin marks with room lasers. On-Board MV portal images of medial field were taken daily and matched to the DRRs. The magnitude and frequency of positioning errors were determined from measured translational shifts. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate statistical differences of positional accuracy and precision between AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients. Results: The percentage of port images with no shift required was 46.5% and 27.0% in vertical, 49.8% and 25.8% in longitudinal, 47.6% and 28.5% in lateral for AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients, respectively. The percentage of port images requiring more than 3mm shifts was 18.1% and 35.1% in vertical, 28.6% and 50.8% in longitudinal, 11.3% and 24.2% in lateral for AlignRT and non-AlignRT patients, respectively. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that there were significant differences between the frequency distributions of AlignRT and non-AlignRT in vertical, longitudinal, and lateral shifts. Conclusion: As confirmed by port images, AlignRT-assisted patient positioning can significantly reduce the frequency and magnitude of patient setup errors in breast irradiation compared to the use of lasers and skin marks.« less
Calzada-Contreras, Adriana; Moreno-Hernández, Manuel; Castillo-Torres, Noemi Patricia; Souto-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Ricardo-Moreno, María Tania; Sánchez-Fernández, Maria Guadalupe de Jesús; García-González, América; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham
2012-01-01
The blood coagulation system maintains the blood in a liquid state and bleeding and thrombosis are the manifestations of its malfunction. Blood coagulation laboratory evaluates the physiology of this system. To establish both, the reference values for several tests performed at the blood coagulation laboratory as well as the utility of the pooled plasma to perform these assays. MATERIAL AND: In this descriptive, cross-sectional, randomized study, we collected plasma from Mexican Mestizos. Each pooled plasma was prepared with the plasma from at least 20 blood donors. We performed screening and special tests and the Levey-Jennings graphs were built and interpreted after each pass. Results of the tests were analyzed and their distribution was established using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To establish the reference values we used 95% confidence intervals. We collected 72 pooled plasmas. The distribution for PT, APTT, and TT tests was abnormal. Although the PT test showed a bimodal distribution it was normal for factor VII. The reference values for the hemostatic, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors were different from those suggested by the manufacturers. We established the reference values for the blood coagulation tests in the adult Mexican population. We have shown that the pooled plasma must be used for the screening tests. We suggest that each clinical laboratory should establish its own reference values (at least for the screening tests). To reach this objective, we encourage the use of the pooled plasma.
An investigation of chaotic Kolmogorov flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Platt, N.; Sirovich, L.; Fitzmaurice, N.
1990-01-01
A two dimensional flow governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with a steady spatially periodic forcing (known as the Kolmogorov flow) is numerically simulated. The behavior of the flow and its transition states as the Reynolds number (Re) varies is investigated in detail, as well as a number of the flow features. A sequence of bifurcations is shown to take place in the flow as Re varied. Two main regimes of the flow were observed: small and large scale structure regimes corresponding to different ranges of Re. Each of the regimes includes a number of quasiperiodic, chaotic, and relaminarization windows. In addition, each range contains a chaotic window with non-ergodic chaotic attractors. Spatially disordered, but temporally steady states were discovered in large scale structure regime. Features of the diverse cases are displayed in terms of the temporal power spectrum, Poincare sections and, where possible, Lyapunov exponents and Kaplan-Yorke dimension.
Kidney Injury Molecule Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Aslan, Ozgur; Demir, Metin; Koseoglu, Mehmet
2016-11-01
This study was designed to determine the diagnostic role of urinary kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 levels in renal damage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus according to the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted to different polyclinics in our hospital enrolled in the study and were subdivided into three groups according to albumin/creatinine ratio - normalbuminuric (n: 20); microalbuminuric (n: 20); albuminuric (n: 18) - and compared with the control group. Urine albumin was analyzed using the immunoturbidimetric method (Architect C16000, Abbott Diagnostics). uKIM-1 was determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit (USCN Life Science, Hankou, Wuhan, China). One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Spearman correlation and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric tests were performed. Post hoc comparisons were made using Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U tests. The differences between the controls and normalbuminuric, microalbuminuric and albuminuric groups were highly significant for KIM-1. Positive correlation was found between KIM-1 and urine microalbumin-urine microalbumin/creatinine (r = 0.479 P < 0.001; r = 0. 400, P < 0.001; respectively). In our study, KIM-1 levels were significantly different suggesting that urinary KIM-1 levels may be an early marker in patients with diabetic nephropathy. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 00:1-6, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gelb, James M.; Kwong, Waikwok; Rosen, S. P.
1992-01-01
We compare the implications for Be-7 and pp neutrinos of the two Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein fits to the new GALLEX solar neutrino measurements. Small-mixing-angle solutions tend to suppress the former as electron neutrinos, but not the latter, and large-angle solutions tend to reduce both by about a factor of two. The consequences for BOREXINO and similar solar neutrino-electron scattering experiments are discussed.
A critical analysis of high-redshift, massive, galaxy clusters. Part I
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia
2012-02-01
We critically investigate current statistical tests applied to high redshift clusters of galaxies in order to test the standard cosmological model and describe their range of validity. We carefully compare a sample of high-redshift, massive, galaxy clusters with realistic Poisson sample simulations of the theoretical mass function, which include the effect of Eddington bias. We compare the observations and simulations using the following statistical tests: the distributions of ensemble and individual existence probabilities (in the > M, > z sense), the redshift distributions, and the 2d Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Using seemingly rare clusters from Hoyle et al. (2011), and Jee etmore » al. (2011) and assuming the same survey geometry as in Jee et al. (2011, which is less conservative than Hoyle et al. 2011), we find that the ( > M, > z) existence probabilities of all clusters are fully consistent with ΛCDM. However assuming the same survey geometry, we use the 2d K-S test probability to show that the observed clusters are not consistent with being the least probable clusters from simulations at > 95% confidence, and are also not consistent with being a random selection of clusters, which may be caused by the non-trivial selection function and survey geometry. Tension can be removed if we examine only a X-ray selected sub sample, with simulations performed assuming a modified survey geometry.« less
Role stress among auxiliary nurses midwives in Gujarat, India.
Purohit, Bhaskar; Vasava, Paul
2017-01-23
Understanding Role Stress is important as health service providers, especially nurses experience high levels of Role Stress which is linked to burnout, poor quality of care and high turnover. The current study explicates the concept of Role Stress and assesses the Role Stress experienced by the Auxiliary Nurse Midwives (ANMs) working with rural government health centres from Gujarat, India. The study included 84 ANMs working with government health centres from one district in India. A structured instrument with established reliability and validity was used to measure 10 dimensions of Role Stress namely: Inter-role distance, role stagnation, role expectation conflict, role erosion: role overload, role isolation, personal inadequacy, self-role distance, role ambiguity and resource inadequacy. The study instrument was based on 5 point Likert rating scale that contained 50 unidirectional negative statements, 5 for each dimension. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test were carried out to assess if the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test was carried out to assess reliability of the instrument. The study data was analyzed using descriptive statistics mainly using mean scores with higher scores indicating higher Role Stress and vice versa. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 19. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk test indicated that the data were normally distributed. Cronbach's alpha test indicated values of 0.852 suggesting high reliability of the tool. The highest Role Stress among ANMs was experienced for resource inadequacy. Role overload, role stagnation and inter-role distance were among the other important role stressors for ANMs. The study results suggests that ANMs frequently feel that: they do not have adequate amount of resources, facilities and financial support from the high levels authorities; people have too many expectations from their roles and as result they are overloaded with work and have very limited opportunities for
Varying coefficient subdistribution regression for left-truncated semi-competing risks data.
Li, Ruosha; Peng, Limin
2014-10-01
Semi-competing risks data frequently arise in biomedical studies when time to a disease landmark event is subject to dependent censoring by death, the observation of which however is not precluded by the occurrence of the landmark event. In observational studies, the analysis of such data can be further complicated by left truncation. In this work, we study a varying co-efficient subdistribution regression model for left-truncated semi-competing risks data. Our method appropriately accounts for the specifical truncation and censoring features of the data, and moreover has the flexibility to accommodate potentially varying covariate effects. The proposed method can be easily implemented and the resulting estimators are shown to have nice asymptotic properties. We also present inference, such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov type and Cramér Von-Mises type hypothesis testing procedures for the covariate effects. Simulation studies and an application to the Denmark diabetes registry demonstrate good finite-sample performance and practical utility of the proposed method.
Cellular Signaling Networks Function as Generalized Wiener-Kolmogorov Filters to Suppress Noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.
2014-10-01
Cellular signaling involves the transmission of environmental information through cascades of stochastic biochemical reactions, inevitably introducing noise that compromises signal fidelity. Each stage of the cascade often takes the form of a kinase-phosphatase push-pull network, a basic unit of signaling pathways whose malfunction is linked with a host of cancers. We show that this ubiquitous enzymatic network motif effectively behaves as a Wiener-Kolmogorov optimal noise filter. Using concepts from umbral calculus, we generalize the linear Wiener-Kolmogorov theory, originally introduced in the context of communication and control engineering, to take nonlinear signal transduction and discrete molecule populations into account. This allows us to derive rigorous constraints for efficient noise reduction in this biochemical system. Our mathematical formalism yields bounds on filter performance in cases important to cellular function—such as ultrasensitive response to stimuli. We highlight features of the system relevant for optimizing filter efficiency, encoded in a single, measurable, dimensionless parameter. Our theory, which describes noise control in a large class of signal transduction networks, is also useful both for the design of synthetic biochemical signaling pathways and the manipulation of pathways through experimental probes such as oscillatory input.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Dill, Eric D.; Folmer, Jacob C.W.; Martin, James D.
A series of simulations was performed to enable interpretation of the material and physical significance of the parameters defined in the Kolmogorov, Johnson and Mehl, and Avrami (KJMA) rate expression commonly used to describe phase boundary controlled reactions of condensed matter. The parameters k, n, and t 0 are shown to be highly correlated, which if unaccounted for seriously challenge mechanistic interpretation. It is demonstrated that rate measurements exhibit an intrinsic uncertainty without precise knowledge of the location and orientation of nucleation with respect to the free volume into which it grows. More significantly, it is demonstrated that the KJMAmore » rate constant k is highly dependent on sample size. However, under the simulated conditions of slow nucleation relative to crystal growth, sample volume and sample anisotropy correction affords a means to eliminate the experimental condition dependence of the KJMA rate constant, k, producing the material-specific parameter, the velocity of the phase boundary, v pb.« less
Biostatistics Series Module 3: Comparing Groups: Numerical Variables.
Hazra, Avijit; Gogtay, Nithya
2016-01-01
Numerical data that are normally distributed can be analyzed with parametric tests, that is, tests which are based on the parameters that define a normal distribution curve. If the distribution is uncertain, the data can be plotted as a normal probability plot and visually inspected, or tested for normality using one of a number of goodness of fit tests, such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The widely used Student's t-test has three variants. The one-sample t-test is used to assess if a sample mean (as an estimate of the population mean) differs significantly from a given population mean. The means of two independent samples may be compared for a statistically significant difference by the unpaired or independent samples t-test. If the data sets are related in some way, their means may be compared by the paired or dependent samples t-test. The t-test should not be used to compare the means of more than two groups. Although it is possible to compare groups in pairs, when there are more than two groups, this will increase the probability of a Type I error. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is employed to compare the means of three or more independent data sets that are normally distributed. Multiple measurements from the same set of subjects cannot be treated as separate, unrelated data sets. Comparison of means in such a situation requires repeated measures ANOVA. It is to be noted that while a multiple group comparison test such as ANOVA can point to a significant difference, it does not identify exactly between which two groups the difference lies. To do this, multiple group comparison needs to be followed up by an appropriate post hoc test. An example is the Tukey's honestly significant difference test following ANOVA. If the assumptions for parametric tests are not met, there are nonparametric alternatives for comparing data sets. These include Mann-Whitney U-test as the nonparametric counterpart of the unpaired Student's t-test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test
Glimpses of Kolmogorov's spectral energy dynamics in nonlinear acoustic waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gupta, Prateek; Scalo, Carlo
2017-11-01
Gupta, Lodato, and Scalo (AIAA 2017) have demonstrated the existence of an equilibrium spectral energy cascade in shock waves formed as a result of continued modal thermoacoustic amplification consistent with Kolmogorov's theory for high-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic turbulence. In this talk we discuss the derivation of a perturbation energy density norm that guarantees energy conservation during the nonlinear wave steepening process, analogous to inertial subrange turbulent energy cascade dynamics. The energy cascade is investigated via a bi-spectral analysis limited to wave-numbers and frequencies lower than the ones associated with the shock, analogous to the viscous dissipation length scale in turbulence. The proposed norm is derived by recombining second-order nonlinear acoustic equations and is positive definite; moreover, it decays to zero in the presence of viscous dissipation and is hence classifiable as a Lyapunov function of acoustic perturbation variables. The cumulative energy spectrum wavenumber distribution demonstrates a -3/2 decay law in the inertial range. The governing equation for the thus-derived energy norm highlights terms responsible for energy cascade towards higher harmonics, analogous to vortex stretching terms in hydrodynamic turbulence.
Detailed abundances for a large sample of giant stars in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Cordero, M. J.; Pilachowski, C. A.; Johnson, C. I.
2014-01-01
47 Tuc is an ideal target to study chemical evolution and globular cluster (GC) formation in massive more metal-rich GCs, as it is the closest massive GC. We present chemical abundances for O, Na, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, Ni, La, and Eu in 164 red giant branch stars in the massive GC 47 Tuc using spectra obtained with both the Hydra multifiber spectrograph at the Blanco 4 m telescope and the FLAMES multiobject spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We find an average [Fe/H] = –0.79 ± 0.09 dex, consistent with literature values, as well as overabundances of alpha-elementsmore » ([α/Fe] ∼ 0.3 dex). The n-capture process elements indicate that 47 Tuc is r process-dominated ([Eu/La] = +0.24), and the light elements O, Na, and Al exhibit star-to-star variations. The Na-O anticorrelation, a signature typically seen in Galactic GCs, is present in 47 Tuc, and extends to include a small number of stars with [O/Fe] ∼ –0.5. Additionally, the [O/Na] ratios of our sample reveal that the cluster stars can be separated into three distinct populations. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test demonstrates that the O-poor/Na-rich stars are more centrally concentrated than the O-rich/Na-poor stars. The observed number and radial distribution of 47 Tuc's stellar populations, as distinguished by their light element composition, agrees closely with the results obtained from photometric data. We do not find evidence supporting a strong Na-Al correlation in 47 Tuc, which is consistent with current models of asymptotic giant branch nucleosynthesis yields.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Touati, Sarah; Naylor, Mark; Main, Ian
2016-02-01
The recent spate of mega-earthquakes since 2004 has led to speculation of an underlying change in the global `background' rate of large events. At a regional scale, detecting changes in background rate is also an important practical problem for operational forecasting and risk calculation, for example due to volcanic processes, seismicity induced by fluid injection or withdrawal, or due to redistribution of Coulomb stress after natural large events. Here we examine the general problem of detecting changes in background rate in earthquake catalogues with and without correlated events, for the first time using the Bayes factor as a discriminant for models of varying complexity. First we use synthetic Poisson (purely random) and Epidemic-Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) models (which also allow for earthquake triggering) to test the effectiveness of many standard methods of addressing this question. These fall into two classes: those that evaluate the relative likelihood of different models, for example using Information Criteria or the Bayes Factor; and those that evaluate the probability of the observations (including extreme events or clusters of events) under a single null hypothesis, for example by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and `runs' tests, and a variety of Z-score tests. The results demonstrate that the effectiveness among these tests varies widely. Information Criteria worked at least as well as the more computationally expensive Bayes factor method, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and runs tests proved to be the relatively ineffective in reliably detecting a change point. We then apply the methods tested to events at different thresholds above magnitude M ≥ 7 in the global earthquake catalogue since 1918, after first declustering the catalogue. This is most effectively done by removing likely correlated events using a much lower magnitude threshold (M ≥ 5), where triggering is much more obvious. We find no strong evidence that the background rate of large
Maximum Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy Versus Minimum Mixing Time in Markov Chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihelich, M.; Dubrulle, B.; Paillard, D.; Kral, Q.; Faranda, D.
2018-01-01
We establish a link between the maximization of Kolmogorov Sinai entropy (KSE) and the minimization of the mixing time for general Markov chains. Since the maximisation of KSE is analytical and easier to compute in general than mixing time, this link provides a new faster method to approximate the minimum mixing time dynamics. It could be interesting in computer sciences and statistical physics, for computations that use random walks on graphs that can be represented as Markov chains.
Equivalence Testing of Complex Particle Size Distribution Profiles Based on Earth Mover's Distance.
Hu, Meng; Jiang, Xiaohui; Absar, Mohammad; Choi, Stephanie; Kozak, Darby; Shen, Meiyu; Weng, Yu-Ting; Zhao, Liang; Lionberger, Robert
2018-04-12
Particle size distribution (PSD) is an important property of particulates in drug products. In the evaluation of generic drug products formulated as suspensions, emulsions, and liposomes, the PSD comparisons between a test product and the branded product can provide useful information regarding in vitro and in vivo performance. Historically, the FDA has recommended the population bioequivalence (PBE) statistical approach to compare the PSD descriptors D50 and SPAN from test and reference products to support product equivalence. In this study, the earth mover's distance (EMD) is proposed as a new metric for comparing PSD particularly when the PSD profile exhibits complex distribution (e.g., multiple peaks) that is not accurately described by the D50 and SPAN descriptor. EMD is a statistical metric that measures the discrepancy (distance) between size distribution profiles without a prior assumption of the distribution. PBE is then adopted to perform statistical test to establish equivalence based on the calculated EMD distances. Simulations show that proposed EMD-based approach is effective in comparing test and reference profiles for equivalence testing and is superior compared to commonly used distance measures, e.g., Euclidean and Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances. The proposed approach was demonstrated by evaluating equivalence of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion PSDs that were manufactured under different conditions. Our results show that proposed approach can effectively pass an equivalent product (e.g., reference product against itself) and reject an inequivalent product (e.g., reference product against negative control), thus suggesting its usefulness in supporting bioequivalence determination of a test product to the reference product which both possess multimodal PSDs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wheeler, J. T.
1990-01-01
The Weibull process, identified as the inhomogeneous Poisson process with the Weibull intensity function, is used to model the reliability growth assessment of the space shuttle main engine test and flight failure data. Additional tables of percentage-point probabilities for several different values of the confidence coefficient have been generated for setting (1-alpha)100-percent two sided confidence interval estimates on the mean time between failures. The tabled data pertain to two cases: (1) time-terminated testing, and (2) failure-terminated testing. The critical values of the three test statistics, namely Cramer-von Mises, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, and chi-square, were calculated and tabled for use in the goodness of fit tests for the engine reliability data. Numerical results are presented for five different groupings of the engine data that reflect the actual response to the failures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosestolato, M.; Święch, A.
2017-02-01
We study value functions which are viscosity solutions of certain Kolmogorov equations. Using PDE techniques we prove that they are C 1 + α regular on special finite dimensional subspaces. The problem has origins in hedging derivatives of risky assets in mathematical finance.
Accuracy of a Digital Weight Scale Relative to the Nintendo Wii in Measuring Limb Load Asymmetry
Kumar, NS Senthil; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H; Hamdan, Nor; Htwe, Ohnmar; Hamidun, Nursalbiyah
2014-01-01
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry. PMID:25202181
Accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the nintendo wii in measuring limb load asymmetry.
Kumar, Ns Senthil; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard H; Hamdan, Nor; Htwe, Ohnmar; Hamidun, Nursalbiyah
2014-08-01
[Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate the accuracy of a digital weight scale relative to the Wii in limb loading measurement during static standing. [Methods] This was a cross-sectional study conducted at a public university teaching hospital. The sample consisted of 24 participants (12 with osteoarthritis and 12 healthy) recruited through convenient sampling. Limb loading measurements were obtained using a digital weight scale and the Nintendo Wii in static standing with three trials under an eyes-open condition. The limb load asymmetry was computed as the symmetry index. [Results] The accuracy of measurement with the digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii was analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S test). The area under the ROC curve was found to be 0.67. Logistic regression confirmed the validity of digital weight scale relative to the Nintendo Wii. The D statistics value from the K-S test was found to be 0.16, which confirmed that there was no significant difference in measurement between the equipment. [Conclusion] The digital weight scale is an accurate tool for measuring limb load asymmetry. The low price, easy availability, and maneuverability make it a good potential tool in clinical settings for measuring limb load asymmetry.
Nedorezov, L V
2015-01-01
A stochastic model of migrations on a lattice and with discrete time is considered. It is assumed that space is homogenous with respect to its properties and during one time step every individual (independently of local population numbers) can migrate to nearest nodes of lattice with equal probabilities. It is also assumed that population size remains constant during certain time interval of computer experiments. The following variants of estimation of encounter rate between individuals are considered: when for the fixed time moments every individual in every node of lattice interacts with all other individuals in the node; when individuals can stay in nodes independently, or can be involved in groups in two, three or four individuals. For each variant of interactions between individuals, average value (with respect to space and time) is computed for various values of population size. The samples obtained were compared with respective functions of classic models of isolated population dynamics: Verhulst model, Gompertz model, Svirezhev model, and theta-logistic model. Parameters of functions were calculated with least square method. Analyses of deviations were performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Lilliefors test, Shapiro-Wilk test, and other statistical tests. It is shown that from traditional point of view there are no correspondence between the encounter rate and functions describing effects of self-regulatory mechanisms on population dynamics. Best fitting of samples was obtained with Verhulst and theta-logistic models when using the dataset resulted from the situation when every individual in the node interacts with all other individuals.
Piroozmand, Ahmad; Soltani, Babak; Razavizadeh, Mohsen; Matini, Amir Hasan; Gilasi, Hamid Reza; Zavareh, Abbas Nassaji; Soltani, Siamak
2017-12-01
Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is an important and common contagious human pathogen which may cause peptic ulcer and also gastric cancer. The definite diagnosis of it is made through invasive tests. Recently, non-invasive tests including serologic tests of serum and saliva have been conducted for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this research, the diagnostic values of serum and salivary serology were compared together to use salivary anti- H. pylori test as an alternative method in the future. During this prospective case-control study on patients who were candidates for endoscopy and gastric biopsy from March 2015 to April 2016 in Shahid Beheshti hospital, Kashan, Iran, serum and salivary samples were obtained for measurement of Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody levels against H. pylori by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Histopathology was the gold standard test. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS software version 16. Statistical tests included Kolmogorov-Smirnov, independent-samples t-test, Chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, McNemar and correlation. Of 123 patients, sixty-one patients (49.6%) were H. pylori -positive according to histology. The median levels of anti- H. pylori antibodies in serum (p<0.001) and saliva (p<0.001) of H. pylori -positive cases were significantly higher than H. pylori -negative cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio and accuracy of serologic tests in serum were 75%, 79%, 3.5, 0.3, 77% and for saliva were 85%, 82%, 4.7, 0.18, 84% respectively. Diagnostic values of salivary ELISA are comparable to serum ELISA and can be used as an alternative modality for diagnosis of H. pylori infection.
Mamede-Neto, Iussif; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Oliveira, Durvalino; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Estrela, Carlos
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transportation and centralization of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. One hundred and twenty eight mandibular premolars were selected and instrumented using the following brands of NiTi files: WaveOne, WaveOne Gold, Reciproc, ProTaper Next, ProTaper Gold, Mtwo, BioRaCe and RaCe. CBCT imaging was performed before and after root canal preparation to obtain measurements of mesial and distal dentin walls and calculations of root canal transportation and centralization. A normal distribution of data was confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests, and results were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was set at 5%. ProTaper Gold produced the lowest canal transportation values, and RaCe, the highest. ProTaper Gold files also showed the highest values for centering ability, whereas BioRaCe showed the lowest. No significant differences were found across the different instruments in terms of canal transportation and centering ability (P > 0.05). Based on the methodology employed, all instruments used for root canal preparation of mandibular premolars performed similarly with regard to canal transportation and centering ability.
Cang, Ji; Liu, Xu
2011-09-26
Based on the generalized spectral model for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, analytic expressions of the scintillation index (SI) are derived for plane, spherical optical waves and a partially coherent Gaussian beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence horizontally in the weak fluctuation regime. The new expressions relate the SI to the finite turbulence inner and outer scales, spatial coherence of the source and spectral power-law and then used to analyze the effects of atmospheric condition and link length on the performance of wireless optical communication links. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Hint of nonstandard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein dynamics in solar neutrino conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palazzo, Antonio
2011-05-01
Motivated by the recent low-threshold measurements of the solar B8 neutrino spectrum performed by Borexino, Super-Kamiokande and the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory—all now monitoring the transition regime between low-energy (vacuumlike) and high-energy (matter-dominated) flavor conversions—we consider the role of subdominant dynamical terms induced by new flavor-changing interactions. We find that the presence of such perturbations with strength ˜10-1GF is now favored, offering a better description of the anomalous behavior suggested by the new results, whose spectrum shows no sign of the typical low-energy upturn predicted by the standard Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) mechanism. Our findings, if interpreted in a 2-flavor scheme, provide a hint of such new interactions at the ˜2σ level, which is rather robust with respect to 3-flavor effects possibly induced by nonzero θ13.
Seismic sample areas defined from incomplete catalogues: an application to the Italian territory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mulargia, F.; Tinti, S.
1985-11-01
The comprehensive understanding of earthquake source-physics under real conditions requires the study not of single faults as separate entities but rather of a seismically active region as a whole, accounting for the interaction among different structures. We define "seismic sample area" the most convenient region to be used as a natural laboratory for the study of seismic source physics. This coincides with the region where the average large magnitude seismicity is the highest. To this end, time and space future distributions of large earthquakes are to be estimated. Using catalog seismicity as an input, the rate of occurrence is not constant but appears generally biased by incompleteness in some parts of the catalog and possible nonstationarities in seismic activity. We present a statistical procedure which is capable, under a few mild assumptions, of both detecting nonstationarities in seismicity and finding the incomplete parts of a seismic catalog. The procedure is based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov nonparametric statistics, and can be applied without a priori assuming the parent distribution of the events. The efficiency of this procedure allows the analysis of small data sets. An application to the Italian territory is presented, using the most recent version of the ENEL seismic catalog. Seismic activity takes place in six well defined areas but only five of them have a number of events sufficient for analysis. Barring a few exceptions, seismicity is found stationary throughout the whole catalog span 1000-1980. The eastern Alps region stands out as the best "sample area", with the highest average probability of event occurrence per time and area unit. Final objective of this characterization is to stimulate a program of intensified research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Miaomiao; Zhao, Daomu; Li, Xinzhong; Wang, Jingge
2018-01-01
Recently, we introduced a new class of radially polarized beams with multi-cosine Gaussian Schell-model(MCGSM) correlation function based on the partially coherent theory (Tang et al., 2017). In this manuscript, we extend the work to study the statistical properties such as the spectral density, the degree of coherence, the degree of polarization, and the state of polarization of the beam propagating in isotropic turbulence with a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum. Analytical formulas for the cross-spectral density matrix elements of a radially polarized MCGSM beam in non-Kolmogorov turbulence are derived. Numerical results show that lattice-like intensity pattern of the beam, which keeps propagation-invariant in free space, is destroyed by the turbulence when it passes at sufficiently large distances from the source. It is also shown that the polarization properties are mainly affected by the source correlation functions, and change in the turbulent statistics plays a relatively small effect. In addition, the polarization state exhibits self-splitting property and each beamlet evolves into radially polarized structure upon propagation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riveli, N.; Suroto, B. J.
2018-05-01
We are investigating the behavioural changes of the Indonesian financial systems in the last 20 years. Changes in the financial system behaviour were indicated by differences in the statistical properties of the daily log return distribution in two adjacent time windows. To measure how likely two distributions are differ, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) Test was applied. We have found that we can divide our time series data into five segments, where the KS probability values between two adjacent segments are maximum. This finding can be used to study the effect on the financial system imposed by, for example, the socio-economy and political policy by the government, by studying the changes in such factors in the identified time periods.
Sulis, William H
2017-10-01
Walter Freeman III pioneered the application of nonlinear dynamical systems theories and methodologies in his work on mesoscopic brain dynamics.Sadly, mainstream psychology and psychiatry still cling to linear correlation based data analysis techniques, which threaten to subvert the process of experimentation and theory building. In order to progress, it is necessary to develop tools capable of managing the stochastic complexity of complex biopsychosocial systems, which includes multilevel feedback relationships, nonlinear interactions, chaotic dynamics and adaptability. In addition, however, these systems exhibit intrinsic randomness, non-Gaussian probability distributions, non-stationarity, contextuality, and non-Kolmogorov probabilities, as well as the absence of mean and/or variance and conditional probabilities. These properties and their implications for statistical analysis are discussed. An alternative approach, the Process Algebra approach, is described. It is a generative model, capable of generating non-Kolmogorov probabilities. It has proven useful in addressing fundamental problems in quantum mechanics and in the modeling of developing psychosocial systems.
Analytical Fingerprint of Wolframite Ore Concentrates.
Gäbler, Hans-Eike; Schink, Wilhelm; Goldmann, Simon; Bahr, Andreas; Gawronski, Timo
2017-07-01
Ongoing violent conflicts in Central Africa are fueled by illegal mining and trading of tantalum, tin, and tungsten ores. The credibility of document-based traceability systems can be improved by an analytical fingerprint applied as an independent method to confirm or doubt the documented origin of ore minerals. Wolframite (Fe,Mn)WO 4 is the most important ore mineral for tungsten and is subject to artisanal mining in Central Africa. Element concentrations of wolframite grains analyzed by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry are used to establish the analytical fingerprint. The data from ore concentrate samples are multivariate, not normal or log-normal distributed. The samples cannot be regarded as representative aliquots of a population. Based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance, a measure of similarity between a sample in question and reference samples from a database is determined. A decision criterion is deduced to recognize samples which do not originate from the declared mine site. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Jing; Fu, Yu-Long; Yu, Si-Yuan; Xie, Xiao-Long; Tan, Li-Ying
2018-03-01
A new expression of the scintillation index (SI) for a Gaussian-beam wave propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence is derived, using a generalized effective atmospheric spectrum and the extended Rytov approximation theory. Finite inner and outer scale parameters and high wave number “bump” are considered in the spectrum with a generalized spectral power law in the range of 3–4, instead of the fixed classical Kolmogorov power law of 11/3. The obtained SI expression is then used to analyze the effects of the spectral power law and the inner scale and outer scale on SI under various non-Kolmogorov fluctuation conditions. These results will be useful in future investigations of optical wave propagation through atmospheric turbulence.
On the description of the turbulent flame acceleration with Kolmogorov law
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golub, V. V.; Volodin, V. V.
2018-01-01
A series of experiments on the flame propagation in a hydrogen-air mixtures in a cylindrical envelope of 4.5 m3 volume were carried out. Flame front propagation was recorded using ionization probes and video in the visible and infrared ranges. The flame propagation data interpretation using the Kolmogorov law has been applied. For the first time variation of turbulent energy dissipation rate per weight with combustion propagation was used. This approach allows the experimental data for mixtures with different compositions in non-spherical volumes to be described.
KARHUNEN-LOÈVE Basis Functions of Kolmogorov Turbulence in the Sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathar, Richard J.
In support of modeling atmospheric turbulence, the statistically independent Karhunen-Loève modes of refractive indices with isotropic Kolmogorov spectrum of the covariance are calculated inside a sphere of fixed radius, rendered as series of 3D Zernike functions. Many of the symmetry arguments of the well-known associated 2D problem for the circular input pupil remain valid. The technique of efficient diagonalization of the eigenvalue problem in wavenumber space is founded on the Fourier representation of the 3D Zernike basis, and extensible to the von-Kármán power spectrum.
Recurrent flow analysis in spatiotemporally chaotic 2-dimensional Kolmogorov flow
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Lucas, Dan, E-mail: dan.lucas@ucd.ie; Kerswell, Rich R., E-mail: r.r.kerswell@bris.ac.uk
2015-04-15
Motivated by recent success in the dynamical systems approach to transitional flow, we study the efficiency and effectiveness of extracting simple invariant sets (recurrent flows) directly from chaotic/turbulent flows and the potential of these sets for providing predictions of certain statistics of the flow. Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow (the 2D Navier-Stokes equations with a sinusoidal body force) is studied both over a square [0, 2π]{sup 2} torus and a rectangular torus extended in the forcing direction. In the former case, an order of magnitude more recurrent flows are found than previously [G. J. Chandler and R. R. Kerswell, “Invariant recurrent solutionsmore » embedded in a turbulent two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow,” J. Fluid Mech. 722, 554–595 (2013)] and shown to give improved predictions for the dissipation and energy pdfs of the chaos via periodic orbit theory. Analysis of the recurrent flows shows that the energy is largely trapped in the smallest wavenumbers through a combination of the inverse cascade process and a feature of the advective nonlinearity in 2D. Over the extended torus at low forcing amplitudes, some extracted states mimic the statistics of the spatially localised chaos present surprisingly well recalling the findings of Kawahara and Kida [“Periodic motion embedded in plane Couette turbulence: Regeneration cycle and burst,” J. Fluid Mech. 449, 291 (2001)] in low-Reynolds-number plane Couette flow. At higher forcing amplitudes, however, success is limited highlighting the increased dimensionality of the chaos and the need for larger data sets. Algorithmic developments to improve the extraction procedure are discussed.« less
Statistical tests of simple earthquake cycle models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Evans, Eileen L.
2016-12-01
A central goal of observing and modeling the earthquake cycle is to forecast when a particular fault may generate an earthquake: a fault late in its earthquake cycle may be more likely to generate an earthquake than a fault early in its earthquake cycle. Models that can explain geodetic observations throughout the entire earthquake cycle may be required to gain a more complete understanding of relevant physics and phenomenology. Previous efforts to develop unified earthquake models for strike-slip faults have largely focused on explaining both preseismic and postseismic geodetic observations available across a few faults in California, Turkey, and Tibet. An alternative approach leverages the global distribution of geodetic and geologic slip rate estimates on strike-slip faults worldwide. Here we use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for similarity of distributions to infer, in a statistically rigorous manner, viscoelastic earthquake cycle models that are inconsistent with 15 sets of observations across major strike-slip faults. We reject a large subset of two-layer models incorporating Burgers rheologies at a significance level of α = 0.05 (those with long-term Maxwell viscosities ηM < 4.0 × 1019 Pa s and ηM > 4.6 × 1020 Pa s) but cannot reject models on the basis of transient Kelvin viscosity ηK. Finally, we examine the implications of these results for the predicted earthquake cycle timing of the 15 faults considered and compare these predictions to the geologic and historical record.
Connective tissue graft vs. emdogain: A new approach to compare the outcomes.
Sayar, Ferena; Akhundi, Nasrin; Gholami, Sanaz
2013-01-01
The aim of this clinical trial study was to clinically evaluate the use of enamel matrix protein derivative combined with the coronally positioned flap to treat gingival recession compared to the subepithelial connective tissue graft by a new method to obtain denuded root surface area. Thirteen patients, each with two or more similar bilateral Miller class I or II gingival recession (40 recessions) were randomly assigned to the test (enamel matrix protein derivative + coronally positioned flap) or control group (subepithelial connective tissue graft). Recession depth, width, probing depth, keratinized gingival, and plaque index were recorded at baseline and at one, three, and six months after treatment. A stent was used to measure the denuded root surface area at each examination session. Results were analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Wilcoxon, Friedman, paired-sample t test. The average percentages of root coverage for control and test groups were 63.3% and 55%, respectively. Both groups showed significant keratinized gingival increase (P < 0.05). Recession depth decreased significantly in both groups. Root surface area was improved significantly from baseline with no significant difference between the two study groups (P > 0.05). The results of Friedman test were significant for clinical indices (P < 0.05), except for probing depth in control group (P = 0.166). Enamel matrix protein derivative showed the same results as subepithelial connective tissue graft with relatively easy procedure to perform and low patient morbidity.
Direct-Numerical and Large-Eddy Simulations of a Non-Equilibrium Turbulent Kolmogorov Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woodruff, S. L.; Shebalin, J. V.; Hussaini, M. Y.
1999-01-01
A non-equilibrium form of turbulent Kolmogorov flow is set up by making an instantaneous change in the amplitude of the spatially-periodic forcing. It is found that the response of the flow to this instantaneous change becomes more dramatic as the wavenumber of the forcing is increased, and, at the same time, that the faithfulness with which the large-eddy-simulation results agree with the direct-numerical results decreases.
Global Well-posedness of the Spatially Homogeneous Kolmogorov-Vicsek Model as a Gradient Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Figalli, Alessio; Kang, Moon-Jin; Morales, Javier
2018-03-01
We consider the so-called spatially homogenous Kolmogorov-Vicsek model, a non-linear Fokker-Planck equation of self-driven stochastic particles with orientation interaction under the space-homogeneity. We prove the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to the equation. We also show that weak solutions exponentially converge to a steady state, which has the form of the Fisher-von Mises distribution.
Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata; Natalício, Gabriela Letícia; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Pinzan, Arnaldo
2013-01-01
To observe the presence of sexual dimorphism and compare the mesiodistal width of the teeth in Caucasian, African and Japanese individuals with Brazilian ancestry not orthodontically treated and with normal occlusion. One hundred pairs of dental casts were used. It was measured, from first molar to first molar in both arches, the teeth's mesiodistal widths, using a digital caliper. For the statistical analysis of results Kolmogorov-Smirnov, t test, ANOVA and Tukey's test (p < 0.05) were used. Sexual dimorphism occurred on the three evaluated groups, and the highest mesiodistal widths were found in males. There was statistically significant difference between racial groups in all evaluated teeth in males. However, in females, this same difference was found only on upper lateral incisor and first molar; and lower lateral incisor, canine, first premolar and first molar. Most of mesiodistal measures present particular characteristics in relation to gender, with higher values for males, and to race, with a tendency for African to present greater mesiodistal distance of the teeth, followed by Japanese and Caucasians, respectively, important for the correct diagnosis and orthodontic planning.
Approximate sample size formulas for the two-sample trimmed mean test with unequal variances.
Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng
2007-05-01
Yuen's two-sample trimmed mean test statistic is one of the most robust methods to apply when variances are heterogeneous. The present study develops formulas for the sample size required for the test. The formulas are applicable for the cases of unequal variances, non-normality and unequal sample sizes. Given the specified alpha and the power (1-beta), the minimum sample size needed by the proposed formulas under various conditions is less than is given by the conventional formulas. Moreover, given a specified size of sample calculated by the proposed formulas, simulation results show that Yuen's test can achieve statistical power which is generally superior to that of the approximate t test. A numerical example is provided.
Li, Peizhi; Wang, Yong; Dong, Qingli
2017-04-01
Cities in China suffer from severe smog and haze, and a forecasting system with high accuracy is of great importance to foresee the concentrations of the airborne particles. Compared with chemical transport models, the growing artificial intelligence models can simulate nonlinearities and interactive relationships and getting more accurate results. In this paper, the Kolmogorov-Zurbenko (KZ) filter is modified and firstly applied to construct the model using an artificial intelligence method. The concentration of inhalable particles and fine particulate matter in Dalian are used to analyze the filtered components and test the forecasting accuracy. Besides, an extended experiment is made by implementing a comprehensive comparison and a stability test using data in three other cities in China. Results testify the excellent performance of the developed hybrid models, which can be utilized to better understand the temporal features of pollutants and to perform a better air pollution control and management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wallace, Joseph M
2015-04-01
Collagen's role in bone is often considered secondary. As increased attention is paid to collagen, understanding the impact of tissue preservation is important in interpreting experimental results. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that bone fixation prior to demineralization would maintain its collagen ultrastructure in an undisturbed state when analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The anterior diaphysis of a pig femur was cut into 6 mm pieces along its length. Samples were mounted, polished and randomly assigned to control or fixation groups (n = 5/group). Fixation samples were fixed for 24 h prior to demineralization. All samples were briefly demineralized to expose collagen, and imaged using AFM. Mouse tail tendons were also analyzed to explore effects of dehydration and fixation. Measurements from each bone sample were averaged and compared using a Mann-Whitney U-test. Tendon sample means were compared using RMANOVA. To investigate differences in D-spacing distributions, Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used. Fixation decreased D-spacing variability within and between bone samples and induced or maintained a higher average D-spacing versus control by shifting the D-spacing population upward. Tendon data indicate that fixing and drying samples leaves collagen near its undisturbed and hydrated native state. Fixation in bone prior to demineralization decreased D-spacing variability. D-spacing was shifted upward in fixed samples, indicating that collagen is stretched with mineral present and relaxes upon its removal. The ability to decrease variability in bone suggests that fixation might increase the power to detect changes in collagen due to disease or other pressures.
Xu, Xue; Kwon, Hyuk-Jae; Shi, Bing; Zheng, Qian; Yin, Heng; Li, Chenghao
2015-01-01
To address the question of whether one- or two-stage palatal treatment protocol has fewer detrimental effects on craniofacial growth in patients aged 5 years with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Forty patients with non-syndromic unilateral complete cleft lip and palate (UCCLPs) who had received primary cleft lip repair at age 6-12 months and cleft palate repair at age 18-30 months were selected in this study. Eighteen UCCLP patients who received two-stage palate repair were selected as group 1, and 22 UCCLP patients who received one-stage palate repair were selected as group 2. The control group consisted of 20 patients with unilateral incomplete cleft lip (UICL patients) whose age and gender matched with UCCLP patients. A one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to analyze the nature of data distribution. Bonferroni test and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used for multiple comparisons. Both case groups showed reduced maxillary sagittal length (ANS-PMP, A-PM, p < 0.05) and retrusion of the maxilla (S-Ptm, p < 0.05), A point and ANS point (Ba-N-A, Ba-N-ANS, p < 0.05). Patients treated with two-stage palate repair had a reduced posterior maxillary vertical height (R-PMP, p < 0.05). Our results indicated that maxillary sagittal length and position could be perturbed by both one- and two-stage palate repair. Vomer flap repair inhibited maxilla vertical growth. Delayed hard palate repair showed less detrimental effects on maxillary growth compared to early hard palate repair in UCCLP patients aged 5 years. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Jing; Fu, Yulong; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Xie, Xiaolong
2018-05-01
Spatial diversity as an effective technique to mitigate the turbulence fading has been widely utilized in free space optical (FSO) communication systems. The received signals, however, will suffer from channel correlation due to insufficient spacing between component antennas. In this paper, the new expressions of the channel correlation coefficient and specifically its components (the large- and small-scale channel correlation coefficients) for a plane wave with aperture effects are derived for horizontal link in moderate-to-strong turbulence, using a non-Kolmogorov spectrum that has a generalized power law in the range of 3-4 instead of the fixed classical Kolmogorov power law of 11/3. And then the influence of power law variations on the channel correlation coefficient and its components are analysed. The numerical results indicated that various value of the power law lead to varying effects on the channel correlation coefficient and its components. This work will help with the further investigation on the fading correlation in spatial diversity systems.
Variable gamma-ray sky at 1 GeV
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pshirkov, M. S.; Rubtsov, G. I.
2013-01-01
We search for the long-term variability of the gamma-ray sky in the energy range E > 1 GeV with 168 weeks of the gamma-ray telescope Fermi-LAT data. We perform a full sky blind search for regions with variable flux looking for deviations from uniformity. We bin the sky into 12288 pixels using the HEALPix package and use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to compare weekly photon counts in each pixel with the constant flux hypothesis. The weekly exposure of Fermi-LAT for each pixel is calculated with the Fermi-LAT tools. We consider flux variations in a pixel significant if the statistical probability of uniformity is less than 4 × 10-6, which corresponds to 0.05 false detections in the whole set. We identified 117 variable sources, 27 of which have not been reported variable before. The sources with previously unidentified variability contain 25 active galactic nuclei (AGN) belonging to the blazar class (11 BL Lacs and 14 FSRQs), one AGN of an uncertain type, and one pulsar PSR J0633+1746 (Geminga).
The consistency of standard cosmology and the BATSE number versus brightness relation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wickramasinghe, W. A. D. T.; Nemiroff, R. J.; Norris, J. P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G. J.; Meegan, C. A.; Wilson, R. B.; Paciesas, W. S.
1993-01-01
The integrated number-peak-flux relation measured by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is compared with several standard cosmological distributions for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models were used along with the assumption that the bursts are standard candles and have no number or luminosity evolution. For a given Omega spectral shape, we used a free parameter, essentially the comoving number density of bursts, to generate a best fit between the cosmology and the measured relation. Our results are shown for a subsample of the first 260 GRBs recorded by BATSE. We find acceptable fits between simple cosmological models and the brightness distribution data, as determined by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov one-distribution statistical test. One cannot distinguish a single best cosmological model from the goodness of the fits. The best fit implies that BATSE GRBs are complete out to a redshift of about unity. However, significantly higher and lower redshifts, by as much as a factor of 2, are possible for other marginally acceptable fits.
On the Link Between Kolmogorov Microscales and Friction in Wall-Bounded Flow of Viscoplastic Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Fabio; Anbarlooei, Hamid; Cruz, Daniel; Silva Freire, Atila; Santos, Cecilia M.
2017-11-01
Most discussions in literature on the friction coefficient of turbulent flows of fluids with complex rheology are empirical. As a rule, theoretical frameworks are not available even for some relatively simple constitutive models. In this work, we present a new family of formulas for the evaluation of the friction coefficient of turbulent flows of a large family of viscoplastic fluids. The developments combine an unified analysis for the description of the Kolmogorov's micro-scales and the phenomenological turbulence model of Gioia and Chakraborty. The resulting Blasius-type friction equation has only Blasius' constant as a parameter, and tests against experimental data show excellent agreement over a significant range of Hedstrom and Reynolds numbers. The limits of the proposed model are also discussed. We also comment on the role of the new formula as a possible benchmark test for the convergence of DNS simulations of viscoplastic flows. The friction formula also provides limits for the Maximum Drag Reduction (MDR) for viscoplastic flows, which resembles MDR asymptote for viscoelastic flows.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreinovich, Vladik; Longpre, Luc; Koshelev, Misha
1998-09-01
Most practical applications of statistical methods are based on the implicit assumption that if an event has a very small probability, then it cannot occur. For example, the probability that a kettle placed on a cold stove would start boiling by itself is not 0, it is positive, but it is so small, that physicists conclude that such an event is simply impossible. This assumption is difficult to formalize in traditional probability theory, because this theory only describes measures on sets and does not allow us to divide functions into 'random' and non-random ones. This distinction was made possible by the idea of algorithmic randomness, introduce by Kolmogorov and his student Martin- Loef in the 1960s. We show that this idea can also be used for inverse problems. In particular, we prove that for every probability measure, the corresponding set of random functions is compact, and, therefore, the corresponding restricted inverse problem is well-defined. The resulting techniques turns out to be interestingly related with the qualitative esthetic measure introduced by G. Birkhoff as order/complexity.
Medicinal plant knowledge and its erosion among the Mien (Yao) in northern Thailand.
Srithi, Kamonnate; Balslev, Henrik; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit; Srisanga, Prachaya; Trisonthi, Chusie
2009-06-22
We studied local knowledge and actual uses of medicinal plants among the Mien in northern Thailand, documenting traditional medical practices and its transfer between generations. With the assumption that discrepancies between knowledge and actual use represent knowledge erosion, we studied whether actual use of medicinal plants corresponded to people's knowledge of such uses. We used local knowledge from four specialist informants as the domain for semi-structured interviews with 34 randomly selected non-specialist informants. We calculated informant consensus, use value, and fidelity level for each species and use category and performed statistical analyses with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and paired-sample t-tests. We found significant discrepancies between knowledge and actual use of medicinal plants. The number of known and actually used plants increased with increasing informant age and decreased with increasing years of formal education. Medicinal plant knowledge and use in these Mien communities is undergoing inter-generational erosion because of acculturation and interrupted knowledge transmission. Preservation of Mien medicinal plant intellectual heritage requires continued documentation concerning use, conservation, and sustainable management of this resource, which should be publicized to younger Mien.
[Nutritional status and health-related life quality in school children from the southeast of Spain].
Gálvez Casas, Arancha; Rosa Guillamón, Andrés; García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro L; Pérez-Soto, Juan J; Tarraga Marcos, Loreto; Tarraga López, Pedro
2014-11-30
Analyze the level of Life Quality (LQ) in relation to nutritional status in a sample of primary school children. Cross sectional study with 298 participants (53.35% female) of 8-12 years. LQ was assessed by the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire . Measures of weight and size were taken. The BMI (normal-weight, overweight and obesity) was categorized using standard criteria. To establish the relationship between the different statistical variables was performed the Kolmogorov- Smirnov test and analysis of variance. Nutritional status was significantly correlated with LQ (F = 5.096; p =, 007). School children with a normal- weight state showed higher LQ levels compared to those overweight (p = .015) and obese (p =, 013). The results show that nutritional status acts as a differentiating factor in LQ. Adopting active lifestyle behaviours that promote a healthy nutritional status not only can have benefits over health biological parameters (such as physical condition) but can also contribute to improve other LQ indicators and mental health . Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Comparison of Geant4-DNA simulation of S-values with other Monte Carlo codes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
André, T.; Morini, F.; Karamitros, M.; Delorme, R.; Le Loirec, C.; Campos, L.; Champion, C.; Groetz, J.-E.; Fromm, M.; Bordage, M.-C.; Perrot, Y.; Barberet, Ph.; Bernal, M. A.; Brown, J. M. C.; Deleuze, M. S.; Francis, Z.; Ivanchenko, V.; Mascialino, B.; Zacharatou, C.; Bardiès, M.; Incerti, S.
2014-01-01
Monte Carlo simulations of S-values have been carried out with the Geant4-DNA extension of the Geant4 toolkit. The S-values have been simulated for monoenergetic electrons with energies ranging from 0.1 keV up to 20 keV, in liquid water spheres (for four radii, chosen between 10 nm and 1 μm), and for electrons emitted by five isotopes of iodine (131, 132, 133, 134 and 135), in liquid water spheres of varying radius (from 15 μm up to 250 μm). The results have been compared to those obtained from other Monte Carlo codes and from other published data. The use of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test has allowed confirming the statistical compatibility of all simulation results.
[Metabolism of serotonin in autism in children].
Bursztejn, C; Ferrari, P; Dreux, C; Braconnier, A; Lancrenon, S
1988-01-01
In this controlled study of 22 autistic children and 22 normal controls matched for age and sex, the frequency of hyperserotonemia in infantile autism was confirmed. Platelet serotonin was elevated in patients. Comparative to controls, serotonin was also high in urine of autistic patients, while, on the contrary there was no difference for the urinary excretion of 5-HIAA. No difference was observed either for serotonin uptake and efflux or for MAO activity, in isolated platelets. The elevation of plasma free tryptophan - significant only with the Kolmogorov Smirnov test - suggests that 5-HT biosynthesis might be enhanced. In the group of patient reported in this study, disorders of serotonin metabolism are associated with disturbances of platelet catecholamines, and also with elevated immunoglobulins and enhanced cellular immunity reactions.
The greatest taboo: urinary incontinence as a source of shame and embarrassment.
Elenskaia, Ksenia; Haidvogel, Karin; Heidinger, Christine; Doerfler, Daniela; Umek, Wolfgang; Hanzal, Engelbert
2011-10-01
While urinary incontinence is often labeled as a taboo in the literature, we found no scientific data addressing this issue exclusively. The aim of our study was to measure the perception of urinary incontinence as a taboo and how this compares to other medical conditions that may be embarrassing. 150 test persons completed a self-administered 13-item questionnaire about perception and knowledge of urinary incontinence. Data were analysed with the SPSS 10.0.5 software package using the U-test, Chi-square-test, Yates-correction, Fisher's exact test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Eighty-six (60.6%) of 142 respondents thought that urinary incontinence constituted a taboo in Austria. To be incontinent was considered significantly more embarrassing than depression or cancer, respectively (p = 0.001). Despite its high prevalence, urinary incontinence is still considered a taboo in up to 60% of our Austrian test persons. The level of shame and embarrassment of urinary incontinence is significantly higher than that of depression and cancer.
On the transition from pulled to pushed monotonic fronts of the extended Fisher Kolmogorov equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benguria, R. D.; Depassier, M. C.
2005-10-01
The extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation ut=uxx-γuxxxx+f(u) with arbitrary positive f(u), satisfying f(0)=f(1)=0, has monotonic traveling fronts for γ<{1}/{12}. We find a simple lower bound on the speed of the fronts which allows to determine, for a given reaction term, when will the front of minimal speed be pushed.
Microleakage of teeth restored with different adhesive dowel systems: an in vitro study.
Sarı, Tuğrul; Özyesil, Atilla G
2014-01-01
Commercial fiber-reinforced dowel systems are marketed as having better adhesion and sealing ability than conventional metallic dowel systems. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the microleakage of teeth restored with nine dowel systems. Ninety mandibular second premolar teeth were decoronated, and nine homogenous groups were composed of ten teeth each. Root canal and dowel space preparations were made, and eight fiber-reinforced composite dowel systems and one stainless steel dowel system were used to fabricate dowel restorations. Microleakage measurements of the restored teeth were made with a modified fluid filtration method, and data were collected. One sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA, and Tukey-HSD tests were performed on the relative microleakage data of the groups. Microleakage values were reported relative to those for teeth with unfilled canals. The highest and lowest relative microleakage values were recorded for the metallic Parapost (7.06 × 10(-4) %) and fiber-reinforced Everstick (3.55 × 10(-4) %) groups, respectively. Significant differences in relative microleakage between the fiber-reinforced dowels and stainless steel dowels were observed. Significant differences among the fiber-reinforced dowel groups were observed as well. The sealing ability of all fiber-reinforced composite dowels is not better than that of stainless steel dowels, and there are significant differences among different fiber-reinforced dowel systems as well. Differences among commercial dowel systems must be taken into consideration when making a selection. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
X-ray flux variability of active galactic nuclei observed using NuSTAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rani, Priyanka; Stalin, C. S.; Rakshit, Suvendu
2017-04-01
We present results of a systematic study of flux variability on hourly time-scales in a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the 3-79 keV band using data from Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. Our sample consists of four BL Lac objects (BL Lacs), three flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) 24 Seyfert 1, 42 Seyfert 2 and eight narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies. We find that in the 3-79 keV band, about 65 per cent of the sources in our sample show significant variations on hourly time-scales. Using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we find no difference in the variability behaviour between Seyfert 1 and 2 galaxies. The blazar sources (FSRQs and BL Lacs) in our sample are more variable than Seyfert galaxies that include Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 in the soft (3-10 keV), hard (10-79 keV) and total (3-79 keV) bands. NLSy1 galaxies show the highest duty cycle of variability (87 per cent), followed by BL Lacs (82 per cent), Seyfert galaxies (56 per cent) and FSRQs (23 per cent). We obtained flux doubling/halving time in the hard X-ray band less than 10 min in 11 sources. The flux variations between the hard and soft bands in all the sources in our sample are consistent with zero lag.
Quantifying Morphological Features of α-U3O8 with Image Analysis for Nuclear Forensics.
Olsen, Adam M; Richards, Bryony; Schwerdt, Ian; Heffernan, Sean; Lusk, Robert; Smith, Braxton; Jurrus, Elizabeth; Ruggiero, Christy; McDonald, Luther W
2017-03-07
Morphological changes in U 3 O 8 based on calcination temperature have been quantified enabling a morphological feature to serve as a signature of processing history in nuclear forensics. Five separate calcination temperatures were used to synthesize α-U 3 O 8 , and each sample was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (p-XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The p-XRD spectra were used to evaluate the purity of the synthesized U-oxide; the morphological analysis for materials (MAMA) software was utilized to quantitatively characterize the particle shape and size as indicated by the SEM images. Analysis comparing the particle attributes, such as particle area at each of the temperatures, was completed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test (K-S test). These results illustrate a distinct statistical difference between each calcination temperature. To provide a framework for forensic analysis of an unknown sample, the sample distributions at each temperature were compared to randomly selected distributions (100, 250, 500, and 750 particles) from each synthesized temperature to determine if they were statistically different. It was found that 750 particles were required to differentiate between all of the synthesized temperatures with a confidence interval of 99.0%. Results from this study provide the first quantitative morphological study of U-oxides, and reveals the potential strength of morphological particle analysis in nuclear forensics by providing a framework for a more rapid characterization of interdicted uranium oxide samples.
Yoga therapy for promoting emotional sensitivity in University students.
Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Dash, Sasmita; Ramarao, Nagendra Hongasandra
2014-01-01
Students need emotional intelligence (EI) for their better academic excellence. There are three important psychological dimensions of EI: Emotional sensitivity (ES), emotional maturity (EM) and emotional competency (EC), which motivate students to recognize truthfully, interpret honestly and handle tactfully the dynamics of their behavioral pattern. The study was designed to assess ES in the students undergoing yoga therapy program in the form of yoga instructor's course (YIC) module. One hundred and eighty four YIC students with 25.77 ± 4.85 years of mean age participated in this study of 21 days duration (a single group pre-post design). The ES data was collected before (pre) and after (post) YIC module using Emotional Quotient test developed by Dr Dalip Singh and Dr N K Chadha. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. The data analysis showed 3.63% significant increase (P < 0.01) in ES. The present study suggests that YIC module can result in improvement of ES among university students, thus paving the way for their academic success. Additional well-designed studies are needed before a strong recommendation can be made.
Discriminating between Light- and Heavy-Tailed Distributions with Limit Theorem.
Burnecki, Krzysztof; Wylomanska, Agnieszka; Chechkin, Aleksei
2015-01-01
In this paper we propose an algorithm to distinguish between light- and heavy-tailed probability laws underlying random datasets. The idea of the algorithm, which is visual and easy to implement, is to check whether the underlying law belongs to the domain of attraction of the Gaussian or non-Gaussian stable distribution by examining its rate of convergence. The method allows to discriminate between stable and various non-stable distributions. The test allows to differentiate between distributions, which appear the same according to standard Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In particular, it helps to distinguish between stable and Student's t probability laws as well as between the stable and tempered stable, the cases which are considered in the literature as very cumbersome. Finally, we illustrate the procedure on plasma data to identify cases with so-called L-H transition.
Statistical tests of simple earthquake cycle models
Devries, Phoebe M. R.; Evans, Eileen
2016-01-01
A central goal of observing and modeling the earthquake cycle is to forecast when a particular fault may generate an earthquake: a fault late in its earthquake cycle may be more likely to generate an earthquake than a fault early in its earthquake cycle. Models that can explain geodetic observations throughout the entire earthquake cycle may be required to gain a more complete understanding of relevant physics and phenomenology. Previous efforts to develop unified earthquake models for strike-slip faults have largely focused on explaining both preseismic and postseismic geodetic observations available across a few faults in California, Turkey, and Tibet. An alternative approach leverages the global distribution of geodetic and geologic slip rate estimates on strike-slip faults worldwide. Here we use the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for similarity of distributions to infer, in a statistically rigorous manner, viscoelastic earthquake cycle models that are inconsistent with 15 sets of observations across major strike-slip faults. We reject a large subset of two-layer models incorporating Burgers rheologies at a significance level of α = 0.05 (those with long-term Maxwell viscosities ηM <~ 4.0 × 1019 Pa s and ηM >~ 4.6 × 1020 Pa s) but cannot reject models on the basis of transient Kelvin viscosity ηK. Finally, we examine the implications of these results for the predicted earthquake cycle timing of the 15 faults considered and compare these predictions to the geologic and historical record.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Yonggen; Tian, Huanhuan; Dan, Youquan; Feng, Hao; Wang, Shijian
2017-04-01
Propagation formulae for M2-factor and beam wander of partially coherent electromagnetic hollow Gaussian (PCEHG) beam in non-Kolmogorov turbulence are derived based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the second-order moments of the Wigner distribution function. Our results indicate that the normalized M2-factors of PCEHG beam with larger beam order, waist width, inner scale of turbulence, the generalized exponent parameter, and smaller transverse coherent widths, outer scale of turbulence, the generalized structure parameter are less affected by the turbulence. The root mean square beam wander and relative beam wander are more obvious for PCEHG beam with smaller beam order, larger inner and outer scales of turbulence, exponent parameter, transverse coherent widths, and the generalized structure parameter. What is more, the beam wander properties of PCEHG beam in non-Kolmogorov turbulence are very different from M2-factor and spreading properties of beam in turbulence.
Tilt angles and positive response of head-up tilt test in children with orthostatic intolerance.
Lin, Jing; Wang, Yuli; Ochs, Todd; Tang, Chaoshu; Du, Junbao; Jin, Hongfang
2015-01-01
This study aimed at examining three tilt angle-based positive responses and the time to positive response in a head-up tilt test for children with orthostatic intolerance, and the psychological fear experienced at the three angles during head-up tilt test. A total of 174 children, including 76 boys and 98 girls, aged from 4 to 18 years old (mean 11.3±2.8 years old), with unexplained syncope, were randomly divided into three groups, to undergo head-up tilt test at the angles of 60°, 70° and 80°, respectively. The diagnostic rates and times were analysed, and Wong-Baker face pain rating scale was used to access the children's psychological fear. There were no significant differences in diagnostic rates of postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome and vasovagal syncope at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test (p>0.05). There was a significant difference, however, in the psychological fear at different tilt angles utilising the Kruskal-Wallis test (χ2=36.398, p<0.01). It was mildest at tilt angle 60° utilising the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p<0.01). A positive rank correlation was found between the psychological fear and the degree of tilt angle (r(s)=0.445, p<0.01). Positive response appearance time was 15.1±14.0 minutes at 60° for vasovagal syncope children. There was no significant difference in the time to positive response, at different tilt angles during the head-up tilt test for vasovagal syncope or for postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Hence, it is suggested that a tilt angle of 60° and head-up tilt test time of 45 minutes should be suitable for children with vasovagal syncope.
Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions
Kirby, W.H.
1980-01-01
Use of previously codes and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main programs. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chisquare, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F tests. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function I (subzero), gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)
Assessment of surface hardness of acrylic resins submitted to accelerated artificial aging.
Tornavoi, D C; Agnelli, J A M; Lepri, C P; Mazzetto, M O; Botelho, A L; Soares, R G; Dos Reis, A C
2012-06-01
The aim of this study was to assess the influence of accelerated artificial aging (AAA) on the surface hardness of acrylic resins. The following three commercial brands of acrylic resins were tested: Vipi Flash (autopolymerized resin), Vipi Wave (microwave heat-polymerized resin) and Vipi Cril (conventional heat-polymerized resin). To perform the tests, 21 test specimens (65x10x3 mm) were made, 7 for each resin. Three surface hardness readings were performed for each test specimen, before and after AAA, and the means were submitted to the following tests: Kolmogorov-Smirnov (P>0.05), Levene Statistic, Two-way ANOVA, Tukey Post Hoc (P<0.05) with the SPSS Statistical Software 17.0. The analysis of the factors showed significant differences in the hardness values (P<0.05). Before aging, the autopolymerized acrylic resin Vipi Flash showed lower hardness values when compared with the heat-polymerized resin Vipi Cril (P=0.001). After aging, the 3 materials showed similar performance when compared among them. The Vipi Cril was the only one affected by AAA and showed lower hardness values after this procedure (Pp=0.003). It may be concluded that accelerated artificial aging influenced surface hardness of heat-polymerized acrylic resin Vipi Cril.
The Utility of IRT in Small-Sample Testing Applications.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sireci, Stephen G.
The utility of modified item response theory (IRT) models in small sample testing applications was studied. The modified IRT models were modifications of the one- and two-parameter logistic models. One-, two-, and three-parameter models were also studied. Test data were from 4 years of a national certification examination for persons desiring…
Beyond job security and money: driving factors of motivation for government doctors in India.
Purohit, Bhaskar; Bandyopadhyay, Tathagata
2014-02-21
Despite many efforts from government to address the shortage of medical officers (MOs) in rural areas, rural health centres continue to suffer from severe shortage of MOs. Lack of motivation to join and continue service in rural areas is a major reason for such shortage. In the present study, we aimed to assess and rank the driving factors of motivation important for in-service MOs in their current job. The study participants included ninety two in-service government MOs from three states in India. The study participants were required to rank 14 factors of motivation important for them in their current job. The factors for the study were selected using Herzberg's two-factor theory of motivation and the data were collected using an instrument that has an established reliability and validity. Test of Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) was carried out to assess the agreement in ranks assigned by participants to various motivation factors. Next, we studied the distributions of ranks of different motivating factors using standard descriptive statistics and box plots, which gave us interesting insights into the strength of agreement of the MOs in assigning ranks to various factors. And finally to assess whether MOs are more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated, we used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The (W) test indicated statistically significant (P < 0.01) agreement of the participants in assigning ranks. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that from policy perspectives, MOs place significantly more motivational importance to intrinsic factors than to extrinsic factors. The study results indicate that job security was the most important factor related to motivation, closely followed by interesting work and respect and recognition. Among the top five preferred factors, three were intrinsic factors indicating a great importance given by MOs to factors beyond money and job security. To address the issue of motivation, the health departments need to pay
Beyond job security and money: driving factors of motivation for government doctors in India
2014-01-01
Background Despite many efforts from government to address the shortage of medical officers (MOs) in rural areas, rural health centres continue to suffer from severe shortage of MOs. Lack of motivation to join and continue service in rural areas is a major reason for such shortage. In the present study, we aimed to assess and rank the driving factors of motivation important for in-service MOs in their current job. Methods The study participants included ninety two in-service government MOs from three states in India. The study participants were required to rank 14 factors of motivation important for them in their current job. The factors for the study were selected using Herzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation and the data were collected using an instrument that has an established reliability and validity. Test of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance (W) was carried out to assess the agreement in ranks assigned by participants to various motivation factors. Next, we studied the distributions of ranks of different motivating factors using standard descriptive statistics and box plots, which gave us interesting insights into the strength of agreement of the MOs in assigning ranks to various factors. And finally to assess whether MOs are more intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated, we used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Results The (W) test indicated statistically significant (P < 0.01) agreement of the participants in assigning ranks. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that from policy perspectives, MOs place significantly more motivational importance to intrinsic factors than to extrinsic factors. The study results indicate that job security was the most important factor related to motivation, closely followed by interesting work and respect and recognition. Among the top five preferred factors, three were intrinsic factors indicating a great importance given by MOs to factors beyond money and job security. Conclusion To address the issue of
Western North Pacific Tropical Cyclone Model Tracks in Present and Future Climates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Jennifer; Camargo, Suzana J.; Sobel, Adam H.; Henderson, Naomi; Emanuel, Kerry A.; Kumar, Arun; LaRow, Timothy E.; Murakami, Hiroyuki; Roberts, Malcolm J.; Scoccimarro, Enrico; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Wang, Hui; Wehner, Michael F.; Zhao, Ming
2017-09-01
Western North Pacific tropical cyclone (TC) model tracks are analyzed in two large multimodel ensembles, spanning a large variety of models and multiple future climate scenarios. Two methodologies are used to synthesize the properties of TC tracks in this large data set: cluster analysis and mass moment ellipses. First, the models' TC tracks are compared to observed TC tracks' characteristics, and a subset of the models is chosen for analysis, based on the tracks' similarity to observations and sample size. Potential changes in track types in a warming climate are identified by comparing the kernel smoothed probability distributions of various track variables in historical and future scenarios using a Kolmogorov-Smirnov significance test. Two track changes are identified. The first is a statistically significant increase in the north-south expansion, which can also be viewed as a poleward shift, as TC tracks are prevented from expanding equatorward due to the weak Coriolis force near the equator. The second change is an eastward shift in the storm tracks that occur near the central Pacific in one of the multimodel ensembles, indicating a possible increase in the occurrence of storms near Hawaii in a warming climate. The dependence of the results on which model and future scenario are considered emphasizes the necessity of including multiple models and scenarios when considering future changes in TC characteristics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ertmer, David Joseph
1994-01-01
The effectiveness of vowel production training which incorporated direct instruction in combination with spectrographic models and feedback was assessed for two children who exhibited profound hearing impairment. A multiple-baseline design across behaviors, with replication across subjects was implemented to determine if vowel production accuracy improved following the introduction of treatment. Listener judgments of vowel correctness were obtained during the baseline, training, and follow-up phases of the study. Data were analyzed through visual inspection of changes in levels of accuracy, changes in trends of accuracy, and changes in variability of accuracy within and across phases. One subject showed significant improvement of all three trained vowel targets; the second subject for the first trained target only (Kolmogorov-Smirnov Two Sample Test). Performance trends during training sessions suggest that continued treatment would have resulted in further improvement for both subjects. Vowel duration, fundamental frequency, and the frequency locations of the first and second formants were measured before and after training. Acoustic analysis revealed highly individualized changes in the frequency locations of F1 and F2. Vowels which received the most training were maintained at higher levels than those which were introduced later in training, Some generalization of practiced vowel targets to untrained words was observed in both subjects. A bias towards judging productions as "correct" was observed for both subjects during self-evaluation tasks using spectrographic feedback.
Beyond the constraints underlying Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami theory related to the growth laws.
Tomellini, M; Fanfoni, M
2012-02-01
The theory of Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami for phase transition kinetics is subjected to severe limitations concerning the functional form of the growth law. This paper is devoted to sidestepping this drawback through the use of the correlation function approach. Moreover, we put forward an easy-to-handle formula, written in terms of the experimentally accessible actual extended volume fraction, which is found to match several types of growths. Computer simulations have been performed for corroborating the theoretical approach. © 2012 American Physical Society
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scarfone, A. M.; Matsuzoe, H.; Wada, T.
2016-09-01
We show the robustness of the structure of Legendre transform in thermodynamics against the replacement of the standard linear average with the Kolmogorov-Nagumo nonlinear average to evaluate the expectation values of the macroscopic physical observables. The consequence of this statement is twofold: 1) the relationships between the expectation values and the corresponding Lagrange multipliers still hold in the present formalism; 2) the universality of the Gibbs equation as well as other thermodynamic relations are unaffected by the structure of the average used in the theory.
Yoga therapy for developing emotional intelligence in mid-life managers.
Ganpat, Tikhe Sham; Nagendra, H R
2011-01-01
Business executives' lives have become a never-ending race against time, technology, and targets. This race creates tension, which leads to dissatisfaction and frustration and eventually manifests itself as psychological and physiological stress with mental and emotional drain. This modern lifestyle intensifies the stress leading to "excessive tension" and consequent deterioration in "executive efficiency". To assess emotional intelligent quotient (EQ) in managers undergoing yoga-based Self Management of Excessive Tension (SMET) program. 72 managers participated in this study which is of "single group pre-post design." The EQ test developed by Prof N. K. Chadha from University of Delhi was administered as pre and post the 5 days of SMET program. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to analyze the data. The data analysis showed 72.02% significant increase (P<0.001) in EQ. The results suggest that participation in a SMET program was associated with improvement in EQ and may have implications for "executive efficiency."
Computer routines for probability distributions, random numbers, and related functions
Kirby, W.
1983-01-01
Use of previously coded and tested subroutines simplifies and speeds up program development and testing. This report presents routines that can be used to calculate various probability distributions and other functions of importance in statistical hydrology. The routines are designed as general-purpose Fortran subroutines and functions to be called from user-written main progress. The probability distributions provided include the beta, chi-square, gamma, Gaussian (normal), Pearson Type III (tables and approximation), and Weibull. Also provided are the distributions of the Grubbs-Beck outlier test, Kolmogorov 's and Smirnov 's D, Student 's t, noncentral t (approximate), and Snedecor F. Other mathematical functions include the Bessel function, I sub o, gamma and log-gamma functions, error functions, and exponential integral. Auxiliary services include sorting and printer-plotting. Random number generators for uniform and normal numbers are provided and may be used with some of the above routines to generate numbers from other distributions. (USGS)
Modeling and forecasting foreign exchange daily closing prices with normal inverse Gaussian
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teneng, Dean
2013-09-01
We fit the normal inverse Gaussian(NIG) distribution to foreign exchange closing prices using the open software package R and select best models by Käärik and Umbleja (2011) proposed strategy. We observe that daily closing prices (12/04/2008 - 07/08/2012) of CHF/JPY, AUD/JPY, GBP/JPY, NZD/USD, QAR/CHF, QAR/EUR, SAR/CHF, SAR/EUR, TND/CHF and TND/EUR are excellent fits while EGP/EUR and EUR/GBP are good fits with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.062 and 0.08 respectively. It was impossible to estimate normal inverse Gaussian parameters (by maximum likelihood; computational problem) for JPY/CHF but CHF/JPY was an excellent fit. Thus, while the stochastic properties of an exchange rate can be completely modeled with a probability distribution in one direction, it may be impossible the other way around. We also demonstrate that foreign exchange closing prices can be forecasted with the normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) Lévy process, both in cases where the daily closing prices can and cannot be modeled by NIG distribution.
Sharfi, Kineret; Rosenblum, Sara
2015-01-01
Following the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) concepts, this study examines body functions such as sensory modulation and sleep quality among adults with learning disabilities (LD). One hundred and ten participants, 55 adults with LD and 55 matched controls (mean age 30 years) filled in a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Adults/Adolescents Sensory Profile (AASP), and the Mini Sleep Questionnaire (MSQ). Chi-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were conducted to examine group differences related to socio-demographic characteristics and body functions. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between body functions. Significant differences were found between the groups in: (a) unique socio-demographic variables: high-schools attended, family status and number of children; (b) body functions: low registration and sensory sensitivity (p < .001), sensory avoiding (p = .002), sensory seeking (p = .021) and sleep quality (p < .001). Significant correlations were found between AASP subscale scores and the MSQ final score in each group. Regression analysis revealed that for the entire sample (N = 108), low registration accounted for 10.2% of the variance of sleep quality above group membership (p < .001), while in a separate examination of adults with LD (n = 53), low registration accounted for 19.9% of the variance of sleep quality (p < .001). Adults with LD need to be studied through a health-related perspective such as the ICF model to gain further understanding of their unique characteristics and daily needs. Sensory and sleep functions of adults with LD should be further studied in the context of health related quality of life.
Microstructure development in Kolmogorov, Johnson-Mehl, and Avrami nucleation and growth kinetics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pineda, Eloi; Crespo, Daniel
1999-08-01
A statistical model with the ability to evaluate the microstructure developed in nucleation and growth kinetics is built in the framework of the Kolmogorov, Johnson-Mehl, and Avrami theory. A populational approach is used to compute the observed grain-size distribution. The impingement process which delays grain growth is analyzed, and the effective growth rate of each population is estimated considering the previous grain history. The proposed model is integrated for a wide range of nucleation and growth protocols, including constant nucleation, pre-existing nuclei, and intermittent nucleation with interface or diffusion-controlled grain growth. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving quantitative agreement even in cases where previous models fail.
Ors, Suna; Inci, Ercan; Turkay, Rustu; Kokurcan, Atilla; Hocaoglu, Elif
2017-12-01
To compare efficancy of three-dimentional SPACE (sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions) and CISS (constructive interference in steady state) sequences in the imaging of the cisternal segments of cranial nerves V-XII. Temporal MRI scans from 50 patients (F:M ratio, 27:23; mean age, 44.5±15.9 years) admitted to our hospital with vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss were retrospectively analyzed. All patients had both CISS and SPACE sequences. Quantitative analysis of SPACE and CISS sequences was performed by measuring the ventricle-to-parenchyma contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Qualitative analysis of differences in visualization capability, image quality, and severity of artifacts was also conducted. A score ranging 'no artefact' to 'severe artefacts and unreadable' was used for the assessment of artifacts and from 'not visualized' to 'completely visualized' for the assesment of image quality, respectively. The distribution of variables was controlled by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Samples t-test and McNemar's test were used to determine statistical significance. Rates of visualization of posterior fossa cranial nerves in cases of complete visualization were as follows: nerve V (100% for both sequences), nerve VI (94% in SPACE, 86% in CISS sequences), nerves VII-VIII (100% for both sequences), IX-XI nerve complex (96%, 88%); nerve XII (58%, 46%) (p<0.05). SPACE sequences showed fewer artifacts than CISS sequences (p<0.002). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sudarmin, S.; Mursiti, S.; Asih, A. G.
2018-04-01
In this disruption era, students are encouraged to develop critical thinking skills and important cultural conservation characters. Student's thinking skill in chemistry learning has not been developed because learning chemistry in schools still uses teacher-centered, lecture method, is less interesting and does not utilize local culture as a learning resource. The purpose of this research is to know the influence of the application of direct Instruction (DI) model with video learning of ethnoscience on the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills. This study was experimental research. The population was the students from class XI MIPA MA Negeri Gombong with the sample chosen by purposive random sampling. The material of local wisdom as the study of ethnosciences which was the focus of the research was the production of genting, dawet, lanting, and sempor reservoirs which is integrated with colloidal chemical contents. The learning video of ethnoscience before being applied was validated by experts. Students’ critical thinking skills were revealed through the concept of conceptualizing test instruments. The data analysis technique used was the test of proportion and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The results of this study suggested that the experimental class that was treated by scientific direct instruction model with the learning video of ethnoscience shows cognitive learning and critical thinking which were better than the control class. Besides, the students indicated their interest in the application of scientific direct instruction model with ethnoscience learning video.
Valizadeh, Rohollah; Hosseini Askarabadi, Siroos; Karampour, Sedigheh; Abdolhamid Tehrani, Mona
2014-01-01
The present study aims to consider the effect of 10 weeks resistance trainings on cholesterol and blood triglyceride (TG) levels of patients with having fatty liver, aged 50 to 60 in National Iranian South Oil Company (NISOC). This research is practical and its plan has been done experimentally with pretest and post-test on experimental and control groups. In this study, 20 samples from 100 patients who referred to sonography clinic in NISOC with distinction of fatty liver were selected randomly and divided into two groups of control (n = 10) and experimental (n = 10). Cholesterol and blood trigly-ceride were measured as pretest. Test of normality for TG was (p = 0/200) by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and (p = 0/070) for cholesterol by Shapiro-Wilk test. After 10 weeks resistance trainings, the analysis and resolution of data were done by computer and SPSS (16) software as well as the descriptive and statistical methods (t-test). Comparison between these two groups showed that 8 weeks resistance trainings with a ≤ 0.05 causes significant decrease in the amount of TG but did not any significant effect on cholesterol of fatty liver patients. How to cite this article: Valizadeh R, Askarabadi SH, Karampour S, Tehrani MA. The Effect of 10 Weeks Resistance Training on Cholesterol and Blood Triglyceride Levels of Patients with Fatty Liver Disease. Euroasian J Hepato-Gastroenterol 2014;4(1):64-65.
A rapid 'one-plate' in vitro test for pyrogens.
Poole, Stephen; Mistry, Yogesh; Ball, Christine; Gaines Das, Rose E; Opie, Lisa Pieti; Tucker, Garry; Patel, Mehul
2003-03-01
A rapid, 'one-plate' monocyte-activation test is described for detecting endotoxin and non-endotoxin pyrogens in parenteral medicinal products. The one-plate test offers useful gains over conventional 'two-plate' (cell culture plate+ELISA plate) tests in terms of its limit of detection, robustness, speed and cost. The 'one-plate' test is likely to be applicable to a wide range of products because it allows less time for product interference in the test. The 'one-plate' test utilises pyrogen-free anti-cytokine (interleukin (IL)-6 or tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)) antibodies (Ab), coated and stabilised onto (pyrogen-free) 96-well plates. Monocytes/monocytic cells, endotoxin (lipopolysaccharides, LPS) standard or sample and (pyrogen-free) second (labelled) Ab are cultured together (usually for 2-4 h) on the Ab-coated plate and then the plate is washed and the ELISA completed. There is no transfer from one plate to another and no (further) incubations of (released) cytokine with, first, coating Ab and, then, developing Ab since these steps have already taken place during the initial cell culture. The rapid, 'one-plate' test is readily automated. The preferred readout is IL-6, which gives a limit of detection of 0.015 endotoxin units (EU)/ml with peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC), 0.03 EU/ml with diluted whole blood and 0.05 EU/ml with a monocytic cell line (MONO MAC 6).
Shankar, P Ravi; Herz, Burton L; Dubey, Arun K; Hassali, Mohamed A
2016-10-01
Use of generic medicines is important to reduce rising health-care costs. Proper knowledge and perception of medical students and doctors toward generic medicines are important. Xavier University School of Medicine in Aruba admits students from the United States, Canada, and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD) program. The present study was conducted to study the knowledge and perception about generic medicines among basic science MD students. The cross-sectional study was conducted among first to fifth semester students during February 2015. A previously developed instrument was used. Basic demographic information was collected. Respondent's agreement with a set of statements was noted using a Likert-type scale. The calculated total score was compared among subgroups of respondents. One sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to study the normality of distribution, Independent samples t -test to compare the total score for dichotomous variables, and analysis of variance for others were used for statistical analysis. Fifty-six of the 85 students (65.8%) participated. Around 55% of respondents were between 20 and 25 years of age and of American nationality. Only three respondents (5.3%) provided the correct value of the regulatory bioequivalence limits. The mean total score was 43.41 (maximum 60). There was no significant difference in scores among subgroups. There was a significant knowledge gap with regard to the regulatory bioequivalence limits for generic medicines. Respondents' level of knowledge about other aspects of generic medicines was good but could be improved. Studies among clinical students in the institution and in other Caribbean medical schools are required. Deficiencies were noted and we have strengthened learning about generic medicines during the basic science years.
Colletti, Thomas P; Salisbury, Helen; Hertelendy, Attila J; Tseng, Tina
2016-03-01
This study was conducted to examine the relationship between physician assistant (PA) educational program length and PA programs' 5-year average Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination (PANCE) first-time pass rates. This was a retrospective correlational study that analyzed previously collected data from a nonprobability purposive sample of accredited PA program Web sites. Master's level PA programs (n = 108) in the United States with published average PANCE scores for 5 consecutive classes were included. Provisional and probationary programs were excluded (n = 4). Study data were not normally distributed per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P = .00. There was no relationship between program length and PANCE pass rates, ρ (108) = -0.04, P = .68. Further analyses examining a possible relationship between program phase length (didactic and clinical) and PANCE pass rates also demonstrated no differences (ρ [107] = -0.05, P = .60 and ρ [107] = 0.02, P = .80, respectively). The results of this study suggest that shorter length PA programs perform similarly to longer programs in preparing students to pass the PANCE. In light of rapid expansion of PA educational programs, educators may want to consider these findings when planning the length of study for new and established programs.
Floristic evolution in an agroforestry system cultivation in Southern Brazil.
Silva, Luís C R; Machado, Sebastião A; Galvão, Franklin; Figueiredo, Afonso
2016-06-07
Bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella Bentham) is an important pioneer tree species in Ombrophylous Mixed Forest of Brazil and is widely used as an energy source. In traditional agroforestry systems, regeneration is induced by fire, then pure and dense stands known as bracatinga stands (bracatingais) are formed. In the first year, annual crops are intercalated with the seedlings. At that time the seedlings are thinned, then the stands remain at a fallow period and cut at seven years old. The species is very important mainly for small landowners. We studied the understory species that occur naturally during the succession over several years in order to manage them rationally in the future and maintain the natural vegetation over time. Three to 20 year-old Bracatinga stands were sampled between 1998 and 2011. All tree species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥ 5 cm were measured.The floristic evolution was assessed with respect to Sociability Index, the Shannon Diversity Index and the Pielou Evenness Index. Graphs of rank/abundance over different age groups were evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. We identified 153 species dispersed throughout the understory and tend to become aggregated over time.
Liu, Geng; Niu, Junjie; Zhang, Chao; Guo, Guanlin
2015-12-01
Data distribution is usually skewed severely by the presence of hot spots in contaminated sites. This causes difficulties for accurate geostatistical data transformation. Three types of typical normal distribution transformation methods termed the normal score, Johnson, and Box-Cox transformations were applied to compare the effects of spatial interpolation with normal distribution transformation data of benzo(b)fluoranthene in a large-scale coking plant-contaminated site in north China. Three normal transformation methods decreased the skewness and kurtosis of the benzo(b)fluoranthene, and all the transformed data passed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test threshold. Cross validation showed that Johnson ordinary kriging has a minimum root-mean-square error of 1.17 and a mean error of 0.19, which was more accurate than the other two models. The area with fewer sampling points and that with high levels of contamination showed the largest prediction standard errors based on the Johnson ordinary kriging prediction map. We introduce an ideal normal transformation method prior to geostatistical estimation for severely skewed data, which enhances the reliability of risk estimation and improves the accuracy for determination of remediation boundaries.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming
2008-01-01
This study proposes an approach for determining appropriate sample size for Welch's F test when unequal variances are expected. Given a certain maximum deviation in population means and using the quantile of F and t distributions, there is no need to specify a noncentrality parameter and it is easy to estimate the approximate sample size needed…
Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 4).
Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo
2012-01-01
Sample size estimation is necessary for any experimental or survey research. An appropriate estimation of sample size based on known information and statistical knowledge is of great significance. This article introduces methods of sample size estimation of difference test for data with the design of one factor with two levels, including sample size estimation formulas and realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software for quantitative data and qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels. In addition, this article presents examples for analysis, which will play a leading role for researchers to implement the repetition principle during the research design phase.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test samples. 15.5 Section 15.5 Mineral... § 15.5 Test samples. (a) Submission of test samples. (1) The applicant shall not submit explosives or... magazine for at least 30 days before gallery tests are conducted. ...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test samples. 15.5 Section 15.5 Mineral... § 15.5 Test samples. (a) Submission of test samples. (1) The applicant shall not submit explosives or... magazine for at least 30 days before gallery tests are conducted. ...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test samples. 15.5 Section 15.5 Mineral... § 15.5 Test samples. (a) Submission of test samples. (1) The applicant shall not submit explosives or... magazine for at least 30 days before gallery tests are conducted. ...
Some analysis on the diurnal variation of rainfall over the Atlantic Ocean
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gill, T.; Perng, S.; Hughes, A.
1981-01-01
Data collected from the GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was examined. The data were collected from 10,000 grid points arranged as a 100 x 100 array; each grid covered a 4 square km area. The amount of rainfall was measured every 15 minutes during the experiment periods using c-band radars. Two types of analyses were performed on the data: analysis of diurnal variation was done on each of grid points based on the rainfall averages at noon and at midnight, and time series analysis on selected grid points based on the hourly averages of rainfall. Since there are no known distribution model which best describes the rainfall amount, nonparametric methods were used to examine the diurnal variation. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to test if the rainfalls at noon and at midnight have the same statistical distribution. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test if the noon rainfall is heavier than, equal to, or lighter than the midnight rainfall. These tests were done on each of the 10,000 grid points at which the data are available.
Uniqueness of the Stationary Wave for the Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kwapisz, Jaroslaw
2000-07-01
The extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation, ut=-βuxxxx+uxx+u-u3, β>0, models a binary system near the Lifshitz critical point and is known to exhibit a stationary heteroclinic solution joining the equilibria ±1. For the classical case, β=0, the heteroclinic is u(x)=tanh(x/2) and is unique up to the obvious symmetries. We prove the conjecture that the uniqueness persists all the way to β=1/8, where the onset of spatial chaos associated with the loss of monotonicity of the stationary wave is known to occur. Our methods are non-perturbative and employ a global cross-section to the Hamiltonian flow of the stationary fourth order equation on the energy level of ±1. We also prove uniform a priori bounds on all bounded stationary solutions, valid for any β>0.
Hiruta, Yoshiki; Toh, Sadayoshi
2015-12-01
Two-dimensional Kolmogorov flow in wide periodic boxes is numerically investigated. It is shown that the total flow rate in the direction perpendicular to the force controls the characteristics of the flow, especially the existence of spatially localized solitary solutions such as traveling waves, periodic solutions, and chaotic solutions, which can behave as elementary components of the flow. We propose a procedure to construct approximate solutions consisting of solitary solutions. It is confirmed by direct numerical simulations that these solutions are stable and represent interactions between elementary components such as collisions, coexistence, and collapse of chaos.
Obesity and worsening of chronic venous disease and joint mobility.
Belczak, Cleusa Ema Quilici; de Godoy, José Maria Pereira; Belzack, Sergio Quilici; Ramos, Rubiana Neves; Caffaro, Roberto Augusto
2014-09-01
The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship between obesity and decreased mobility of the talocrural joint and in turn chronic venous disease. One hundred obese patients recruited at Hospital Santa Casa de Maringa, Parana were enrolled by order of arrival at the hospital in a randomized quantitative cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria were patients with a body mass index above 30 kg/m(2) and the exclusion criteria were infectious conditions that would interfere with the assessment. Patients were graded according to the clinical, etiological, anatomical and pathophysiological classification. Talocrural goniometry was performed to assess the degree of mobility of the legs. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Dunn's Multiple comparison test and analysis of variance were used for statistical analysis tests with an alpha error of 5% being considered acceptable. The increase in body mass index is correlated to the reduction in joint mobility (Kruskal-Wallis test: p-value <0.0001) and increase in clinical, etiological, anatomical and pathophysiological classification is correlated to a decrease in joint mobility and the increase in age is associated with an increase in clinical, etiological, anatomical and pathophysiological classification (Kruskal-Wallis test: p-value <0.0001). Obesity is associated with deterioration in joint mobility and worsening of chronic venous disease. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Xiang, Jim X
2016-01-01
Measuring a change in the existence of disease symptoms before and after a treatment is examined for statistical significance by means of the McNemar test. When comparing two treatments, Feuer and Kessler (1989) proposed a two-sample McNemar test. In this article, we show that this test usually inflates the type I error in the hypothesis testing, and propose a new two-sample McNemar test that is superior in terms of preserving type I error. We also make the connection between the two-sample McNemar test and the test statistic for the equal residual effects in a 2 × 2 crossover design. The limitations of the two-sample McNemar test are also discussed.
A KST framework for correlation network construction from time series signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qi, Jin-Peng; Gu, Quan; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Ping
2018-04-01
A KST (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and T statistic) method is used for construction of a correlation network based on the fluctuation of each time series within the multivariate time signals. In this method, each time series is divided equally into multiple segments, and the maximal data fluctuation in each segment is calculated by a KST change detection procedure. Connections between each time series are derived from the data fluctuation matrix, and are used for construction of the fluctuation correlation network (FCN). The method was tested with synthetic simulations and the result was compared with those from using KS or T only for detection of data fluctuation. The novelty of this study is that the correlation analyses was based on the data fluctuation in each segment of each time series rather than on the original time signals, which would be more meaningful for many real world applications and for analysis of large-scale time signals where prior knowledge is uncertain.
Rabelo, Gustavo Davi; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; Dechichi, Paula
2010-10-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of radiotherapy in cortical bone channels network. Fourteen rabbits were divided in two groups and test group received single dose of 15 Gy cobalt-60 radiation in tibia, bilaterally. The animals were sacrificed and a segment of tibia was removed and histologically processed. Histological images were taken and had their bone channels segmented and called regions of interest (ROI). Images were analyzed through developed algorithms using the SCILAB mathematical environment, getting percentage of bone matrix, ROI areas, ROI perimeters, their standard deviations and Lacunarity. The osteocytes and empty lacunae were also counted. Data were evaluated using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann Whitney, and Student's t test (P < 0.05). Significant differences in bone matrix percentage, area and perimeters of the channels, their respective standard deviations and lacunarity were found between groups. In conclusion, the radiotherapy causes reduction of bone matrix and modifies the morphology of bone channels network. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Hübner, Kerstin; Gonzalez-Wanguemert, Mercedes; Diekmann, Onno E; Serrão, Ester A
2013-01-01
Sexual selection theory predicts that, in organisms with reversed sex roles, more polyandrous species exhibit higher levels of sexual dimorphism. In the family Syngnathidae (pipefish, seahorses, and seadragons), males provide all parental care by carrying developing embryos on their ventral surfaces, and females develop secondary sex characters. Syngnathids exhibit a variety of genetic mating patterns, making them an ideal group to test predictions of sexual selection theory. Here, we describe the mating system of the black-striped pipefish Syngnathus abaster, using 4 highly variable microsatellites to analyze parentage of 102 embryos. Results revealed that 1) both sexes mate multiple times over the course of a pregnancy (polygynandrous mating system), 2) eggs are spatially segregated by maternity within each brood pouch, and 3) larger females have higher mating success (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; P < 0.05). Together with similar studies of other syngnathid species, our results support the hypothesis that the mating system is related to the intensity of sexual dimorphism.
Quality of life in the workplace for nursing staff at public healthcare institutions 1
Zavala, María Olga Quintana; Klinj, Tatiana Paravic; Carrillo, Katia Lorena Saenz
2016-01-01
Abstract Objective: to determine the quality of life in the workplace for nursing staff at public institutions in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Method: quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional, and comparative. We used a probabilistic sample of 345 nurses with data collected in 2013 using an instrument created by the authors to gather bio-socio-demographic data and the CVT-GOHISALO instrument with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.95. SPSS 15 was used to analyze the data. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to calculate the normality of the data; the medians were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test with the significance level set at 0.05. Results: the average overall quality of life in the workplace for nursing staff was 207.31 (DE 41.74), indicating a moderate level. The quality of life in the workplace was higher for people with permanent contracts (p=0.007) who did not engage in other remunerative activities (p=0.046). Differences in the quality of life in the workplace were observed depending on the institution where the subjects worked (p=0.001). Conclusion: the nursing staff perceives itself as having a moderate-level quality of life in the workplace. This level was determined in the statistical analysis based on the type of contract, whether the person performed other remunerated activities, and the institution where the person worked. PMID:27508900
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shantaram, S. Pai; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1989-01-01
The calculation of shape and scale parametes of the two-parameter Weibull distribution is described using the least-squares analysis and maximum likelihood methods for volume- and surface-flaw-induced fracture in ceramics with complete and censored samples. Detailed procedures are given for evaluating 90 percent confidence intervals for maximum likelihood estimates of shape and scale parameters, the unbiased estimates of the shape parameters, and the Weibull mean values and corresponding standard deviations. Furthermore, the necessary steps are described for detecting outliers and for calculating the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and 90 percent confidence bands about the Weibull distribution. It also shows how to calculate the Batdorf flaw-density constants by using the Weibull distribution statistical parameters. The techniques described were verified with several example problems, from the open literature, and were coded in the Structural Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation (SCARE) design program.
Distribution of the Determinant of the Sample Correlation Matrix: Monte Carlo Type One Error Rates.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reddon, John R.; And Others
1985-01-01
Computer sampling from a multivariate normal spherical population was used to evaluate the type one error rates for a test of sphericity based on the distribution of the determinant of the sample correlation matrix. (Author/LMO)
Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 3).
Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo
2011-12-01
This article introduces the definition and sample size estimation of three special tests (namely, non-inferiority test, equivalence test and superiority test) for qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels having a binary response variable. Non-inferiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is not clinically inferior to that of the positive control drug. Equivalence test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the experimental drug and the control drug have clinically equivalent efficacy. Superiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is clinically superior to that of the control drug. By specific examples, this article introduces formulas of sample size estimation for the three special tests, and their SAS realization in detail.
de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris; Gonçalves, Leonardo Cantanhede de Oliveira; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Alves, Vanessa; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist
2016-01-01
Objective: To compare cleaning effectiveness by histological analysis of a reciprocating single-file system with ProTaper rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals in extracted teeth. Methods: A total of 40 root canals with curvatures ranging between 20 - 40 degrees were divided into two groups of 20 canals. Canals were prepared to the following apical sizes: Reciproc size 25 (n=20); ProTaper: F2 (n=20). The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for the test (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .05) were statistically analyzed using the GraphPad InStat for the Mac OS software (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA). Results: There were no significant differences in remaining debris (P > .05) between the two groups. Conclusion: The application of reciprocating motion during instrumentation did not result in increased debris when compared with continuous rotation motion, even in the apical part of curved canals. Both instruments resulted in debris in the canal lumen, irrespective of the movement kinematics applied. PMID:28217185
de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris; Gonçalves, Leonardo Cantanhede de Oliveira; Marques, André Augusto Franco; Alves, Vanessa; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist
2016-01-01
To compare cleaning effectiveness by histological analysis of a reciprocating single-file system with ProTaper rotary instruments during the preparation of curved root canals in extracted teeth. A total of 40 root canals with curvatures ranging between 20 - 40 degrees were divided into two groups of 20 canals. Canals were prepared to the following apical sizes: Reciproc size 25 (n=20); ProTaper: F2 (n=20). The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for the test (Mann-Whitney U test, P < .05) were statistically analyzed using the GraphPad InStat for the Mac OS software (GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA). There were no significant differences in remaining debris (P > .05) between the two groups. The application of reciprocating motion during instrumentation did not result in increased debris when compared with continuous rotation motion, even in the apical part of curved canals. Both instruments resulted in debris in the canal lumen, irrespective of the movement kinematics applied.
A statistical spatial power spectrum of the Earth's lithospheric magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thébault, E.; Vervelidou, F.
2015-05-01
The magnetic field of the Earth's lithosphere arises from rock magnetization contrasts that were shaped over geological times. The field can be described mathematically in spherical harmonics or with distributions of magnetization. We exploit this dual representation and assume that the lithospheric field is induced by spatially varying susceptibility values within a shell of constant thickness. By introducing a statistical assumption about the power spectrum of the susceptibility, we then derive a statistical expression for the spatial power spectrum of the crustal magnetic field for the spatial scales ranging from 60 to 2500 km. This expression depends on the mean induced magnetization, the thickness of the shell, and a power law exponent for the power spectrum of the susceptibility. We test the relevance of this form with a misfit analysis to the observational NGDC-720 lithospheric magnetic field model power spectrum. This allows us to estimate a mean global apparent induced magnetization value between 0.3 and 0.6 A m-1, a mean magnetic crustal thickness value between 23 and 30 km, and a root mean square for the field value between 190 and 205 nT at 95 per cent. These estimates are in good agreement with independent models of the crustal magnetization and of the seismic crustal thickness. We carry out the same analysis in the continental and oceanic domains separately. We complement the misfit analyses with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test and we conclude that the observed power spectrum can be each time a sample of the statistical one.
Flat-topped beam transmittance in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulent marine atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ata, Yalçın; Baykal, Yahya
2017-10-01
Turbulence affects optical propagation, and, as a result, the intensity is attenuated along the path of propagation. The attenuation becomes significant when the turbulence becomes stronger. Transmittance is a measure indicating how much power is collected at the receiver after the optical wave propagates in the turbulent medium. The on-axis transmittance is formulated when a flat-topped optical beam propagates in a marine atmosphere experiencing anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Variations in the transmittance are evaluated versus the beam source size, beam number, link distance, power law exponent, anisotropy factor, and structure constant. It is found that larger beam source sizes and beam numbers yield higher transmittance values; however, as the link distance, power law exponent, anisotropy factor, or structure constant increase, transmittance values are lowered. Our results will help in the performance evaluations of optical wireless communication and optical imaging systems operating in a marine atmosphere.
Ultra-Gradient Test Cavity for Testing SRF Wafer Samples
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
N.J. Pogue, P.M. McIntyre, A.I. Sattarov, C. Reece
2010-11-01
A 1.3 GHz test cavity has been designed to test wafer samples of superconducting materials. This mushroom shaped cavity, operating in TE01 mode, creates a unique distribution of surface fields. The surface magnetic field on the sample wafer is 3.75 times greater than elsewhere on the Niobium cavity surface. This field design is made possible through dielectrically loading the cavity by locating a hemisphere of ultra-pure sapphire just above the sample wafer. The sapphire pulls the fields away from the walls so the maximum field the Nb surface sees is 25% of the surface field on the sample. In thismore » manner, it should be possible to drive the sample wafer well beyond the BCS limit for Niobium while still maintaining a respectable Q. The sapphire's purity must be tested for its loss tangent and dielectric constant to finalize the design of the mushroom test cavity. A sapphire loaded CEBAF cavity has been constructed and tested. The results on the dielectric constant and loss tangent will be presented« less
A novel one-step Helicobacter pylori saliva antigen test.
Yang, Bi-Ling; Yeh, Chun; Kwong, Wei-Gang; Lee, Shou-Dong
2015-02-01
A rapid, reliable, and sufficiently accurate test for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection is required for screening dyspeptic patients before a referral for endoscopy. The purpose of this article is two-fold: first, to evaluate the accuracy of a one-step H. pylori saliva antigen (HPS) test; and second, to compare noninvasive and invasive H. pylori tests in Taiwanese population. A total of 104 consecutive dyspeptic patients admitted for gastroenterology into the outpatient department underwent a one-step HPS test, rapid urease test, histology, and (13)C-urea breath test (13)C-UBT (proto C-13 urea kit). The accuracy of the HPS test was compared with a gold standard defined by at least two positive H. pylori test results from three H. pylori tests (histology, rapid urease test, and (13)C-UBT). The 104 patients eligible for analysis (mean age: 58 years, range 22-87 years), 21 (20%) were gold standard positive. Among them, the positive of the one-step H. pylori saliva Ag test, rapid urease test, (13)C-UBT, histology were (52; 50%), (17; 16%), (27; 25%) and (22; 21%) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPS tests, rapid urease test, (13)C-UBTs, and histology were 71.43% and 55.42%, 76.19% and 98.80%, 100% and 92.77%, and 85.71% and 95.18%, respectively, relative to the gold standard. The one-step HPS test exhibited a sensitivity of 71.43%, nearly equivalent to that of the rapid urea test. The one-step HPS test exhibited a high sensitivity and low specificity compared with the other tests, indicating that it is not sufficiently accurate for use in a clinical setting for diagnosing H. pylori infection. However, the test is simple to use (requiring only a saliva sample), inexpensive, and noninvasive in its application, and thus appealing for use in population-based prevalence surveys of the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Dynamics, integrability and topology for some classes of Kolmogorov Hamiltonian systems in R+4
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Llibre, Jaume; Xiao, Dongmei
2017-02-01
In this paper we first give the sufficient and necessary conditions in order that two classes of polynomial Kolmogorov systems in R+4 are Hamiltonian systems. Then we study the integrability of these Hamiltonian systems in the Liouville sense. Finally, we investigate the global dynamics of the completely integrable Lotka-Volterra Hamiltonian systems in R+4. As an application of the invariant subsets of these systems, we obtain topological classifications of the 3-submanifolds in R+4 defined by the hypersurfaces axy + bzw + cx2 y + dxy2 + ez2 w + fzw2 = h, where a , b , c , d , e , f , w and h are real constants.
Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming
2009-05-01
When planning a study, sample size determination is one of the most important tasks facing the researcher. The size will depend on the purpose of the study, the cost limitations, and the nature of the data. By specifying the standard deviation ratio and/or the sample size ratio, the present study considers the problem of heterogeneous variances and non-normality for Yuen's two-group test and develops sample size formulas to minimize the total cost or maximize the power of the test. For a given power, the sample size allocation ratio can be manipulated so that the proposed formulas can minimize the total cost, the total sample size, or the sum of total sample size and total cost. On the other hand, for a given total cost, the optimum sample size allocation ratio can maximize the statistical power of the test. After the sample size is determined, the present simulation applies Yuen's test to the sample generated, and then the procedure is validated in terms of Type I errors and power. Simulation results show that the proposed formulas can control Type I errors and achieve the desired power under the various conditions specified. Finally, the implications for determining sample sizes in experimental studies and future research are discussed.
Bumps of the wave structure function in non-Kolmogorov turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiao, Chunhong; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Haitao; Huang, Honghua; Fan, Chengyu
2015-10-01
The analytical expressions for wave structure function of plane and spherical waves are derived both in the viscous dissipation and inertial range. Due to previously research, there is a discrepancy between theoretical results and the experimental datum in viscous dissipation range. In this paper, only considering the inertial range, taking plane waves for example, we give a comparison of results of WSF calculated by the analytical formula obtained in this paper and the numerical calculations of the definition at the fixed parameter (i.e., the generalized exponent α), it can be seen that the two results are in agreement with each other exactly. Based on non-Kolmogorov power spectrum, new characteristics for wave structure function (WSF) have been found for plane and spherical wave models when the different ratio of inner scale l0 and outer scale of turbulence L0 is obtained. In outer scale assumed finite case (i.e., L0 =1m), WSF obtains the maximum when α approximates to 3.3 both for plane and spherical wave models. In outer scale assumed infinite case (i.e., L0 = ∞), the WSF can be sorted into three parts, including two rapid-rising regions (i.e., 3.0 < α < 3.3 and 3.8 < α < 4.0 ) and one gently rising region (i.e., 3.3 < α < 3.8 ).Further, the changes of scaled WSF versus the ratio of separation distance and inner scale ( p/ l0 ) are investigated under mentioned above conditions for two models. In L0 = 1m case, both for plane and spherical waves, the value of α determines the bump position of WSF. In L0 = ∞ case, the bump of scaled WSF disappears when the generalized exponent has large values. The changings of scaled WSF monotonically increase as α increased when the generalized exponent is larger than11/3 for two models. Besides, the properties of spherical waves are similar to plane waves, except which the values of WSF and the scaled WSF are smaller than plane ones.
Home Economics. Sample Test Items. Levels I and II.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Elementary and Secondary Educational Testing.
A sample of behavioral objectives and related test items that could be developed for content modules in Home Economics levels I and II, this book is intended to enable teachers to construct more valid and reliable test materials. Forty-eight one-page modules are presented, and opposite each module are listed two to seven specific behavioral…
FORTRAN implementation of Friedman's test for several related samples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davidson, S. A.
1982-01-01
The FRIEDMAN program is a FORTRAN-coded implementation of Friedman's nonparametric test for several related samples with one observation per treatment/-block combination, or as it is sometimes called, the two-way analysis of variance by ranks. The FRIEDMAN program is described and a test data set and its results are presented to aid potential users of this program.
Su, Chun-Lung; Gardner, Ian A; Johnson, Wesley O
2004-07-30
The two-test two-population model, originally formulated by Hui and Walter, for estimation of test accuracy and prevalence estimation assumes conditionally independent tests, constant accuracy across populations and binomial sampling. The binomial assumption is incorrect if all individuals in a population e.g. child-care centre, village in Africa, or a cattle herd are sampled or if the sample size is large relative to population size. In this paper, we develop statistical methods for evaluating diagnostic test accuracy and prevalence estimation based on finite sample data in the absence of a gold standard. Moreover, two tests are often applied simultaneously for the purpose of obtaining a 'joint' testing strategy that has either higher overall sensitivity or specificity than either of the two tests considered singly. Sequential versions of such strategies are often applied in order to reduce the cost of testing. We thus discuss joint (simultaneous and sequential) testing strategies and inference for them. Using the developed methods, we analyse two real and one simulated data sets, and we compare 'hypergeometric' and 'binomial-based' inferences. Our findings indicate that the posterior standard deviations for prevalence (but not sensitivity and specificity) based on finite population sampling tend to be smaller than their counterparts for infinite population sampling. Finally, we make recommendations about how small the sample size should be relative to the population size to warrant use of the binomial model for prevalence estimation. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Detection of driving fatigue by using noncontact EMG and ECG signals measurement system.
Fu, Rongrong; Wang, Hong
2014-05-01
Driver fatigue can be detected by constructing a discriminant mode using some features obtained from physiological signals. There exist two major challenges of this kind of methods. One is how to collect physiological signals from subjects while they are driving without any interruption. The other is to find features of physiological signals that are of corresponding change with the loss of attention caused by driver fatigue. Driving fatigue is detected based on the study of surface electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiograph (ECG) during the driving period. The noncontact data acquisition system was used to collect physiological signals from the biceps femoris of each subject to tackle the first challenge. Fast independent component analysis (FastICA) and digital filter were utilized to process the original signals. Based on the statistical analysis results given by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z test, the peak factor of EMG (p < 0.001) and the maximum of the cross-relation curve of EMG and ECG (p < 0.001) were selected as the combined characteristic to detect fatigue of drivers. The discriminant criterion of fatigue was obtained from the training samples by using Mahalanobis distance, and then the average classification accuracy was given by 10-fold cross-validation. The results showed that the method proposed in this paper can give well performance in distinguishing the normal state and fatigue state. The noncontact, onboard vehicle drivers' fatigue detection system was developed to reduce fatigue-related risks.
Knopman, Debra S.; Voss, Clifford I.; Garabedian, Stephen P.
1991-01-01
Tests of a one-dimensional sampling design methodology on measurements of bromide concentration collected during the natural gradient tracer test conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, demonstrate its efficacy for field studies of solute transport in groundwater and the utility of one-dimensional analysis. The methodology was applied to design of sparse two-dimensional networks of fully screened wells typical of those often used in engineering practice. In one-dimensional analysis, designs consist of the downstream distances to rows of wells oriented perpendicular to the groundwater flow direction and the timing of sampling to be carried out on each row. The power of a sampling design is measured by its effectiveness in simultaneously meeting objectives of model discrimination, parameter estimation, and cost minimization. One-dimensional models of solute transport, differing in processes affecting the solute and assumptions about the structure of the flow field, were considered for description of tracer cloud migration. When fitting each model using nonlinear regression, additive and multiplicative error forms were allowed for the residuals which consist of both random and model errors. The one-dimensional single-layer model of a nonreactive solute with multiplicative error was judged to be the best of those tested. Results show the efficacy of the methodology in designing sparse but powerful sampling networks. Designs that sample five rows of wells at five or fewer times in any given row performed as well for model discrimination as the full set of samples taken up to eight times in a given row from as many as 89 rows. Also, designs for parameter estimation judged to be good by the methodology were as effective in reducing the variance of parameter estimates as arbitrary designs with many more samples. Results further showed that estimates of velocity and longitudinal dispersivity in one-dimensional models based on data from only five
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yıldız, Fehmiye; Kurt, Hamza
2017-09-01
It is well known that atmospheric turbulence severely limits the applications based on the laser propagation though the atmosphere. The most common disturbances occurring due to the atmospheric turbulence are beam spreading, beam wandering, and scintillation. These effects are continuously changing in response to atmospheric conditions. In this study, we create a Non-Kolmogorov turbulence model which is based on the geometrical optics approximation and the property of Gamma function and integrate with in Gaussian beam analytically. This approach helps us to understand the propagation of the laser beam at different wavelengths in the atmospheric turbulence.
Cabot, Perry E; Nowak, Pete
2005-01-01
The paper explores how decisions made on animal feeding operations (AFOs) influence the management of manure and phosphorus. Variability among these decisions from operation to operation and from field to field can influence the validity of nutrient loss risk assessments. These assessments are based on assumptions that the decision outcomes regarding manure distribution will occur as they are planned. The discrepancy between planned versus actual outcomes in phosphorus management was explored on nine AFOs managing a contiguous set of 210 fields in south-central Wisconsin. A total of 2611 soil samples were collected and multiple interviews conducted to assign phosphorus index (PI) ratings to the fields. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (r(S)) indicated that PI ratings were less sensitive to soil test phosphorus (STP) levels (r(S) = 0.378), universal soil loss equation (USLE) (r(S) = 0.261), ratings for chemical fertilizer application (r(S) = 0.185), and runoff class (r(S) = -0.089), and more sensitive to ratings for manure application (r(S) = 0.854). One-way ANOVA indicated that mean field STP levels were more homogenous than field PI ratings between AFOs. Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) tests displayed several nonsignificant comparisons for cumulative distribution functions, S(x), of mean STP levels on AFO fields. On the other hand, the K-S tests of S(x) for PI ratings indicated that the majority of these S(x) functions were significantly different between AFOs at or greater than the 0.05 significance level. Interviews suggested multiple reasons for divergence between planned and actual outcomes in managing phosphorus, and that this divergence arises at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels of decision-making.
23 CFR 637.209 - Laboratory and sampling and testing personnel qualifications.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... sampling and testing personnel. (c) Conflict of interest. In order to avoid an appearance of a conflict of interest, any qualified non-STD laboratory shall perform only one of the following types of testing on the...
Quantitative evaluation of Alzheimer's disease
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duchesne, S.; Frisoni, G. B.
2009-02-01
We propose a single, quantitative metric called the disease evaluation factor (DEF) and assess its efficiency at estimating disease burden in normal, control subjects (CTRL) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The study group consisted in 75 patients with a diagnosis of probable AD and 75 age-matched normal CTRL without neurological or neuropsychological deficit. We calculated a reference eigenspace of MRI appearance from reference data, in which our CTRL and probable AD subjects were projected. We then calculated the multi-dimensional hyperplane separating the CTRL and probable AD groups. The DEF was estimated via a multidimensional weighted distance of eigencoordinates for a given subject and the CTRL group mean, along salient principal components forming the separating hyperplane. We used quantile plots, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and χ2 tests to compare the DEF values and test that their distribution was normal. We used a linear discriminant test to separate CTRL from probable AD based on the DEF factor, and reached an accuracy of 87%. A quantitative biomarker in AD would act as an important surrogate marker of disease status and progression.
On the transition from the Ginzburg-Landau equation to the extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rottschäfer, Vivi; Doelman, Arjen
1998-07-01
The Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equation ‘generically’ describes the behaviour of small perturbations of a marginally unstable basic state in systems on unbounded domains. In this paper we consider the transition from this generic situation to a degenerate (co-dimension 2) case in which the GL approach is no longer valid. Instead of studying a general underlying model problem, we consider a two-dimensional system of coupled reaction-diffusion equations in one spatial dimension. We show that near the degeneration the behaviour of small perturbations is governed by the extended Fisher-Kolmogorov (eFK) equation (at leading order). The relation between the GL-equation and the eFK-equation is quite subtle, but can be analysed in detail. The main goal of this paper is to study this relation, which we do asymptotically. The asymptotic analysis is compared to numerical simulations of the full reaction-diffusion system. As one approaches the co-dimension 2 point, we observe that the stable stationary periodic patterns predicted by the GL-equation evolve towards various different families of stable, stationary (but not necessarily periodic) so-called ‘multi-bump’ solutions. In the literature, these multi-bump patterns are shown to exist as solutions of the eFK-equation, but there is no proof of the asymptotic stability of these solutions. Our results suggest that these multi-bump patterns can also be asymptotically stable in large classes of model problems.
Emergent, untrained stimulus relations in many-to-one matching-to-sample discriminations in rats.
Nakagawa, Esho
2005-03-01
The present experiment investigated whether rats formed emergent, untrained stimulus relations in many-to-one matching-to-sample discriminations. In Phase 1, rats were trained to match two samples (triangle and horizontal stripes) to a common comparison (horizontal stripes) and two additional samples (circle or vertical stripes) to another comparison (vertical stripes). Then, in Phase 2, the rats were trained to match the one sample (triangle) to a new comparison (black) and the other sample (circle) to another comparison (white). In the Phase 3 test, half the rats (consistent group) were given two new tasks in which the sample-correct comparison relation was consistent with any emergent stimulus relations that previously may have been learned. The remaining 6 rats (inconsistent group) were given two new tasks in which the sample-correct comparison relation was not consistent with any previously learned emergent stimulus relations. Rats in the consistent group showed more accurate performance at the start of Phase 3, and faster learning to criterion in this phase, as compared with rats in the inconsistent group. This finding suggests that rats may form emergent, untrained stimulus relations between the discriminative stimuli in many-to-one matching-to-sample discriminations.
THE REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION OF GIANT ARCS IN THE SLOAN GIANT ARCS SURVEY
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Bayliss, Matthew B.; Gladders, Michael D.; Koester, Benjamin P.
2011-01-20
We measure the redshift distribution of a sample of 28 giant arcs discovered as a part of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey. Gemini/GMOS-North spectroscopy provides precise redshifts for 24 arcs, and 'redshift desert' constrains for the remaining 4 arcs. This is a direct measurement of the redshift distribution of a uniformly selected sample of bright giant arcs, which is an observable that can be used to inform efforts to predict giant arc statistics. Our primary giant arc sample has a median redshift z = 1.821 and nearly two-thirds of the arcs, 64%, are sources at z {approx}> 1.4, indicating thatmore » the population of background sources that are strongly lensed into bright giant arcs resides primarily at high redshift. We also analyze the distribution of redshifts for 19 secondary strongly lensed background sources that are not visually apparent in Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging, but were identified in deeper follow-up imaging of the lensing cluster fields. Our redshift sample for the secondary sources is not spectroscopically complete, but combining it with our primary giant arc sample suggests that a large fraction of all background galaxies that are strongly lensed by foreground clusters reside at z {approx}> 1.4. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests indicate that our well-selected, spectroscopically complete primary giant arc redshift sample can be reproduced with a model distribution that is constructed from a combination of results from studies of strong-lensing clusters in numerical simulations and observational constraints on the galaxy luminosity function.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peterson, Joseph E.; Lenczewski, Melissa E.; Clawson, Steven R.; Warnock, Jonathan P.
2017-04-01
Microscopic soft tissues have been identified in fossil vertebrate remains collected from various lithologies. However, the diagenetic mechanisms to preserve such tissues have remained elusive. While previous studies have described infiltration of biofilms in Haversian and Volkmann’s canals, biostratinomic alteration (e.g., trampling), and iron derived from hemoglobin as playing roles in the preservation processes, the influence of sediment texture has not previously been investigated. This study uses a Kolmogorov Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit test to explore the influence of biostratinomic variability and burial media against the infiltration of biofilms in bone samples. Controlled columns of sediment with bone samples were used to simulate burial and subsequent groundwater flow. Sediments used in this study include clay-, silt-, and sand-sized particles modeled after various fluvial facies commonly associated with fossil vertebrates. Extant limb bone samples obtained from Gallus gallus domesticus (Domestic Chicken) buried in clay-rich sediment exhibit heavy biofilm infiltration, while bones buried in sands and silts exhibit moderate levels. Crushed bones exhibit significantly lower biofilm infiltration than whole bone samples. Strong interactions between biostratinomic alteration and sediment size are also identified with respect to biofilm development. Sediments modeling crevasse splay deposits exhibit considerable variability; whole-bone crevasse splay samples exhibit higher frequencies of high-level biofilm infiltration, and crushed-bone samples in modeled crevasse splay deposits display relatively high frequencies of low-level biofilm infiltration. These results suggest that sediment size, depositional setting, and biostratinomic condition play key roles in biofilm infiltration in vertebrate remains, and may influence soft tissue preservation in fossil vertebrates.
Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 6).
Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo
2012-03-01
The design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3) refers to the research that only involves one experimental factor with k levels (k ≥ 3), and there is no arrangement for other important non-experimental factors. This paper introduces the estimation of sample size and testing power for quantitative data and qualitative data having a binary response variable with the design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3).
Step styles of pedestrians at different densities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jiayue; Weng, Wenguo; Boltes, Maik; Zhang, Jun; Tordeux, Antoine; Ziemer, Verena
2018-02-01
Stepping locomotion is the basis of human movement. The investigation of stepping locomotion and its affecting factors is necessary for a more realistic knowledge of human movement, which is usually referred to as walking with equal step lengths for the right and left leg. To study pedestrians’ stepping locomotion, a set of single-file movement experiments involving 39 participants of the same age walking on a highly curved oval course is conducted. The microscopic characteristics of the pedestrians including 1D Voronoi density, speed, and step length are calculated based on a projected coordinate. The influence of the projection lines with different radii on the measurement of these quantities is investigated. The step lengths from the straight and curved parts are compared using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. During the experiments, six different step styles are observed and the proportions of different step styles change with the density. At low density, the main step style is the stable-large step style and the step lengths of one pedestrian are almost constant. At high density, some pedestrians adjust and decrease their step lengths. Some pedestrians take relatively smaller and larger steps alternately to adapt to limited space.
Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Kafaeimehr, Mohamadhosein; Emamgholizadeh, Saeid
2016-01-01
There is an increasing trend of outsourcing public departments. Teaching hospitals also outsourced some of their departments to private sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. This study was conducted in six teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, which had public and outsourced teaching departments in 2015. One hundred fifty students from the departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory participated in this study and their perceptions about their educational status were assessed. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used; participation in the study was voluntary. Descriptive statistics such as mean (SD), t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were used. No difference was detected between the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory (p>0.05). Based on the students' perception, the private sectors could maintain the educational level of the teaching departments similar to the public departments. It is recommended to involve all the stakeholders such as hospital administrators, academic staff and students in the decision- making process when changes in teaching environments are being considered.
Ghiasi, Mitra; Shahrabi, Afsaneh; Siamian, Hasan
2017-12-01
Organization must keep current skills, abilities, and in the current field of competition, and move one step ahead of other competitors; for this purpose, must be a high degree of trust inside the organization. Cybernetic management is a new approach in management of organizations that its main task according to internal issues. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cybernetics management and organizational trust among librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is applied and analytical survey. which its population included all librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, amounting to 42 people which were selected by census and participated in this research. There has no relationship between components of Cybernetics management (participative decision making, commitment, pay equity, Correct flow of information, develop a sense of ownership, online education) with organizational trust amongst librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. And there has a significant relationship between flat Structure of cybernetics management and organizational trust. For data analysis was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and linear regression. There is no significant relationship between Cybernetic management and organizational trust amongst librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences.
Ghiasi, Mitra; Shahrabi, Afsaneh; Siamian, Hasan
2017-01-01
Background and purpose: Organization must keep current skills, abilities, and in the current field of competition, and move one step ahead of other competitors; for this purpose, must be a high degree of trust inside the organization. Cybernetic management is a new approach in management of organizations that its main task according to internal issues. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between cybernetics management and organizational trust among librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and methods: This is applied and analytical survey. which its population included all librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, amounting to 42 people which were selected by census and participated in this research. Results: There has no relationship between components of Cybernetics management (participative decision making, commitment, pay equity, Correct flow of information, develop a sense of ownership, online education) with organizational trust amongst librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. And there has a significant relationship between flat Structure of cybernetics management and organizational trust. For data analysis was used Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and linear regression. Conclusion: There is no significant relationship between Cybernetic management and organizational trust amongst librarians of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. PMID:29284914
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test samples. 14.5 Section 14.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Test samples. Upon request by MSHA, the applicant must submit 3 precut, unrolled, flat conveyor belt...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test samples. 14.5 Section 14.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Test samples. Upon request by MSHA, the applicant must submit 3 precut, unrolled, flat conveyor belt...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test samples. 14.5 Section 14.5 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF... Test samples. Upon request by MSHA, the applicant must submit 3 precut, unrolled, flat conveyor belt...
Quality of life in the workplace for nursing staff at public healthcare institutions.
Zavala, María Olga Quintana; Klinj, Tatiana Paravic; Carrillo, Katia Lorena Saenz
2016-08-08
to determine the quality of life in the workplace for nursing staff at public institutions in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional, and comparative. We used a probabilistic sample of 345 nurses with data collected in 2013 using an instrument created by the authors to gather bio-socio-demographic data and the CVT-GOHISALO instrument with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.95. SPSS 15 was used to analyze the data. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to calculate the normality of the data; the medians were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test with the significance level set at 0.05. the average overall quality of life in the workplace for nursing staff was 207.31 (DE 41.74), indicating a moderate level. The quality of life in the workplace was higher for people with permanent contracts (p=0.007) who did not engage in other remunerative activities (p=0.046). Differences in the quality of life in the workplace were observed depending on the institution where the subjects worked (p=0.001). the nursing staff perceives itself as having a moderate-level quality of life in the workplace. This level was determined in the statistical analysis based on the type of contract, whether the person performed other remunerated activities, and the institution where the person worked. determinar el nivel de calidad de vida en el trabajo del personal de enfermería de instituciones públicas en Hermosillo, Sonora, México. cuantitativo, correlacional, transversal y comparativo. Muestreo probabilístico, de 345 enfermeras, datos recolectados en 2013, a través de instrumentos que recogen datos biososiodemográficos; creado por las autoras y CVT -GOHISALO con Alpha de Cronbach de 0.95. Para el análisis de datos se usó SPSS 15, para conocer la normalidad de los datos se utilizó Kolmogorov- Smirnov, se compararon medianas con U de Mann Whitney y Kruskal-Wallis, nivel de significancia admitido 0.05. promedio de calidad de vida en el trabajo
Deeper Insights into the Circumgalactic Medium using Multivariate Analysis Methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, James; Churchill, Christopher W.; Nielsen, Nikole M.; Kacprzak, Glenn
2017-01-01
Drawing from a database of galaxies whose surrounding gas has absorption from MgII, called the MgII-Absorbing Galaxy Catalog (MAGIICAT, Neilsen et al 2013), we studied the circumgalactic medium (CGM) for a sample of 47 galaxies. Using multivariate analysis, in particular the k-means clustering algorithm, we determined that simultaneously examining column density (N), rest-frame B-K color, virial mass, and azimuthal angle (the projected angle between the galaxy major axis and the quasar line of sight) yields two distinct populations: (1) bluer, lower mass galaxies with higher column density along the minor axis, and (2) redder, higher mass galaxies with lower column density along the major axis. We support this grouping by running (i) two-sample, two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) tests on each of the six bivariate planes and (ii) two-sample KS tests on each of the four variables to show that the galaxies significantly cluster into two independent populations. To account for the fact that 16 of our 47 galaxies have upper limits on N, we performed Monte-Carlo tests whereby we replaced upper limits with random deviates drawn from a Schechter distribution fit, f(N). These tests strengthen the results of the KS tests. We examined the behavior of the MgII λ2796 absorption line equivalent width and velocity width for each galaxy population. We find that equivalent width and velocity width do not show similar characteristic distinctions between the two galaxy populations. We discuss the k-means clustering algorithm for optimizing the analysis of populations within datasets as opposed to using arbitrary bivariate subsample cuts. We also discuss the power of the k-means clustering algorithm in extracting deeper physical insight into the CGM in relationship to host galaxies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Szatmary, Steven A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Nemeth, Noel N.
1990-01-01
This manual describes the operation and theory of the PC-CARES (Personal Computer-Ceramic Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) computer program for the IBM PC and compatibles running PC-DOS/MS-DOR OR IBM/MS-OS/2 (version 1.1 or higher) operating systems. The primary purpose of this code is to estimate Weibull material strength parameters, the Batdorf crack density coefficient, and other related statistical quantities. Included in the manual is the description of the calculation of shape and scale parameters of the two-parameter Weibull distribution using the least-squares analysis and maximum likelihood methods for volume- and surface-flaw-induced fracture in ceramics with complete and censored samples. The methods for detecting outliers and for calculating the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and 90 percent confidence bands about the Weibull line, as well as the techniques for calculating the Batdorf flaw-density constants are also described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pai, Shantaram S.; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1988-01-01
The calculation of shape and scale parameters of the two-parameter Weibull distribution is described using the least-squares analysis and maximum likelihood methods for volume- and surface-flaw-induced fracture in ceramics with complete and censored samples. Detailed procedures are given for evaluating 90 percent confidence intervals for maximum likelihood estimates of shape and scale parameters, the unbiased estimates of the shape parameters, and the Weibull mean values and corresponding standard deviations. Furthermore, the necessary steps are described for detecting outliers and for calculating the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and the Anderson-Darling goodness-of-fit statistics and 90 percent confidence bands about the Weibull distribution. It also shows how to calculate the Batdorf flaw-density constants by uing the Weibull distribution statistical parameters. The techniques described were verified with several example problems, from the open literature, and were coded. The techniques described were verified with several example problems from the open literature, and were coded in the Structural Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation (SCARE) design program.
Decision Models for Determining the Optimal Life Test Sampling Plans
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nechval, Nicholas A.; Nechval, Konstantin N.; Purgailis, Maris; Berzins, Gundars; Strelchonok, Vladimir F.
2010-11-01
Life test sampling plan is a technique, which consists of sampling, inspection, and decision making in determining the acceptance or rejection of a batch of products by experiments for examining the continuous usage time of the products. In life testing studies, the lifetime is usually assumed to be distributed as either a one-parameter exponential distribution, or a two-parameter Weibull distribution with the assumption that the shape parameter is known. Such oversimplified assumptions can facilitate the follow-up analyses, but may overlook the fact that the lifetime distribution can significantly affect the estimation of the failure rate of a product. Moreover, sampling costs, inspection costs, warranty costs, and rejection costs are all essential, and ought to be considered in choosing an appropriate sampling plan. The choice of an appropriate life test sampling plan is a crucial decision problem because a good plan not only can help producers save testing time, and reduce testing cost; but it also can positively affect the image of the product, and thus attract more consumers to buy it. This paper develops the frequentist (non-Bayesian) decision models for determining the optimal life test sampling plans with an aim of cost minimization by identifying the appropriate number of product failures in a sample that should be used as a threshold in judging the rejection of a batch. The two-parameter exponential and Weibull distributions with two unknown parameters are assumed to be appropriate for modelling the lifetime of a product. A practical numerical application is employed to demonstrate the proposed approach.
A Kolmogorov-Brutsaert structure function model for evaporation into a turbulent atmosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katul, Gabriel; Liu, Heping
2017-05-01
In 1965, Brutsaert proposed a model that predicted mean evaporation rate E¯ from rough surfaces to scale with the 3/4 power law of the friction velocity (u∗) and the square-root of molecular diffusivity (Dm) for water vapor. In arriving at these results, a number of assumptions were made regarding the surface renewal rate describing the contact durations between eddies and the evaporating surface, the diffusional mass process from the surface into eddies, and the cascade of turbulent kinetic energy sustaining the eddy renewal process itself. The working hypothesis explored here is that E¯˜
Machado, Christiano Bittencourt; Pereira, Wagner Coelho de Albuquerque; Meziri, Mahmoud; Laugier, Pascal
2006-05-01
This work studied the periodicity of in vitro healthy and pathologic liver tissue, using backscattered ultrasound (US) signals. It utilized the mean scatterer spacing (MSS) as a parameter of tissue characterization, estimated by three methods: the spectral autocorrelation (SAC), the singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and the quadratic transformation method (SIMON). The liver samples were classified in terms of tissue status using the METAVIR scoring system. Twenty tissue samples were classified in four groups: F0, F1, F3 and F4 (five samples for each). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (applied on group pairs) resulted as nonsignificant (p > 0.05) for two pairs only: F1/F3 (for SSA) and F3/F4 (for SAC). A discriminant analysis was applied using as parameters the MSS mean (MSS) and standard deviation (sigmaMSS), the estimates histogram mode (mMSS), and the speed of US (mc(foie)) in the medium, to evaluate the degree of discrimination among healthy and pathologic tissues. The better accuracy (Ac) with SAC (80%) was with parameter group (MSS, sigmaMSS, mc(foie)), achieving a sensitivity (Ss) of 92.3% and a specificity (Sp) of 57.1%. For SSA, the group with all four parameters showed an Ac of 75%, an Ss of 78.6% and an Sp of 66.70%. SIMON obtained the best Ac of all (85%) with group (MSS, mMSS, mc(foie)), an Ss of 100%, but with an Sp of 50%.
Comparison of shear bond strength of universal adhesives on etched and nonetched enamel.
Beltrami, Riccardo; Chiesa, Marco; Scribante, Andrea; Allegretti, Jessica; Poggio, Claudio
2016-04-06
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface pretreatment with 37% phosphoric acid on the enamel bond strength of different universal adhesives. One hundred and sixty bovine permanent mandibular incisors freshly extracted were used as a substitute for human teeth. The materials tested in this study included 6 universal adhesives, and 2 self-etch adhesives as control. The teeth were assigned into 2 groups: In the first group, etching was performed using 37% phosphoric acid for 30 seconds. In the second group, no pretreatment agent was applied. After adhesive application, a nanohybrid composite resin was inserted into the enamel surface by packing the material into cylindrical-shaped plastic matrices. After storing, the specimens were placed in a universal testing machine. The normality of the data was calculated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to determine whether significant differences in debond strength values existed among the various groups. Groups with phosphoric acid pretreatment showed significantly higher shear bond strength values than groups with no enamel pretreatment (p<0.001). No significant variation in shear strength values was detected when comparing the different adhesive systems applied onto enamel after orthophosphoric acid application (p>0.05). All adhesives provide similar bond strength values when enamel pretreatment is applied even if compositions are different. Bond strength values are lower than promised by manufacturers.
An actuarial approach to retrofit savings in buildings
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Subbarao, Krishnappa; Etingov, Pavel V.; Reddy, T. A.
An actuarial method has been developed for determining energy savings from retrofits from energy use data for a number of buildings. This method should be contrasted with the traditional method of using pre- and post-retrofit data on the same building. This method supports the U.S. Department of Energy Building Performance Database of real building performance data and related tools that enable engineering and financial practitioners to evaluate retrofits. The actuarial approach derives, from the database, probability density functions (PDFs) for energy savings from retrofits by creating peer groups for the user’s pre post buildings. From the energy use distribution ofmore » the two groups, the savings PDF is derived. This provides the basis for engineering analysis as well as financial risk analysis leading to investment decisions. Several technical issues are addressed: The savings PDF is obtained from the pre- and post-PDF through a convolution. Smoothing using kernel density estimation is applied to make the PDF more realistic. The low data density problem can be mitigated through a neighborhood methodology. Correlations between pre and post buildings are addressed to improve the savings PDF. Sample size effects are addressed through the Kolmogorov--Smirnov tests and quantile-quantile plots.« less
De Groote, Mary A; Sterling, David G; Hraha, Thomas; Russell, Theresa M; Green, Louis S; Wall, Kirsten; Kraemer, Stephan; Ostroff, Rachel; Janjic, Nebojsa; Ochsner, Urs A
2017-10-01
New non-sputum biomarker tests for active tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are of the highest priority for global TB control. We performed in-depth proteomic analysis using the 4,000-plex SOMAscan assay on 1,470 serum samples from seven countries where TB is endemic. All samples were from patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of active pulmonary TB that were systematically confirmed or ruled out for TB by culture and clinical follow-up. HIV coinfection was present in 34% of samples, and 25% were sputum smear negative. Serum protein biomarkers were identified by stability selection using L1-regularized logistic regression and by Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics. A naive Bayes classifier using six host response markers (HR6 model), including SYWC, kallistatin, complement C9, gelsolin, testican-2, and aldolase C, performed well in a training set (area under the sensitivity-specificity curve [AUC] of 0.94) and in a blinded verification set (AUC of 0.92) to distinguish TB and non-TB samples. Differential expression was also highly significant ( P < 10 -20 ) for previously described TB markers, such as IP-10, LBP, FCG3B, and TSP4, and for many novel proteins not previously associated with TB. Proteins with the largest median fold changes were SAA (serum amyloid protein A), NPS-PLA2 (secreted phospholipase A2), and CA6 (carbonic anhydrase 6). Target product profiles (TPPs) for a non-sputum biomarker test to diagnose active TB for treatment initiation (TPP#1) and for a community-based triage or referral test (TPP#2) have been published by the WHO. With 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity, the HR6 model fell short of TPP#1 but reached TPP#2 performance criteria. In conclusion, we identified and validated a six-marker signature for active TB that warrants diagnostic development on a patient-near platform. Copyright © 2017 De Groote et al.
De Groote, Mary A.; Sterling, David G.; Hraha, Thomas; Russell, Theresa M.; Green, Louis S.; Wall, Kirsten; Kraemer, Stephan; Ostroff, Rachel; Janjic, Nebojsa
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT New non-sputum biomarker tests for active tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are of the highest priority for global TB control. We performed in-depth proteomic analysis using the 4,000-plex SOMAscan assay on 1,470 serum samples from seven countries where TB is endemic. All samples were from patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of active pulmonary TB that were systematically confirmed or ruled out for TB by culture and clinical follow-up. HIV coinfection was present in 34% of samples, and 25% were sputum smear negative. Serum protein biomarkers were identified by stability selection using L1-regularized logistic regression and by Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics. A naive Bayes classifier using six host response markers (HR6 model), including SYWC, kallistatin, complement C9, gelsolin, testican-2, and aldolase C, performed well in a training set (area under the sensitivity-specificity curve [AUC] of 0.94) and in a blinded verification set (AUC of 0.92) to distinguish TB and non-TB samples. Differential expression was also highly significant (P < 10−20) for previously described TB markers, such as IP-10, LBP, FCG3B, and TSP4, and for many novel proteins not previously associated with TB. Proteins with the largest median fold changes were SAA (serum amyloid protein A), NPS-PLA2 (secreted phospholipase A2), and CA6 (carbonic anhydrase 6). Target product profiles (TPPs) for a non-sputum biomarker test to diagnose active TB for treatment initiation (TPP#1) and for a community-based triage or referral test (TPP#2) have been published by the WHO. With 90% sensitivity and 80% specificity, the HR6 model fell short of TPP#1 but reached TPP#2 performance criteria. In conclusion, we identified and validated a six-marker signature for active TB that warrants diagnostic development on a patient-near platform. PMID:28794177
Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Faraji, Mona
2015-07-01
Several studies are available on the lifestyle, psychological and mental health of the elderly adults. This study aimed to compare the spiritual well-being and happiness in the elderly who lived in sanitariums with those lived in the community. A comparative study was conducted on 384 elderly adults. A census sampling was used in sanitariums and a convenience sampling was performed to select the community dwelling (CD) older adults. A demographic questionnaire, the Pauloutzian and Ellison's spiritual well-being scale and the Oxford happiness questionnaire were used in this study. Descriptive statistics and Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests and Spearman correlation coefficient were employed for data analysis, using the SPSS software, version 13.0. From the total participants, 56% were CD elderly and 44% were in sanitariums. Among the CD older adults, no one was at a high level of spiritual well-being while in sanitariums 24.4% were at a high level of spiritual well-being. Also, 71.2% of the community dwelling older adults were at a high level of happiness while only 3.6% of those living in sanitariums expressed a high level of happiness. A significant association was found between the level of spiritual well-being and happiness in those who lived in sanitariums (r=0.177, P<0.021). Most of the elderly living in the community and in sanitariums showed moderate spiritual well-being and low happiness. Therefore, nurses and health authorities are responsible not only to inform the community about the importance of spiritual well-being and happiness, but also to establish some strategies in this regard.
Applying the multivariate time-rescaling theorem to neural population models
Gerhard, Felipe; Haslinger, Robert; Pipa, Gordon
2011-01-01
Statistical models of neural activity are integral to modern neuroscience. Recently, interest has grown in modeling the spiking activity of populations of simultaneously recorded neurons to study the effects of correlations and functional connectivity on neural information processing. However any statistical model must be validated by an appropriate goodness-of-fit test. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests based upon the time-rescaling theorem have proven to be useful for evaluating point-process-based statistical models of single-neuron spike trains. Here we discuss the extension of the time-rescaling theorem to the multivariate (neural population) case. We show that even in the presence of strong correlations between spike trains, models which neglect couplings between neurons can be erroneously passed by the univariate time-rescaling test. We present the multivariate version of the time-rescaling theorem, and provide a practical step-by-step procedure for applying it towards testing the sufficiency of neural population models. Using several simple analytically tractable models and also more complex simulated and real data sets, we demonstrate that important features of the population activity can only be detected using the multivariate extension of the test. PMID:21395436
Linear growth of the entanglement entropy and the Kolmogorov-Sinai rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchi, Eugenio; Hackl, Lucas; Yokomizo, Nelson
2018-03-01
The rate of entropy production in a classical dynamical system is characterized by the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy rate h KS given by the sum of all positive Lyapunov exponents of the system. We prove a quantum version of this result valid for bosonic systems with unstable quadratic Hamiltonian. The derivation takes into account the case of time-dependent Hamiltonians with Floquet instabilities. We show that the entanglement entropy S A of a Gaussian state grows linearly for large times in unstable systems, with a rate Λ A ≤ h KS determined by the Lyapunov exponents and the choice of the subsystem A. We apply our results to the analysis of entanglement production in unstable quadratic potentials and due to periodic quantum quenches in many-body quantum systems. Our results are relevant for quantum field theory, for which we present three applications: a scalar field in a symmetry-breaking potential, parametric resonance during post-inflationary reheating and cosmological perturbations during inflation. Finally, we conjecture that the same rate Λ A appears in the entanglement growth of chaotic quantum systems prepared in a semiclassical state.
Intraday X-Ray Variability of QSOs/AGN Using the Chandra Archives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tartamella, C.; Busche, J.
2005-05-01
X-ray variability is a common characteristic of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), and it can be used to probe the nuclear region at short time scales. Quantitative analysis of this variability has been difficult due to low signal-to-noise ratios and short time baselines, but serendipitous Chandra data acquired within the last six years have opened the door to such analysis. Cross-correlation of the Chandra archives with QSO/AGN catalogs on NASA's HEASARC website (e.g. Veron, Sloan) yields a sample of 50+ objects that satisfy the following criteria: absolute magnitude M≤ -22.5, proper time baselines greater than 2 hours, and count rates leading to 10% error bars for 8+ flux points on the light curve. The sample includes a range of red-shifts, magnitudes, and type (e.g. radio loud, radio quiet), and hence may yield empirical clues about luminosity or evolutionary trends. As a beginning of such analysis, we present 11 light curves for 9 objects for which the exposure time was greater than 10 hours. The variability was analyzed using three different statistical methods. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test proved to be impractical because of the unavoidably small number of data points and the simplistic nature of the test. A χ2 test indicated in most cases that there were significant departures from constant brightness (as expected). Autocorrelation plots were also generated for each light curve. With more work and a larger sample size, these plots can be used to identify any trends in the lightcurve such as whether the variability is stochastic or periodic in nature. This test was useful even with the small number of datapoints available. In future work, more sophisticated analyses based on Fourier series, power density spectra, or wavelets are likely to yield more meaningful and useful results.
Kolmogorov-Kraichnan Scaling in the Inverse Energy Cascade of Two-Dimensional Plasma Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antar, G. Y.
2003-08-01
Turbulence in plasmas that are magnetically confined, such as tokamaks or linear devices, is two dimensional or at least quasi two dimensional due to the strong magnetic field, which leads to extreme elongation of the fluctuations, if any, in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. These plasmas are also compressible fluid flows obeying the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. This Letter presents the first comprehensive scaling of the structure functions of the density and velocity fields up to 10th order in the PISCES linear plasma device and up to 6th order in the Mega-Ampère Spherical Tokamak (MAST). In the two devices, it is found that the scaling of the turbulent fields is in good agreement with the prediction of the Kolmogorov-Kraichnan theory for two-dimensional turbulence in the energy cascade subrange.
Ancient science of yogic life for academic excellence in university students.
Tikhe, Sham Ganpat; Nagendra, H R; Tripathi, Neeraj
2012-01-01
Academic excellence is essential to provide opportunities for students to work together to improve their understanding of concepts in their academic core. Academic excellence helps students to teach problem-solving and collaborative learning strategies. The objective of this study was to assess Guna (personality traits) in students undergoing Yoga Instructor's Course (YIC). In all, 68 YIC students with a mean age of 28.03 ± 9.38 years participated in this single group pre-post study. The Personality Inventory data were collected before (pre) and after (post) the YIC. Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16. The data analysis showed 11.33% decrease (P < 0.01) in Tamas Guna (dull personality trait), 0.68% decrease (P =0.819) in Rajas Guna (violent personality trait), and 10.34% increase (P <0.01) in Sattva Guna (balanced personality trait) scores. This study suggests that YIC can result in the improvement of Sattva Guna (balance personality trait) among students, thus paving the way for their academic excellence.
Testing of high-volume sampler inlets for the sampling of atmospheric radionuclides.
Irshad, Hammad; Su, Wei-Chung; Cheng, Yung S; Medici, Fausto
2006-09-01
Sampling of air for radioactive particles is one of the most important techniques used to determine the nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon test in the Earth's atmosphere or those particles vented from underground or underwater tests. Massive-flow air samplers are used to sample air for any indication of radionuclides that are a signature of nuclear tests. The International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization includes seismic, hydroacoustic, infrasound, and gaseous xenon isotopes sampling technologies, in addition to radionuclide sampling, to monitor for any violation of the treaty. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute has developed a large wind tunnel to test the outdoor radionuclide samplers for the International Monitoring System. The inlets for these samplers are tested for their collection efficiencies for different particle sizes at various wind speeds. This paper describes the results from the testing of two radionuclide sampling units used in the International Monitoring System. The possible areas of depositional wall losses are identified and the losses in these areas are determined. Sampling inlet type 1 was tested at 2.2 m s wind speed for 5, 10, and 20-microm aerodynamic diameter particles. The global collection efficiency was about 87.6% for 10-microm particles for sampling inlet type 1. Sampling inlet type 2 was tested for three wind speeds at 0.56, 2.2, and 6.6 m s for 5, 10, and 20-microm aerodynamic diameter particles in two different configurations (sampling head lowered and raised). The global collection efficiencies for these configurations for 10-microm particles at 2.2 m s wind speed were 77.4% and 82.5%, respectively. The sampling flow rate was 600 m h for both sampling inlets.
Ear recognition from one sample per person.
Chen, Long; Mu, Zhichun; Zhang, Baoqing; Zhang, Yi
2015-01-01
Biometrics has the advantages of efficiency and convenience in identity authentication. As one of the most promising biometric-based methods, ear recognition has received broad attention and research. Previous studies have achieved remarkable performance with multiple samples per person (MSPP) in the gallery. However, most conventional methods are insufficient when there is only one sample per person (OSPP) available in the gallery. To solve the OSPP problem by maximizing the use of a single sample, this paper proposes a hybrid multi-keypoint descriptor sparse representation-based classification (MKD-SRC) ear recognition approach based on 2D and 3D information. Because most 3D sensors capture 3D data accessorizing the corresponding 2D data, it is sensible to use both types of information. First, the ear region is extracted from the profile. Second, keypoints are detected and described for both the 2D texture image and 3D range image. Then, the hybrid MKD-SRC algorithm is used to complete the recognition with only OSPP in the gallery. Experimental results on a benchmark dataset have demonstrated the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method in resolving the OSPP problem. A Rank-one recognition rate of 96.4% is achieved for a gallery of 415 subjects, and the time involved in the computation is satisfactory compared to conventional methods.
Joyce, Alison P; Wang, Mengmeng; Lawrence-Henderson, Rosemary; Filliettaz, Cynthia; Leung, Sheldon S; Xu, Xin; O'Hara, Denise M
2014-07-01
The purpose of this study was to validate the approach of serial sampling from one mouse through ligand binding assay (LBA) quantification of dosed biotherapeutic in diluted whole blood to derive a pharmacokinetic (PK) profile. This investigation compared PK parameters obtained using serial and composite sampling methods following administration of human IgG monoclonal antibody. The serial sampling technique was established by collecting 10 μL of blood via tail vein at each time point following drug administration. Blood was immediately diluted into buffer followed by analyte quantitation using Gyrolab to derive plasma concentrations. Additional studies were conducted to understand matrix and sampling site effects on drug concentrations. The drug concentration profiles, irrespective of biological matrix, and PK parameters using both sampling methods were not significantly different. There were no sampling site effects on drug concentration measurements except that concentrations were slightly lower in sodium citrated plasma than other matrices. We recommend the application of mouse serial sampling, particularly with limiting drug supply or specialized animal models. Overall the efficiencies gained by serial sampling were 40-80% savings in study cost, animal usage, study length and drug conservation while inter-subject variability across PK parameters was less than 30%.
Distribution of the two-sample t-test statistic following blinded sample size re-estimation.
Lu, Kaifeng
2016-05-01
We consider the blinded sample size re-estimation based on the simple one-sample variance estimator at an interim analysis. We characterize the exact distribution of the standard two-sample t-test statistic at the final analysis. We describe a simulation algorithm for the evaluation of the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis at given treatment effect. We compare the blinded sample size re-estimation method with two unblinded methods with respect to the empirical type I error, the empirical power, and the empirical distribution of the standard deviation estimator and final sample size. We characterize the type I error inflation across the range of standardized non-inferiority margin for non-inferiority trials, and derive the adjusted significance level to ensure type I error control for given sample size of the internal pilot study. We show that the adjusted significance level increases as the sample size of the internal pilot study increases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Sample Size Calculation for Estimating or Testing a Nonzero Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krishnamoorthy, K.; Xia, Yanping
2008-01-01
The problems of hypothesis testing and interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient of a multivariate normal distribution are considered. It is shown that available one-sided tests are uniformly most powerful, and the one-sided confidence intervals are uniformly most accurate. An exact method of calculating sample size to…
Storm surge evolution and its relationship to climate oscillations at Duck, NC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munroe, Robert; Curtis, Scott
2017-07-01
Coastal communities experience increased vulnerability during storm surge events through the risk of damage to coastal infrastructure, erosion/deposition, and the endangerment of human life. Policy and planning measures attempt to avoid or mitigate storm surge consequences through building codes and setbacks, beach stabilization, insurance rates, and coastal zoning. The coastal emergency management community and public react and respond on shorter time scales, through temporary protection, emergency stockpiling, and evacuation. This study utilizes time series analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, Pearson's correlation, and the generalized extreme value (GEV) theorem to make the connection between climate oscillation indices and storm surge characteristics intra-seasonally to inter-annually. Results indicate that an El Niño (+ENSO), negative phase of the NAO, and positive phase of the PNA pattern all support longer duration and hence more powerful surge events, especially in winter. Increased surge duration increases the likelihood of extensive erosion, inland inundation, among other undesirable effects of the surge hazard.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Yilmaz, Şeyda, E-mail: seydayilmaz@ktu.edu.tr; Bayrak, Erdem, E-mail: erdmbyrk@gmail.com; Bayrak, Yusuf, E-mail: bayrak@ktu.edu.tr
In this study we examined and compared the three different probabilistic distribution methods for determining the best suitable model in probabilistic assessment of earthquake hazards. We analyzed a reliable homogeneous earthquake catalogue between a time period 1900-2015 for magnitude M ≥ 6.0 and estimated the probabilistic seismic hazard in the North Anatolian Fault zone (39°-41° N 30°-40° E) using three distribution methods namely Weibull distribution, Frechet distribution and three-parameter Weibull distribution. The distribution parameters suitability was evaluated Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) goodness-of-fit test. We also compared the estimated cumulative probability and the conditional probabilities of occurrence of earthquakes for different elapsed timemore » using these three distribution methods. We used Easyfit and Matlab software to calculate these distribution parameters and plotted the conditional probability curves. We concluded that the Weibull distribution method was the most suitable than other distribution methods in this region.« less
Association between Sick Leave Prescribing Practices and Physician Burnout and Empathy
2015-01-01
Objectives To investigate the association between sick leave prescription and physician burnout and empathy in a primary care health district in Lleida, Spain. Methods This descriptive study included 108 primary care doctors from 22 primary care centers in Lleida in 2014 (183,600 patients). Burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory and empathy with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy. The reliability of the instruments was measured by calculating Cronbach’s alpha and normal distribution was analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov-Lilliefors and χ2 tests. Burnout and empathy scores were analyzed by age, sex, and place of work (urban vs rural). Sick leave data were obtained from the Catalan Health Institute. Results High empathy was significantly associated with low burnout. Neither empathy nor burnout were significantly associated with sick leave prescription. Conclusion Sick leave prescription by physicians is not associated with physicians' empathy or burnout and may mostly depend on prescribing guidelines. PMID:26196687
Irinyi, Tamás; Németh, Anikó; Lampek, Kinga
2017-02-01
Violence against health care providers is getting more awareness nowadays. This topic is in the focus of international scientific attention also, although in Hungary exact data is lacking. The present study aimed to assess the correlations between violent acts against health care workers and their effects with different sociodemographic and workplace-related factors. A quantitative cross-sectional online survey was conducted enrolling 1201 health care providers. Data were analysed trough chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests, where appropriate. Verbal and physical aggression was experienced more frequently by nurses who were males, above the age of fifty, working in in-patient care or in 12 hours shifts or constant night shifts. The same groups of health care providers suffered more from the negative emotional consequences of violent acts. Aggression is a serious problem in the Hungarian health care system, therefore employees have to be prepared for these acts. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(6), 229-237.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cianciara, Aleksander
2016-09-01
The paper presents the results of research aimed at verifying the hypothesis that the Weibull distribution is an appropriate statistical distribution model of microseismicity emission characteristics, namely: energy of phenomena and inter-event time. It is understood that the emission under consideration is induced by the natural rock mass fracturing. Because the recorded emission contain noise, therefore, it is subjected to an appropriate filtering. The study has been conducted using the method of statistical verification of null hypothesis that the Weibull distribution fits the empirical cumulative distribution function. As the model describing the cumulative distribution function is given in an analytical form, its verification may be performed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test. Interpretations by means of probabilistic methods require specifying the correct model describing the statistical distribution of data. Because in these methods measurement data are not used directly, but their statistical distributions, e.g., in the method based on the hazard analysis, or in that that uses maximum value statistics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Starlinger, Alois; Duffy, Stephen F.; Palko, Joseph L.
1993-01-01
New methods are presented that utilize the optimization of goodness-of-fit statistics in order to estimate Weibull parameters from failure data. It is assumed that the underlying population is characterized by a three-parameter Weibull distribution. Goodness-of-fit tests are based on the empirical distribution function (EDF). The EDF is a step function, calculated using failure data, and represents an approximation of the cumulative distribution function for the underlying population. Statistics (such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and the Anderson-Darling statistic) measure the discrepancy between the EDF and the cumulative distribution function (CDF). These statistics are minimized with respect to the three Weibull parameters. Due to nonlinearities encountered in the minimization process, Powell's numerical optimization procedure is applied to obtain the optimum value of the EDF. Numerical examples show the applicability of these new estimation methods. The results are compared to the estimates obtained with Cooper's nonlinear regression algorithm.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Annunziata, Mario Alberto; Petri, Alberto; Pontuale, Giorgio; Zaccaria, Andrea
2016-10-01
We have considered the statistical distributions of the volumes of 1131 products exported by 148 countries. We have found that the form of these distributions is not unique but heavily depends on the level of development of the nation, as expressed by macroeconomic indicators like GDP, GDP per capita, total export and a recently introduced measure for countries' economic complexity called fitness. We have identified three major classes: a) an incomplete log-normal shape, truncated on the left side, for the less developed countries, b) a complete log-normal, with a wider range of volumes, for nations characterized by intermediate economy, and c) a strongly asymmetric shape for countries with a high degree of development. Finally, the log-normality hypothesis has been checked for the distributions of all the 148 countries through different tests, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Cramér-Von Mises, confirming that it cannot be rejected only for the countries of intermediate economy.
Novikov, I; Fund, N; Freedman, L S
2010-01-15
Different methods for the calculation of sample size for simple logistic regression (LR) with one normally distributed continuous covariate give different results. Sometimes the difference can be large. Furthermore, some methods require the user to specify the prevalence of cases when the covariate equals its population mean, rather than the more natural population prevalence. We focus on two commonly used methods and show through simulations that the power for a given sample size may differ substantially from the nominal value for one method, especially when the covariate effect is large, while the other method performs poorly if the user provides the population prevalence instead of the required parameter. We propose a modification of the method of Hsieh et al. that requires specification of the population prevalence and that employs Schouten's sample size formula for a t-test with unequal variances and group sizes. This approach appears to increase the accuracy of the sample size estimates for LR with one continuous covariate.
Prevalence of nonfunctional overreaching/overtraining in young English athletes.
Matos, Nuno F; Winsley, Richard J; Williams, Craig A
2011-07-01
Nonfunctional overreaching and overtraining (NFOR/OT) in adults can lead to significant decrements in performance, combined with physical and psychological health problems. Little is known about this condition in young athletes by comparison; thus, the aim of the study was to assess the incidence and symptomatology of NFOR/OT in young English athletes. Three hundred seventy-six athletes (131 girls and 245 boys, age=15.1±2.0 yr) completed a 92-item survey about NFOR/OT. The sample included athletes competing at club to international standards across 19 different sports. Athletes were classified as NFOR/OT if they reported persistent daily fatigue and a significant decrement in performance that lasted for long periods of time (i.e., weeks to months). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov nonparametric tests. Significant predictors of NFOR/OT were identified using logistic regression analysis. One hundred ten athletes (29%) reported having been NFOR/OT at least once. The incidence was significantly higher in individual sports (P<0.01), low-physical demand sports (P<0.01), females (P<0.01), and at the elite level (P<0.01). Training load was not a significant predictor of NFOR/OT; however, competitive level and gender accounted for a small (4.7% and 1.7%, respectively) but significant explanatory variance of NFOR/OT (P<0.05). Approximately one-third of young athletes have experienced NFOR/OT, making this an issue for parents and coaches to recognize. OT is not solely a training load-related problem with both physical and psychosocial factors identified as important contributors.
Testing the non-unity of rate ratio under inverse sampling.
Tang, Man-Lai; Liao, Yi Jie; Ng, Hong Keung Tony; Chan, Ping Shing
2007-08-01
Inverse sampling is considered to be a more appropriate sampling scheme than the usual binomial sampling scheme when subjects arrive sequentially, when the underlying response of interest is acute, and when maximum likelihood estimators of some epidemiologic indices are undefined. In this article, we study various statistics for testing non-unity rate ratios in case-control studies under inverse sampling. These include the Wald, unconditional score, likelihood ratio and conditional score statistics. Three methods (the asymptotic, conditional exact, and Mid-P methods) are adopted for P-value calculation. We evaluate the performance of different combinations of test statistics and P-value calculation methods in terms of their empirical sizes and powers via Monte Carlo simulation. In general, asymptotic score and conditional score tests are preferable for their actual type I error rates are well controlled around the pre-chosen nominal level, and their powers are comparatively the largest. The exact version of Wald test is recommended if one wants to control the actual type I error rate at or below the pre-chosen nominal level. If larger power is expected and fluctuation of sizes around the pre-chosen nominal level are allowed, then the Mid-P version of Wald test is a desirable alternative. We illustrate the methodologies with a real example from a heart disease study. (c) 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Using Movies to Strengthen Learning of the Humanistic Aspects of Medicine.
Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; Rose, Christopher; Balasubramanium, Ramanan; Nandy, Atanu; Friedmann, Alberto
2016-01-01
Movie screening and activities have been used during the last two semesters (spring and summer 2015) to strengthen the learning of communication skills, empathy, professionalism, and greater understanding of the process and death and dying at the Xavier University School of Medicine. The present manuscript describes the movie screening and activities. Student feedback regarding the sessions is also mentioned. The activity was conducted among basic science undergraduate medical students and student feedback was obtained. A cross-sectional study design was used. Feedback was obtained towards the end of June 2015 using a questionnaire designed by the authors. Participants were asked to rate their degree of agreement with the set of statements and provide an overall rating for the sessions. No demographic information was collected. Cronbach's alpha was calculated as a measure of internal consistency. The normality of distribution of the scores of individual statements and of the overall rating was determined using one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The average scores were calculated. Free text comments were tabulated. Forty-nine of the 63 students (77.8%) participated in the study. Cronbach's alpha was 0.868 indicating a high level of internal consistency. The median scores indicating the degree of agreement with most statements ranged from 3 to 5. The mean participant rating of the sessions was 7.10 (maximum possible score 10). A few participants provided free text comments regarding the sessions. Student feedback about the session was positive. Impact of the session on humanistic issues, professionalism and death and dying should be studied in future.
40 CFR 133.104 - Sampling and test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sampling and test procedures. 133.104 Section 133.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.104 Sampling and test procedures. (a) Sampling and test procedures for...
40 CFR 133.104 - Sampling and test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling and test procedures. 133.104 Section 133.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.104 Sampling and test procedures. (a) Sampling and test procedures for...
40 CFR 133.104 - Sampling and test procedures.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sampling and test procedures. 133.104 Section 133.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS SECONDARY TREATMENT REGULATION § 133.104 Sampling and test procedures. (a) Sampling and test procedures for...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.; Hutasoit, Jimmy A.
2009-04-01
Motivated by slow-roll inflationary cosmology we study a scalar unparticle weakly coupled to a Higgs field in the broken symmetry phase. The mixing between the unparticle and the Higgs field results in a seesaw type matrix and the mixing angles feature a Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect as a consequence of the unparticle field being noncanonical. We find two (MSW) resonances for small and large spacelike momenta. The unparticlelike mode features a nearly flat potential with spinodal instabilities and a large expectation value. An effective potential for the unparticlelike field is generated from the Higgs potential, but with couplings suppressed by a large power of the small seesaw ratio. The dispersion relation for the Higgs-like mode features an imaginary part even at “tree level” as a consequence of the fact that the unparticle field describes a multiparticle continuum. Mixed unparticle-Higgs propagators reveal the possibility of oscillations, albeit with short coherence lengths. The results are generalized to the case in which the unparticle features a mass gap, in which case a low energy MSW resonance may occur for lightlike momenta depending on the scales. Unparticle-Higgs mixing leads to an effective unparticle potential of the new-inflation form. Slow-roll variables are suppressed by seesaw ratios and the anomalous dimensions and favor a red spectrum of scalar perturbations consistent with cosmic microwave background data.
Nasseri, Simin; Monazzam, Mohammadreza; Beheshti, Meisam; Zare, Sajad; Mahvi, Amirhosein
2013-12-20
New environmental pollutants interfere with the environment and human life along with technology development. One of these pollutants is electromagnetic field. This study determines the vertical microwave radiation pattern of different types of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennae in the Hashtgerd city as the capital of Savojbolagh County, Alborz Province of Iran. The basic data including the geographical location of the BTS antennae in the city, brand, operator type, installation and its height was collected from radio communication office, and then the measurements were carried out according to IEEE STD 95. 1 by the SPECTRAN 4060. The statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS16 using Kolmogorov Smirnov test and multiple regression method. Results indicated that in both operators of Irancell and Hamrah-e-Aval (First Operator), the power density rose with an increase in measurement height or decrease in the vertical distance of broadcaster antenna. With mix model test, a significant statistical relationship was observed between measurement height and the average power density in both types of the operators. With increasing measuring height, power density increased in both operators. The study showed installing antennae in a crowded area needs more care because of higher radiation emission. More rigid surfaces and mobile users are two important factors in crowded area that can increase wave density and hence raise public microwave exposure.
2013-01-01
New environmental pollutants interfere with the environment and human life along with technology development. One of these pollutants is electromagnetic field. This study determines the vertical microwave radiation pattern of different types of Base Transceiver Station (BTS) antennae in the Hashtgerd city as the capital of Savojbolagh County, Alborz Province of Iran. The basic data including the geographical location of the BTS antennae in the city, brand, operator type, installation and its height was collected from radio communication office, and then the measurements were carried out according to IEEE STD 95. 1 by the SPECTRAN 4060. The statistical analyses were carried out by SPSS16 using Kolmogorov Smirnov test and multiple regression method. Results indicated that in both operators of Irancell and Hamrah-e-Aval (First Operator), the power density rose with an increase in measurement height or decrease in the vertical distance of broadcaster antenna. With mix model test, a significant statistical relationship was observed between measurement height and the average power density in both types of the operators. With increasing measuring height, power density increased in both operators. The study showed installing antennae in a crowded area needs more care because of higher radiation emission. More rigid surfaces and mobile users are two important factors in crowded area that can increase wave density and hence raise public microwave exposure. PMID:24359870
A coronagraphic search for brown dwarfs around nearby stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakajima, T.; Durrance, S. T.; Golimowski, D. A.; Kulkarni, S. R.
1994-01-01
Brown dwarf companions have been searched for around stars within 10 pc of the Sun using the Johns-Hopkins University Adaptive Optics Coronagraph (AOC), a stellar coronagraph with an image stabilizer. The AOC covers the field around the target star with a minimum search radius of 1 sec .5 and a field of view of 1 arcmin sq. We have reached an unprecedented dynamic range of Delta m = 13 in our search for faint companions at I band. Comparison of our survey with other brown dwarf searches shows that the AOC technique is unique in its dynamic range while at the same time just as sensitive to brown dwarfs as the recent brown dwarf surveys. The present survey covered 24 target stars selected from the Gliese catalog. A total of 94 stars were detected in 16 fields. The low-latitude fields are completely dominated by background star contamination. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were carried out for a sample restricted to high latitudes and a sample with small angular separations. The high-latitude sample (b greater than or equal to 44 deg) appears to show spatial concentration toward target stars. The small separation sample (Delta Theta less than 20 sec) shows weaker dependence on Galactic coordinates than field stars. These statistical tests suggest that both the high-latitude sample and the small separation sample can include a substantial fraction of true companions. However, the nature of these putative companions is mysterious. They are too faint to be white dwarfs and too blue for brown dwarfs. Ignoring the signif icance of the statistical tests, we can reconcile most of the detections with distant main-sequence stars or white dwarfs except for a candidate next to GL 475. Given the small size of our sample, we conclude that considerably more targets need to be surveyed before a firm conclusion on the possibility of a new class of companions can be made.
Coping with Stress among Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.
Sürücü, Hamdiye Arda; Besen, Dilek Büyükkaya; Duman, Mesude; Yeter Erbil, Elif
2018-03-01
Introduction: The stress of pregnancy itself, gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) that develops during pregnancy is also a stressor, because it can cause serious maternal and fetal health problems. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between the characteristics of pregnant women with GDM and their styles of coping with stress. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 126 pregnant women with GDM. The sample consisted of patients who applied to the diabetes mellitus training polyclinic of a training and research and university hospital in southeastern Turkey, Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics, Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality tests, Spearman's rho and Pearson Correlation analysis, the Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis- test by SPSS software (version 13.0). Results: It was determined that a planned pregnancy, a high educational level, a first pregnancy and weight gain were important factors in the women with GDM in the study who coped effectively with stress during pregnancy. Unemployment and a second or subsequent pregnancy were important factors in the women with GDM< who coped ineffectively with stress during pregnancy. In addition, it was determined that the hemoglobin HbA1c levels of the pregnant women with GDM with "optimistic" and "submissive" approaches towards coping with stress were lower. Conclusion: It was determined that pregnant women with optimistic and submissive approaches towards coping with stress had lower HbA1c levels. It is suggested that randomized controlled studies be conducted to further determine the coping styles of patients with GDM.
The cost of large numbers of hypothesis tests on power, effect size and sample size.
Lazzeroni, L C; Ray, A
2012-01-01
Advances in high-throughput biology and computer science are driving an exponential increase in the number of hypothesis tests in genomics and other scientific disciplines. Studies using current genotyping platforms frequently include a million or more tests. In addition to the monetary cost, this increase imposes a statistical cost owing to the multiple testing corrections needed to avoid large numbers of false-positive results. To safeguard against the resulting loss of power, some have suggested sample sizes on the order of tens of thousands that can be impractical for many diseases or may lower the quality of phenotypic measurements. This study examines the relationship between the number of tests on the one hand and power, detectable effect size or required sample size on the other. We show that once the number of tests is large, power can be maintained at a constant level, with comparatively small increases in the effect size or sample size. For example at the 0.05 significance level, a 13% increase in sample size is needed to maintain 80% power for ten million tests compared with one million tests, whereas a 70% increase in sample size is needed for 10 tests compared with a single test. Relative costs are less when measured by increases in the detectable effect size. We provide an interactive Excel calculator to compute power, effect size or sample size when comparing study designs or genome platforms involving different numbers of hypothesis tests. The results are reassuring in an era of extreme multiple testing.
Schwerdt, Ian J; Olsen, Adam; Lusk, Robert; Heffernan, Sean; Klosterman, Michael; Collins, Bryce; Martinson, Sean; Kirkham, Trenton; McDonald, Luther W
2018-01-01
The analytical techniques typically utilized in a nuclear forensic investigation often provide limited information regarding the process history and production conditions of interdicted nuclear material. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the surface morphology of amorphous-UO 3 samples calcined at 250, 300, 350, 400, and 450°C from uranyl peroxide was performed to determine if the morphology was indicative of the synthesis route and thermal history for the samples. Thermogravimetic analysis-mass spectrometry (TGA-MS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to correlate transitions in the calcined material to morphological transformations. The high-resolution SEM images were processed using the Morphological Analysis for Material Attribution (MAMA) software. Morphological attributes, particle area and circularity, indicated significant trends as a result of calcination temperature. The quantitative morphological analysis was able to track the process of particle fragmentation and subsequent sintering as calcination temperature was increased. At the 90% confidence interval, with 1000 segmented particles, the use of Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical comparisons allowed discernment between all calcination temperatures for the uranyl peroxide route. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.
Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati
2016-09-01
There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.
Socioeconomic implications of donation distributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Yajing; Guo, Jinzhong; Chen, Qinghua; Wang, Yougui
2011-11-01
Individual donation depends on personal wealth and individual willingness to donate. On the basis of a donation model proposed in our previous study, a simplified version of an individual donation model is derived by relaxing the restrictions of the maximum wealth in the economy. Thus, the whole distribution is determined by only two parameters. One of them relates to the exponent of the distribution of society wealth and the other refers to the donation amount of the kindest poorest person. The parameters reflect the degree of wealth inequality and the charitable enthusiasm of society, respectively. Using actual donation data, we develop a specific parameter estimation method combining linear regression and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic to get the value of two socioeconomic indicators. Applications to Chinese individual donations in response to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake indicate a rising inequality in social wealth distribution in China. Also, more charitable enthusiasm is observed in the response to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES FOR SELECTING WASTE SAMPLES FOR THE BENCH STEAM REFORMER TEST
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
BANNING DL
2010-08-03
This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required.more » The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.« less
Modelling road accident blackspots data with the discrete generalized Pareto distribution.
Prieto, Faustino; Gómez-Déniz, Emilio; Sarabia, José María
2014-10-01
This study shows how road traffic networks events, in particular road accidents on blackspots, can be modelled with simple probabilistic distributions. We considered the number of crashes and the number of fatalities on Spanish blackspots in the period 2003-2007, from Spanish General Directorate of Traffic (DGT). We modelled those datasets, respectively, with the discrete generalized Pareto distribution (a discrete parametric model with three parameters) and with the discrete Lomax distribution (a discrete parametric model with two parameters, and particular case of the previous model). For that, we analyzed the basic properties of both parametric models: cumulative distribution, survival, probability mass, quantile and hazard functions, genesis and rth-order moments; applied two estimation methods of their parameters: the μ and (μ+1) frequency method and the maximum likelihood method; used two goodness-of-fit tests: Chi-square test and discrete Kolmogorov-Smirnov test based on bootstrap resampling; and compared them with the classical negative binomial distribution in terms of absolute probabilities and in models including covariates. We found that those probabilistic models can be useful to describe the road accident blackspots datasets analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[City Academy: a health promotion service in the healthcare network of the Unified Health System].
Costa, Bruna Vieira de Lima; Mendonça, Raquel de Deus; Santos, Luana Caroline Dos; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Alves, Marília; Lopes, Aline Cristine Souza
2013-01-01
This is an analysis of the health and nutritional profile of users of the Unified Health System admitted to a City Academy in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais during a triennium. It is a cross-sectional study with users> 20 years and socio-demographic characteristics, health habits, food intake and anthropometrics were gathered. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, chi-square and Fisher exact test were applied. There was a high prevalence of hypertensive subjects (41.6%), overweight (70.6%) and metabolic risks associated with obesity (67.6%). About 40% of entrants had 1-3 chronic diseases and over 65% used medication daily. There was an imbalance in daily consumption of fruits and vegetables (75.3%), fatty meat (72.4%) and sweetened drinks (54.2%). They had low education and income, and inadequate eating habits and high prevalence of hypertension, overweight and metabolic risks associated with obesity, which suggests users seeking health care services for treatment of diseases. This illustrates the perceived quest for cure, further demonstrating the lack of healthcare initiatives in the population. This reveals the need to review the actions at different levels of health care, to promote greater comprehensiveness of care provided.
Collecting Samples for Testing
... one or more hours to avoid a potential post-test spinal headache. The lumbar puncture procedure usually takes ... View sources NOTE: This article is based on research that ... of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board . This article is periodically ...
Tests for Gaussianity of the MAXIMA-1 cosmic microwave background map.
Wu, J H; Balbi, A; Borrill, J; Ferreira, P G; Hanany, S; Jaffe, A H; Lee, A T; Rabii, B; Richards, P L; Smoot, G F; Stompor, R; Winant, C D
2001-12-17
Gaussianity of the cosmological perturbations is one of the key predictions of standard inflation, but it is violated by other models of structure formation such as cosmic defects. We present the first test of the Gaussianity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) on subdegree angular scales, where deviations from Gaussianity are most likely to occur. We apply the methods of moments, cumulants, the Kolmogorov test, the chi(2) test, and Minkowski functionals in eigen, real, Wiener-filtered, and signal-whitened spaces, to the MAXIMA-1 CMB anisotropy data. We find that the data, which probe angular scales between 10 arcmin and 5 deg, are consistent with Gaussianity. These results show consistency with the standard inflation and place constraints on the existence of cosmic defects.
Lee, Kenneth K C; You, Joyce H S; Wong, Ian C K; Kwong, Sunny K S; Lau, James Y W; Chan, Thomas Y K; Lau, Joseph T F; Leung, Wilson Y S; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chung, Sydney S C
2003-02-01
Intravenous administration of proton pump inhibitors after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers has been shown to decrease the rate of recurrent bleeding and the need for subsequent surgery. Yet there is a relative lack of formal assessment of this practice. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of this therapy by using standard pharmacoeconomic methods. The present study was performed in conjunction with a randomized controlled clinical trial that included 232 patients who received either omeprazole (80 mg intravenous bolus followed by infusion at 8 mg/hour for 72 hours) or placebo after hemostasis was achieved endoscopically. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the different outcomes of the trial. All related direct medical costs were identified from patient records. Cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Analysis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the direct medical cost in the omeprazole group was lower than that for the placebo group. Cost-effectiveness ratios for omeprazole and placebo groups were, respectively, HK$ 28,764 (US$ 3688) and HK$ 36,992 (US$ 4743) in averting one episode of recurrent bleeding in one patient after initial hemostasis was achieved endoscopically. Intravenous administration of high-dose omeprazole appears to be a cost-effective therapy in reducing the recurrence of bleeding and need for surgery in patients with active bleeding ulcer after initial hemostasis is obtained endoscopically.
One-Dimensional Thermal Violence Cook-Off Test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Malcolm; Stennett, Christopher; University of Cranfield, Shrivenham, Swindon, SN6 8LA Team; AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading Bershire, RG7 4PR, UK Team
2017-06-01
The One-Dimensional Thermal Violence (ODTV) test is designed to quantify and rank the violence of HE charges when heated to elevated temperatures. The test design consists of a central spherical explosive pellet encased in two aluminium barrel shaped halves, fitted with a copper sealing ring, encased by two aluminium locking rings placed over them from either end. The outer surface of the capsule is heated uniformly by placing in a pre-heated molten solder bath. This allows the time-to-explosion to be recorded for different initial bath temperatures. The ODTV capsule can hold samples up to 30mm in diameter. Diagnostics include both thermocouples and Photon Dopler Velocimetry (PDV). A series of live firings have been carried out on a range of bespoke HMX/HTPB explosives. These include HMX/HTPB mix ratios of 95/5, 92/8, 90/10, 88/12 and 85/15. These tests showed that the ODTV capsule had sufficient confinement and size that it could capture the spectrum of events expected from these formulations. It has been demonstrated that the deformation of the heater cup (that houses the molten solder) can be used as an additional violence metric along with the fragmentation and PDV wall velocities of the aluminium ODTV capsule.
Topological Distances Between Brain Networks
Lee, Hyekyoung; Solo, Victor; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.
2018-01-01
Many existing brain network distances are based on matrix norms. The element-wise differences may fail to capture underlying topological differences. Further, matrix norms are sensitive to outliers. A few extreme edge weights may severely affect the distance. Thus it is necessary to develop network distances that recognize topology. In this paper, we introduce Gromov-Hausdorff (GH) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) distances. GH-distance is often used in persistent homology based brain network models. The superior performance of KS-distance is contrasted against matrix norms and GH-distance in random network simulations with the ground truths. The KS-distance is then applied in characterizing the multimodal MRI and DTI study of maltreated children.
Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Sarabi Asiabar, Ali; Ahmadzadeh, Nahal; Kafaeimehr, Mohamadhosein; Emamgholizadeh, Saeid
2016-01-01
Background: There is an increasing trend of outsourcing public departments. Teaching hospitals also outsourced some of their departments to private sectors. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study was conducted in six teaching hospitals of Iran University of Medical Sciences, which had public and outsourced teaching departments in 2015. One hundred fifty students from the departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory participated in this study and their perceptions about their educational status were assessed. A valid and reliable questionnaire was used; participation in the study was voluntary. Descriptive statistics such as mean (SD), t-test and Kolmogorov-Smirnov were used. Results: No difference was detected between the educational status of students in public and outsourced departments of radiology, physiotherapy and laboratory (p>0.05). Conclusion: Based on the students’ perception, the private sectors could maintain the educational level of the teaching departments similar to the public departments. It is recommended to involve all the stakeholders such as hospital administrators, academic staff and students in the decision- making process when changes in teaching environments are being considered. PMID:27683645
7 CFR 28.952 - Testing of samples.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of samples. 28.952 Section 28.952 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... processing tests of the properties of cotton samples and report the results thereof to the persons from whom...
Plut, Jan; Toplak, Ivan; Štukelj, Marina
2018-06-01
Over the last few years several porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) outbreaks have been discovered in Europe including the first PED case in Slovenia in January 2015. The aim of this study was to determine when PED virus (PEDV) infection started in Slovenia. Serum samples collected between 2012 and 2016 were tested. Three hundred and seventy-five serum samples were collected from 132 Slovenian small, one-site pig farms. Samples were tested for PEDV antibodies utilising three different serological methods: commercially-available indirect ELISA, in-house blocking ELISA test and Immunoperoxidase Monolayer Assay (IPMA) test. One hundred and seventy (45.33%) tested samples were found positive by the commercially-available ELISA test kit, and 10 (5.68%) of these 170 samples found positive were positive by the in-house blocking ELISA. Only these 10 samples were collected from a farm where clinical signs of PED infection had been observed and PEDV was confirmed by RT-PCR methodology; the other 160 samples were collected randomly. Thirty-two samples with the highest S/P value obtained with the commercial ELISA were all negative with IPMA. Reasons for the high variance in the results obtained remain unclear; more research is required to ensure higher sensitivity and specificity in terms of PEDV antibody tests and other PED diagnostic methods.
21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...
Pham, Giang
2017-01-01
Purpose Although language samples and standardized tests are regularly used in assessment, few studies provide clinical guidance on how to synthesize information from these testing tools. This study extends previous work on the relations between tests and language samples to a new population—school-age bilingual speakers with primary language impairment—and considers the clinical implications for bilingual assessment. Method Fifty-one bilingual children with primary language impairment completed narrative language samples and standardized language tests in English and Spanish. Children were separated into younger (ages 5;6 [years;months]–8;11) and older (ages 9;0–11;2) groups. Analysis included correlations with age and partial correlations between language sample measures and test scores in each language. Results Within the younger group, positive correlations with large effect sizes indicated convergence between test scores and microstructural language sample measures in both Spanish and English. There were minimal correlations in the older group for either language. Age related to English but not Spanish measures. Conclusions Tests and language samples complement each other in assessment. Wordless picture-book narratives may be more appropriate for ages 5–8 than for older children. We discuss clinical implications, including a case example of a bilingual child with primary language impairment, to illustrate how to synthesize information from these tools in assessment. PMID:28055056
Performance of OncoE6 cervical test with collection methods enabling self-sampling.
Krings, Amrei; Dückelmann, Anna M; Moser, Lutz; Gollrad, Johannes; Wiegerinck, Maarten; Schweizer, Johannes; Kaufmann, Andreas M
2018-05-21
The paradigm shift from cytological screening to Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-based screening for cervical cancer allows the introduction of new technologies in sample collection and diagnostics. The OncoE6™ Cervical Test (OncoE6 Test) is a rapid, easy-to-use lateral flow method detecting HPV16/18 E6 oncoproteins that has proven to detect high-grade cervical lesions with high specificity. If compatible with self-collection samples, this technology might allow for decentralized screening of hard-to-reach populations. For technical validation, cervicovaginal lavages were collected from 20 patients with confirmed HPV16+ or HPV18+ invasive cervical cancer. Cervical smears were collected by polyester-tipped swabs and cytobrushes. All samples were applied to the OncoE6 Test and cytobrush samples additionally genotyped. Lavage, swab, and cytobrush revealed concordant outcome in 18/20 samples. HPV types corresponded with the HPV genotyping by GP5+/6+ PCR analyses. Due to a rare mutation found in the E6 antibody binding site one sample was not detected, another sample had very low cellularity. Overall, vaginal lavages are technically adequate for the OncoE6 Test. Combining self-sampling with oncoprotein rapid testing to detect women with highest risk for severe dysplasia or cancer may allow for secondary cancer prevention in settings where other screening modalities were unsuccessful to date.
40 CFR 205.57-2 - Test vehicle sample selection.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test vehicle sample selection. 205.57... vehicle sample selection. (a) Vehicles comprising the batch sample which are required to be tested... test request from a batch of vehicles of the category or configuration specified in the test request...
OneD: increasing reproducibility of Hi-C samples with abnormal karyotypes.
Vidal, Enrique; le Dily, François; Quilez, Javier; Stadhouders, Ralph; Cuartero, Yasmina; Graf, Thomas; Marti-Renom, Marc A; Beato, Miguel; Filion, Guillaume J
2018-05-04
The three-dimensional conformation of genomes is an essential component of their biological activity. The advent of the Hi-C technology enabled an unprecedented progress in our understanding of genome structures. However, Hi-C is subject to systematic biases that can compromise downstream analyses. Several strategies have been proposed to remove those biases, but the issue of abnormal karyotypes received little attention. Many experiments are performed in cancer cell lines, which typically harbor large-scale copy number variations that create visible defects on the raw Hi-C maps. The consequences of these widespread artifacts on the normalized maps are mostly unexplored. We observed that current normalization methods are not robust to the presence of large-scale copy number variations, potentially obscuring biological differences and enhancing batch effects. To address this issue, we developed an alternative approach designed to take into account chromosomal abnormalities. The method, called OneD, increases reproducibility among replicates of Hi-C samples with abnormal karyotype, outperforming previous methods significantly. On normal karyotypes, OneD fared equally well as state-of-the-art methods, making it a safe choice for Hi-C normalization. OneD is fast and scales well in terms of computing resources for resolutions up to 5 kb.
Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark
2011-01-01
Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non
Emperical Tests of Acceptance Sampling Plans
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, K. Preston, Jr.; Johnson, Kenneth L.
2012-01-01
Acceptance sampling is a quality control procedure applied as an alternative to 100% inspection. A random sample of items is drawn from a lot to determine the fraction of items which have a required quality characteristic. Both the number of items to be inspected and the criterion for determining conformance of the lot to the requirement are given by an appropriate sampling plan with specified risks of Type I and Type II sampling errors. In this paper, we present the results of empirical tests of the accuracy of selected sampling plans reported in the literature. These plans are for measureable quality characteristics which are known have either binomial, exponential, normal, gamma, Weibull, inverse Gaussian, or Poisson distributions. In the main, results support the accepted wisdom that variables acceptance plans are superior to attributes (binomial) acceptance plans, in the sense that these provide comparable protection against risks at reduced sampling cost. For the Gaussian and Weibull plans, however, there are ranges of the shape parameters for which the required sample sizes are in fact larger than the corresponding attributes plans, dramatically so for instances of large skew. Tests further confirm that the published inverse-Gaussian (IG) plan is flawed, as reported by White and Johnson (2011).
The case against one-shot testing for initial dental licensure.
Chambers, David W; Dugoni, Arthur A; Paisley, Ian
2004-03-01
High-stakes testing are expected to meet standards for cost-effectiveness, fairness, transparency, high reliability, and high validity. It is questionable whether initial licensure examinations in dentistry meet such standards. Decades of piecemeal adjustments in the system have resulted in limited improvement. The essential flaw in the system is reliance on a one-shot sample of a small segment of the skills, understanding, and supporting values needed for today's professional practice of dentistry. The "snapshot" approach to testing produces inherently substandard levels of reliability and validity. A three-step alternative is proposed: boards should (1) define the competencies required of beginning practitioners, (2) establish the psychometric standards needed to make defensible judgments about candidates, and (3) base licensure decisions only on portfolios of evidence that test for defined competencies at established levels of quality.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jandura, Louise
2010-01-01
The Sample Acquisition/Sample Processing and Handling subsystem for the Mars Science Laboratory is a highly-mechanized, Rover-based sampling system that acquires powdered rock and regolith samples from the Martian surface, sorts the samples into fine particles through sieving, and delivers small portions of the powder into two science instruments inside the Rover. SA/SPaH utilizes 17 actuated degrees-of-freedom to perform the functions needed to produce 5 sample pathways in support of the scientific investigation on Mars. Both hardware redundancy and functional redundancy are employed in configuring this sampling system so some functionality is retained even with the loss of a degree-of-freedom. Intentional dynamic environments are created to move sample while vibration isolators attenuate this environment at the sensitive instruments located near the dynamic sources. In addition to the typical flight hardware qualification test program, two additional types of testing are essential for this kind of sampling system: characterization of the intentionally-created dynamic environment and testing of the sample acquisition and processing hardware functions using Mars analog materials in a low pressure environment. The overall subsystem design and configuration are discussed along with some of the challenges, tradeoffs, and lessons learned in the areas of fault tolerance, intentional dynamic environments, and special testing
Futch, Tracy; Spinosa, John; Bhatt, Sucheta; de Feo, Eileen; Rava, Richard P; Sehnert, Amy J
2013-06-01
The aim of this study is to report the experience of noninvasive prenatal DNA testing using massively parallel sequencing in an accredited clinical laboratory. Laboratory information was examined for blood samples received for testing between February and November 2012 for chromosome 21 (Chr21), Chr18, and Chr13. Monosomy X (MX) testing was available from July 2012 for cystic hygroma indication. Outcomes were collected from providers on samples with positive results. There were 5974 samples tested, and results were issued within an average of 5.1 business days. Aneuploidy was detected in 284 (4.8%) samples (155 Chr21, 66 Chr18, 19 Chr13, 40 MX, and four double aneuploidy). Follow-ups are available for 245/284 (86%), and 77/284 (27.1%) are confirmed, including one double-aneuploidy case concordant with cytogenetics from maternal malignancy. Fourteen (0.2%) discordant (putative false-positive) results (one Chr21, six Chr18, three Chr13, three MX, and one Chr21/13) have been identified. Five (0.08%) false-negative cases are reported (two trisomy 21, two trisomy 18, and one MX). In 170 (2.8%) cases, the result for a single chromosome was indefinite. This report suggests that clinical testing of maternal cell-free DNA for fetal aneuploidy operates within performance parameters established in validation studies. Noninvasive prenatal testing is sensitive to biological contributions from placental and maternal sources. ©2013 Verinata Health, Inc. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jan, Show-Li; Shieh, Gwowen
2017-01-01
Equivalence assessment is becoming an increasingly important topic in many application areas including behavioral and social sciences research. Although there exist more powerful tests, the two one-sided tests (TOST) procedure is a technically transparent and widely accepted method for establishing statistical equivalence. Alternatively, a direct…
Distribution of the near-earth objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emel'Yanenko, V. V.; Naroenkov, S. A.; Shustov, B. M.
2011-12-01
This paper analyzes the distribution of the orbits of near-Earth minor bodies from the data on more than 7500 objects. The distribution of large near-Earth objects (NEOs) with absolute magnitudes of H < 18 is generally consistent with the earlier predictions (Bottke et al., 2002; Stuart, 2003), although we have revealed a previously undetected maximum in the distribution of perihelion distances q near q = 0.5 AU. The study of the orbital distribution for the entire sample of all detected objects has found new significant features. In particular, the distribution of perihelion longitudes seriously deviates from a homogeneous pattern; its variations are roughly 40% of its mean value. These deviations cannot be stochastic, which is confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test with a more than 0.9999 probability. These features can be explained by the dynamic behavior of the minor bodies related to secular resonances with Jupiter. For the objects with H < 18, the variations in the perihelion longitude distribution are not so apparent. By extrapolating the orbital characteristics of the NEOs with H < 18, we have obtained longitudinal, latitudinal, and radial distributions of potentially hazardous objects in a heliocentric ecliptic coordinate frame. The differences in the orbital distributions of objects of different size appear not to be a consequence of observational selection, but could indicate different sources of the NEOs.
A Survey of Rotation Lightcurves of Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids in the L4 Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert; Warner, Brian; James, David; Rohl, Derrick; Connour, Kyle
2017-10-01
Jovian Trojan asteroids are of interest both as objects in their own right and as possible relics of Solar System formation. Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, Jovian Trojan asteroids and cometary nuclei. Asteroid lightcurves give information about processes that have affected a group of asteroids including their density. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We have been carrying out a survey of Trojan lightcurve properties comparing small Trojan asteroids with comets (French et al 2015). We present new lightcurve information for 39 Trojans less than about 35 km in diameter. We report our latest results and compare them with results from the sparsely-sampled lightcurves from the Palomar Transient Factory (Waszazak et al., Chang et al. 2015). The minimum densities for objects with complete lightcurves are estimated and are found to becomparable to those measured for cometary nuclei. A significant fraction (~40%) of thisobserved small Trojan population rotates slowly (P > 24 hours), with measured periods as over 500 hours (Waszczak et al 2015). The excess of slow rotators may be due to the YORP effect. Results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test suggest that the distribution of Trojan rotation rates is dissimilar to those of Main Belt Asteroids of the same size.
Application of Refined Kolmogorov's Hypothesis For Numerical Modelling of Filtration In Porous Media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuz'min, G.; Soboleva, O.
We consider a flow of incompressible fluid through the fractal porous media. The scaling theory that uses the ideas of the Kolmogorovs (1962) paper is presented for the permeability field (x). The velocity is given by the Darcy's law v = (x) p, where p is the pressure. The incompressibility condition div v = 0 results in the equation for p (x) p(x) = 0. (1) xj xj In order to compute the steady realizations for the velocity, we use (256)3 grid, the iter- ation algorithm in combination with the fast Fourier transform and the sweep method. In order to replace the original problem by a simpler one, we seek for a subgrid model. The large scales l > l0 are retained in the equation. The scales l < l0 are simu- lated along the lines of the renormalization group theory. Using the scaling hypoth- esis for the latter, we derive the following expression for the effective permeability l -D 0 0l = 0 (), where 0 is a constant which is chosen according to the L experimental data for a natural sedimentary rock, D (which is equal to 3) is the spa- tial dimension. Thus, if one wishes to use a coarser grid, when computing the flow through a fractal matter, he should multiply the effective permeability by a constant factor according to() . For such a model we made some computational experiments. The reasonable agreement with numerical simulations has been obtained. For the nu- merically obtained realizations of velocity field, we calculate the trajectories of the labeled particles from the equations: dx m(x, l) = v(x), x = x0 , i = 1, ..., N, i (2) dt where i stands for the number of a particle, m(x, l) is the porosity. The correlated fractal fields of permeability and porosity are numerically generated using the scaling theory. For a cloud of the labeled particles, we study the dispersion within the exact and the subgrid models.
A new method for detecting, quantifying and monitoring diffuse contamination
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fabian, Karl; Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice
2017-04-01
A new method is presented for detecting and quantifying diffuse contamination at the regional to continental scale. It is based on the analysis of cumulative distribution functions (CDFs) in cumulative probability (CP) plots for spatially representative datasets, preferably containing >1000 samples. Simulations demonstrate how different types of contamination influence elemental CDFs of different sample media. Contrary to common belief, diffuse contamination does not result in exceedingly high element concentrations in regional- to continental-scale datasets. Instead it produces a distinctive shift of concentrations in the background distribution of the studied element resulting in a steeper data distribution in the CP plot. Via either (1) comparing the distribution of an element in top soil samples to the distribution of the same element in bottom soil samples from the same area, taking soil forming processes into consideration, or (2) comparing the distribution of the contaminating element (e.g., Pb) to that of an element with a geochemically comparable behaviour but no contamination source (e.g., Rb or Ba in case of Pb), the relative impact of diffuse contamination on the element concentration can be estimated either graphically in the CP plot via a best fit estimate or quantitatively via a Kolmogorov-Smirnov or Cramer vonMiese test. This is demonstrated using continental-scale geochemical soil datasets from Europe, Australia, and the USA, and a regional scale dataset from Norway. Several different datasets from Europe deliver comparable results at regional to continental scales. The method is also suitable for monitoring diffuse contamination based on the statistical distribution of repeat datasets at the continental scale in a cost-effective manner.
A new linearized Crank-Nicolson mixed element scheme for the extended Fisher-Kolmogorov equation.
Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Hong; He, Siriguleng; Gao, Wei; Liu, Yang
2013-01-01
We present a new mixed finite element method for solving the extended Fisher-Kolmogorov (EFK) equation. We first decompose the EFK equation as the two second-order equations, then deal with a second-order equation employing finite element method, and handle the other second-order equation using a new mixed finite element method. In the new mixed finite element method, the gradient ∇u belongs to the weaker (L²(Ω))² space taking the place of the classical H(div; Ω) space. We prove some a priori bounds for the solution for semidiscrete scheme and derive a fully discrete mixed scheme based on a linearized Crank-Nicolson method. At the same time, we get the optimal a priori error estimates in L² and H¹-norm for both the scalar unknown u and the diffusion term w = -Δu and a priori error estimates in (L²)²-norm for its gradient χ = ∇u for both semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes.
Acute toxic tests of rainwater samples using Daphnia magna.
Sakai, Manabu
2006-06-01
Rainwater samples were collected at Isogo Ward of Yokohama City, Japan, from 23 June to 31 July 2003. The toxic potency of pollutants present in 13 rainwater samples was tested using Daphnia magna. Most test animals died within 48 h in five test solutions that were prepared from rainwater samples. On the other hand, when nonpolar compounds such as pesticides were removed from rainwater samples before the toxic tests, mortalities in all test solutions were less than 10%. Eight kinds of pesticides were detected in rainwater samples. The highest concentration was of dichlorvos, at 0.74 microg/L. Results indicated that insecticides in rainwater sometimes lethally affected D. magna and that toxic potency of insecticides that are present in rainwater constitutes an important problem for environmental protection.
New prior sampling methods for nested sampling - Development and testing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stokes, Barrie; Tuyl, Frank; Hudson, Irene
2017-06-01
Nested Sampling is a powerful algorithm for fitting models to data in the Bayesian setting, introduced by Skilling [1]. The nested sampling algorithm proceeds by carrying out a series of compressive steps, involving successively nested iso-likelihood boundaries, starting with the full prior distribution of the problem parameters. The "central problem" of nested sampling is to draw at each step a sample from the prior distribution whose likelihood is greater than the current likelihood threshold, i.e., a sample falling inside the current likelihood-restricted region. For both flat and informative priors this ultimately requires uniform sampling restricted to the likelihood-restricted region. We present two new methods of carrying out this sampling step, and illustrate their use with the lighthouse problem [2], a bivariate likelihood used by Gregory [3] and a trivariate Gaussian mixture likelihood. All the algorithm development and testing reported here has been done with Mathematica® [4].
[Utilization of self-sampling kits for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening - pilot study].
Ondryášová, H; Koudeláková, V; Drábek, J; Vaněk, P; Slavkovský, R; Hajdúch, M
2015-12-01
To get initial experience with alternative sampling (self-sampling) for HPV testing as the means of cervical cancer screening program. Original work. Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc. Based on expression of interest, 215 self-sampling kits were posted to women. Evalyn(®) Brush Vaginal swabs obtained by self-sampling were analyzed for the presence of HPV infection by Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche) followed by genotyping using PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening (Greiner Bio-One). Sixty women randomly chosen from our sample were sent a questionnaire focused on their experience with self-sampling. One hundred seventy-four of 215 (81%) distributed self-sampling devices have been delivered to analysis. All cervicovaginal swabs were sampled correctly and it was possible to analyze them by Cobas 4800 HPV test. Similarly, 98% (171/174) samples were analyzable by PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening.One hundred twenty-five (72%) of 174 tested samples were HPV negative. Low risk HPV infection was detected only in 7 samples (4%), and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection was present in 42 samples (24%). The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes were HPV16 (11/42; 26%) and HPV53 (6/42; 14%). HrHPV co-infection was detected in 10 cases, in 5 of them lrHPV infection was find also.Of the 60 questionnaires, 48 (80%) were returned. From this group, 47 (98%) women rated their experience with self-sampling device as good to excellent. User manual of self-sampling device was considered good to excellent by all women (100%). All women also rated the convenience of self-sampling device using as good to excellent. As expected, most of the women (n = 42 [88%]) preferred self-sampling to physician sampling. Cervicovaginal self-sampling leads to valid results of HPV screening using two molecular genetics methods and was accepted by Czech women very well. The self-sampling as an opportunity to participate in cervical cancer
Gleeble Testing of Tungsten Samples
2013-02-01
as a diffusion barrier to prevent the tungsten samples from fusing to the tungsten carbide inserts at elevated temperatures. After the anvils were...anvils with removable tungsten carbide inserts. The inserts were 19.05 mm (0.75 in) in diameter and 25.4 mm (1 in) long; they were purchased from...rhenium are shown in tables 6 and 7 and figure 7. The sample tested at 1300 °C, T4, partially embedded into the tungsten carbide (WC) inserts during
Turner, Terry D.; Beller, Laurence S.; Clark, Michael L.; Klingler, Kerry M.
1997-01-01
A method of processing a test sample to concentrate an analyte in the sample from a solvent in the sample includes: a) boiling the test sample containing the analyte and solvent in a boiling chamber to a temperature greater than or equal to the solvent boiling temperature and less than the analyte boiling temperature to form a rising sample vapor mixture; b) passing the sample vapor mixture from the boiling chamber to an elongated primary separation tube, the separation tube having internal sidewalls and a longitudinal axis, the longitudinal axis being angled between vertical and horizontal and thus having an upper region and a lower region; c) collecting the physically transported liquid analyte on the internal sidewalls of the separation tube; and d) flowing the collected analyte along the angled internal sidewalls of the separation tube to and pass the separation tube lower region. The invention also includes passing a turbulence inducing wave through a vapor mixture to separate physically transported liquid second material from vaporized first material. Apparatus are also disclosed for effecting separations. Further disclosed is a fluidically powered liquid test sample withdrawal apparatus for withdrawing a liquid test sample from a test sample container and for cleaning the test sample container.
Turner, T.D.; Beller, L.S.; Clark, M.L.; Klingler, K.M.
1997-10-14
A method of processing a test sample to concentrate an analyte in the sample from a solvent in the sample includes: (a) boiling the test sample containing the analyte and solvent in a boiling chamber to a temperature greater than or equal to the solvent boiling temperature and less than the analyte boiling temperature to form a rising sample vapor mixture; (b) passing the sample vapor mixture from the boiling chamber to an elongated primary separation tube, the separation tube having internal sidewalls and a longitudinal axis, the longitudinal axis being angled between vertical and horizontal and thus having an upper region and a lower region; (c) collecting the physically transported liquid analyte on the internal sidewalls of the separation tube; and (d) flowing the collected analyte along the angled internal sidewalls of the separation tube to and pass the separation tube lower region. The invention also includes passing a turbulence inducing wave through a vapor mixture to separate physically transported liquid second material from vaporized first material. Apparatus is also disclosed for effecting separations. Further disclosed is a fluidically powered liquid test sample withdrawal apparatus for withdrawing a liquid test sample from a test sample container and for cleaning the test sample container. 8 figs.
Apparatus for testing skin samples or the like
Holland, J.M.
1982-08-31
An apparatus for testing the permeability of living skin samples has a flat base with a plurality of sample-holding cavities formed in its upper surface, the samples being placed in counterbores in the cavities with the epidermis uppermost. O-rings of Teflon washers are respectively placed on the samples and a flat cover is connected to the base to press the rings against the upper surfaces of the samples. Media to maintain tissue viability and recovery of metabolites is introduced into the lower portion of the sample-holding cavities through passages in the base. Test materials are introduced through holes in the cover plate after assembly of the chamber.
21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...
21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...
21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...
21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Instrumentation and Accessories § 864.3260 OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Identification. An over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection system for drugs of abuse testing is a device...
Fassbinder, Tânia Regina Cavinatto; Winkelmann, Eliane Roseli; Schneider, Juliana; Wendland, Juliana; Oliveira, Olvânia Basso de
2015-01-01
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) infers directly in functional capacity, independence and therefore quality of life (QOL). To compare the physical fitness and quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease submitted on hemodialysis (G1) and predialysis treatment (G2). A cross-sectional study, 54 patients with CKD, 27 of the G1 group (58.15 ± 10.84 years), 27 of G2 group (62.04 ± 16.56 years). There were cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric measurements, respiratory muscle strength was measured by the inspiratory pressure (MIP) and expiratory (MEP) maximum measured in the manometer, six-minute walk (TC6'), cardiopulmonary exercise test, sit and stand one minute test (TSL1') and the Short-Form Questionary (SF-36) to assess QOL. The patients presented disease of stage between 2 and 5. It was applied the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and used the t (Student) test or the U (Mann Whitney) test to compare the means of quantitative variables and the chi-square Pearson test and Fisher's exact test for qualitative variables. Pearson's or Spearman's test was used to identify correlations. No statistically significant difference was found between G1 and G2 in VO2peak (p = 0,259) in TC6' (p = 0,433) in the MIPmáx (p = 0,158) and found only in the MEPmáx (p = 0,024) to G1. The scores of the SF-36 in both groups showed a worse health status as evidenced by the low score in scores for QOL. Patients with CKD had reduced functional capacity and QOL, and hemodialysis, statistically, didn't have showed negative repercussions when compared with pre-dialysis patients.
Feature Selection based on Machine Learning in MRIs for Hippocampal Segmentation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tangaro, Sabina; Amoroso, Nicola; Brescia, Massimo; Cavuoti, Stefano; Chincarini, Andrea; Errico, Rosangela; Paolo, Inglese; Longo, Giuseppe; Maglietta, Rosalia; Tateo, Andrea; Riccio, Giuseppe; Bellotti, Roberto
2015-01-01
Neurodegenerative diseases are frequently associated with structural changes in the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans can show these variations and therefore can be used as a supportive feature for a number of neurodegenerative diseases. The hippocampus has been known to be a biomarker for Alzheimer disease and other neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it requires accurate, robust, and reproducible delineation of hippocampal structures. Fully automatic methods are usually the voxel based approach; for each voxel a number of local features were calculated. In this paper, we compared four different techniques for feature selection from a set of 315 features extracted for each voxel: (i) filter method based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test; two wrapper methods, respectively, (ii) sequential forward selection and (iii) sequential backward elimination; and (iv) embedded method based on the Random Forest Classifier on a set of 10 T1-weighted brain MRIs and tested on an independent set of 25 subjects. The resulting segmentations were compared with manual reference labelling. By using only 23 feature for each voxel (sequential backward elimination) we obtained comparable state-of-the-art performances with respect to the standard tool FreeSurfer.
Vadhana, Sekar; SaravanaKarthikeyan, Balasubramanian; Nandini, Suresh; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy
2014-07-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) rotary files in continuous rotation and reciprocating motion. A total of 60 new rotary Mtwo and RaCe files (ISO size = 25, taper = 0.06, length = 25 mm) were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 15 each): Mtc (Mtwo NiTi files in continuous rotation), Rc (RaCe NiTi files in continuous rotation), Mtr (Mtwo NiTi files in reciprocating motion), and Rr (RaCe NiTi files in reciprocating motion). A cyclic fatigue testing device was fabricated with a 60° angle of curvature and a 5-mm radius. All instruments were rotated or reciprocated until fracture occurred. The time taken for each instrument to fracture and the length of the broken fragments were recorded. All the fractured files were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope to detect the mode of fracture. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to assess the normality of samples distribution, and statistical analysis was performed using the independent sample t test. The time taken for the instruments of the Mtr and Rr groups to fail under cyclic loading was significantly longer compared with the Mtc and Rc groups (P < .001). Scanning electron microscopic observations showed that the instruments of all groups had undergone a ductile mode of fracture. The length of the fractured segments was between 5 and 6 mm, which was not statistically significant among the experimental groups. Mtwo and RaCe rotary instruments showed a significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance in reciprocating motion compared with continuous rotation motion. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Heng; Lan, Fang; Shi, Yupeng; Wan, Zhi-Gang; Yue, Zhen-Feng; Fan, Fang; Lin, Yan-Kui; Tang, Mu-Jin; Lv, Jing-Zhang; Xiao, Tan; Yi, Changqing
2014-06-15
VitaFast(®) test kits designed for the microbiological assay in microtiter plate format can be applied to quantitative determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins such as vitamin B12, folic acid and biotin, et al. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, VitaFast(®) kits significantly reduce sample processing time and provide greater reliability, higher productivity and better accuracy. Recently, simultaneous determination of vitamin B12, folic acid and biotin in one sample is urgently required when evaluating the quality of infant formulae in our practical work. However, the present sample preparation protocols which are developed for individual test systems, are incompatible with simultaneous determination of several analytes. To solve this problem, a novel "three-in-one" sample preparation method is herein developed for simultaneous determination of B-group water-soluble vitamins using VitaFast(®) kits. The performance of this novel "three-in-one" sample preparation method was systematically evaluated through comparing with individual sample preparation protocols. The experimental results of the assays which employed "three-in-one" sample preparation method were in good agreement with those obtained from conventional VitaFast(®) extraction methods, indicating that the proposed "three-in-one" sample preparation method is applicable to the present three VitaFast(®) vitamin test systems, thus offering a promising alternative for the three independent sample preparation methods. The proposed new sample preparation method will significantly improve the efficiency of infant formulae inspection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorokhovski, Mikhael; Zamansky, Rémi
2018-03-01
Consistently with observations from recent experiments and DNS, we focus on the effects of strong velocity increments at small spatial scales for the simulation of the drag force on particles in high Reynolds number flows. In this paper, we decompose the instantaneous particle acceleration in its systematic and residual parts. The first part is given by the steady-drag force obtained from the large-scale energy-containing motions, explicitly resolved by the simulation, while the second denotes the random contribution due to small unresolved turbulent scales. This is in contrast with standard drag models in which the turbulent microstructures advected by the large-scale eddies are deemed to be filtered by the particle inertia. In our paper, the residual term is introduced as the particle acceleration conditionally averaged on the instantaneous dissipation rate along the particle path. The latter is modeled from a log-normal stochastic process with locally defined parameters obtained from the resolved field. The residual term is supplemented by an orientation model which is given by a random walk on the unit sphere. We propose specific models for particles with diameter smaller and larger size than the Kolmogorov scale. In the case of the small particles, the model is assessed by comparison with direct numerical simulation (DNS). Results showed that by introducing this modeling, the particle acceleration statistics from DNS is predicted fairly well, in contrast with the standard LES approach. For the particles bigger than the Kolmogorov scale, we propose a fluctuating particle response time, based on an eddy viscosity estimated at the particle scale. This model gives stretched tails of the particle acceleration distribution and dependence of its variance consistent with experiments.
Testing Response-Stimulus Equivalence Relations Using Differential Responses as a Sample
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shimizu, Hirofumi
2006-01-01
This study tested the notion that an equivalence relation may include a response when differential responses are paired with stimuli presented during training. Eight normal adults learned three kinds of computer mouse movements as differential response topographies (R1, R2, and R3). Next, in matching-to-sample training, one of the response…
Switching Between Everyday and Scientific Language
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Blown, Eric J.; Bryce, Tom G. K.
2017-06-01
The research reported here investigated the everyday and scientific repertoires of children involved in semi-structured, Piagetian interviews carried out to check their understanding of dynamic astronomical concepts like daytime and night-time. It focused on the switching taking place between embedded and disembedded thinking; on the imagery which subjects referred to in their verbal dialogue and their descriptions of drawings and play-dough models of the Earth, Sun and Moon; and it examined the prevalence and character of animism and figurative speech in children's thinking. Five hundred and thirty-nine children (aged 3-18) from Wairarapa in New Zealand (171 boys and 185 girls) and Changchun in China (99 boys and 84 girls) took part in the study. Modified ordinal scales for the relevant concept categories were used to classify children's responses and data from each age group (with numbers balanced as closely as practicable by culture and gender) analysed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests (at an alpha level of 0.05). Although, in general, there was consistency of dynamic concepts within and across media and their associated modalities in keeping with the theory of conceptual coherence (see Blown and Bryce 2010; Bryce and Blown 2016), there were several cases of inter-modal and intra-modal switching in both cultures. Qualitative data from the interview protocols revealed how children switch between everyday and scientific language (in both directions) and use imagery in response to questioning. The research indicates that children's grasp of scientific ideas in this field may ordinarily be under-estimated if one only goes by formal scientific expression and vocabulary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomellini, M.; Fanfoni, M.
1999-10-01
On the basis of the quasi-static approximation and for simultaneous nucleation the adatom lifetime, τ, during film growth at solid surfaces has been computed by Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The quantity DN0τ, N0 and D being respectively the cluster density and the adatom diffusion coefficient, is found to depend upon the portion of surface covered by clusters and, very weakly, on N0. Moreover, a stochastic approach based on the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) theory has been developed to obtain the analytical expression of the MC curve. The collision factor of the mean island has been calculated and compared with those previously obtained from the uniform depletion approximation and the lattice approximation.
Gavett, Brandon E
2015-03-01
The base rates of abnormal test scores in cognitively normal samples have been a focus of recent research. The goal of the current study is to illustrate how Bayes' theorem uses these base rates--along with the same base rates in cognitively impaired samples and prevalence rates of cognitive impairment--to yield probability values that are more useful for making judgments about the absence or presence of cognitive impairment. Correlation matrices, means, and standard deviations were obtained from the Wechsler Memory Scale--4th Edition (WMS-IV) Technical and Interpretive Manual and used in Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the base rates of abnormal test scores in the standardization and special groups (mixed clinical) samples. Bayes' theorem was applied to these estimates to identify probabilities of normal cognition based on the number of abnormal test scores observed. Abnormal scores were common in the standardization sample (65.4% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest) and more common in the mixed clinical sample (85.6% scoring below a scaled score of 7 on at least one subtest). Probabilities varied according to the number of abnormal test scores, base rates of normal cognition, and cutoff scores. The results suggest that interpretation of base rates obtained from cognitively healthy samples must also account for data from cognitively impaired samples. Bayes' theorem can help neuropsychologists answer questions about the probability that an individual examinee is cognitively healthy based on the number of abnormal test scores observed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken.
Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop.
The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.
A boundary-optimized rejection region test for the two-sample binomial problem.
Gabriel, Erin E; Nason, Martha; Fay, Michael P; Follmann, Dean A
2018-03-30
Testing the equality of 2 proportions for a control group versus a treatment group is a well-researched statistical problem. In some settings, there may be strong historical data that allow one to reliably expect that the control proportion is one, or nearly so. While one-sample tests or comparisons to historical controls could be used, neither can rigorously control the type I error rate in the event the true control rate changes. In this work, we propose an unconditional exact test that exploits the historical information while controlling the type I error rate. We sequentially construct a rejection region by first maximizing the rejection region in the space where all controls have an event, subject to the constraint that our type I error rate does not exceed α for any true event rate; then with any remaining α we maximize the additional rejection region in the space where one control avoids the event, and so on. When the true control event rate is one, our test is the most powerful nonrandomized test for all points in the alternative space. When the true control event rate is nearly one, we demonstrate that our test has equal or higher mean power, averaging over the alternative space, than a variety of well-known tests. For the comparison of 4 controls and 4 treated subjects, our proposed test has higher power than all comparator tests. We demonstrate the properties of our proposed test by simulation and use our method to design a malaria vaccine trial. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 5).
Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo
2012-02-01
Estimation of sample size and testing power is an important component of research design. This article introduced methods for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the single-group design, the paired design or the crossover design. To be specific, this article introduced formulas for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the above three designs, the realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software and elaborated it with examples, which will benefit researchers for implementing the repetition principle.
Self-sampling for cervical screening: could it overcome some of the barriers to the Pap test?
Mullins, Robyn; Scalzo, Katherine; Sultana, Farhana
2014-12-01
To determine which groups of women would be most likely to take part in self-sampling for cervical screening, and what they perceive as the key barriers and benefits to self-sampling. A random sample of 3000 women aged 18-69 in Victoria, Australia, were asked questions about "taking their own Pap test" in a telephone survey about cervical screening; 2526 answered the questions about self-sampling. The terminology "Pap test" was used in questions, due to the very low understanding of HPV and its link to cervical cancer. One-third of women (34.0%) indicated they would prefer to self-sample, 57.2% would not and 8.7% were unsure. Preference for self-sampling was significantly stronger among women who had not had a Pap test for more than three years (64.8%, p < .001) or who had never had one (62.1%, p < .001), compared with those up-to-date (27.0%). Convenience was a key benefit (37.8%), as was less embarrassment (31.5%). For those who did not want to self-sample or were unsure, key factors included professionals being more skilled (53.4% and 28.2% respectively), and doubts about being able to do it properly (28.9% and 23.6%). Self-sampling was most popular among women who needed to have a Pap test, and could potentially reach some women who are not participating appropriately in cervical screening. Key barriers to participation could be addressed by providing information about the test being for HPV, and being easier to do properly than a Pap test. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bo; Li, Qi; Wang, Jisheng; Xiang, Hu; Ge, Hong; Wang, Hui; Xie, Peng
2015-10-01
Cerebral blood flow velocity(CBFV) is an important parameter for study of cerebral hemodynamics. However, a simple and highly similar mathematical model has not yet been established for analyzing CBFV. To alleviate this issue, through TCD examination in 100 geriatric patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease (46 males and 54 females), we established a representative eighth-order Fourier function Vx(t) that simulates the CBFV. The measured TCD waveforms were compared to those derived from Vx(t), an illustrative Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was employed to determine the validity. The results showed that the TCD waves could been reconstructed for patients with different CBFVs by implementing their variable heart rates and the formulated maximum/minimum of Vx(t). Comparisons between derived and measured TCD waveforms suggest that the two waveforms are very similar. The results confirm that CBFV can be well-modeled through an eighth-order Fourier function. This function Vx(t) can be used extensively for a prospective study of cerebral hemodynamics in geriatric patients with suspected cerebrovascular disease.
Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana Laura; Piña-Osuna, Karina; Leal-Moreno, Ana María; López-Cárdenas, Adriana; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M
2004-01-01
1. To describe clinical and pathologic characteristics of patients with coccidioidomycosis (CM) who died from 1983-2000 at a hospital in northeastern Mexico, and 2, to know distribution of number of deaths due to CM per year and month. From 4598 autopsies, 31 cases of CM were selected. Clinical chart and autopsy protocols were examined. Distribution of cases was analyzed by contingence table and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. There were 10 women and 21 men (aged 4 months to 60 years). In women, pregnancy was present in 40% of cases. In men, chronic renal failure (CRF) (38%) and AIDS (19%) were the pathologic conditions most frequently observed. Variation in distribution of cases throughout 18 years was not observed (p > 0.05). Mortality due to CM was 0.67% and variation in number of deaths was not found. In this endemic area, CM must be included in differential diagnosis of patients with risk factors such as pregnancy, CRF, and AIDS, especially if associated with pneumonia with miliary pattern or septicemia with splenomegaly.
Yu, Qingfen; Ye, Wei; Wang, Wei; Chen, Hai-Feng
2013-01-01
The transactivation domain (TAD) of tumor suppressor p53 can bind with the nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein (CBP) and activate transcription. NMR experiments demonstrate that both apo-NCBD and TAD are intrinsic disordered and bound NCBD/TAD undergoes a transition to well folded. The recognition mechanism between intrinsic disordered proteins is still hotly debated. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in explicit solvent are used to study the recognition mechanism between intrinsic disordered TAD and NCBD. The average RMSD values between bound and corresponding apo states and Kolmogorov-Smirnov P test analysis indicate that TAD and NCBD may follow an induced fit mechanism. Quantitative analysis indicates there is also a global conformational selection. In summary, the recognition of TAD and NCBD might obey a local induced fit and global conformational selection. These conclusions are further supported by high-temperature unbinding kinetics and room temperature landscape analysis. These methods can be used to study the recognition mechanism of other intrinsic disordered proteins. PMID:23555731
Smith, David H; O'Keeffe Rosetti, Maureen; Mosen, David M; Rosales, A Gabriela; Keast, Erin; Perrin, Nancy; Feldstein, Adrianne C; Levin, Theodore R; Liles, Elizabeth G
2018-06-21
Colorectal cancer (CRC) causes more than 50,000 deaths each year in the United States but early detection through screening yields survival gains; those diagnosed with early stage disease have a 5-year survival greater than 90%, compared to 12% for those diagnosed with late stage disease. Using data from a large integrated health system, this study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of fecal immunochemical testing (FIT), a common CRC screening tool. A probabilistic decision-analytic model was used to examine the costs and outcomes of positive test results from a 1-FIT regimen compared with a 2-FIT regimen. The authors compared 5 diagnostic cutoffs of hemoglobin concentration for each test (for a total of 10 screening options). The principal outcome from the analysis was the cost per additional advanced neoplasia (AN) detected. The authors also estimated the number of cancers detected and life-years gained from detecting AN. The following costs were included: program management of the screening program, patient identification, FIT kits and their processing, and diagnostic colonoscopy following a positive FIT. Per-person costs ranged from $33 (1-FIT at 150ng/ml) to $92 (2-FIT at 50ng/ml) across screening options. Depending on willingness to pay, the 1-FIT 50 ng/ml and the 2-FIT 50 ng/ml are the dominant strategies with cost-effectiveness of $11,198 and $28,389, respectively, for an additional AN detected. The estimates of cancers avoided per 1000 screens ranged from 1.46 to 4.86, depending on the strategy and the assumptions of AN to cancer progression.
Stroup, Caleb N.; Welhan, John A.; Davis, Linda C.
2008-01-01
The statistical stationarity of distributions of sedimentary interbed thicknesses within the southwestern part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was evaluated within the stratigraphic framework of Quaternary sediments and basalts at the INL site, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho. The thicknesses of 122 sedimentary interbeds observed in 11 coreholes were documented from lithologic logs and independently inferred from natural-gamma logs. Lithologic information was grouped into composite time-stratigraphic units based on correlations with existing composite-unit stratigraphy near these holes. The assignment of lithologic units to an existing chronostratigraphy on the basis of nearby composite stratigraphic units may introduce error where correlations with nearby holes are ambiguous or the distance between holes is great, but we consider this the best technique for grouping stratigraphic information in this geologic environment at this time. Nonparametric tests of similarity were used to evaluate temporal and spatial stationarity in the distributions of sediment thickness. The following statistical tests were applied to the data: (1) the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) two-sample test to compare distribution shape, (2) the Mann-Whitney (M-W) test for similarity of two medians, (3) the Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) test for similarity of multiple medians, and (4) Levene's (L) test for the similarity of two variances. Results of these analyses corroborate previous work that concluded the thickness distributions of Quaternary sedimentary interbeds are locally stationary in space and time. The data set used in this study was relatively small, so the results presented should be considered preliminary, pending incorporation of data from more coreholes. Statistical tests also demonstrated that natural-gamma logs consistently fail to detect interbeds less than about 2-3 ft thick, although these interbeds are observable in lithologic logs. This should be taken into consideration when
Schlottmann, Jamie L.; Funkhouser, Ron A.
1991-01-01
Chemical analyses of water from eight test holes and geophysical logs for nine test holes drilled in the Central Oklahoma aquifer are presented. The test holes were drilled to investigate local occurrences of potentially toxic, naturally occurring trace substances in ground water. These trace substances include arsenic, chromium, selenium, residual alpha-particle activities, and uranium. Eight of the nine test holes were drilled near wells known to contain large concentrations of one or more of the naturally occurring trace substances. One test hole was drilled in an area known to have only small concentrations of any of the naturally occurring trace substances.Water samples were collected from one to eight individual sandstone layers within each test hole. A total of 28 water samples, including four duplicate samples, were collected. The temperature, pH, specific conductance, alkalinity, and dissolved-oxygen concentrations were measured at the sample site. Laboratory determinations included major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, barium, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, hexavalent chromium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, lithium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, strontium, vanadium and zinc). Radionuclide activities and stable isotope (5 values also were determined, including: gross-alpha-particle activity, gross-beta-particle activity, radium-226, radium-228, radon-222, uranium-234, uranium-235, uranium-238, total uranium, carbon-13/carbon-12, deuterium/hydrogen-1, oxygen-18/oxygen-16, and sulfur-34/sulfur-32. Additional analyses of arsenic and selenium species are presented for selected samples as well as analyses of density and iodine for two samples, tritium for three samples, and carbon-14 for one sample.Geophysical logs for most test holes include caliper, neutron, gamma-gamma, natural-gamma logs, spontaneous potential, long- and short-normal resistivity, and single-point resistance
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Star clusters distances and extinctions. II. (Buckner+, 2014)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buckner, A. S. M.; Froebrich, D.
2015-04-01
Until now, it has been impossible to observationally measure how star cluster scaleheight evolves beyond 1Gyr as only small samples have been available. Here, we establish a novel method to determine the scaleheight of a cluster sample using modelled distributions and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. This allows us to determine the scaleheight with a 25% accuracy for samples of 38 clusters or more. We apply our method to investigate the temporal evolution of cluster scaleheight, using homogeneously selected sub-samples of Kharchenko et al. (MWSC, 2012, Cat. J/A+A/543/A156, 2013, J/A+A/558/A53 ), Dias et al. (DAML02, 2002A&A...389..871D, Cat. B/ocl), WEBDA, and Froebrich et al. (FSR, 2007MNRAS.374..399F, Cat. J/MNRAS/374/399). We identify a linear relationship between scaleheight and log(age/yr) of clusters, considerably different from field stars. The scaleheight increases from about 40pc at 1Myr to 75pc at 1Gyr, most likely due to internal evolution and external scattering events. After 1Gyr, there is a marked change of the behaviour, with the scaleheight linearly increasing with log(age/yr) to about 550pc at 3.5Gyr. The most likely interpretation is that the surviving clusters are only observable because they have been scattered away from the mid-plane in their past. A detailed understanding of this observational evidence can only be achieved with numerical simulations of the evolution of cluster samples in the Galactic disc. Furthermore, we find a weak trend of an age-independent increase in scaleheight with Galactocentric distance. There are no significant temporal or spatial variations of the cluster distribution zero-point. We determine the Sun's vertical displacement from the Galactic plane as Z⊙=18.5+/-1.2pc. (1 data file).
Evaluation of subset matching methods and forms of covariate balance.
de Los Angeles Resa, María; Zubizarreta, José R
2016-11-30
This paper conducts a Monte Carlo simulation study to evaluate the performance of multivariate matching methods that select a subset of treatment and control observations. The matching methods studied are the widely used nearest neighbor matching with propensity score calipers and the more recently proposed methods, optimal matching of an optimally chosen subset and optimal cardinality matching. The main findings are: (i) covariate balance, as measured by differences in means, variance ratios, Kolmogorov-Smirnov distances, and cross-match test statistics, is better with cardinality matching because by construction it satisfies balance requirements; (ii) for given levels of covariate balance, the matched samples are larger with cardinality matching than with the other methods; (iii) in terms of covariate distances, optimal subset matching performs best; (iv) treatment effect estimates from cardinality matching have lower root-mean-square errors, provided strong requirements for balance, specifically, fine balance, or strength-k balance, plus close mean balance. In standard practice, a matched sample is considered to be balanced if the absolute differences in means of the covariates across treatment groups are smaller than 0.1 standard deviations. However, the simulation results suggest that stronger forms of balance should be pursued in order to remove systematic biases due to observed covariates when a difference in means treatment effect estimator is used. In particular, if the true outcome model is additive, then marginal distributions should be balanced, and if the true outcome model is additive with interactions, then low-dimensional joints should be balanced. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Testing for independence in J×K contingency tables with complex sample survey data.
Lipsitz, Stuart R; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Sinha, Debajyoti; Hevelone, Nathanael; Giovannucci, Edward; Hu, Jim C
2015-09-01
The test of independence of row and column variables in a (J×K) contingency table is a widely used statistical test in many areas of application. For complex survey samples, use of the standard Pearson chi-squared test is inappropriate due to correlation among units within the same cluster. Rao and Scott (1981, Journal of the American Statistical Association 76, 221-230) proposed an approach in which the standard Pearson chi-squared statistic is multiplied by a design effect to adjust for the complex survey design. Unfortunately, this test fails to exist when one of the observed cell counts equals zero. Even with the large samples typical of many complex surveys, zero cell counts can occur for rare events, small domains, or contingency tables with a large number of cells. Here, we propose Wald and score test statistics for independence based on weighted least squares estimating equations. In contrast to the Rao-Scott test statistic, the proposed Wald and score test statistics always exist. In simulations, the score test is found to perform best with respect to type I error. The proposed method is motivated by, and applied to, post surgical complications data from the United States' Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) complex survey of hospitals in 2008. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.
Long-term statistics of extreme tsunami height at Crescent City
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Sheng; Zhai, Jinjin; Tao, Shanshan
2017-06-01
Historically, Crescent City is one of the most vulnerable communities impacted by tsunamis along the west coast of the United States, largely attributed to its offshore geography. Trans-ocean tsunamis usually produce large wave runup at Crescent Harbor resulting in catastrophic damages, property loss and human death. How to determine the return values of tsunami height using relatively short-term observation data is of great significance to assess the tsunami hazards and improve engineering design along the coast of Crescent City. In the present study, the extreme tsunami heights observed along the coast of Crescent City from 1938 to 2015 are fitted using six different probabilistic distributions, namely, the Gumbel distribution, the Weibull distribution, the maximum entropy distribution, the lognormal distribution, the generalized extreme value distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution. The maximum likelihood method is applied to estimate the parameters of all above distributions. Both Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square error method are utilized for goodness-of-fit test and the better fitting distribution is selected. Assuming that the occurrence frequency of tsunami in each year follows the Poisson distribution, the Poisson compound extreme value distribution can be used to fit the annual maximum tsunami amplitude, and then the point and interval estimations of return tsunami heights are calculated for structural design. The results show that the Poisson compound extreme value distribution fits tsunami heights very well and is suitable to determine the return tsunami heights for coastal disaster prevention.
Extreme geomagnetic storms: Probabilistic forecasts and their uncertainties
Riley, Pete; Love, Jeffrey J.
2017-01-01
Extreme space weather events are low-frequency, high-risk phenomena. Estimating their rates of occurrence, as well as their associated uncertainties, is difficult. In this study, we derive statistical estimates and uncertainties for the occurrence rate of an extreme geomagnetic storm on the scale of the Carrington event (or worse) occurring within the next decade. We model the distribution of events as either a power law or lognormal distribution and use (1) Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic to estimate goodness of fit, (2) bootstrapping to quantify the uncertainty in the estimates, and (3) likelihood ratio tests to assess whether one distribution is preferred over another. Our best estimate for the probability of another extreme geomagnetic event comparable to the Carrington event occurring within the next 10 years is 10.3% 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.9,18.7] for a power law distribution but only 3.0% 95% CI [0.6,9.0] for a lognormal distribution. However, our results depend crucially on (1) how we define an extreme event, (2) the statistical model used to describe how the events are distributed in intensity, (3) the techniques used to infer the model parameters, and (4) the data and duration used for the analysis. We test a major assumption that the data represent time stationary processes and discuss the implications. If the current trends persist, suggesting that we are entering a period of lower activity, our forecasts may represent upper limits rather than best estimates.
Simulation studies of the fidelity of biomolecular structure ensemble recreation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lätzer, Joachim; Eastwood, Michael P.; Wolynes, Peter G.
2006-12-01
We examine the ability of Bayesian methods to recreate structural ensembles for partially folded molecules from averaged data. Specifically we test the ability of various algorithms to recreate different transition state ensembles for folding proteins using a multiple replica simulation algorithm using input from "gold standard" reference ensembles that were first generated with a Gō-like Hamiltonian having nonpairwise additive terms. A set of low resolution data, which function as the "experimental" ϕ values, were first constructed from this reference ensemble. The resulting ϕ values were then treated as one would treat laboratory experimental data and were used as input in the replica reconstruction algorithm. The resulting ensembles of structures obtained by the replica algorithm were compared to the gold standard reference ensemble, from which those "data" were, in fact, obtained. It is found that for a unimodal transition state ensemble with a low barrier, the multiple replica algorithm does recreate the reference ensemble fairly successfully when no experimental error is assumed. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test as well as principal component analysis show that the overlap of the recovered and reference ensembles is significantly enhanced when multiple replicas are used. Reduction of the multiple replica ensembles by clustering successfully yields subensembles with close similarity to the reference ensembles. On the other hand, for a high barrier transition state with two distinct transition state ensembles, the single replica algorithm only samples a few structures of one of the reference ensemble basins. This is due to the fact that the ϕ values are intrinsically ensemble averaged quantities. The replica algorithm with multiple copies does sample both reference ensemble basins. In contrast to the single replica case, the multiple replicas are constrained to reproduce the average ϕ values, but allow fluctuations in ϕ for each individual copy. These
Bergh, Daniel
2015-01-01
Chi-square statistics are commonly used for tests of fit of measurement models. Chi-square is also sensitive to sample size, which is why several approaches to handle large samples in test of fit analysis have been developed. One strategy to handle the sample size problem may be to adjust the sample size in the analysis of fit. An alternative is to adopt a random sample approach. The purpose of this study was to analyze and to compare these two strategies using simulated data. Given an original sample size of 21,000, for reductions of sample sizes down to the order of 5,000 the adjusted sample size function works as good as the random sample approach. In contrast, when applying adjustments to sample sizes of lower order the adjustment function is less effective at approximating the chi-square value for an actual random sample of the relevant size. Hence, the fit is exaggerated and misfit under-estimated using the adjusted sample size function. Although there are big differences in chi-square values between the two approaches at lower sample sizes, the inferences based on the p-values may be the same.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yi; Zhang, Ao; Ma, Jing; Guo, Qiang
2016-12-01
Based on the non-Kolmogorov turbulence model of the stratosphere, a theoretical model for the influence of the angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations on the performance of the bit error rate (BER) is established. A closed form expression of BER is then derived based on this model. Then, considering the combined effect of scintillation, beam wander and AOA fluctuations, the probability density function of the received intensity and the closed form expressions of BER for uplink are derived. Coherent detection of Circle Polarization Shift Keying modulation which is suitable for ground-to-satellite laser communication is employed. For an uplink, the BER performance is emulation analyzed and compared to the condition without taking AOA fluctuations into account. And the variation of BER as a function of AOA fluctuations has also been researched. The influence of intensity scintillation, beam wander and AOA fluctuations on BER has been analyzed based on laser transmit power restrictions.
A New Linearized Crank-Nicolson Mixed Element Scheme for the Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov Equation
Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Hong; He, Siriguleng; Gao, Wei
2013-01-01
We present a new mixed finite element method for solving the extended Fisher-Kolmogorov (EFK) equation. We first decompose the EFK equation as the two second-order equations, then deal with a second-order equation employing finite element method, and handle the other second-order equation using a new mixed finite element method. In the new mixed finite element method, the gradient ∇u belongs to the weaker (L 2(Ω))2 space taking the place of the classical H(div; Ω) space. We prove some a priori bounds for the solution for semidiscrete scheme and derive a fully discrete mixed scheme based on a linearized Crank-Nicolson method. At the same time, we get the optimal a priori error estimates in L 2 and H 1-norm for both the scalar unknown u and the diffusion term w = −Δu and a priori error estimates in (L 2)2-norm for its gradient χ = ∇u for both semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes. PMID:23864831
46 CFR 160.055-7 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sampling, tests, and inspections. 160.055-7 Section 160.055-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... and Child, for Merchant Vessels § 160.055-7 Sampling, tests, and inspections. (a) Production tests and...
46 CFR 160.055-7 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sampling, tests, and inspections. 160.055-7 Section 160.055-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... and Child, for Merchant Vessels § 160.055-7 Sampling, tests, and inspections. (a) Production tests and...
46 CFR 160.002-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sampling, tests, and inspections. 160.002-5 Section 160.002-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-5 Sampling, tests, and inspections. (a) Production tests and...
46 CFR 160.002-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sampling, tests, and inspections. 160.002-5 Section 160.002-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... Type), Models 3 and 5 § 160.002-5 Sampling, tests, and inspections. (a) Production tests and...
Lagerlöf, Jakob H; Bernhardt, Peter
2016-01-01
To develop a general model that utilises a stochastic method to generate a vessel tree based on experimental data, and an associated irregular, macroscopic tumour. These will be used to evaluate two different methods for computing oxygen distribution. A vessel tree structure, and an associated tumour of 127 cm3, were generated, using a stochastic method and Bresenham's line algorithm to develop trees on two different scales and fusing them together. The vessel dimensions were adjusted through convolution and thresholding and each vessel voxel was assigned an oxygen value. Diffusion and consumption were modelled using a Green's function approach together with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The computations were performed using a combined tree method (CTM) and an individual tree method (ITM). Five tumour sub-sections were compared, to evaluate the methods. The oxygen distributions of the same tissue samples, using different methods of computation, were considerably less similar (root mean square deviation, RMSD≈0.02) than the distributions of different samples using CTM (0.001< RMSD<0.01). The deviations of ITM from CTM increase with lower oxygen values, resulting in ITM severely underestimating the level of hypoxia in the tumour. Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) tests showed that millimetre-scale samples may not represent the whole. The stochastic model managed to capture the heterogeneous nature of hypoxic fractions and, even though the simplified computation did not considerably alter the oxygen distribution, it leads to an evident underestimation of tumour hypoxia, and thereby radioresistance. For a trustworthy computation of tumour oxygenation, the interaction between adjacent microvessel trees must not be neglected, why evaluation should be made using high resolution and the CTM, applied to the entire tumour.
Daily self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing.
Sanner, Karin; Wikström, Ingrid; Gustavsson, Inger; Wilander, Erik; Lindberg, Julia Hedlund; Gyllensten, Ulf; Olovsson, Matts
2015-12-01
Self-sampling for HPV as part of primary screening is a well-tolerated method for women not attending organized Pap smear screening and could increase coverage of cervical cancer screening. To investigate if the prevalence of HR-HPV varies from day to day in infected women and if one single sample is reliable for detecting an ongoing infection. This is a prospective cohort study on 12 premenopausal and 13 postmenopausal women performing daily self-sampling for HR-HPV testing. They were all HR-HPV-positive 1-3 months ago. Postmenopausal women were sampled for 28 days and premenopausal women sampled during bleeding-free days in one menstrual cycle. A possible difference in viral load between the estrogen-dominated proliferative phase and the progesterone-dominated secretory phase was analyzed. Consistent results throughout the sampling period were observed for 19 women, with either a daily presence of HPV (14 women) or no HPV at all during the sampling period (5 women). Of 607 samples from 25 women, 596 were consistently positive or negative for HPV during the sampling period and 11 were inconsistent (2%). There was no difference in HPV copy number between the estrogen dominated proliferative or progesterone dominated secretory menstrual cycle phases. The major finding was a high degree of consistency concerning HR-HPV positivity and negativity of HR-HPV in vaginal fluid during a sustained period of daily self-sampling. It does not appear to matter whether the sample is collected in the proliferative or secretory phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A HUPO test sample study reveals common problems in mass spectrometry-based proteomics
Bell, Alexander W.; Deutsch, Eric W.; Au, Catherine E.; Kearney, Robert E.; Beavis, Ron; Sechi, Salvatore; Nilsson, Tommy; Bergeron, John J.M.
2009-01-01
We carried out a test sample study to try to identify errors leading to irreproducibility, including incompleteness of peptide sampling, in LC-MS-based proteomics. We distributed a test sample consisting of an equimolar mix of 20 highly purified recombinant human proteins, to 27 laboratories for identification. Each protein contained one or more unique tryptic peptides of 1250 Da to also test for ion selection and sampling in the mass spectrometer. Of the 27 labs, initially only 7 labs reported all 20 proteins correctly, and only 1 lab reported all the tryptic peptides of 1250 Da. Nevertheless, a subsequent centralized analysis of the raw data revealed that all 20 proteins and most of the 1250 Da peptides had in fact been detected by all 27 labs. The centralized analysis allowed us to determine sources of problems encountered in the study, which include missed identifications (false negatives), environmental contamination, database matching, and curation of protein identifications. Improved search engines and databases are likely to increase the fidelity of mass spectrometry-based proteomics. PMID:19448641
46 CFR 160.005-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sampling, tests, and inspections. 160.005-5 Section 160.005-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... (Jacket Type), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-5 Sampling, tests, and inspections. (a) Production tests and...
46 CFR 160.005-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspections.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sampling, tests, and inspections. 160.005-5 Section 160.005-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... (Jacket Type), Models 52 and 56 § 160.005-5 Sampling, tests, and inspections. (a) Production tests and...
43 CFR 3162.4-2 - Samples, tests, and surveys.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Samples, tests, and surveys. 3162.4-2... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.4-2 Samples, tests, and surveys. (a) During the... tests, run logs, and make other surveys reasonably necessary to determine the presence, quantity, and...
43 CFR 3162.4-2 - Samples, tests, and surveys.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Samples, tests, and surveys. 3162.4-2... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.4-2 Samples, tests, and surveys. (a) During the... tests, run logs, and make other surveys reasonably necessary to determine the presence, quantity, and...
43 CFR 3162.4-2 - Samples, tests, and surveys.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Samples, tests, and surveys. 3162.4-2... for Operating Rights Owners and Operators § 3162.4-2 Samples, tests, and surveys. (a) During the... tests, run logs, and make other surveys reasonably necessary to determine the presence, quantity, and...
Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard
2013-01-01
Purpose: With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. Methods: A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. Results: The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. Conclusions: The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets. PMID:24320426
Mayo, Charles; Conners, Steve; Warren, Christopher; Miller, Robert; Court, Laurence; Popple, Richard
2013-11-01
With emergence of clinical outcomes databases as tools utilized routinely within institutions, comes need for software tools to support automated statistical analysis of these large data sets and intrainstitutional exchange from independent federated databases to support data pooling. In this paper, the authors present a design approach and analysis methodology that addresses both issues. A software application was constructed to automate analysis of patient outcomes data using a wide range of statistical metrics, by combining use of C#.Net and R code. The accuracy and speed of the code was evaluated using benchmark data sets. The approach provides data needed to evaluate combinations of statistical measurements for ability to identify patterns of interest in the data. Through application of the tools to a benchmark data set for dose-response threshold and to SBRT lung data sets, an algorithm was developed that uses receiver operator characteristic curves to identify a threshold value and combines use of contingency tables, Fisher exact tests, Welch t-tests, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to filter the large data set to identify values demonstrating dose-response. Kullback-Leibler divergences were used to provide additional confirmation. The work demonstrates the viability of the design approach and the software tool for analysis of large data sets.
Van Stan, Jarrad H.; Mehta, Daryush D.; Zeitels, Steven M.; Burns, James A.; Barbu, Anca M.; Hillman, Robert E.
2015-01-01
Objectives Clinical management of phonotraumatic vocal fold lesions (nodules, polyps) is based largely on assumptions that abnormalities in habitual levels of sound pressure level (SPL), fundamental frequency (f0), and/or amount of voice use play a major role in lesion development and chronic persistence. This study used ambulatory voice monitoring to evaluate if significant differences in voice use exist between patients with phonotraumatic lesions and normal matched controls. Methods Subjects were 70 adult females: 35 with vocal fold nodules or polyps and 35 age-, sex-, and occupation-matched normal individuals. Weeklong summary statistics of voice use were computed from anterior neck surface acceleration recorded using a smartphone-based ambulatory voice monitor. Results Paired t-tests and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests resulted in no statistically significant differences between patients and matched controls regarding average measures of SPL, f0, vocal dose measures, and voicing/voice rest periods. Paired t-tests comparing f0 variability between the groups resulted in statistically significant differences with moderate effect sizes. Conclusions Individuals with phonotraumatic lesions did not exhibit differences in average ambulatory measures of vocal behavior when compared with matched controls. More refined characterizations of underlying phonatory mechanisms and other potentially contributing causes are warranted to better understand risk factors associated with phonotraumatic lesions. PMID:26024911
Event dependence in U.S. executions
Baumgartner, Frank R.; Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M.
2018-01-01
Since 1976, the United States has seen over 1,400 judicial executions, and these have been highly concentrated in only a few states and counties. The number of executions across counties appears to fit a stretched distribution. These distributions are typically reflective of self-reinforcing processes where the probability of observing an event increases for each previous event. To examine these processes, we employ two-pronged empirical strategy. First, we utilize bootstrapped Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to determine whether the pattern of executions reflect a stretched distribution, and confirm that they do. Second, we test for event-dependence using the Conditional Frailty Model. Our tests estimate the monthly hazard of an execution in a given county, accounting for the number of previous executions, homicides, poverty, and population demographics. Controlling for other factors, we find that the number of prior executions in a county increases the probability of the next execution and accelerates its timing. Once a jurisdiction goes down a given path, the path becomes self-reinforcing, causing the counties to separate out into those never executing (the vast majority of counties) and those which use the punishment frequently. This finding is of great legal and normative concern, and ultimately, may not be consistent with the equal protection clause of the U.S. Constitution. PMID:29293583
Nucleation and growth in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.
1996-10-01
We study statistical properties of the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Johnson-Mehl nucleation-and-growth model in one dimension. We obtain exact results for the gap density as well as the island distribution. When all nucleation events occur simultaneously, we show that the island distribution has discontinuous derivatives on the rays xn(t)=nt, n=1,2,3... . We introduce an accelerated growth mechanism with growth rate increasing linearly with the island size. We solve for the interisland gap density and show that the system reaches complete coverage in a finite time and that the near-critical behavior of the system is robust; i.e., it is insensitive to details such as the nucleation mechanism.
Stipancic, Joshua; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Saunier, Nicolas
2018-06-01
Network screening is a key element in identifying and prioritizing hazardous sites for engineering treatment. Traditional screening methods have used observed crash frequency or severity ranking criteria and statistical modelling approaches, despite the fact that crash-based methods are reactive. Alternatively, surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have become popular, making use of new data sources including video and, more rarely, GPS data. The purpose of this study is to examine vehicle manoeuvres of braking and accelerating extracted from a large quantity of GPS data collected using the smartphones of regular drivers, and to explore their potential as SSMs through correlation with historical collision frequency and severity across different facility types. GPS travel data was collected in Quebec City, Canada in 2014. The sample for this study contained over 4000 drivers and 21,000 trips. Hard braking (HBEs) and accelerating events (HAEs) were extracted and compared to historical crash data using Spearman's correlation coefficient and pairwise Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Both manoeuvres were shown to be positively correlated with crash frequency at the link and intersection levels, though correlations were much stronger when considering intersections. Locations with more braking and accelerating also tend to have more collisions. Concerning severity, higher numbers of vehicle manoeuvres were also related to increased collision severity, though this relationship was not always statistically significant. The inclusion of severity testing, which is an independent dimension of safety, represents a substantial contribution to the existing literature. Future work will focus on developing a network screening model that incorporates these SSMs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A
2017-06-30
Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Confirmatory analysis of field-presumptive GSR test sample using SEM/EDS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toal, Sarah J.; Niemeyer, Wayne D.; Conte, Sean; Montgomery, Daniel D.; Erikson, Gregory S.
2014-09-01
RedXDefense has developed an automated red-light/green-light field presumptive lead test using a sampling pad which can be subsequently processed in a Scanning Electron Microscope for GSR confirmation. The XCAT's sampling card is used to acquire a sample from a suspect's hands on the scene and give investigators an immediate presumptive as to the presence of lead possibly from primer residue. Positive results can be obtained after firing as little as one shot. The same sampling card can then be sent to a crime lab and processed on the SEM for GSR following ASTM E-1588-10 Standard Guide for Gunshot Residue Analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectrometry, in the same manner as the existing tape lifts currently used in the field. Detection of GSR-characteristic particles (fused lead, barium, and antimony) as small as 0.8 microns (0.5 micron resolution) has been achieved using a JEOL JSM-6480LV SEM equipped with an Oxford Instruments INCA EDS system with a 50mm2 SDD detector, 350X magnification, in low-vacuum mode and in high vacuum mode after coating with carbon in a sputter coater. GSR particles remain stable on the sampling pad for a minimum of two months after chemical exposure (long term stability tests are in progress). The presumptive result provided by the XCAT yields immediate actionable intelligence to law enforcement to facilitate their investigation, without compromising the confirmatory test necessary to further support the investigation and legal case.
Wu, Zhichao; Medeiros, Felipe A
2018-03-20
Visual field testing is an important endpoint in glaucoma clinical trials, and the testing paradigm used can have a significant impact on the sample size requirements. To investigate this, this study included 353 eyes of 247 glaucoma patients seen over a 3-year period to extract real-world visual field rates of change and variability estimates to provide sample size estimates from computer simulations. The clinical trial scenario assumed that a new treatment was added to one of two groups that were both under routine clinical care, with various treatment effects examined. Three different visual field testing paradigms were evaluated: a) evenly spaced testing, b) United Kingdom Glaucoma Treatment Study (UKGTS) follow-up scheme, which adds clustered tests at the beginning and end of follow-up in addition to evenly spaced testing, and c) clustered testing paradigm, with clusters of tests at the beginning and end of the trial period and two intermediary visits. The sample size requirements were reduced by 17-19% and 39-40% using the UKGTS and clustered testing paradigms, respectively, when compared to the evenly spaced approach. These findings highlight how the clustered testing paradigm can substantially reduce sample size requirements and improve the feasibility of future glaucoma clinical trials.
On sample size of the kruskal-wallis test with application to a mouse peritoneal cavity study.
Fan, Chunpeng; Zhang, Donghui; Zhang, Cun-Hui
2011-03-01
As the nonparametric generalization of the one-way analysis of variance model, the Kruskal-Wallis test applies when the goal is to test the difference between multiple samples and the underlying population distributions are nonnormal or unknown. Although the Kruskal-Wallis test has been widely used for data analysis, power and sample size methods for this test have been investigated to a much lesser extent. This article proposes new power and sample size calculation methods for the Kruskal-Wallis test based on the pilot study in either a completely nonparametric model or a semiparametric location model. No assumption is made on the shape of the underlying population distributions. Simulation results show that, in terms of sample size calculation for the Kruskal-Wallis test, the proposed methods are more reliable and preferable to some more traditional methods. A mouse peritoneal cavity study is used to demonstrate the application of the methods. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.
Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Shojaei, Saeed; Arab, Mohammad; Foroushani, Abbas Rahimi
2016-04-01
Information systems are "computer systems that collect, store, process, retrieve, show, and provide timely information required in practice, education, management, and research". The purpose of these systems is to support hospital activities in practical, tactical, and strategic levels in order to provide better service to patients. This study aimed to evaluate the communication and information system (MCI) in public hospitals in Sabzevar city in 2014 from the perspective of human resources according to international standards of the Joint Commission Accreditation Hospital (JCAH). This study was a practical, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of Sabzevar nurses who used hospital information system. Sampling was done by classification method and in proportion to the number of nurses in each health care units in hospitals in 2014. The sample size was 200 and after referring to hospitals, 200 questionnaires were completed. Sample size was calculated by the formula n=Z(2)P (1-P)/d(2) with P=0.5, α=0.05, d=0.05, and Z=1.96. Data collection tool was the questionnaire of assessment of hospital information systems of JCAH, which has 124 specific questions, including 6 areas. To assess the effect of demographic variables with MCI standards of two questionnaires (feasibility and implementation), the following steps were taken. 1. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to determine whether responses were normal or not. 2. In case of normal data, t-test was used for dual groups and one-way ANOVA test for groups of three or more. 3. If not normal, Mann-Whitney test was used for dual groups and Kruskal-Wallis test for groups of three or more. Research findings show the mean results of feasibility and implementation of all 6 areas of international standards MCI have feasibility in three hospitals in Sabzevar in 20 sections (H1=105.01±10.468), (H1=196.31±4.662), (H2=104.26±9.099), (H2=195.33±3.778) (H3=106.48±11.545) and (H3=197.57±4
Valizadeh, Sousan; Feizalahzadeh, Hossein; Avari, Mina; Virani, Faza
2016-07-01
Medication errors are risk factors for patients' health and may have irrecoverable effects. These errors include medication miscalculations by nurses and nursing students. This study aimed to design a multimedia application in the field of education for drug calculations in order to compare its effectiveness with the lecture method. This study selected 82 nursing students of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences in their second and third semesters in 2015. They were pre-tested by a researcher-made multiple-choice questionnaire on their knowledge of drug administration principles and ability to carry out medicinal calculations before training and were then divided through a random block design into two groups of intervention (education with designed software) and control (lecturing) based on the mean grade of previous semesters and the pre-test score. The knowledge and ability post-test was performed using the same questions after 4 weeks of training, and the data were analyzed with IBM SPSS 20 using independent samples t-test, paired-samples t-test, and ANCOVA. Drug calculation ability significantly increased after training in both the control and experimental groups (p<0.05). However, no significant difference emerged between the two groups in terms of medicinal calculation ability after training (p>0.05). The results showed that both training methods had no significant effect on study participants' knowledge of medicinal principles (p>0.05), whereas the score of knowledge of medicinal principles in the control group increased non-significantly. The results of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test show that, since p>0.05, the data in the variable of knowledge of drug prescription principles and ability of medicinal calculations had a normal distribution. The use of educational software has no significant effect on nursing students' drug knowledge or medicinal calculation ability. However, an e-learning program can reduce the lecture time and cost of repeated topics, such as
49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a... other than the unauthorized use of a prohibited drug, and if timely additional testing is requested by... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retention of samples and additional testing. 199...
49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a... other than the unauthorized use of a prohibited drug, and if timely additional testing is requested by... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retention of samples and additional testing. 199...
49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a... other than the unauthorized use of a prohibited drug, and if timely additional testing is requested by... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retention of samples and additional testing. 199...
49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a... other than the unauthorized use of a prohibited drug, and if timely additional testing is requested by... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retention of samples and additional testing. 199...
49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a... other than the unauthorized use of a prohibited drug, and if timely additional testing is requested by... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retention of samples and additional testing. 199...
Do physical maturity and birth date predict talent in male youth ice hockey players?
Sherar, Lauren B; Baxter-Jones, Adam D G; Faulkner, Robert A; Russell, Keith W
2007-06-01
The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among biological maturity, physical size, relative age (i.e. birth date), and selection into a male Canadian provincial age-banded ice hockey team. In 2003, 619 male ice hockey players aged 14-15 years attended Saskatchewan provincial team selection camps, 281 of whom participated in the present study. Data from 93 age-matched controls were obtained from the Saskatchewan Pediatric Bone Mineral Accrual Study (1991-1997). During the initial selection camps, birth dates, heights, sitting heights, and body masses were recorded. Age at peak height velocity, an indicator of biological maturity, was determined in the controls and predicted in the ice hockey players. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance, logistic regression, and a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. The ice hockey players selected for the final team were taller, heavier, and more mature (P < 0.05) than both the unselected players and the age-matched controls. Furthermore, age at peak height velocity predicted (P < 0.05) being selected at the first and second selection camps. The birth dates of those players selected for the team were positively skewed, with the majority of those selected being born in the months January to June. In conclusion, team selectors appear to preferentially select early maturing male ice hockey players who have birth dates early in the selection year.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhatta, H.; Goldys, E. M.; Ma, J.
2006-02-01
We characterised populations of wild type baking and brewing yeast cells using intrinsic fluorescence and fluorescence lifetime microscopy, in order to obtain quantitative identifiers of different strains. The cell autofluorescence was excited at 405 nm and observed within 440-540 nm range where strong cell to cell variability was observed. The images were analyzed using customised public domain software, which provided information on cell size, intensity and texture-related features. In light of significant diversity of the data, statistical methods were utilized to assess the validity of the proposed quantitative identifiers for strain differentiation. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to confirm that empirical distribution functions for size, intensity and entropy for different strains were statistically different. These characteristics were followed with culture age of 24, 48 and 72 h, (the latter corresponding to a stationary growth phase) and size, and to some extent entropy, were found to be independent of age. The fluorescence intensity presented a distinctive evolution with age, different for each of the examined strains. The lifetime analysis revealed a short decay time component of 1.4 ns and a second, longer one with the average value of 3.5 ns and a broad distribution. High variability of lifetime values within cells was observed however a lifetime texture feature in the studied strains was statistically different.
Effect of Home Bleaching on the Translucency of CAD/CAM Systems.
Karci, Muhammet; Demir, Necla
2017-11-10
To evaluate the effect of a home bleaching agent (Opalescence PF) on the translucency of CAD/CAM ceramic systems. The 28 sintered ceramic specimens (IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD; 15 mm long, 10 mm wide, 1 mm thick) were divided into two subgroups as control and bleaching groups (n = 7). Carbamide peroxide (CP), 16%, home bleaching agent was applied onto the surface of each specimen for 6 hours per day for 7 days. A spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade Advance) was used to measure the CIE L * a * b * coordinates and the reflectance value (Y) of the specimens on white and black backgrounds. The translucency parameter (TP), contrast ratio (CR), and opalescence parameter (OP) of the specimens were calculated. The data were statistically analyzed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation. Statistically significant differences in the TP values after 16% CP bleaching treatment were observed (p ˂ 0.05); however, no significant differences were found in the OP and CR values after the surface treatment (p ˃ 0.05). According to our study, patients who have all-ceramic restorations in their mouths should be careful when using home bleaching agents, because whitening agents can affect the translucency of all-ceramic restorations such as e.max CAD and Empress CAD. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Does video gaming affect orthopaedic skills acquisition? A prospective cohort-study.
Khatri, Chetan; Sugand, Kapil; Anjum, Sharika; Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Akhtar, Kash; Gupte, Chinmay
2014-01-01
Previous studies have suggested that there is a positive correlation between the extent of video gaming and efficiency of surgical skill acquisition on laparoscopic and endovascular surgical simulators amongst trainees. However, the link between video gaming and orthopaedic trauma simulation remains unexamined, in particular dynamic hip screw (DHS) stimulation. To assess effect of prior video gaming experience on virtual-reality (VR) haptic-enabled DHS simulator performance. 38 medical students, naïve to VR surgical simulation, were recruited and stratified relative to their video gaming exposure. Group 1 (n = 19, video-gamers) were defined as those who play more than one hour per day in the last calendar year. Group 2 (n = 19, non-gamers) were defined as those who play video games less than one hour per calendar year. Both cohorts performed five attempts on completing a VR DHS procedure and repeated the task after a week. Metrics assessed included time taken for task, simulated flouroscopy time and screw position. Median and Bonett-Price 95% confidence intervals were calculated for seven real-time objective performance metrics. Data was confirmed as non-parametric by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent data whilst the Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for paired data. A result was deemed significant when a two-tailed p-value was less than 0.05. All 38 subjects completed the study. The groups were not significantly different at baseline. After ten attempts, there was no difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in any of the metrics tested. These included time taken for task, simulated fluoroscopy time, number of retries, tip-apex distance, percentage cut-out and global score. Contrary to previous literature findings, there was no correlation between video gaming experience and gaining competency on a VR DHS simulator.
Libby, Hugo L.; Hildebrand, Bernard P.
1978-01-01
An eddy current testing device for measuring variable characteristics of a sample generates a signal which varies with variations in such characteristics. A signal expander samples at least a portion of this generated signal and expands the sampled signal on a selected basis of square waves or Walsh functions to produce a plurality of signal components representative of the sampled signal. A network combines these components to provide a display of at least one of the characteristics of the sample.
Vaccaro, G; Pelaez, J I; Gil, J A
2016-07-01
Objective masticatory performance assessment using two-coloured specimens relies on image processing techniques; however, just a few approaches have been tested and no comparative studies are reported. The aim of this study was to present a selection procedure of the optimal image analysis method for masticatory performance assessment with a given two-coloured chewing gum. Dentate participants (n = 250; 25 ± 6·3 years) chewed red-white chewing gums for 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 25 cycles (2000 samples). Digitalised images of retrieved specimens were analysed using 122 image processing methods (IPMs) based on feature extraction algorithms (pixel values and histogram analysis). All IPMs were tested following the criteria of: normality of measurements (Kolmogorov-Smirnov), ability to detect differences among mixing states (anova corrected with post hoc Bonferroni) and moderate-to-high correlation with the number of cycles (Spearman's Rho). The optimal IPM was chosen using multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA). Measurements provided by all IPMs proved to be normally distributed (P < 0·05), 116 proved sensible to mixing states (P < 0·05), and 35 showed moderate-to-high correlation with the number of cycles (|ρ| > 0·5; P < 0·05). The variance of the histogram of the Hue showed the highest correlation with the number of cycles (ρ = 0·792; P < 0·0001) and the highest MCDA score (optimal). The proposed procedure proved to be reliable and able to select the optimal approach among multiple IPMs. This experiment may be reproduced to identify the optimal approach for each case of locally available test foods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Megger, Dominik A; Padden, Juliet; Rosowski, Kristin; Uszkoreit, Julian; Bracht, Thilo; Eisenacher, Martin; Gerges, Christian; Neuhaus, Horst; Schumacher, Brigitte; Schlaak, Jörg F; Sitek, Barbara
2017-02-10
The proteome analysis of bile fluid represents a promising strategy to identify biomarker candidates for various diseases of the hepatobiliary system. However, to obtain substantive results in biomarker discovery studies large patient cohorts necessarily need to be analyzed. Consequently, this would lead to an unmanageable number of samples to be analyzed if sample preparation protocols with extensive fractionation methods are applied. Hence, the performance of simple workflows allowing for "one sample, one shot" experiments have been evaluated in this study. In detail, sixteen different protocols implying modifications at the stages of desalting, delipidation, deglycosylation and tryptic digestion have been examined. Each method has been individually evaluated regarding various performance criteria and comparative analyses have been conducted to uncover possible complementarities. Here, the best performance in terms of proteome coverage has been assessed for a combination of acetone precipitation with in-gel digestion. Finally, a mapping of all obtained protein identifications with putative biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cholangiocellular carcinoma (CCC) revealed several proteins easily detectable in bile fluid. These results can build the basis for future studies with large and well-defined patient cohorts in a more disease-related context. Human bile fluid is a proximal body fluid and supposed to be a potential source of disease markers. However, due to its biochemical composition, the proteome analysis of bile fluid still represents a challenging task and is therefore mostly conducted using extensive fractionation procedures. This in turn leads to a high number of mass spectrometric measurements for one biological sample. Considering the fact that in order to overcome the biological variability a high number of biological samples needs to be analyzed in biomarker discovery studies, this leads to the dilemma of an unmanageable number of
Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.
1980-01-01
Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xiaofei; Zhang, Qiuwen
2016-11-01
Studies have considered the many factors involved in the mechanism of reservoir seismicity. Focusing on the correlation between reservoir-induced seismicity and the water level, this study proposes to utilize copula theory to build a correlation model to analyze their relationships and perform the risk analysis. The sequences of reservoir induced seismicity events from 2003 to 2011 in the Three Gorges reservoir in China are used as a case study to test this new methodology. Next, we construct four correlation models based on the Gumbel, Clayton, Frank copula and M-copula functions and employ four methods to test the goodness of fit: Q-Q plots, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, the minimum distance (MD) test and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) test. Through a comparison of the four models, the M-copula model fits the sample better than the other three models. Based on the M-copula model, we find that, for the case of a sudden drawdown of the water level, the possibility of seismic frequency decreasing obviously increases, whereas for the case of a sudden rising of the water level, the possibility of seismic frequency increasing obviously increases, with the former being greater than the latter. The seismic frequency is mainly distributed in the low-frequency region (Y ⩽ 20) for the low water level and in the middle-frequency region (20 < Y ≤ 80) for both the medium and high water levels; the seismic frequency in the high-frequency region (Y > 80) is the least likely. For the conditional return period, it can be seen that the period of the high-frequency seismicity is much longer than those of the normal and medium frequency seismicity, and the high water level shortens the periods.
Color change of CAD-CAM materials and composite resin cements after thermocycling.
Gürdal, Isil; Atay, Ayse; Eichberger, Marlis; Cal, Ebru; Üsümez, Aslihan; Stawarczyk, Bogna
2018-04-24
The color of resin cements and computer-aided-design and computer-aided-manufacturing (CAD-CAM) restorations may change with aging. The purpose of this in vitro study was to analyze the influence of thermocycling on the color of CAD-CAM materials with underlying resin cement. Seven different CAD-CAM materials, composite resins and glass-ceramics were cut into 0.7-mm and 1.2-mm thicknesses (n=10) and cemented with a dual-polymerizing resin cement, a light-polymerizing resin cement, and a preheated composite resin (N=420). Color values were measured by using spectrophotometry. Specimens were subjected to thermocycling (5°C and 55°C; 5000 cycles). The measured color difference (ΔE) data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics. Normality of data distribution was tested by using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Three-way and 1-way ANOVA followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test and unpaired 2-sample Student t test were computed to determine the significant differences among the tested parameters (α=.05). ΔE values were significantly influenced by the CAD-CAM material (η p 2 =0.85, P<.001) and the resin composite cement (η P 2 =0.03, P=.003) but were not influenced by thickness (P=.179). Significant interactions were present among thickness, cement, and CAD-CAM materials (P<.001). Vita Suprinity and GC Cerasmart showed significantly the lowest ΔE values (P<.001). The highest ΔE values were observed for IPS Empress CAD. The dual-polymerizing resin cement showed significantly lower ΔE values than the preheated composite resin (P=.003). Restoration materials and composite resin cement types used for cementation influence the amount of color change due to aging. Copyright © 2018 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mathematics Library of Test Items. Volume One.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fraser, Graham, Ed.
As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from previous tests are made available to teachers for the construction of pretests or posttests, reference tests for inter-class comparisons and general assignments. The collection was reviewed for content…
Pataky, Todd C; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A
2015-05-01
Biomechanical processes are often manifested as one-dimensional (1D) trajectories. It has been shown that 1D confidence intervals (CIs) are biased when based on 0D statistical procedures, and the non-parametric 1D bootstrap CI has emerged in the Biomechanics literature as a viable solution. The primary purpose of this paper was to clarify that, for 1D biomechanics datasets, the distinction between 0D and 1D methods is much more important than the distinction between parametric and non-parametric procedures. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate that a parametric equivalent to the 1D bootstrap exists in the form of a random field theory (RFT) correction for multiple comparisons. To emphasize these points we analyzed six datasets consisting of force and kinematic trajectories in one-sample, paired, two-sample and regression designs. Results showed, first, that the 1D bootstrap and other 1D non-parametric CIs were qualitatively identical to RFT CIs, and all were very different from 0D CIs. Second, 1D parametric and 1D non-parametric hypothesis testing results were qualitatively identical for all six datasets. Last, we highlight the limitations of 1D CIs by demonstrating that they are complex, design-dependent, and thus non-generalizable. These results suggest that (i) analyses of 1D data based on 0D models of randomness are generally biased unless one explicitly identifies 0D variables before the experiment, and (ii) parametric and non-parametric 1D hypothesis testing provide an unambiguous framework for analysis when one׳s hypothesis explicitly or implicitly pertains to whole 1D trajectories. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Solanki, Archana; Singh, Abhay; Chaudhary, Rajendra
2016-01-01
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for screening blood donors for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) can sometimes fail to detect blood donors who are recently infected or possessing the low strength of pathogen. Estimation of a grey zone in ELISA testing and repeat testing of grey zone samples can further help in reducing the risks of TTI in countries where nucleic acid amplification testing for TTIs is not feasible. Grey zone samples with optical density (OD) lying between cut-off OD and 10% below the cut-off OD (cut-off OD × 0.9) were identified during routine ELISA testing. On performing repeat ELISA testing on grey zone samples in duplicate, the samples showing both OD value below grey zone were marked nonreactive, and samples showing one or both OD value in the grey zone were marked indeterminate. The samples on repeat testing showing one or both OD above cut-off value were marked positive. About 119 samples (77 for hepatitis B virus [HBV], 23 for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and 19 for hepatitis C virus [HCV]) were found to be in grey zone. On repeat testing of these samples in duplicate, 70 (58.8%) samples (45 for HBV, 12 for HIV, and 13 for HCV) were found to be reactive. Six (5%) samples (four for HBV, one for HIV, and one for HCV) were found to be indeterminate. Seventy donors initially screened negative, were found out to be potentially infectious on repeat grey zone testing. Thus, estimation of grey zone samples with repeat testing can further enhance the safety of blood transfusion.
A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.
Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan
2011-08-01
In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.
Commerce Library of Test Items. Volume One.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Meeve, Brian, Ed.
As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…
Geography Library of Test Items. Volume One.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kouimanos, John, Ed.
As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection was reviewed for content validity and reliability. The…
Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Metzger, Robert Lawrence
The solubility of inhaled radionuclides in the human lung is an important characteristic of the compounds needed to perform internal dosimetry assessments for exposed workers. A solubility testing method for uranium and several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALSsp°ler ) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of Usb3Osb8. This makes it possible to characterize solubility profiles in every section of operating facilities where airborne nuclides are found using common breathing zone air samples. The new method was evaluated by analyzing uranium compounds from two uranium mills whose product had been previously analyzed by in vitro solubility testing in the laboratory and in vivo solubility testing in rodents. The new technique compared well with the in vivo rodent solubility profiles. The method was then used to evaluate the solubility profiles in all process sections of an operating in situ uranium plant using breathing zone and area air samples collected during routine
Arbyn, Marc; Verdoodt, Freija; Snijders, Peter J F; Verhoef, Viola M J; Suonio, Eero; Dillner, Lena; Minozzi, Silvia; Bellisario, Cristina; Banzi, Rita; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Hillemanns, Peter; Anttila, Ahti
2014-02-01
Screening for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is more effective in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer than screening using Pap smears. Moreover, HPV testing can be done on a vaginal sample self-taken by a woman, which offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage. However, the clinical accuracy of HPV testing on self-samples is not well-known. We assessed whether HPV testing on self-collected samples is equivalent to HPV testing on samples collected by clinicians. We identified relevant studies through a search of PubMed, Embase, and CENTRAL. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they fulfilled all of the following selection criteria: a cervical cell sample was self-collected by a woman followed by a sample taken by a clinician; a high-risk HPV test was done on the self-sample (index test) and HPV-testing or cytological interpretation was done on the specimen collected by the clinician (comparator tests); and the presence or absence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) or worse was verified by colposcopy and biopsy in all enrolled women or in women with one or more positive tests. The absolute accuracy for finding CIN2 or worse, or CIN grade 3 (CIN3) or worse of the index and comparator tests as well as the relative accuracy of the index versus the comparator tests were pooled using bivariate normal models and random effect models. We included data from 36 studies, which altogether enrolled 154 556 women. The absolute accuracy varied by clinical setting. In the context of screening, HPV testing on self-samples detected, on average, 76% (95% CI 69-82) of CIN2 or worse and 84% (72-92) of CIN3 or worse. The pooled absolute specificity to exclude CIN2 or worse was 86% (83-89) and 87% (84-90) to exclude CIN3 or worse. The variation of the relative accuracy of HPV testing on self-samples compared with tests on clinician-taken samples was low across settings, enabling pooling of the relative accuracy over all studies. The pooled
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ermann, Leonardo; Vergini, Eduardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.
2017-08-01
We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a Sinai-oscillator trap under a monochromatic driving force. Such a trap is formed by a harmonic potential and a repulsive disk located in the center vicinity corresponding to the first experiments of condensate formation by Ketterle and co-workers in 1995. We allow that the external driving allows us to model the regime of weak wave turbulence with the Kolmogorov energy flow from low to high energies. We show that in a certain regime of weak driving and weak nonlinearity such a turbulent energy flow is defeated by the Anderson localization that leads to localization of energy on low energy modes. This is in a drastic contrast to the random phase approximation leading to energy flow to high modes. A critical threshold is determined above which the turbulent flow to high energies becomes possible. We argue that this phenomenon can be studied with ultracold atoms in magneto-optical traps.
Ermann, Leonardo; Vergini, Eduardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L
2017-08-04
We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a Sinai-oscillator trap under a monochromatic driving force. Such a trap is formed by a harmonic potential and a repulsive disk located in the center vicinity corresponding to the first experiments of condensate formation by Ketterle and co-workers in 1995. We allow that the external driving allows us to model the regime of weak wave turbulence with the Kolmogorov energy flow from low to high energies. We show that in a certain regime of weak driving and weak nonlinearity such a turbulent energy flow is defeated by the Anderson localization that leads to localization of energy on low energy modes. This is in a drastic contrast to the random phase approximation leading to energy flow to high modes. A critical threshold is determined above which the turbulent flow to high energies becomes possible. We argue that this phenomenon can be studied with ultracold atoms in magneto-optical traps.
Antypas, Konstantinos; Wangberg, Silje C
2014-03-11
(Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=0.823, P=.38, r=.17). At 3 months after discharge, the tailored intervention group (n=7) had a significantly higher median level of overall physical activity (median 5613.0, IQR 2828.0) than the control group (n=12, median 1356.0, IQR 2937.0; Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z=1.397, P=.02, r=.33). The median adherence was 45.0 (95% CI 0.0-169.8) days for the tailored group and 111.0 (95% CI 45.1-176.9) days for the control group; however, the difference was not significant (P=.39). There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in stage of change, self-efficacy, social support, perceived tailoring, anxiety, or depression. Because of the small sample size and the high attrition rate at the follow-up visits, we cannot make conclusions regarding the efficacy of our approach, but the results indicate that the tailored version of the intervention may have contributed to the long-term higher physical activity maintained after cardiac rehabilitation by participants receiving the tailored intervention compared with those receiving the nontailored intervention. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01223170; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01223170 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6Nch4ldcL).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte Queirós, Sílvio M.
2012-07-01
We discuss the modification of the Kapteyn multiplicative process using the q-product of Borges [E.P. Borges, A possible deformed algebra and calculus inspired in nonextensive thermostatistics, Physica A 340 (2004) 95]. Depending on the value of the index q a generalisation of the log-Normal distribution is yielded. Namely, the distribution increases the tail for small (when q<1) or large (when q>1) values of the variable upon analysis. The usual log-Normal distribution is retrieved when q=1, which corresponds to the traditional Kapteyn multiplicative process. The main statistical features of this distribution as well as related random number generators and tables of quantiles of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance are presented. Finally, we illustrate the validity of this scenario by describing a set of variables of biological and financial origin.
46 CFR 161.006-5 - Sampling, inspections and tests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sampling, inspections and tests. 161.006-5 Section 161.006-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... Vessels § 161.006-5 Sampling, inspections and tests. (a) General. Motor lifeboat searchlights specified by...
46 CFR 161.006-5 - Sampling, inspections and tests.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sampling, inspections and tests. 161.006-5 Section 161.006-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND... Vessels § 161.006-5 Sampling, inspections and tests. (a) General. Motor lifeboat searchlights specified by...
7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...
7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...
7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...
7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...
7 CFR 29.426 - Collection of pesticide test samples.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of pesticide test samples. 29.426 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Miscellaneous § 29.426 Collection of pesticide test samples. Any lot of tobacco not certified by the importer as being free of prohibited pesticide residues...
Huang, Hung-Chung; Jupiter, Daniel; VanBuren, Vincent
2010-01-01
Background Identification of genes with switch-like properties will facilitate discovery of regulatory mechanisms that underlie these properties, and will provide knowledge for the appropriate application of Boolean networks in gene regulatory models. As switch-like behavior is likely associated with tissue-specific expression, these gene products are expected to be plausible candidates as tissue-specific biomarkers. Methodology/Principal Findings In a systematic classification of genes and search for biomarkers, gene expression profiles (GEPs) of more than 16,000 genes from 2,145 mouse array samples were analyzed. Four distribution metrics (mean, standard deviation, kurtosis and skewness) were used to classify GEPs into four categories: predominantly-off, predominantly-on, graded (rheostatic), and switch-like genes. The arrays under study were also grouped and examined by tissue type. For example, arrays were categorized as ‘brain group’ and ‘non-brain group’; the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and Pearson correlation coefficient were then used to compare GEPs between brain and non-brain for each gene. We were thus able to identify tissue-specific biomarker candidate genes. Conclusions/Significance The methodology employed here may be used to facilitate disease-specific biomarker discovery. PMID:20140228
Rutten, Geert M; Harting, Janneke; Bartholomew, L Kay; Schlief, Angelique; Oostendorp, Rob A B; de Vries, Nanne K
2013-05-25
Guideline adherence in physical therapy is far from optimal, which has consequences for the effectiveness and efficiency of physical therapy care. Programmes to enhance guideline adherence have, so far, been relatively ineffective. We systematically developed a theory-based Quality Improvement in Physical Therapy (QUIP) programme aimed at the individual performance level (practicing physiotherapists; PTs) and the practice organization level (practice quality manager; PQM). The aim of the study was to pilot test the multilevel QUIP programme's effectiveness and the fidelity, acceptability and feasibility of its implementation. A one-group, pre-test, post-test pilot study (N = 8 practices; N = 32 PTs, 8 of whom were also PQMs) done between September and December 2009. Guideline adherence was measured using clinical vignettes that addressed 12 quality indicators reflecting the guidelines' main recommendations. Determinants of adherence were measured using quantitative methods (questionnaires). Delivery of the programme and management changes were assessed using qualitative methods (observations, group interviews, and document analyses). Changes in adherence and determinants were tested in the paired samples T-tests and expressed in effect sizes (Cohen's d). Overall adherence did not change (3.1%; p = .138). Adherence to three quality indicators improved (8%, 24%, 43%; .000 ≤ p ≤ .023). Adherence to one quality indicator decreased (-15.7%; p = .004). Scores on various determinants of individual performance improved and favourable changes at practice organizational level were observed. Improvements were associated with the programme's multilevel approach, collective goal setting, and the application of self-regulation; unfavourable findings with programme deficits. The one-group pre-test post-test design limits the internal validity of the study, the self-selected sample its external validity. The QUIP programme has the potential to change physical
2013-01-01
Background Guideline adherence in physical therapy is far from optimal, which has consequences for the effectiveness and efficiency of physical therapy care. Programmes to enhance guideline adherence have, so far, been relatively ineffective. We systematically developed a theory-based Quality Improvement in Physical Therapy (QUIP) programme aimed at the individual performance level (practicing physiotherapists; PTs) and the practice organization level (practice quality manager; PQM). The aim of the study was to pilot test the multilevel QUIP programme’s effectiveness and the fidelity, acceptability and feasibility of its implementation. Methods A one-group, pre-test, post-test pilot study (N = 8 practices; N = 32 PTs, 8 of whom were also PQMs) done between September and December 2009. Guideline adherence was measured using clinical vignettes that addressed 12 quality indicators reflecting the guidelines’ main recommendations. Determinants of adherence were measured using quantitative methods (questionnaires). Delivery of the programme and management changes were assessed using qualitative methods (observations, group interviews, and document analyses). Changes in adherence and determinants were tested in the paired samples T-tests and expressed in effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Overall adherence did not change (3.1%; p = .138). Adherence to three quality indicators improved (8%, 24%, 43%; .000 ≤ p ≤ .023). Adherence to one quality indicator decreased (−15.7%; p = .004). Scores on various determinants of individual performance improved and favourable changes at practice organizational level were observed. Improvements were associated with the programme’s multilevel approach, collective goal setting, and the application of self-regulation; unfavourable findings with programme deficits. The one-group pre-test post-test design limits the internal validity of the study, the self-selected sample its external validity. Conclusions The QUIP
Can more than one incremental cycling test be performed within one day?
Scharhag-Rosenberger, Friederike; Carlsohn, Anja; Lundby, Carsten; Schüler, Stefan; Mayer, Frank; Scharhag, Jürgen
2014-01-01
Changes in performance parameters over four consecutive maximal incremental cycling tests were investigated to determine how many tests can be performed within one single day without negatively affecting performance. Sixteen male and female subjects (eight trained (T): 25 ± 3 yr, BMI 22.6 ± 2.5 kg·m(-2), maximal power output (P(max)) 4.6 ± 0.5 W·kg(-1); eight untrained (UT): 27 ± 3 yr, BMI 22.3 ± 1.2 kg·m(-2), P(max) 2.9 ± 0.3 W·kg(-1)) performed four successive maximal incremental cycling tests separated by 1.5 h of passive rest. Individual energy requirements were covered by standardised meals between trials. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) remained unchanged over the four tests in both groups (P = 0.20 and P = 0.33, respectively). P(max) did not change in the T group (P = 0.32), but decreased from the third test in the UT group (P < 0.01). Heart rate responses to submaximal exercise were elevated from the third test in the T group and from the second test in the UT group (P < 0.05). The increase in blood lactate shifted rightward over the four tests in both groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively). Exercise-induced net increases in epinephrine and norepinephrine were not different between the tests in either group (P ≥ 0.15). If VO(2max) is the main parameter of interest, trained and untrained individuals can perform at least four maximal incremental cycling tests per day. However, because other parameters changed after the first and second test, respectively, no more than one test per day should be performed if parameters other than VO(2max) are the prime focus.
Comparative analysis through probability distributions of a data set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cristea, Gabriel; Constantinescu, Dan Mihai
2018-02-01
In practice, probability distributions are applied in such diverse fields as risk analysis, reliability engineering, chemical engineering, hydrology, image processing, physics, market research, business and economic research, customer support, medicine, sociology, demography etc. This article highlights important aspects of fitting probability distributions to data and applying the analysis results to make informed decisions. There are a number of statistical methods available which can help us to select the best fitting model. Some of the graphs display both input data and fitted distributions at the same time, as probability density and cumulative distribution. The goodness of fit tests can be used to determine whether a certain distribution is a good fit. The main used idea is to measure the "distance" between the data and the tested distribution, and compare that distance to some threshold values. Calculating the goodness of fit statistics also enables us to order the fitted distributions accordingly to how good they fit to data. This particular feature is very helpful for comparing the fitted models. The paper presents a comparison of most commonly used goodness of fit tests as: Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, and Chi-Squared. A large set of data is analyzed and conclusions are drawn by visualizing the data, comparing multiple fitted distributions and selecting the best model. These graphs should be viewed as an addition to the goodness of fit tests.
Application of survival analysis methodology to the quantitative analysis of LC-MS proteomics data.
Tekwe, Carmen D; Carroll, Raymond J; Dabney, Alan R
2012-08-01
Protein abundance in quantitative proteomics is often based on observed spectral features derived from liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) or LC-MS/MS experiments. Peak intensities are largely non-normal in distribution. Furthermore, LC-MS-based proteomics data frequently have large proportions of missing peak intensities due to censoring mechanisms on low-abundance spectral features. Recognizing that the observed peak intensities detected with the LC-MS method are all positive, skewed and often left-censored, we propose using survival methodology to carry out differential expression analysis of proteins. Various standard statistical techniques including non-parametric tests such as the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney rank sum tests, and the parametric survival model and accelerated failure time-model with log-normal, log-logistic and Weibull distributions were used to detect any differentially expressed proteins. The statistical operating characteristics of each method are explored using both real and simulated datasets. Survival methods generally have greater statistical power than standard differential expression methods when the proportion of missing protein level data is 5% or more. In particular, the AFT models we consider consistently achieve greater statistical power than standard testing procedures, with the discrepancy widening with increasing missingness in the proportions. The testing procedures discussed in this article can all be performed using readily available software such as R. The R codes are provided as supplemental materials. ctekwe@stat.tamu.edu.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, W. P.; Thakur, B.; Kalra, A.; Lamb, K. W.; Fayne, J.; Tootle, G. A.; Lakshmi, V.
2017-12-01
With the recent increase in global mean temperature Western US has undergone significant decline in snowpack which is the primary source of fresh water for the region. Studies suggests the decline in snowpack also being coupled with different El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) phases. The study includes 1 March, 1 April and 1 May Snow Water Equivalent (SWE) data of 56 years period (1961-2016) for the estimation of long term changes. The current study also estimates monthly snow water equivalent (SWE) variations during different ENSO phases. Mann-Kendall test was utilized for trend detection while the step was evaluated with the Pettitt's test. Kolmogorov - Smirnov test was also utilized to evaluate the differences in the SWE data distribution during different ENSO phases. The results indicated both decreasing trends and decreasing shifts in majority of the SWE stations. The decline in SWE varied with the ENSO phases and also varied spatially following the geography of the region. KS tests suggested northern regions of Western US having variations in cumulative distribution function during El Niño and non- El Niño years as compared to other regions suggesting the northern regions being more impacted by ENSO phases. This analysis can bring insights into the spatiotemporal SWE variations and lead to the better reliability on snowpack for water management issues.
One-Year Test-Retest Reliability of the Inventory of Statements about Self-Injury (ISAS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Glenn, Catherine R.; Klonsky, E. David
2011-01-01
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) is a growing public health problem among adolescents and young adults. The Inventory of Statements About Self-Injury (ISAS) is a self-report measure designed to assess NSSI behaviors and functions. The current study examines the one-year test-retest reliability of the ISAS in a sample of young adult self-injurers.…
Singh, Manju; Singh, Shoor Vir; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Stephan, Bjorn John; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Dutta, Manali
2018-04-26
Early rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) bacilli in milk samples is the major challenge since traditional culture method is time consuming and laboratory dependent. We report a simple, sensitive and specific nano-technology based 'Nano-immuno test' capable of detecting viable MAP bacilli in the milk samples within 10 h. Viable MAP bacilli were captured by MAP specific antibody-conjugated magnetic nano-particles using resazurin dye as chromogen. Test was optimized using true culture positive (10-bovine and 12-goats) and true culture negative (16-bovine and 25-goats) raw milk samples. Domestic livestock species in India are endemically infected with MAP. After successful optimization, sensitivity and specificity of the 'nano-immuno test' in goats with respect to milk culture was 91.7% and 96.0%, respectively. Whereas, it was 90.0% (sensitivity) and 92.6% (specificity) with respect to IS900 PCR. In bovine milk samples, sensitivity and specificity of 'nano-immuno test' with respect to milk culture was 90.0% and 93.7%, respectively. However, with respect to IS900 PCR, the sensitivity and specificity was 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. Test was validated with field raw milk samples (goats-258 and bovine-138) collected from domestic livestock species to detect live/viable MAP bacilli. Of 138 bovine raw milk samples screened by six diagnostic tests, 81 (58.7%) milk samples were positive for MAP infection in one or more than one diagnostic tests. Of 81 (58.7%) positive bovine raw milk samples, only 24 (17.4%) samples were detected positive for the presence of viable MAP bacilli. Of 258 goats raw milk samples screened by six diagnostic tests, 141 (54.6%) were positive for MAP infection in one or more than one test. Of 141 (54.6%) positive raw milk samples from goats, only 48 (34.0%) were detected positive for live MAP bacilli. Simplicity and efficiency of this novel 'nano-immuno test' makes it suitable for wide-scale screening of milk
Theodorsson-Norheim, E
1986-08-01
Multiple t tests at a fixed p level are frequently used to analyse biomedical data where analysis of variance followed by multiple comparisons or the adjustment of the p values according to Bonferroni would be more appropriate. The Kruskal-Wallis test is a nonparametric 'analysis of variance' which may be used to compare several independent samples. The present program is written in an elementary subset of BASIC and will perform Kruskal-Wallis test followed by multiple comparisons between the groups on practically any computer programmable in BASIC.
Rachik, Sara; Christaki, Urania; Li, Luen Luen; Genitsaris, Savvas; Breton, Elsa
2018-01-01
The diversity of planktonic eukaryotic microbes was studied at a coastal station of the eastern English Channel (EEC) from March 2011 to July 2015 (77 samples) using high throughput sequencing (454-pyrosequencing and Illumina) of the V2-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S SSU rDNA gene. Similar estimations of OTU relative abundance and taxonomic distribution for the dominant higher taxonomic groups (contributing >1% of the total number of OTUs) were observed with the two methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov p-value = 0.22). Eight super-groups were identified throughout all samples: Alveolata, Stramenopiles, Opisthokonta, Hacrobia, Archeaplastida, Apusozoa, Rhizaria, and Amoebozoa (ordered by decreasing OTU richness). To gain further insight into microbial activity in the EEC, ribosomal RNA was extracted for samples from 2013–2015 (30 samples). Analysis of 18S rDNA and rRNA sequences led to the detection of 696 and 700 OTUs, respectively. Cluster analysis based on OTUs’ abundance indicated three major seasonal groups that were associated to spring, winter/autumn, and summer conditions. The clusters inferred from rRNA data showed a clearer seasonal representation of the community succession than the one based on rDNA. The rRNA/rDNA ratio was used as a proxy for relative cell activity. When all OTUs were considered, the average rRNA:rDNA ratio showed a linear trend around the 1:1 line, suggesting a linear relation between OTU abundance (rDNA) and activity (rRNA). However, this ratio was highly variable over time when considering individual OTUs. Interestingly, the OTU affiliated with P. globosa displayed rRNA:rDNA ratio that allowed to delimit high vs low abundance and high vs low activity periods. It unveiled quite well the Phaeocystis bloom dynamic regarding cell proliferation and activity, and could even be used as early indicator of an upcoming bloom. PMID:29746519
Rachik, Sara; Christaki, Urania; Li, Luen Luen; Genitsaris, Savvas; Breton, Elsa; Monchy, Sébastien
2018-01-01
The diversity of planktonic eukaryotic microbes was studied at a coastal station of the eastern English Channel (EEC) from March 2011 to July 2015 (77 samples) using high throughput sequencing (454-pyrosequencing and Illumina) of the V2-V3 hypervariable region of the 18S SSU rDNA gene. Similar estimations of OTU relative abundance and taxonomic distribution for the dominant higher taxonomic groups (contributing >1% of the total number of OTUs) were observed with the two methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov p-value = 0.22). Eight super-groups were identified throughout all samples: Alveolata, Stramenopiles, Opisthokonta, Hacrobia, Archeaplastida, Apusozoa, Rhizaria, and Amoebozoa (ordered by decreasing OTU richness). To gain further insight into microbial activity in the EEC, ribosomal RNA was extracted for samples from 2013-2015 (30 samples). Analysis of 18S rDNA and rRNA sequences led to the detection of 696 and 700 OTUs, respectively. Cluster analysis based on OTUs' abundance indicated three major seasonal groups that were associated to spring, winter/autumn, and summer conditions. The clusters inferred from rRNA data showed a clearer seasonal representation of the community succession than the one based on rDNA. The rRNA/rDNA ratio was used as a proxy for relative cell activity. When all OTUs were considered, the average rRNA:rDNA ratio showed a linear trend around the 1:1 line, suggesting a linear relation between OTU abundance (rDNA) and activity (rRNA). However, this ratio was highly variable over time when considering individual OTUs. Interestingly, the OTU affiliated with P. globosa displayed rRNA:rDNA ratio that allowed to delimit high vs low abundance and high vs low activity periods. It unveiled quite well the Phaeocystis bloom dynamic regarding cell proliferation and activity, and could even be used as early indicator of an upcoming bloom.
Mower, Timothy E.; Higgins, Jerry D.; Yang, In C.; Peters, Charles A.
1994-01-01
Study of the hydrologic system at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, requires the extraction of pore-water samples from welded and nonwelded, unsaturated tuffs. Two compression methods (triaxial compression and one-dimensional compression) were examined to develop a repeatable extraction technique and to investigate the effects of the extraction method on the original pore-fluid composition. A commercially available triaxial cell was modified to collect pore water expelled from tuff cores. The triaxial cell applied a maximum axial stress of 193 MPa and a maximum confining stress of 68 MPa. Results obtained from triaxial compression testing indicated that pore-water samples could be obtained from nonwelded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 13 percent (by weight of dry soil). Injection of nitrogen gas while the test core was held at the maximum axial stress caused expulsion of additional pore water and reduced the required initial moisture content from 13 to 11 percent. Experimental calculations, together with experience gained from testing moderately welded tuff cores, indicated that the triaxial cell used in this study could not apply adequate axial or confining stress to expel pore water from cores of densely welded tuffs. This concern led to the design, fabrication, and testing of a one-dimensional compression cell. The one-dimensional compression cell used in this study was constructed from hardened 4340-alloy and nickel-alloy steels and could apply a maximum axial stress of 552 MPa. The major components of the device include a corpus ring and sample sleeve to confine the sample, a piston and base platen to apply axial load, and drainage plates to transmit expelled water from the test core out of the cell. One-dimensional compression extracted pore water from nonwelded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 7.6 percent; pore water was expelled from densely welded tuff cores that had initial moisture contents as small as 7
Urine sampling and collection system optimization and testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fogal, G. L.; Geating, J. A.; Koesterer, M. G.
1975-01-01
A Urine Sampling and Collection System (USCS) engineering model was developed to provide for the automatic collection, volume sensing and sampling of urine from each micturition. The purpose of the engineering model was to demonstrate verification of the system concept. The objective of the optimization and testing program was to update the engineering model, to provide additional performance features and to conduct system testing to determine operational problems. Optimization tasks were defined as modifications to minimize system fluid residual and addition of thermoelectric cooling.
Mitchell, J M; McNab, W B; Yee, A J; Griffiths, M W; McEwen, S A; Spilsbury, L; Boison, J O
1998-08-01
The Lactek test, marketed for antimicrobial residue detection in milk, was validated for the detection of antimicrobial residues in tissues. A previous study found that the LacTek test could confidently identify tissue samples spiked with antimicrobial residues. However, the test could not reliably distinguish violative from nonviolative spiked samples relative to Canadian maximum residue limits (MRLs). The objectives of this study were to assess and compare the performance of the LacTek tests for beta-lactams, tetracyclines, gentamicin, and sulfamethazine on samples containing naturally incurred residues by running the test in parallel with the standard microbial inhibition test (MIT) presently used for the routine testing of tissues at our facility and to assess the agreement with high pressure liquid chromatographic (HPLC) determinative methods. Parallel testing with the official MIT found that the Lactek tests could be confidently used for testing tissue samples containing incurred residues. Among 1,008 MIT-positive samples, the LacTek test found that 90% contained beta-lactams and/or tetracyclines. A further 7.3% of violative residues could not be identified to an antimicrobial class. In addition, 9% of samples testing negative on the MIT were found to contain an antimicrobial residue by the LacTek tests. Comparative testing with HPLC methods found that there was very good agreement between the two tests and that most violations were due to penicillin G and oxytetracycline. Although the LacTek test cannot be used to distinguish violative from nonviolative residue levels, it does offer several advantages over the present MIT. These include speed, ease of use, the ability to identify residues to a specific class, and an improved sensitivity at the MRL level for the most commonly found antimicrobials in tissue.
Lower incisor inclination regarding different reference planes.
Zataráin, Brenda; Avila, Josué; Moyaho, Angeles; Carrasco, Rosendo; Velasco, Carmen
2016-09-01
The purpose of this study was to assess the degree of lower incisor inclination with respect to different reference planes. It was an observational, analytical, longitudinal, prospective study conducted on 100 lateral cephalograms which were corrected according to the photograph in natural head position in order to draw the true vertical plane (TVP). The incisor mandibular plane angle (IMPA) was compensated to eliminate the variation of the mandibular plane growth type with the formula "FMApx.- 25 (FMA) + IMPApx. = compensated IMPA (IMPACOM)". As the data followed normal distribution determined by the KolmogorovSmirnov test, parametric tests were used for the statistical analysis, Ttest, ANOVA and Pearson coefficient correlation test. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistical significance of p <0.05. There is correlation between TVP and NB line (NB) (0.8614), Frankfort mandibular incisor angle (FMIA) (0.8894), IMPA (0.6351), Apo line (Apo) (0.609), IMPACOM (0.8895) and McHorris angle (MH) (0.7769). ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the means for the 7 variables with 95% confidence level, P=0.0001. The multiple range test showed no significant difference among means: APoNB (0.88), IMPAMH (0.36), IMPANB (0.65), FMIAIMPACOM (0.01), FMIATVP (0.18), TVPIMPACOM (0.17). There was correlation among all reference planes. There were statistically significant differences among the means of the planes measured, except for IMPACOM, FMIA and TVP. The IMPA differed significantly from the IMPACOM. The compensated IMPA and the FMIA did not differ significantly from the TVP. The true horizontal plane was mismatched with Frankfort plane in 84% of the sample with a range of 19°. The true vertical plane is adequate for measuring lower incisor inclination. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Wyrwas, Richard B.; Lamothe, Margaret E.
2013-05-30
This report describes the results of the electrochemical testing performed on tank 241-SY-102 (SY-102) grab samples that were collected in support of corrosion mitigation. The objective of the work presented here was to determine corrosion resistance of tank SY-102 to the grab samples collected using electrochemical methods up to 50°C as well as to satisfy data quality objectives. Grab samples were collected at multiple elevations from Riser 003. The electrochemical corrosion testing was planned to consist of linear polarization resistance testing (LPR) and cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) testing at 50°C. The temperature would be lowered to 40 °C and themore » test repeated if the CPP curve indicated pitting corrosion at 50°C. Ifno pitting was indicated by the CPP curve, then a duplicate scan would be repeated at 50°C to confirm the first result. The testing would be complete if the duplicate CPP scan was consistent with the first. This report contains the CPP results of the testing of grab sample 2SY-12-03 and 2SY-12-03DUP composite sample tested under these conditions. There was no indication of pitting at 50°C, and the duplicate scan was in agreement with the first scan. Since no further testing was required, a third scan with a shorter rest time was performed and is present in this report.« less
Influence of rotating shift work on visual reaction time and visual evoked potential.
R V, Hemamalini; N, Krishnamurthy; A, Saravanan
2014-10-01
The present day life style is changing the circadian rhythm of the body especially in rotating night shift workers. The impact of this prolongs their reaction time. Night shift also interferes with the circadian variation of pupil size which may affect the visual evoked potential. To compare the visual reaction time, visual evoked potential (VEP) in rotating night shift workers & day workers and also to correlate the changes in visual reaction time with visual evoked potential. Forty healthy male security guards & staff (25 - 35 y) who did rotating night shifts at least for six months & 40 d workers (25 - 35 y) who did not do night shift in last two years were involved in the study. Visual reaction time and the latency & amplitude of VEP were recorded. Kolmogorov- Smirnov test for normalcy showed the latencies & amplitude of VEP to be normally distributed. Student's unpaired t test showed significant difference (p<0.05) in the visual time and in the latencies of VEP between night shift & day workers. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of VEP. Night shift workers who are prone to circadian rhythm alteration will have prolonged visual reaction time & visual evoked potential abnormalities. Implementation of Bright Light Therapy would be beneficial to the night shift worker.
A systematic review and meta-analysis on the incubation period of Campylobacteriosis.
Awofisayo-Okuyelu, A; Hall, I; Adak, G; Hawker, J I; Abbott, S; McCARTHY, N
2017-08-01
Accurate knowledge of pathogen incubation period is essential to inform public health policies and implement interventions that contribute to the reduction of burden of disease. The incubation period distribution of campylobacteriosis is currently unknown with several sources reporting different times. Variation in the distribution could be expected due to host, transmission vehicle, and organism characteristics, however, the extent of this variation and influencing factors are unclear. The authors have undertaken a systematic review of published literature of outbreak studies with well-defined point source exposures and human experimental studies to estimate the distribution of incubation period and also identify and explain the variation in the distribution between studies. We tested for heterogeneity using I 2 and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, regressed incubation period against possible explanatory factors, and used hierarchical clustering analysis to define subgroups of studies without evidence of heterogeneity. The mean incubation period of subgroups ranged from 2·5 to 4·3 days. We observed variation in the distribution of incubation period between studies that was not due to chance. A significant association between the mean incubation period and age distribution was observed with outbreaks involving only children reporting an incubation of 1·29 days longer when compared with outbreaks involving other age groups.
Extracting DNA words based on the sequence features: non-uniform distribution and integrity.
Li, Zhi; Cao, Hongyan; Cui, Yuehua; Zhang, Yanbo
2016-01-25
DNA sequence can be viewed as an unknown language with words as its functional units. Given that most sequence alignment algorithms such as the motif discovery algorithms depend on the quality of background information about sequences, it is necessary to develop an ab initio algorithm for extracting the "words" based only on the DNA sequences. We considered that non-uniform distribution and integrity were two important features of a word, based on which we developed an ab initio algorithm to extract "DNA words" that have potential functional meaning. A Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for consistency test of uniform distribution of DNA sequences, and the integrity was judged by the sequence and position alignment. Two random base sequences were adopted as negative control, and an English book was used as positive control to verify our algorithm. We applied our algorithm to the genomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 10 strains of Escherichia coli to show the utility of the methods. The results provide strong evidences that the algorithm is a promising tool for ab initio building a DNA dictionary. Our method provides a fast way for large scale screening of important DNA elements and offers potential insights into the understanding of a genome.
IceCube events and decaying dark matter: hints and constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Esmaili, Arman; Kang, Sin Kyu; Dario Serpico, Pasquale
2014-12-01
In the light of the new IceCube data on the (yet unidentified) astrophysical neutrino flux in the PeV and sub-PeV range, we present an update on the status of decaying dark matter interpretation of the events. In particular, we develop further the angular distribution analysis and discuss the perspectives for diagnostics. By performing various statistical tests (maximum likelihood, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests) we conclude that currently the data show a mild preference (below the two sigma level) for the angular distribution expected from dark matter decay vs. the isotropic distribution foreseen for a conventional astrophysical flux of extragalactic origin. Also, we briefly develop some general considerations on heavy dark matter model building and on the compatibility of the expected energy spectrum of decay products with the IceCube data, as well as with existing bounds from gamma-rays. Alternatively, assuming that the IceCube data originate from conventional astrophysical sources, we derive bounds on both decaying and annihilating dark matter for various final states. The lower limits on heavy dark matter lifetime improve by up to an order of magnitude with respect to existing constraints, definitively making these events—even if astrophysical in origin—an important tool for astroparticle physics studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nescolarde, L.; Doñate, T.; Casañas, R.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.
2010-04-01
More relevant information of the fluid changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) might be obtained with segmental bioimpedance measurements rather than whole-body measurement, who hidden information of body composition. Whole-body and segmental bioimpedance measurements were obtained using 5 configurations (whole-body or right-side (RS), longitudinal-leg (L-LEG), longitudinal-abdomen (L-AB), transversal-abdomen (T-AB), and transversal-leg (T-LEG)) in 20 patients: 15 males (56.5 ± 9.4 yr, 24.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2) and 5 females (58.4 ± 7.1 yr, 28.2 ± 5.9 kg/m2) in peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between whole-body, longitudinal-segmental (L-LEG and L-AB) and transversal-segmental (TAB and TLEG) bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, with clinical parameters of cardiovascular risk, dyslipidemia, nutrition and hydration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. Longitudinal bioimpedance parameters were normalized by the height of the patients. The Spearman correlation was used to analyze the correlation between bioimpedance and clinical parameters. The statistical significance was considered with P < 0.05. Transversal bioimpedance measurements have higher correlation with clinical parameters than longitudinal measurements.
Rotational properties of the Maria asteroid family
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Kim, M.-J.; Byun, Y.-I.; Choi, Y.-J.
2014-03-01
The Maria family is regarded as an old-type (∼3 ± 1 Gyr) asteroid family that has experienced substantial collisional and dynamical evolution in the main belt. It is located near the 3:1 Jupiter mean-motion resonance area that supplies near-Earth asteroids to the inner solar system. We carried out observations of Maria family asteroids during 134 nights from 2008 July to 2013 May and derived synodic rotational periods for 51 objects, including newly obtained periods of 34 asteroids. We found that there is a significant excess of fast and slow rotators in the observed rotation rate distribution. The one-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov testmore » confirms that the spin rate distribution is not consistent with a Maxwellian at a 92% confidence level. From correlations among rotational periods, amplitudes of light curves, and sizes, we conclude that the rotational properties of Maria family asteroids have been changed considerably by non-gravitational forces such as the YORP effect. Using a light-curve inversion method, we successfully determined the pole orientations for 13 Maria members and found an excess of prograde versus retrograde spins with a ratio (N{sub p} /N{sub r} ) of 3. This implies that the retrograde rotators could have been ejected by the 3:1 resonance into the inner solar system since the formation of the Maria family. We estimate that approximately 37-75 Maria family asteroids larger than 1 km have entered near-Earth space every 100 Myr.« less
Wang, Shao-Ming; Hu, Shang-Ying; Chen, Feng; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Ma, Xin-Ming; Qiao, You-Lin
2014-01-01
To make the clinical evaluation of a solid-state human papillomavirus (HPV) sampling medium in combination with an economical HPV testing method (careHPV™) for cervical cancer screening. 396 women aged 25-65 years were enrolled for cervical cancer screening, and four samples were collected. Two samples were collected by woman themselves, among which one was stored in DCM preservative solution (called "liquid sample") and the other was applied on the Whatman Indicating FTA Elute® card (FTA card). Another two samples were collected by physician and stored in DCM preservative solution and FTA card, respectively. All the samples were detected by careHPV™ test. All the women were administered a colposcopy examination, and biopsies were taken for pathological confirmation if necessary. FTA card demonstrated a comparable sensitivity of detecting high grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) with the liquid sample carrier for self and physician-sampling, but showed a higher specificity than that of liquid sample carrier for self-sampling (FTA vs Liquid: 79.0% vs 71.6%, p=0.02). Generally, the FTA card had a comparable accuracy with that of Liquid-based medium by different sampling operators, with an area under the curve of 0.807 for physician and FTA, 0.781 for physician and Liquid, 0.728 for self and FTA, and 0.733 for self and Liquid (p>0.05). FTA card is a promising sample carrier for cervical cancer screening. With appropriate education programmes and further optimization of the experimental workflow, FTA card based self-collection in combination with centralized careHPV™ testing can help expand the coverage of cervical cancer screening in low-resource areas.
Radon anomalies: When are they possible to be detected?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Passarelli, Luigi; Woith, Heiko; Seyis, Cemil; Nikkhoo, Mehdi; Donner, Reik
2017-04-01
Records of the Radon noble gas in different environments like soil, air, groundwater, rock, caves, and tunnels, typically display cyclic variations including diurnal (S1), semidiurnal (S2) and seasonal components. But there are also cases where theses cycles are absent. Interestingly, radon emission can also be affected by transient processes, which inhibit or enhance the radon carrying process at the surface. This results in transient changes in the radon emission rate, which are superimposed on the low and high frequency cycles. The complexity in the spectral contents of the radon time-series makes any statistical analysis aiming at understanding the physical driving processes a challenging task. In the past decades there have been several attempts to relate changes in radon emission rate with physical triggering processes such as earthquake occurrence. One of the problems in this type of investigation is to objectively detect anomalies in the radon time-series. In the present work, we propose a simple and objective statistical method for detecting changes in the radon emission rate time-series. The method uses non-parametric statistical tests (e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov) to compare empirical distributions of radon emission rate by sequentially applying various time window to the time-series. The statistical test indicates whether two empirical distributions of data originate from the same distribution at a desired significance level. We test the algorithm on synthetic data in order to explore the sensitivity of the statistical test to the sample size. We successively apply the test to six radon emission rate recordings from stations located around the Marmara Sea obtained within the MARsite project (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417). We conclude that the test performs relatively well on identify transient changes in the radon emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, S.; Choudhury, B. U.
2015-07-01
Sagar Island, setting on the continental shelf of Bay of Bengal, is one of the most vulnerable deltas to the occurrence of extreme rainfall-driven climatic hazards. Information on probability of occurrence of maximum daily rainfall will be useful in devising risk management for sustaining rainfed agrarian economy vis-a-vis food and livelihood security. Using six probability distribution models and long-term (1982-2010) daily rainfall data, we studied the probability of occurrence of annual, seasonal and monthly maximum daily rainfall (MDR) in the island. To select the best fit distribution models for annual, seasonal and monthly time series based on maximum rank with minimum value of test statistics, three statistical goodness of fit tests, viz. Kolmogorove-Smirnov test (K-S), Anderson Darling test ( A 2 ) and Chi-Square test ( X 2) were employed. The fourth probability distribution was identified from the highest overall score obtained from the three goodness of fit tests. Results revealed that normal probability distribution was best fitted for annual, post-monsoon and summer seasons MDR, while Lognormal, Weibull and Pearson 5 were best fitted for pre-monsoon, monsoon and winter seasons, respectively. The estimated annual MDR were 50, 69, 86, 106 and 114 mm for return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 25 years, respectively. The probability of getting an annual MDR of >50, >100, >150, >200 and >250 mm were estimated as 99, 85, 40, 12 and 03 % level of exceedance, respectively. The monsoon, summer and winter seasons exhibited comparatively higher probabilities (78 to 85 %) for MDR of >100 mm and moderate probabilities (37 to 46 %) for >150 mm. For different recurrence intervals, the percent probability of MDR varied widely across intra- and inter-annual periods. In the island, rainfall anomaly can pose a climatic threat to the sustainability of agricultural production and thus needs adequate adaptation and mitigation measures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luther, Ed; Mendes, Livia; Pan, Jiayi; Costa, Daniel; Sarisozen, Can; Torchilin, Vladimir
2018-02-01
We rely on in vitro cellular cultures to evaluate the effects of the components of multifunctional nano-based formulations under development. We employ an incubator-adapted, label-free holographic imaging cytometer HoloMonitor M4® (Phase Holographic Imaging, Lund, Sweden) to obtain multi-day time-lapse sequences at 5- minute intervals. An automated stage allows hand-free acquisition of multiple fields of view. Our system is based on the Mach-Zehnder interferometry principle to create interference patterns which are deconvolved to produce images of the optical thickness of the field of view. These images are automatically segmented resulting in a full complement of quantitative morphological features, such as optical volume, thickness, and area amongst many others. Precise XY cell locations and the time of acquisition are also recorded. Visualization is best achieved by novel 4-Dimensional plots, where XY position is plotted overtime time (Z-directions) and cell-thickness is coded as color or gray scale brightness. Fundamental events of interest, i.e., cells undergoing mitosis or mitotic dysfunction, cell death, cell-to-cell interactions, motility are discernable. We use both 2D and 3D models of the tumor microenvironment. We report our new analysis method to track feature changes over time based on a 4-sample version of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Feature A is compared to Control A, and Feature B is compared to Control B to give a 2D probability plot of the feature changes over time. As a result, we efficiently obtain vectors quantifying feature changes over time in various sample conditions, i.e., changing compound concentrations or multi-compound combinations.
Reconstructing merger timelines using star cluster age distributions: the case of MCG+08-11-002
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davies, Rebecca L.; Medling, Anne M.; U, Vivian; Max, Claire E.; Sanders, David; Kewley, Lisa J.
2016-05-01
We present near-infrared imaging and integral field spectroscopy of the centre of the dusty luminous infrared galaxy merger MCG+08-11-002, taken using the Near InfraRed Camera 2 (NIRC2) and the OH-Suppressing InfraRed Imaging Spectrograph (OSIRIS) on Keck II. We achieve a spatial resolution of ˜25 pc in the K band, allowing us to resolve 41 star clusters in the NIRC2 images. We calculate the ages of 22/25 star clusters within the OSIRIS field using the equivalent widths of the CO 2.3 μm absorption feature and the Br γ nebular emission line. The star cluster age distribution has a clear peak at ages ≲ 20 Myr, indicative of current starburst activity associated with the final coalescence of the progenitor galaxies. There is a possible second peak at ˜65 Myr which may be a product of the previous close passage of the galaxy nuclei. We fit single and double starburst models to the star cluster age distribution and use Monte Carlo sampling combined with two-sided Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests to calculate the probability that the observed data are drawn from each of the best-fitting distributions. There is a >90 per cent chance that the data are drawn from either a single or double starburst star formation history, but stochastic sampling prevents us from distinguishing between the two scenarios. Our analysis of MCG+08-11-002 indicates that star cluster age distributions provide valuable insights into the timelines of galaxy interactions and may therefore play an important role in the future development of precise merger stage classification systems.
[The effect of an exercise program to strengthen pelvic floor muscles in multiparous women].
Assis, Thaís Rocha; Sá, Ana Claudia Antonio Maranhão; Amaral, Waldemar Naves do; Batista, Elicéia Marcia; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto; Conde, Délio Marques
2013-01-01
To investigate the effect of an individualized and supervised exercise program for the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) in the postpartum period of multiparous women, and to verify the correlation between two methods used to assess PFM strength. An open clinical trial was performed with puerperal, multiparous women aged 18 to 35 years. The sample consisted of 23 puerperal women divided into two groups: Intervention Group (IG, n=11) and Control Group (CG, n=12). The puerperal women in IG participated in an eight-week PFM exercise program, twice a week. The puerperal women in CG did not receive any recommendations regarding exercise. PFM strength was assessed using digital vaginal palpation and a perineometer. The statistical analysis was performed using the following tests: Fisher's exact, χ(2), Student's t, Kolmogorov-Smirnov for two samples, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Significance was defined as p<0.05. The participants' mean age was 24 ± 4.5 years in IG and 25.3 ± 4 years in CG (p=0.4). After the exercise program, a significant difference was found between the groups in both modalities of muscle strength assessment (p<0.001). The two muscle strength assessment methods showed a significant correlation in both assessments (1(st) assessment: r=0.889, p<0.001; 2(nd) assessment: r=0.925, p<0.001). The exercise program promoted a significant improvement in PFM strength. Good correlation was observed between digital vaginal palpation and a perineometer, which indicates that vaginal palpation can be used in clinical practice, since it is an inexpensive method that demonstrated significant correlation with an objective method, i.e. the use of a perioneometer.
Lopes, E G; Sevá, A P; Ferreira, F; Nunes, C M; Keid, L B; Hiramoto, R M; Ferreira, H L; Oliveira, T M F S; Bigotto, M F D; Galvis-Ovallos, F; Galati, E A B; Soares, R M
2017-09-01
Euthanasia of infected dogs is one of the measures adopted in Brazil to control visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in endemic areas. To detect infected dogs, animals are screened with the rapid test DPP® Visceral Canine Leishmaniasis for detection of antibodies against K26/K39 fusion antigens of amastigotes (DPP). DPP-positives are confirmed with an immunoenzymatic assay probing soluble antigens of promastigotes (ELISA), while DPP-negatives are considered free of infection. Here, 975 dogs from an endemic region were surveyed by using DPP, ELISA and real-time PCR (qPCR) for the diagnosis of VL. When DPP-negative dogs were tested by qPCR applied in blood and lymph node aspirates, 174/887 (19·6%) were positive in at least one sample. In a second sampling using 115 cases, the DPP-negative dogs were tested by qPCR in blood, lymph node and conjunctival swab samples, and 36/79 (45·6%) were positive in at least one sample. Low-to-moderate pairwise agreement was observed between all possible pair of tests. In conclusion, the official diagnosis of VL in dogs in Brazilian endemic areas failed to accuse an expressive number of infected animals and the impact of the low accuracy of serological tests in the success of euthanasia-based measure for VL control need to be assessed.
Bernhardt, Peter
2016-01-01
Purpose To develop a general model that utilises a stochastic method to generate a vessel tree based on experimental data, and an associated irregular, macroscopic tumour. These will be used to evaluate two different methods for computing oxygen distribution. Methods A vessel tree structure, and an associated tumour of 127 cm3, were generated, using a stochastic method and Bresenham’s line algorithm to develop trees on two different scales and fusing them together. The vessel dimensions were adjusted through convolution and thresholding and each vessel voxel was assigned an oxygen value. Diffusion and consumption were modelled using a Green’s function approach together with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The computations were performed using a combined tree method (CTM) and an individual tree method (ITM). Five tumour sub-sections were compared, to evaluate the methods. Results The oxygen distributions of the same tissue samples, using different methods of computation, were considerably less similar (root mean square deviation, RMSD≈0.02) than the distributions of different samples using CTM (0.001< RMSD<0.01). The deviations of ITM from CTM increase with lower oxygen values, resulting in ITM severely underestimating the level of hypoxia in the tumour. Kolmogorov Smirnov (KS) tests showed that millimetre-scale samples may not represent the whole. Conclusions The stochastic model managed to capture the heterogeneous nature of hypoxic fractions and, even though the simplified computation did not considerably alter the oxygen distribution, it leads to an evident underestimation of tumour hypoxia, and thereby radioresistance. For a trustworthy computation of tumour oxygenation, the interaction between adjacent microvessel trees must not be neglected, why evaluation should be made using high resolution and the CTM, applied to the entire tumour. PMID:27861529
Internet cognitive testing of large samples needed in genetic research.
Haworth, Claire M A; Harlaar, Nicole; Kovas, Yulia; Davis, Oliver S P; Oliver, Bonamy R; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E; Frances, Jane; Busfield, Patricia; McMillan, Andrew; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert
2007-08-01
Quantitative and molecular genetic research requires large samples to provide adequate statistical power, but it is expensive to test large samples in person, especially when the participants are widely distributed geographically. Increasing access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections makes it possible to test large samples efficiently and economically online. Reliability and validity of Internet testing for cognitive ability have not been previously reported; these issues are especially pertinent for testing children. We developed Internet versions of reading, language, mathematics and general cognitive ability tests and investigated their reliability and validity for 10- and 12-year-old children. We tested online more than 2500 pairs of 10-year-old twins and compared their scores to similar internet-based measures administered online to a subsample of the children when they were 12 years old (> 759 pairs). Within 3 months of the online testing at 12 years, we administered standard paper and pencil versions of the reading and mathematics tests in person to 30 children (15 pairs of twins). Scores on Internet-based measures at 10 and 12 years correlated .63 on average across the two years, suggesting substantial stability and high reliability. Correlations of about .80 between Internet measures and in-person testing suggest excellent validity. In addition, the comparison of the internet-based measures to ratings from teachers based on criteria from the UK National Curriculum suggests good concurrent validity for these tests. We conclude that Internet testing can be reliable and valid for collecting cognitive test data on large samples even for children as young as 10 years.
ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.
2011-12-05
Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1).more » This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from the two
De Giorgi, Ilaria; Castroflorio, Tommaso; Sartoris, Barbara; Deregibus, Andrea
2017-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conventional TENS in women affected by chronic facial myalgia. The study was performed on 49 women affected by chronic facial myalgia randomly allocated in the TENS group (34 women) and the control group (15 women). The subjective level of pain was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale indicating the mean (VAS MEAN), the maximum (VAS MAX) and the current intensity of pain (VAS NOW). The level of pain at the muscular palpation sites was assessed by the Pericranial Muscle Tenderness Score (PTS) and the Cervical Muscle Tenderness Score (CTS). The TENS therapy lasted for 10 weeks, and data were collected at baseline, after 5, 10, 15 and 25 weeks. The differences between groups before and after treatment were compared with the Mann-Whitney and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. The intra-group differences were compared with the one-way ANOVA test. The results showed that the VAS MEAN, VAS MAX, PTS and CTS were significantly reduced in the TENS group compared to the control group after 10 weeks of TENS (p < 0.05). The intra-group analysis revealed a decreasing tendency of VAS MEAN, VAS MAX, VAS NOW, PTS and CTS in the TENS group in a 25-week period (p < 0.05). The study demonstrated the efficacy of conventional TENS in patients with chronic facial myalgia and the decrease in both subjective and objective pain. Conventional TENS is a safe, non-invasive, easy-to-administer therapy for chronic facial myalgia.
Star-disk interaction in Herbig Ae/Be stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speights, Christa Marie
2012-09-01
The question of the mechanism of certain types of stars is important. Classical T Tauri (CTTS) stars accrete magnetospherically, and Herbig Ae/Be stars (higher-mass analogs to CTTS) are thought to also accrete magnetospherically, but the source of a kG magnetic field is unknown, since these stars have radiative interiors. For magnetospheric accretion, an equation has been derived (Hartmann, 2001) which relates the truncation radius, stellar radius, stellar mass, mass accretion rate and magnetic field strength. Currently the magnetic field of Herbig stars is known to be somewhere between 0.1 kG and 10 kG. One goal of this research is to further constrain the magnetic field. In order to do that, I use the magnetospheric accretion equation. For CTTS, all of the variables used in the equation can be measured, so I gather this data from the literature and test the equation and find that it is consistent. Then I apply the equation to Herbig Ae stars and find that the error introduced from using random inclinations is too large to lower the current upper limit of the magnetic field range. If Herbig Ae stars are higher-mass analogs to CTTS, then they should have a similar magnetic field distribution. I compare the calculated Herbig Ae magnetic field distribution to several typical magnetic field distributions using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and find that the data distribution does not match any of the distributions used. This means that Herbig Ae stars do not have well ordered kG fields like CTTS.
GICHD mine dog testing project : soil sample results #5.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.
2004-01-01
A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performance and seasonalmore » weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fifth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in June 2003.« less
Sample features associated with success rates in population-based EGFR mutation testing.
Shiau, Carolyn J; Babwah, Jesse P; da Cunha Santos, Gilda; Sykes, Jenna R; Boerner, Scott L; Geddie, William R; Leighl, Natasha B; Wei, Cuihong; Kamel-Reid, Suzanne; Hwang, David M; Tsao, Ming-Sound
2014-07-01
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing has become critical in the treatment of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer. This study involves a large cohort and epidemiologically unselected series of EGFR mutation testing for patients with nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer in a North American population to determine sample-related factors that influence success in clinical EGFR testing. Data from consecutive cases of Canadian province-wide testing at a centralized diagnostic laboratory for a 24-month period were reviewed. Samples were tested for exon-19 deletion and exon-21 L858R mutations using a validated polymerase chain reaction method with 1% to 5% detection sensitivity. From 2651 samples submitted, 2404 samples were tested with 2293 samples eligible for analysis (1780 histology and 513 cytology specimens). The overall test-failure rate was 5.4% with overall mutation rate of 20.6%. No significant differences in the failure rate, mutation rate, or mutation type were found between histology and cytology samples. Although tumor cellularity was significantly associated with test-success or mutation rates in histology and cytology specimens, respectively, mutations could be detected in all specimen types. Significant rates of EGFR mutation were detected in cases with thyroid transcription factor (TTF)-1-negative immunohistochemistry (6.7%) and mucinous component (9.0%). EGFR mutation testing should be attempted in any specimen, whether histologic or cytologic. Samples should not be excluded from testing based on TTF-1 status or histologic features. Pathologists should report the amount of available tumor for testing. However, suboptimal samples with a negative EGFR mutation result should be considered for repeat testing with an alternate sample.
40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems comprising the sample which are required to be tested under a test request in accordance with this subpart...
The critical wave speed for the Fisher Kolmogorov Petrowskii Piscounov equation with cut-off
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dumortier, Freddy; Popovic, Nikola; Kaper, Tasso J.
2007-04-01
The Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrowskii-Piscounov (FKPP) equation with cut-off was introduced in (Brunet and Derrida 1997 Shift in the velocity of a front due to a cut-off Phys. Rev. E 56 2597-604) to model N-particle systems in which concentrations less than ɛ = 1/N are not attainable. It was conjectured that the cut-off function, which sets the reaction terms to zero if the concentration is below the small threshold ɛ, introduces a substantial shift in the propagation speed of the corresponding travelling waves. In this paper, we prove the conjecture of Brunet and Derrida, showing that the speed of propagation is given by c_crit(\\varepsilon)=2-{\\pi^2}/{(\\ln\\varepsilon)^2}+\\cal{O}((\\ln\\varepsilon)^{-3}) , as ɛ → 0, for a large class of cut-off functions. Moreover, we extend this result to a more general family of scalar reaction-diffusion equations with cut-off. The main mathematical techniques used in our proof are the geometric singular perturbation theory and the blow-up method, which lead naturally to the identification of the reasons for the logarithmic dependence of ccrit on ɛ as well as for the universality of the corresponding leading-order coefficient (π2).
Evaluation of normalization methods in mammalian microRNA-Seq data
Garmire, Lana Xia; Subramaniam, Shankar
2012-01-01
Simple total tag count normalization is inadequate for microRNA sequencing data generated from the next generation sequencing technology. However, so far systematic evaluation of normalization methods on microRNA sequencing data is lacking. We comprehensively evaluate seven commonly used normalization methods including global normalization, Lowess normalization, Trimmed Mean Method (TMM), quantile normalization, scaling normalization, variance stabilization, and invariant method. We assess these methods on two individual experimental data sets with the empirical statistical metrics of mean square error (MSE) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) statistic. Additionally, we evaluate the methods with results from quantitative PCR validation. Our results consistently show that Lowess normalization and quantile normalization perform the best, whereas TMM, a method applied to the RNA-Sequencing normalization, performs the worst. The poor performance of TMM normalization is further evidenced by abnormal results from the test of differential expression (DE) of microRNA-Seq data. Comparing with the models used for DE, the choice of normalization method is the primary factor that affects the results of DE. In summary, Lowess normalization and quantile normalization are recommended for normalizing microRNA-Seq data, whereas the TMM method should be used with caution. PMID:22532701
Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2010-06-01
We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q . The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.
Long-term changes (1980-2003) in total ozone time series over Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Białek, Małgorzata
2006-03-01
Long-term changes in total ozone time series for Arosa, Belsk, Boulder and Sapporo stations are examined. For each station we analyze time series of the following statistical characteristics of the distribution of daily ozone data: seasonal mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum of total daily ozone values for all seasons. The iterative statistical model is proposed to estimate trends and long-term changes in the statistical distribution of the daily total ozone data. The trends are calculated for the period 1980-2003. We observe lessening of negative trends in the seasonal means as compared to those calculated by WMO for 1980-2000. We discuss a possibility of a change of the distribution shape of ozone daily data using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and comparing trend values in the seasonal mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum time series for the selected stations and seasons. The distribution shift toward lower values without a change in the distribution shape is suggested with the following exceptions: the spreading of the distribution toward lower values for Belsk during winter and no decisive result for Sapporo and Boulder in summer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xenopoulos, M. A.; Vogt, R. J.
2014-12-01
There is now increasing evidence that non-linearity is a common response in ecological systems to pressures caused by human activities. There is also increasing evidence that exogenous environmental drivers, such as climate, induce spatial and temporal synchrony in a wide range of ecological variables. Using Moran's I and Pearson's correlation, we quantified the synchrony of dissolved organic carbon concentration (DOC) and quality (DOM; e.g., specific UV absorbance, Fluorescence Index, PARAFAC), nutrients, discharge and temperature in 40 streams that span an agriculture gradient (0 to >70% cropland), over 10 years. We then used breakpoint regression, 2D-Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and significant zero crossings (SiZer) analyses to quantify the prevalence of nonlinearity and ecological thresholds (breakpoints) where applicable. There was a high degree of synchrony in DOM quality (r > 0.7) but not DOC (r < 0.4). The degree of synchrony was driven in part by the catchment's land use. With respect to the nonlinear analyses we found non-linearity in ~50% of bivariate datasets analyzed. Non-linearity was also driven in part by the catchment's land use. Breakpoints defined different DOM properties. Nonlinearity and synchronous behaviour in DOM are intimately linked to land use.
Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.
Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing
2010-06-01
We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larrañeta, M.; Moreno-Tejera, S.; Lillo-Bravo, I.; Silva-Pérez, M. A.
2018-02-01
Many of the available solar radiation databases only provide global horizontal irradiance (GHI) while there is a growing need of extensive databases of direct normal radiation (DNI) mainly for the development of concentrated solar power and concentrated photovoltaic technologies. In the present work, we propose a methodology for the generation of synthetic DNI hourly data from the hourly average GHI values by dividing the irradiance into a deterministic and stochastic component intending to emulate the dynamics of the solar radiation. The deterministic component is modeled through a simple classical model. The stochastic component is fitted to measured data in order to maintain the consistency of the synthetic data with the state of the sky, generating statistically significant DNI data with a cumulative frequency distribution very similar to the measured data. The adaptation and application of the model to the location of Seville shows significant improvements in terms of frequency distribution over the classical models. The proposed methodology applied to other locations with different climatological characteristics better results than the classical models in terms of frequency distribution reaching a reduction of the 50% in the Finkelstein-Schafer (FS) and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test integral (KSI) statistics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inclan, Eric; Lassester, Jack; Geohegan, David; Yoon, Mina
Optimization algorithms (OA) coupled with numerical methods enable researchers to identify and study (meta) stable nanoclusters without the control restrictions of empirical methods. An algorithm's performance is governed by two factors: (1) its compatibility with an objective function, (2) the dimension of a design space, which increases with cluster size. Although researchers often tune an algorithm's user-defined parameters (UDP), tuning is not guaranteed to improve performance. In this research, Particle Swarm (PSO) and Differential Evolution (DE), are compared by tuning their UDP in a multi-objective optimization environment (MOE). Combined with a Kolmogorov Smirnov test for statistical significance, the MOE enables the study of the Pareto Front (PF), made of the UDP settings that trade-off between best performance in energy minimization (``effectiveness'') based on force-field potential energy, and best convergence rate (``efficiency''). By studying the PF, this research finds that UDP values frequently suggested in the literature do not provide best effectiveness for these methods. Additionally, monotonic convergence is found to significantly improve efficiency without sacrificing effectiveness for very small systems, suggesting better compatibility. Work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.
Validation of a One-Step Method for Extracting Fatty Acids from Salmon, Chicken and Beef Samples.
Zhang, Zhichao; Richardson, Christine E; Hennebelle, Marie; Taha, Ameer Y
2017-10-01
Fatty acid extraction methods are time-consuming and expensive because they involve multiple steps and copious amounts of extraction solvents. In an effort to streamline the fatty acid extraction process, this study compared the standard Folch lipid extraction method to a one-step method involving a column that selectively elutes the lipid phase. The methods were tested on raw beef, salmon, and chicken. Compared to the standard Folch method, the one-step extraction process generally yielded statistically insignificant differences in chicken and salmon fatty acid concentrations, percent composition and weight percent. Initial testing showed that beef stearic, oleic and total fatty acid concentrations were significantly lower by 9-11% with the one-step method as compared to the Folch method, but retesting on a different batch of samples showed a significant 4-8% increase in several omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid concentrations with the one-step method relative to the Folch. Overall, the findings reflect the utility of a one-step extraction method for routine and rapid monitoring of fatty acids in chicken and salmon. Inconsistencies in beef concentrations, although minor (within 11%), may be due to matrix effects. A one-step fatty acid extraction method has broad applications for rapidly and routinely monitoring fatty acids in the food supply and formulating controlled dietary interventions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.
Bond strengths of custom cast and prefabricated posts luted with two cements.
Aleisa, Khalil Ibrahim
2011-02-01
This in vitro study evaluated the bond strength of custom cast and prefabricated posts luted with resin or zinc phosphate cements into unobturated canals of extracted teeth. Forty-eight custom cast and prefabricated posts were placed into extracted single-rooted human teeth. Post-cavity preparation was 1.5 mm in diameter and 10 mm in depth. Specimens were randomly divided into 4 groups of 12 each. Two of the groups were then luted with resin cement, while the other two groups were luted with zinc phosphate cement. A pull-out bond strength evaluation was performed using a universal testing machine. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to prove normal distribution. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the Student t test (alpha = .05). For both luting agents, the prefabricated posts group exhibited significantly less bond strength than the custom cast posts group (P = .0001). There were statistically significant differences in mean bond strength for the prefabricated posts group luted with resin cement vs the group cemented with zinc phosphate cement (P = .002). There was no significant difference between the mean bond strength values of custom cast posts luted with resin cement or zinc phosphate cement. Custom cast posts showed significantly greater bond strength than prefabricated posts when luted with either resin or zinc phosphate cements. The type of cement had less significance on the retention of custom cast posts.
Sener, Sevgi; Guler, Ozkan
2012-01-01
The aim of this research was to compare the differences between patients with myofascial pain and disc displacement and asymptomatic individuals based on aspects of psychologic status and sleep quality. One hundred thirty patients (81 women, 49 men; mean ages: 30.0 and 31.0 years, respectively) with temporomandibular disorder were selected, and 64 control subjects (32 women, 32 men; mean ages: 27.2 and 27.5 years, respectively) were included in the investigation over a period of 1 year. Clinical diagnosis of 65 patients with myofascial pain and 65 patients with disc displacement with or without limitation and joint pain was determined according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. Psychologic status was assessed using Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). Chi-square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey Honestly Significant Difference post hoc multiple comparison or Tamhane T2 tests were used for statistical analysis. There was a significant difference between patients with myofascial pain and disc displacement regarding somatization and paranoid ideation. No statistically significant difference was found between patients with disc displacements and controls in all dimensions of the SCL-90-R. Total score for the PSQI was statistically significantly different between patients with myofascial pain and controls; no significant differences were found between patients with disc displacement and those with myofascial pain or controls regarding the PSQI. To manage patients with myofascial pain, psychologic assessments including sleep quality should be considered.
Tamiru, Afework; Boulanger, Lucy; Chang, Michelle A; Malone, Joseph L; Aidoo, Michael
2015-01-21
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are now widely used for laboratory confirmation of suspected malaria cases to comply with the World Health Organization recommendation for universal testing before treatment. However, many malaria programmes lack quality control (QC) processes to assess RDT use under field conditions. Prior research showed the feasibility of using the dried tube specimen (DTS) method for preserving Plasmodium falciparum parasites for use as QC samples for RDTs. This study focused on the use of DTS for RDT QC and proficiency testing under field conditions. DTS were prepared using cultured P. falciparum at densities of 500 and 1,000 parasites/μL; 50 μL aliquots of these along with parasite negative human blood controls (0 parasites/μL) were air-dried in specimen tubes and reactivity verified after rehydration. The DTS were used in a field study in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Replicate DTS samples containing 0, 500 and 1,000 parasites/μL were stored at 4°C at a reference laboratory and at ambient temperatures at two nearby health facilities. At weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24, the DTS were rehydrated and tested on RDTs stored under manufacturer-recommended temperatures at the RL and on RDTs stored under site-specific conditions at the two health facilities. Reactivity of DTS stored at 4°C at the reference laboratory on RDTs stored at the reference laboratory was considered the gold standard for assessing DTS stability. A proficiency-testing panel consisting of one negative and three positive samples, monitored with a checklist was administered at weeks 12 and 24. At all the seven time points, DTS stored at both the reference laboratory and health facility were reactive on RDTs stored under the recommended temperature and under field conditions, and the DTS without malaria parasites were negative. At the reference laboratory and one health facility, a 500 parasites/μL DTS from the proficiency panel was falsely reported as negative at week 24
Characterization of Adrenal Adenoma by Gaussian Model-Based Algorithm.
Hsu, Larson D; Wang, Carolyn L; Clark, Toshimasa J
2016-01-01
We confirmed that computed tomography (CT) attenuation values of pixels in an adrenal nodule approximate a Gaussian distribution. Building on this and the previously described histogram analysis method, we created an algorithm that uses mean and standard deviation to estimate the percentage of negative attenuation pixels in an adrenal nodule, thereby allowing differentiation of adenomas and nonadenomas. The institutional review board approved both components of this study in which we developed and then validated our criteria. In the first, we retrospectively assessed CT attenuation values of adrenal nodules for normality using a 2-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In the second, we evaluated a separate cohort of patients with adrenal nodules using both the conventional 10HU unit mean attenuation method and our Gaussian model-based algorithm. We compared the sensitivities of the 2 methods using McNemar's test. A total of 183 of 185 observations (98.9%) demonstrated a Gaussian distribution in adrenal nodule pixel attenuation values. The sensitivity and specificity of our Gaussian model-based algorithm for identifying adrenal adenoma were 86.1% and 83.3%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the mean attenuation method were 53.2% and 94.4%, respectively. The sensitivities of the 2 methods were significantly different (P value < 0.001). In conclusion, the CT attenuation values within an adrenal nodule follow a Gaussian distribution. Our Gaussian model-based algorithm can characterize adrenal adenomas with higher sensitivity than the conventional mean attenuation method. The use of our algorithm, which does not require additional postprocessing, may increase workflow efficiency and reduce unnecessary workup of benign nodules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fioravanti, Antonella; Manica, Patrizia; Bortolotti, Roberto; Cevenini, Gabriele; Tenti, Sara; Paolazzi, Giuseppe
2018-05-05
The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of balneotherapy (BT) in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome (FS). In a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial with a 6-month follow-up, 100 FS patients were randomized to receive a cycle of BT with highly mineralized sulfate water (BT group) or with tap water (control group). Clinical assessments were performed at screening visit, at basal time, and after treatment (2 weeks, 3 and 6 months). The primary outcome measures were the change of global pain on the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score (FIQ-Total) from baseline to 15 days. Secondary outcomes included Widespread Pain Index, Symptom Severity Scale Score, Short Form Health Survey, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. We performed an intent-to-treat analysis. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to verify the normality distribution of all quantitative variables and the Student's t test to compare sample data. In the BT group, we observed a significant improvement of VAS and FIQ-Total at the end of the treatment that persisted until 6 months, while no significant differences were found in the control group. The differences between groups were significant for primary parameters at each time point. Similar results were obtained for the other secondary outcomes except for the STAI outcome. Adverse events were reported by 10 patients in the BT group and by 22 patients in the control group. Our results support the short- and long-term therapeutic efficacy of BT in FS. NCT02548065.
Small sample mediation testing: misplaced confidence in bootstrapped confidence intervals.
Koopman, Joel; Howe, Michael; Hollenbeck, John R; Sin, Hock-Peng
2015-01-01
Bootstrapping is an analytical tool commonly used in psychology to test the statistical significance of the indirect effect in mediation models. Bootstrapping proponents have particularly advocated for its use for samples of 20-80 cases. This advocacy has been heeded, especially in the Journal of Applied Psychology, as researchers are increasingly utilizing bootstrapping to test mediation with samples in this range. We discuss reasons to be concerned with this escalation, and in a simulation study focused specifically on this range of sample sizes, we demonstrate not only that bootstrapping has insufficient statistical power to provide a rigorous hypothesis test in most conditions but also that bootstrapping has a tendency to exhibit an inflated Type I error rate. We then extend our simulations to investigate an alternative empirical resampling method as well as a Bayesian approach and demonstrate that they exhibit comparable statistical power to bootstrapping in small samples without the associated inflated Type I error. Implications for researchers testing mediation hypotheses in small samples are presented. For researchers wishing to use these methods in their own research, we have provided R syntax in the online supplemental materials. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Home Science Library of Test Items. Volume One.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Jan, Ed.
As one in a series of test item collections developed by the Assessment and Evaluation Unit of the Directorate of Studies, items of value from past tests are made available to teachers for the construction of unit tests, term examinations or as a basis for class discussion. Each collection is reviewed for content validity and reliability. The test…
GICHD mine dog testing project - soil sample results #4.
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Barnett, James L.; Phelan, James M.; Archuleta, Luisa M.
2003-08-01
A mine dog evaluation project initiated by the Geneva International Center for Humanitarian Demining is evaluating the capability and reliability of mine detection dogs. The performance of field-operational mine detection dogs will be measured in test minefields in Afghanistan and Bosnia containing actual, but unfused landmines. Repeated performance testing over two years through various seasonal weather conditions will provide data simulating near real world conditions. Soil samples will be obtained adjacent to the buried targets repeatedly over the course of the test. Chemical analysis results from these soil samples will be used to evaluate correlations between mine dog detection performancemore » and seasonal weather conditions. This report documents the analytical chemical methods and results from the fourth batch of soils received. This batch contained samples from Kharga, Afghanistan collected in April 2003 and Sarajevo, Bosnia collected in May 2003.« less
Operability test report for the in SITU vapor sampling
DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)
Corbett, J.E., Westinghouse Hanford
1996-05-31
This report documents the successful completion of testing for the In Situ Vapor Sampling (ISVS) system. The report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-196, Rev OA), data sheets, exception resolutions, and a test report summary. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, `Engineering Practice Guidelines,` Appendix L, `Operability Test Procedures and Reports.`
Principles of Work Sample Testing. 2. Evaluation of Personnel Testing Programs
1979-04-01
i ARI TECHNICAL REPORT VE TR-79-A9 Principles of Work Sample Testing: II. Evaluation of Personnel Testing Programs by Robert M. Guion BOWLING GREEN ...STATE UNIVERSITY .Bowling Green , Ohio 43403 April 1979 Contract DAHC 19-77-C-0007 UK 0-. Prepared for C-, LA. U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTE w for the...NAME AND ADDRESS V.PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK Bowl iiq Green ’tate UniversityV Bowlilnq Green , Ohio 4 340i3 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS
43 CFR 3593.1 - Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
.... (d) When drilling on lands with potential for encountering high pressure oil, gas or geothermal... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Bore Holes and Samples § 3593.1 Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings...
43 CFR 3593.1 - Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
.... (d) When drilling on lands with potential for encountering high pressure oil, gas or geothermal... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Bore Holes and Samples § 3593.1 Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings...
43 CFR 3593.1 - Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
.... (d) When drilling on lands with potential for encountering high pressure oil, gas or geothermal... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Bore Holes and Samples § 3593.1 Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings...
43 CFR 3593.1 - Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
.... (d) When drilling on lands with potential for encountering high pressure oil, gas or geothermal... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings...) EXPLORATION AND MINING OPERATIONS Bore Holes and Samples § 3593.1 Core or test hole cores, samples, cuttings...
Confocal microscope is able to detect calcium metabolic in neuronal infection by toxoplasma gondii
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sensusiati, A. D.; Priya, T. K. S.; Dachlan, Y. P.
2017-05-01
Calcium metabolism plays a very important role in neurons infected by Toxoplasma. Detection of change of calcium metabolism of neuron infected by Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma requires the calculation both quantitative and qualitative method. Confocal microscope has the ability to capture the wave of the fluorescent emission of the fluorescent dyes used in the measurement of cell calcium. The purpose of this study was to prove the difference in calcium changes between infected and uninfected neurons using confocal microscopy. Neuronal culture of human-skin-derived neural stem cell were divided into 6 groups, consisting 3 uninfected groups and 3 infected groups. Among the 3 groups were 2 hours, 24 hours and 48 hours. The neuron Toxoplasma gondii ratio was 1:5. Observation of intracellular calcium of neuron and tachyzoite, evidence of necrosis, apoptosis and the expression of Hsp 70 of neuron were examined by confocal microscope. The normality of the data was analysed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test, differentiation test was checked by t2 Test, and ANOVAs, for correlation test was done by Pearson Correlation Test. The calcium intensity of cytosolic neuron and T. gondii was significantly different from control groups (p<0.05). There was also significant correlation between calcium intensity with the evidence of necrosis and Hsp70 expression at 2 hours after infection. Apoptosis and necrosis were simultaneously shown with calcium contribution in this study. Confocal microscopy can be used to measure calcium changes in infected and uninfected neurons both in quantitatively and qualitatively.
Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; de Cara, Sueli Patricia Harumi Miyagi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião
2015-01-01
Background: The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS]) on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG) (culture medium without conditioning); Sealer 26 (S26) - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF) - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP) - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer). The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 104 cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey's test - P < 0.05), with a significance level of 5%. Results: S26, EF and AHP presented decreased cellular viability considerably, with statistical significance compared with CG (P < 0.05). BS maintained cellular viability similar to CG (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer. PMID:25878676
Sabouhi, Mahmoud; Bajoghli, Farshad; Abolhasani, Majid
2015-01-01
The success of an implant-supported prosthesis is dependent on the passive fit of its framework fabricated on a precise cast. The aim of this in vitro study was to digitally compare the three-dimensional accuracy of implant impression techniques in partially and completely edentulous conditions. The master model simulated two clinical conditions. The first condition was a partially edentulous mandibular arch with an anterior edentulous space (D condition). Two implant analogs were inserted in bilateral canine sites. After elimination of the teeth, the model was converted to a completely edentulous condition (E condition). Three different impression techniques were performed (open splinted [OS], open unsplinted [OU], closed [C]) for each condition. Six groups of casts (DOS, DOU, DC, EOS, EOU, EC) (n = 8), totaling 48 casts, were made. Two scan bodies were secured onto the master edentulous model and onto each test cast and digitized by an optical scanning system. The related scans were superimposed, and the mean discrepancy for each cast was determined. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference in the accuracy of casts as a function of model status (P = .78, analysis of variance [ANOVA] test), impression technique (P = .57, ANOVA test), or as the combination of both (P = .29, ANOVA test). The distribution of data was normal (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). Model status (dentate or edentulous) and impression technique did not influence the precision of the casts. There is no difference among any of the impression techniques in either simulated clinical condition.
Casimiro, Ana C; Vinga, Susana; Freitas, Ana T; Oliveira, Arlindo L
2008-02-07
Motif finding algorithms have developed in their ability to use computationally efficient methods to detect patterns in biological sequences. However the posterior classification of the output still suffers from some limitations, which makes it difficult to assess the biological significance of the motifs found. Previous work has highlighted the existence of positional bias of motifs in the DNA sequences, which might indicate not only that the pattern is important, but also provide hints of the positions where these patterns occur preferentially. We propose to integrate position uniformity tests and over-representation tests to improve the accuracy of the classification of motifs. Using artificial data, we have compared three different statistical tests (Chi-Square, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and a Chi-Square bootstrap) to assess whether a given motif occurs uniformly in the promoter region of a gene. Using the test that performed better in this dataset, we proceeded to study the positional distribution of several well known cis-regulatory elements, in the promoter sequences of different organisms (S. cerevisiae, H. sapiens, D. melanogaster, E. coli and several Dicotyledons plants). The results show that position conservation is relevant for the transcriptional machinery. We conclude that many biologically relevant motifs appear heterogeneously distributed in the promoter region of genes, and therefore, that non-uniformity is a good indicator of biological relevance and can be used to complement over-representation tests commonly used. In this article we present the results obtained for the S. cerevisiae data sets.
An in vitro evaluation of the apical sealing ability of new polymeric endodontic filling systems.
Onay, Emel Olga; Ungor, Mete; Unver, Saadet; Ari, Hale; Belli, Sema
2009-08-01
The objective of this study was to compare the short-term sealing abilities of recently introduced polymeric endodontic filling systems. Root canals of 120 extracted and decoronated human single-rooted teeth were instrumented using crown-down technique with HERO Shaper rotary instruments. The roots were divided randomly into 8 groups (6 experimental and 2 control groups of 15 roots each) and filled with different combinations of core and sealer as follows: group 1, RealSeal/Resilon; group 2, RealSeal/Herofill; group 3, Hybrid Root Seal/Resilon; group 4, Hybrid Root Seal/Herofill; group 5, MM-Seal/Resilon; group 6, MM-Seal/Herofill; group 7, positive controls (Herofill only); group 8, negative controls. Apical leakage quantity was evaluated after 1 week by using a fluid filtration model. For each sample, measurements of fluid movement were recorded at 2-minute intervals for a total of 8 minutes, and then averaged. The data were calculated and analyzed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Tukey test. Significance was set at P less than .05. Multiple paired comparisons (Tukey test) showed that, of all the groups, MM-Seal/Herofill combination exhibited the least microleakage, and RealSeal/Herofill combination ranked second in this regard. The mean leakage values for the RealSeal/Resilon and MM-Seal/Resilon combinations were both significantly higher than the means for the other 4 experimental groups (P < .01). Hybrid Root Seal combined with Resilon resulted in significantly less microleakage than Hybrid Root Seal combined with Herofill (P = .001). The results suggest that the sealing properties of epoxy-resin-based sealer (MM-Seal) combined with gutta-percha (Herofill) are superior to those of methacrylate-based sealers (Hybrid Root Seal and Realseal) combined with Resilon.
Fossil group origins. III. The relation between optical and X-ray luminosities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Girardi, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; De Grandi, S.; D'Onghia, E.; Barrena, R.; Boschin, W.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Zarattini, S.; Biviano, A.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Corsini, E. M.; del Burgo, C.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vilchez, J. M.
2014-05-01
Aims: This study is part of the Fossil group origins (FOGO) project which aims to carry out a systematic and multiwavelength study of a large sample of fossil systems. Here we focus on the relation between the optical luminosity (Lopt) and X-ray luminosity (LX). Methods: Out of a total sample of 28 candidate fossil systems, we consider a sample of 12 systems whose fossil classification has been confirmed by a companion study. They are compared with the complementary sample of 16 systems whose fossil nature has not been confirmed and with a subsample of 102 galaxy systems from the RASS-SDSS galaxy cluster survey. Fossil and normal systems span the same redshift range 0
A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.
2018-01-01
Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.
2010-01-01
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major public health concerns worldwide. The detection of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) as early as possible has a great impact on the effective control of the spread of the disease. In our study, we evaluated the hyplex® TBC PCR test (BAG Health Care GmbH), a novel assay using a nucleic acid amplification technique (NAAT) with reverse hybridisation and ELISA read out for the rapid detection of M. tuberculosis directly in clinical samples. Results A total of 581 respiratory and non-respiratory specimens from our pneumological hospital and the National TB Institute of Uzbekistan were used for the evaluation of the PCR assay. Of these, 292 were classified as TB samples and 289 as non-TB samples based on the results of the TB cultures as reference method. The PCR results were initially used to optimise the cut-off value of the hyplex® TBC test system by means of a ROC analysis. The overall sensitivity of the assay was determined to be 83.1%. In smear-positive TB samples, the sensitivity of the hyplex® TBC PCR test was estimated to 93.4% versus 45.1% in smear-negative samples. The specificity of the test was 99.25%. Of the two specimens (0.75%) with false-positive PCR results, one yielded a culture positive for non-tuberculous mycobacteria. Based on the assumption of a prevalence of 8% TB positives among the samples in our diagnostic TB laboratory, the positive and negative predictive values were estimated to 90.4% and 98.5%, respectively. Conclusions The hyplex® TBC PCR test is an accurate NAAT assay for a rapid and reliable detection of M. tuberculosis in various respiratory and non-respiratory specimens. Compared to many other conventional NAAT assays, the hyplex® TBC PCR test is in a low price segment which makes it an attractive option for developing and emerging countries with high TB burdens. PMID:20356361
Figuerola, Eva L M; Erijman, Leonardo
2007-07-01
The description of the diversity and structure of microbial communities through quantification of the constituent populations is one of the major objectives in environmental microbiology. The implications of models for community assembly are practical as well as theoretical, because the extent of biodiversity is thought to influence the function of ecosystems. Current attempts to predict species diversity in different environments derive the numbers of individuals for each operational taxonomic unit (OTU) from the frequency of clones in 16S rDNA gene libraries, which are subjected to a number of inherent biases and artefacts. We show that diversity of the bacterial community present in a complex microbial ensemble can be estimated by fitting the data of the full-cycle rRNA approach to a model of species abundance distribution. Sequences from a 16S rDNA gene library from activated sludge were reliably assigned to OTUs at a genetic distance of 0.04. A group of 17 newly designed rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes were used to quantify by fluorescence in situ hybridization, OTUs represented with more than three clones in the 16S rDNA clone library. Cell abundance distribution was best described by a geometric series, after the goodness of fit was evaluated by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Although a complete mechanistic understanding of all the ecological processes involved is still not feasible, describing the distribution pattern of a complex bacterial assemblage model can shed light on the way bacterial communities operate.
Rebollar, Eria A; Antwis, Rachael E; Becker, Matthew H; Belden, Lisa K; Bletz, Molly C; Brucker, Robert M; Harrison, Xavier A; Hughey, Myra C; Kueneman, Jordan G; Loudon, Andrew H; McKenzie, Valerie; Medina, Daniel; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Walke, Jenifer B; Weiss, Sophie; Woodhams, Douglas C; Harris, Reid N
2016-01-01
Emerging infectious diseases in wildlife are responsible for massive population declines. In amphibians, chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd, has severely affected many amphibian populations and species around the world. One promising management strategy is probiotic bioaugmentation of antifungal bacteria on amphibian skin. In vivo experimental trials using bioaugmentation strategies have had mixed results, and therefore a more informed strategy is needed to select successful probiotic candidates. Metagenomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic methods, colloquially called "omics," are approaches that can better inform probiotic selection and optimize selection protocols. The integration of multiple omic data using bioinformatic and statistical tools and in silico models that link bacterial community structure with bacterial defensive function can allow the identification of species involved in pathogen inhibition. We recommend using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and methods such as indicator species analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Measure, and co-occurrence networks to identify bacteria that are associated with pathogen resistance in field surveys and experimental trials. In addition to 16S amplicon sequencing, we recommend approaches that give insight into symbiont function such as shotgun metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, or metabolomics to maximize the probability of finding effective probiotic candidates, which can then be isolated in culture and tested in persistence and clinical trials. An effective mitigation strategy to ameliorate chytridiomycosis and other emerging infectious diseases is necessary; the advancement of omic methods and the integration of multiple omic data provide a promising avenue toward conservation of imperiled species.
Nasseri, Ehsan Baradaran; Majidinia, Sara; Sharbaf, Davood Aghasizadeh
2017-05-01
Based on the frequent application of composite resins as tooth-colored fillings, this method is considered a viable alternative to dental amalgam. However, this method has the low bond strength of the composite to dentin. To solve this issue, various dental adhesive systems with different characteristics have been developed by dentistry experts. To assess the effect of an additional layer of unfilled resin in self-etch and total-etch dentin adhesives on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to dentin. Moreover, we assessed the effects of sample storage in artificial saliva on the SBS of composite to dentin. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 160 freshly extracted human first or second premolar teeth, which were randomly divided into 16 groups. The teeth were prepared from Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran (2008-2009). Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SBMP), single bond (SB), Clearfil SE Bond, and Clearfil S3 Bond were applied to dentin surface with or without the placement of hydrophobic resin (Margin Bond) in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturers. To expose the coronal dentin, the teeth were abraded with 600 grit SiC paper. Immediately after restoration, half of the samples were tested in terms of SBS, while the other samples were evaluated in terms of SBS after three months of storage in artificial saliva. SBS rates of dental composites evaluated by universal testing machine and samples were studied by optical stereomicroscopy to verify the failure type. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan's logistic regression test. In this study, a significant reduction was observed in the SBS rates of SB and S3 bond adhesive systems after storage with and without hydrophobic resin (p>0.000). Without storage in normal saline, a significant increase was observed in the SBS rate of the SE bond (p=0.013). In addition, SBS rate of SBMP significantly
Nasseri, Ehsan Baradaran; Majidinia, Sara; Sharbaf, Davood Aghasizadeh
2017-01-01
Background Based on the frequent application of composite resins as tooth-colored fillings, this method is considered a viable alternative to dental amalgam. However, this method has the low bond strength of the composite to dentin. To solve this issue, various dental adhesive systems with different characteristics have been developed by dentistry experts. Aim To assess the effect of an additional layer of unfilled resin in self-etch and total-etch dentin adhesives on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite to dentin. Moreover, we assessed the effects of sample storage in artificial saliva on the SBS of composite to dentin. Methods Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 160 freshly extracted human first or second premolar teeth, which were randomly divided into 16 groups. The teeth were prepared from Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran (2008–2009). Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SBMP), single bond (SB), Clearfil SE Bond, and Clearfil S3 Bond were applied to dentin surface with or without the placement of hydrophobic resin (Margin Bond) in accordance with the instructions of the manufacturers. To expose the coronal dentin, the teeth were abraded with 600 grit SiC paper. Immediately after restoration, half of the samples were tested in terms of SBS, while the other samples were evaluated in terms of SBS after three months of storage in artificial saliva. SBS rates of dental composites evaluated by universal testing machine and samples were studied by optical stereomicroscopy to verify the failure type. Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.16 using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, independent-samples t-test, ANOVA, and Duncan’s logistic regression test. Results In this study, a significant reduction was observed in the SBS rates of SB and S3 bond adhesive systems after storage with and without hydrophobic resin (p>0.000). Without storage in normal saline, a significant increase was observed in the SBS rate of the SE bond (p=0.013). In addition
Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants
Schabron, John F.
1996-01-01
Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants.
Method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants
Schabron, J.F.
1996-10-01
Provided is a method for testing earth samples for contamination by organic contaminants, and particularly for aromatic compounds such as those found in diesel fuel and other heavy fuel oils, kerosene, creosote, coal oil, tars and asphalts. A drying step is provided in which a drying agent is contacted with either the earth sample or a liquid extract phase to reduce to possibility of false indications of contamination that could occur when humic material is present in the earth sample. This is particularly a problem when using relatively safe, non-toxic and inexpensive polar solvents such as isopropyl alcohol since the humic material tends to be very soluble in those solvents when water is present. Also provided is an ultraviolet spectroscopic measuring technique for obtaining an indication as to whether a liquid extract phase contains aromatic organic contaminants. In one embodiment, the liquid extract phase is subjected to a narrow and discrete band of radiation including a desired wave length and the ability of the liquid extract phase to absorb that wavelength of ultraviolet radiation is measured to provide an indication of the presence of aromatic organic contaminants. 2 figs.
Xu, Chonggang; Gertner, George
2013-01-01
Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (FAST) is one of the most popular uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques. It uses a periodic sampling approach and a Fourier transformation to decompose the variance of a model output into partial variances contributed by different model parameters. Until now, the FAST analysis is mainly confined to the estimation of partial variances contributed by the main effects of model parameters, but does not allow for those contributed by specific interactions among parameters. In this paper, we theoretically show that FAST analysis can be used to estimate partial variances contributed by both main effects and interaction effects of model parameters using different sampling approaches (i.e., traditional search-curve based sampling, simple random sampling and random balance design sampling). We also analytically calculate the potential errors and biases in the estimation of partial variances. Hypothesis tests are constructed to reduce the effect of sampling errors on the estimation of partial variances. Our results show that compared to simple random sampling and random balance design sampling, sensitivity indices (ratios of partial variances to variance of a specific model output) estimated by search-curve based sampling generally have higher precision but larger underestimations. Compared to simple random sampling, random balance design sampling generally provides higher estimation precision for partial variances contributed by the main effects of parameters. The theoretical derivation of partial variances contributed by higher-order interactions and the calculation of their corresponding estimation errors in different sampling schemes can help us better understand the FAST method and provide a fundamental basis for FAST applications and further improvements. PMID:24143037
Xu, Chonggang; Gertner, George
2011-01-01
Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity