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Sample records for kombucha tea ameliorates

  1. Probable Gastrointestinal Toxicity of Kombucha Tea

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Radhika; Smolinske, Susan; Greenbaum, David

    1997-01-01

    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha “mushroom” in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association. PMID:9346462

  2. A case of Kombucha tea toxicity.

    PubMed

    SungHee Kole, Alison; Jones, Heather D; Christensen, Russell; Gladstein, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Kombucha "mushroom'' tea is touted to have medicinal properties. Here, we present a case of hyperthermia, lactic acidosis, and acute renal failure within 15 hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. A 22 year old male, newly diagnosed with HIV, became short of breath and febrile to 103.0F, within twelve hours of Kombucha tea ingestion. He subsequently became combative and confused, requiring sedation and intubation for airway control. Laboratories revealed a lactate of 12.9 mmol/L, and serum creatinine of 2.1 mg/dL. Kombucha tea is black tea fermented in a yeast-bacteria medium. Several case reports exist of serious, and sometimes fatal, hepatic dysfunction and lactic acidosis within close proximity to ingestion. While Kombucha tea is considered a healthy elixir, the limited evidence currently available raises considerable concern that it may pose serious health risks. Consumption of this tea should be discouraged, as it may be associated with life-threatening lactic acidosis.

  3. Kombucha, the fermented tea: microbiology, composition, and claimed health effects.

    PubMed

    Greenwalt, C J; Steinkraus, K H; Ledford, R A

    2000-07-01

    Kombucha is a slightly sweet, slightly acidic tea beverage consumed worldwide, but historically in China, Russia, and Germany. Kombucha is prepared by fermenting sweetened black tea preparations with a symbiotic culture of yeasts and bacteria. Potential health effects have created an increased interest in Kombucha. Yet, only a few research studies have shown that Kombucha has in vitro antimicrobial activity and enhances sleep and pain thresholds in rats. Furthermore, Kombucha consumption has proven to be harmful in several documented instances.

  4. Kombucha fermentation test used for various types of herbal teas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novi Primiani, C.; Pujiati; Mumtahanah, Mahda; Ardhi, Waskitho

    2018-05-01

    Tea is a common drink in the community, the benefits of tea can be improved by processing fermented tea called kombucha. Kombucha is a refreshing drink made from tea water plus sugar, obtained through the fermentation process by acetic acid bacteria and fungi, is consumed for its health benefits. The common Kombucha starter is called SCOOBY (Simbyotic of Bacteri and Yeast). Kombucha research using herbal tea is very rarely done, it is necessary kombucha research using a variety of herbal teas to determine the quality of its inhibitory power against bacteria and its quality compared with kombucha berkomposisi tea Camelia sinensis in general. The purpose of this research was to know kombucha quality with ph parameter, thickness of nata, total acid and its inhibitory power to Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. This research used Randomized Block Design (RAK) method using 1 tea type treatment, with 3 replications. The first type of green tea (P1), roselle tea (P2), mangosteen peel tea (P3), soursop leaf tea (P4), moringa leaf tea (P5) and yellow leaf tea (P6), so there are 18 treatment combinations. Based on statistical analysis, there was influence of tea type to kombucha quality. Treatments of P1 and P2 were found to have an optimum and significant effect for kombucha. the results in level of acidity [pH] on green tea (P1) was 3.05, nata thickness of 4.63 and total acid of 0.69. Acidity in roselle tea (P2) was 2.86, nata thickness of 3.83, and total acid of 0.71. While the lowest quality was found in the treatment of mangosteen peel (P3) tea with pH 2.57, nata thickness of 0.35, and total acid of 0.79.

  5. Kombucha tea fermentation: Microbial and biochemical dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Somnath; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Chatzinotas, Antonis; Chakraborty, Writachit; Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-03-02

    Kombucha tea, a non-alcoholic beverage, is acquiring significant interest due to its claimed beneficial properties. The microbial community of Kombucha tea consists of bacteria and yeast which thrive in two mutually non-exclusive compartments: the soup or the beverage and the biofilm floating on it. The microbial community and the biochemical properties of the beverage have so far mostly been described in separate studies. This, however, may prevent understanding the causal links between the microbial communities and the beneficial properties of Kombucha tea. Moreover, an extensive study into the microbial and biochemical dynamics has also been missing. In this study, we thus explored the structure and dynamics of the microbial community along with the biochemical properties of Kombucha tea at different time points up to 21 days of fermentation. We hypothesized that several biochemical properties will change during the course of fermentation along with the shifts in the yeast and bacterial communities. The yeast community of the biofilm did not show much variation over time and was dominated by Candida sp. (73.5-83%). The soup however, showed a significant shift in dominance from Candida sp. to Lachancea sp. on the 7th day of fermentation. This is the first report showing Candida as the most dominating yeast genus during Kombucha fermentation. Komagateibacter was identified as the single largest bacterial genus present in both the biofilm and the soup (~50%). The bacterial diversity was higher in the soup than in the biofilm with a peak on the seventh day of fermentation. The biochemical properties changed with the progression of the fermentation, i.e., beneficial properties of the beverage such as the radical scavenging ability increased significantly with a maximum increase at day 7. We further observed a significantly higher D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone content and caffeine degradation property compared to previously described Kombucha tea fermentations. Our

  6. Understanding Kombucha Tea Fermentation: A Review.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Soto, Silvia Alejandra; Beaufort, Sandra; Bouajila, Jalloul; Souchard, Jean-Pierre; Taillandier, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Kombucha is a beverage of probable Manchurian origins obtained from fermented tea by a microbial consortium composed of several bacteria and yeasts. This mixed consortium forms a powerful symbiosis capable of inhibiting the growth of potentially contaminating bacteria. The fermentation process also leads to the formation of a polymeric cellulose pellicle due to the activity of certain strains of Acetobacter sp. The tea fermentation process by the microbial consortium was able to show an increase in certain biological activities which have been already studied; however, little information is available on the characterization of its active components and their evolution during fermentation. Studies have also reported that the use of infusions from other plants may be a promising alternative. Kombucha is a traditional fermented tea whose consumption has increased in the recent years due to its multiple functional properties such as anti-inflammatory potential and antioxidant activity. The microbiological composition of this beverage is quite complex and still more research is needed in order to fully understand its behavior. This study comprises the chemical and microbiological composition of the tea and the main factors that may affect its production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  7. Preservation of kombucha tea-effect of temperature on tea components and free radical scavenging properties.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, Rasu; Marimuthu, Subbaiya; Thangaraj, Periyasamy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Binupriya, Arthur Raj; Swaminathan, Krishnaswami; Yun, Sei Eok

    2008-10-08

    Kombucha tea is sugared black tea fermented with a consortium of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts (tea fungus) for 14 days. The tea tastes slightly sweet and acidic. The formation of tea fungal biofilms during storage is a big problem when kombucha tea is being stored and commercialized. Various thermal treatments have been tried for long-term storage of kombucha tea. The present study revealed the influence of heat on the biochemical constituents and the free radical scavenging properties of kombucha tea. Heat treatment at 60, 65, and 68 degrees C for 1 min controlled biofilm formation in kombucha tea without changing its clarity, taste, and flavor. However, tea polyphenols and black tea quality parameters showed varying stability during the storage period. A decrease in free radical scavenging properties was also found during the storage period. Because the biological activities of kombucha tea depended on the biochemical constituents, it was concluded that heat treatment was not a suitable method for kombucha tea preservation.

  8. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Aloulou, Ahmed; Hamden, Khaled; Elloumi, Dhouha; Ali, Madiha Bou; Hargafi, Khaoula; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ayadi, Fatma; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2012-05-16

    Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions. Kombucha tea can, therefore, be considered as a potential strong

  9. Hypoglycemic and antilipidemic properties of kombucha tea in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes has become a serious health problem and a major risk factor associated with troublesome health complications, such as metabolism disorders and liver-kidney dysfunctions. The inadequacies associated with conventional medicines have led to a determined search for alternative natural therapeutic agents. The present study aimed to investigate and compare the hypoglycemic and antilipidemic effects of kombucha and black tea, two natural drinks commonly consumed around the world, in surviving diabetic rats. Methods Alloxan diabetic rats were orally supplied with kombucha and black tea at a dose of 5 mL/kg body weight per day for 30 days, fasted overnight, and sacrificed on the 31st day of the experiment. Their bloods were collected and submitted to various biochemical measurements, including blood glucose, cholesterol, triglcerides, urea, creatinine, transaminases, transpeptidase, lipase, and amylase activities. Their pancreases were isolated and processed to measure lipase and α-amylase activities and to perform histological analysis. Results The findings revealed that, compared to black tea, kombucha tea was a better inhibitor of α-amylase and lipase activities in the plasma and pancreas and a better suppressor of increased blood glucose levels. Interestingly, kombucha was noted to induce a marked delay in the absorption of LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides and a significant increase in HDL-cholesterol. Histological analyses also showed that it exerted an ameliorative action on the pancreases and efficiently protected the liver-kidney functions of diabetic rats, evidenced by significant decreases in aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and gamma-glytamyl transpeptidase activities in the plasma, as well as in the creatinine and urea contents. Conclusions The findings revealed that kombucha tea administration induced attractive curative effects on diabetic rats, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions. Kombucha tea can, therefore, be

  10. A Case of Hepatotoxicity Related to Kombucha Tea Consumption.

    PubMed

    Gedela, Maheedhar; Potu, Kalyan Chakravarthy; Gali, Vasantha L; Alyamany, Kimberlee; Jha, Lokesh K

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal and dietary supplements (HDSs) is widespread and growing due to the popular notion that these products are of natural origins and safe. Kombucha (or "mushroom") tea is one HDS that is consumed by people for various perceived health benefits. Kombucha tea is a well-known health beverage made by fermenting sweet black tea with a round, flat, gray fungus for a week or longer. There is concern, however, from the evidence of a few case reports currently available, that it may pose life-threatening and/or adverse effects for users.

  11. Probable gastrointestinal toxicity of Kombucha tea: is this beverage healthy or harmful?

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, R; Smolinske, S; Greenbaum, D

    1997-10-01

    Kombucha tea is a health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha "mushroom" in tea and sugar. Although therapeutic benefits have been attributed to the drink, neither its beneficial effects nor adverse side effects have been reported widely in the scientific literature. Side effects probably related to consumption of Kombucha tea are reported in four patients. Two presented with symptoms of allergic reaction, the third with jaundice, and the fourth with nausea, vomiting, and head and neck pain. In all four, use of Kombucha tea in proximity to onset of symptoms and symptom resolution on cessation of tea drinking suggest a probable etiologic association.

  12. Lead induced oxidative stress: beneficial effects of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Dipti, P; Yogesh, B; Kain, A K; Pauline, T; Anju, B; Sairam, M; Singh, B; Mongia, S S; Kumar, G Ilavazhagan Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral administration of Kombucha tea (K-tea) on lead induced oxidative stress. Sprague Dawley rats were administered 1 mL of 3.8% lead acetate solution daily alone or in combination with K-tea orally for 45 d, and the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation were evaluated. Oral administration of lead acetate to rats enhanced lipid peroxidation and release of creatine phosphokinase and decreased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and glutathione peroxidase, GPx). Lead treatment did not alter humoral immunity, but inhibited DTH response when compared to the control. Lead administration also increased DNA fragmentation in liver. Oral administration of Kombucha tea to rats exposed to lead decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage with a concomitant increase in the reduced glutathione level and GPx activity. Kombucha tea supplementation relieved the lead induced immunosuppression to appreciable levels. The results suggest that K-tea has potent antioxidant and immunomodulating properties.

  13. The yeast spectrum of the 'tea fungus Kombucha'.

    PubMed

    Mayser, P; Fromme, S; Leitzmann, C; Gründer, K

    1995-01-01

    The tea fungus 'Kombucha' is a symbiosis of Acetobacter, including Acetobacter xylinum as a characteristic species, and various yeasts. A characteristic yeast species or genus has not yet been identified. Kombucha is mainly cultivated in sugared black tea to produce a slightly acidulous effervescent beverage that is said to have several curative effects. In addition to sugar, the beverage contains small amounts of alcohol and various acids, including acetic acid, gluconic acid and lactic acid, as well as some antibiotic substances. To characterize the yeast spectrum with special consideration given to facultatively pathogenic yeasts, two commercially available specimens of tea fungus and 32 from private households in Germany were analysed by micromorphological and biochemical methods. Yeasts of the genera Brettanomyces, Zygosaccharomyces and Saccharomyces were identified in 56%, 29% and 26% respectively. The species Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Candida kefyr were only demonstrated in isolated cases. Furthermore, the tests revealed pellicle-forming yeasts such as Candida krusei or Issatchenkia orientalis/occidentalis as well as species of the apiculatus yeasts (Kloeckera, Hanseniaspora). Thus, the genus Brettanomyces may be a typical group of yeasts that are especially adapted to the environment of the tea fungus. However, to investigate further the beneficial effects of tea fungus, a spectrum of the other typical genera must be defined. Only three specimens showed definite contaminations. In one case, no yeasts could be isolated because of massive contamination with Penicillium spp. In the remaining two samples (from one household), Candida albicans was demonstrated. The low rate of contamination might be explained by protective mechanisms, such as formation of organic acids and antibiotic substances. Thus, subjects with a healthy metabolism do not need to be advised against cultivating Kombucha. However, those suffering from immunosuppression should preferably

  14. Unexplained severe illness possibly associated with consumption of Kombucha tea--Iowa, 1995.

    PubMed

    1995-12-08

    Kombucha tea is a popular health beverage made by incubating the Kombucha mushroom in sweet black tea. Although advocates of Kombucha tea have attributed many therapeutic effects to the drink (1-3), its beneficial and/or adverse effects have not been determined scientifically. During April 1995, cases of unexplained severe illness (including one death) occurred in two persons in a rural town in northwestern Iowa who had been drinking Kombucha tea daily for approximately 2 months. Based on the findings of a preliminary investigation by the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH), on April 10 IDPH issued a news release recommending that persons refrain from drinking Kombucha tea until the role of the tea in the two cases of illness had been evaluated fully. This report summarizes the investigation of these cases by the IDPH, CDC, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

  15. Kombucha: is a cup of tea good for you?

    PubMed

    Holbourn, Ailsa; Hurdman, Judith

    2017-12-02

    A 54-year-old asthmatic woman presented to hospital with a 10-day history of breathlessness. On examination, she was tachypnoeic with mild wheeze. She had preserved peak flows and was saturating at 100% on room air. Investigations revealed severe metabolic lactic acidosis. On further questioning, it transpired that she drank kombucha tea, which has been linked to lactic acidosis. She made a full recovery with supportive management and cessation of the tea. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Lead poisoning from drinking Kombucha tea brewed in a ceramic pot.

    PubMed

    Phan, T G; Estell, J; Duggin, G; Beer, I; Smith, D; Ferson, M J

    Kombucha tea is an alternative therapy that is gaining popularity as a remedy for a diverse range of ailments. We report two cases of symptomatic lead poisoning requiring chelation therapy in a married couple who had been drinking Kombucha tea for six months, brewing the tea in a ceramic pot. We postulate that acids in the tea eluted lead from the glaze pigment used in the ceramic pot, in a manner analogous to elution of lead from crystal decanters by wine and spirits.

  17. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  18. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis, a new ascosporogenous yeast from 'Kombucha tea'.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, C P; Robnett, C J; Basehoar-Powers, E

    2001-07-01

    A new ascosporogenous yeast, Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis sp. n. (type strain NRRL YB-4811, CBS 8849), is described; it was isolated from Kombucha tea, a popular fermented tea-based beverage. The four known strains of the new species have identical nucleotide sequences in domain D1/D2 of 26S rDNA. Phylogenetic analysis of D1/D2 and 18S rDNA sequences places Z. kombuchaensis near Zygosaccharomyces lentus. The two species are indistinguishable on standard physiological tests used for yeast identification, but can be recognized from differences in restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns obtained by digestion of 18S-ITS1 amplicons with the restriction enzymes DdeI and MboI.

  19. Nitrogen-fixing and cellulose-producing Gluconacetobacter kombuchae sp. nov., isolated from Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debasree; Gachhui, Ratan

    2007-02-01

    A few members of the family Acetobacteraceae are cellulose-producers, while only six members fix nitrogen. Bacterial strain RG3T, isolated from Kombucha tea, displays both of these characteristics. A high bootstrap value in the 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis supported the position of this strain within the genus Gluconacetobacter, with Gluconacetobacter hansenii LMG 1527T as its nearest neighbour (99.1 % sequence similarity). It could utilize ethanol, fructose, arabinose, glycerol, sorbitol and mannitol, but not galactose or xylose, as sole sources of carbon. Single amino acids such as L-alanine, L-cysteine and L-threonine served as carbon and nitrogen sources for growth of strain RG3T. Strain RG3T produced cellulose in both nitrogen-free broth and enriched medium. The ubiquinone present was Q-10 and the DNA base composition was 55.8 mol% G+C. It exhibited low values of 5.2-27.77 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of related gluconacetobacters, which placed it within a separate taxon, for which the name Gluconacetobacter kombuchae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain RG3T (=LMG 23726T=MTCC 6913T).

  20. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Kombucha tea on chromate(VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sai Ram, M; Anju, B; Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Kain, A K; Mongia, S S; Sharma, S K; Singh, B; Singh, R; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, D; Selvamurthy, W

    2000-07-01

    The effect of Kombucha tea (KT) on oxidative stress induced changes in rats subjected to chromate treatment are reported. KT feeding alone did not show any significant change in malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, but did enhance humoral response and delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response appreciably over control animals. Chromate treatment significantly enhanced plasma and tissue MDA levels, decreased DTH response considerably, enhanced glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities; however, no change in GSH, superoxide dismutase and antibody titres was noticed. KT feeding completely reversed the chromate-induced changes. These results show that Kombucha tea has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities.

  2. Research on the effect of culture time on the kombucha tea beverage's antiradical capacity and sensory value.

    PubMed

    Gramza-Michałowska, Anna; Kulczyński, Bartosz; Xindi, Yuan; Gumienna, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Recent consumption trends shows high consumer acceptability and growing medicinal interest in the biological value of kombucha tea. This tea is a sweetened tea leaf brew fermented with a layer containing mainly acetic acid bacteria, yeast and lactic acid bacteria. The main antioxidants in tea leaves are polyphenols, the consumption of which is proven to be beneficial for human health, e.g. protecting from reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present research was to evaluate antiradical activity, total polyphenol content (TPC) and sensory value of kombucha tea brews. In the present study, Kombucha tea beverages were analyzed for TPC content, DPPH radical scavenging method and sensory value. The highest TPC content and DPPH radical scavenging capacity values were evaluated in yellow tea samples, both unfermented and kombucha, which did not differ within the storage time. The results of sensory evaluations of kombucha tea brews depend on the tea leaf variety used for preparing the drink. Research indicates that the fermentation process of tea brews with kombucha microbiota does not affect significantly its polyphenol content and antiradical capacity, and retains its components' biological activity.

  3. Sequence-based analysis of the bacterial and fungal compositions of multiple kombucha (tea fungus) samples.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Alan J; O'Sullivan, Orla; Hill, Colin; Ross, R Paul; Cotter, Paul D

    2014-04-01

    Kombucha is a sweetened tea beverage that, as a consequence of fermentation, contains ethanol, carbon dioxide, a high concentration of acid (gluconic, acetic and lactic) as well as a number of other metabolites and is thought to contain a number of health-promoting components. The sucrose-tea solution is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulosic pellicle, which forms a floating mat in the tea, and generates a new layer with each successful fermentation. The specific identity of the microbial populations present has been the focus of attention but, to date, the majority of studies have relied on culture-based analyses. To gain a more comprehensive insight into the kombucha microbiota we have carried out the first culture-independent, high-throughput sequencing analysis of the bacterial and fungal populations of 5 distinct pellicles as well as the resultant fermented kombucha at two time points. Following the analysis it was established that the major bacterial genus present was Gluconacetobacter, present at >85% in most samples, with only trace populations of Acetobacter detected (<2%). A prominent Lactobacillus population was also identified (up to 30%), with a number of sub-dominant genera, not previously associated with kombucha, also being revealed. The yeast populations were found to be dominated by Zygosaccharomyces at >95% in the fermented beverage, with a greater fungal diversity present in the cellulosic pellicle, including numerous species not identified in kombucha previously. Ultimately, this study represents the most accurate description of the microbiology of kombucha to date. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter rhaeticus Strain AF1, a High Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa A; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2014-07-24

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagatabaeicter rhaeticus strain AF1, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing high levels of cellulose. Copyright © 2014 dos Santos et al.

  5. Studies on toxicity, anti-stress and hepato-protective properties of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Anju, B; Kavimani, S; Sharma, S K; Kain, A K; Sarada, S K; Sairam, M; Ilavazhagan, G; Devendra, K; Selvamurthy, W

    2001-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate toxicity, anti-stress activity and hepato-protective properties of Kombucha tea. Kombucha tea was fed orally for 15 days using three different doses i.e. normal dose, five and ten times the dose. Rats were then sacrificed and various biochemical, and histological parameters were estimated. Anti-stress activity was evaluated either by 1) by exposing animals to cold and hypoxia and estimating the levels of malondialdehyde and reduced glutathione in plasma/blood or 2) by subjecting the animals to restraint stress and recording faecal output. Hepato-toxicity was induced by challenging the animals to an acute dose of paracetamol (1 gm/kg) orally and determining the plasma levels of SGPT, SGOT and MDA. The effect of oral administration of different doses of K-tea to albino rats was examined and the results indicate that K-tea has no significant toxicity as revealed by various biochemical and histopathological parameters. K-tea has been found to prevent lipid peroxidation and fall in reduced glutathione level when rats were exposed to cold and hypoxia in simulated chamber. Further, K-tea has also been found to decrease the Wrap-restraint faecal pellet output in rats. K-tea has also been found to decrease paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity significantly. The study shows that K-tea has anti-stress and hepato-protective activities.

  6. Evaluation of physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of kombucha "Tea Fungus" during extended periods of fermentation.

    PubMed

    Amarasinghe, Hashani; Weerakkody, Nimsha S; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2018-05-01

    Kombucha fermentation is traditionally carried out by inoculating a previously grown tea fungal mat into a freshly prepared tea broth and incubating under aerobic conditions for 7-10 days. In this study, four kombucha beverages were prepared by placing the tea fungal mats in sugared Sri Lankan black tea at varying concentrations for a period of 8 weeks. The antioxidant activities, physicochemical, and qualitative properties were monitored prior to the commencement of the fermentation process, one day after the inoculation with the microorganisms and subsequently on a weekly basis. All samples displayed a statistically significant decrease ( p  <   .05) in the antioxidant activity at the end of 8 weeks, which was indicative of the decreasing functional properties of the beverage. The physicochemical properties indicated increased acidity and turbidity, which might decrease consumer appeal of the fermented beverage. Further studies are necessary to test the accumulation of organic acids, nucleic acids, and toxicity of kombucha on human organs following the extended period of fermentation.

  7. Effect of Kombucha, a fermented black tea in attenuating oxidative stress mediated tissue damage in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic complications associated with increased oxidative stress can be suppressed by antioxidants. In the present study we investigated the antidiabetic and antioxidant effects of Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea, in comparison to that of unfermented black tea (BT), in ALX-induced diabetic rats. ALX exposure lowered the body weight and plasma insulin by about 28.12% and 61.34% respectively and elevated blood glucose level and glycated Hb by about 3.79 and 3.73 folds respectively. The oxidative stress related parameters like lipid peroxidation end products (increased by 3.38, 1.7, 1.65, 1.94 folds respectively), protein carbonyl content (increased by 2.5, 2.35, 1.8, 3.26 folds respectively), glutathione content (decreased by 59.8%, 47.27%, 53.69%, 74.03% respectively), antioxidant enzyme activities were also altered in the pancreatic, hepatic, renal and cardiac tissues of diabetic animals. Results showed significant antidiabetic potential of the fermented beverage (150 mg lyophilized extract/kg bw for 14 days) as it effectively restored ALX-induced pathophysiological changes. Moreover, it could ameliorate DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation in the pancreatic tissue of diabetic rats. Although unfermented black tea is effective in the above pathophysiology, KT was found to be more efficient. This might be due to the formation of some antioxidant molecules during fermentation period. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Application of the Kombucha 'tea fungus' for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Watawana, Mindani I; Jayawardena, Nilakshi; Choo, Candy; Waisundara, Viduranga Y

    2016-03-01

    Ten herbal teas (Acacia arabica, Aegle marmelos flower, A. marmelos root bark, Aerva lanata, Asteracantha longifolia, Cassia auriculata, Hemidesmus indicus, Hordeum vulgare, Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia) were fermented with the Kombucha 'tea fungus'. The pH values of the fermented beverages ranged from 4.0 to 6.0 by day 7, while the titratable acidity ranged from 2.5 to 5.0g/mL (P<0.05). Gallic acid had statistically significantly increased (P<0.05) in almost all the samples by day 7. The Oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay indicated 5 of the Kombucha beverages to have statistically significant increases (P<0.05) by day 7. The α-amylase inhibitory activities ranged from 52.5 to 67.2μg/mL in terms of IC50 values following fermentation, while the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities ranged from 95.2 to 196.1μg/mL. In conclusion, an enhancement of the antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory potential of the herbal teas was observed by adding the tea fungus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Protective effect of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on phenol-induced cytotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yapar, Kursad; Cavusoglu, Kultigin; Oruc, Ertan; Yalcin, Emine

    2010-09-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of kombucha mushroom (KM) tea on cytotoxicity induced by phenol (PHE) in mice. We used weight gain and micronucleus (MN) frequency as indicators of cytotoxicity and supported these parameters with pathological findings. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: (Group I) only tap water (Group II) 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group III) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE (Group IV) 35 mg kg(-1) body wt. PHE + 250 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group V) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 500 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea (Group VI) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 750 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, (Group VII) 35 mg kg(-1) b. wt PHE + 1000 microl kg(-1) b. wt KM-tea, for 20 consecutive days by oral gavage. The results indicated that all KM-tea supplemented mice showed a lower MN frequency than erythrocytes in only PHE-treated group. There was an observable regression on account of lesions in tissues of mice supplemented with different doses of KM-tea in histopathological observations. In conclusion, the KM-tea supplementation decreases cytotoxicity induced by PHE and its protective role is dose-dependent.

  10. Hepatoprotective and curative properties of Kombucha tea against carbon tetrachloride-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, G S; Sathishkumar, M; Jayabalan, R; Binupriya, A R; Swaminathan, K; Yun, S E

    2009-04-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is sugared black tea fermented with a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts, which is said to be tea fungus. KT is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. In the present study, KT along with black tea (BT) and black tea manufactured with tea fungus enzymes (enzyme-processed tea, ET) was evaluated for hepatoprotective and curative properties against CCl4-induced toxicity, using male albino rats as an experimental model by analyzing aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase in plasma and malondialdehyde content in plasma and liver tissues. Histopathological analysis of liver tissue was also included. Results showed that BT, ET, and KT have the potential to revert the CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Among the three types of teas tried, KT was found to be more efficient than BT and ET. Antioxidant molecules produced during the fermentation period could be the reason for the efficient hepatoprotective and curative properties of KT against CCI4-induced hepatotoxicity.

  11. Hepatoprotective effects of kombucha tea: identification of functional strains and quantification of functional components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Ji, Baoping; Wu, Wei; Wang, Ruojun; Yang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Di; Tian, Wenli

    2014-01-30

    Kombucha tea (KT), a traditional health beverage containing potential hepatoprotective agents, is fermented from sugared tea by a symbiotic culture of yeast and bacteria for 8 days. However, the functional strains that produce components for the hepatoprotective property of KT remain unclear. Multiple strains are involved in traditional KT production. Therefore, KT has not been standardized or produced commercially. This study aimed to identify the functional strains and quantify the functional components with hepatoprotective effects in kombucha tea. Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 was one of the microorganisms in KT in which the D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL) produced by G. sp. A4 was significantly higher than that produced by original tea fungus at 8 days of fermentation. Traditional KT (TKT, tea broth fermented by mixed tea fungus), modified KT (MKT, fermented by single G. sp. A4), and DSL significantly inhibited the acetaminophen-induced increase of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride and malondialdehyde, as well as facilitating the reduction of total antioxidant capacity in mice. Furthermore, MKT and TKT are both similar to DSL in terms of protection against acetaminophen-induced liver injury in mice. These results suggested a positive relationship between DSL content and the hepatoprotective effect of TKT, MKT and DSL groups. G. sp. A4 was concluded to be a potential functional strain and DSL might be the key functional component for the hepatoprotective property in KT. The stronger capability of G. sp. A4 in producing DSL makes it a better choice for the commercial production of KT. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. In vitro activity of kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction against Malassezia species isolated from seborrhoeic dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, E; Saeidi, M; Marashi, MA; Moafi, A; Mahmoodi, V; Zeinolabedini Zamani, M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent superficial dermatitis in which Malassezia species play an important role. There are different Malassezia species, which have been recently reported to be resistant to common antifungals. Natural sources can be useful alternatives to reduce the emergence of this resistance. Kombucha tea is believed to have potential antimicrobial properties. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction (KEAF) against Malassezia species obtained from the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 clinical isolates were identified by direct microscopic examination and Tween assimilation, and then confirmed by DNA sequencing of ITS regions for Malassezia species. Kombucha tea was fractionated using ethyl acetate (1:2 v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay was used to evaluate the anti-Malssezia activity of KEAF at three concentrations of 10, 40, and 80 mg/mL. Results: The results of the DNA sequence analysis indicated that M. furfur (39.13%) was the predominant species, followed by M. globosa (30.43%), M. sloofie (13.04%), M. sympodialis (13.04%), and M. restricta (4.34%), respectively. Furthermore, KEAF showed inhibitory activity against Malassezia species. Accordingly, KEAF had the lowest and highest MIC value against M. sloofie and M. restricta, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the extract was equivalent to that of ketoconazole at 4.8 µg/mL. Conclusion: The findings of the current study highlighted the antifungal properties of KEAF. Therefore, this extract can be promoted as complementary medicine for the treatment of the infections caused by Malassezia. PMID:28959793

  13. In vitro activity of kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction against Malassezia species isolated from seborrhoeic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, E; Saeidi, M; Marashi, M A; Moafi, A; Mahmoodi, V; Zeinolabedini Zamani, M

    2016-12-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a chronic and recurrent superficial dermatitis in which Malassezia species play an important role. There are different Malassezia species, which have been recently reported to be resistant to common antifungals. Natural sources can be useful alternatives to reduce the emergence of this resistance. Kombucha tea is believed to have potential antimicrobial properties. Regarding this, the present study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of Kombucha tea ethyl acetate fraction (KEAF) against Malassezia species obtained from the patients with seborrheic dermatitis. A total of 23 clinical isolates were identified by direct microscopic examination and Tween assimilation, and then confirmed by DNA sequencing of ITS regions for Malassezia species. Kombucha tea was fractionated using ethyl acetate (1:2 v/v). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) microdilution assay was used to evaluate the anti- Malssezia activity of KEAF at three concentrations of 10, 40, and 80 mg/mL. The results of the DNA sequence analysis indicated that M. furfur (39.13%) was the predominant species, followed by M. globosa (30.43%), M. sloofie (13.04%), M. sympodialis (13.04%), and M. restricta (4.34%), respectively. Furthermore, KEAF showed inhibitory activity against Malassezia species. Accordingly, KEAF had the lowest and highest MIC value against M. sloofie and M. restricta , respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the extract was equivalent to that of ketoconazole at 4.8 µg/mL. The findings of the current study highlighted the antifungal properties of KEAF. Therefore, this extract can be promoted as complementary medicine for the treatment of the infections caused by Malassezia .

  14. Different temperatures select distinctive acetic acid bacteria species and promotes organic acids production during Kombucha tea fermentation.

    PubMed

    De Filippis, Francesca; Troise, Antonio Dario; Vitaglione, Paola; Ercolini, Danilo

    2018-08-01

    Kombucha is a traditional beverage produced by tea fermentation, carried out by a symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts. Acetic Acid Bacteria (AAB) usually dominate the bacterial community of Kombucha, driving the fermentative process. The consumption of this beverage was often associated to beneficial effects for the health, due to its antioxidant and detoxifying properties. We characterized bacterial populations of Kombucha tea fermented at 20 or 30 °C by using culture-dependent and -independent methods and monitored the concentration of gluconic and glucuronic acids, as well as of total polyphenols. We found significant differences in the microbiota at the two temperatures. Moreover, different species of Gluconacetobacter were selected, leading to a differential abundance of gluconic and glucuronic acids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. PMID:26634755

  16. Draft Genome Sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius Strain AF2, a Producer of Cellulose, Isolated from Kombucha Tea.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Renato Augusto Corrêa; Berretta, Andresa Aparecida; Barud, Hernane da Silva; Ribeiro, Sidney José Lima; González-García, Laura Natalia; Zucchi, Tiago Domingues; Goldman, Gustavo H; Riaño-Pachón, Diego M

    2015-12-03

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Komagataeibacter intermedius strain AF2, which was isolated from Kombucha tea and is capable of producing cellulose, although at lower levels compared to another bacterium from the same environment, K. rhaeticus strain AF1. Copyright © 2015 dos Santos et al.

  17. Protective effect of kombucha tea against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide induced cytotoxicity and cell death in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Manna, Prasenjit; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2011-07-01

    Kombucha (KT), a fermented black tea (BT), is known to have many beneficial properties. In the present study, antioxidant property of KT has been investigated against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) induced cytotoxicity using murine hepatocytes. TBHP, a reactive oxygen species inducer, causes oxidative stress resulting in organ pathophysiology. Exposure to TBHP caused a reduction in cell viability, increased membrane leakage and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries in hepatocytes. TBHP exposure disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential and induced apoptosis as evidenced by flow cytometric analyses. KT treatment, however, counteracted the changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented apoptotic cell death of the hepatocytes. BT treatment also reverted TBHP induced hepatotoxicity, however KT was found to be more efficient. This may be due to the formation of antioxidant molecules like D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL) during fermentation process and are absent in BT. Moreover, the radical scavenging activities of KT were found to be higher than BT. Results of the study showed that KT has the potential to ameliorate TBHP induced oxidative insult and cell death in murine hepatocytes more effectively than BT.

  18. Novel nitrogen-fixing Acetobacter nitrogenifigens sp. nov., isolated from Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Debasree; Gachhui, Ratan

    2006-08-01

    The four nitrogen-fixing bacteria so far described in the family Acetobacteraceae belong to the genera Gluconacetobacter and Acetobacter. Nitrogen-fixing bacterial strain RG1(T) was isolated from Kombucha tea and, based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence which is supported by a high bootstrap value, was found to belong to the genus Acetobacter. Strain RG1(T) differed from Acetobacter aceti, the nearest member with a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 98.2 %, and type strains of other Acetobacter species with regard to several characteristics of growth features in culture media, growth in nitrogen-free medium, production of gamma-pyrone from glucose and dihydroxyacetone from glycerol. Strain RG1(T) utilized maltose, glycerol, sorbitol, fructose, galactose, arabinose and ethanol, but not methanol as a carbon source. These results, along with electrophoretic mobility patterns of nine metabolic enzymes, suggest that strain RG1(T) represents a novel nitrogen-fixing species. The ubiquinone present was Q-9 and DNA G+C content was 64.1 mol%. Strain RG1(T) exhibited a low value of 2-24 % DNA-DNA relatedness to the type strains of related acetobacters, which placed it as a separate taxon. On the basis of this data, the name Acetobacter nitrogenifigens sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain RG1(T) (=MTCC 6912(T)=LMG 23498(T)).

  19. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging.

    PubMed

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2018-03-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%-3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan/KT film against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using agar diffusion test, and its antioxidant activity was determined using DPpH assay. The results revealed that incorporation of KT into chitosan films improved the water vapor permeability (from 256.7 to 132.1gcm -2 h -1 KPa -1 mm) and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the latter up to 59% DPpH scavenging activity. Moreover, the incorporation of KT into the chitosan film increased the protective effect of the film against ultra violet (UV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the chemical interactions between chitosan and the polyphenol groups of KT. In a minced beef model, chitosan/KT film effectively served as an active packaging and extended the shelf life of the minced beef as manifested in the retardation of lipid oxidation and microbial growth from 5.36 to 2.11logcfugr -1 in 4days storage. The present work demonstrates that the chitosan/KT film not only maintains the quality of the minced beef but also, retards microbial growth significantly, extending the shelf life of the minced beef meat up to 3days; thus, chitosan/KT film is a potential material for active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cosmeceutical effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Kombucha tea by intradermal administration in the skin of aged mice.

    PubMed

    Pakravan, Nafiseh; Mahmoudi, Elaheh; Hashemi, Seyed-Ali; Kamali, Jamal; Hajiaghayi, Reza; Rahimzadeh, Mitra; Mahmoodi, Vajiheh

    2017-11-19

    Natural ingredients have been always an interesting approach to prolong youthful appearance of skin. One of the natural compounds is Kombucha tea (KT), which has been mainly used as an energy drink in Asian countries for a long time. Previous reports indicated that it has pharmaceutical and favorable wound repairing effects. The beneficial properties of KT are thought to be mainly due to the presence of fermentation products such as flavonoids and other polyphenols with inhibition of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes and anti-inflammatory effects. These properties prompted us to study the anti-aging potential of KT and investigate its effective fraction in aged mice, METHODS: Kombucha tea was fractionated into chloroform, butanol, and ethyl acetate, and flavonoid content was determined. Young and old mice were used as control. KT ethyl acetate fraction (KEAf), which had the highest flavonoid content, was intradermally administered to old mice. Administration of KEAf significantly increased the collagen content, NAD + /NADH level, and concomitantly improved skin connective tissue abnormalities in the aged skin. No sensitivity or irritation was observed. This finding suggested that KEAf can be a suitable candidate as a cosmetic product to improve aging-related skin abnormalities and regeneration of aged skin. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Kombucha, a fermented tea (KT) is claimed to possess many beneficial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histopathological alterations of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rat. Methods In present study 24 Wister -albino rats weighing 150–200 g were selected and divided to two treatment groups as Nitrofurazone ointment (0.2%) and Kombucha tea. Subsequently, the anesthesia was exerted by Ketamin hydrochloride 10% (40 mg/kg) and Xylasine (2 mg/kg) through intra muscular (IM) route. Furthermore, upon preparation of dorsal region of the animal for surgery, a piece of full-thickness skin removed (2 × 2 cm). In order to comparing wounds healing clinically and histologically, once every four days from the commencement, the wounds were photographed and the healed surface was measured by Scion image software. Result The clinical findings indicated that the Kombucha fungus resulted in precipitating healing than Nitrofurazone; however, it was not significant (p > 0.05). In order to pathological comparing of wound healing process, several wound biopsies were taken on 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20th days. Additionally, the histopathological results demonstrated that there was inflammation in Nitrofurazone group through twelveth day, somehow the epithelium was formed and abundant vessels were visible. Although on 16th day and the previous days the healing condition of Kombucha fungus was considered as minimal rate, revealing it is similar to Nitrofurazone group on 20th day. Conclusions To wrap up. These observations suggest that the Kombucha fungus healing quality was rapid from 12th day to the end of the research, whereas no significant difference was observed. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1107407136102196 PMID:23866960

  2. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rats: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Barati, Fardin; Javanbakht, Javad; Adib-Hashemi, Farajollah; Hosseini, Ehsan; Safaeie, Reyhaneh; Rajabian, Mojtaba; Razmjoo, Mostafa; Sedaghat, Reza; Aghamohammad Hassan, Mehdi

    2013-07-17

    Kombucha, a fermented tea (KT) is claimed to possess many beneficial properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and histopathological alterations of Kombucha tea and Nitrofurazone on cutaneous full-thickness wounds healing in rat. In present study 24 Wister -albino rats weighing 150-200 g were selected and divided to two treatment groups as Nitrofurazone ointment (0.2%) and Kombucha tea. Subsequently, the anesthesia was exerted by Ketamin hydrochloride 10% (40 mg/kg) and Xylasine (2 mg/kg) through intra muscular (IM) route. Furthermore, upon preparation of dorsal region of the animal for surgery, a piece of full-thickness skin removed (2 × 2 cm). In order to comparing wounds healing clinically and histologically, once every four days from the commencement, the wounds were photographed and the healed surface was measured by Scion image software. The clinical findings indicated that the Kombucha fungus resulted in precipitating healing than Nitrofurazone; however, it was not significant (p > 0.05). In order to pathological comparing of wound healing process, several wound biopsies were taken on 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20th days. Additionally, the histopathological results demonstrated that there was inflammation in Nitrofurazone group through twelveth day, somehow the epithelium was formed and abundant vessels were visible. Although on 16th day and the previous days the healing condition of Kombucha fungus was considered as minimal rate, revealing it is similar to Nitrofurazone group on 20th day. To wrap up. These observations suggest that the Kombucha fungus healing quality was rapid from 12th day to the end of the research, whereas no significant difference was observed. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1107407136102196.

  3. Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation.

    PubMed

    Teoh, Ai Leng; Heard, Gillian; Cox, Julian

    2004-09-01

    Kombucha is a traditional fermentation of sweetened tea, involving a symbiosis of yeast species and acetic acid bacteria. Despite reports of different yeast species being associated with the fermentation, little is known of the quantitative ecology of yeasts in Kombucha. Using oxytetracycline-supplemented malt extract agar, yeasts were isolated from four commercially available Kombucha products and identified using conventional biochemical and physiological tests. During the fermentation of each of the four products, yeasts were enumerated from both the cellulosic pellicle and liquor of the Kombucha. The number and diversity of species varied between products, but included Brettanomyces bruxellensis, Candida stellata, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulaspora delbrueckii and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. While these yeast species are known to occur in Kombucha, the enumeration of each species present throughout fermentation of each of the four Kombucha cultures demonstrated for the first time the dynamic nature of the yeast ecology. Kombucha fermentation is, in general, initiated by osmotolerant species, succeeded and ultimately dominated by acid-tolerant species.

  4. Comparative healing property of kombucha tea and black tea against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice: possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debashish; Hassarajani, Sham A; Maity, Biswanath; Narayan, Geetha; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2010-12-01

    The healing activity of black tea (BT) and BT fermented with Candida parapsilosis and kombucha culture, designated as CT and KT respectively against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied in a mouse model. The KT sample (KT4) produced by fermenting BT for four days, showed the best DPPH radical scavenging capacity and phenolics contents. Hence the ulcer-healing activity of KT4 was compared with those of CT4 and BT. All the tea extracts (15 mg kg(-1)) could effectively heal the gastric ulceration as revealed from the histopathological and biochemical studies, with relative efficacy as KT4 > CT4 ∼ BT. The healing capacities of the tea extracts could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to protect the mucin content of the gastric tissues. In addition, the ability of KT4 to reduce gastric acid secretion might also contribute to its ulcer-healing activity. The tea preparation KT4 (15 mg kg(-1)) was as effective as the positive control, omeprazole (3 mg kg(-1)) in ulcer healing.

  5. Hepatoprotective properties of kombucha tea against TBHP-induced oxidative stress via suppression of mitochondria dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Semantee; Gachhui, Ratan; Sil, Parames C

    2011-06-01

    Kombucha, a fermented tea (KT) is claimed to possess many beneficial properties. Recent studies have suggested that KT prevents paracetamol and carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity. We investigated the beneficial role of KT was against tertiary butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) induced cytotoxicity and cell death in murine hepatocytes. TBHP is a well known reactive oxygen species (ROS) inducer, and it induces oxidative stress in organ pathophysiology. In our experiments, TBHP caused a reduction in cell viability, enhanced the membrane leakage and disturbed the intra-cellular antioxidant machineries while simultaneous treatment of the cells with KT and this ROS inducer maintained membrane integrity and prevented the alterations in the cellular antioxidant status. These findings led us to explore the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of KT. TBHP introduced apoptosis as the primary phenomena of cell death as evidenced by flow cytometric analyses. In addition, ROS generation, changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, activation of caspases (3 and 9) and Apaf-1 were detected confirming involvement of mitochondrial pathway in this pathophysiology. Simultaneous treatment of KT with TBHP, on the other hand, protected the cells against oxidative injury and maintained their normal physiology. In conclusion, KT was found to modulate the oxidative stress induced apoptosis in murine hepatocytes probably due to its antioxidant activity and functioning via mitochondria dependent pathways and could be beneficial against liver diseases, where oxidative stress is known to play a crucial role. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity of traditional Kombucha and Satureja montana L. Kombucha.

    PubMed

    Cetojevic-Simin, D D; Bogdanovic, G M; Cvetkovic, D D; Velicanski, A S

    2008-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary investigation of the biological activity of Kombucha beverages from Camellia sinensis L. (black tea) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory tea), that have consuming acidity. Cell growth effect was measured by sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay on HeLa (cervix epithelioid carcinoma), HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma). Antimicrobial activity to bacteria, yeasts and moulds was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Consuming Kombuchas had the most expressive antimicrobial activity against all investigated bacteria, except Sarcina lutea, while unfermented tea samples had no activity. Traditional Kombucha showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli than acetic acid, while both neutralized Kombuchas had bacteriostatic activity on Salmonella enteritidis. Examined Kombuchas did not stimulate cell proliferation of the investigated cell lines. Antiproliferative activity of winter savory tea Kombucha was comparable to that of traditional Kombucha made from black tea. Furthermore, in HeLa cell line Satureja montana L. Kombucha induced cell growth inhibition by 20% (IC20) at lower concentration compared to the activity of water extract of Satureja montana L. obtained in our previous research. Presence of more active antiproliferative component(s) in Satureja montana L. Kombucha compared to Satureja montana L. water extract and antimicrobial component(s) other than acetic acid in both Kombuchas is suggested.

  7. Leaching of rare earth elements from fluorescent powder using the tea fungus Kombucha.

    PubMed

    Hopfe, Stefanie; Flemming, Katrin; Lehmann, Falk; Möckel, Robert; Kutschke, Sabine; Pollmann, Katrin

    2017-04-01

    In most modern technologies such as flat screens, highly effective magnets and lasers, as well as luminescence phosphors, Rare Earth Elements (REE) are used. Unfortunately no environmentally friendly recycling process exists so far. In comparison to other elements the interaction of microorganisms with REE has been studied to a less extent. However, as REE are ubiquitously present in nature it can be assumed that microorganisms play an important role in the biogeochemistry of REE. This study investigates the potential of organic acid-producing microbes for extracting REE from industrial waste. In Germany, 175 tons of fluorescent phosphor (FP) are collected per year as a distinct fraction from the recycling of compact fluorescent lamps. Because the FP contains about 10% of REE-oxides bound in the so-called triband dyes it is a readily accessible secondary resource of REE. Using the symbiotic mixed culture Kombucha, consisting of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria, REE were leached at a significant rate. The highest leaching-rates were observed in shake cultures using the entire Kombucha-consortium or its supernatant as leaching agent compared to experiments using the isolates Zygosaccharomyces lentus and Komagataeibacter hansenii as leaching organisms. During the cultivation, the pH decreased as a result of organic acid production (mainly acetic and gluconic acid). Thus, the underlying mechanism of the triband dye solubilisation is probably linked to the carboxyl-functionality or a proton excess. In accordance with the higher solubility of REE-oxides compared to REE-phosphates and -aluminates, the red dye Y 2 O 3 :Eu 2+ containing relatively expensive REE was shown to be preferentially solubilized. These results show that it is possible to dissolve the REE-compounds of FP with the help of microbial processes. Moreover, they provide the basis for the development of an eco-friendly alternative to the currently applied methods that use strong inorganic acids or toxic

  8. Occurrence of Cellulose-Producing Gluconacetobacter spp. in Fruit Samples and Kombucha Tea, and Production of the Biopolymer.

    PubMed

    Neera; Ramana, Karna Venkata; Batra, Harsh Vardhan

    2015-06-01

    Cellulose producing bacteria were isolated from fruit samples and kombucha tea (a fermented beverage) using CuSO4 solution in modified Watanabe and Yamanaka medium to inhibit yeasts and molds. Six bacterial strains showing cellulose production were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain DFBT, Ga. xylinus strain dfr-1, Gluconobacter oxydans strain dfr-2, G. oxydans strain dfr-3, Acetobacter orientalis strain dfr-4, and Gluconacetobacter intermedius strain dfr-5. All the cellulose-producing bacteria were checked for the cellulose yield. A potent cellulose-producing bacterium, i.e., Ga. xylinus strain DFBT based on yield (cellulose yield 5.6 g/L) was selected for further studies. Cellulose was also produced in non- conventional media such as pineapple juice medium and hydrolysed corn starch medium. A very high yield of 9.1 g/L cellulose was obtained in pineapple juice medium. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) analysis of the bacterial cellulose showed the characteristic peaks. Soft cellulose with a very high water holding capacity was produced using limited aeration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze the surface characteristics of normal bacterial cellulose and soft cellulose. The structural analysis of the polymer was performed using (13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). More interfibrillar space was observed in the case of soft cellulose as compared to normal cellulose. This soft cellulose can find potential applications in the food industry as it can be swallowed easily without chewing.

  9. Kombucha: a dubious "cure".

    PubMed

    Majchrowicz, M

    1995-05-01

    The kombucha (or Manchurian) mushroom has numerous claims of "significant" health improvements, yet there is no research or any basic evidence to back up the claims. According to folklore, the kombucha is a super immune booster that can fight many ailments, including AIDS, cancer, arthritis, constipation, and more. However, there is concern about the safety of kombucha, which is not really a mushroom but a yeast culture. Since the culture must grow at room temperature for seven to ten days, contamination and growth of other organisms can take place. The tea's original ingredients include caffeine and large amounts of sugar. These may account for the increased energy some individuals have claimed. Some stories state miraculous results. Other accounts mention no improvement in general well-being.

  10. Kombucha fermentation and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Sreeramulu, G; Zhu, Y; Knol, W

    2000-06-01

    Kombucha was prepared in a tea broth (0.5% w/v) supplemented with sucrose (10% w/v) by using a commercially available starter culture. The pH decreased steadily from 5 to 2.5 during the fermentation while the weight of the "tea fungus" and the OD of the tea broth increased through 4 days of the fermentation and remained fairly constant thereafter. The counts of acetic acid-producing bacteria and yeasts in the broth increased up to 4 days of fermentation and decreased afterward. The antimicrobial activity of Kombucha was investigated against a number of pathogenic microorganisms. Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Yersinia enterolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermis, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus cereus, Helicobacterpylori, and Listeria monocytogenes were found to be sensitive to Kombucha. According to the literature on Kombucha, acetic acid is considered to be responsible for the inhibitory effect toward a number of microbes tested, and this is also valid in the present study. However, in this study, Kombucha proved to exert antimicrobial activities against E. coli, Sh. sonnei, Sal. typhimurium, Sal. enteritidis, and Cm. jejuni, even at neutral pH and after thermal denaturation. This finding suggests the presence of antimicrobial compounds other than acetic acid and large proteins in Kombucha.

  11. Antibacterial Activity of Polyphenolic Fraction of Kombucha Against Enteric Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Debanjana; Bhattacharya, Semantee; Patra, Madhu Manti; Chakravorty, Somnath; Sarkar, Soumyadev; Chakraborty, Writachit; Koley, Hemanta; Gachhui, Ratan

    2016-12-01

    The emergence of multi-drug-resistant enteric pathogens has prompted the scientist community to explore the therapeutic potentials of traditional foods and beverages. The present study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of Kombucha, a fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella Typhimurium followed by the identification of the antibacterial components present in Kombucha. The antibacterial activity was evaluated by determining the inhibition zone diameter, minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. Kombucha fermented for 14 days showed maximum activity against the bacterial strains. Its ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most effective upon sequential solvent extraction of the 14-day Kombucha. This potent ethyl acetate extract was then subjected to thin layer chromatography for further purification of antibacterial ingredients which led to the isolation of an active polyphenolic fraction. Catechin and isorhamnetin were detected as the major antibacterial compounds present in this polyphenolic fraction of Kombucha by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Catechin, one of the primary antibacterial polyphenols in tea was also found to be present in Kombucha. But isorhamnetin is not reported to be present in tea, which may thereby suggest the role of fermentation process of black tea for its production in Kombucha. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the presence of isorhamnetin in Kombucha. The overall study suggests that Kombucha can be used as a potent antibacterial agent against entero-pathogenic bacterial infections, which mainly is attributed to its polyphenolic content.

  12. [The Kombucha mushroom: two different opinions].

    PubMed

    Gamundi, R; Valdivia, M

    1995-01-01

    Positive and negative views of the Kombucha mushroom, a popular remedy in Asia, are expressed. The Kombucha mushroom, used for centuries, is believed to have antibiotic tendencies and to strengthen the immune and metabolic systems. Studies show that the tea, made from fermented fungus, has high levels of B vitamins. Caution should be used during fermentation because exposing the fungus to sunlight may adversely affect the process. The mold in which the fungus grows may contain aspergillus, a fungal infection which may be fatal to HIV-positive persons. The tea is being commercialized as a stimulant of the immune system but is unpopular in the U.S. due to its toxicity risks. Public awareness messages must convey the danger of overstimulating the immune system of HIV-positive patients, whose immune systems are already overstimulated. Furthermore, the process of fermentation may encourage the growth of other organisms which produce medical complications in HIV-positive patients.

  13. Kombucha--toxicity alert.

    PubMed

    The Kombucha mushroom, also known as Manchurian mushroom, is a mail-order product touted to lower blood pressure and raise T-cell counts. No controlled trials have been conducted to test these claims. Aspergillus, a mold that may grow on the Kombucha mushroom, attacks the brain and may be fatal to persons with weakened immune systems. Reported toxicity reactions have included stomach problems and yeast infections. Taking Kombucha in combination with other drugs may affect the drugs potency.

  14. Green tea epigallo-catechin-galleate ameliorates the development of obliterative airway disease.

    PubMed

    Liang, Olin D; Kleibrink, Bjoern E; Schuette-Nuetgen, Katharina; Khatwa, Umakanth U; Mfarrej, Bechara; Subramaniam, Meera

    2011-09-01

    Lung transplantation has the worst outcome compared to all solid organ transplants due to chronic rejection known as obliterative bronchiolitis (OB). Pathogenesis of OB is a complex interplay of alloimmune-dependent and -independent factors, which leads to the development of inflammation, fibrosis, and airway obliteration that have been resistant to therapy. The alloimmune-independent inflammatory pathway has been the recent focus in the pathogenesis of rejection, suggesting that targeting this may offer therapeutic benefits. As a potent anti-inflammatory agent, epigallo-catechin-galleate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, has been very effective in ameliorating inflammation in a variety of diseases, providing the rationale for its use in this study in a murine heterotopic tracheal allograft model of OB. Mice treated with EGCG had reduced inflammation, with significantly less neutrophil and macrophage infiltration and significantly reduced fibrosis. On further investigation into the mechanisms, inflammatory cytokines keratinocyte (KC), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), involved in neutrophil recruitment, were reduced in the EGCG-treated mice. In addition, monocyte chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was significantly reduced by EGCG treatment. Antifibrotic cytokine interferon-γ-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) was increased and profibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was reduced, further characterizing the antifibrotic effects of EGCG. These findings suggest that EGCG has great potential in ameliorating the development of obliterative airway disease.

  15. A study on toxicity of gasoline and GM-10 on liver of mice and it's amelioration by black tea extract.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ramtej Jayram; Dave, Manjeet; Mathuria, Neeta

    2008-01-01

    The aim of present study is to investigate the ameliorative effect of black tea extract on gasoline and GM-10 induced toxicity in liver of mice. Eighty healthy male mice weighing 38-40 g approximately were divided into eight groups which included untreated control and various treated groups. Mice were treated with Gasoline 462 mg/kg/day and GM-10 low dose (206 mg/kg/day) and high dose (412 mg/kg/day) subcutaneously for 30 days. Black tea extract was given as 2 g/100 mL drinking water (2% w/v) instead of pure drinking water. All the animals were sacrificed on 31st day by cervical dislocation and livers were isolated and weighed. Parameters such as lipid peroxidation, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione and total ascorbic acid were studied. The results revealed dose-dependent toxicity of gasoline and GM-10 on liver. Administration of black tea extract ameliorates this toxicity of gasoline and GM-10 in liver of mice. This proves the effective ameliorative effect of black tea extract.

  16. Dietary Supplement of Large Yellow Tea Ameliorates Metabolic Syndrome and Attenuates Hepatic Steatosis in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Yun; Li, Daxiang; Guruvaiah, Ponmari; Xu, Na; Xie, Zhongwen

    2018-01-01

    Yellow tea has been widely recognized for its health benefits. However, its effects and mechanism are largely unknown. The current study investigated the mechanism of dietary supplements of large yellow tea and its effects on metabolic syndrome and the hepatic steatosis in male db/db mice. Our data showed that dietary supplements of large yellow tea and water extract significantly reduced water intake and food consumption, lowered the serum total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and significantly reduced blood glucose level and increased glucose tolerance in db/db mice when compared to untreated db/db mice. In addition, the dietary supplement of large yellow tea prevented the fatty liver formation and restored the normal hepatic structure of db/db mice. Furthermore, the dietary supplement of large yellow tea obviously reduced the lipid synthesis related to gene fatty acid synthase, the sterol regulatory element-binding transcription factor 1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α, as well as fatty acid synthase and sterol response element-binding protein 1 expression, while the lipid catabolic genes were not altered in the liver of db/db mice. This study substantiated that the dietary supplement of large yellow tea has potential as a food additive for ameliorating type 2 diabetes-associated symptoms. PMID:29329215

  17. Kombucha might be promising probiotics for consumption on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyrovska, Natalia; Foing, Bernard H.

    The sanitization at permanently manned lunar bases and consuming germ-free food in a concert with effect of lunar stressors may result in crews disorders, including inflammatory and atopic states and decrease of resistance to indigenous pathogens which present in human organism in suppressed state. The administration of live microbial supplements with presumptive health benefits on human physiology might be reasonable solution to prevent disbacteriosis. Many of microbial species are associated with the fermentation of dairy products, however, they have a short self-life and so far unpractical to be used at lunar habitation. The popular "Tea mushroom" or "Kombucha Tea" is a probiotics proven by FDA that many people are now taking in health promoting diets to detoxify and revitalize the organism (Danielian, 1993; Sreeramulu et al., 2001). Kombucha is composed by symbiotic bacteria and yeasts, surrounded by a permeable membrane. The Kombucha culture is a tiny biochemical factory, producing organic acids, amino acids, enzymes, polyphenols, antibiotic substances, vitamins, enzymes as well as some other products beneficial for human health. Within the ages the Kombucha Tea has been consumed by practically all nations in Far East and now in Eastern Europe and America due to probiotic properties, and within this period the Kombucha microbial ecosystem has been selected to be remarkably adaptive to culturing conditions and resistant to adverse factors. Metagenomic approaches in a study of microbial ecosystems will allow to reconstruct the Kombucha microbiome and to elucidate unknown species and genes on the base of bioinformatics programs. Compared with Kombucha wild type, metabolically engineered strains, expected to exhibit broader substrate specificity, utilizing sugars from waste material which will be used for Kombucha fermentation. References 1. Danielian L.T. (1993) Tea fungus. Publ. House "Armenia", 112 pp. 2. Palmer C., Bik E.M., DiGiulio D.B., Relman D.A., Brown P

  18. Ameliorative Influence of Green Tea Extract on Copper Nanoparticle-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Marwa A.; Khalaf, A. A.; Galal, Mona K.; Ogaly, Hanan A.; H. M. Hassan, Azza

    2015-09-01

    The potential toxicity of copper nanoparticles (CNPs) to the human health and environment remains a critical issue. In the present study, we investigated the protective influence of an aqueous extract of green tea leaves (GTE) against CNPs-induced (20-30 nm) hepatotoxicity. Four different groups of rats were used: group I was the control, group II received CNPs (40 mg/kg BW), group III received CNPs plus GTE, and group IV received GTE alone. We highlighted the hepatoprotective effect of GTE against CNPs toxicity through monitoring the alteration of liver enzyme activity, antioxidant defense mechanism, histopathological alterations, and DNA damage evaluation. The rats that were given CNPs only had a highly significant elevation in liver enzymes, alteration in oxidant-antioxidant balance, and severe pathological changes. In addition, we detected a significant elevation of DNA fragmentation percentage, marked DNA laddering, and significance over expression of both caspase-3 and Bax proteins. The findings for group III clarify the efficacy of GTE as a hepatoprotectant on CNPs through improving the liver enzyme activity, antioxidant status, as well as suppressing DNA fragmentation and the expression of the caspase-3 and Bax proteins. In conclusion, GTE was proved to be a potential hepatoprotective additive as it significantly ameliorates the hepatotoxicity and apoptosis induced by CNPs.

  19. Oak kombucha protects against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Cabral, B D; Larrosa-Pérez, M; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Moreno-Jiménez, M R; González-Laredo, R F; Rutiaga-Quiñones, J G; Gamboa-Gómez, C I; Rocha-Guzmán, N E

    2017-06-25

    Black tea infusion is the common substrate for preparing kombucha; however other sources such as oak leaves infusions can be used for the same purpose. Almost any white oak species have been used for medicinal applications by some ethnic groups in Mexico and could be also suitable for preparing kombucha analogues from oak (KAO). The objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant activity and anti-inflammatory effects of KAO by examining its modulation ability on macrophage-derived TNF-alpha and IL-6. Herbal infusions from oak and black tea were fermented by kombucha consortium during seven days at 28 °C. Chemical composition was determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The antioxidant activity of samples against oxidative damage caused by H 2 O 2 in monocytes activated (macrophages) was explored. Additionally, it was determined the anti-inflammatory activity using lipopolysaccharide (LPS) - stimulated macrophages; in particular, the nitric oxide (NO), TNF-alpha, and IL-6 production was assessed. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly reduced by the sample treatment. Likewise, NO production was lower in treatment with kombucha and KAO compared with LPS-stimulated macrophages. Fermented beverages of oak effectively down-regulated the production of NO, while pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-6) in macrophages were stimulated with LPS. Additionally, phytochemical compounds present in KAO decrease oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the antioxidant impact of ginger-based kombucha on the murine breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Salafzoon, Samaneh; Mahmoodzadeh Hosseini, Hamideh; Halabian, Raheleh

    2017-10-21

    Background Abnormal metabolism is a common event in cancerous cells. For example, the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, particularly due to aerobic respiration during invasive stage, results in cancer progression. Herein, the impact of kombucha tea prepared from ginger on the alteration of antioxidant agents was assessed in the breast cancer animal model. Methods Two types of kombucha tea with or without ginger were administered to BALB/c mice before and after tumor challenge. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were evaluated in tumor, liver and kidney. Results Administration of kombucha ginger tea significantly decreased catalase activity as well as GSH and MDA level in tumor homogenate (p<0.001). A significant decrease in SOD activity and increase in MDA quantity was determined in the kidney which had received kombucha ginger tea (p<0.01). Conclusions The consumption of kombucha prepared from ginger could exert minor antioxidant impacts by balancing multi antioxidant factors in different tissues in the breast cancer models.

  1. Green Tea Potentially Ameliorates Bisphenol A-Induced Oxidative Stress: An In Vitro and In Silico Study

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Hiral; Verma, R. J.; Patel, Saumya; Jasrai, Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was an attempt to elucidate oxidative stress induced by bisphenol A on erythrocytes and its amelioration by green tea extract. For this, venous blood samples from healthy human adults were collected in EDTA vials and used for preparation of erythrocytes suspension. When erythrocyte suspensions were treated with different concentrations of BPA/H2O2, a dose-dependent increase in hemolysis occurred. Similarly, when erythrocytes suspensions were treated with either different concentrations of H2O2 (0.05–0.25 mM) along with BPA (50 μg/mL) or 0.05 mM H2O2 along with different concentrations of BPA (50–250 μg/mL), dose-dependent significant increase in hemolysis occurred. The effect of BPA and H2O2 was found to be additive. For the confirmation, binding capacity of bisphenol A with erythrocyte proteins (hemoglobin, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) was inspected using molecular docking tool, which showed presence of various hydrogen bonds of BPA with the proteins. The present data clearly indicates that BPA causes oxidative stress in a similar way as H2O2 . Concurrent addition of different concentrations (10–50 μg/mL) of green tea extract to reaction mixture containing high dose of bisphenol A (250 μg/mL) caused concentration-dependent amelioration in bisphenol A-induced hemolysis. The effect was significant (P < 0.05). It is concluded that BPA-induced oxidative stress could be significantly mitigated by green tea extract. PMID:25180096

  2. Kombucha brewing under the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code: risk analysis and processing guidance.

    PubMed

    Nummer, Brian A

    2013-11-01

    Kombucha is a fermented beverage made from brewed tea and sugar. The taste is slightly sweet and acidic and it may have residual carbon dioxide. Kombucha is consumed in many countries as a health beverage and it is gaining in popularity in the U.S. Consequently, many retailers and food service operators are seeking to brew this beverage on site. As a fermented beverage, kombucha would be categorized in the Food and Drug Administration model Food Code as a specialized process and would require a variance with submission of a food safety plan. This special report was created to assist both operators and regulators in preparing or reviewing a kombucha food safety plan.

  3. Amelioration of iron toxicity: A mechanism for aluminum-induced growth stimulation in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Hajiboland, Roghieh; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Tolrà, Roser

    2013-11-01

    Tea plants (Camellia sinensis) are well adapted to acid soils with high Al availability. These plants not only accumulate high leaf Al concentrations, but also respond to Al with growth stimulation. Decreased oxidative stress has been associated with this effect. Why tea plants not exposed to Al suffer from oxidative stress has not been clarified. In this study, hydroponically grown tea plants treated with 0 to 300 μM Al were analyzed for growth, Al and Fe accumulation, and Al distribution by means of morin and hematoxylin staining. Roots of control plants stained black with hematoxylin. This indicates the formation of a Fe-hematoxylin complex. Young leaves of controls accumulated more than 1000 mg Fe kg(-1) dry weight. This concentration is above the Fe-toxicity threshold in most species. Supply of Al stimulated growth and reduced Fe uptake and transport. These results indicate that Al-induced growth stimulation might be due to alleviation of a latent Fe toxicity occurring in tea plants without Al supply. © 2013.

  4. Titration and HPLC Characterization of Kombucha Fermentation: A Laboratory Experiment in Food Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Breanna; Lawton, Nicole M.; Tachibana, Sean R.; Swartz, Natasja A.; Hall, W. Paige

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the many constituents that make up our food, whether they are desirable (vitamins, antioxidants, nutrients) or undesirable (pesticides, toxins), is one of the most practical applications of chemistry. In this study, kombucha, a popular fermented tea beverage, was analyzed using acid-base titration and high-performance liquid…

  5. Lactic acid bacteria: promising supplements for enhancing the biological activities of kombucha.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Nguyen Khoi; Dong, Ngan Thi Ngoc; Nguyen, Huong Thuy; Le, Phu Hong

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha is sweetened black tea that is fermented by a symbiosis of bacteria and yeast embedded within a cellulose membrane. It is considered a health drink in many countries because it is a rich source of vitamins and may have other health benefits. It has previously been reported that adding lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus) strains to kombucha can enhance its biological functions, but in that study only lactic acid bacteria isolated from kefir grains were tested. There are many other natural sources of lactic acid bacteria. In this study, we examined the effects of lactic acid bacteria from various fermented Vietnamese food sources (pickled cabbage, kefir and kombucha) on kombucha's three main biological functions: glucuronic acid production, antibacterial activity and antioxidant ability. Glucuronic acid production was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, antibacterial activity was assessed by the agar-well diffusion method and antioxidant ability was evaluated by determining the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging capacity. Four strains of food-borne pathogenic bacteria were used in our antibacterial experiments: Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19111, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778. Our findings showed that lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from kefir are superior to those from other sources for improving glucuronic acid production and enhancing the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of kombucha. This study illustrates the potential of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from kefir as biosupplements for enhancing the bioactivities of kombucha.

  6. [Dr. Sklenar's Kombucha mushroom infusion--a biological cancer therapy. Documentation No. 18].

    PubMed

    Hauser, S P

    1990-02-27

    Kombucha, a fungal infusion, is a 'symbiotic mixture' of bacteria, yeasts, tea and sugar. A number of components are listed, but exact analyses are not published. On the basis of 'thorough detoxification', Kombucha is claimed to be a prophylactic and therapeutic agent in countless diseases, such as rheumatism, intestinal disorders, ageing and cancer. All 'stages of the Sklenar blood picture' have to be treated with Kombucha Drink, Kombucha Drops, coli preparations and Gelum oral-rd for a period of months. A litre-bottle costs 13 DM, the blood analysis 150 Sfr. In the 1960's Dr. R. Sklenar developed a 'biological cancer therapy with Kombucha as the main agent' and his own system of diagnosing cancer. Sklenar's diagnosis of cancer is based on iris diagnosis and demonstration of the causative organism by means of a 'Blood picture according to Dr. Sklenar'. He claims, on one hand, that cancer is only one of the many metabolic diseases and, on the other, that viruses, in his view parasitic microorganisms in general, are responsible for the pathogenesis of cancer. No preclinical and nor investigations are available, as 'success has proved him (Dr. Sklenar) to be right'. The seven 'case histories' described have no solid medical data. There is so far no evidence to support the claim that Kombucha offers 'effective biological treatment of cancer'.

  7. Effects of blending wheatgrass juice on enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of traditional kombucha beverage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tzu-Ying; Li, Jia-Shiun; Chen, Chinshuh

    2015-12-01

    Traditional kombucha is a fermented black tea extract and sugar. Sweetened black tea (10% w/v) and wheatgrass juice (WGJ) were mixed in various ratios and used as fermentation substrate for enhancing phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. Starter, comprising of yeast (Dekkera bruxellensis) and acetic acid bacteria (Gluconacetobacter rhaeticus and Gluconobacter roseus), was inoculated at 20% (v/v), and fermented statically at 29 ± 1°C for 12 days. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of the modified kombucha were higher than those of traditional preparations. All WGJ-blended kombucha preparations were characterized as having higher concentrations of various phenolic compounds such as gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, and chlorogenic acid as compared to traditional ones. Addition of WGJ resulted in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging ability of kombucha being > 90%, while the oxygen radical absorbance capacity increased from 5.0 μmol trolox equivalents/mL to 12.8 μmol trolox equivalents/mL as the ratio of WGJ increased from 0% to 67% (v/v). The highest antioxidant activity was obtained using a 1:1 (v/v) black tea decoction to WGJ ratio and 3 days of fermentation, producing various types of phenolic acids. These results suggest that intake of fermented black tea enhanced with wheatgrass juice is advantageous over traditional kombucha formulas in terms of providing various complementary phenolics and might have more potential to reduce oxidative stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Characterization of cellulose production by a Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain from Kombucha.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Vu Tuan; Flanagan, Bernadine; Gidley, Michael J; Dykes, Gary A

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this work were to characterize and improve cellulose production by a Gluconoacetobacter xylinus strain isolated from Kombucha and determine the purity and some structural features of the cellulose from this strain. Cellulose yield in tea medium with both black tea and green tea and in Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium under both static and agitated cultures was compared. In the tea medium, the highest cellulose yield was obtained with green tea (approximately 0.20 g/L) rather than black tea (approximately 0.14 g/L). Yield in HS was higher (approximately 0.28 g/L) but did not differ between static and agitated incubation. (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy indicated that the cellulose is pure (free of acetan) and has high crystallinity, respectively. Cellulose yield was improved by changing the type and level of carbon and nitrogen source in the HS medium. A high yield of approximately 2.64 g/L was obtained with mannitol at 20 g/L and corn steep liquor at 40 g/L in combination. In the tea medium, tea at a level of 3 g/L gave the highest cellulose yield and the addition of 3 g/L of tea to the HS medium increased cellulose yield to 3.34 g/L. In conclusion, the G. xylinus strain from Kombucha had different cellulose-producing characteristics than previous strains isolated from fruit. Cellulose was produced in a pure form and showed high potential applicability. Our studies extensively characterized cellulose production from a G. xylinus strain from Kombucha for the first time, indicating both similarities and differences to strains from different sources.

  9. Antibacterial activity of polyphenolic fraction of Kombucha against Vibrio cholerae: targeting cell membrane.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, D; Ghosh, D; Bhattacharya, S; Sarkar, S; Karmakar, P; Koley, H; Gachhui, R

    2018-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the mechanism of antibacterial activity of a polyphenolic fraction, composed of mainly catechin and isorhamnetin, previously isolated from Kombucha, a 14-day fermented beverage of sugared black tea, against the enteropathogen Vibrio cholerae N16961. Bacterial growth was found to be seriously impaired by the polyphenolic fraction in a dose-dependent manner. Scanning Electron Microscopy demonstrated morphological alterations in bacterial cells when exposed to the polyphenolic fraction in a concentration-dependent manner. Permeabilization assays confirmed that the fraction disrupted bacterial membrane integrity in both time- and dose-dependent manners, which were proportional to the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, each of the polyphenols catechin and isorhamnetin showed the ability to permeate bacterial cell membranes by generating oxidative stress, thereby suggesting their role in the antibacterial potential of Kombucha. Thus, the basic mechanism of antibacterial activity of the Kombucha polyphenolic fraction against V. cholerae involved bacterial membrane permeabilization and morphological changes, which might be due to the generation of intracellular ROS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the investigation of antibacterial mechanism of Kombucha, which is mostly attributed to its polyphenolic content. The emergence of multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae strains has hindered an efficient anti-Vibrio therapy. This study has demonstrated the membrane damage-mediated antibacterial mechanism of Kombucha, a popular fermented beverage of sugared tea, which is mostly attributed to its polyphenolic content. This study also implies the exploitation of Kombucha as a potential new source of bioactive polyphenols against V. cholerae. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Characteristic of physical, chemical, and microbiological kombucha from various varieties of apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubaidah, E.; Yurista, S.; Rahmadani, N. R.

    2018-03-01

    Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage with the addition of kombucha starter also called SCOBY (Symbiotic Culture Of Bacteria and Yeast). The purpose of this research was to know the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of kombucha from various varieties of apple kombucha. The study used Randomized Block Design (RAK) with one factor of apple varieties (Anna, Fuji, Granny Smith, Manalagi, Red Delicious, Rome Beauty, Royal Gala). Each treatment was repeated three times. Data was analyzed with ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The best treatment was selected using Multiple Attribute method. Data of hedonic test was analysed using Friedman Test. The best treatment was obtained on Fuji varieties of kombucha apple with the characteristics as follows: total acid 1.33%; pH 2.95; Total phenol 268.57 μg/ml GAE; Total sugar 6.74%; Antibacterial activity against S.aureus 21.30 mm; Antibacterial activity E.coli 21.20 mm; Antioxidant activity 35.62%; Organoleptic aroma 3.55, taste 3.3; Color 3.4 (on a scale of 1-5)

  11. Tea polysaccharide inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells and ameliorates ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanhuan; Yin, Dan; Liu, Titi; Chen, Fei; Chen, Yingli; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Tea drinking has positive effects on bone health and may prevent and treat osteoporosis, especially in older and postmenopausal women. Tea polysaccharide (TPS) is a major bioactive constituent in tea. Despite its profound effects on human health, whether TPS has anti-osteoporotic effects remains largely unknown. As such, we investigated the anti-osteoporotic effects of TPS. In vitro, TPS effects on osteoclastogenesis were examined using osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells. TPS effects on osteoclastogenesis-related expression of marker genes and proteins were determined by gene expression and immunoblotting analyses, respectively. For in vivo studies, 12-week-old female Wistar rats were divided randomly into a sham-operated group (sham) and four ovariectomized (OVX) subgroups: OVX with vehicle (model) and OVX with low-, medium-, and high-dose TPS (0.32, 0.64 and 1.28 g/kg body weight/day, respectively). TPS was administered intragastrically to rats for 13 weeks. Body weight, blood biochemical parameters, organ weight, organ coefficients, femoral length, bone mineral density (BMD), biomechanical properties, and bone microarchitecture were documented. TPS inhibited osteoclast differentiation significantly and dose-dependently, and its inhibitory effect was not due to toxicity to RAW264.7 cells. TPS suppressed expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes and proteins significantly. In in vivo studies, medium-dose TPS treatment ameliorated OVX-induced calcium loss significantly. Low-dose TPS treatment decreased the activity of acid phosphatase (ACP) in OVX rats significantly. In addition, TPS treatment improved other blood biochemical parameters and femoral biomechanical properties to a certain extent. More importantly, TPS treatment ameliorated bone microarchitecture in OVX rats strikingly because of increased cortical bone thickness and trabecular bone area in the femur. TPS can inhibit receptor activator nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL

  12. Green Tea Polyphenols, Mimicking the Effects of Dietary Restriction, Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Kidney Injury via Regulating Autophagy Flux

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xiao; Yi, Weijie; Zhang, Piwei; Wu, Nannan; Yan, Qiaoqiao; Yang, Hui; Tian, Chong; Xiang, Siyun; Du, Miying; Getachew Assefa, Eskedar; Zuo, Xuezhi; Ying, Chenjiang

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies reveal that Western dietary patterns contribute to chronic kidney disease, whereas dietary restriction (DR) or dietary polyphenols such as green tea polyphenols (GTPs) can ameliorate the progression of kidney injury. This study aimed to investigate the renal protective effects of GTPs and explore the underlying mechanisms. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: standard diet (STD), DR, high-fat diet (HFD), and three diets plus 200 mg/kg(bw)/day GTPs, respectively. After 18 weeks, HFD group exhibited renal injuries by increased serum cystatin C levels and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity, which can be ameliorated by GTPs. Meanwhile, autophagy impairment as denoted by autophagy-lysosome related proteins, including LC3-II, Beclin-1, p62, cathepsin B, cathepsin D and LAMP-1, was observed in HFD group, whereas DR or GTPs promoted renal autophagy activities and GTPs ameliorated HFD-induced autophagy impairment. In vitro, autophagy flux suppression was detected in palmitic acid (PA)-treated human proximal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2), which was ameliorated by epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). Furthermore, GTPs (or EGCG) elevated phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in the kidneys of HFD-treated rats and in PA-treated HK-2 cells. These findings revealed that GTPs mimic the effects of DR to induce autophagy and exert a renal protective effect by alleviating HFD-induced autophagy suppression. PMID:28505110

  13. Effects of chronic kombucha ingestion on open-field behaviors, longevity, appetitive behaviors, and organs in c57-bl/6 mice: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A M; Burleson, L E; Holmes, A K; Geist, C R

    2000-09-01

    Kombucha is a lightly fermented tea beverage popularly consumed as a self-prescribed folk-remedy for numerous ailments. Kombucha is claimed to enhance cognition, aid weight loss, and prolong life. This pilot study reports longevity, general health, and open-field exploratory behavioral outcomes from a 3-y longitudinal study of 64 C57-BL/6 mice (males and females), half of which chronically drank kombucha, and all of which experienced natural mortality. Compared by MANOVA to controls, mice that drank kombucha showed greater vertical exploration (P = 0.001) and a sex-interactive effect in novel object manipulation (P = 0.049). MANOVA of kombucha-drinking mice compared to controls detected differences in appetitive behaviors (food consumption, P < 0.001; beverage consumption, P = 0. 008), and gross body weight (P < 0.001). Appetitive behaviors changed with the addition of voluntary exercise on a running wheel, with differing patterns of change noted for males and females. Both male and female mice who drank kombucha lived longer than controls (P < 0.001), with the greatest variability among the male mice (sex interactive effect, P < 0.001). Comparable effects and mechanisms in humans remain uncertain, as do health safety issues, because serious health problems and fatalities have been reported and attributed to drinking kombucha.

  14. Unraveling microbial ecology of industrial-scale Kombucha fermentations by metabarcoding and culture-based methods.

    PubMed

    Coton, Monika; Pawtowski, Audrey; Taminiau, Bernard; Burgaud, Gaëtan; Deniel, Franck; Coulloumme-Labarthe, Laurent; Fall, Abdoulaye; Daube, Georges; Coton, Emmanuel

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha, historically an Asian tea-based fermented drink, has recently become trendy in Western countries. Producers claim it bears health-enhancing properties that may come from the tea or metabolites produced by its microbiome. Despite its long history of production, microbial richness and dynamics have not been fully unraveled, especially at an industrial scale. Moreover, the impact of tea type (green or black) on microbial ecology was not studied. Here, we compared microbial communities from industrial-scale black and green tea fermentations, still traditionally carried out by a microbial biofilm, using culture-dependent and metabarcoding approaches. Dominant bacterial species belonged to Acetobacteraceae and to a lesser extent Lactobacteriaceae, while the main identified yeasts corresponded to Dekkera, Hanseniaspora and Zygosaccharomyces during all fermentations. Species richness decreased over the 8-day fermentation. Among acetic acid bacteria, Gluconacetobacter europaeus, Gluconobacter oxydans, G. saccharivorans and Acetobacter peroxydans emerged as dominant species. The main lactic acid bacteria, Oenococcus oeni, was strongly associated with green tea fermentations. Tea type did not influence yeast community, with Dekkera bruxellensis, D. anomala, Zygosaccharomyces bailii and Hanseniaspora valbyensis as most dominant. This study unraveled a distinctive core microbial community which is essential for fermentation control and could lead to Kombucha quality standardization. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Matcha, a powdered green tea, ameliorates the progression of renal and hepatic damage in type 2 diabetic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Yamabe, Noriko; Kang, Ki Sung; Hur, Jong Moon; Yokozawa, Takako

    2009-08-01

    Matcha, a powdered green tea produced by grinding with a stone mill, has been popularly used in the traditional tea ceremony and foods in Japan. Matcha is well known to be richer in some nutritional elements and epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate than other green teas. In our previous study, epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate exhibited protective effects against renal damage in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we investigated the preventive effects of Matcha (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg/day) on the progression of hepatic and renal damage in type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. OLETF rats were orally administered Matcha for 16 weeks, and we assessed biochemical parameters in the serum, liver, and kidney and expression levels of major products of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), N(6)-(carboxylmethyl)lysine (CML) and N(6)-(carboxylethyl)lysine (CEL), receptor for AGE (RAGE), and sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs)-1 and -2. Serum total protein levels were significantly increased by Matcha administration, whereas the serum albumin and glycosylated protein levels as well as the renal glucose and triglyceride levels were only slightly or not at all affected. However, Matcha treatment significantly lowered the glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels in the serum and liver, renal AGE levels, and the serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels. In addition, Matcha supplementation resulted in decreases in the renal CML, CEL, and RAGE expressions as well as an increase in hepatic SREBP-2 expression, but not that of SREBP-1. These results suggest that Matcha protects against hepatic and renal damage through the suppression of renal AGE accumulation, by decreases in hepatic glucose, triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels, and by its antioxidant activities.

  16. Green Tea Polyphenols Ameliorate the Early Renal Damage Induced by a High-Fat Diet via Ketogenesis/SIRT3 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Weijie; Xie, Xiao; Du, Miying; Bu, Yongjun; Wu, Nannan; Yang, Hui; Tian, Chong; Xu, Fangyi; Xiang, Siyun; Zhang, Piwei; Chen, Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    Scope Several reports in the literature have suggested the renoprotective effects of ketone bodies and green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Our previous study found that GTP consumption could elevate the renal expression of the ketogenic rate-limiting enzyme, which was decreased by a high-fat diet (HFD) in rats. Here, we investigated whether ketogenesis can mediate renoprotection by GTPs against an HFD. Methods and Results Wistar rats were fed a standard or HFD with or without GTPs for 18 weeks. The renal oxidative stress level, kidney function, renal expression, and activity levels of mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthase 2 (HMGCS2) and sirtuin 3(SIRT3) were detected. The increased renal oxidative stress and the loss of renal function induced by the HFD were ameliorated by GTPs. Renal ketogenesis and SIRT3 expression and activity levels, which were reduced by the HFD, were restored by GTPs. In vitro, HEK293 cells were transfected with the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA HMGCS2. GTP treatment could upregulate HMGCS2 and SIRT3 expression. Although SIRT3 expression was not affected by HMGCS2 transfection, the 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) level and the acetyl-MnSOD (K122)/MnSOD ratio were reduced in HMGCS2-transfected cells in the context of H2O2. Conclusion The ketogenesis/SIRT3 pathway mediates the renoprotection of GTPs against the oxidative stress induced by an HFD. PMID:28814987

  17. Green tea extracts ameliorate high-fat diet-induced muscle atrophy in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 mice.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Shintaro; Ishino, Mayu; Kitazawa, Hidefumi; Yoto, Ai; Shimba, Yuki; Mochizuki, Yusuke; Unno, Keiko; Meguro, Shinichi; Tokimitsu, Ichiro; Miura, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Muscle atrophy (loss of skeletal muscle mass) causes progressive deterioration of skeletal function. Recently, excessive intake of fats was suggested to induce insulin resistance, followed by muscle atrophy. Green tea extracts (GTEs), which contain polyphenols such as epigallocatechin gallate, have beneficial effects on obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, but their effects against muscle atrophy are still unclear. Here, we found that GTEs prevented high-fat (HF) diet-induced muscle weight loss in senescence-accelerated mouse prone-8 (SAMP8), a murine model of senescence. SAMP8 mice were fed a control diet, an HF diet, or HF with 0.5% GTEs (HFGT) diet for 4 months. The HF diet induced muscle weight loss with aging (measured as quadriceps muscle weight), whereas GTEs prevented this loss. In HF diet-fed mice, blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations increased in comparison with the control group, and these mice had insulin resistance as determined by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). In these mice, serum concentrations of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2 (LECT2), which is known to induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, were elevated, and insulin signaling in muscle, as determined by the phosphorylation levels of Akt and p70 S6 kinases, tended to be decreased. In HFGT diet-fed mice, these signs of insulin resistance and elevation of serum LECT2 were not observed. Although our study did not directly show the effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, insulin resistance examined using HOMA-IR indicated an intervention effect of serum LECT2 on muscle weight, as revealed by partial correlation analysis. Accordingly, GTEs might have beneficial effects on age-related and HF diet-induced muscle weight loss, which correlates with insulin resistance and is accompanied by a change in serum LECT2.

  18. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Velićanski, Aleksandra S; Cvetković, Dragoljub D; Markov, Siniša L; Šaponjac, Vesna T Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J

    2014-12-01

    Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea ( Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl ( ˙ OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4-4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC 50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites.

  19. Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of the Beverage Obtained by Fermentation of Sweetened Lemon Balm
(Melissa officinalis L.) Tea with Symbiotic Consortium 
of Bacteria and Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Cvetković, Dragoljub D.; Markov, Siniša L.; Šaponjac, Vesna T. Tumbas; Vulić, Jelena J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Kombucha is a fermented tea beverage which is traditionally prepared by fermenting sweetened black or green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) with symbiotic consortium of bacteria and yeasts (SCOBY). In this study, lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was used as the only nitrogen source for kombucha fermentation. During the seven-day fermentation process, pH value, titratable acidity (TA), total phenolic content, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity against hydroxyl (˙OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radicals were measured to detect the connection between the fermentation time and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of lemon balm kombucha. Antibacterial activity of finished beverages with optimum acidity (TA=4–4.5 g/L), the value which is confirmed by long-time kombucha consumers, and enhanced acidity (TA=8.12 g/L) was tested against eleven wild bacterial strains. The results showed that lemon balm could be successfully used as an alternative to C. sinensis L. for kombucha fermentation. Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals of lemon balm fermentation broth were higher than those of traditional kombucha. Rosmarinic acid is the main phenolic compound of the lemon balm-based kombucha that probably provides biological activity of the beverage. Judging from the EC50 values, kombucha beverages exhibited higher antioxidant activities compared with C. sinensis L. and M. officinalis L. infusions, which can probably be ascribed to SCOBY metabolites. Lemon balm kombucha with both optimum and enhanced acidity showed antibacterial activity, which can be primarily ascribed to acetic acid, but also to some other tea components and SCOBY metabolites. PMID:27904315

  20. Chemometric approach to texture profile analysis of kombucha fermented milk products.

    PubMed

    Malbaša, Radomir; Jevrić, Lidija; Lončar, Eva; Vitas, Jasmina; Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Sanja; Milanović, Spasenija; Kovačević, Strahinja

    2015-09-01

    In the present work, relationships between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with various teas were investigated by using chemometric analysis. The presented data which describe numerically the textural characteristics (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and index of viscosity) were analysed. The quadratic correlation was determined between the textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained at fermentation temperatures of 40 and 43 °C, using milk with 0.8, 1.6 and 2.8% milk fat and kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint, stinging nettle, wild thyme and winter savory. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was performed to identify the similarities among the fermented products. The best mathematical models predicting the textural characteristics of investigated samples were developed. The results of this study indicate that textural characteristics of sample based on winter savory have a significant effect on textural characteristics of samples based on peppermint, stinging nettle and wild thyme, which can be very useful in the determination of products texture profile.

  1. Myocardial potency of Bio-tea against Isoproterenol induced myocardial damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Reema Orison; Shenoy, Chandrakala K

    2015-07-01

    Kombucha (Bio-tea) is a beverage produced by the fermentation of sugared black tea using a symbiotic association of bacteria and yeasts. Traditional claims about Kombucha report beneficial effects such as antibiotic properties, gastric regulation, relief from joint rheumatism and positive influence on the cholesterol level, arteriosclerosis, diabetes, and aging problems. The present investigation was carried out to understand the preventive effect of Kombucha on heart weight, blood glucose, total protein, lipid profile and cardiac markers in rats with myocardial damage induced using Isoproterenol. As Bio-tea is produced by fermenting tea, the parameters were compared in rats pre-treated with normal black tea and Bio-tea for 30 days followed by subcutaneous injection of Isoproterenol (85 mg/kg body weight). Normal rats as well as Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats were also used, which served as controls. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted control rats showed a significant increase in heart weight, blood glucose and cardiac markers and a decrease in plasma protein. Increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipids (LDL) and very low density lipids (VLDL) were also observed, while the high density lipid (HDL) content decreased. Bio-tea showed a higher preventive effect against myocardial infarction when compared to tea, as was observed by the significant reduction in heart weight, and blood glucose and increase in plasma albumin levels. Bio-tea significantly decreased cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL while simultaneously increasing the levels of HDL. Similarly a decrease in leakage of cardiac markers from the myocardium was also observed.

  2. Kombucha: a systematic review of the clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2003-04-01

    Kombucha has become a popular complementary remedy. The aim of this systematic review was to critically evaluate the evidence related to its efficacy and safety. Computerised literature searches were carried out to locate all human medical investigations of kombucha regardless of study design. Data were extracted and validated by the present author and are reported in narrative form. No clinical studies were found relating to the efficacy of this remedy. Several case reports and case series raise doubts about the safety of kombucha. They include suspected liver damage, metabolic acidosis and cutaneous anthrax infections. One fatality is on record. On the basis of these data it was concluded that the largely undetermined benefits do not outweigh the documented risks of kombucha. It can therefore not be recommended for therapeutic use. Copyright 2003 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  3. Symbiosis between microorganisms from kombucha and kefir: Potential significance to the enhancement of kombucha function.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiwei; Zhou, Feng; Ji, Baoping; Li, Bo; Luo, Yangchao; Yang, Li; Li, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter sp. A4 (G. sp. A4), which had strong ability to produce d-saccharic acid 1, 4 lactone (DSL), was the key functional bacteria isolated from the kombucha preserved. This paper investigated the interaction between G. sp. A4 and ten different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) obtained from kefir. The result suggested that the LAB promoted DSL production of G. sp. A4 to different extents, ranging from 4.86% to 86.70%. Symbiosis between G. sp. A4 and LAB was studied. LAB's metabolites, xylitol, and acetic acid, were utilized by G. sp. A4, and it promoted the growth of G. sp. A4 and yield of DSL. Therefore, in developing starter cultures for kombucha fermentation process, a mixed flora of LAB and G. sp. A4 would be the optimal combination.

  4. Manufacture of a beverage from cheese whey using a "tea fungus" fermentation.

    PubMed

    Belloso-Morales, Genette; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto

    2003-01-01

    Kombucha is a sour beverage reported to have potential health effects prepared from the fermentation of black tea and sugar with a "tea fungus", a symbiotic culture of acetic acid bacteria and yeasts. Although black tea is the preferred substrate for Kombucha fermentation, other beverages have also been tested as substrates with fair results. Cheese whey is a by-product with a good amount of fermentable lactose that has been used before in the production of beverages, so the objective of this study was to test three types of whey (fresh sweet, fresh acid and reconstituted sweet) in the elaboration of a fermented beverage using a kombucha culture as inoculum. The isolation and identification of bacteria and yeasts from the fermented tea and wheys was done along with the study of the rates of change in sugar consumption, acid production and pH decrease. Several species of acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter aceti subsp. aceti, Gluconobacter oxydans subsp. industrius, subsp. oxydans and Gluconoacetobacter xylinus) were isolated from the different kombuchas along with the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Brettanomyces bruxelensis. The main metabolic products in the fermented wheys included ethanol, lactic and acetic acids. A good growth was obtained in both sweet wheys in which a pH of 3.3 and a total acid content (mainly lactic and acetic acids) of 0.07 mol/l was reached after 96 h. The sweet whey fermented beverages contained a relatively low lactose concentration (< 12 g/l). The final ethanol content was low (5 g/l) in all the fermented wheys. The whey products were strongly sour and salty non sparkling beverages.

  5. New potentially antihypertensive peptides liberated in milk during fermentation with selected lactic acid bacteria and kombucha cultures.

    PubMed

    Elkhtab, Ebrahim; El-Alfy, Mohamed; Shenana, Mohamed; Mohamed, Abdelaty; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2017-12-01

    Compounds with the ability to inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) are used medically to treat human hypertension. The presence of such compounds naturally in food is potentially useful for treating the disease state. The goal of this study was to screen lactic acid bacteria, including species commonly used as dairy starter cultures, for the ability to produce new potent ACE-inhibiting peptides during milk fermentation. Strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Pediococcus acidilactici were tested in this study. Additionally, a symbiotic consortium of yeast and bacteria, used commercially to produce kombucha tea, was tested. Commercially sterile milk was inoculated with lactic acid bacteria strains and kombucha culture and incubated at 37°C for up to 72 h, and the liberation of ACE-inhibiting compounds during fermentation was monitored. Fermented milk was centrifuged and the supernatant (crude extract) was subjected to ultrafiltration using 3- and 10-kDa cut-off filters. Crude and ultrafiltered extracts were tested for ACE-inhibitory activity. The 10-kDa filtrate resulting from L. casei ATCC 7469 and kombucha culture fermentations (72 h) showed the highest ACE-inhibitory activity. Two-step purification of these filtrates was done using HPLC equipped with a reverse-phase column. Analysis of HPLC-purified fractions by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry identified several new peptides with potent ACE-inhibitory activities. Some of these peptides were synthesized, and their ACE-inhibitory activities were confirmed. Use of organisms producing these unique peptides in food fermentations could contribute positively to human health. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel Kombucha Beverage from Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, with Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects.

    PubMed

    Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Pantić, Milena; Matijašević, Danka; Miletić, Dunja; Lević, Steva; Nedović, Viktor; Niksic, Miomir

    2018-01-01

    Kombucha is a nonalcoholic beverage traditionally made by fermenting black tea using a combination of yeast and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) cultures. Ganoderma lucidum hot water extract (HWE) was used-to our knowledge for the first time-to prepare a novel, health-promoting kombucha product. During the 11-day fermentation, pH, total acidity, and the numbers of yeasts and AAB were monitored. It was found that sweetened G. lucidum HWE was a good medium for yeast and AAB growth. The desired acidity for the beverage was reached on the second day (3 g/L) of the fermentation process; the maximum established acidity was 22.8 ± 0.42 g/L. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that the vacuum-dried beverage is a mixture of various compounds such as polysaccharides, phenols, proteins, and lipids. Total phenolic content of the liquid sample was 4.91 ± 0.2338 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, whereas the vacuum-dried sample had a smaller amount of phenolics (2.107 ± 0.228 mg gallic acid equivalents/g). Established half-maximal effective concentrations for DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power were 22.8 ± 0.17 and 10.61 ± 0.34 mg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial testing revealed that activity does not originate solely from synthesized acetic acid. The liquid G. lucidum beverage was the most effective against the tested bacteria, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (0.04 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Rhodococcus equi, and a minimum bactericidal concentration (0.16 mg/mL) against Bacillus spizizenii, B. cereus, and R. equi. The vacuum-dried sample was less effective, with the lowest minimum bactericidal concentration against the Gram-positive bacteria R. equi (1.875 mg/mL) and against the Gram-negative bacteria Proteus hauseri (30 mg/mL).

  7. Green tea polyphenols ameliorate non-alcoholic fatty liver disease through upregulating AMPK activation in high fat fed Zucker fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yi; Kim, Jane; Cheng, Jing; Ong, Madeleine; Lao, Wei-Guo; Jin, Xing-Liang; Lin, Yi-Guang; Xiao, Linda; Zhu, Xue-Qiong; Qu, Xian-Qin

    2017-06-07

    To investigate protective effects and molecular mechanisms of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Male ZF rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 2 wk then treated with GTP (200 mg/kg) or saline (5 mL/kg) for 8 wk, with Zucker lean rat as their control. At the end of experiment, serum and liver tissue were collected for measurement of metabolic parameters, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), inflammatory cytokines and hepatic triglyceride and liver histology. Immunoblotting was used to detect phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c). Genetically obese ZF rats on a HFD presented with metabolic features of hepatic pathological changes comparable to human with NAFLD. GTP intervention decreased weight gain (10.1%, P = 0.052) and significantly lowered visceral fat (31.0%, P < 0.01). Compared with ZF-controls, GTP treatment significantly reduced fasting serum insulin, glucose and lipids levels. Reduction in serum ALT and AST levels (both P < 0.01) were observed in GTP-treated ZF rats. GTP treatment also attenuated the elevated TNFα and IL-6 in the circulation. The increased hepatic TG accumulation and cytoplasmic lipid droplet were attenuated by GTP treatment, associated with significantly increased expression of AMPK-Thr172 ( P < 0.05) and phosphorylated ACC and SREBP1c (both P < 0.05), indicating diminished hepatic lipogenesis and triglycerides out flux from liver in GTP treated rats. The protective effects of GTP against HFD-induced NAFLD in genetically obese ZF rats are positively correlated to reduction in hepatic lipogenesis through upregulating the AMPK pathway.

  8. Backyard Teas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Darrell D.

    1996-01-01

    Describes plants commonly found in residential areas that can be used for making tea: chicory, chickweed, red clover, goldenrod, gill-over-the-ground, pineapple weed, plantain, self-heal, sheep sorrel, and wild strawberry. Includes proper plant name, areas where the plant grows, identifying plant features, what part is used in making tea, and tea…

  9. Effect of sucrose concentration on the products of Kombucha fermentation on molasses.

    PubMed

    Malbaša, R; Lončar, E; Djurić, M; Došenović, I

    2008-06-01

    Fermentation of 1.5g/l of Indian black tea, sweetened with adequate quantities of molasses (containing approx. 70g/l, 50g/l and 35g/l of sucrose), was conducted using domestic Kombucha. Inoculation was performed with 10% of fermentation broth from a previous process. The fermentation in cylindrical vessels containing 2l of liquid phase, was carried out at 22±1°C for 14 days, with periodical sampling, to measure pH, content of acids (total, acetic and l-lactic), content of remaining sucrose, and the yield of biomass at the end of fermentation. A product with 70g/l sucrose from molasses corresponds to an optimal concentration of carbon source, which provided metabolites with high pH, a low content of less desired acetic acid, a high content of highly desired l-lactic acid, an acceptable content of total acids and the highest possible level of utilisation of sucrose. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Current evidence on physiological activity and expected health effects of kombucha fermented beverage.

    PubMed

    Vīna, Ilmāra; Semjonovs, Pāvels; Linde, Raimonds; Deniņa, Ilze

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of kombucha fermented tea (KT) has always been associated with different health benefits. Many personal experiences and testimonials of KT drinkers are available throughout the world on the ability of KT to protect against a vast number of metabolic and infectious diseases, but very little scientific evidence is available that validates the beneficial effects of KT. The aim of this review is to give an overview of the recent studies in search of experimental confirmation of the numerous KT health-promoting aspects cited previously. Analysis of the literature data is carried out in correspondence to the recent concepts of health protection's requirements. Attention is given to the active compounds in KT, responsible for the particular effect, and to the mechanisms of their actions. It is shown that KT can efficiently act in health prophylaxis and recovery due to four main properties: detoxification, antioxidation, energizing potencies, and promotion of depressed immunity. The recent experimental studies on the consumption of KT suggest that it is suitable for prevention against broad-spectrum metabolic and infective disorders. This makes KT attractive as a fermented functional beverage for health prophylaxis.

  11. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... symptoms of liver trouble, such as abdominal pain, dark urine, or jaundice. Except for decaffeinated green tea ... hard-of-hearing callers): 1-866-464-3615 Web site: nccih.nih.gov E-mail: info@nccih. ...

  12. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks.

  13. Anti-foot-and-mouth disease virus effects of Chinese herbal kombucha in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Naifang; Wu, Juncai; Lv, Lv; He, Jijun; Jiang, Shengjun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is sensitive to acids and can be inactivated by exposure to low pH conditions. Spraying animals at risk of infection with suspensions of acid-forming microorganisms has been identified as a potential strategy for preventing FMD. Kombucha is one of the most strongly acid-forming symbiotic probiotics and could thus be an effective agent with which to implement this strategy. Moreover, certain Chinese herbal extracts are known to have broad-spectrum antiviral effects. Chinese herbal kombucha can be prepared by fermenting Chinese herbal extracts with a kombucha culture. Previous studies demonstrated that Chinese herbal kombucha prepared in this way efficiently inhibits FMDV replication in vitro. To assess the inhibitory effects of Chinese herbal kombucha against FMDV in vitro, swine challenged by intramuscular injection with 1000 SID50 of swine FMDV serotype O strain O/China/99 after treatment with Chinese herbal kombucha were partially protected against infection, as demonstrated by a lack of clinical symptoms and qRT-PCR analysis. In a large scale field trial, spraying cattle in an FMD outbreak zone with kombucha protected against infection. Chinese herbal kombucha may be a useful probiotic agent for managing FMD outbreaks. PMID:26691487

  14. Clearance of free silica in rat lungs by spraying with chinese herbal kombucha.

    PubMed

    Fu, Nai-Fang; Luo, Chang-Hui; Wu, Jun-Cai; Zheng, Yan-Yan; Gan, Yong-Jin; Ling, Jian-An; Liang, Heng-Qiu; Liang, Dan-Yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-Qin; Li, Xian-Jun; Pan, Rui-Hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases.

  15. Clearance of Free Silica in Rat Lungs by Spraying with Chinese Herbal Kombucha

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Nai-fang; Luo, Chang-hui; Wu, Jun-cai; Zheng, Yan-yan; Gan, Yong-jin; Ling, Jian-an; Liang, Heng-qiu; Liang, Dan-yu; Xie, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qin; Li, Xian-jun; Pan, Rui-hui; Chen, Zuo-Xing; Jiang, Sheng-jun

    2013-01-01

    The effects of spraying with kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha were compared with treatments with tetrandrine in a rat silicosis model. Silica dust (50 mg) was injected into the lungs of rats, which were then treated with one of the experimental treatments for a month. The rats were then killed and the effects of the treatments were evaluated by examining the extent and severity of the histopathological lesions in the animals' lungs, measuring their organ coefficients and lung collagen contents, determining the dry and wet weights of their lungs, and measuring the free silica content of the dried lungs. In addition, lavage was performed on whole lungs taken from selected rats, and the numbers and types of cells in the lavage fluid were counted. The most effective treatment in terms of the ability to reduce lung collagen content and minimize the formation of pulmonary histopathological lesions was tetrandrine treatment, followed by Chinese herbal kombucha and non-Chinese herbal kombucha. However, the lavage fluid cell counts indicated that tetrandrine treatment had severe adverse effects on macrophage viability. This effect was much less pronounced for the kombucha and Chinese herbal kombucha treatments. Moreover, the free silica levels in the lungs of animals treated with Chinese herbal kombucha were significantly lower than those for any other silica-exposed group. These preliminary results indicate that spraying with Chinese herbal kombucha preparations can effectively promote the discharge of silica dust from lung tissues. Chinese herbal kombucha inhalation may thus be a useful new treatment for silicosis and other pneumoconiosis diseases. PMID:24023583

  16. Metabarcoding of the kombucha microbial community grown in different microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Reva, Oleg N; Zaets, Iryna E; Ovcharenko, Leonid P; Kukharenko, Olga E; Shpylova, Switlana P; Podolich, Olga V; de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Kozyrovska, Natalia O

    2015-12-01

    Introducing of the DNA metabarcoding analysis of probiotic microbial communities allowed getting insight into their functioning and establishing a better control on safety and efficacy of the probiotic communities. In this work the kombucha poly-microbial probiotic community was analysed to study its flexibility under different growth conditions. Environmental DNA sequencing revealed a complex and flexible composition of the kombucha microbial culture (KMC) constituting more bacterial and fungal organisms in addition to those found by cultural method. The community comprised bacterial and yeast components including cultured and uncultivable microorganisms. Culturing the KMC under different conditions revealed the core part of the community which included acetobacteria of two genera Komagataeibacter (former Gluconacetobacter) and Gluconobacter, and representatives of several yeast genera among which Brettanomyces/Dekkera and Pichia (including former Issatchenkia) were dominant. Herbaspirillum spp. and Halomonas spp., which previously had not been described in KMC, were found to be minor but permanent members of the community. The community composition was dependent on the growth conditions. The bacterial component of KMC was relatively stable, but may include additional member-lactobacilli. The yeast species composition was significantly variable. High-throughput sequencing showed complexity and variability of KMC that may affect the quality of the probiotic drink. It was hypothesized that the kombucha core community might recruit some environmental bacteria, particularly lactobacilli, which potentially may contribute to the fermentative capacity of the probiotic drink. As many KMC-associated microorganisms cannot be cultured out of the community, a robust control for community composition should be provided by using DNA metabarcoding.

  17. Determination of Ethanol in Kombucha Products: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2016.12.

    PubMed

    Ebersole, Blake; Liu, Ying; Schmidt, Rich; Eckert, Matt; Brown, Paula N

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha is a fermented nonalcoholic beverage that has drawn government attention due to the possible presence of excess ethanol (≥0.5% alcohol by volume; ABV). A validated method that provides better precision and accuracy for measuring ethanol levels in kombucha is urgently needed by the kombucha industry. The current study validated a method for determining ethanol content in commercial kombucha products. The ethanol content in kombucha was measured using headspace GC with flame ionization detection. An ethanol standard curve ranging from 0.05 to 5.09% ABV was used, with correlation coefficients greater than 99.9%. The method detection limit was 0.003% ABV and the LOQ was 0.01% ABV. The RSDr ranged from 1.62 to 2.21% and the Horwitz ratio ranged from 0.4 to 0.6. The average accuracy of the method was 98.2%. This method was validated following the guidelines for single-laboratory validation by AOAC INTERNATIONAL and meets the requirements set by AOAC SMPR 2016.001, "Standard Method Performance Requirements for Determination of Ethanol in Kombucha."

  18. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Trichloroethylene (TCE) may induce oxidative stress which generates free radicals and alters antioxidants or oxygen-free radical scavenging enzymes. Methods Twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups: (1) the control group treated with vehicle, (2) Kombucha (KT)-treated group, (3) TCE-treated group and (4) KT/TCE-treated group. Kidney lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, nitric oxide (NO) and total blood free radical concentrations were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine level, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were also measured. Results TCE administration increased the malondiahyde (MDA) and NO contents in kidney, urea and creatinine concentrations in serum, total free radical level in blood and GGT and LDH activities in serum, whereas it decreased the glutathione (GSH) level in kidney homogenate. KT administration significantly improved lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by TCE. Conclusion The present study indicates that Kombucha may repair damage caused by environmental pollutants such as TCE and may be beneficial to patient suffering from renal impairment. PMID:19943946

  19. Effects of Kombucha on oxidative stress induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Gharib, Ola Ali

    2009-11-27

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) may induce oxidative stress which generates free radicals and alters antioxidants or oxygen-free radical scavenging enzymes. Twenty male albino rats were divided into four groups: (1) the control group treated with vehicle, (2) Kombucha (KT)-treated group, (3) TCE-treated group and (4) KT/TCE-treated group. Kidney lipid peroxidation, glutathione content, nitric oxide (NO) and total blood free radical concentrations were evaluated. Serum urea, creatinine level, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were also measured. TCE administration increased the malondiahyde (MDA) and NO contents in kidney, urea and creatinine concentrations in serum, total free radical level in blood and GGT and LDH activities in serum, whereas it decreased the glutathione (GSH) level in kidney homogenate. KT administration significantly improved lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress induced by TCE. The present study indicates that Kombucha may repair damage caused by environmental pollutants such as TCE and may be beneficial to patient suffering from renal impairment.

  20. Kombucha Multimicrobial Community under Simulated Spaceflight and Martian Conditions.

    PubMed

    Podolich, O; Zaets, I; Kukharenko, O; Orlovska, I; Reva, O; Khirunenko, L; Sosnin, M; Haidak, A; Shpylova, S; Rabbow, E; Skoryk, M; Kremenskoy, M; Demets, R; Kozyrovska, N; de Vera, J-P

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha microbial community (KMC) produces a cellulose-based biopolymer of industrial importance and a probiotic beverage. KMC-derived cellulose-based pellicle film is known as a highly adaptive microbial macrocolony-a stratified community of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the framework of the multipurpose international astrobiological project "BIOlogy and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX)," which aims to study the vitality of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and the stability of selected biomarkers in low Earth orbit and in a Mars-like environment, a cellulose polymer structural integrity will be assessed as a biomarker and biotechnological nanomaterial. In a preflight assessment program for BIOMEX, the mineralized bacterial cellulose did not exhibit significant changes in the structure under all types of tests. KMC members that inhabit the cellulose-based pellicle exhibited a high survival rate; however, the survival capacity depended on a variety of stressors such as the vacuum of space, a Mars-like atmosphere, UVC radiation, and temperature fluctuations. The critical limiting factor for microbial survival was high-dose UV irradiation. In the tests that simulated a 1-year mission of exposure outside the International Space Station, the core populations of bacteria and yeasts survived and provided protection against UV; however, the microbial density of the populations overall was reduced, which was revealed by implementation of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Reduction of microbial richness was also associated with a lower accumulation of chemical elements in the cellulose-based pellicle film, produced by microbiota that survived in the post-test experiments, as compared to untreated cultures that populated the film. Key Words: BIOlogy and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX)-Kombucha multimicrobial community-Biosignature-Biofilm-Bacterial cellulose. Astrobiology 17, 459-469.

  1. Antioxidant activity of fermented broccoli and spinach by Kombucha culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artanti, Nina; Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Lotulung, Puspa Dewi Narrij; Maryati, Yati

    2017-11-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) and spinach (Amaranthus spp.) are vegetables that known to have many benefit for health. Previous studies on the fermentation of those vegetables using kombucha cultured showed increase in bioactive components such as total polyphenol content. The current studies was performed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of fermented spinach and broccoli before (feed) and after treatment with filtration (retentate and permeate). Filtration was conducted using Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) with UF membrane 100,000 MWCO mode at fixed condition (stirred rotation 300 rpm, room temperature, pressure 40 psia). Antioxidant evaluation was conducted using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity assay. The results showed that all samples from fermented broccoli showed antioxidant activity (feed 15.82% inhibition and retentate 15.29% inhibition), with the best antioxidant activity was obtained from permeate (75.98% inhibition). Whereas from fermented spinach only permeate showed antioxidant activity (21.84% inhibition) and it significantly lower than broccoli permeate. The mass spectrum of LCMS analysis on broccoli samples showed the present of several mass spectrum with (M+H) range from 148.1 to 442.5 in feed, retentate and permeate. In those samples (M+H) 360.4 always has the highest relative intensity. These results suggest that fermented broccoli has potential for development as functional drink for the source of antioxidant and the permeate obtained from filtration treatment significantly increased the antioxidant activity.

  2. Tea enhances insulin activity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard A; Polansky, Marilyn M

    2002-11-20

    The most widely known health benefits of tea relate to the polyphenols as the principal active ingredients in protection against oxidative damage and in antibacterial, antiviral, anticarcinogenic, and antimutagenic activities, but polyphenols in tea may also increase insulin activity. The objective of this study was to determine the insulin-enhancing properties of tea and its components. Tea, as normally consumed, was shown to increase insulin activity >15-fold in vitro in an epididymal fat cell assay. Black, green, and oolong teas but not herbal teas, which are not teas in the traditional sense because they do not contain leaves of Camellia senensis, were all shown to increase insulin activity. High-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of tea extracts utilizing a Waters SymmetryPrep C18 column showed that the majority of the insulin-potentiating activity for green and oolong teas was due to epigallocatechin gallate. For black tea, the activity was present in several regions of the chromatogram corresponding to, in addition to epigallocatechin gallate, tannins, theaflavins, and other undefined compounds. Several known compounds found in tea were shown to enhance insulin with the greatest activity due to epigallocatechin gallate followed by epicatechin gallate, tannins, and theaflavins. Caffeine, catechin, and epicatechin displayed insignificant insulin-enhancing activities. Addition of lemon to the tea did not affect the insulin-potentiating activity. Addition of 5 g of 2% milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity one-third, and addition of 50 g of milk per cup decreased the insulin-potentiating activity approximately 90%. Nondairy creamers and soy milk also decreased the insulin-enhancing activity. These data demonstrate that tea contains in vitro insulin-enhancing activity and the predominant active ingredient is epigallocatechin gallate.

  3. Kombucha Multimicrobial Community under Simulated Spaceflight and Martian Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolich, O.; Zaets, I.; Kukharenko, O.; Orlovska, I.; Reva, O.; Khirunenko, L.; Sosnin, M.; Haidak, A.; Shpylova, S.; Rabbow, E.; Skoryk, M.; Kremenskoy, M.; Demets, R.; Kozyrovska, N.; de Vera, J.-P.

    2017-05-01

    Kombucha microbial community (KMC) produces a cellulose-based biopolymer of industrial importance and a probiotic beverage. KMC-derived cellulose-based pellicle film is known as a highly adaptive microbial macrocolony—a stratified community of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In the framework of the multipurpose international astrobiological project "BIOlogy and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX)," which aims to study the vitality of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and the stability of selected biomarkers in low Earth orbit and in a Mars-like environment, a cellulose polymer structural integrity will be assessed as a biomarker and biotechnological nanomaterial. In a preflight assessment program for BIOMEX, the mineralized bacterial cellulose did not exhibit significant changes in the structure under all types of tests. KMC members that inhabit the cellulose-based pellicle exhibited a high survival rate; however, the survival capacity depended on a variety of stressors such as the vacuum of space, a Mars-like atmosphere, UVC radiation, and temperature fluctuations. The critical limiting factor for microbial survival was high-dose UV irradiation. In the tests that simulated a 1-year mission of exposure outside the International Space Station, the core populations of bacteria and yeasts survived and provided protection against UV; however, the microbial density of the populations overall was reduced, which was revealed by implementation of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Reduction of microbial richness was also associated with a lower accumulation of chemical elements in the cellulose-based pellicle film, produced by microbiota that survived in the post-test experiments, as compared to untreated cultures that populated the film.

  4. The effect of Kombucha on post-operative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in rats.

    PubMed

    Maghsoudi, Hemmat; Mohammadi, Hussein Benagozar

    2009-04-01

    Peritoneal adhesions are fibrous bands of tissues formed between organs that are normally separated and/or between organs and the internal body wall after peritoneal injury. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of intra-peritoneal administration of Kombucha on intra-peritoneal adhesions. Eighty Wistar rats were subjected to standardized lesion by scraping model and were randomly divided into two groups. Group I received no treatment, and Group II received 15 ml of Kombucha solution intra-peritoneally. On the post-operative 14th day adhesion intensity score, inflammatory cell reaction and number of adhesion bands were determined. In the control group, there were no rats with grade 0 and I adhesions. In the group II, there were 26 rats (78.8%) with grade 0-2 adhesions. Adhesion intensity was significantly less in group II (P<0.0001). Number of adhesion bands was significantly less in group II (P<0.001). It was concluded that intra-peritoneal administration of Kombucha might be useful for preventing peritoneal adhesions.

  5. Determination of D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone from brewed kombucha broth by high-performance capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kan; Gan, Xuhua; Tang, Xinyun; Wang, Shuo; Tan, Huarong

    2010-02-01

    Kombucha is a health tonic. D-saccharic acid-1,4-lactone (DSL), a component of kombucha, inhibits the activity of glucuronidase, an enzyme indirectly related with cancers. To date, there is no efficient method to determine the content of DSL in kombucha samples. In this paper, we report a rapid and simple method for the separation and determination of DSL in kombucha samples, using the high-performance capillary electrophoresis (HPCE) method with diode array detection (DAD). With optimized conditions, DSL can be separated in a 50 cm length capillary at a separation voltage of 20 kV in 40 mmol/L borax buffer (pH 6.5) containing 30 mmol/L SDS and 15% methanol (v/v). Quantitative evaluation of DSL was determined by ultraviolet absorption at lambda=190 nm. The relationship between the peak areas and the DSL concentrations, in a specified working range with linear response, was determined by first-order polynomial regression over the range 50-1500 microg/mL with a detection limit of 17.5 microg/mL. Our method demonstrated excellent reproducibility and accuracy with relative standard deviations (RSD) of less than 5% DSL content (n=5). This is the first report to determine DSL by HPCE. We have successfully applied this method to determine DSL in kombucha samples in various fermented conditions. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quality components and antidepressant-like effects of GABA green tea.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jie; Zhou, Wen; Zeng, Zhen; Zhao, Wenfang; Huang, Yahui; Zhang, Xu

    2017-09-20

    Gamma (γ)-aminobutyric acid (GABA) green tea, with high GABA content, is a kind of special green tea. The goals of this study are to analyze the changes in quality components of green tea during anaerobic treatment, and to investigate whether or not the extract of GABA present in green tea can prevent depression or improve the depressive state of animals. Results showed that GABA content in green tea had increased significantly after anaerobic treatment. The contents of tea polysaccharides, total free amino acids, and water extracts were also increased whereas tea polyphenols were reduced. More importantly, the extract of GABA green tea could alleviate mouse depression and stress from desperate environments through the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), mRNA and protein expression levels of GABA A receptors. Therefore, these results indicate that GABA green tea may have a health effect on prevention and alleviation of depression, and it works on the GABAergic neurotransmission of mouse cerebral cortex via up-regulating expression of the GABA A receptor α1 subunit, thus ameliorating depression.

  7. Antidiabetic Effects of Tea.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiu-Yue; Li, Qing-Sheng; Lin, Xiao-Ming; Qiao, Ru-Ying; Yang, Rui; Li, Xu-Min; Dong, Zhan-Bo; Xiang, Li-Ping; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Lu, Jian-Liang; Yuan, Cong-Bo; Ye, Jian-Hui; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2017-05-20

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease resulted from insulin secretory defect or insulin resistance and it is a leading cause of death around the world. The care of DM patients consumes a huge budget due to the high frequency of consultations and long hospitalizations, making DM a serious threat to both human health and global economies. Tea contains abundant polyphenols and caffeine which showed antidiabetic activity, so the development of antidiabetic medications from tea and its extracts is increasingly receiving attention. However, the results claiming an association between tea consumption and reduced DM risk are inconsistent. The advances in the epidemiologic evidence and the underlying antidiabetic mechanisms of tea are reviewed in this paper. The inconsistent results and the possible causes behind them are also discussed.

  8. Tea and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Deka, Apranta; Vita, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for a protective effect of tea consumption against cardiovascular disease. This review summarizes the available epidemiological data providing evidence for and against such an effect. We also review observational and intervention studies that investigated an effect of tea and tea extracts on cardiovascular risk factors, including blood pressure, serum lipids, diabetes mellitus, and obesity. Finally, we review potential mechanisms of benefit, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferative effects, as well as favorable effects on endothelial function. Overall, the observational data suggest a benefit, but results are mixed and likely confounded by lifestyle and background dietary factors. The weight of evidence indicates favorable effects on risk factors and a number of plausible mechanisms have been elucidated in experimental and translational human studies. Despite the growing body evidence, it remains uncertain whether tea consumption should be recommended to the general population or to patients as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. PMID:21477653

  9. Tea Tells All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roever, Carol

    2007-01-01

    A beverage, as well as the way it is served, can be a window into the soul of a culture. For the author and her husband, Turkish tea helped them understand and enjoy the culture of Turkey. They learned that the broad nuances of culture can be as instructive as a classroom experience. The tea story begins in Chicago in the spring of 2005 when the…

  10. A case of anti-Jo1 myositis with pleural effusions and pericardial tamponade developing after exposure to a fermented Kombucha beverage.

    PubMed

    Derk, Chris T; Sandorfi, Nora; Curtis, Mark T

    2004-08-01

    The pathogenesis of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies has been postulated to be an environmental trigger causing the expression of the disease in a genetically predisposed patient. We report a case of anti-Jo1 antibody-positive myositis which was associated with pleural effusions, pericardial effusion with tamponade, and 'mechanic's hands', probably related to the consumption of a fermented Kombucha beverage. Kombucha 'mushroom', a symbiosis of yeast and bacteria, is postulated to be the trigger for our patient's disease owing to the proximity of his symptoms to the consumption of the Kombucha beverage.

  11. Tea polyphenols for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    People have been consuming brewed tea from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant for almost 50 centuries. Although health benefits have been attributed to tea, especially green tea consumption since the beginning of its history, scientific investigations of this beverage and its constituents have been underway for less than three decades. Currently, tea, in the form of green or black tea, next to water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that polyphenols derived from tea may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases. Among all tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin-3-gallate has been shown to be responsible for much of the health promoting ability of green tea. Tea and tea preparations have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis in a variety of animal models of carcinogenesis. However, with increasing interest in the health promoting properties of tea and a significant rise in scientific investigation, this review covers recent findings on the medicinal properties and health benefits of tea with special reference to cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:17655876

  12. Aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in liver of mice and its mitigation by black tea extract.

    PubMed

    Jha, Anamika; Shah, Komal; Verma, Ramtej J

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin belongs to the class of naturally occurring mycotoxins, food contaminants having potent carcinogenicity. We have evaluated the ameliorative role of black tea extract on aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the liver of albino male mice. Adult male mice were orally administered with 750 and 1500 pg of aflatoxin in 0.2 mL olive oil/kg b.w./day for 30 days. Oral administration of aflatoxin caused, as compared with controls, significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein and glycogen contents; however, cholesterol content and phsphorylase activity were significantly increased. Black tea is one of the most potent antioxidants containing numerous bioactive phytonurtients having therapeutic applications. Aflatoxin-induced changes in the liver of mice were significantly ameliorated on co-treatment of black tea extract (2% infusion in water).

  13. Killing K channels with TEA+.

    PubMed

    Khodakhah, K; Melishchuk, A; Armstrong, C M

    1997-11-25

    Tetraethylammonium (TEA+) is widely used for reversible blockade of K channels in many preparations. We noticed that intracellular perfusion of voltage-clamped squid giant axons with a solution containing K+ and TEA+ irreversibly decreased the potassium current when there was no K+ outside. Five minutes of perfusion with 20 mM TEA+, followed by removal of TEA+, reduced potassium current to < 5% of its initial value. The irreversible disappearance of K channels with TEA+ could be prevented by addition of > or = 10 mM K+ to the extracellular solution. The rate of disappearance of K channels followed first-order kinetics and was slowed by reducing the concentration of TEA+. Killing is much less evident when an axon is held at -110 mV to tightly close all of the channels. The longer-chain TEA+ derivative decyltriethylammonium (C10+) had irreversible effects similar to TEA+. External K+ also protected K channels against the irreversible action of C10+. It has been reported that removal of all K+ internally and externally (dekalification) can result in the disappearance of K channels, suggesting that binding of K+ within the pore is required to maintain function. Our evidence further suggests that the crucial location for K+ binding is external to the (internal) TEA+ site and that TEA+ prevents refilling of this location by intracellular K+. Thus in the absence of extracellular K+, application of TEA+ (or C10+) has effects resembling dekalification and kills the K channels.

  14. Tea and Telling Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Pamela

    2001-01-01

    The annual Women's and Girls' Tea Party and Storytelling Ceremony is held in a Berkeley redwood grove by a creek. Seeking to generate community support for creek restoration, the ceremony/celebration/site-specific performance piece uses childhood rituals and story telling to help participants connect emotionally to each other, the place, its past,…

  15. Effectiveness of Green Tea in a Randomized Human Cohort: Relevance to Diabetes and Its Complications

    PubMed Central

    Aruoma, Okezie I.; Gunness, Teeluck K.; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Dambala, Venkatesh; Murad, Fatima; Googoolye, Kreshna; Daus, Diana; Indelicato, Joseph; Rondeau, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have argued that green tea could mitigate diabetes and its complications. This study investigated the phytophenolic profile of Mauritian green tea and its antioxidant propensity. The effect of green tea on the risk factors: waist-hip ratio, glucose level, arterial pressure, antioxidant status, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in prediabetics was assessed. The experimental group consumed 3 cups of green tea daily for 14 weeks followed by a 2-week washout period. The control group followed a water regimen. Green tea contained high level of phenolics related to its antioxidant power. Green tea suppressed waist-hip ratio of women from a significant increase and suppressed mean arterial pressure of men and women from a significant decrease after week 14. It reduced ALT level in women by 13.0% (P < 0.1) while increasing the antioxidant potential of men and women sera by 2.7% (P < 0.1) and 5.1% (P < 0.1). The study timescale may have been too short to enable demonstration of effects on fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c outcomes. Green tea regimen could form part of a healthy lifestyle that might ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome and subsequent risks for diabetes and its complications. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01248143. PMID:24102055

  16. Residues and contaminants in tea and tea infusions: a review.

    PubMed

    Abd El-Aty, A M; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Kim, Sung-Woo; Tosun, Alev; Shim, Jae-Han

    2014-01-01

    Consumers are very aware of contaminants that could pose potential health hazards. Most people drink tea as an infusion (adding hot water); however, in some countries, including India, China and Egypt, tea is drunk as a decoction (tea and water are boiled together). An infusion usually brings the soluble ingredients into solution, whereas a decoction brings all soluble and non-soluble constituents together. Therefore, a cup of tea may contain various kinds of contaminants. This review focuses on green and black tea because they are most commonly consumed. The target was to examine the transfer rate of contaminants - pesticides, environmental pollutants, mycotoxins, microorganisms, toxic heavy metals, radioactive isotopes (radionuclides) and plant growth regulators - from tea to infusion/brewing, factors contributing to the transfer potential and contaminants degradation, and residues in or on the spent leaves. It is concluded that most contaminants leaching into tea infusion are not detected or are detected at a level lower than the regulatory limits. However, the traditional practice of over-boiling tea leaves should be discouraged as there may be a chance for more transfer of contaminants from the tea to the brew.

  17. Recent advances on tea polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Kanwar, Jyoti; Taskeen, Mujtaba; Mohammad, Imthiyaz; Huo, Congde; Chan, Tak Hang; Dou, Qing Ping

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade many scientific and medical studies have focused on green tea for its long-purported health benefits. There is convincing evidence that tea is a cup of life. It has multiple preventive and therapeutic effects. This review thus focuses on the recent advances of tea polyphenols and their applications in the prevention and treatment of human cancers. Of the various polyphenols in tea, (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant, and active compound studied in tea research. EGCG inhibits several molecular targets to inhibit cancer initiation and modulates several essential survival pathways to block cancer progression. Herein, we describe the various mechanisms of action of EGCG and also discuss previous and current ongoing clinical trials of EGCG and green tea polyphenols in different cancer types. PMID:22201858

  18. Contamination of Tea and Tea Infusion with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Zachara, Alicja; Gałkowska, Dorota; Juszczak, Lesław

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to validate the method of determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., benzo(a)pyrene and sum of benzo(a)pyrene, benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene and chrysene in different types of tea, as well as to assess the transfer of these contaminants from tea to tea infusion. The research materials were popular types of black, green, red and white tea. Quantitative and qualitative determination of PAHs was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). The samples were prepared by QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) technique followed by cleaning-up by dispersion solid-phase extraction (d-SPE). Values of limit of detection and limit of quantification obtained in the validation of the method were lower than the respective maximum values given in Commission Regulation (EU) No. 836/2011. The level of contamination of popular teas commercially available on the Polish market with PAHs is similar to that of teas available in other countries, with a very large variation in the concentration of each of the compounds. The highest benzo(a)pyrene and Σ4PAHs contents (209 ± 42 μg/kg and 756 ± 151 μg/kg, respectively) were found for black tea leaves. The transfer of Σ4PAHs from black tea to tea infusions was 0.48%, while it was 1.55–1.72% for red, white and green teas. PMID:29283369

  19. Using tea stalk lignocellulose as an adsorbent for separating decaffeinated tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Ye, J H; Jin, J; Liang, H L; Lu, J L; Du, Y Y; Zheng, X Q; Liang, Y R

    2009-01-01

    Lignocelluloses prepared from woody tea stalk, pine sawdust and sugarcane bagasse were used as adsorbents to isolate decaffeinated catechins from tea extracts and compared with synthetic macroporous resin HPD 600. HPD 600 had the highest adsorption capacity to catechins, followed by tea stalk lignocellulose while lignocelluloses of pine sawdust and bagasse the least. Tea stalk lignocellulose absorbed preferentially tea catechins and showed a good selectivity. HPD 600 absorbed caffeine and tea catechins simultaneously. The kinetics data of tea stalk lignocellulose showed a good fit with the Langmuir isotherm model. It is considered that tea stalk lignocellulose is an alternative low-cost adsorbent for preparing decaffeinated tea catechins.

  20. Antioxidant effects of green tea

    PubMed Central

    FORESTER, SARAH C.; LAMBERT, JOSHUA D.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of green tea (Camellia sinensis) may provide protection against chronic diseases, including cancer. Green tea polyphenols are believed to be responsible for this cancer preventive effect, and the antioxidant activity of the green tea polyphenols has been implicated as a potential mechanism. This hypothesis has been difficult to study in vivo due to metabolism of these compounds and poor understanding of the redox environment in vivo. Green tea polyphenols can be direct antioxidants by scavenging reactive oxygen species or chelating transition metals as has been demonstrated in vitro. Alternatively, they may act indirectly by up-regulating phase II antioxidant enzymes. Evidence of this latter effect has been observed in vivo, yet more work is required to determine under which conditions these mechanisms occur. Green tea polyphenols can also be potent pro-oxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical, and superoxide anion. The potential role of these pro-oxidant effects in the cancer preventive activity of green tea is not well understood. The evidence for not only the antioxidant, but also pro-oxidant, properties of green tea are discussed in the present review. PMID:21538850

  1. Tea and human health: biomedical functions of tea active components and current issues*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2015-01-01

    Originating in China, tea and tea planting have spread throughout the world since the middle of the Tang dynasty. Now people from 160 countries in the world are accustomed to tea drinking. A brief history of tea’s medicinal role in China and its spread to the world are introduced. The effectiveness of tea active components and tea drinking on major human diseases, including cancer, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative diseases, is discussed. Also presented are some related issues, such as the bioavailability of tea active components, the new formulations of tea polyphenols, and the safety for consumers of dietary supplements containing tea polyphenols. PMID:25644464

  2. Effects of green tea tannin on cisplatin-induced nephropathy in LLC-PK1 cells and rats.

    PubMed

    Yokozawa, T; Nakagawa, T; Lee, K I; Cho, E J; Terasawa, K; Takeuchi, S

    1999-11-01

    A study was conducted to clarify whether green tea tannin ameliorated cisplatin-induced renal injury in terms of lactate dehydrogenase and malondialdehyde leakage from a renal epithelial cell line, swine-derived LLC-PK1 cells in culture. Green tea tannin was shown to suppress the cytotoxicity of cisplatin, the suppressive effect increasing with the dose of green tea tannin. The effect of cisplatin was then investigated in rats given green tea tannin for 40 days before cisplatin administration and in control rats given no green tea tannin. In control rats, blood, urinary and renal parameters and the activities of antioxidative enzymes in renal tissue deviated from the normal range, indicating dysfunction of the kidneys. In contrast, rats given green tea tannin showed decreased blood levels of urea nitrogen and creatinine, and decreased urinary levels of protein and glucose, reflecting less damage to the kidney. In this group, the activity of catalase in the renal tissue was increased, while the level of malondialdehyde was decreased, suggesting the involvement of radicals in the normalizing of kidney function. Based on the evidence available it appeared that green tea tannin eliminated oxidative stress and was beneficial to renal function.

  3. Tea, coffee and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy H; Fraser, Michelle L; Binns, Colin W

    2009-02-01

    Worldwide, prostate cancer has the second highest incidence of all cancers in males with incidence and mortality being much higher in affluent developed countries. Risk and progression of the disease may be linked to both genetic and environmental factors, especially dietary factors. Tea and coffee are two of the most popular beverages in the world and have been investigated for possible effects on health outcomes, including cancer. However, very little dietary advice for their consumption exists. The evidence for a relationship between coffee or tea consumption and prostate cancer is reviewed in this paper. While current evidence indicates that coffee is a safe beverage, its consumption probably has no relationship with prostate cancer. Tea, especially green tea, has shown some potential in the prevention of prostate cancer. While evidence from epidemiologic studies is currently inconclusive, strong evidence has emerged from animal and in vitro studies. We also consider what level of evidence is required to make recommendations for preventive measures to the public. Although evidence on the relationship between coffee, tea and prostate cancer is not complete, we consider it strong enough to recommend tea as a healthier alternative to coffee.

  4. Cellulose synthesis by Komagataeibacter rhaeticus strain P 1463 isolated from Kombucha.

    PubMed

    Semjonovs, Pavels; Ruklisha, Maija; Paegle, Longina; Saka, Madara; Treimane, Rita; Skute, Marite; Rozenberga, Linda; Vikele, Laura; Sabovics, Martins; Cleenwerck, Ilse

    2017-02-01

    Isolate B17 from Kombucha was estimated to be an efficient producer of bacterial cellulose (BC). The isolate was deposited under the number P 1463 and identified as Komagataeibacter rhaeticus by comparing a generated amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP™) DNA fingerprint against a reference database. Static cultivation of the K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 in Hestrin and Schramm (HS) medium resulted in 4.40 ± 0.22 g/L BC being produced, corresponding to a BC yield from glucose of 25.30 ± 1.78 %, when the inoculum was made with a modified HS medium containing 10 g/L glucose. Fermentations for 5 days using media containing apple juice with analogous carbon source concentrations resulted in 4.77 ± 0.24 g/L BC being synthesised, corresponding to a yield from the consumed sugars (glucose, fructose and sucrose) of 37.00 ± 2.61 %. The capacity of K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 to synthesise BC was found to be much higher than that of two reference strains for cellulose production, Komagataeibacter xylinus DSM 46604 and Komagataeibacter hansenii DSM 5602 T , and was also considerably higher than that of K. hansenii strain B22, isolated from another Kombucha sample. The BC synthesised by K. rhaeticus strain P 1463 after 40 days of cultivation in HS medium with additional glucose supplemented to the cell culture during cultivation was shown to have a degree of polymerization of 3300.0 ± 122.1 glucose units, a tensile strength of 65.50 ± 3.27 MPa and a length at break of 16.50 ± 0.83 km. For the other strains, these properties did not exceed 25.60 ± 1.28 MPa and 15.20 ± 0.76 km.

  5. Tea production characteristics of tea growers (plantations and smallholdings) and livelihood dimensions of tea workers in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Eloise M; Gupta, Niladri; Saikia, Sukanya D; Duncan, John M A

    2018-04-01

    This article provides summary data regarding tea production in Assam, India. Questionnaires were completed by tea producers and focus group discussions undertaken with tea workers. These data are presented for the four main tea growing regions of the state (Cachar, North Bank, South Bank and Upper Assam). Tables detail tea production characteristics of the tea plantations for both large- (> 10 ha) and small- (< 10 ha) holders. Figures provide supplementary information for research by Biggs et al. [1] regarding fertilizer application, landscape management strategies, healthcare provisioning and educational facilities within plantations, as well as detailing the livelihood dimensions of tea workers. The questions posed to producers are also included. For further context underpinning the research for which these data were collated, see 'The tea landscape of Assam: multi-stakeholder insights into sustainable livelihoods under a changing climate' by Biggs et al. [1].

  6. Antioxidant potential of tea reduces arsenite induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D; Roy, S; Roy, M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental arsenic (As) is a potent human carcinogen and groundwater As contamination is a major health concern in West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress has been one of the prime factors in As-induced carcinogenicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant balance cause a severe imbalance of the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. Tea, a popular beverage has excellent chemopreventive and antioxidant properties. In this study it was investigated whether these flavonoids could ameliorate the arsenite (As III) induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Bio-monitoring with comet assay elicited that the increase in genotoxicity caused by As III was counteracted by both black tea and green tea. Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyl by As III were effectively reduced with green as well as black tea. They also exhibited protective action against the As III induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in mice liver tissue. Thus the tea polyphenols by virtue of their antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce the As III induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  8. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  9. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion

    PubMed Central

    Yokel, Robert A.; Florence, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer 26Al. 26Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous 27Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the 26Al, compared to 27Al, serum concentration × time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F = 0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F = 0.1 to 0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F = 0.1%). Time to maximum serum 26Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8 h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability × daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water. PMID:18848597

  10. [Preparation and component analysis of tea pigments].

    PubMed

    Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun; Xia, Tao

    2004-11-01

    To prepare tea pigments. Tea pigments are prepared by solvent extraction from Sri lanka black tea. Tea pigments contains the components as follows: caffeine 1.77%, epigallocatechin 1.37%, catechin 1.20%, epicatechin 9.55%, epigallocatechin gallate 10.52%, epicatechin gallate 9.94%, theaflavin 10.34%, theaflavin monogallate 9.57%, theaflavin digallate 4.81%, thearubigin about 40.93%. The best proportions of the compound that are obtained with HPLC analysis.

  11. Characteristic of fermented spinach (Amaranthus spp.) polyphenol by kombucha culture for antioxidant compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspiyanto, Susilowati, Agustine; Iskandar, Jeti M.; Melanie, Hakiki; Maryati, Yati; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation on spinach (Amaranthus sp.) vegetable by kombucha culture as an effort to get poliphenol as antioxidant compound had been done. Purification of fermented spinach extract suspension was carried out through microfiltration (MF) membrane (pore size 0.15 µm) fitted in dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at fixed condition (stirrer rotation 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 40 psia). Result of the experimental activity showed that long fermentation time increased total acids, total polyphenol and Total Plate Count (TPC), and decreased total solids and reducing sugar in biomass. The optimal fermentation time was reached for 2 weeks with total polyphenol recovery increasing of 92.76 % from before and after fermentation. On this optimal fermentation time, biomass had identified galic acid with relative intensity of 8 %, while as polyphenol monomer was resulted 5 kinds of polyphenol compounds with total intensity 27.97 % and molecular weight (MW) 191.1736, 193.1871 and 194.2170 at T2.5, T2.86 and T3.86. Long fermentation time increased functional properties of polyphenol as antioxidant.

  12. [Simultaneous extraction of tea-polyphenols and caffeine from green tea].

    PubMed

    Hai, L; Sun, H; Li, Z

    1998-05-01

    Tea-polyphenols and caffeine were extracted simultaneously from green tea. The factors influencing on the process of impregnation and extraction were studied. The result indicated that the content of tea-polyphenols and caffeine in tea was increased with the duration of extraction and decreased with the frequency of extraction. The authors discuss the effect of pH on the precipition of calcium-tea-polyphenols.

  13. Green tea and the skin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Stephen

    2005-06-01

    Plant extracts have been widely used as topical applications for wound-healing, anti-aging, and disease treatments. Examples of these include ginkgo biloba, echinacea, ginseng, grape seed, green tea, lemon, lavender, rosemary, thuja, sarsaparilla, soy, prickly pear, sagebrush, jojoba, aloe vera, allantoin, feverwort, bloodroot, apache plume, and papaya. These plants share a common character: they all produce flavonoid compounds with phenolic structures. These phytochemicals are highly reactive with other compounds, such as reactive oxygen species and biologic macromolecules, to neutralize free radicals or initiate biological effects. A short list of phenolic phytochemicals with promising properties to benefit human health includes a group of polyphenol compounds, called catechins, found in green tea. This article summarizes the findings of studies using green tea polyphenols as chemopreventive, natural healing, and anti-aging agents for human skin, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  14. Ameliorating effect of transcutaneous electroacupuncture on impaired gastric accommodation induced by cold meal in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhihui; Zhang, Nina; Xu, Feng; Yin, Jieyun; Dai, Ning; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2016-03-01

    Impaired gastric accommodation is recognized as one of major pathophysiologies in functional dyspepsia and gastroparesis. Electroacupuncture has been shown to improve gastric accommodation in laboratory settings. It is, however, unknown whether it exerts similar ameliorating effect in humans and whether needleless transcutaneous electroacupuncture (TEA) is also effective in improving gastric accommodation. The aim was to investigate the effects of TEA on gastric accommodation, gastric slow waves, and dyspeptic related symptoms. Thirteen healthy volunteers were studied in four randomized sessions: control, cold nutrient liquid, cold nutrient liquid + sham-TEA, and cold nutrient liquid + TEA. The subjects were requested to drink Ensure until reaching maximum satiety. The electrogastrogram (EGG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were recorded to assess the gastric and autonomic functions respectively. 1) Gastric accommodation was reduced with the cold drink in comparison with the warm drink (P = 0.023). TEA improved the impaired gastric accommodation from 539.2 ± 133.8 ml to 731.0 ± 185.7 ml (P = 0.005). 2) The percentage of normal gastric slow waves in six subjects was significantly decreased in the cold session (P = 0.002) and improved in the TEA session (P = 0.009 vs sham; P < 0.001 vs cold). 3) TEA showed significant improvement in the bloating (80.8 ± 5.7 vs 61.2 ± 26.2, P = 0.011), postprandial fullness (48.1 ± 12.0 vs 34.2 ± 21.2, P = 0.042), and nausea (29.6 ± 10.9 vs 19.2 ± 11.2, P = 0.026) in comparison with sham-TEA session. 4) Neither cold drink nor TEA altered vagal activities (P > 0.05). TEA improves impaired gastric accommodation and slow waves induced by cold drink and the effect does not seem to be mediated via the vagal mechanisms. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Samara, Marilia; Hancock, Barry; Wicks, Robert; Moore, Tom; Rust, Duncan; Jones, Jonathan; Saito, Yoshifumi; Pollock, Craig; Owen, Chris; Rae, Jonny

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves). A novel capability to time tag individual electron events during short intervals for the purposes of ground analysis of wave-particle interactions is also planned.

  16. Protective effect of kombucha on rats fed a hypercholesterolemic diet is mediated by its antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Bellassoued, Khaled; Ghrab, Ferdaws; Makni-Ayadi, Fatma; Van Pelt, Jos; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Ammar, Emna

    2015-01-01

    Kombucha (KT) is claimed to have various beneficial effects on human health, but there is very little scientific evidence available in the literature. The present study investigates the effects of Camellia sinensis (GT) Linn. (Theaceae) and KT, two natural drinks, on cholesterol and antioxidant status using a hypercholesterolemia rat model. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and polyphenol levels of GT and KT. Wistar rats fed cholesterol-rich diets were given KT or GT (5 mL/kg body weight per day, po) for 16 weeks, then fasted overnight and sacrificed. The plasma lipid levels, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) serum levels, antioxidant activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and creatinine and urea rats were examined. KT had a phenolic compound of 955 ± 0.75 mg GAE/g) followed, by GT (788.92 ± 0.02 mg GAE/g). The free radical scavenging activity of KT was higher than GT. Compared with GT, KT induced lowered serum levels of TC, TG, VLDL-C, and LDL-C by 26, 27, 28, and 36%, respectively, and increased the serum level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). KT induced a 55% decrease of TBARS level in liver and 44% in kidney, compared with those of rats fed a cholesterol-rich diet alone. Moreover, CAT and SOD activities were reduced by 29 and 33%, respectively, in liver and 31 and 35%, respectively, in kidney, after oral administration of KT, compared with those of HCD-fed rats. The findings revealed that KT administration induced attractive curative effects on hypercholesterolemic, particularly in terms of liver-kidney functions in rats. Its effect on humans needs to be studied further.

  17. Corneal Staining and Hot Black Tea Compresses.

    PubMed

    Achiron, Asaf; Birger, Yael; Karmona, Lily; Avizemer, Haggay; Bartov, Elisha; Rahamim, Yocheved; Burgansky-Eliash, Zvia

    2017-03-01

    Warm compresses are widely touted as an effective treatment for ocular surface disorders. Black tea compresses are a common household remedy, although there is no evidence in the medical literature proving their effect and their use may lead to harmful side effects. To describe a case in which the application of black tea to an eye with a corneal epithelial defect led to anterior stromal discoloration; evaluate the prevalence of hot tea compress use; and analyze, in vitro, the discoloring effect of tea compresses on a model of a porcine eye. We assessed the prevalence of hot tea compresses in our community and explored the effect of warm tea compresses on the cornea when the corneal epithelium's integrity is disrupted. An in vitro experiment in which warm compresses were applied to 18 fresh porcine eyes was performed. In half the eyes a corneal epithelial defect was created and in the other half the epithelium was intact. Both groups were divided into subgroups of three eyes each and treated experimentally with warm black tea compresses, pure water, or chamomile tea compresses. We also performed a study in patients with a history of tea compress use. Brown discoloration of the anterior stroma appeared only in the porcine corneas that had an epithelial defect and were treated with black tea compresses. No other eyes from any group showed discoloration. Of the patients included in our survey, approximately 50% had applied some sort of tea ingredient as a solid compressor or as the hot liquid. An intact corneal epithelium serves as an effective barrier against tea-stain discoloration. Only when this layer is disrupted does the damage occur. Therefore, direct application of black tea (Camellia sinensis) to a cornea with an epithelial defect should be avoided.

  18. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  19. Analyzing organic tea certification and traceability system within the Taiwanese tea industry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mao-Chang; Yang, Chin-Ying

    2015-04-01

    We applied game theory to the organic tea certification process and traceability system used by the Taiwanese tea industry to elucidate the strategic choices made by tea farmers and organic tea certification agencies. Thus, this paper clarifies how relevant variables affect the organic certification process and traceability system used within the tea industry. The findings indicate that farmers who generate high revenues experience failures regarding tea deliveries, cash outflow, damage compensation, and quasi-rent. An additional problem included the high costs yielded when tea farmers colluded with or switched organic tea certification agencies. Furthermore, there could be decreasing levels of personal interest in planting non-organic tea and lowering the costs of planting organic tea and the managerial accounting costs of building comprehensive traceability systems; thus, the analysis yielded strong results and a superior equilibrium. This research is unprecedented, using an innovative model and providing a novel analysis structure for use in the tea industry. These results contribute to the field of literature and should serve as a valuable reference for members of the tea industry, government, and academia. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Tea and its consumption: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Khizar; Iqbal, Hira; Malik, Uzma; Bilal, Uzma; Mushtaq, Sobia

    2015-01-01

    The recent convention of introducing phytochemicals to support the immune system or combat diseases is a centuries' old tradition. Nutritional support is an emerging advancement in the domain of diet-based therapies; tea and its constituents are one of the significant components of these strategies to maintain the health and reduce the risk of various malignancies. Tea is the most frequently consumed beverage worldwide, besides water. All the three most popular types of tea, green (unfermented), black (fully fermented), and oolong (semifermented), are manufactured from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis. Tea possesses significant antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, antihypertensive, neuroprotective, cholesterol-lowering, and thermogenic properties. Several research investigations, epidemiological studies, and meta-analyses suggest that tea and its bioactive polyphenolic constituents have numerous beneficial effects on health, including the prevention of many diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cardiovascular disease (CVD), stroke, genital warts, and obesity. Controversies regarding beneficialts and risks of tea consumption still exist but the limitless health-promoting benefits of tea outclass its few reported toxic effects. However, with significant rise in the scientific investigation of role of tea in human life, this review is intended to highlight the beneficial effects and risks associated with tea consumption.

  1. Bioavailability of catechins from tea: the effect of milk.

    PubMed

    van het Hof, K H; Kivits, G A; Weststrate, J A; Tijburg, L B

    1998-05-01

    To assess the blood concentration of catechins following green or black tea ingestion and the effect of addition of milk to black tea. Twelve volunteers received a single dose of green tea, black tea and black tea with milk in a randomized cross-over design with one-week intervals. Blood samples were drawn before and up to eight hours after tea consumption. The study was performed at the Unilever Research Vlaardingen in The Netherlands. Twelve healthy adult volunteers (7 females, 5 males) participated in the study. They were recruited among employees of Unilever Research Vlaardingen. Green tea, black tea and black tea with semi-skimmed milk (3 g tea solids each). Consumption of green tea (0.9 g total catechins) or black tea (0.3 g total catechins) resulted in a rapid increase of catechin levels in blood with an average maximum change from baseline (CVM) of 0.46 micromol/l (13%) after ingestion of green tea and 0.10 micromol/l (13%) in case of black tea. These maximum changes were reached after (mean (s.e.m.)) t=2.3 h (0.2) and t=2.2 h (0.2) for green and black tea respectively. Blood levels rapidly declined with an elimination rate (mean (CVM)) of t1/2=4.8 h (5%) for green tea and t1/2=6.9 h (8%) for black tea. Addition of milk to black tea (100 ml in 600 ml) did not significantly affect the blood catechin levels (areas under the curves (mean (CVM) of 0.53 h. micromol/l (11%) vs 0.60 h. micromol/l (9%) for black tea and black tea with milk respectively. Catechins from green tea and black tea are rapidly absorbed and milk does not impair the bioavailability of tea catechins.

  2. Determination of catechins and flavonol glycosides in Chinese tea varieties.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunyan; Xu, Hairong; Héritier, Julien; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2012-05-01

    A standardised profiling method based on high performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet (UV) and mass spectrometric detection (MS) was established to analyse the phenolic compounds of selected tea varieties used for manufacturing of green, black and oolong teas. The composition and content of 24 tea constituents were analysed, including catechins, flavonol and flavones glycosides, phenolic acids and purine alkaloids. Each tea variety had a unique chemical profile. The compositions of catechins were lower in the tea varieties for green tea manufacturing, while the content of myricetin glycosides was the lowest in the tea variety for oolong tea manufacturing. The content of individual phenolic compounds in the selected tea varieties is highly variable. However, the content of total catechins is proposed to be helpful to classify tea according to the future application as non fermented green and fermented oolong or black tea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extraction and isolation of catechins from tea.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Quan V; Golding, John B; Nguyen, Minh; Roach, Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Tea is a major source of catechins, which have become well known for their antioxidant potential. Numerous human, animal, and in vitro studies have linked tea catechins with prevention of certain types of cancers, reduction of the risks for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and improvement of the immune system. Tea catechins are widely used in various neutraceuticals, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics for either enhancing product shelf-life or for enhancing human health. Thus, the demand for catechins has increased considerably. Catechins have been extracted and isolated from tea leaves by numerous methods through several steps including: treatment of the tea leaves, extraction of catechins from teas into solvents, isolation of catechins from other extracted components, and drying the preparations to obtain catechin extracts in a powder form. This paper outlines the physical and chemical properties of the tea catechins and reviews the extraction steps of the various extraction methods, as a basis to improve and further develop the extraction and isolation of the tea catechins.

  4. Tea phytochemicals for breast cancer prevention and intervention: From bench to bedside and beyond.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Dona; Biswas, Jaydip; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Bishayee, Anupam

    2017-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute of the United States had projected breast cancer as one of the topmost prevalent malignancies of 2016. It was estimated that in 2016, 246,660 new cases of invasive breast cancer were expected to be diagnosed in women in the US, along with 61,000 new cases of non-invasive (in situ) breast cancer. The heterogeneity of breast cancer accounts for its differential molecular subtyping. Recent incorporation of high throughput approaches helps early prognosis of breast cancer, but recurrence of the disease stands to be one of the most daunting fact behind non-availability of third line treatment. At this point of crisis, application of chemopreventive measures could possibly resolve the enigma of breast cancer. The world class beverage tea has proven its efficacy in ameliorating various genetic and epigenetic anomalies in breast cancer. Tea phytoconstituents are known to modulate myriad molecular events which include prominent regulators of intracellular signaling, such as phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/nuclear factor-κB, epidermal growth factor receptor, vascular endothelial growth factor, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2 associated X protein in the development and progression of breast carcinoma. This review aims to encompass the detailed modulatory roles of tea phytochemicals, their analogs and nanoformulations against mammary carcinoma and the probability of using tea in therapeutic management of breast cancer. Finally, current limitations, challenges and future directions of tea and breast cancer research are also critically discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by upregulating antioxidant enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the upregulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-Isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited five-fold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both mRNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by AhR and Nrf2 proteins were upregulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126 which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. PMID:24378064

  6. Foale on middeck with tea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-09-30

    S86-E-5346 (30 September 1997) --- This Electronic Still Camera (ESC) image shows astronaut C. Michael Foale, mission specialist, hydrating tea in the middeck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Atlantis. Foale, now a STS-86 crew member, has been onboard the Russian Mir Space Station as a cosmonaut guest researcher since mid-May 1997. He was replaced by astronaut David A. Wolf during the STS-86 Atlantis/Mir docking mission. This is the seventh Atlantis/Mir docking mission. This view was taken at 00:35:35 GMT on September 30, 1997.

  7. Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste supported aluminum oxides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuanyi; Xi, Junjun; Chen, Guijie; Feng, Zhihui; Ke, Fei; Ning, Jingming; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-03-01

    Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea-Al), was successfully prepared. The Tea-Al biosorbent was characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The Tea-Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), but a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine, under the same conditions. Fluoride adsorption by Tea-Al for different times obeyed the surface reaction and adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Results from this study demonstrated that Tea-Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Travelling with tea: a Tuckerella’s tale

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tuckerella japonica appears strongly associated with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze., Theaceae) and, due to certain cultural practices in tea production, has in fact become a world traveller, accompanying the greatly coveted tea plant as it spread across the planet. The history of tea productio...

  9. TEA: A Code Calculating Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature-pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows & Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows & Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but with higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.

  10. Association between tea consumption and osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. Methods and Findings: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords “tea and osteoporosis,” without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I2. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Results: Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case–control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46–0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I2 = 94%, P < .01). There was, however, no publication bias of the meta-analysis about tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. Conclusion: In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis. PMID:29245297

  11. TEA: A CODE CALCULATING THERMOCHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM ABUNDANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Bowman, M. Oliver, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu

    2016-07-01

    We present an open-source Thermochemical Equilibrium Abundances (TEA) code that calculates the abundances of gaseous molecular species. The code is based on the methodology of White et al. and Eriksson. It applies Gibbs free-energy minimization using an iterative, Lagrangian optimization scheme. Given elemental abundances, TEA calculates molecular abundances for a particular temperature and pressure or a list of temperature–pressure pairs. We tested the code against the method of Burrows and Sharp, the free thermochemical equilibrium code Chemical Equilibrium with Applications (CEA), and the example given by Burrows and Sharp. Using their thermodynamic data, TEA reproduces their final abundances, but withmore » higher precision. We also applied the TEA abundance calculations to models of several hot-Jupiter exoplanets, producing expected results. TEA is written in Python in a modular format. There is a start guide, a user manual, and a code document in addition to this theory paper. TEA is available under a reproducible-research, open-source license via https://github.com/dzesmin/TEA.« less

  12. Risks associated with consumption of herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Manteiga, R; Park, D L; Ali, S S

    1997-01-01

    Plants have been used for medicinal purposes for centuries. Health-oriented individuals are turning to herbal teas as alternatives to caffeinated beverages such as coffee, tea, and cocoa and for low-caloric supplements. The popularity of herbal tea consumption has increased significantly during the past two decades in the U.S. Hundreds of different teas made up of varied mixtures of roots, leaves, seeds, barks, or other parts of shrubs, vines, or trees are sold in health food stores. Although chemists have been characterizing toxic plant constituents for over 100 years, toxicological studies of herbal teas have been limited and, therefore, the safety of many of these products is unknown. Plants synthesize secondary metabolites that are not essential in the production of energy and whose role may be in the defense mechanisms as plant toxins to their interactions with other plants, herbivores, and parasites. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) were among the first naturally occurring carcinogens identified in plant products, and their presence in herbal teas is a matter of public health significance. Some herbal tea mixtures and single-ingredient herbal teas have been analyzed for toxic/mutagenic potential by bioassay and chromatographic techniques. Numerous human and animal intoxications have been associated with naturally occurring components, including pyrrolizidine alkaloids, tannins, and safrole. Thus, the prevention of human exposure to carcinogens or mutagens present in herbal tea mixture extracts is crucial. Preparation of infusion drinks prepared from plants appears to concentrate biologically active compounds and is a major source of PA poisoning. The quantity and consumption over a long period of time is of major concern. It is recommended that widespread consumption of herbal infusions should be minimized until data on the levels and varieties of carcinogens, mutagens, and toxicants are made available.

  13. Brewing and volatiles analysis of three tea beers indicate a potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast.

    PubMed

    Rong, Lei; Peng, Li-Juan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Yan, Shou-He; Meurens, Marc; Zhang, Zheng-Zhu; Li, Da-Xiang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu; Gao, Xue-Ling; Ling, Tie-Jun

    2016-04-15

    Green tea, oolong tea and black tea were separately introduced to brew three kinds of tea beers. A model was designed to investigate the tea beer flavour character. Comparison of the volatiles between the sample of tea beer plus water mixture (TBW) and the sample of combination of tea infusion and normal beer (CTB) was accomplished by triangular sensory test and HS-SPME GC-MS analysis. The PCA of GC-MS data not only showed a significant difference between volatile features of each TBW and CTB group, but also suggested some key compounds to distinguish TBW from CTB. The results of GC-MS showed that the relative concentrations of many typical tea volatiles were significantly changed after the brewing process. More interestingly, the behaviour of yeast fermentation was influenced by tea components. A potential interaction between tea components and lager yeast could be suggested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comprehensive Lipidome-Wide Profiling Reveals Dynamic Changes of Tea Lipids during Manufacturing Process of Black Tea.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Hua, Jinjie; Zhou, Qinghua; Dong, Chunwang; Wang, Jinjin; Deng, Yuliang; Yuan, Haibo; Jiang, Yongwen

    2017-11-22

    As important biomolecules in Camellia sinensis L., lipids undergo substantial changes during black tea manufacture, which is considered to contribute to tea sensory quality. However, limited by analytical capacity, detailed lipid composition and its dynamic changes during black tea manufacture remain unclear. Herein, we performed tea lipidome profiling using high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS), which allows simultaneous and robust analysis of 192 individual lipid species in black tea, covering 17 (sub)classes. Furthermore, dynamic changes of tea lipids during black tea manufacture were investigated. Significant alterations of lipid pattern were revealed, involved with chlorophyll degradation, metabolic pathways of glycoglycerolipids, and other extraplastidial membrane lipids. To our knowledge, this report presented most comprehensive coverage of lipid species in black tea. This study provides a global and in-depth metabolic map of tea lipidome during black tea manufacture.

  15. Cancer Prevention by Tocopherols and Tea Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chung S.; Li, Guangxun; Yang, Zhihong; Guan, Fei; Chen, Amber; Ju, Jihyeung

    2013-01-01

    Tocopherols (vitamin E) and tea polyphenols have been reported to have cancer preventive activities. Large-scale human trials with high doses of alpha-tocopherol, however, have produced disappointing results. This review presents data showing that γ- and δ-tocopherols inhibit colon, lung, mammary and prostate carcinogenesis in animal models, whereas α-tocopherol is ineffective in animal and human studies. Possible mechanisms of action are discussed. A broad cancer preventive activity of green tea polyphenols has been demonstrated in animal models, and many mechanisms have been proposed. The cancer preventive activity of green tea in humans, however, has not been conclusively demonstrated and remains to be further investigated. PMID:23403075

  16. Metabonomics approach to determine metabolic differences between green tea and black tea consumption.

    PubMed

    Van Dorsten, Ferdi A; Daykin, Clare A; Mulder, Theo P J; Van Duynhoven, John P M

    2006-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of black and green tea consumption on human metabolism. Seventeen healthy male volunteers consumed black tea, green tea, or caffeine in a randomized crossover study. Twenty-four-hour urine and blood plasma samples were analyzed by NMR-based metabonomics, that is, high-resolution 1H NMR metabolic profiling combined with multivariate statistics. Green and black tea consumption resulted in similar increases in urinary excretion of hippuric acid and 1,3-dihydroxyphenyl-2-O-sulfate, both of which are end products of tea flavonoid degradation by colonic bacteria. Several unidentified aromatic metabolites were detected in urine specifically after green tea intake. Interestingly, green and black tea intake also had a different impact on endogenous metabolites in urine and plasma. Green tea intake caused a stronger increase in urinary excretion of several citric acid cycle intermediates, which suggests an effect of green tea flavanols on human oxidative energy metabolism and/or biosynthetic pathways.

  17. The Tea Tree Genome Provides Insights into Tea Flavor and Independent Evolution of Caffeine Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Xia, En-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Sheng, Jun; Li, Kui; Zhang, Qun-Jie; Kim, Changhoon; Zhang, Yun; Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Ting; Li, Wei; Huang, Hui; Tong, Yan; Nan, Hong; Shi, Cong; Shi, Chao; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Mao, Shu-Yan; Jiao, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yuan; Zhao, You-Jie; Zhang, Li-Ping; Liu, Yun-Long; Liu, Ben-Ying; Yu, Yue; Shao, Sheng-Fu; Ni, De-Jiang; Eichler, Evan E; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2017-06-05

    Tea is the world's oldest and most popular caffeine-containing beverage with immense economic, medicinal, and cultural importance. Here, we present the first high-quality nucleotide sequence of the repeat-rich (80.9%), 3.02-Gb genome of the cultivated tea tree Camellia sinensis. We show that an extraordinarily large genome size of tea tree is resulted from the slow, steady, and long-term amplification of a few LTR retrotransposon families. In addition to a recent whole-genome duplication event, lineage-specific expansions of genes associated with flavonoid metabolic biosynthesis were discovered, which enhance catechin production, terpene enzyme activation, and stress tolerance, important features for tea flavor and adaptation. We demonstrate an independent and rapid evolution of the tea caffeine synthesis pathway relative to cacao and coffee. A comparative study among 25 Camellia species revealed that higher expression levels of most flavonoid- and caffeine- but not theanine-related genes contribute to the increased production of catechins and caffeine and thus enhance tea-processing suitability and tea quality. These novel findings pave the way for further metabolomic and functional genomic refinement of characteristic biosynthesis pathways and will help develop a more diversified set of tea flavors that would eventually satisfy and attract more tea drinkers worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Large Yellow Tea Attenuates Macrophage-Related Chronic Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome in High-Fat Diet Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Na; Chu, Jun; Wang, Min; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Liang; Xie, Zhongwen; Zhang, Jinsong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Daxiang; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-04-18

    Large yellow tea is a traditional beverage in China with a unique toasty flavor. A preliminary study using 3T3-L1 cells indicated that large yellow tea possessed more potent lipid-lowering efficacy than green, black, dark, and white teas. In the present study we further investigated its influence on metabolic syndrome in a high-fat diet (HFD) mouse model with an emphasis on dose response. Thirty-two C57BL/6 male mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: low-fat diet (LFD), HFD, HFD + 2.5% large yellow tea hot-water extract (YT, equivalent to 10 cups of tea daily for humans), HFD + 0.5% YT. Our data indicated that YT treatment for 12 weeks significantly reduced body weight, liver weight, and adipose tissue weight of the mice; lowered serum insulin and leptin; and raised serum adiponectin with dose effect. H&E staining showed that the HFD group exhibited significant enlargement of adipose cell sizes and the corresponding decrease of adipose cell numbers, which were dose-dependently attenuated in both YT groups. IHC results revealed that YT decreased macrophage recruitment in the liver, epididymal adipose tissue, and subcutaneous adipose tissue and depressed serum inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, MCP-1, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-1β, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, YT decreased serum glucose, TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C, as well as ameliorated glucose intolerance and insulin resistance independent of dose. Overall, YT would be a unique tea with dose-independent antihyperglycemic and robust lipid-lowering efficacies.

  19. Green tea extract for periodontal health

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswara, Babu; Sirisha, K.; Chava, Vijay K.

    2011-01-01

    Tea, the commonly consumed beverage, is gaining increased attention in promoting overall health. In specific, green tea is considered a healthful beverage due to the biological activity of its polyphenols namely catechins. Among the polyphenols Epigallo catechin 3 gallate and Epicatechin 3 Gallate are the most predominant catechins. The antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticollagenase, antimutagenic, and c hemopreventive properties of these catechins proved to be helpful in the treatment of chronic diseases like periodontal disease. Studies have demonstrated that the type of processing mainly effects the concentration of catechins. Several epidemiological studies have proved that green tea also has some general health benefitting properties like antihypertensive, reduction of cardiovascular risk, antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal activity. The present review concentrates on the effects of green tea in periodontal and general health. PMID:21772716

  20. Residues of lambda-cyhalothrin in tea.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, Narayanan Nair

    2009-02-01

    Field experiments were conducted at two places in Tamil Nadu (India) during dry season of 2006 to determine the residues of lambda-cyhalothrin in fresh green tea leaves and black tea. Residues were quantified at different harvest intervals of '0' (3h), 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 10th and 14th day after insecticide application. Persistence, dissipation pattern, half-life value and safe harvest interval of the insecticide in tea were calculated. Residues of lambda-cyhalothrin dissipated exponentially after application at both the locations and reached below the European Union maximum residue limit (MRL) of 1mg/kg on the 5th day. Lambda-cyhalothrin showed that like other insecticides it followed the first order dissipation kinetics. Half-life values varied from 2.8 to 3.5 days for lambda-cyhalothrin and a safety harvest interval of 5 days is suggested for tea at the recommended dosage.

  1. Total polyphenols, catechin profiles and antioxidant activity of tea products from purple leaf coloured tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Kerio, L C; Wachira, F N; Wanyoko, J K; Rotich, M K

    2013-02-15

    Black (aerated) and green (unaerated) tea products, processed from 10 green and 18 purple leaf coloured cultivars of Kenyan origin, and two tea products, from the Japanese cultivars, Yabukita and Yutakamidori, were assayed for total polyphenols (TP) content, individual catechin profiles and in vitro antioxidant capacity (AA). In addition, the phenolic content of the tea products was determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent. Catechin fractions were identified using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a binary gradient elution system. The AA% of the tea products was determined using a 2,2'-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay method. The results showed that TPs, catechin profiles and antioxidant activities were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in unaerated than in aerated teas. Tea products from the purple leaf coloured tea cultivars had levels of TPs, total catechin (TC) and antioxidant activities similar to those from the green leaf coloured cultivars, except for teas from the Japanese cultivars that were very low in the assayed parameters. Caffeine content was significantly (p≤0.05) lower in products from the purple leaf coloured cultivars than in those from the green leaf coloured tea cultivars. Antioxidant activity (%) was higher in tea products from the Kenyan germplasm than in those from the Japanese cultivars. Antioxidant potency of tea products was significantly (r=0.789(∗∗), p≤0.01) influenced by the total anthocyanin content of the purple leaf coloured cultivars. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was the anthocyanin most highly correlated with AA% (r=0.843(∗∗), p≤0.01 in unaerated tea). Total catechins in the unaerated products from the green leaf coloured tea cultivars were also significantly correlated with antioxidant capacity (r=0.818(∗∗), p≤0.01). Results from this study suggest that the antioxidant potency of teas is dependent on the predominant flavonoid compound, the type of tea cultivar and

  2. Profiling elements in Puerh tea from Yunnan province, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianyang; Ma, Guicen; Chen, Liyan; Liu, Ting; Liu, Xin; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-09-01

    Puerh tea, as the most representative Chinese dark tea, has attracted global interest in recent years. Profiling the levels of metal elements in Puerh tea is very important since its presence is related to human health. In this study, 41 elements in 98 Puerh tea samples from Yunnan province, China including Puerh raw tea and Puerh ripe tea were evaluated by microwave digestion combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry . The content of toxic elements, essential elements and rare earth elements of Puerh tea from different regions was discussed in detail. The concentrations of Ba, Cr, As, Pb, Bi, Fe, Zn, V, Mn, Be, Ag and Tl showed significant differences (p < 0.05) by ANOVA analysis. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were used to describe the relationship of Puerh tea from different regions. This study provided a comprehensive database for Puerh tea quality control and intake risk assessment.

  3. [Retrospect of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking].

    PubMed

    Zhu, J N; Zhang, X L; Guo, H

    2017-01-28

    Tea and wine are time-honored drinks in China. Along with coffee and cocoa, tea, as one of the non-alcoholic plant beverages, is prevailing the world. Tea and Chinese medicine has a very close relationship. Chinese herbs taken as tea forming the tea-like medicinal tea, can be taken frequently at anytime. The application of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking begins from the Tang Dynasty, flourishes in the Song Dynasty and matures in the Qing Dynasty. The review of its history provides ample evidence of Chinese herbs taken as tea drinking in treating and preventing diseases, as well as providing the clues and references of developing new Chinese herbs taking as tea.

  4. Adverse effects of concentrated green tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Schönthal, Axel H

    2011-06-01

    A myriad of health claims are being made in favor of the consumption of green tea. However, mostly due to the easy availability and greater than ever popularity of highly concentrated green tea extracts, sometimes combined with an attitude of more-is-better, certain health risks of green tea consumption have begun to emerge. Among such risks are the possibility of liver damage, the potential to interact with prescription drugs to alter their therapeutic efficacy, and the chance to cause harm when combined with other highly popular herbal remedies. This review will summarize documented examples of adverse effects of green tea in humans, and will discuss risks of copious consumption of highly concentrated green tea extracts as indicated by studies in animals. While there is no intention to minimize any of the scientifically established benefits of the use of green tea, the purpose of this review is to focus primarily on the potential for adverse effects and raise awareness of the rare, yet under-appreciated risks. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Simplified recovery of enzymes and nutrients in sweet potato wastewater and preparing health black tea and theaflavins with scrap tea.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing-Rong; Luo, Jia-Ling; Zhou, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Guang-Ying; Chen, Rui; Cheng, Shi; Wu, Min; Li, Hui; Ni, He; Li, Hai-Hang

    2018-04-15

    The industry discards generous organic wastewater in sweet potato starch factory and scrap tea in tea production. A simplified procedure to recover all biochemicals from the wastewater of sweet potato starch factory and use them to make health black tea and theaflavins from scrap green tea was developed. The sweet potato wastewater was sequentially treated by isoelectric precipitation, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration to recover polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-amylase, and small molecular fractions, respectively. The PPO fraction can effectively transform green tea extracts into black tea with high content of theaflavins through the optimized fed-batch feeding fermentation. The PPO transformed black tea with sporamins can be used to make health black tea, or make theaflavins by fractionation with ethyl acetate. This work provides a resource- and environment-friendly approach for economically utilizing the sweet potato wastewater and the scrap tea, and making biochemical, nutrient and health products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Aroma changes of black tea prepared from methyl jasmonate treated tea plants*

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jiang; Wang, Li; Ma, Cheng-ying; Lv, Hai-peng; Chen, Zong-mao; Lin, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) was widely applied in promoting food quality. Aroma is one of the key indicators in judging the quality of tea. This study examined the effect of exogenous MeJA treatment on tea aroma. The aroma components in black tea prepared from MeJA-treated fresh tea leaves were extracted using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry (GC-O). Forty-five volatile compounds were identified. The results revealed that the MeJA-treated black tea had higher levels of terpene alcohols and hexenyl esters than the untreated tea. Moreover, several newly components, including copaene, cubenol, and indole, were induced by the MeJA treatment. The activities of polyphenol oxidase and β-glucosidase in fresh tea leaves changed after the MeJA treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis indicated that the gene expression levels of polyphenol oxidase and β-primeverosidase were upregulated by two and three folds, respectively, by the MeJA treatment (P<0.01); however, the gene expression of β-glucosidase was downregulated to a half level. In general, the aroma quality of the MeJA-treated black tea was clearly improved. PMID:24711352

  7. Safety assessment of green tea based beverages and dried green tea extracts as nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Dekant, Wolfgang; Fujii, Kenkichi; Shibata, Eiichiro; Morita, Osamu; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2017-08-05

    The safety of green tea infusions and green tea extract (GTE)-based products is reviewed regarding catechins. Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), the major catechin present in green tea, is suspected of being responsible for liver toxicity reported in humans consuming food supplements. Intake of EGCG with green tea infusions and GTE-based beverages is up to about 450mg EGCG/person/day in Europe and higher in Asia. Consumption of green tea is not associated with liver damage in humans, and green tea infusion and GTE-based beverages are considered safe in the range of historical uses. In animal studies, EGCG's potency for liver effects is highly dependent on conditions of administration. Use of NOAELs from bolus administration to derive a tolerable upper intake level applying the margin of safety concept results in acceptable EGCG-doses lower than those from one cup of green tea. NOAELs from toxicity studies applying EGCG with diet/split of the daily dose are a better point of departure for risk characterization. In clinical intervention studies, liver effects were not observed after intakes below 600mg EGCG/person/day. Thus, a tolerable upper intake level of 300mg EGCG/person/day is proposed for food supplements; this gives a twofold safety margin to clinical studies that did not report liver effects and a margin of safety of 100 to the NOAELs in animal studies with dietary administration of green tea catechins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Suppressive Effects of Tea Catechins on Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Li-Ping; Wang, Ao; Ye, Jian-Hui; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Polito, Curt Anthony; Lu, Jian-Liang; Li, Qing-Sheng; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Tea leaf (Camellia sinensis) is rich in catechins, which endow tea with various health benefits. There are more than ten catechin compounds in tea, among which epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) is the most abundant. Epidemiological studies on the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast cancer were summarized, and the inhibitory effects of tea catechins on breast cancer, with EGCG as a representative compound, were reviewed in the present paper. The controversial results regarding the role of tea in breast cancer and areas for further study were discussed. PMID:27483305

  9. Obtaining of caffeine from Turkish tea fiber and stalk wastes.

    PubMed

    Gürü, M; Içen, H

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to find a cheap method to obtain caffeine. Experiments were performed on fiber and stalk wastes of Turkish tea plants that had no economical value other than being used merely as low grade fuel and fodder. Tea stalks and fiber were obtained from tea factories. Parameters affecting caffeine extraction from tea wastes were determined to be, mixing rate, water/tea ratio, temperature, time and particle size. The maximum yields by dried mass from the tea fibers and stalks were 1.16% and 0.92%, respectively.

  10. Determination of Ethanol in Kombucha, Juices, and Alcohol-Free Beer by EnzytecTMLiquid Ethanol: Single-Laboratory Validation, First Action 2017.07.

    PubMed

    Lacorn, Markus; Hektor, Thomas

    2018-04-04

    Enzytec TM Liquid Ethanol is an enzymatic test for the determinationof ethanol in kombucha, juices, and alcohol-free beer. The kit contains two components in a ready-to-use format. Quantification is based on the catalytic activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, which oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde and converts NAD + to NADH. Measurement is performed in 3 mL cuvettes at 340 nm within 20 min. Samples with alcohol contents around 0.5% alcohol by volume need to be diluted 1:20 or 1:50 with water before measurement. Acetaldehyde interferes at concentrations higher than 3000 mg/L, whereas sulfite interferes at concentrations higher than 300 mg/L. The linear measurement range is from 0.03 up to 0.5 g/L ethanol, whereas LOD and LOQ are 1.9 and 3.3 mg/L ethanol, respectively. Kombucha with concentrations between 2.85 and 5.82 g/L showed relative repeatability standard deviation around 1%, whereas juices were below 2%. Results from a reproducibility experiment revealed that at a concentration of 0.1 g/L, the RSD R was at 2.5%, whereas at higher concentrations between 0.2 and 0.3 g/L, coefficients around 1% were obtained. Trueness was checked by using Cerilliant aqueous ethanol solutions and beer with concentration of 0.4 and 4 g/L (BCR-651 and BCR-652). Spiking of kombucha and juice samples resulted in recoveries between 95% and 104%. Acceptable stability was found for the whole test kit under accelerated conditions at 37°C for 2 weeks. The kit is also not susceptible to short freezing-thawing cycles and harsh transport conditions.

  11. Comparison of Antioxidative Effects of Insect Tea and Its Raw Tea (Kuding Tea) Polyphenols in Kunming Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Song, Jia-Le; Yi, Ruokun; Li, Guijie; Sun, Peng; Park, Kun-Young; Suo, Huayi

    2018-01-19

    Kudingcha is a traditional Chinese tea, and insect tea is a special drink produced by the metabolism of insect larvae using the raw Kuding tea. Insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) are high-purity polyphenols extracted by centrifuge precipitation. The present study was designed to compare the antioxidative effects of insect tea polyphenols (ITP) and its raw tea (Kuding tea) polyphenols (KTP) on d-galactose-induced oxidation in Kunming (KM) mice. KM mice were treated with ITP (200 mg/kg) and KTP (200 mg/kg) by gavage, and vitamin C (VC, 200 mg/kg) was also used as a positive control by gavage. After determination in serum, liver and spleen, ITP-treated mice showed higher superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione (GSH) activities and lower nitric oxide (NO), malonaldehyde (MDA) activities than VC-treated mice, KTP-treated mice and untreated oxidation mice (control group). By H&E section observation, the mice induced by d-galactose-induced oxidation showed more changes than normal mice, and oxidative damage appeared in liver and spleen tissues; ITP, VC and KTP improved oxidative damage of liver and spleen tissues, and the effects of ITP were better than VC and KTP. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blot experiments, it was observed that ITP could increase the mRNA and protein expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), cupro/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), gamma glutamylcysteine synthetase (γ-GCS), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and reduce inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in liver and spleen tissues compared to the control group. These effects were stronger than for VC and KTP. Both ITP and KTP had good antioxidative effects, and after the

  12. Population nutrikinetics of green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Catharina; Lepper, Anna; Lehr, Thorsten; Hanke, Nina; Schneider, Katharina Luise; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Seufferlein, Thomas; Stingl, Julia Carolin

    2018-01-01

    Green tea polyphenols may contribute to the prevention of cancer and other diseases. To learn more about the pharmacokinetics and interindividual variation of green tea polyphenols after oral intake in humans we performed a population nutrikinetic study of standardized green tea extract. 84 healthy participants took green tea extract capsules standardized to 150 mg epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) twice a day for 5 days. On day 5 catechin plasma concentrations were analyzed using non-compartmental and population pharmacokinetic methods. A strong between-subject variability in catechin pharmacokinetics was found with maximum plasma concentrations varying more than 6-fold. The AUCs of EGCG, EGC and ECG were 877.9 (360.8-1576.5), 35.1 (8.0-87.4), and 183.6 (55.5-364.6) h*μg/L respectively, and the elimination half lives were 2.6 (1.8-3.8), 3.9 (0.9-10.7) and 1.8 (0.8-2.9) h, respectively. Genetic polymorphisms in genes of the drug transporters MRP2 and OATP1B1 could at least partly explain the high variability in pharmacokinetic parameters. The observed variability in catechin plasma levels might contribute to interindividual variation in benefical and adverse effects of green tea polyphenols. Our data could help to gain a better understanding of the causes of variability of green tea effects and to improve the design of studies on the effects of green tea polyphenols in different health conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01360320.

  13. 9,10-Anthraquinone deposit in tea plantation might be one of the reasons for contamination in tea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuan; Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Sun, Hezhi; Yang, Mei; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2018-04-01

    9,10-Anthraquinone (AQ) was a new contaminant, with unknown sources, occurred globally in tea. European Union (EU) fixed the maximum residue limit (MRL) of 0.02mg/kg. The pollution source of AQ in tea was traced from the view of AQ deposit on tea crop by simulation. The possible contamination pathway and main factors to decrease AQ were explored in tea cultivation- tea manufacture- tea infusion, on the basis of AQ analytical methods by using solvent extraction and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) quantification. 58.8-84.6% of AQ degraded in tea processing, and drying played a key role to reduce the AQ contamination. Certain concentration of AQ deposited on tea shoots could resulted in AQ beyond the MRL of 0.02mg/kg in tea. AQ leaching into tea brew (about 10%) could lead to the possible health risk. AQ deposit on tea crop during the tea cultivation might cause the AQ contamination in tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Antimutagenicity and catechin content of soluble instant teas.

    PubMed

    Constable, A; Varga, N; Richoz, J; Stadler, R H

    1996-03-01

    The antimutagenic properties of soluble instant teas were examined using the bacterial Ames assay. Inhibition of the numbers of revertants induced from a number of known mutagens indicates that aqueous extracts of instant teas have antimutagenic activity and antioxidative properties, and can inhibit nitrosation reactions. Despite a significant reduction in the amounts of major green tea catechins, quantified using reversed-phase HPLC with electro-chemical detection, no differences in antimutagenicity were observed between the instant teas, a black fermented tea and a green tea. Oxidation of polyphenolic compounds which occurs during the production of instant tea does not therefore decrease the antioxidant, free radical scavenging and antimutagenic properties. This suggests that catechins are not the only compounds responsible for the protective effects of teas.

  15. Fluoride in Ceylon tea and its implications to dental health.

    PubMed

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Abeypala, Uthpala; Dissanayake, C B; Tobschall, H J

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the fluoride content of Ceylon Tea, which is a popular beverage throughout the world. The fluoride content of tea infusions prepared from different grades of tea leaves collected from different parts of the tea-growing regions (25 samples) of Sri Lanka was measured using a fluoride-selective electrode. Fluoride leaching was found to vary from 0.32 to 1.69 mg F/l, but there were no significant differences in terms of fluoride leaching between tea from different tea-growing regions or between tea of different grades. Dental fluorosis is widespread throughout the dry zone of Sri Lanka, and drinking water has traditionally been considered to be the main contributory factor to the development of fluorosis. However, diet, the consumption of tea in particular, may also contribute to the manifestation of dental diseases.

  16. Determination of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in tea, herbal drugs and honey.

    PubMed

    Bodi, Dorina; Ronczka, Stefan; Gottschalk, Christoph; Behr, Nastassja; Skibba, Anne; Wagner, Matthias; Lahrssen-Wiederholt, Monika; Preiss-Weigert, Angelika; These, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Honey was previously considered to be one of the main food sources of human pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) exposure in Europe. However, comprehensive analyses of honey and tea sampled in the Berlin retail market revealed unexpected high PA amounts in teas. This study comprised the analysis of 87 honey as well as 274 tea samples including black, green, rooibos, melissa, peppermint, chamomile, fennel, nettle, and mixed herbal tea or fruit tea. Total PA concentrations in tea ranged from < LOD to 5647 µg kg(-1), while a mean value of about 10 µg kg(-1) was found in honey samples. Additionally, herbal drugs were investigated to identify the source of PA in teas. Results suggest that PA in tea samples are most likely a contamination caused by co-harvesting of PA-producing plants. In some cases such as fennel, anise or caraway, it cannot be excluded that these plants are able to produce PA themselves.

  17. Efficient extraction strategies of tea (Camellia sinensis) biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Satarupa; Chatterjee, Jyotirmoy

    2015-06-01

    Tea is a popular daily beverage worldwide. Modulation and modifications of its basic components like catechins, alkaloids, proteins and carbohydrate during fermentation or extraction process changes organoleptic, gustatory and medicinal properties of tea. Through these processes increase or decrease in yield of desired components are evident. Considering the varied impacts of parameters in tea production, storage and processes that affect the yield, extraction of tea biomolecules at optimized condition is thought to be challenging. Implementation of technological advancements in green chemistry approaches can minimize the deviation retaining maximum qualitative properties in environment friendly way. Existed extraction processes with optimization parameters of tea have been discussed in this paper including its prospects and limitations. This exhaustive review of various extraction parameters, decaffeination process of tea and large scale cost effective isolation of tea components with aid of modern technology can assist people to choose extraction condition of tea according to necessity.

  18. Respiratory Morbidity among Indian Tea Industry Workers.

    PubMed

    Moitra, S; Thapa, P; Das, P; Das, J; Debnath, S; Singh, Mahipal; Datta, A; Sen, S; Moitra, S

    2016-07-01

    Indian tea industry workers are exposed to various exposures at their workplace. To investigate the respiratory health of Indian tea industry workers. We administered a respiratory questionnaire to and measured lung function in workers of 34 tea gardens and 46 tea factories. We used correlation matrices to test the association between their respiratory symptoms and lung functions. The garden workers complained of shortness of breath 3 times higher than the factory workers. However, nasal allergy was more predominant among the factory workers compared to garden workers (69.6% vs 41.2%, p=0.02). The factory workers had higher total (median 107.3% vs 92.9%, p=0.05, as measured by R at 5 Hz) and peripheral airway resistance (143.8% vs 61.1%, p=0.005, as measured by R at 5-20 Hz) than the garden workers. Respiratory symptoms were inversely associated with airway obstruction as measured by the ratio between forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) and positively correlated with increased overall airway reactance among the workers. Respiratory symptoms and increased allergen susceptibility of Indian tea industry workers due to occupational exposures warrant routine systematic surveillance of their workplace air quality and health monitoring.

  19. Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea), Monsonia burkeana (special tea) and synergistic effects of both combined herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Tshivhandekano, Itani; Ntushelo, Khayalethu; Ngezimana, Wonder; Tshikalange, Thilivhali Emmanuel; Mudau, Fhatuwani Nixwell

    2014-09-01

    To determine the chemical compositions and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.), special tea (Monsonia burkeana) and synergy (combination of bush tea and special tea). Total polyphenols were determined using the methods reported by Singleton and Rossi (1965) and modified by Waterman and Mole (1994). Tannins were determined using vanillin HCL methods described by Prince et al. (1978). Total antioxidants were determined using the methods described by Awika et al. (2004). The micro dilution technique using 96-well micro-plates, as described by Eloff (1998) was used to obtain the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) values of the ethanol extracts against the microorganisms under study. The microbes strain used was Gram negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia marcescens, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia; Gram positive bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus and a fungus Candida albicans. The results demonstrated that special tea contains significantly higher content of total polyphenols (8.34 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.83 mg/100 g) as compared to bush tea [total polyphenols (6.41 mg/100g) and total antioxidant (0.63 mg/100g)] and combination of bush tea and special tea [total polyphenols (6.42 mg/100 g) and total antioxidant (0.64 mg/100 g)]. There was no significant difference in tannins between bush tea, special tea and synergy. The results of antimicrobial activity (MIC and MMC) demonstrated that the ethanol extracts of bush tea, special tea and synergy possessed antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms at different zones. The MIC of bush tea ranged from 1.56 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.78 to 12.50 mg/mL. Special tea's MIC ranged from 0.39 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 0.01 to 12.50 mg/mL. The MIC of synergy ranged from 3.13 to 12.50 mg/mL while the MMC ranged from 3

  20. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor

    PubMed Central

    Samant, Shilpa. S.; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener. PMID:27848976

  1. Tea-induced calmness: Sugar-sweetened tea calms consumers exposed to acute stressor.

    PubMed

    Samant, Shilpa S; Wilkes, Katherine; Odek, Zephania; Seo, Han-Seok

    2016-11-16

    The food and beverage industry has been increasingly replacing sugar with non-nutritive sweeteners in their sweetened products to control or reduce total calories. Research comparing the effect of nutritive and non-nutritive sweeteners on emotional state of participants exposed to acute stressors is still limited. This study aimed to determine the effect of drinking tea sweetened with either a nutritive sweetener (sugar) or a non-nutritive sweetener (sucralose or stevia) on emotional state, in terms of calmness and pleasantness, of participants exposed to an acute stressor. Effects of acute stress on sweetness intensity and overall liking of tea beverages were also determined. Results showed that the possibility of tea-induced calmness, calculated as the difference between calmness ratings after and before drinking a tea sample, was established on stress session in the sugar-sweetened tea. Overall liking, but not the sweetness intensity, of the sugar-sweetened tea was affected by acute stress. In conclusion, this study provides empirical evidence that the consumption of tea sweetened with nutritive sweetener, but not with non-nutritive sweetener, has calming effect on consumers with acute stress, suggesting that this effect may not be due to the sweet taste of sugar, but due to the caloric nature of the sweetener.

  2. Enhancement of fermentation process in Pu-erh tea by tea-leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Hou, C W; Jeng, K C; Chen, Y S

    2010-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is known as a fermented tea and longer storage enhances its flavor and taste. Recently, Aspergillus, Blastobotrys, and Streptomyces are found to play important roles in nutritional enhancement of Pu-erh tea by fermentation. Since water and temperature affect the microbial growth, we therefore explored the factors that might enhance the Pu-erh tea fermentation. The results showed that the addition of fresh tea-leaf extract (TLE) enhanced the withered tea fermentation (at 37 degrees C, 80 to 85% RH) as compared with the water only. Contents of statin, GABA, gallic acid, DPPH scavenging and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activities were increased, whereas polyphenols and caffeine were decreased over 6 mo. TLE dose-dependently enhanced some of the qualities (that is, statin, PPO) of Pu-erh tea significantly as compared with the water only. The effect was related to the increase population of A. niger and A. carbonarius at 6 mo (from 7.6 +/- 1.2 x 10(1) and 3.2 +/- 1.3 x 10(1) to 3.1 +/- 1.2 x 10(6) and 2.4 +/- 1.1 x 10(5) colony forming units [CFU]/g, respectively). After drying process (90 degrees C, 30 min), the total microbial count from these samples returned to background level (3 +/- 0.5 x 10(2) CFU/g). None of ochratoxin and fumonisin, toxins from Aspergillus, was detected in the final products. The flavor and taste were also enhanced by treatment with TLE. The inoculation with S. cinereus Y11 with 2% TLE further enhanced these functional contents (about 2-fold increase of statin level) in the experimental Pu-erh tea. Therefore, this result may add a new process for Pu-erh tea manufacture.

  3. Cancer prevention by green tea: evidence from epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jian-Min

    2013-12-01

    In contrast to the consistent results of an inhibitory effect of green tea extracts and tea polyphenols on the development and growth of carcinogen-induced tumors in experimental animal models, results from human studies are mixed. Both observational and intervention studies have provided evidence in support of a protective role of green tea intake in the development of oral-digestive tract cancer or an inhibitory role of oral supplementation of green tea extract on a precancerous lesion of oral cavity. Evidence in support of green tea intake against the development of liver cancer risk is limited and inconsistent. An inverse association between green tea intake and lung cancer risk has been observed among never smokers but not among smokers. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake against the development of prostate cancer, several phase 2 clinical trials have shown an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate premalignant lesions to malignant tumors. Prospective epidemiologic studies so far have not provided evidence for a protective effect of green tea consumption on breast cancer development. Current data neither confirm nor refute a definitive cancer-preventive role of green tea intake. Large randomized intervention trials on the efficacy of green tea polyphenols or extracts are required before a recommendation for green tea consumption for cancer prevention should be made.

  4. Green tea: a promising natural product in oral health.

    PubMed

    Narotzki, Baruch; Reznick, Abraham Z; Aizenbud, Dror; Levy, Yishai

    2012-05-01

    Green tea is a leading beverage in the Far East for thousands of years; it is regarded for a long time as a health product. Green tea is important source of polyphenol antioxidants. Polyphenols including epigallocatechin 3 gallate (EGCG) constitute the most interesting components in green tea leaves. Green tea has the potential to protect against various malignant, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. There is a growing body of evidence pointing a beneficial role of green tea and its polyphenols in oral health. Green tea protects against bacterial induced dental caries. Tea polyphenols possess antiviral properties, believed to help in protection from influenza virus. Additionally, green tea polyphenols can abolish halitosis through modification of odorant sulphur components. Oral cavity oxidative stress and inflammation, consequent to cigarette smoking and cigarettes' deleterious compounds nicotine and acrolein, may be reduced in the presence of green tea polyphenols. Generally, green tea defends healthy cells from malignant transformation and locally has the ability to induce apoptosis in oral cancer cells. All together, there is an increasing interest in the health benefits of green tea in the field of oral health. Nonetheless, there is still a need for more clinical and biological studies to support guidelines for green tea intake as part of prevention and treatment of specific oral pathologies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Oolong tea increases energy metabolism in Japanese females.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Tatsushi; Nakamori, Masayo; Komatsu, Keiko; Hosoda, Kazuaki; Okamura, Mariko; Toyama, Kenji; Ishikura, Yoshiyuki; Sakai, Tohru; Kunii, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2003-08-01

    Oolong tea is a traditional Chinese tea that has long been believed to be beneficial to health such as decreasing body fat. We were interested in this assertion and tried to evaluate the effect of oolong tea on energy expenditure (EE) in comparison with green tea. The subjects were eleven healthy Japanese females (age 20+/-1 y; body mass index (BMI) 21.2+/-2.5 kg/m2) who each consumed of three treatments in a crossover design: 1) water, 2) oolong tea, 3) green tea. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and EE after the consumption of the test beverage for 120 min were measured using an indirect calorimeter. The cumulative increases of EE for 120 min were significantly increased 10% and 4% after the consumption of oolong tea and green tea, respectively. EE at 60 and 90 min were significantly higher after the consumption of oolong tea than that of water (P<0.05). In comparison with green tea, oolong tea contained approximately half the caffeine and epigallocatechin galate, while polymerized polyphenols were double. These results suggest that oolong tea increases EE by its polymerized polyphenols.

  6. Poppy tea drinking in East Anglia.

    PubMed

    London, M; O'Regan, T; Aust, P; Stockford, A

    1990-10-01

    Poppy tea drinking was a widespread traditional practice in the Fenlands of East Anglia during the nineteenth century. The subsequent social changes which led to greater integration of the area with the rest of the country may have contributed to a decline in the practice. In recent years poppy tea drinking has been revived within the illicit drug using community and a survey using a self-report questionnaire was carried out among patients attending the Cambridge Drug Dependency Unit. Forty-three patients admitted to drinking poppy tea, usually during the summer months and on an intermittent basis. The potency of the infusion varied and was unpredictable but in general was low. Although poisoning from herbicides and pesticides was seen as the main risk, it is in the main perceived by drug users as a harmless secondary activity existing alongside the more regular and more potent drugs of misuse.

  7. [Development of throat clearing herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Milasius

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal herbs in tea for throat clearing are used from ancient times. Taking into consideration the bronchial mucus secretion stimulating and antispasmodic, antimicrobial, antiphlogistic and stimulating effect on the ciliated epithelium two new formulations of throat clearing herbal tea were originated. The first formulation consists of liquorice roots, sweet fennel and thyme, and the second one consists of pine gemmae, thyme and elder flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances of the components were adapted. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by the limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. Expiry date of both throat clearing herbal teas was confirmed to be 2 years.

  8. Green tea diet decreases PCB 126-induced oxidative stress in mice by up-regulating antioxidant enzymes.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Bradley J; Petriello, Michael C; Han, Sung Gu; Murphy, Margaret O; Eske, Katryn E; Sunkara, Manjula; Morris, Andrew J; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-02-01

    Superfund chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls pose a serious human health risk due to their environmental persistence and link to multiple diseases. Selective bioactive food components such as flavonoids have been shown to ameliorate PCB toxicity, but primarily in an in vitro setting. Here, we show that mice fed a green tea-enriched diet and subsequently exposed to environmentally relevant doses of coplanar PCB exhibit decreased overall oxidative stress primarily due to the up-regulation of a battery of antioxidant enzymes. C57BL/6 mice were fed a low-fat diet supplemented with green tea extract (GTE) for 12 weeks and exposed to 5 μmol PCB 126/kg mouse weight (1.63 mg/kg-day) on weeks 10, 11 and 12 (total body burden: 4.9 mg/kg). F2-isoprostane and its metabolites, established markers of in vivo oxidative stress, measured in plasma via HPLC-MS/MS exhibited fivefold decreased levels in mice supplemented with GTE and subsequently exposed to PCB compared to animals on a control diet exposed to PCB. Livers were collected and harvested for both messenger RNA and protein analyses, and it was determined that many genes transcriptionally controlled by aryl hydrocarbon receptor and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 proteins were up-regulated in PCB-exposed mice fed the green tea-supplemented diet. An increased induction of genes such as SOD1, GSR, NQO1 and GST, key antioxidant enzymes, in these mice (green tea plus PCB) may explain the observed decrease in overall oxidative stress. A diet supplemented with green tea allows for an efficient antioxidant response in the presence of PCB 126, which supports the emerging paradigm that healthful nutrition may be able to bolster and buffer a physiological system against the toxicities of environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Pyrrolizidine and tropane alkaloids in teas and the herbal teas peppermint, rooibos and chamomile in the Israeli market.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Duebecke, Arne; Mulder, Patrick P J; Cuneah, Olga; Barel, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Dehydro pyrrolizidine alkaloids (dehydro PAs) are carcinogenic phytotoxins prevalent in the Boraginaceae, Asteraceae and Fabaceae families. Dehydro PAs enter the food and feed chain by co-harvesting of crops intended for human and animal consumption as well as by carry-over into animal-based products such as milk, eggs and honey. Recently the occurrence of dehydro PAs in teas and herbal teas has gained increasing attention from the EU, due to the high levels of dehydro PAs found in commercially available teas and herbal teas in Germany and Switzerland. Furthermore, several tropane alkaloids (TAs, e.g. scopolamine and hyoscyamine) intoxications due to the consumption of contaminated herbal teas were reported in the literature. The aim of the present study was to determine the dehydro PAs and TAs levels in 70 pre-packed teabags of herbal and non-herbal tea types sold in supermarkets in Israel. Chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas contained high dehydro PAs levels in almost all samples analysed. Lower amounts were detected in black and green teas, while no dehydro PAs were found in fennel and melissa herbal teas. Total dehydro PAs concentrations in chamomile, peppermint and rooibos teas ranged from 20 to 1729 μg/kg. Except for black tea containing only mono-ester retrorsine-type dehydro PAs, all other teas and herbal teas showed mixed patterns of dehydro PA ester types, indicating a contamination by various weed species during harvesting and/or production. The TA levels per teabag were below the recommended acute reference dose; however, the positive findings of TAs in all peppermint tea samples warrant a more extensive survey. The partially high levels of dehydro PAs found in teas and herbal teas present an urgent warning letter to the regulatory authorities to perform routine quality control analysis and implement maximum residual levels for dehydro PAs.

  10. The effect of tea on iron absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Disler, P B; Lynch, S R; Charlton, R W; Torrance, J D; Bothwell, T H; Walker, R B; Mayet, F

    1975-01-01

    The effect of tea on iron absorption was studied in human volunteers. Absorption from solutions of FeCl3 and FeSO4, bread, a meal of rice with potato and onion soup, and uncooked haemoglobin was inhibited whether ascorbic acid was present or not. No inhibition was noted if the haemoglobin was cooked. The effect on the absorption of non-haem iron was ascribed to the formation of insoluble iron tannate complexes. Drinking tannin-containing beverages such as tea with meals may contribute to the pathogenesis of iron deficiency if the diet consists largely of vegetable foodstuffs. PMID:1168162

  11. Metabolic effects of spices, teas, and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet; Diepvens, Kristel; Joosen, Annemiek M C P; Bérubé-Parent, Sonia; Tremblay, Angelo

    2006-08-30

    Consumption of spiced foods or herbal drinks leads to greater thermogenesis and in some cases to greater satiety. In this regard, capsaicin, black pepper, ginger, mixed spices, green tea, black tea and caffeine are relevant examples. These functional ingredients have the potential to produce significant effects on metabolic targets such as satiety, thermogenesis, and fat oxidation. A significant clinical outcome sometimes may appear straightforwardly but also depends too strongly on full compliance of subjects. Nevertheless, thermogenic ingredients may be considered as functional agents that could help in preventing a positive energy balance and obesity.

  12. Green tea and black tea consumption and prostate cancer risk: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jusheng; Yang, Bin; Huang, Tao; Yu, Yinghua; Yang, Jing; Li, Duo

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies on tea consumption and prostate cancer (PCa) risk are still inconsistent. The authors conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the association between green tea and black tea consumption with PCa risk. Thirteen studies providing data on green tea or black tea consumption were identified by searching PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases and secondary referencing qualified for inclusion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the summary odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For green tea, the summary OR of PCa indicated a borderline significant association in Asian populations for highest green tea consumption vs. non/lowest (OR = 0.62; 95% CI: 0.38-1.01); and the pooled estimate reached statistically significant level for case-control studies (OR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.25-0.73), but not for prospective cohort studies (OR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.53). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observed for the highest vs. non/lowest black tea consumption (OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.82-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis supported that green tea but not black tea may have a protective effect on PCa, especially in Asian populations. Further research regarding green tea consumption across different regions apart from Asia is needed.

  13. Effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites.

    PubMed

    Dinç Ata, Gül; Gokay, Osman; Müjdeci, Arzu; Kivrak, Tugba Congara; Mokhtari Tavana, Armin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effect of various teas on color stability of resin composites. Two methacrylate-based (Arabesk Top, Grandio) and a silorane-based (Filtek Silorane) resin composites were used. 110 cylindrical samples of each resin composite were prepared (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter), polished and stored in distilled water (37°C for 24 hours). They were randomly divided into 11 groups (n= 10) and color measurements were taken. Then the samples were immersed in tap water (control), a black tea, a green tea or one of the eight herbal-fruit teas (37°C for 1 week) and subsequently subjected to the final color measurements. The color change of samples (ΔE*) was calculated, data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests. Teas, resin composites and their interactions were significant (P= 0.000). All the teas and control caused color changes in all three resin composites. Rosehip tea caused the most color changes, while tap water showed the least in all resin composites. Arabesk Top had the most staining potential in all the teas and control, whereas Filtek Silorane was the most stain resistant except Grandio immersed in sage tea. Color stability of all resin composites used were affected from both structure of resin materials and constituents of teas used. All resin composites were susceptible to staining by all teas especially rosehip tea. Arabesk Top composite showed the greatest color susceptibility in all teas and Filtek Silorane the least with one exception. Color of resin composites can be negatively affected from teas consumed. Clinicians should advise patients that drinking different kind of teas could intensify surface staining of resin based restorations.

  14. The erosive effect of herbal tea on dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Brunton, P A; Hussain, A

    2001-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether conventional black tea and a herbal tea were capable of eroding dental enamel. A further aim was to investigate whether herbal tea of the type tested eroded dental hard tissues to a greater or lesser extent than conventional black tea. Three groups of 21 teeth were exposed to a conventional black tea Typhoo (Group A), a herbal tea Twinings Blackcurrant, Ginsing and Vanilla (Group B) and water, which acted as a control (Group C). Sequential profilometric tracings of the specimens were taken, superimposed and the degree of enamel loss calculated as the area of disparity between the tracings before and after exposure. Conventional black tea and herbal tea, of the type tested, both resulted in tooth surface loss. Tooth surface loss, which resulted from exposure to herbal tea (mean 0.05mm(2), s.d. 0.02), however, was significantly greater (P=0.00) than that which resulted from exposure to conventional black tea (mean 0.01mm(2), s.d. 0.00) and water (mean 0.00mm(2), s.d. 0.00). It was concluded that herbal tea and conventional black tea of the type tested result in erosion of dental enamel. The erosive effect of the herbal tea of the type tested was five times more severe than that of the conventional black tea tested. The cumulative effects of regular consumption of herbal tea of the type tested are likely, therefore, to be of clinical significance.

  15. The First Space-Related Study of a Kombucha Multimicrobial Cellulose-Forming Community: Preparatory Laboratory Experiments.

    PubMed

    Podolich, O; Zaets, I; Kukharenko, O; Orlovska, I; Reva, O; Khirunenko, L; Sosnin, M; Haidak, A; Shpylova, S; Rohutskyy, I; Kharina, A; Skoryk, М; Kremenskoy, M; Klymchuk, D; Demets, R; de Vera, J-P; Kozyrovska, N

    2017-06-01

    Biofilm-forming microbial communities are known as the most robust assemblages that can survive in harsh environments. Biofilm-associated microorganisms display greatly increased resistance to physical and chemical adverse conditions, and they are expected to be the first form of life on Earth or anywhere else. Biological molecules synthesized by biofilm -protected microbiomes may serve as markers of the nucleoprotein life. We offer a new experimental model, a kombucha multimicrobial culture (KMC), to assess a structural integrity of a widespread microbial polymer - cellulose - as a biosignature of bacteria-producers for the multipurpose international project "BIOlogical and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX)", which aims to study the vitality of pro- and eukaryotic organisms and the stability of organic biomolecules in contact with minerals to analyze the detectability of life markers in the context of a planetary background. In this study, we aimed to substantiate the detectability of mineralized cellulose with spectroscopy and to study the KMC macrocolony phenotype stability under adverse conditions (UV, excess of inorganics etc.). Cellulose matrix of the KMC macrocolony has been mineralized in the mineral-water interface under assistance of KMC-members. Effect of bioleached ions on the cellulose matrix has been visible, and the FT-IR spectrum proved changes in cellulose structure. However, the specific cellulose band vibration, confirming the presence of β(1,4)-linkages between monomers, has not been quenched by secondary minerals formed on the surface of pellicle. The cellulose-based KMC macrocolony phenotype was in a dependence on extracellular matrix components (ionome, viriome, extracellular membrane vesicles), which provided its integrity and rigidness in a certain extent under impact of stressful factors.

  16. The First Space-Related Study of a Kombucha Multimicrobial Cellulose-Forming Community: Preparatory Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolich, O.; Zaets, I.; Kukharenko, O.; Orlovska, I.; Reva, O.; Khirunenko, L.; Sosnin, M.; Haidak, A.; Shpylova, S.; Rohutskyy, I.; Kharina, A.; Skoryk, M.; Kremenskoy, M.; Klymchuk, D.; Demets, R.; de Vera, J.-P.; Kozyrovska, N.

    2017-06-01

    Biofilm-forming microbial communities are known as the most robust assemblages that can survive in harsh environments. Biofilm-associated microorganisms display greatly increased resistance to physical and chemical adverse conditions, and they are expected to be the first form of life on Earth or anywhere else. Biological molecules synthesized by biofilm -protected microbiomes may serve as markers of the nucleoprotein life. We offer a new experimental model, a kombucha multimicrobial culture (KMC), to assess a structural integrity of a widespread microbial polymer - cellulose - as a biosignature of bacteria-producers for the multipurpose international project "BIOlogical and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX)", which aims to study the vitality of pro- and eukaryotic organisms and the stability of organic biomolecules in contact with minerals to analyze the detectability of life markers in the context of a planetary background. In this study, we aimed to substantiate the detectability of mineralized cellulose with spectroscopy and to study the KMC macrocolony phenotype stability under adverse conditions (UV, excess of inorganics etc.). Cellulose matrix of the KMC macrocolony has been mineralized in the mineral-water interface under assistance of KMC-members. Effect of bioleached ions on the cellulose matrix has been visible, and the FT-IR spectrum proved changes in cellulose structure. However, the specific cellulose band vibration, confirming the presence of β(1,4)-linkages between monomers, has not been quenched by secondary minerals formed on the surface of pellicle. The cellulose-based KMC macrocolony phenotype was in a dependence on extracellular matrix components (ionome, viriome, extracellular membrane vesicles), which provided its integrity and rigidness in a certain extent under impact of stressful factors.

  17. Black tea increases hypertonic stress resistance in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Pei; Pan, Lian-Yun; Xiong, Li-Gui; Tong, Jie-Wen; Li, Juan; Huang, Jian-An; Gong, Yu-Shun; Liu, Zhong-Hua

    2018-06-22

    Here we identified that BTE (black tea extract), within the studied concentration range, is more effective than GTE (green tea extract) in protecting C. elegans against hypertonic stress, by enhancing survival after exposure to various salts, and alleviating suffered motility loss and body shrinkage. The mechanism of such protection may be due to the ability of black tea to induce the conserved WNK/GCK signaling pathway and down-regulation of the expression levels of nlp-29. Intriguingly, black tea does not relieve hypertonicity-induced protein damage. The findings implicate the potential health benefits of black tea consumed worldwide.

  18. Specific immunotherapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Min; Zeng, Lu; Li, Lin-Jing; Mo, Li-Hua; Xie, Rui-Di; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of IBD patients. Patients with both ulcerative colitis (UC) and food allergy were recruited into this study. Food allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and serum specific IgE. The patients were treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) and Clostridium butyricum (CB) capsules. After treating with SIT and CB, the clinical symptoms of UC were markedly suppressed as shown by reduced truncated Mayo scores and medication scores. The serum levels of specific IgE, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also suppressed. Treating with SIT alone or CB alone did not show appreciable improvement of the clinical symptoms of UC. UC with food allergy can be ameliorated by administration with SIT and butyrate-production probiotics.

  19. Metaphysics of the tea ceremony: a randomized trial investigating the roles of intention and belief on mood while drinking tea.

    PubMed

    Shiah, Yung-Jong; Radin, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This study explored whether drinking tea "treated" with good intentions would enhance mood more than drinking ordinary tea, under double-blind, randomized conditions. Each evening, for seven days in a row, volunteers recorded their mood using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. On days three, four, and five of the test, each participant drank 600 mL of oolong tea in the morning and again in the afternoon. One randomly assigned group blindly received tea that had been intentionally treated by three Buddhist monks; the other group blindly received untreated tea from the same source. On the last day of the test, each person indicated what type of tea he/she believed he/she had been drinking. Stratified, random sampling was used to assign 189 adults into two groups matched by age, gender, the psychological trait of neuroticism, and the amount of tea consumed on average per day. All participants were Taiwanese and lived in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, and the test was conducted over the course of one week to reduce mood fluctuations due to changes in local weather and other common influences. Those who drank treated tea showed a greater increase in mood than those who drank untreated tea (Cohen's d = 0.65, P = .02, two-tailed). Change in mood in those who believed that they were drinking treated tea was much better than those who did not believe (Cohen's d = 1.45, P = .00002, two-tailed). Tea treated with good intentions improved mood more than ordinary tea derived from the same source. Belief that one was drinking treated tea produced a large improvement in mood, but only if one was actually drinking the treated tea, indicating that belief and intentional enhancement interact. This also suggests that the esthetic and intentional qualities associated with the traditional tea ceremony may have subtle influences that extend beyond the ritual itself. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Common tea formulations modulate in vitro digestive recovery of green tea catechins.

    PubMed

    Green, Rodney J; Murphy, Angus S; Schulz, Burkhard; Watkins, Bruce A; Ferruzzi, Mario G

    2007-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence suggests a role for tea catechins in reduction of chronic disease risk. However, stability of catechins under digestive conditions is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of common food additives on digestive recovery of tea catechins. Green tea water extracts were formulated in beverages providing 4.5, 18, 23, and 3.5 mg per 100 mL epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG), and epicatechin-gallate (ECG), respectively. Common commercial beverage additives; citric acid (CA), BHT, EDTA, ascorbic acid (AA), milk (bovine, soy, and rice), and citrus juice (orange, grapefruit, lemon, and lime) were formulated into finished tea beverages at incremental dosages. Samples were then subjected to in vitro digestion simulating gastric and small intestinal conditions with pre- and post-digestion catechin profiles assessed by HPLC. Catechin stability in green tea was poor with <20% total catechins remaining post-digestion. EGC and EGCG were most sensitive with less, not double equals 10% recovery. Teas formulated with 50% bovine, soy, and rice milk increased total catechin recovery significantly to 52, 55, and 69% respectively. Including 30 mg AA in 250 mL of tea beverage significantly (p<0.05) increased catechin recovery of EGC, EGCG, EC, and ECG to 74, 54, 82, and 45% respectively. Juice preparation resulted in the highest recovery of any formulation for EGC (81-98%), EGCG (56-76%), EC (86-95%), and ECG (30-55%). These data provide evidence that tea consumption practices and formulation factors likely impact catechin digestive recovery and may result in diverse physiological profiles.

  1. Towards generating caffeine-free tea by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2007-12-01

    Tea is a rich source of antioxidants which are contributing substantially to the promotion of health and the prevention of various chronic diseases. Despite the fact that tea has various important compounds, it also contains a purine alkaloid, caffeine. High intake of tea leads to an increase in level of caffeine in addition to its important antioxidant constituents. Increased level of caffeine causes several health related problems. Therefore, tea can become a most useful source of beneficial compounds, if only its caffeine level is either decreased or eliminated all together from the plant itself. This could be achieved through either of the techniques; overexpressing caffeine degradative pathway genes or silencing caffeine biosynthesis pathway gene. The identification and cloning of caffeine biosynthesis in tea and degradative genes in microorganisms opens up the possibility of using genetic engineering to produce naturally decaffeinated tea. Here we review these different strategies which can be employed to make caffeine-free tea, a human health beneficial drink.

  2. Green Tea (Camellia Sinensis): Chemistry and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad S; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Naseem, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Green tea is a widely consumed beverage worldwide. Numerous studies have suggested about the beneficial effects of green tea on oral conditions such as dental caries, periodontal diseases and halitosis. However, to date there have not been many review articles published that focus on beneficial effects of green tea on oral disease. The aim of this publication is to summarize the research conducted on the effects of green tea on oral cavity. Green tea might help reduce the bacterial activity in the oral cavity that in turn, can reduce the aforementioned oral afflictions. Furthermore, the antioxidant effect of the tea may reduce the chances of oral cancer. However, more clinical data is required to ascertain the possible benefits of green tea consumption on oral health.

  3. Survey on the pesticide residues in tea in south India.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Muraleedharan, NarayananNair

    2011-05-01

    Tea is considered as a 'health beverage' due its antioxidant properties and resultant beneficial effects on human health. Such a beverage should be free from toxic elements such as pesticide residues and heavy metals. A large scale survey of teas produced in the tea factories of south India had been carried out for a period of three years from 2006 to 2008 and 912 tea samples were analysed for the residues of certain pesticides such as dicofol, ethion, quinalphos, hexaconazole, fenpropathrin, fenvalerate and propargite which are used for pest and disease control in tea in this part of the country. The analytical data proved that only less than 0.5 percentage of tea samples had residues of these pesticides. However, residues of pesticides were below their maximum limits in tea, stipulated by the European Union, Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO/WHO and Prevention of Food Adulteration Act of Govt. of India.

  4. Fluoride content in caffeinated, decaffeinated and herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Chan, J T; Koh, S H

    1996-01-01

    The fluoride contents of infusions prepared from 44 different brands and types of teas were measured. Fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.34 to 3.71 ppm (mean = 1.50 ppm) in caffeinated tea infusions, 0.02-0.14 ppm (mean = 0.05 ppm) in herbal tea infusions, and 1.01-5.20 ppm (mean = 3.19) in decaffeinated tea infusions. This is the first report of the fluoride content of decaffeinated teas. The mean fluoride content of decaffeinated tea infusions is significantly (p < 0.01) higher than the corresponding caffeinated tea. The use of mineral water containing a naturally high fluoride level during the process of decaffeination is the most likely explanation of the above observation.

  5. Radionuclides in tea and their behaviour in the brewing process.

    PubMed

    Zehringer, Markus; Kammerer, Franziska; Wagmann, Michael

    2018-06-08

    Tea plantations may be strongly affected by radioactive fallout. Tea plantations on the Turkish coast of the Black Sea were heavily contaminated by the fallout from the reactor fire at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. Two years later, the contamination level was reduced by about 90%. When tea is brewed, the original contamination in the tea leaves is more or less leached into the tea water. While most of the radiocaesium (60-80%) is washed out by brewing, most of the radiostrontium remains in the leaves (70-80%). In food laws, a dilution factor of 40-50 is considered for tea brewing. Most laws only define limit values for radiocaesium. Radiostrontium is not specially regulated, even though its dose coefficients for ingestion are higher than the corresponding coefficients for radiocaesium. Radiostrontium in tea occurs primarily from global fallout (bomb tests from 1945-1965). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Stability of green tea catechins in commercial tea leaves during storage for 6 months.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Mendel; Levin, C E; Lee, S-U; Kozukue, N

    2009-03-01

    To help meet the needs of consumers, producers of dietary tea products, and researchers for information on health-promoting tea ingredients, we determined by HPLC 7 catechins [(-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-catechin (C), (+)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG), (-)-gallocatechin 3-gallate (GCG), (-)-epicatechin 3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-catechin 3-gallate (CG)] in samples of 8 commercial green tea leaves of unknown history sold as tea bags in the United States, Korea, and Japan. The samples were stored at 20 degrees C and sampled at 1 wk and 1, 2, 4, and 6 mo. The following ranges in the initial values (0 controls) were observed (in mg/g tea leaves): EGC and C, 0 to trace amounts; EC, 1.9 to 21.1; EGCG, 13.3 to 113.0; GCG, 0.2 to 1.6; ECG, 5.7 to 50.5; CG 0.5 to 3.7; total catechins 36.5 to 169.7. Statistical analysis of the results and plots of changes in individual and total catechin levels as a function of storage time indicate a progressive decrease in the content in the total levels, most of which is due to losses in the most abundant catechins, EGCG and ECG. Possible mechanisms of degradations of catechins during storage and the possible significance of the results to consumers of tea are discussed.

  7. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dong-mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-ping; Lu, Ya-ting; Wang, Xiao-chang

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols. PMID:28124839

  8. Tea polyphenols dominate the short-term tea (Camellia sinensis) leaf litter decomposition.

    PubMed

    Fan, Dong-Mei; Fan, Kai; Yu, Cui-Ping; Lu, Ya-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Chang

    Polyphenols are one of the most important secondary metabolites, and affect the decomposition of litter and soil organic matter. This study aims to monitor the mass loss rate of tea leaf litter and nutrient release pattern, and investigate the role of tea polyphenols played in this process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and classical litter bag method were used to simulate the decomposition process of tea leaf litter and track the changes occurring in major polyphenols over eight months. The release patterns of nitrogen, potassium, calcium, and magnesium were also determined. The decomposition pattern of tea leaf litter could be described by a two-phase decomposition model, and the polyphenol/N ratio effectively regulated the degradation process. Most of the catechins decreased dramatically within two months; gallic acid (GA), catechin gallate (CG), and gallocatechin (GC) were faintly detected, while others were outside the detection limits by the end of the experiment. These results demonstrated that tea polyphenols transformed quickly and catechins had an effect on the individual conversion rate. The nutrient release pattern was different from other plants which might be due to the existence of tea polyphenols.

  9. Theaflavins in black tea and catechins in green tea are equally effective antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Leung, L K; Su, Y; Chen, R; Zhang, Z; Huang, Y; Chen, Z Y

    2001-09-01

    Green tea catechins, including (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), are oxidized and dimerized during the manufacture of black tea and oolong tea to form orange-red pigments, theaflavins (TF), a mixture of theaflavin (TF1), theaflavin-3-gallate (TF2A), theaflavin-3'-gallate (TF2B) and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3). The present study was designed to compare the antioxidant activities of individual TF with that of each catechin using human LDL oxidation as a model. All catechins and TF tested inhibited Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation. Analysis of the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and conjugated dienes produced during LDL oxidation revealed that the antioxidant activity was in the order: TF3 > ECG > EGCG > or = TF2B > or = TF2A > TF1 > or = EC > EGC. Four TF derivatives also demonstrated a dose-dependent antioxidant activity in Cu(+2)-mediated LDL oxidation at concentrations of 5-40 micromol/L. These results demonstrate that the TF present in black tea possess at least the same antioxidant potency as catechins present in green tea, and that the conversion of catechins to TF during fermentation in making black tea does not alter significantly their free radical-scavenging activity.

  10. 'The English Drink a Lot of Tea!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taborn, Stretton

    1981-01-01

    Presents statistics on the most commonly held stereotypes in Germany of Britain and the British including drinking a lot of tea, eating bacon and eggs for breakfast, consumption of whiskey and beer, and the occurrence of fog in England. Suggests these stereotypes were developed in the early 1950s and are not as prevalent today. (BK)

  11. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  12. Residue pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during green tea manufacturing and their transfer rates during tea brewing.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanwei; Chen, Hongping; Liu, Pingxiang; Hao, Zhenxia; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Wang, Chen; Lu, Chengyin

    2017-06-01

    Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in green tea and tea infusion were determined using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their dissipation pattern during green tea processing and infusion. Concentration and evaporation of PAHs during tea processing were the key factors affecting PAH residue content in product intermediates and in green tea. PAH residues in tea leaves increased by 2.4-3.1 times during the manufacture of green tea using the electric heating model. After correction to dry weight, PAH residue concentrations decreased by 33.5-48.4% during green tea processing because of PAH evaporation. Moreover, spreading and drying reduced PAH concentrations. The transfer rates of PAH residues from green tea to infusion varied from 4.6% to 7.2%, and PAH leaching was higher in the first infusion than in the second infusion. These results are useful for assessing exposure to PAHs from green tea and in formulating controls for the maximum residue level of PAHs in green tea.

  13. Identification and quantitation of alkaloids in coca tea

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Amanda J.; Llosa, Teobaldo; Montoya, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of coca tea is a common occurrence in many South American countries. The tea is often packaged in individual servings as tea bags which contain approximately 1 g of plant material. The consumption of coca tea leads to ingestion of cocaine and other alkaloids: however, there is little information available regarding the pharmacological or toxicological effects that result from consumption of coca tea. We performed a series of studies with coca tea bags from two South American countries, Peru and Bolivia. The alkaloidal content of the ‘coca leaf’ in coca tea bags was determined by two different extraction methods: Soxhlet extraction with methanol (exhaustive extraction), and mechanical agitation with methanol. Extracts were purified by solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Coca tea prepared from Peruvian and Bolivian coca tea bags was also analyzed by SPE-GC/MS assay. In addition, urine specimens were analyzed from an individual who consumed one cup of Peruvian coca tea and one cup of Bolivian coca tea on separate occasions. Urine samples were analyzed by immunoassay (TDxR) and SPE-GC/MS. Analysis of coca tea bags and coca tea indicated that cocaine, benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester and trans-cinnamoylcocaine were present in varying quantities. With exhaustive extraction, an average of 5.11 mg, and 4.86 mg of cocaine per tea bag were found in coca leaf from Peru and Bolivia, respectively. The average amounts of benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester in Peruvian coca leaf were 0.11 and 1.15 mg, and in Bolivian coca leaf were 0.12 and 2.93 mg per tea bag, respectively. trans-Cinnamoylcocaine was found in trace amounts in Peruvian tea bags and 0.16 mg/tea bag of Bolivian tea. When tea was prepared, an average of 4.14 mg of cocaine was present in a cup of Peruvian coca tea and 4.29 mg of cocaine was present in Bolivian tea. Following the consumption of a cup of Peruvian tea by one

  14. The Effect of Different Tea Varieties on Iron Chelation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truong, S. K.; Karim, R.

    2016-12-01

    The chief objectives of this experiment are to distinguish which type of tea of four variants, pomegranate blackberry green, green, lemon chamomile (herbal), and earl grey (black), are capable of chelating the most iron (III) chloride (FeCl3) through titration. We hypothesized that if each tea variety chelates differing amounts of iron chloride, and if we conduct an experiment in which four different teas are mixed in the same amount of water, iron chloride, and iron chloride indicator EDTA, then the pomegranate blackberry green tea will bind to the most iron due to its large amount of fruit antioxidants. To summarize our methodology, we prepared three solutions of each tea, dissolved with 1 gram of FeCl3 to test three trials per tea variety. The chelation process took place overnight as teas cooled. Six drops of iron chloride indicator added to each solution began the titration. The necessary amount of 0.1M EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) drops required for each solution to turn to a universal amber color from its original dark tone indicates how many free iron molecules were left unbound by the tea solution. After careful analysis of the data, we discovered that blackberry pomegranate green tea possessed the best chelating abilities with 97.48% of FeCl3 adsorbed. Green tea followed with 96.67%. Herbal tea chelated 94.24% of the iron while earl grey absorbed the least amount at 93.43%. From our conclusion, we drew that since blackberry pomegranate green tea contained the highest amount of polyphenols and antioxidants as well as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) found in green teas, it was able to chelate the most amount of iron. The substances mentioned in blackberry pomegranate green tea possess the ability to form strong bonds with multiple heavy metals, such as iron (III) chloride atoms. Overall, each variety of tea contains different organic substances. Each of these substances possesses a unique chelating ability, determining how well the type of tea can

  15. Transfer of Ochratoxin A into Tea and Coffee Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie; Toman, Jakub; Bazin, Ingrid; Roubal, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, neurotoxic, reprotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic (group 2B), being characterized by species and sex differences in sensitivity. Despite the fact that OTA is in some aspects a controversial topic, OTA is the most powerful renal carcinogen. The aim of this study was to make a small survey concerning OTA content in black tea, fruit tea, and ground roasted coffee, and to assess OTA transfer into beverages. OTA content was measured using a validated and accredited HPLC-FLD method with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.35 ng/g. The OTA amount ranged from LOQ up to 250 ng/g in black tea and up to 104 ng/g in fruit tea. Black tea and fruit tea, naturally contaminated, were used to prepare tea infusions. The transfer from black tea to the infusion was 34.8% ± 1.3% and from fruit tea 4.1% ± 0.2%. Ground roasted coffee naturally contaminated at 0.92 ng/g was used to prepare seven kinds of coffee beverages. Depending on the type of process used, OTA transfer into coffee ranged from 22.3% to 66.1%. OTA intakes from fruit and black tea or coffee represent a non-negligible human source. PMID:25525684

  16. Chapter 8. Tea and Cancer Prevention: Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jian-Min; Sun, Canlan; Butler, Lesley M.

    2011-01-01

    Experimental studies have consistently shown the inhibitory activities of tea extracts on tumorigenesis in multiple model systems. Epidemiologic studies, however, have produced inconclusive results in humans. A comprehensive review was conducted to assess the current knowledge on tea consumption and risk of cancers in humans. In general, consumption of black tea was not associated with lower risk of cancer. High intake of green tea was consistently associated with reduced risk of upper gastrointestinal tract cancers after sufficient control for confounders. Limited data support a protective effect of green tea on lung and hepatocellular carcinogenesis. Although observational studies do not support a beneficial role of tea intake on prostate cancer risk, phase II clinical trials have demonstrated an inhibitory effect of green tea extract against the progression of prostate pre-malignant lesions. Green tea may exert beneficial effects against mammary carcinogenesis in premenopausal women and recurrence of breast cancer. There is no sufficient evidence that supports a protective role of tea intake on the development of cancers of the colorectum, pancreas, urinary tract, glioma, lymphoma, and leukemia. Future prospective observational studies with biomarkers of exposure and phase III clinical trials are required to provide definitive evidence for the hypothesized beneficial effect of tea consumption on cancer formation in humans. PMID:21419224

  17. Zinc ion enhances GABA tea-mediated oxidative DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Show-Mei; Wang, Hsueh-Fang; Hsiao, Ching-Chuan; Cherng, Shur-Hueih

    2012-02-15

    GABA tea is a tea product that contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous study has demonstrated a synergistic effect of GABA tea and copper ions on DNA breakage. This study further explored whether zinc (Zn), a nonredox metal, modulated DNA cleavage induced by GABA tea extract. In a cell-free system, Zn(2+) significantly enhanced GABA tea extract and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)- or H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage at 24 h of incubation. Additionally, low dosages of GABA tea extract (1-10 μg/mL) possessed pro-oxidant activity to increase H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+)-induced DNA cleavage in a dose-dependent profile. By use of various reactive oxygen scavengers, it was observed that glutathione, catalase, and potassium iodide effectively inhibited DNA degradation caused by the GABA tea extract/H(2)O(2)/Zn(2+) system. Moreover, the data showed that the GABA tea extract itself (0.5-5 mg/mL) could induce DNA cleavage in a long-term exposure (48 h). EGCG, but not the GABA tea extract, enhanced H(2)O(2)-induced DNA cleavage. In contrast, GABA decreased H(2)O(2)- and EGCG-induced DNA cleavage, suggesting that GABA might contribute the major effect on the antioxidant activity of GABA tea extract. Furthermore, a comet assay revealed that GABA tea extract (0.25 mg/mL) and GABA had antioxidant activity on H(2)O(2)-induced DNA breakage in human peripheral lymphocytes. Taken together, these findings indicate that GABA tea has the potential of both pro-oxidant and antioxidant. It is proposed that a balance between EGCG-induced pro-oxidation and GABA-mediated antioxidation may occur in a complex mixture of GABA tea extract.

  18. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of decaffeinated green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S M; Lee, H-S; Kim, K-H; Kim, K-O

    2009-04-01

    Green tea has been widely consumed for its mild flavors and its health benefits, yet caffeine in green tea has been a limitation for those who want to avoid it. The limitation brought increase in need for decaffeinated products in the green tea market. Most of the conventional decaffeination techniques applied in food use organic solvents. However, supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SC-CO2) method is gaining its intension as one of the future decaffeination methods that overcomes the problems of conventional methods. The purpose of this study was to identify sensory characteristics of decaffeinated green teas applied with SC-CO2 method and to observe the relationship with consumer acceptability to elucidate the potentiality of applying SC-CO2 technique in decaffeinated green tea market. Descriptive analysis was performed on 8 samples: green teas containing 4 caffeine levels (10%, 35%, 60%, and 100%) infused at 2 infusing periods (1 or 2 min). It was found that the SC-CO2 process not only reduced caffeine but also decreased some important features of original tea flavors. Two groups were recruited for consumer acceptability test: one (GP I, N = 52), consuming all types of green teas including hot/cold canned teas; and the other (GP II, N = 40), only consuming the loose type. While GP II liked original green tea the most, GP I liked highly decaffeinated green teas. Although the SC-CO2 method had limitations of losing complex flavors of green teas, it appeared to have future potential in the decaffeinated green tea market within or without the addition of desirable flavors.

  19. Dietary Amelioration of Helicobacter Infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wallace, Alison J.

    2015-01-01

    We review herein the basis for using dietary components to treat and/or prevent Helicobacter pylori infection, with emphasis on: (a) work reported in the last decade, (b) dietary components for which there is mechanism-based plausibility, and (c) components for which clinical results on H. pylori amelioration are available. There is evidence that a diet-based treatment may reduce the levels and/or the virulence of H. pylori colonization without completely eradicating the organism in treated individuals. This concept was endorsed a decade ago by the participants in a small international consensus conference held in Honolulu, Hawaii, USA, and interest in such a diet-based approach has increased dramatically since then. This approach is attractive in terms of cost, treatment, tolerability and cultural acceptability. This review therefore highlights specific foods, food components, and food products, grouped as follows: bee products (e.g. honey and propolis), probiotics, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, oils, essential oils, and herbs, spices and other plants. A discussion of the small number of clinical studies that are available is supplemented by supportive in vitro and animal studies. This very large body of in vitro and pre-clinical evidence must now be followed up with rationally designed, unambiguous human trials. PMID:25799054

  20. Transfer of ochratoxin A from raw black tea to tea infusions prepared according to the Turkish tradition.

    PubMed

    Toman, Jakub; Malir, Frantisek; Ostry, Vladimir; Kilic, Mehmet Akif; Roubal, Tomas; Grosse, Yann; Pfohl-Leszkowicz, Annie

    2018-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a natural contaminant of food including tea with multiple toxic effects, which poses a threat to human health. In terms of lifestyle, the Turkish population is a frequent visitor of tearooms, and the traditional Turkish tea preparation is one of the most popular ways of preparing tea infusion. The aim of this study was to investigate OTA transfer from raw black tea to the tea infusion prepared according to the Turkish tradition. A high-performance liquid chromatography method with a limit of quantification of 0.35 ng g -1 was used for OTA determination. The OTA amount in raw black teas from Turkey ranged from ≤0.35 ng g -1 up to 56.7 ng g -1 . An homogenised sample of black tea naturally contaminated with 55.0 ng g -1 was used to prepare infusions. The OTA transfer from the black tea to the infusion was found to be 41.5% ± 7%. These data are important for the realisation of a 'Total Diet study' (TDS). The TDS can be a complementary tool to estimate the population dietary exposure to OTA across the entire diet by analysing main foods prepared 'as consumed' (tea infusions) and not 'as purchased' (raw tea). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anna H; Yu, Mimi C; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Hankin, Jean; Pike, Malcolm C

    2003-09-10

    There is substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence implicating tea polyphenols as chemopreventive agents against various cancers. However, epidemiologic data obtained from mainly Western populations are not supportive of a protective role of tea, mainly black tea, in the etiology of breast cancer. Much less is known about the relationship between green tea and breast cancer risk. During 1995-1998, we conducted a population-based, case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese, Japanese and Filipino women in Los Angeles County and successfully interviewed 501 breast cancer patients and 594 control subjects. Detailed information on menstrual and reproductive factors; dietary habits, including intake of black and green tea; and other lifestyle factors was collected. Risk of breast cancer was not related to black tea consumption. In contrast, green tea drinkers showed a significantly reduced risk of breast cancer, and this was maintained after adjusting for age, specific Asian ethnicity, birthplace, age at menarche, parity, menopausal status, use of menopausal hormones, body size and intake of total calories and black tea. Compared to women who did not drink green tea regularly (i.e., less than once a month), there was a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing amount of green tea intake, adjusted odds ratios being 1.00, 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.51-0.99) and 0.53 (95% CI 0.35-0.78), respectively, in association with no, 0-85.7 and >85.7 ml of green tea per day. The significant inverse association between risk of breast cancer and green tea intake remained after further adjustment for other potential confounders, including smoking; alcohol, coffee and black tea intake; family history of breast cancer; physical activity; and intake of soy and dark green vegetables. While both green tea and soy intake had significant, independent protective effects on breast cancer risk, the benefit of green tea was primarily observed among subjects who were low

  2. [Determination of catechins and caffeine in tea and tea beverages by high-performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ling, Yun; Zhao, Yun-feng; Li, Zhi-jun; Zhang, Gong; Wu, Yongning

    2005-03-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the determination of total tea catechin and caffeine. The catechins needed to be determined are: (-)-catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate, (-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-gallocatechin, (-)-gallocatechin gallate, (-)-catechin gallate and caffeine. The catechins in the tea was extracted with water:ethanol (3:7) by sonication for 20 min. After the extraction solution was centrifuged, it was analyzed by HPLC. The column used was a CAPCELL PAK C18 MG (4.6mm I.D. x 150mm) and gradient elution at constant column temperature with 30 degrees C under UV detector with 210nm. Mobile phase A was 0.1% H3PO4 in water, mobile phase B was 0.1% H3PO4 in methanol with the flow rate 1ml/min. The results showed that the concentration of the catechins and caffeine and their peak areas achieved good linear relation, r > 0.999. The recoveries were between 61.7%-117.3%. RSD was below 10%. With this method, some tea samples were determined, the results were favorable. The method can be applied for determination of catechin and caffeine in tea and tea beverages.

  3. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) as adjuvant in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Lecumberri, Elena; Dupertuis, Yves Marc; Miralbell, Raymond; Pichard, Claude

    2013-12-01

    Green tea catechins, especially epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have been associated with cancer prevention and treatment. This has resulted in an increased number of studies evaluating the effects derived from the use of this compound in combination with chemo/radiotherapy. This review aims at compiling latest literature on this subject. Keywords including EGCG, cancer, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and side effects, were searched using PubMed and ScienceDirect databases to identify, analyze, and summarize the research literature on this topic. Most of the studies on this subject up to date are preclinical. Relevance of the findings, impact factor, and date of publication were critical parameters for the studies to be included in the review. Additive and synergistic effects of EGCG when combined with conventional cancer therapies have been proposed, and its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities have been related to amelioration of cancer therapy side effects. However, antagonistic interactions with certain anticancer drugs might limit its clinical use. The use of EGCG could enhance the effect of conventional cancer therapies through additive or synergistic effects as well as through amelioration of deleterious side effects. Further research, especially at the clinical level, is needed to ascertain the potential role of EGCG as adjuvant in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Catechins and Antioxidant Activity in Four kinds of Sichuan tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhua; Chen, Shengxiang; Zhu, Mingzhu; Meng, Xueli

    2017-11-01

    Absract:Catechins of the nine representative teas produced in Sichuan, which belonged to green tea, yellow tea, dark tea and black tea, were determined by UHPLC. Their antioxidant activity was determined by the hydroxyl radical scavenging. The results showed that: the total amount of their catechins was between 0.45(Qingzhuan) ˜ 121.21 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea > dark tea (black tea); except Qingzhuan, their EGCG contents were between 1.07 ± 0.01 (Chuanhong gongfu) ˜ 76.16 ±0.43 mg/g (Mengding ganlu), and the order for theirs was green tea > yellow tea> dark tea (black tea); EGCG3“Me, which only remained in green and yellow tea, their contents were between 0.05±0.02 (Mengding Huangya) ˜ 0.39±0.04 mg/g (Mengding ganlu); their hydroxyl radical scavenging was between 48.37±0.20 (Fuzhuan) ˜75.51±0.63% (Mengding Huangya) and their IC50 was between 3.31±0.028 ˜5.18±0.012 mg/mL, the order for their clear rates was yellow tea> green tea> dark tea (black tea). Mengding Huangya showed the highest antioxidant activity in sichuan tea.

  5. Polyphenolic chemistry of tea and coffee: a century of progress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2009-09-23

    Tea and coffee, the most popular beverages in the world, have been consumed for thousands of years for their alluring flavors and health benefits. Polyphenols, particularly flavonoids and phenolic acids, are of great abundance in tea and coffee and contribute a lot to their flavor and health properties. This paper reviews the polyphenol chemistry of tea and coffee, specifically their stability, and scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS). During the manufacturing and brewing process, green tea and black tea polyphenols undergo epimerization and oxidation, respectively. Meanwhile, the lactonization and the polymerization of chlorogenic acid are the major causes for the degradation of polyphenols in coffee. Tea catechins, besides having antioxidant properties, have the novel characteristic of trapping reactive carbonyl species. The A ring of the catechins is the binding site for RCS trapping, whereas the B ring is the preferred site for antioxidation.

  6. Acute effects of tea consumption on attention and mood.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J; Martens, Vanessa E

    2013-12-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood and performance benefits, such as relaxation and concentration. This review summarizes the research on the acute effects of tea, and its ingredients theanine and caffeine, on attention and mood. Consistent with abundant research on the benefits of caffeine, the performance benefits of tea were identified in a number of studies, with particularly consistent evidence for improved attention. Tea consumption also consistently improved self-reported alertness and arousal, whereas effects on pleasure or relaxation were less consistent. In addition to the research on caffeine in real-life performance, 2 recent studies have provided a broader perspective on tea's effects on psychological function in that they showed beneficial effects in related areas such as work performance and creativity. These studies showed the validity of laboratory findings by supporting the idea that tea consumption has acute benefits on both mood and performance in real-life situations.

  7. Phenolic metabolites from honeybush tea (Cyclopia subternata).

    PubMed

    Kamara, B Irene; Brand, D Jacobus; Brandt, E Vincent; Joubert, Elizabeth

    2004-08-25

    Cyclopia subternata is one of the 24 Cyclopia species that are used to brew honeybush tea, a unique South African herbal beverage with a pleasant taste and flavor. It contains various antioxidants, very low tannin content, and no caffeine. Many health properties are associated with regular consumption of the tea. Honeybush infusions have been noted as a tonic for colds and influenza, catarrh, and pulmonic tuberculosis and is becoming well-known for its effectiveness in alleviating menopausal symptoms in women. "Unfermented" leaves of C. subternata contain pinitol, shikimic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-glucosyltyrosol, epigallocatechin gallate, the isoflavone orobol, the flavanones hesperedin, narirutin, and eriocitrin, a glycosylated flavan, the flavones luteolin, 5-deoxyluteolin, and scolymoside, the xanthone mangiferin, and the flavonol C-6-glucosylkaempferol. The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and spectrometric analysis.

  8. Assessment of Culturable Tea Rhizobacteria Isolated from Tea Estates of Assam, India for Growth Promotion in Commercial Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Jintu; Handique, Pratap J.; Thakur, Debajit

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 217 rhizobacterial isolates were obtained from six different tea estates of Assam, India and subjected to preliminary in vitro plant growth promotion (PGP) screening for indole acetic acid (IAA) production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and ammonia production. Fifty isolates showed all the PGP traits and five isolates did not exhibit any PGP traits. These 50 potential isolates were further analyzed for quantitative estimation of the PGP traits along with the aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase, protease and cellulose production. After several rounds of screening, four rhizobacteria were selected based on their maximum ability to produce in vitro PGP traits and their partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that they belong to Enterobacter lignolyticus strain TG1, Burkholderia sp. stain TT6, Bacillus pseudomycoides strain SN29 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain KH45. To evaluate the efficacy of these four rhizobacteria as plant growth promoters, three different commercially important tea clones TV1, TV19, and TV20 plants were inoculated with these rhizobacteria in greenhouse condition and compared to the uninoculated control plants. Though, all the rhizobacterial treatments showed an increase in plant growth compared to control but the multivariate PCA analysis confirmed more growth promotion by TG1 and SN29 strains than the other treatments in all three clones. To validate this result, the fold change analysis was performed and it revealed that the tea clone TV19 plants inoculated with the E. lignolyticus strain TG1 showed maximum root biomass production with an increase in 4.3-fold, shoot biomass with increase in 3.1-fold, root length by 2.2-fold and shoot length by 1.6-fold. Moreover, two way ANOVA analysis also revealed that rhizobacterial treatment in different tea clones showed the significant increase (P < 0.05) in growth promotion compared to the control. Thus, this study indicates that the

  9. [Induction of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase by anticarcinogenic ingredients of tea].

    PubMed

    Qi, L; Han, C

    1998-09-30

    By assaying the activity of NAD(P)H: quinone reductase (QR) in Hep G2 cells exposed to inducing agents, a variety of ingredients in tea, we compared their abilities on inducing QR and preventing cancer. The results showed that tea polyphenols, tea pigments and mixed tea were all able to induce the activity of QR significantly. The single-component ingredients of tea polyphenols and tea pigments, including thearubigens, EGCG and ECG, also enhanced the activity of QR. But EGC, EC, theaflavins, tea polysaccharide and tea caffeine, showed no apparent induction of QR. We found that among those tea ingredients studied, the multi-component ingredients were more effective than the single-component ones. So we thought that the abilities of antioxidation and cancer prevention of tea depended on the combined effects of several kinds of active ingredients, which mainly include tea polyphenols and tea pigments.

  10. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Fitton, J. Helen; Patel, Rahul P.; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore

  11. Corona Preionization Technique for Carbon Dioxide TEA Lasers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-30

    34’" " " " "- -. .. " "I~ 82R8O701-02 CORONA PREIONIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CARBON DIOXIDE TEA LASERS W after R. Kamnki SUnited Technologiles Research Center C...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT a PERIOD COVERED CORONA PREIONIZATION TECHNIQUE FOR CARBON Final Report DIOXIDE TEA LASERS May 5, 1981...Preionization Laser UV Preionization Pulsed CO2 Laser Corona Preionization CO2 TEA Laser 10. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceeeiny md Identify

  12. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate ameliorates insulin resistance in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Shan-Bo; Zhang, Rui; Miao, Shan; Gao, Bin; Lu, Yang; Hui, Sen; Li, Long; Shi, Xiao-Peng; Wen, Ai-Dong

    2017-06-01

    Hyperglycemia is a typical pathogenic factor in a series of complications among patients with type II diabetes. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is the major polyphenol extracted from green tea and is reported to be an antioxidant. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of EGCG on insulin resistance in human HepG2 cells pretreated with high concentrations of glucose. The protein kinase B (AKT)/glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) pathways were analyzed using western blot analysis in HepG2 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes treated with high glucose and/or EGCG. Cellular glycogen content was determined using a glycogen assay kit. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was determined using dihydroethidium staining and flow cytometry. c‑JUN N‑terminal kinase (JNK)/insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1)/AKT/GSK signaling was explored using western blot analysis in HepG2 cells treated with high glucose and/or EGCG or N-acetyl-cysteine. High glucose significantly decreased the levels of phosphorylated AKT and GSK in HepG2 cells and mouse primary hepatocytes. Pretreatment with EGCG significantly restored the activation of AKT and GSK in HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes exposed to high glucose. In HepG2 cells and primary hepatocytes, glycogen synthesis was improved by EGCG treatment in a dose‑dependent manner. High glucose significantly stimulated the production of ROS while EGCG protected high glucose‑induced ROS production. ROS is known to serve a major role in high glucose induced‑insulin resistance by increasing JNK and IRS1 serine phosphorylation. In the present study, EGCG was observed to enhance the insulin‑signaling pathway. EGCG ameliorated high glucose‑induced insulin resistance in the hepatocytes by potentially decreasing ROS‑induced JNK/IRS1/AKT/GSK signaling.

  13. [Development of cough-relieving herbal teas].

    PubMed

    Puodziūniene, Gene; Janulis, Valdimaras; Milasius, Arvydas; Budnikas, Vytautas

    2005-01-01

    Cough-relieving medicinal herbs in tea are used from ancient times. Mucilage present in them or secretion produced under the influence of the active substances covers the oral and throat mucosa soothing its irritability and relieving dry, tiresome cough. It is known that the mixtures of medicinal herbs (Specias) have a complex influence on the human organism and the rational combination of medicinal herbs can improve their curative action and decrease the undesirable side effects. Having summarized the properties of those medicinal herbs we decided to create two formulations of cough-relieving herbal tea. The first formulation consists of marshmallow roots, liquorice roots and lime flowers, the second -- of marshmallow roots, Iceland moss and lime flowers. The methods for identification and assay of the active substances in the compounds were applied. The purity of the mixtures was regulated by limitation of the loss on drying, total ash, microbial contamination, contamination with radionuclides, heavy metals, pesticides and foreign matter. The expiry date of both cough-relieving herbal teas was approved to be 2 years.

  14. Green tea: A boon for periodontal and general health

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Saluja, Mini; Agarwal, Gunjan; Alam, Mahtab

    2012-01-01

    Green tea is particularly rich in health-promoting flavonoids (which account for 30% of the dry weight of a leaf), including catechins and their derivatives. The most abundant catechin in green tea is epigallocatechin-3-gallate, which is thought to play a pivotal role in the green tea's anticancer and antioxidant effects. Catechins should be considered right alongside of the better-known antioxidants like vitamins E and C as potent free radical scavengers and health-supportive for this reason. It has been suggested that green tea also promotes periodontal health by reducing inflammation, preventing bone resorption and limiting the growth of certain bacteria associated with periodontal diseases. PMID:23055579

  15. Green tea: Health benefits as cancer preventive for humans.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Hirota

    2005-01-01

    Green tea is an acknowledged cancer preventive in Japan. The aim of this review article is to develop the concept of cancer prevention with green tea beverage for humans, which has largely been our exclusive research territory. This paper briefly reviews several topics, beginning with the introduction of our initial work on penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the main constituent of green tea extract. The mechanisms of EGCG action, particularly the reduction of TNF-alpha are discussed, and we show how use of 3H-EGCG revealed a wide range of target organs for cancer prevention. The results of an epidemiological study in Saitama Prefecture allowed us to determine the cancer preventive amount of green tea-10 Japanese-size cups per day, about 2.5 g green tea extract-which made it possible for us to introduce the two-stage strategy of cancer prevention with green tea. The first stage is the delay of cancer onset for the general population. The second stage is the prevention of recurrence of cancer for patients following cancer treatment. Combination cancer prevention with green tea and cancer preventive drugs is proving especially beneficial for Japanese, who drink green tea every day. And finally, the stimulating comments of Prof. Jim Watson have encouraged green tea scientists. Copyright (c) 2005 The Japan Chemical Journal Forum and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Carpal tunnel syndrome in women working in tea agriculture

    PubMed Central

    Devrimsel, Gul; Kirbas, Serkan; Yildirim, Murat; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul Kucukali; Sahin, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the frequency of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among women using tea leaf scissors and compare it with normal population. METHODS: Two hundred hands of 100 women using tea leaf scissors (tea leaf scissors group) and 112 hands of 56 healthy women (control group) were clinically and electrophysiologically evaluated for CTS. Women using tea leaf scissors were evaluated with visual analog scale (VAS) for pain and Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire for symptoms and functional status. RESULTS: Carpal tunnel syndrome was diagnosed bilaterally in 62 (62%) and unilaterally in 7 (7%) women using tea leaf scissors, whereas 2 (3.57%) bilateral and 6 (10.71%) unilateral cases of CTS was diagnosed in controls. The differences in demographic factors were not statistically significant. In women with CTS using tea leaf scissors, mean symptom severity, functional status, and VAS scores were 2.73±0.60, 2.42±0.71 and 5.19±1.84, respectively. There was statistically significant difference in the frequency of CTS between women using tea leaf scissors and the control group and the risk of having CTS among women using tea leaf scissors was approximately 12 times greater (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In tea agriculture, working with repetitive flexions and extensions of the wrist highly increases the risk of developing CTS. PMID:28058318

  17. Antioxidative and anti-carcinogenic activities of tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chung S; Lambert, Joshua D; Sang, Shengmin

    2009-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceace), a popular beverage consumed world-wide, has been studied for its preventive effects against cancer as well as cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and other diseases. Most of the proposed beneficial effects have been attributed to the polyphenolic compounds in tea, but the nature of these activities and the molecular mechanisms of their actions remain unclear. Tea polyphenols are known to be strong antioxidants. Prevention of oxidative stress, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, and prevention of DNA damage have been suggested as possible cancer preventive mechanisms for tea and tea polyphenols. In this chapter, we discuss these topics in the light of biotransformation and bioavailability of tea polyphenols. We also review the preventive effects of tea polyphenols in animal models of carcinogenesis and some of the possible post-initiation mechanisms of action. Finally, we discuss the effects of tea consumption on cancer risk in humans. It is our aim to raise some of the unanswered questions regarding cancer prevention by tea and to stimulate further research in this area.

  18. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Chung, Felicia F L; Lee, Sui M; Dykes, Gary A

    2013-04-11

    Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues.

  19. Effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate content of loose-packed black teas and tea bags.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Reza; Lotfi Yagin, Neda; Liebman, Michael; Nikniaz, Zeinab

    2013-02-01

    Because of the postulated role of increased dietary oxalate intake in calcium oxalate stone formation, the effect of different brewing times on soluble oxalate contents of loose-packed black tea and tea bags was studied. The oxalate content of 25 different samples of loose-packed black teas after brewing at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min and of ten brands of tea bags after infusion for 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min was measured by enzymatic assay. The oxalate concentration resulting from different brewing times ranged from 4.3 to 6.2 mg/240 ml for loose-packed black teas and from 2.7 to 4.8 mg/240 ml for tea bags. There was a stepwise increase in oxalate concentration associated with increased brewing times.

  20. Cloning of β-Primeverosidase from Tea Leaves, a Key Enzyme in Tea Aroma Formation1

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Masaharu; Nakanishi, Hidemitsu; Ema, Jun-ichi; Ma, Seung-Jin; Noguchi, Etsuko; Inohara-Ochiai, Misa; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Nakao, Masahiro; Sakata, Kanzo

    2002-01-01

    A β-primeverosidase from tea (Camellia sinensis) plants is a unique disaccharide-specific glycosidase, which hydrolyzes aroma precursors of β-primeverosides (6-O-β-d-xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosides) to liberate various aroma compounds, and the enzyme is deeply concerned with the floral aroma formation in oolong tea and black tea during the manufacturing process. The β-primeverosidase was purified from fresh leaves of a cultivar for green tea (C. sinensis var sinensis cv Yabukita), and its partial amino acid sequences were determined. The β-primeverosidase cDNA has been isolated from a cDNA library of cv Yabukita using degenerate oligonucleotide primers. The cDNA insert encodes a polypeptide consisting of an N-terminal signal peptide of 28 amino acid residues and a 479-amino acid mature protein. The β-primeverosidase protein sequence was 50% to 60% identical to β-glucosidases from various plants and was classified in a family 1 glycosyl hydrolase. The mature form of the β-primeverosidase expressed in Escherichia coli was able to hydrolyze β-primeverosides to liberate a primeverose unit and aglycons, but did not act on 2-phenylethyl β-d-glucopyranoside. These results indicate that the β-primeverosidase selectively recognizes the β-primeverosides as substrates and specifically hydrolyzes the β-glycosidic bond between the disaccharide and the aglycons. The stereochemistry for enzymatic hydrolysis of 2-phenylethyl β-primeveroside by the β-primeverosidase was followed by 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, revealing that the enzyme hydrolyzes the β-primeveroside by a retaining mechanism. The roles of the β-primeverosidase in the defense mechanism in tea plants and the floral aroma formation during tea manufacturing process are also discussed. PMID:12481100

  1. Comparison of the Level of Boron Concentrations in Black Teas with Fruit Teas Available on the Polish Market

    PubMed Central

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time. PMID:25379551

  2. Comparison of the level of boron concentrations in black teas with fruit teas available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zioła-Frankowska, Anetta; Frankowski, Marcin; Novotny, Karel; Kanicky, Viktor

    2014-01-01

    The determination of boron by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry has been carried in water-soluble and acid soluble (total content) fractions of 36 samples of traditional black tea and fruit brew. The estimation of the impact of the type of tea on the concentration of boron in water-soluble and acid extracts and potential human health risk from the daily intake of boron was carried out in this study. The levels of boron differed significantly in black and fruit tea types. The mean total content of boron ranged from 8.31 to 18.40 mg/kg in black teas, from 12.85 to 15.13 mg/kg in black tea with fruit flavor, and from 12.09 to 22.77 mg/kg in fruit brews. The degree of extraction of boron in black tea ranged from 8% to 27% and for fruit tea from 17% to 69%. In addition, the values below 25% were of black teas with fruit flavors. The daily intake of B from tea infusions (three cups/day) is still within the average daily intake except for some of the fruit brews which exceed acceptable regulations of the daily intake of total boron by humans. Hence, it may not produce any health risks for human consumption, if other sources of metal contaminated food are not taken at the same time.

  3. Oolong tea increases metabolic rate and fat oxidation in men.

    PubMed

    Rumpler, W; Seale, J; Clevidence, B; Judd, J; Wiley, E; Yamamoto, S; Komatsu, T; Sawaki, T; Ishikura, Y; Hosoda, K

    2001-11-01

    According to traditional Chinese belief, oolong tea is effective in the control of body weight. Few controlled studies, however, have been conducted to measure the impact of tea on energy expenditure (EE) of humans. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare 24-h EE of 12 men consuming each of four treatments: 1) water, 2) full-strength tea (daily allotment brewed from 15 g of tea), 3) half-strength tea (brewed from 7.5 g tea) and 4) water containing 270 mg caffeine, equivalent to the concentration in the full-strength tea treatment. Subjects refrained from consuming caffeine or flavonoids for 4 d prior to the study. Tea was brewed each morning; beverages were consumed at room temperature as five 300 mL servings. Subjects received each treatment for 3 d; on the third day, EE was measured by indirect calorimetry in a room calorimeter. For the 3 d, subjects consumed a typical American diet. Energy content of the diet was tailored to each subject's needs as determined from a preliminary measure of 24-h EE by calorimetry. Relative to the water treatment, EE was significantly increased 2.9 and 3.4% for the full-strength tea and caffeinated water treatments, respectively. This increase over water alone represented an additional expenditure of 281 and 331 kJ/d for subjects treated with full-strength tea and caffeinated water, respectively. In addition, fat oxidation was significantly higher (12%) when subjects consumed the full-strength tea rather than water.

  4. Hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties of a new fermented tea product obtained by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kazunari; Tamaru, Shizuka; Nishizono, Shoko; Miyata, Yuji; Tamaya, Kei; Matsui, Toshiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Echizen, Yoshie; Ikeda, Ikuo

    2010-01-01

    We manufactured a new fermented tea by tea-rolling processing of third-crop green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves and loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) leaves. The mixed fermented tea extract inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and effectively suppressed postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia in rats. Rats fed a diet containing 1% freeze-dried fermented tea extract for 4 weeks had a significantly lower liver triacylglycerol concentration and white adipose tissue weight than those fed the control diet lacking fermented tea extract. The activity of fatty acid synthase in hepatic cytosol markedly decreased in the fermented tea extract group as compared to the control group. The serum and liver triacylglycerol- and body fat-lowering effects of the mixed fermented tea extract were strong relative to the level of dietary supplementation. These results suggest that the new fermented tea product exhibited hypotriacylglycerolemic and antiobesity properties through suppression of both liver fatty acid synthesis and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia by inhibition of pancreatic lipase.

  5. Green Nanotechnology from Tea: Phytochemicals in Tea as Building Blocks for Production of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nune, Satish K; Chanda, Nripen; Shukla, Ravi; Katti, Kavita; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Thilakavathi, Subramanian; Mekapothula, Swapna; Kannan, Raghuraman; Katti, Kattesh V

    2009-06-01

    Phytochemicals occluded in tea have been extensively used as dietary supplements and as natural pharmaceuticals in the treatment of various diseases including human cancer. Results on the reduction capabilities of phytochemicals present in tea to reduce gold salts to the corresponding gold nanoparticles are presented in this paper. The phytochemicals present in tea serve the dual roles as effective reducing agents to reduce gold and also as stabilizers to provide robust coating on the gold nanoparticles in a single step. The Tea-generated gold nanoparticles (T-AuNPs), have demonstrated remarkable in vitro stability in various buffers including saline, histidine, HSA, and cysteine solutions. T-AuNPs with phytochemical coatings have shown significant affinity toward prostate (PC-3) and breast (MCF-7) cancer cells. Results on the cellular internalization of T-AuNPs through endocytosis into the PC-3 and MCF-7 cells are presented. The generation of T-AuNPs follows all principles of green chemistry and have been found to be non toxic as assessed through MTT assays. No 'man made' chemicals, other than gold salts, are used in this true biogenic green nanotechnological process thus paving excellent opportunities for their applications in molecular imaging and therapy.

  6. Novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Zijuan tea and biosynthetic pathway of caffeoylated catechin in tea plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Fu, Xi-Wen; Dai, Xin-Long; Hua, Fang; Chu, Gang-Xiu; Chu, Ming-Jie; Hu, Feng-Lin; Ling, Tie-Jun; Gao, Li-Ping; Xie, Zhong-Wen; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Bao, Guan-Hu

    2017-12-15

    Zijuan tea is a special cultivar of Yunnan broad-leaf tea (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) with purple buds, leaves, and stems. Phytochemical study on this tea led to the discovery of three hydroxycinnamoylated catechins (HCCs) (1-3), seven other catechins (4-10), three proanthocyanidins (11-13), five flavones and flavone glycosides (14-18), two alkaloids (19, 20), one steroid (21), and one phenylpropanoid glycoside (22). The isolation and structural elucidation of the caffeoylated catechin (1) by means of spectroscopic techniques were described. We also provide the first evidence that 1 is synthesized via a two-step pathway in tea plant. The three HCCs (1-3) were investigated on their bioactivity through molecular modeling simulation and biochemical experiments. Our results show that they bind acetylcholinesterase (AChE) tightly and have strong AChE inhibitory activity with IC 50 value at 2.49, 11.41, 62.26μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Climate suitability for tea growing in Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhi-Feng; Ye, Jian-Gang; Yang, Zai-Qiang; Sun, Rui; Hu, Bo; Li, Ren-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    It is important to quantitatively assess the climate suitability of tea and its response to climate change. Based on meteorological indices of tea growth and daily meteorological data from 1971 to 2010 in Zhejiang Province, three climate suitability models for single climate factors, including temperature, precipitation and sunshine, were established at a 10-day scale by using the fuzzy mathematics method, and a comprehensive climate suitability model was established with the geometric average method. The results indicated that the climate suitability was high in the tea growth season in Zhejiang Province, and the three kinds of climate suitability were all higher than 0.6. As for the single factor climate suitability, temperature suitability was the highest and sunshine suitability was the lowest. There were obvious inter-annual variations of tea climate suitability, with a decline trend in the 1970s, less variation in the 1980s, and an obvious incline trend after the 1990s. The change tendency of climate suitability for spring tea was similar with that of annual climate suitability, lower in the 1980s, higher in the 1970s and after the 1990s. However, the variation amplitude of the climate suitability for spring tea was larger. The climate suitability for summer tea and autumn tea showed a decline trend from 1971 to 2010.

  8. Jasmine tea consumption and upper gastrointestinal cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; Hu, Nan; Han, XiaoYou; Giffen, Carol; Ding, Ti; Goldstein, Alisa M; Taylor, Philip R

    2009-12-01

    Epidemiological data on green/jasmine tea and esophageal as well as gastric cancer are limited and inconclusive. In order to study the effect of jasmine tea in upper gastrointestinal (UGI) cancers, we evaluated 600 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), 598 gastric cardia cancer (GCA), and 316 gastric non-cardia cancer (GNCA) cases and 1,514 age-, gender-, and neighborhood-matched controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from logistic regression adjusted for matching factors and potential confounders. Among controls, 35% of males and 8% of females reported consumption of jasmine tea; other tea consumption was rare. Consumption of jasmine tea (ever vs. never) was not associated with risk of ESCC (OR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.92–1.44), GCA (OR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.88–1.37), or GNCA (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.64–1.15) in males and females combined. Among males, cumulative lifetime consumption showed a significant positive dose–response relation with ESCC risk, but not for GCA and GNCA. In exploratory analyses, occupation affected the relation between tea and ESCC such that consumption in males was associated with increased risk only in non-office workers. Overall, we found no evidence for a protective effect of tea in esophageal or gastric cancer. Further studies of the potential effects of thermal damage, tea quality, and water quality on UGI cancers are suggested.

  9. Therapeutic properties of green tea against environmental insults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Zhao, Ling; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Cromie, Meghan M; Lu, Chuanwen; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic are the most common environmental toxins and toxicants to humans. These toxins and toxicants may impact on human health at the molecular (DNA, RNA, or protein), organelle (mitochondria, lysosome, or membranes), cellular (growth inhibition or cell death), tissue, organ, and systemic levels. Formation of reactive radicals, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, neurological alterations, apoptosis, and carcinogenic events are some of the mechanisms mediating the toxic effects of the environmental toxins and toxicants. Green tea, the non-oxidized and non-fermented form of tea that contains several polyphenols, including green tea catechins, exhibits protective effects against these environmental toxins and toxicants in preclinical studies and to a much-limited extent, in clinical trials. The protective effects are collectively mediated by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, hepato- and neuroprotective, and anti-carcinogenic activities. In addition, green tea modulates signaling pathway including NFκB and ERK pathways, preserves mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibits caspase-3 activity, down-regulates pro-apoptotic proteins, and induces the phase II detoxifying pathway. The bioavailability and metabolism of green tea and its protective effects against environmental insults induced by pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic are reviewed in this paper. Future studies with emphasis on clinical trials should identify biomarkers of green tea intake, examine the mechanisms of action of green tea polyphenols, and investigate potential interactions of green tea with other toxicant-modulating dietary factors. PMID:27723473

  10. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  11. An inverse association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuetong; Wu, Yuan; Du, Mulong; Chu, Haiyan; Zhu, Lingjun; Tong, Na; Zhang, Zhengdong; Wang, Meilin; Gu, Dongying; Chen, Jinfei

    2017-06-06

    It is well known that the tea extracts, mainly polyphenols as chemo-preventive elements, could act as cancer progression blockers. Although the association between tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk has been widely investigated, the results still remain inconsistent. We conducted a dose-response meta-analysis to evaluate their relationships by enrolling qualified 29 literatures. The summary odds ratio (OR) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. lowest tea consumption was 0.93 with 0.87-1.00 of 95% confidence intervals (CIs) among all studies with modest heterogeneity (P = 0.001, I2 = 43.4%). Stratified analysis revealed that tea, especially green tea, had a protective effect among female and rectal cancer patients. Particularly, the dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant inverse association between an increment of 1 cup/day of tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in the subgroup of the green tea drinking (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96-1.01, Pnonlinear = 0.003) and female (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.56-0.81, Pnonlinear < 0.001). Our findings indicate that tea consumption has an inverse impact on colorectal cancer risk, which may have significant public health implications in the prevention of colorectal cancer and further similar researches.

  12. Mechanisms of Body Weight Reduction by Black Tea Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Pan, Haibo; Gao, Ying; Tu, Youying

    2016-12-07

    Obesity is one of the most common nutritional diseases worldwide. This disease causes health problems, such as dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, hypertension and inflammation. There are drugs used to inhibit obesity. However, they have serious side effects outweighing their beneficial effects. Black tea, commonly referred to as "fermented tea", has shown a positive effect on reducing body weight in animal models. Black tea polyphenols are the major components in black tea which reduce body weight. Black tea polyphenols are more effective than green tea polyphenols. Black tea polyphenols exert a positive effect on inhibiting obesity involving in two major mechanisms: (i) inhibiting lipid and saccharide digestion, absorption and intake, thus reducing calorie intake; and (ii) promoting lipid metabolism by activating AMP-activated protein kinase to attenuate lipogenesis and enhance lipolysis, and decreasing lipid accumulation by inhibiting the differentiation and proliferation of preadipocytes; (iii) blocking the pathological processes of obesity and comorbidities of obesity by reducing oxidative stress. Epidemiological studies of the health relevance between anti-obesity and black tea polyphenols consumption remain to be further investigated.

  13. Iron deficiency anemia due to excessive green tea drinking.

    PubMed

    Fan, Frank S

    2016-11-01

    Tea interferes with iron absorption and can lead to iron deficiency anemia when consumed in large quantities. The rechallenge effect of green tea on anemia in a middle-aged man emphasizes the potential causal role of this beverage. Lifestyle and dietary habits are important diagnostic considerations in diseases of this type.

  14. 'Benifuuki' green tea containing o-methylated catechin reduces symptoms of Japanese cedar pollinosis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Sawako; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Usui, Satoko; Fujisawa, Takao

    2014-06-01

    Methylated catechin, one of the active ingredients in green tea, has been reported to ameliorate allergic reactions. We evaluated the efficacy of 'Benifuuki' green tea, which contains O-methylated epigallocatechin-3-O-[3-O-methyl] gallate (O-methylated EGCG), in alleviating Japanese cedar pollinosis (JCP). The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The subjects with JCP were randomly assigned to drink 700ml of 'Benifuuki' green tea containing O-methylated EGCG or 'Yabukita' green tea (not containing O-methylated EGCG) as a placebo every day from December 2007 through March 2008, which includes the pollen season. The primary outcome was the area under the curve (AUC) of symptom scores during the peak pollen season. Fifty-one adults with JCP participated in the study. Twenty-six subjects were assigned to 'Benifuuki' and 25 to 'Yabukita'. The AUC of symptom score during the peak pollen season in the 'Benifuuki' group was significantly smaller than in the 'Yabukita' group for each of runny nose, itchy eyes, tearing, total nasal symptom score, total ocular symptom score, nasal symptom-medication score and ocular symptom-medication score. The total QOL-related questionnaire score for one week in the peak pollen season was significantly better in the 'Benifuuki' group. Increase in the peripheral eosinophil count in response to pollen exposure was suppressed in the 'Benifuuki' group. No adverse events were reported in either group. 'Benifuuki' green tea containing a large amount of O-methylated EGCG reduced the symptoms of JCP and has potential as a complementary/alternative medicine for treating seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  15. [Study on processed senna found in health teas].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mitsuko; Miyazawa, Maki; Sakurai, Katsumi; Watabe, Kenjiro; Kojima, Takashi

    2009-12-01

    Sennoside A and B were detected in 21 commercial health tea products surveyed in 2000-2007, but there were 8 products in which the leaves could not be identified as senna because the leaves had become discolored. The results of assay of sennoside levels and TLC chromatograms suggested that processed senna had been used in these products. Next, with reference to tea and health tea manufacturing methods, pharmaceutical senna was roasted or wet-processed experimentally. The results indicated that the discolored leaves contained in commercial health tea were most likely derived from senna leaves. Moreover, sennosides in medicinal doses were detected in some processed senna samples, and were determined to have a cathartic action in mice. Based on morphological confirmation and the results of component analysis, including sennoside, the discolored leaves found in commercial health teas were therefore determined to be senna leaves. There may be possible health risks, including diarrhea.

  16. Coca tea consumption causes positive urine cocaine assay.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Suzan S; Mycyk, Mark B; Wills, Brandon K; Brace, Larry D; Gussow, Leon; Erickson, Timothy

    2006-12-01

    Coca tea, derived from the same plant that is used to synthesize cocaine, is commonly consumed in South America and easily obtained in the United States. To determine whether consumption of coca tea would result in a positive urine toxicology screen for cocaine metabolites. Five healthy adult volunteers consumed coca tea and underwent serial quantitative urine testing for cocaine metabolites by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The cutoff for a positive assay was chosen at 300 ng/ml, the National Institute on Drug Abuse standard. Each participant's urine cocaine assay was positive (level exceeding 300 ng/ml) by 2 h after ingestion. Three out of five participants' samples remained positive at 36 h. Mean urine benzoylecgonine concentrations in all postconsumption samples was 1777 ng/ml (95% confidence interval: 1060-2495). Coca tea ingestion resulted in a positive urine assay for cocaine metabolite. Healthcare professionals should consider a history of coca tea ingestion when interpreting urine toxicology results.

  17. Coffee, tea, and cocoa and risk of stroke.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence from experimental studies in animals and humans along with findings from prospective studies indicates beneficial effects of green and black tea as well as chocolate on cardiovascular health, and that tea and chocolate consumption may reduce the risk of stroke. The strongest evidence exists for beneficial effects of tea and cocoa on endothelial function, total and LDL cholesterol (tea only), and insulin sensitivity (cocoa only). The majority of prospective studies have reported a weak inverse association between moderate consumption of coffee and risk of stroke. However, there are yet no clear biological mechanisms whereby coffee might provide cardiovascular health benefits. Awaiting the results from further long-term RCTs and prospective studies, moderate consumption of filtered coffee, tea, and dark chocolate seems prudent.

  18. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 2005–07. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the associations of black tea (with and without milk), green tea, herbal tea, hot coffee, iced coffee, and milk with colorectal cancer. Results Consumption of 1 or more cups of herbal tea per week was associated with a significantly decreased risk of distal colon cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.16–0.82; PTrend = 0.044), and consumption of 1 or more cups of iced coffee per week was associated with increased risk of rectal cancer (adjusted odds ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 0.91–2.54; PTrend = 0.004). Neither herbal tea nor iced coffee was associated with the risk of proximal colon cancer. Hot coffee was associated with a possible increased risk of distal colon cancer. Black tea (with or without milk), green tea, decaffeinated coffee, and milk were not significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk. Conclusions Consumption of herbal tea was associated with reduced risk of distal colon cancer, and consumption of iced coffee was associated with increased rectal cancer risk. PMID:24531002

  19. Tea Consumption and Mortality Among Oldest-Old Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Li, Jialiang; Ng, Tze-Pin; Zeng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality among oldest-old Chinese. Design Population-based longitudinal data from The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) was analyzed using Cox semi-parametric proportional hazard model. Setting 631 randomly selected counties and cities of China’s 22 provinces. Participants 9,093 old adults aged 80 and above who provided complete data at baseline survey (year 1998). Measurements Self-reported current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency around age 60 were ascertained at baseline survey, and follow-up survey was conducted respectively in years 2000, 2002 and 2005. Results Among oldest-old Chinese, tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health practices, and health status. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90 (95% CI 0.84–0.96) for daily tea drinkers (at the baseline survey, 1998) and 1.00 (95% CI 1.01–1.07) for occasional tea drinkers respectively (P for linear trend=0.003). Similar results were found when tea drinking status around age 60 was used in analysis. Further analysis showed that compared to consistently infrequent tea drinkers, subjects who reported frequent tea drinking at both age 60 and at baseline survey had a 10% reduction in mortality (HR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84–0.97). Conclusion Tea consumption is associated reduced risk of mortality among oldest-old Chinese. PMID:24117374

  20. Tea consumption and mortality in the oldest-old Chinese.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Rongping; Feng, Lei; Li, Jialiang; Ng, Tze-Pin; Zeng, Yi

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the association between tea consumption and mortality in the oldest-old Chinese. Population-based longitudinal data from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) were analyzed using a Cox semiparametric proportional hazard model. Six hundred thirty-one randomly selected counties and cities of China's 22 provinces. Individuals aged 80 and older (N = 9,093) who provided complete data in the baseline survey (1998). Self-reported current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at approximately age 60 were ascertained at baseline survey; a follow-up survey was conducted 2000, 2002, and 2005. In the oldest-old Chinese, tea consumption was associated with lower risk of mortality after adjusting for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, health practices, and health status. Compared with non-tea drinkers, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) was 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.84-0.96) for daily tea drinkers (at the baseline survey, 1998) and 1.00 (95% CI = 1.01-1.07) for occasional tea drinkers (P for linear trend .003). Similar results were found when tea drinking status at age 60 was used in the analysis. Further analysis showed that subjects who reported frequent tea drinking at age 60 and at the baseline survey had a 10% lower risk of mortality than subjects who reported infrequent tea drinking at age 60 and at the baseline survey (HR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.84-0.97). Tea consumption is associated with lower risk of mortality in the oldest-old Chinese. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, The American Geriatrics Society.

  1. Toxic and essential mineral elements content of black tea leaves and their tea infusions consumed in Iran.

    PubMed

    Salahinejad, Maryam; Aflaki, Fereydoon

    2010-04-01

    The metal contents of eleven black tea samples, four cultivated in Iran and seven imported, and their tea infusions were determined. Twelve elements consisting toxic metals (Al, As, Pb, Cr, Cd, and Ni) and essential mineral elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca, and Mg) were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Al, Ca, Mg, and Mn ranged in black tea leaves at mg g(-1) levels, while Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn were at microg g(-1) levels. Analysis of variance showed no statistically significant differences among most elements determined in cultivated and imported black teas in Iran except for Ni and Cu. The extraction efficiency of each element into tea infusions was evaluated. The solubility of measured metals in infusion extracts varied widely and ranged from 0 to 59.3%. Among the studied elements, Cr, Pb, and Cd showed the lowest rates of solubility and Ni had the highest rates of solubility. The amount of toxic metals and essential mineral elements that one may take up through consumption of black tea infusion was estimated. The amount of realizing each element into tea infusions and acceptable daily intake, for safety consumption of black tea, was compared.

  2. Formation and emission of linalool in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves infested by tea green leafhopper (Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda).

    PubMed

    Mei, Xin; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Lanting; Fu, Xiumin; Li, Jianlong; Tang, Jinchi; Dong, Fang; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-12-15

    Famous oolong tea (Oriental Beauty), which is manufactured by tea leaves (Camellia sinensis) infected with tea green leafhoppers, contains characteristic volatile monoterpenes derived from linalool. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of linalool in tea exposed to tea green leafhopper attack. The tea green leafhopper responsible for inducing the production of characteristic volatiles was identified as Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. E. (M.) onukii attack significantly induced the emission of linalool from tea leaves (p<0.05) as a result of the up-regulation of the linalool synthases (CsLIS1 and CsLIS2) (p<0.05). Continuous mechanical damage significantly enhanced CsLIS1 and CsLIS2 expression levels and linalool emission (p<0.05). Therefore, continuous wounding was a key factor causing the formation and emission of linalool from tea leaves exposed to E. (M.) onukii attack. This information should prove helpful for the future use of stress responses of plant secondary metabolism to improve quality components of agricultural products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other fruit... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both) before...

  4. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is calculated as tartaric acid for grapes, malic acid for apples, and citric acid for other fruit... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust the fixed acid level by adding ameliorating material (water, sugar, or a combination of both) before...

  5. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust... acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material). (b) Limitations. (1...

  6. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust... acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material). (b) Limitations. (1...

  7. 27 CFR 24.178 - Amelioration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... natural wine from juice having a fixed acid level exceeding 5.0 grams per liter, the winemaker may adjust... acid level of the juice or wine by 0.1 gram per liter (the fixed acid level of the juice or wine may not be less than 5.0 gram per liter after the addition of ameliorating material). (b) Limitations. (1...

  8. Molecular and Clinical Effects of Green Tea and Fermented Papaya Preparation on Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-14

    Assess the Effect of Green Tea on Diabetes; Assess the Effect of Fermented Papaya Pretration on Diabetes; Effects of Green Tea and FPP on C-reactive Proteins; Effects of Green Tea and FPP of Lipid Profiles in Diabetes; Effect of Green Tea and FPP on Atheroma Formation

  9. 19 CFR 12.33 - Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Tea § 12.33 Importation of tea; entry; examination for customs purposes. (a) The importation of any merchandise as tea which is inferior in purity...

  10. Primary cancer prevention by green tea, and tertiary cancer prevention by the combination of green tea catechins and anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Hirota; Sueoka, Eisaburo; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Suganuma, Masami

    2015-03-01

    Green tea is a daily beverage, a non-oxidized non-fermented product containing at least four green tea catechins. Considering our first results when repeated applications of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) prevented tumor promotion in mouse skin, we have continued to look at green tea as a possible cancer preventive agent. 1) The 10-year prospective cohort study by Drs. K. Nakachi and K. Imai revealed that drinking 10 Japanese-size cups (120 mL/cup) of green tea per day delayed cancer onset in humans by 7.3 years among females and by 3.2 years among males. The delay of cancer onset is of course significant evidence of primary cancer prevention in humans. 2) In collaboration with Dr. H. Moriwaki's group we successfully presented a prototype of tertiary cancer prevention showing that 10 Japanese-size cups of green tea daily, supplemented with tablets of green tea extract (G.T.E), reduced recurrence of colorectal adenomas in polypectomy patients by 51.6% (from 31% to 15%). 3) In 1999, we first reported that the combination of green tea catechins and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs showed synergistic anticancer effects in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, along with elucidation of the mechanism. 4) Further studies by other investigators have revealed that various combinations of EGCG or green tea extract and anticancer compounds inhibit tumor volume in xenograft mouse models implanted with various human cancer cell lines. Green tea is a cancer preventive, and green tea catechins act as synergists with anticancer compounds.

  11. White tea intake prevents prediabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in testis and epididymis preserving sperm quality.

    PubMed

    Dias, Tânia R; Alves, Marco G; Rato, Luís; Casal, Susana; Silva, Branca M; Oliveira, Pedro F

    2016-11-01

    Prediabetes has been associated with alterations in male reproductive tract, especially in testis and epididymis. Moreover, in vitro studies described a promising action of tea (Camellia sinensis L.) against metabolic dysfunctions. Herein, we hypothesized that white tea (WTEA) ingestion by prediabetic animals could ameliorate the metabolic alterations induced by the disease in testicular and epididymal tissues, preserving sperm quality. WTEA infusion was prepared and its phytochemical profile was evaluated by 1 H-NMR. A streptozotocin-induced prediabetic rat model was developed and three experimental groups were defined: control, prediabetic (PreDM) and prediabetic drinking WTEA (PreDM+WTEA). Metabolic profiles of testis and epididymis were evaluated by determining the metabolites content ( 1 H-NMR), protein levels (western blot) and enzymatic activities of key metabolic intervenient. The quality of spermatozoa from cauda epididymis was also assessed. Prediabetes increased glucose transporter 3 protein levels and decreased lactate dehydrogenase activity in testis, resulting in a lower lactate content. WTEA ingestion led to a metabolic adaptation to restore testicular lactate content. Concerning epididymis, prediabetes decreased the protein levels of several metabolic intervenient, resulting in decreased lactate and alanine content. WTEA consumption restored most of the evidenced alterations, however, not lactate content. WTEA also improved epididymal sperm motility and restored sperm viability. Prediabetes strongly affected testicular and epididymal metabolic status and most of these alterations were restored by WTEA consumption, resulting in the improvement of sperm quality. Our results suggest that WTEA consumption can be a cost-effective strategy to improve prediabetes-induced reproductive dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Green tea and anticancer perspectives: updates from last decade.

    PubMed

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmad, Rabia Shabir; Sultan, M Tauseef; Qayyum, Mir M Nasir; Naz, Ambreen

    2015-01-01

    Green tea is the most widely consumed beverage besides water and has attained significant attention owing to health benefits against array of maladies, e.g., obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders, and cancer insurgence. The major bioactive molecules are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, epicatechin, epicatechin-3-gallate, epigallocatechin, etc. The anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic activities of green tea were highlighted some years ago. Several cohort studies and controlled randomized trials suggested the inverse association of green tea consumption and cancer prevalence. Cell culture and animal studies depicted the mechanisms of green tea to control cancer insurgence, i.e., induction of apoptosis to control cell growth arrest, altered expression of cell-cycle regulatory proteins, activation of killer caspases, and suppression of nuclear factor kappa-B activation. It acts as carcinoma blocker by modulating the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation, transformation, inflammation, and metastasis. However, results generated from some research interventions conducted in different groups like smokers and nonsmokers, etc. contradicted with aforementioned anticancer perspectives. In this review paper, anticancer perspectives of green tea and its components have been described. Recent findings and literature have been surfed and arguments are presented to clarify the ambiguities regarding anticancer perspectives of green tea and its component especially against colon, skin, lung, prostate, and breast cancer. The heading of discussion and future trends is limelight of the manuscript. The compiled manuscript provides new avenues for researchers to be explored in relation to green tea and its bioactive components.

  13. Pyridine metabolism in tea plants: salvage, conjugate formation and catabolism.

    PubMed

    Ashihara, Hiroshi; Deng, Wei-Wei

    2012-11-01

    Pyridine compounds, including nicotinic acid and nicotinamide, are key metabolites of both the salvage pathway for NAD and the biosynthesis of related secondary compounds. We examined the in situ metabolic fate of [carbonyl-(14)C]nicotinamide, [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid and [carboxyl-(14)C]nicotinic acid riboside in tissue segments of tea (Camellia sinensis) plants, and determined the activity of enzymes involved in pyridine metabolism in protein extracts from young tea leaves. Exogenously supplied (14)C-labelled nicotinamide was readily converted to nicotinic acid, and some nicotinic acid was salvaged to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and then utilized for the synthesis of NAD and NADP. The nicotinic acid riboside salvage pathway discovered recently in mungbean cotyledons is also operative in tea leaves. Nicotinic acid was converted to nicotinic acid N-glucoside, but not to trigonelline (N-methylnicotinic acid), in any part of tea seedlings. Active catabolism of nicotinic acid was observed in tea leaves. The fate of [2-(14)C]nicotinic acid indicates that glutaric acid is a major catabolite of nicotinic acid; it was further metabolised, and carbon atoms were finally released as CO(2). The catabolic pathway observed in tea leaves appears to start with the nicotinic acid N-glucoside formation; this pathway differs from catabolic pathways observed in microorganisms. Profiles of pyridine metabolism in tea plants are discussed.

  14. Associations of tea and coffee consumption with prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Tea and coffee contain bioactive compounds and both beverages have recently been associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (PCa). Methods: We studied associations of tea and coffee consumption with PCa risk in a population-based case-control study from King County, Washington, US. Prostate cancer cases were diagnosed in 2002-2005 and matched to controls by five-year age groups. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Among controls, 19% and 58% consumed at least one cup per day of tea and coffee, respectively. The analysis of tea included 892 cases and 863 controls and tea consumption was associated with a reduced overall PCa risk with an adjusted OR of 0.63 (95% CI: 0.45, 0.90; P for trend = 0.02) for men in the highest compared to lowest category of tea intake (≥2 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week). Risk estimates did not vary substantially by Gleason grade or disease stage. Coffee consumption was not associated with risk of overall PCa or PCa in subgroups defined by tumor grade or stage. Conclusions: Our results contribute further evidence that tea consumption may be a modifiable exposure that reduces PCa risk. PMID:23412806

  15. Race, Ideology, and the Tea Party: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, Eric D.; Lowery, Brian S.; Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Schaumberg, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans’ self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites’ assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the “racializing” power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party. PMID:23825630

  16. Race, ideology, and the tea party: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Schaumberg, Rebecca L

    2013-01-01

    The Tea Party movement, which rose to prominence in the United States after the election of President Barack Obama, provides an ideal context in which to examine the roles of racial concerns and ideology in politics. A three-wave longitudinal study tracked changes in White Americans' self-identification with the Tea Party, racial concerns (prejudice and racial identification), and ideologies (libertarianism and social conservatism) over nine months. Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) was used to evaluate potential causal relationships between Tea Party identification and these factors. Across time points, racial prejudice was indirectly associated with movement identification through Whites' assertions of national decline. Although initial levels of White identity did not predict change in Tea Party identification, initial levels of Tea Party identification predicted increases in White identity over the study period. Across the three assessments, support for the Tea Party fell among libertarians, but rose among social conservatives. Results are discussed in terms of legitimation theories of prejudice, the "racializing" power of political judgments, and the ideological dynamics of the Tea Party.

  17. Green tea and the risk of gastric cancer: Epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hou, I-Chun; Amarnani, Saral; Chong, Mok T; Bishayee, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death in the world. Numerous efforts are being made to find chemoprotective agents able to reduce its risk. Amongst these, green tea has been reported to have a protective effect against stomach cancer. This article aims to critically evaluate all epidemiological studies reporting an association between green tea consumption and GC risk. MEDLINE, EBSCOHOST and Google Scholar were used to search for clinical trials of green tea and its correlation to stomach cancer. Studies include cohort and case-control studies. Outcome of interests are inverse association, no association, and positive association. Seventeen epidemiologic studies were reviewed. Eleven studies were conducted in Japan, five in China, and one with Japanese descendent in Hawaii. Ten case-control studies and seven cohort studies were included. The relative risks or odds ratio of GC for the highest level of green tea consumption was compared. Seven studies suggested no association, eight an inverse association, and one a positive association. One study had shown a significantly lowered GC risk when tea was served warm to cold. Another study also showed a significantly risk with lukewarm tea. All studies that analyzed men and women separately have suggested a reduced risk in women than in men, albeit no significant difference. This review demonstrates that there is insufficient information to support green tea consumption reduces the risk of GC. More studies on the subject matter are warranted. PMID:23840110

  18. Black tea: Phytochemicals, cancer chemoprevention, and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Rawat, A K S; Bhagat, R M; Singh, B R

    2017-05-03

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is the most popular, flavored, functional, and therapeutic non-alcoholic drink consumed by two-thirds of the world's population. Black tea leaves are reported to contain thousands of bioactive constituents such as polyphenols, amino acids, volatile compounds, and alkaloids that exhibit a range of promising pharmacological properties. Due to strong antioxidant property, black tea inhibits the development of various cancers by regulating oxidative damage of biomolecules, endogenous antioxidants, and pathways of mutagen and transcription of antioxidant gene pool. Regular drinking of phytochemicals-rich black tea is linked to regulate several molecular targets, including COX-2, 5-LOX, AP-1, JNK, STAT, EGFR, AKT, Bcl2, NF-κB, Bcl-xL, caspases, p53, FOXO1, TNFα, PARP, and MAPK, which may be the basis of how dose of black tea prevents and cures cancer. In vitro and preclinical studies support the anti-cancer activity of black tea; however, its effect in human trails is uncertain, although more clinical experiments are needed at molecular levels to understand its anti-cancer property. This review discusses the current knowledge on phytochemistry, chemopreventive activity, and clinical applications of black tea to reveal its anti-cancer effect.

  19. Association between tea consumption and osteoporosis: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kang; Wang, Le; Ma, Qingping; Cui, Qiaoyun; Lv, Qianru; Zhang, Wenzheng; Li, Xinghui

    2017-12-01

    Previous reports have suggested a potential association of tea consumption with the risk of osteoporosis. As such association is controversial, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between tea consumption and osteoporosis. We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE and WanFang databases until March 30, 2016, using the keywords "tea and osteoporosis," without limits of language. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were derived by using random-effects models throughout the analyses. We conducted the analysis of the statistical heterogeneity using Cochrane I. The funnel plot was used to speculate the publication bias, while the subgroup analysis and multiround elimination method were employed. Our study was based on 17 journal articles, including 2 prospective cohort studies, 4 case-control studies, and 11 cross-sectional studies. In the present study, the total OR of osteoporosis for the highest versus the lowest categories of tea consumption was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.46-0.83), with significant heterogeneity among studies (I = 94%, P < .01). There was, however, no publication bias of the meta-analysis about tea consumption and osteoporosis. Subgroup analysis showed that tea consumption could reduce the risk of osteoporosis in all examined subgroups. In the present study, it can be concluded from the results that tea consumption can reduce the risk of osteoporosis.

  20. Development and efficacy assessments of tea seed oil makeup remover.

    PubMed

    Parnsamut, N; Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N

    2017-05-01

    The efficacy of tea seed oil to clean foundation and eyeliner was evaluated. The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup remover was developed. In vitro cleansing efficacy of makeup remover was UV-spectrophotometric validated. The stability evaluation by means of accelerated stability test was conducted. In vitro and in vivo cleansing efficacy of the removers was conducted in a comparison with benchmark majorly containing olive oil. Tea seed oil cleaned 90.64±4.56% of foundation and 87.62±8.35% of eyeliner. The stable with most appropriate textures base was incorporated with tea seed oil. Three tea seed oil removers (50, 55 and 60%) were stabled. The 60% tea seed oil remover significantly removed foundation better than others (94.48±3.37%; P<0.001) and the benchmark (92.32±1.33%), but insignificant removed eyeliner (87.50±5.15%; P=0.059). Tea seed oil remover caused none of skin irritation as examined in 20 human volunteers. A single-blind, randomized control exhibited that the tea seed oil remover gained a better preference over the benchmark (75.42±8.10 and 70.00±7.78%; P=0.974). The safe and efficient tea seed oil makeup removers had been developed. The consumers' choices towards the makeup remover containing the bio-oils are widen. In vitro cleansing efficacy during the course of makeup remover development using UV-spectrophotometric method feasible for pharmaceutic industries is encouraged. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. The protective effect of habitual tea consumption on hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Ching; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Wu, Jin-Shang; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2004-07-26

    Tea has long been believed to possess hypotensive effects in popular Chinese medicine. However, conflicting results have been shown among human trials and animal studies on the relation between tea consumption and blood pressure. Epidemiological evidence about the long-term effect of tea on hypertensive risk is also inconsistent. We examined the effect of tea drinking, measured in detail for the past decades, on the risk of newly diagnosed hypertension in 1507 subjects (711 men and 796 women), 20 years or older, who did not have a hypertensive history during 1996 in Taiwan. Six hundred subjects (39.8%) were habitual tea drinkers, defined by tea consumption of 120 mL/d or more for at least 1 year. Compared with nonhabitual tea drinkers, the risk of developing hypertension decreased by 46% for those who drank 120 to 599 mL/d and was further reduced by 65% for those who drank 600 mL/d or more after carefully adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, family history of hypertension, body mass index, waist-hip ratio, lifestyle factors (total physical activity, high sodium intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and coffee drinking), and dietary factors (vegetable, fruit, unrefined grain, fish, milk, visible-fat food, and deep fried food intake). However, tea consumption for more than 1 year was not associated with a further reduction of hypertension risk. Habitual moderate strength green or oolong tea consumption, 120 mL/d or more for 1 year, significantly reduces the risk of developing hypertension in the Chinese population.

  2. Metabolomics-Driven Nutraceutical Evaluation of Diverse Green Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Megumi; Kosaka, Reia; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Maeda-Yamamoto, Mari; Nesumi, Atsushi; Saito, Takeshi; Kanda, Tomomasa; Yamada, Koji; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2011-01-01

    Background Green tea has various health promotion effects. Although there are numerous tea cultivars, little is known about the differences in their nutraceutical properties. Metabolic profiling techniques can provide information on the relationship between the metabolome and factors such as phenotype or quality. Here, we performed metabolomic analyses to explore the relationship between the metabolome and health-promoting attributes (bioactivity) of diverse Japanese green tea cultivars. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the ability of leaf extracts from 43 Japanese green tea cultivars to inhibit thrombin-induced phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (MRLC) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This thrombin-induced phosphorylation is a potential hallmark of vascular endothelial dysfunction. Among the tested cultivars, Cha Chuukanbohon Nou-6 (Nou-6) and Sunrouge (SR) strongly inhibited MRLC phosphorylation. To evaluate the bioactivity of green tea cultivars using a metabolomics approach, the metabolite profiles of all tea extracts were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Multivariate statistical analyses, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), revealed differences among green tea cultivars with respect to their ability to inhibit MRLC phosphorylation. In the SR cultivar, polyphenols were associated with its unique metabolic profile and its bioactivity. In addition, using partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis, we succeeded in constructing a reliable bioactivity-prediction model to predict the inhibitory effect of tea cultivars based on their metabolome. This model was based on certain identified metabolites that were associated with bioactivity. When added to an extract from the non-bioactive cultivar Yabukita, several metabolites enriched in SR were able to transform the extract into a bioactive extract

  3. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Kesavarapu, Keerthana; Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects.

  4. Yogi Detox Tea: A Potential Cause of Acute Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mitchell; Shin, Jaewook James; Rothstein, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We present a case of acute fulminant liver failure from a liver detoxification tea. We present a 60-year-old female with weakness, lethargy, scleral icterus, jaundice, and worsening mental status. She drank herbal tea three times a day for 14 days prior to symptom development. Liver tests were elevated. Remaining laboratory tests and imaging were negative for other etiologies. An ultrasound-guided liver biopsy showed submassive necrosis. A literature search on the ingredients shows six ingredients as having hepatotoxic effects and remaining ingredients as having very sparse hepatoprotective data. Healthcare professionals should discuss herbal medication and tea use and report adverse effects. PMID:29204300

  5. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  6. Development of the Diagnostic Expert System for Tea Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitomi, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuichi

    A diagnostic expert system for tea processing which can presume the cause of the defect of the processed tea was developed to contribute to the improvement of tea processing. This system that consists of some programs can be used through the Internet. The inference engine, the core of the system adopts production system which is well used on artificial intelligence, and is coded by Prolog as the artificial intelligence oriented language. At present, 176 rules for inference have been registered on this system. The system will be able to presume better if more rules are added to the system.

  7. Trace element content in tea brewed in traditional metallic and stainless steel teapots.

    PubMed

    Petit, D; El Houari, W; Jacobs, K; Baeyens, W; Leermakers, M

    2013-11-01

    The migration of metals in tea brewed in metallic teapots was investigated. The teapots were obtained from North Africa stores in Brussels in 2005-2006 and in 2011. Chinese gunpowder green tea, the most commonly used tea in the Moroccan community, was used to prepare the tea. Tea brewed in metallic teapots was compared to tea brewed in a glass vessel in order to evaluate the contribution of the tea and the teapots to the metal concentrations in the brewed tea. Tea samples were also collected in Moroccan households and in tearooms in Brussels. The elements As, Cd, Pb, Sn, Mn, Fe, Cr, Co, Ni, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Al were analyzed by high-resolution sector field inductively coupled mass spectrometry. The relationship between the metal composition of the alloy of the teapot and the metal concentration in tea was also investigated. Migration of Pb and to a lesser amount Ni, Cu, and Zn was observed in brass teapots and migration of Cd from a number of stainless steel teapots was observed. The soldering connecting the sprout to the teapot was shown to be an important source of Pb to the tea. High levels of Mn and Al were also observed in the brewed tea and these elements where shown to originate from the tea itself. Metal exposure from tea drinking was calculated for different tea consumption levels and different metal concentration levels and compared to toxicological reference values.

  8. Effect of gamma radiation on antioxidant capacity of green tea, yerba mate, and chamomile tea as evaluated by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerolis, Luanai Grazieli Luquini; Lameiras, Fernando Soares; Krambrock, Klaus; Neves, Maria Jose.

    2017-01-01

    Tea is a traditional plant extract with important cultural ties. It is the most widely consumed beverage in the world. Tea consumption has some health benefits including antioxidant stimulus. Gamma radiation is currently used to control of postharvest pathogens on tea herb. However, free radicals can be generated, which consumes antioxidant molecules. A positive relation was found between radiation doses used and free radicals generation in green tea (Camellia sinensis), yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis), and chamomile tea (Matricaria recutita). Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of aqueous and methanol extracts of these herbs was determined by various methods to compare the effect of irradiation of herb on antioxidant capacity of the extracts. TAC was evaluated by measuring: total phenols (decreased with irradiation in mate and green teas), total flavonoids (stable in aqueous extracts and decreased with irradiation in methanol extract of mate and chamomile), Trolox equivalent or ABTS (unchanged under irradiation), DPPH* scavenging capacity (stable on aqueous extract but diminished in methanol extract after irradiation), β carotene/acid linoleic ability (stable with the exception of chamomile tea that increased after irradiation) and, capacity to chelate ferrous ions (unchanged with irradiation). In conclusion, gamma irradiation reduced the capacity of some antioxidants but preserved the capacity of others. This study showed that one isolated test does not suffice to perform this evaluation reliably, which is a reflection of the diversity and complexity of the effects of irradiation on antioxidant molecules present in different samples.

  9. Reduction of Hexavalent Chromium by Green Tea Polyphenols and Green Tea Nano Zero-Valent Iron (GT-nZVI).

    PubMed

    Chrysochoou, M; Reeves, K

    2017-03-01

    This study reports on the direct reduction of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] by green tea polyphenols, including a green tea solution and pure epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) solution. A linear trend was observed between the amount of reduced Cr(VI) and the amount of added polyphenols. The green tea solution showed a continued decrease in the observed stoichiometry with increasing pH, from a maximum of 1.4 mol per gallic acid equivalent (GAE) of green tea at pH 2.5, to 0.2 mol/GAE at pH 8.8. The EGCG solution exhibited different behavior, with a maximum stoichiometry of 2 at pH 7 and minimum of 1.6 at pH 4.4 and 8.9. When green tea was used to first react with Fe 3+ and form GT-nZVI, the amount of Cr(VI) reduced by a certain volume of GT-nZVI was double compared to green tea, and 6 times as high considering that GT-nZVI only contains 33 % green tea.

  10. Dissipation kinetics of beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea and their transfer from processed tea to infusion.

    PubMed

    Paramasivam, M; Deepa, M; Selvi, C; Chandrasekaran, S

    2017-10-01

    Dissipation kinetics of mixed formulation consisting beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid in tea crop under an open field ecosystem was investigated. The mixed formulation was applied on tea plant at recommended (27 + 63) and double the recommended (54 + 126g a.i./ha) dose and residues were determined using gas chromatography-electron capture detector and high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector for beta-cyfluthrin and imidacloprid, respectively. The limit of quantification of analytical method was 0.05µg/g and the average recoveries were ranged from 88.36% to 103.49% with relative standard deviations of less than 6% at three spiked levels. The experimental results showed that in the green tea leaves imidacloprid dissipated faster than beta-cyfluthrin with the half-life ranging between 1.20-1.39 and 2.89-3.15days, respectively. The beta-cyfluthrin residues present in the processed tea not transferred into the tea infusion during the infusion process and imidacloprid transferred in the range 43.12-49.7%. On the basis of the transfer of residues from processed tea to infusion, a waiting period of 17 days for tea plucking after pesticide application at recommended dose may be suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Formation of (E)-nerolidol in tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ying; Zeng, Lanting; Liu, Xiaoyu; Gui, Jiadong; Mei, Xin; Fu, Xiumin; Dong, Fang; Tang, Jingchi; Zhang, Lingyun; Yang, Ziyin

    2017-09-15

    (E)-Nerolidol is a volatile sesquiterpene that contributes to the floral aroma of teas (Camellia sinensis). The unique manufacturing process for oolong tea involves multiple stresses, resulting in a high content of (E)-nerolidol, which is not known to form in tea leaves. This study aimed to determine the formation mechanism of (E)-nerolidol in tea exposed to multiple stresses during tea manufacture. C. sinensis (E)-nerolidol synthase (CsNES) recombinant protein, found in the cytosol, was found to transform farnesyl diphosphate into (E)-nerolidol. CsNES was highly expressed during the oolong tea turn over process, resulting in (E)-nerolidol accumulation. Continuous mechanical damage, simulating the turn over process, significantly enhanced CsNES expression level and (E)-nerolidol content. The combination of low temperature stress and mechanical damage had a synergistic effect on (E)-nerolidol formation. This is the first evidence of (E)-nerolidol formation mechanism in tea leaves and a characteristic example of plant volatile formation in response to dual stresses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Occurrence and Residue Pattern of Phthalate Esters in Fresh Tea Leaves and during Tea Manufacturing and Brewing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pingxiang; Chen, Hongping; Gao, Guanwei; Hao, Zhenxia; Wang, Chen; Ma, Guicen; Chai, Yunfeng; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-23

    The residues of 16 phthalate esters (PAEs) in fresh tea leaves and made tea were determined via gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to study their distribution and degradation characteristics during tea planting and processing. Five PAEs were detected in all fresh tea leaves, and higher concentrations were detected in mature leaves. The distribution of PAEs in fresh tea leaves ranged from 69.7 to 2244.0 μg/kg. The degradative percentages of ∑ 5 PAEs during green tea manufacturing ranged from 61 to 63% and were significantly influenced by the drying process. The transfer rates of PAEs-D 4 ranged from 5.2 to 100.6%. PAEs with a high water solubility showed the highest transfer coefficient in the range of 91.8-100.6%, whereas PAEs with a high log K ow showed a low leaching efficiency below 11.9%. These results benefit the risk evaluation and establishment of a maximum residue limit for PAEs in tea.

  13. Draft genome sequence of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis provides insights into the evolution of the tea genome and tea quality

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chaoling; Yang, Hua; Wang, Songbo; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Enhua; Lu, Ying; Tai, Yuling; She, Guangbiao; Sun, Jun; Cao, Haisheng; Tong, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yeyun; Deng, Weiwei; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shihua; Li, Haijing; Wu, Junlan; Wang, Ping; Li, Penghui; Shi, Chengying; Zheng, Fengya; Jian, Jianbo; Huang, Bei; Shan, Dai; Shi, Mingming; Fang, Congbing; Yue, Yi; Li, Fangdong; Li, Daxiang; Wei, Shu; Han, Bin; Jiang, Changjun; Yin, Ye; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; Zhao, Shancen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-01-01

    Tea, one of the world’s most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties. PMID:29678829

  14. Fluorescent Staining of Tea Pathogenic Fungi in Tea Leaves Using Fluorescein-labeled Lectin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Kengo; Yoshida, Katsuyuki; Sonoda, Ryoichi

    Fluorochrome-labeled lectin, fluorescein conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (F-WGA) was applied to stain tea pathogenic fungi in tea leaf tissue. Infected leaves were fixed and decolorized with a mixture of ethanol and acetic acid, and cleared with 10% KOH for whole mount before staining with F-WGA. Hyphae of Pestalotiopsis longiseta, Pseudocercospora ocellata, Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum theae-sinensis fluoresced brightly in whole mount and sectioned samples of infected leaf tissue. In browned tissue, hyphae did not fluoresce frequently in whole mount sample. Autofluorescence of leaf tissue was strong in browned tissue of sections, it was removed by 10% KOH treatment before staining. Penetration hyphae of C. theae-sinensis in cell wall of trichome and hyphae in basal part of trichome did not fluoresced frequently. In whole mount samples of tea leaf infected with Exobasidium vexans and E. reticulatum, hymenia appeared on leaf surface fluoresced, but hyphae in leaf tissue did not fluoresce. In sectioned samples, hyphae fluoresced brightly when sections were treated with 10% KOH before staining.

  15. Characterisation of odorants in roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tetsuya; Koshi, Erina; Take, Harumi; Michihata, Toshihide; Maruya, Masachika; Enomoto, Toshiki

    2017-04-01

    Roasted stem tea has a characteristic flavour, which is obtained by roasting tea stems, by-product of green tea production. This research aims to understand the characteristic odorants in roasted stem tea by comparing it to roasted leaf tea. We revealed potent odorants in commercial roasted stem tea using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry with aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). The difference between roasted stem and leaf tea derived from the same tea plants were investigated using GC-MS. Pyrazine compounds exhibited a roasted odour and high flavour dilution (FD) factors, as determined via AEDA. Roasted stem tea was richer in these pyrazines than roasted leaf tea. Geraniol and linalool exhibited high FD factors and a floral odour, and roasted stem tea was richer in these compounds than roasted leaf tea. These results may have a positive impact on the development of tea products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of the varietal origin of loose leaf tea based on analysis of a single leaf by SNP nanofluidic array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O Kuntze] is an economically important crop cultivated in more than 50 countries. Production and marketing of premium specialty tea products provides opportunities for tea growers, the tea industry and consumers. Rapid market segmentation in the tea industry has resulted ...

  17. [Determination of azoxystrobin in tea by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Chonan, T

    2001-08-01

    A determination method has been developed for azoxystrobin in tea by HPLC. Azoxystrobin was extracted from a sample with acetone, and the extract was passed through an alumina column to remove tannin. The eluate was concentrated to ca. 25 mL and passed through a Sep-Pak Vac tC18 to remove pigments. The eluate was cleaned-up by using liquid-liquid partition, and Florisil and silica-gel columns. The HPLC analysis for azoxystrobin was carried out on a C18 column with acetonitrile-water (9:11) as the mobile phase, with ultraviolet detection at 260 nm. The recovery of azoxystrobin fortified at the level of 0.4 microgram/g was 90.2% and the limit of determination was 0.2 microgram/g.

  18. Preparation of tea catechins using polyamide.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian-Hui; Wang, Liu-Xiang; Chen, Hao; Dong, Jun-Jie; Lu, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Xin-Qiang; Wu, Ming-Yan; Liang, Yue-Rong

    2011-02-01

    An adsorption separation method using Polyamide-6 (PA) as an adsorbent was developed to separate catechins from green tea extract. The adsorption capacity of total catechins for PA was 193.128 mg g⁻¹ with an adsorption selectivity coefficient K(A)(B) of total catechins over caffeine 21.717, which was better than macroporous resin model HPD 600. The Langmuir model and the pseudo-second order mode were primely fitted to describe its equilibrium data and adsorption kinetics, respectively. PA column separation by two-step elution using water and 80% (v/v) aqueous ethanol was established to prepare catechins complex which contained 670.808 mg g⁻¹ total catechins and 1.828 mg g⁻¹ caffeine. It is considered that PA was a promising adsorbent for selective isolation of catechins. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Priority PAHs in orthodox black tea during manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Orthodox black tea is obtained from fresh leaves followed by withering, rolling, fermentation and drying. The presence of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was studied in fresh leaves and at various stages of manufacturing. Benzo(a)pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in dried tea leaves only whereas, naphthalene (2B: probable human carcinogen) was present during all the stages of manufacturing. Dry tea leaves showed higher content of total 16 PAHs (∑PAHs) about 3 and 211 times than present in withered and dried leaves, respectively. Chrysene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, indendo[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene and benzo[a]antracene were not found during manufacturing stages of tea.

  20. Selective material ablation by the TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumiyoshi, Tetsumi; Shiratori, Akira; Ninomiya, Yutaka; Obara, Minoru

    1995-03-01

    This paper reports two topics in the material processing using TEA CO2 lasers. We demonstrated selective ablation of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin layer on a quartz substrate by the second harmonic (SH) radiation of TEA CO2 laser generated by AgGaSe2 nonlinear crystal. Si-H bonds contained in a-Si:H strongly absorb the 5 micrometers SH radiation and resulted in the selective ablation of the a-Si:H layer. The successful ablation processing of ethylenetetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) copolymer by the 9.6 micrometers fundamental wavelength TEA CO2 laser is also reported. Only ETFE thin film adhered to an aluminum substrate can be ablated by the TEA CO2 laser.

  1. Character impact odorants of fennel fruits and fennel tea.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Annette; Rychlik, Michael

    2006-05-17

    The flavor of fennel fruits and fennel tea was examined by aroma extract dilution analysis of the respective dichloromethane extracts. In both fennel fruits and tea, trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, and trans-4,5-epoxy-2(E)-decenal showed high flavor dilution (FD) factors followed by fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, estragole, and beta-myrcene. On the basis of these results, the odorants showing higher FD factors were quantified in tea as well as in fruits, and odor activity values (OAV) in tea were calculated by dividing the concentration of the compound by its recognition threshold in water. The highest OAV was found for trans-anethole, followed by estragole, fenchone, 1,8-cineole, (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and anisaldehyde. From a comparison of the concentrations of odorants in fruits and tea, trans-anethole and estragole showed similar extraction rates of approximately 10-15%, whereas the extraction rates for (R)-alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, and limonene were below 2%. In contrast to this, fenchone, camphor, linalool, and carvone showed higher extraction rates (26-50%), whereas the high apparent extraction rates of anisalcohol (393%) and vanilline (480%) were attributed to the formation from precursors. Sensory studies of aqueous models containing odorants in the amounts quantified in fennel teas revealed high similarity of the models with the tea and proved that all impact odorants had been identified in their correct concentrations. Further sensory experiments showed that estragole had no odor impact on the overall flavor of fennel tea, and, therefore, a reduction of estragole in fennel products would have no negative impact on their sensoric quality. In contrast to this, trans-anethole and fenchone were found to be character impact compounds of fennel.

  2. Selective determination of aluminum bound with tannin in tea infusion.

    PubMed

    Erdemoğlu, Sema B; Güçer, Seref

    2005-08-01

    In this study, an analytical method for indirect measurement of Al bound with tannin in tea infusion was studied. This method utilizes the ability of the tannins to precipitate with protein. Separation conditions were investigated using model solutions. This method is uncomplicated, inexpensive and suitable for real samples. About 34% of the total Al in brew extracted from commercially available teas was bound to condensed and hydrolyzable tannins.

  3. Clinical study on constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver.

  4. Clinical Study on Constitutional Herbal Tea for Treating Chronic Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Jung; Bae, Young-Chun; Choi, Na-Rae; Ryu, Seung-Yeob; Kwon, Young-Mi; Joo, Jong-Cheon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of constitutional herbal tea for treating chronic fatigue with no diagnosed cause, which is called Mibyeong in Korea. Methods: Males and females with ages between 40 and 59 years who had complained of fatigue for 1 month consistently or for 6 months intermittently without a definite cause were recruited. At the same time, a Chalder fatigue scale (CFS) score of 19 was essential for participation in this study. Sixty five subjects completed the entire process, including blood tests and tests with medical devices. Five assessments of health status were accomplished over 8 weeks by using the CFS and the visual analogue scale (VAS). To ensure that the constitutional herbal tea was being safely used, we conducted and analyzed renal function and liver function tests. For the diagnosis of the Sasang constitution, the Sasang Constitutional Analysis Tool (SCAT) was used, and a specialist in Sasang constitutional medicine made the final diagnosis based on the SCAT result. Constitutional herbal tea was served four weeks after the first visit. The subjects took the constitutional herbal tea twice a day for one month. Results: The results are as follows: The CFS and the VAS scores were significantly improved for the subjects in the constitutional herbal tea. No abnormalities were found on the blood tests to evaluate safety after taking the constitutional herbal tea. The improvements in the CFS and the VAS scores due to the constitutional herbal tea had no significant differences according to the Sasang constitution. Conclusion: Constitutional herbal tea may be used to reduce fatigue and improve health and has no adverse effect on either the kidney or the liver. PMID:25780720

  5. Microwave-assisted water extraction of green tea polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Nkhili, Ezzohra; Tomao, Valerie; El Hajji, Hakima; El Boustani, Es-Seddik; Chemat, Farid; Dangles, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Green tea, a popular drink with beneficial health properties, is a rich source of specific flavanols (polyphenols). There is a special interest in the water extraction of green tea polyphenols since the composition of the corresponding extracts is expected to reflect the one of green tea infusions consumed worldwide. To develop a microwave-assisted water extraction (MWE) of green tea polyphenols. MWE of green tea polyphenols has been investigated as an alternative to water extraction under conventional heating (CWE). The experimental conditions were selected after consideration of both temperature and extraction time. The efficiency and selectivity of the process were determined in terms of extraction time, total phenolic content, chemical composition (HPLC-MS analysis) and antioxidant activity of the extracts. By MWE (80 degrees C, 30 min), the flavanol content of the extract reached 97.46 (+/- 0.08) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract, vs. only 83.06 (+/- 0.08) by CWE (80 degrees C, 45 min). In particular, the concentration of the most bioactive flavanol EGCG was 77.14 (+/- 0.26) mg of catechin equivalent/g of green tea extract obtained by MWE, vs 64.18 (+/- 0.26) mg/g by CWE. MWE appears more efficient than CWE at both 80 and 100 degrees C, particularly for the extraction of flavanols and hydroxycinnamic acids. Although MWE at 100 degrees C typically affords higher yields in total phenols, MWE at 80 degrees C appears more convenient for the extraction of the green tea-specific and chemically sensitive flavanols.

  6. The synergistic potential of various teas, herbs and therapeutic drugs in health improvement: a review.

    PubMed

    Malongane, Florence; McGaw, Lyndy J; Mudau, Fhatuwani N

    2017-11-01

    Tea is one of the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages in the world next to water. It is classified as Camellia sinensis and non-Camellia sinensis (herbal teas). The common bioactive compounds found mainly in green teas are flavan-3-ols (catechins) (also called flavanols), proanthocyanidins (tannins) and flavonols. Black tea contains theaflavins and thearubigins and white tea contains l-theanine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), while herbal teas contain diverse polyphenols. Phytochemicals in tea exhibit antimicrobial, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer activities that are perceived to be helpful in managing chronic diseases linked to lifestyle. Many of these phytochemicals are reported to be biologically active when combined. Knowledge of the synergistic interactions of tea with other teas or herbs in terms of biological activities will be of benefit for therapeutic enhancement. There is evidence that various types of teas act synergistically in exhibiting health benefits to humans, improving consumer acceptance and economic value. Similar observations have been made when teas and herbs or medicinal drugs were combined. The aim of this review is to highlight potential beneficial synergies between combinations of different types of teas, tea and herbs, and tea and medicinal drugs. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Metabolic dependence of green tea on plucking positions revisited: a metabolomic study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Eun; Lee, Bum-Jin; Hwang, Jeong-Ah; Ko, Kwang-Sup; Chung, Jin-Oh; Kim, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Jun; Hong, Young-Shick

    2011-10-12

    The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevations in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality.

  8. Safety and anti-hyperglycemic efficacy of various tea types in mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Manman; Zhao, Guangshan; Wang, Yijun; Wang, Dongxu; Sun, Feng; Ning, Jingming; Wan, Xiachun; Zhang, Jinsong

    2016-01-01

    Tea, a beverage consumed worldwide, has proven anti-hyperglycemic effects in animal models. Better efficacies of tea beverages are frequently associated with high-dose levels, whose safety attracts considerable attention. Based on the inherent nature of tea catechin oxidation, fresh tea leaves are manufactured into diverse tea types by modulating the oxidation degree of catechins. The present study aimed to assess various tea types for their safety properties and anti-hyperglycemic effects. Mice were allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for one week, and the rare smoked tea caused salient adverse reactions, including hepatic and gastrointestinal toxicities; meanwhile, the widely-consumed green and black teas, unlike the rare yellow tea, suppressed growth in fast-growing healthy mice. When mice were fed a high-fat diet and allowed free access to tea infusion (1:30, w/v) for 25 days, only yellow tea significantly reduced blood glucose. Therefore, various teas showed different safety profiles as well as anti-hyperglycemic efficacy strengths. To achieve an effective and safe anti-hyperglycemic outcome, yellow tea, which effectively suppressed high-fat diet-induced early elevation of hepatic thioredoxin-interacting protein, is an optimal choice. PMID:27531374

  9. [Origin of sennosides in health teas including Malva leaves].

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Kishi, M; Sekita, S; Satake, M

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify whether sennosides are contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and then to clarify the source of sennosides in health teas including malva leaves. The identification and determination of sennosides were performed with thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The leaf of Malva verticillata L. did not contain sennosides A or B and could be easily distinguished from senna leaf. Our previous report showed that sennosides are contained in weight-reducing herbal teas including malva leaves, and that senna leaf is a herbal component in some teas. Furthermore, in 10 samples of health tea including malva leaves that were bought last year, the smallest amount of sennosides was 6.1 mg/bag, and all health teas including malva leaves contained the leaf and midrib of senna. We suggest that sennosides A and B are not contained in the leaf of Malva verticillata L., and that the sennosides in health teas including malva leaves are not derived from malva leaf but from senna leaf.

  10. Direct scavenging of nitric oxide and superoxide by green tea.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T; Yokozawa, T

    2002-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the free radical scavenging effects of green tea extract and green tea tannin mixture and its components using a nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide (O(2)(-)) generating system in vitro. Green tea extract showed direct scavenging activity against NO and O(2)(-) and green tea tannin mixture, at the same concentration, showed high scavenging activity. Comparison of the activities of seven pure compounds isolated from green tea tannin mixture showed that (-)-epigallocatechin 3-O-gallate (EGCg), (-)-gallocatechin 3-O-gallate (GCg) and (-)-epicatechin 3-O-gallate (ECg) had higher scavenging activities than (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (+)-gallocatechin (GC), (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (C), showing the importance of the structure of flavan-3-ol linked to gallic acid for this activity. Among the gallate-free tannins, EGC and GC were more effective O(2)(-) scavengers than EC and C, indicating the O-trihydroxy structure in the B ring is an important determinant of such activity. However, this structure did not affect the NO scavenging activity. These findings confirm that green tea tannin has excellent antioxidant properties, which may be involved in the beneficial effect of this compound.

  11. Effect of Green Tea Mouthwash on Oral Malodor

    PubMed Central

    Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks. PMID:24977093

  12. Effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Rassameemasmaung, Supanee; Phusudsawang, Pakkarada; Sangalungkarn, Vanida

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of green tea mouthwash on oral malodor, plaque, and gingival inflammation. Gingivitis subjects who had over 80 parts per billion of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) in the morning breath were randomly assigned into green tea or placebo mouthwash group. At baseline, VSC, Plaque Index (PI) and Papillary Bleeding Index (PBI) were recorded. Participants were rinsed with the assigned mouthwash, and VSC level was remeasured at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing. For the following 4 weeks, participants were asked to rinse with the assigned mouthwash twice daily. VSC, PI and PBI were remeasured at day 28. It was found that, at 30 minutes and 3 hours postrinsing, VSC was reduced by 36.76% and 33.18% in the green tea group and 19.83% and 9.17% in the placebo group, respectively. At day 28, VSC was reduced by 38.61% in the green tea group and 10.86% in the placebo group. VSC level in the green tea group was significantly different when compared to the placebo. PI and PBI were significantly reduced in both groups. However, no significant difference was found between groups. In conclusion, green tea mouthwash could significantly reduce VSC level in gingivitis subjects after rinsing for 4 weeks.

  13. Fluorine in food with special reference to tea

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Hitchcock, A.E.; Gwirtsman, J.

    A review of the literature showed that in 1932 commercial tea, Camellia sinensis Kuntze (Thea sinensis L., Camellia thea Link.), was known to contain fluorine (F). Since ornamental camellias (C. japonica L.) and tea are members of the Theaceae family, comparisons were made of the F in leaves of the two species. The dry leaves of various domestic brands of tea, composed mostly of young leaves, contained 72 to 115 parts per million (p.p.m.) F and Chinese tea 131 to 178 p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis. One sample of fresh leaves of greenhouse grown tea plants contained 1530more » p.p.m. F on a dry weight basis and the older leaves of ornamental camellias up to 3062 p.p.m. F. One sample of young leaves of C. japonica contained 67 p.p.m. F. Thus both species of Camellia have the capacity to accumulate relatively large amounts of F, especially in the older leaves. The infusion (beverage) from one tea bag in 4.5 fluid oz. of water contained 0.8 to 1.7 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes steeping and 1.0 to 2.0 p.p.m. F after 3 minutes boiling.« less

  14. Volatile aroma compounds in various brewed green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H; Chambers, Edgar; Adhikari, Koushik; Yoon, Youngmo

    2013-08-20

    This study identifies and semi-quantifies aroma volatiles in brewed green tea samples. The objectives of this study were to identify using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) paired with a headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) the common volatile compounds that may be responsible for aroma/flavor of the brewed liquor of a range of green tea samples from various countries as consumed and to determine if green teas from the same region have similarities in volatile composition when green tea samples are prepared for consumption. Twenty-four green tea samples from eight different countries were brewed as recommended for consumer brewing. The aroma volatiles were extracted by HS-SPME, separated on a gas chromatograph and identified using a mass spectrometer. Thirty-eight compounds were identified and the concentrations were semi-quantified. The concentrations were lower than those reported by other researchers, probably because this research examined headspace volatiles from brewed tea rather than solvent extraction of leaves. No relationship to country of origin was found, which indicates that other factors have a greater influence than country of origin on aroma.

  15. Anticariogenic Activity of Black Tea - An Invivo Study.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vishal; Taneja, Lavina; Srivastava, Ankit; Nandlal, Swati

    2016-03-01

    Teas is known for its anticariogenic properties and various mechanisms have been invoked to explain this effect. One such proposed mechanism is inhibition of salivary alpha amylase activity by endogenous tannins present in tea. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not the ingestion of black tea decoction inhibits the enzyme salivary amylase and thus interferes with the release of maltose from intraoral entrapped particles of food. A total of 30 children in the age group of 12 - 15 years were selected for the study. After two hours of fasting subjects consumed two salted crackers for 60 second following which they rinsed with water (control solution) and then with 1.5% black tea decoction (test solution) next day. Retained food particles were recovered from buccal aspect of left mandibular premolar and salivary amylase activity was noted via chromatography. Paired t-test was applied for statistical analysis. Maltose to Sucrose ratio was used to evaluate the result. The average ratio was 3.27 for control solution and 1.82 for test solution. The results were statistically highly significant (p <0.005). Tea inhibited the activity of salivary amylase and this inhibition assumes a special significance when it is considered that the effect of tea could be manifested over a prolonged period of time, as in a real life situation.

  16. Gene expression analysis of bud and leaf color in tea.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kang; Zhang, Yazhen; Wu, Liyun; Li, Hailin; Ruan, Li; Bai, Peixian; Zhang, Chengcai; Zhang, Fen; Xu, Liyi; Wang, Liyuan; Cheng, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Purple shoot tea attributing to the high anthocyanin accumulation is of great interest for its wide health benefits. To better understand potential mechanisms involved in purple buds and leaves formation in tea plants, we performed transcriptome analysis of six green or purple shoot tea individuals from a F1 population using the Illumina sequencing method. Totally 292 million RNA-Seq reads were obtained and assembled into 112,233 unigenes, with an average length of 759 bp and an N50 of 1081 bp. Moreover, totally 2193 unigenes showed significant differences in expression levels between green and purple tea samples, with 1143 up- and 1050 down-regulated in the purple teas. Further real time PCR analysis confirmed RNA-Seq results. Our study identified 28 differentially expressed transcriptional factors and A CsMYB gene was found to be highly similar to AtPAP1 in Arabidopsis. Further analysis of differentially expressed genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis and transportation showed that the late biosynthetic genes and genes involved in anthocyanin transportation were largely affected but the early biosynthetic genes were less or none affected. Overall, the identification of a large number of differentially expressed genes offers a global view of the potential mechanisms associated with purple buds and leaves formation, which will facilitate molecular breeding in tea plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissipation, transfer and safety evaluation of emamectin benzoate in tea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Luo, Fengjian; Zhang, Xinzhong; Jiang, Yaping; Lou, Zhengyun; Chen, Zongmao

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation and residue of emamectin benzoate in tea leaves and the residue transfer from tea leaves to tea brew were investigated by modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) combined with ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass (UPLC-MS/MS). The average recoveries ranged 85.3-101.3% with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005mgkg(-1) in tea leaves and 0.0004mgL(-1) in brew. Emamectin benzoate dissipated rapidly in tea with half-life (t1/2) of 1.0-1.3days. The terminal residues of emamectin benzoate were less than 0.062mgkg(-1). The leaching rate of emamectin benzoate from freshly-made tea to brew was <5%. The risk of emamectin benzoate at the recommended dosage was negligible to humans depending on risk quotient (RQ) value, that was lower than 1 significantly. This study could provide guidance for the safe use of emamectin benzoate and serve as a reference for the establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) in China. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Coffee and tea: perks for health and longevity?

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Salman K; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J

    2013-11-01

    Tea and coffee, after water, are the most commonly consumed beverages in the world and are the top sources of caffeine and antioxidant polyphenols in the American diet. The purpose of this review is to assess the health effects of chronic tea and/or coffee consumption. Tea consumption, especially green tea, is associated with significantly reduced risks for stroke, diabetes and depression, and improved levels of glucose, cholesterol, abdominal obesity and blood pressure. Habitual coffee consumption in large epidemiological studies is associated with reduced mortality, both for all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. In addition, coffee intake is associated with risks of heart failure, stroke, diabetes mellitus and some cancers in an inverse dose-dependent fashion. Surprisingly, coffee is associated with neutral to reduced risks for both atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. However, caffeine at high doses can increase anxiety, insomnia, calcium loss and possibly the risk of fractures. Coffee and tea can generally be recommended as health-promoting additions to an adult diet. Adequate dietary calcium intake may be particularly important for tea and coffee drinkers.

  19. Effect of Cinnamon Tea on Postprandial Glucose Concentration.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Maria Alexandra; Silva, Maria Leonor; Santos, Elisabeth; Moncada, Margarida Maria; Brito, José; Proença, Luis; Singh, Jaipaul; de Mesquita, Maria Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Glycaemic control, in particular at postprandial period, has a key role in prevention of different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular events. Previous studies suggest that postprandial high blood glucose levels (BGL) can lead to an oxidative stress status, which is associated with metabolic alterations. Cinnamon powder has demonstrated a beneficial effect on postprandial glucose homeostasis in animals and human models. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cinnamon tea (C. burmannii) on postprandial capillary blood glucose level on nondiabetic adults. Participants were given oral glucose tolerance test either with or without cinnamon tea in a randomized clinical trial. The data revealed that cinnamon tea administration slightly decreased postprandial BGL. Cinnamon tea ingestion also results in a significantly lower postprandial maximum glucose concentration and variation of maximum glucose concentration (p < 0.05). Chemical analysis showed that cinnamon tea has a high antioxidant capacity, which may be due to its polyphenol content. The present study provides evidence that cinnamon tea, obtained from C. burmannii, could be beneficial for controlling glucose metabolism in nondiabetic adults during postprandial period.

  20. [Fast Detection of Camellia Sinensis Growth Process and Tea Quality Informations with Spectral Technology: A Review].

    PubMed

    Peng, Ji-yu; Song, Xing-lin; Liu, Fei; Bao, Yi-dan; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    The research achievements and trends of spectral technology in fast detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality information were being reviewed. Spectral technology is a kind of fast, nondestructive, efficient detection technology, which mainly contains infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy. The rapid detection of Camellia sinensis growth process information and tea quality is helpful to realize the informatization and automation of tea production and ensure the tea quality and safety. This paper provides a review on its applications containing the detection of tea (Camellia sinensis) growing status(nitrogen, chlorophyll, diseases and insect pest), the discrimination of tea varieties, the grade discrimination of tea, the detection of tea internal quality (catechins, total polyphenols, caffeine, amino acid, pesticide residual and so on), the quality evaluation of tea beverage and tea by-product, the machinery of tea quality determination and discrimination. This paper briefly introduces the trends of the technology of the determination of tea growth process information, sensor and industrial application. In conclusion, spectral technology showed high potential to detect Camellia sinensis growth process information, to predict tea internal quality and to classify tea varieties and grades. Suitable chemometrics and preprocessing methods is helpful to improve the performance of the model and get rid of redundancy, which provides the possibility to develop the portable machinery. Future work is to develop the portable machinery and on-line detection system is recommended to improve the further application. The application and research achievement of spectral technology concerning about tea were outlined in this paper for the first time, which contained Camellia sinensis growth, tea production, the quality and safety of tea and by-produce and so on, as well as some problems to be solved

  1. Critical factors determining fluoride concentration in tea leaves produced from Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huimei; Zhu, Xiaohui; Peng, Chuanyi; Xu, Wei; Li, Daxiang; Wang, Yijun; Fang, Shihui; Li, Yeyun; Hu, Shaode; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the fluoride present in tea plants (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and its relationship to soils, varieties, seasons and tea leaf maturity. The study also explored how different manufacturing processes affect the leaching of fluoride into tea beverages. The fluoride concentration in the tea leaves was significantly correlate to the concentration of water-soluble fluoride in the soil. Different tea varieties accumulated different levels of fluoride, with varieties, Anji baicha having the highest and Nongkang zao having the lowest fluoride concentration. In eight different varieties of tea plant harvested over three tea seasons, fluoride concentration were highest in the summer and lowest in the spring in china. The fluoride concentration in tea leaves was directly related to the maturity of the tea leaves at harvest. Importantly, the tea manufacturing process did not introduced fluoride contamination. The leaching of fluoride was 6.8% and 14.1% higher in black and white tea, respectively, than in fresh tea leaves. The manufacturing step most affecting the leaching of fluoride into tea beverage was withering used in white, black and oolong tea rather than rolling or fermentation. The exposure and associated health risks for fluoride concentration in infusions of 115 commercially available teas from Chinese tea markets was determined. The fluoride concentration ranged from 5.0 to 306.0mgkg(-1), with an average of 81.7mgkg(-1). The hazard quotient (HQ) of these teas indicated that there was no risk of fluorosis from drinking tea, based on statistical analysis by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Survival of Salmonella on chamomile, peppermint, and green tea during storage and subsequent survival or growth following tea brewing.

    PubMed

    Keller, Susanne E; Stam, Christina N; Gradl, Dana R; Chen, Zhengzai; Larkin, Emily L; Pickens, Shannon R; Chirtel, Stuart J

    2015-04-01

    The survival of Salmonella on dried chamomile flowers, peppermint leaves, and green tea leaves stored under different conditions was examined. Survival and growth of Salmonella was also assessed after subsequent brewing using dried inoculated teas. A Salmonella enterica serovar cocktail was inoculated onto different dried tea leaves or flowers to give starting populations of approximately 10 log CFU/g. The inoculum was allowed to dry (at ambient temperature for 24 h) onto the dried leaves or flowers prior to storage under 25 and 35 °C at low (<30% relative humidity [RH]) and high (>90% RH) humidity levels. Under the four storage conditions tested, survival followed the order 25 °C with low RH > 35 °C with low RH > 25 °C with high RH > 35 °C with high RH. Salmonella losses at 25 °C with low RH occurred primarily during drying, after which populations showed little decline over 6 months. In contrast, Salmonella decreased below detection after 45 days at 35 °C and high RH in all teas tested. The thermal resistance of Salmonella was assessed at 55 °C immediately after inoculation of tea leaves or flowers, after drying (24 h) onto tea leaves or flowers, and after 28 days of storage at 25 °C with low RH. All conditions resulted in similar D-values (2.78 ± 0.12, 3.04 ± 0.07, and 2.78 ± 0.56, at 0 h, 24 h, and 28 days, respectively), indicating thermal resistance of Salmonella in brewed tea did not change after desiccation and 28 days of storage. In addition, all brewed teas tested supported the growth of Salmonella. If Salmonella survives after storage, it may also survive and grow after a home brewing process.

  3. Data on green tea flavor determinantes as affected by cultivars and manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhuo-Xiao; Rana, Mohammad M; Liu, Guo-Feng; Gao, Ming-Jun; Li, Da-Xiang; Wu, Fu-Guang; Li, Xin-Bao; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents data related to an article entitled "Green tea flavor determinants and their changes over manufacturing processes" (Han et al., 2016) [1]. Green tea samples were prepared with steaming and pan firing treatments from the tender leaves of tea cultivars 'Bai-Sang Cha' ('BAS') and 'Fuding-Dabai Cha' ('FUD'). Aroma compounds from the tea infusions were detected and quantified using HS-SPME coupled with GC/MS. Sensory evaluation was also made for characteristic tea flavor. The data shows the abundances of the detected aroma compounds, their threshold values and odor characteristics in the two differently processed tea samples as well as two different cultivars.

  4. Fungal isolates from a Pu-erh type tea fermentation and their ability to convert tea polyphenols to theabrownins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuping; Gong, Jiashun; Chisti, Yusuf; Sirisansaneeyakul, Sarote

    2015-04-01

    The natural microbiota involved in the fermentation influence the quality and taste of fully postfermented teas such as China's Pu-erh tea. Ten microbial isolates representing 6 species were recovered from a solid-state fermentation of a Pu-erh type tea. The isolates were Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus marvanovae, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizomucor tauricus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Candida mogii. With the exception of A. marvanovae and C. mogii, all these microorganisms have been previously reported in solid-state fermentations of native Pu-erh tea. The ability of the isolates for converting the tea polyphenols to bioactive theabrownins in infusions of sun-dried green tea leaves in a submerged fermentation process was subsequently investigated. All isolates except C. mogii TISTR 5938 effectively produced theabrownins in a 4-d fermentation in shake flasks at 40 °C, 250 rpm. A. tubingensis TISTR 3646, A. tubingensis TISTR 3647, A. marvanovae TISTR 3648, and A. fumigatus TISTR 3654 produced theabrownins at particularly high levels of 6.5, 12.4, 11.1, and 8.4 g/L, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Inhibition of attachment of oral bacteria to immortalized human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) by tea extracts and tea components

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tea has been suggested to promote oral health by inhibiting bacterial attachment to the oral cavity. Most studies have focused on prevention of bacterial attachment to hard surfaces such as enamel. Findings This study investigated the effect of five commercial tea (green, oolong, black, pu-erh and chrysanthemum) extracts and tea components (epigallocatechin gallate and gallic acid) on the attachment of five oral pathogens (Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668, Streptococcus mitis ATCC 49456, Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 13419 and Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 51655) to the HGF-1 gingival cell line. Extracts of two of the teas (pu-erh and chrysanthemum) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced attachment of all the Streptococcus strains by up to 4 log CFU/well but effects of other teas and components were small. Conclusions Pu-erh and chrysanthemum tea may have the potential to reduce attachment of oral pathogens to gingival tissue and improve the health of oral soft tissues. PMID:23578062

  6. Inhibition of starch digestion by the green tea polyphenol, (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate

    PubMed Central

    Forester, Sarah C.; Gu, Yeyi; Lambert, Joshua D.

    2013-01-01

    Scope Green tea has been shown to ameliorate symptoms of metabolic syndrome in vivo. The effects could be due, in part, to modulation of postprandial blood glucose levels. Methods and results We examined the effect of coadministration of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, 100 mg/kg, i.g.) on blood glucose levels following oral administration of common corn starch (CCS), maltose, sucrose, or glucose to fasted CF-1 mice. We found that cotreatment with EGCG significantly reduced postprandial blood glucose levels after administration of CCS compared to control mice (50 and 20% reduction in peak blood glucose levels and blood glucose area under the curve, respectively). EGCG had no effect on postprandial blood glucose following administration of maltose or glucose, suggesting that EGCG may modulate amylase-mediated starch digestion. In vitro, EGCG noncompetitively inhibited pancreatic amylase activity by 34% at 20 μM. No significant change was induced in the expression of two small intestinal glucose transporters (GLUT2 and SGLT1). Conclusions Our results suggest that EGCG acutely reduces postprandial blood glucose levels in mice when coadministered with CCS and this may be due in part to inhibition of α-amylase. The relatively low effective dose of EGCG makes a compelling case for studies in human subjects. PMID:23038646

  7. A comparison of aluminum levels in tea products from Hong Kong markets and in varieties of tea plants from Hong Kong and India.

    PubMed

    Fung, K F; Carr, H P; Poon, B H T; Wong, M H

    2009-05-01

    This study project aimed to investigate the concentrations of aluminum (Al) in tea products available in Hong Kong markets. Tea samples consisting of 47 different tea bags and 28 samples of tea leaves were analysed for concentrations of Al. All tea samples released Al (0.70-5.93 mg L(-1)) during a standard infusion period. In comparison to the Joint FAO/WHO Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake guideline of 7 mg Al kg(-1) body weight, it was concluded that tea made with these tea leaves will not impose adverse human health impacts. The relative effects of age, soil available Al, and genetic differences on the levels of Al accumulated by tea bushes were investigated. It was found that there was no definite trend between the amount of Al accumulated and the age of tea bushes. The soil available Al influenced the levels of Al in Camellia sinensis to a certain extent, but it was evident that the ability of different varieties of C. sinensis to accumulate Al was variable. C. sinensis accumulated Al in all stages of growth. Young seedlings had lower contents of Al while the mobility of Al within the tea bushes was high. In a manner typical of hyperaccumulators, Al was not retained in the roots, but was consistently transported to the shoots. Aluminum in the tea bush was distributed between the different parts in the following order: mature leaves>roots>branches>young leaves.

  8. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy for simultaneous geographical and varietal classification of tea infusions simulating a home-made tea cup.

    PubMed

    Diniz, Paulo Henrique Gonçalves Dias; Barbosa, Mayara Ferreira; de Melo Milanez, Karla Danielle Tavares; Pistonesi, Marcelo Fabián; de Araújo, Mário César Ugulino

    2016-02-01

    In this work we proposed a method to verify the differentiating characteristics of simple tea infusions prepared in boiling water alone (simulating a home-made tea cup), which represents the final product as ingested by the consumers. For this purpose we used UV-Vis spectroscopy and variable selection through the Successive Projections Algorithm associated with Linear Discriminant Analysis (SPA-LDA) for simultaneous classification of the teas according to their variety and geographic origin. For comparison, KNN, CART, SIMCA, PLS-DA and PCA-LDA were also used. SPA-LDA and PCA-LDA provided significantly better results for tea classification of the five studied classes (Argentinean green tea; Brazilian green tea; Argentinean black tea; Brazilian black tea; and Sri Lankan black tea). The proposed methodology provides a simpler, faster and more affordable classification of simple tea infusions, and can be used as an alternative approach to traditional tea quality evaluation as made by skilful tasters, which is evidently partial and cannot assess geographic origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to the Ingestion of Caffeinated Herbal Tea: Drink It Hot or Cold?

    PubMed

    Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: -5 ± 1 beats.min -1 ; hot tea: -1 ± 1 beats.min -1 , p < 0.05), double product, skin blood flow and hand temperature and (2) an increase in baroreflex sensitivity, fat oxidation and energy expenditure (cold tea: +8.3%; hot tea: +3.7%, p < 0.05). Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion, we observed no differences of tea temperature on cardiac output work and mean blood pressure responses. Conclusion: Ingestion of an unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at cold temperature induced a greater stimulation of thermogenesis and fat oxidation than hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control.

  10. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to the Ingestion of Caffeinated Herbal Tea: Drink It Hot or Cold?

    PubMed Central

    Maufrais, Claire; Sarafian, Delphine; Dulloo, Abdul; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Tea is usually consumed at two temperatures (as hot tea or as iced tea). However, the importance of drink temperature on the cardiovascular system and on metabolism has not been thoroughly investigated. The purpose of this study was to compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses to the ingestion of caffeinated herbal tea (Yerba Mate) at cold or hot temperature in healthy young subjects. We hypothesized that ingestion of cold tea induces a higher increase in energy expenditure than hot tea without eliciting any negative effects on the cardiovascular system. Methods: Cardiovascular, metabolic and cutaneous responses were analyzed in 23 healthy subjects (12 men and 11 women) sitting comfortably during a 30-min baseline and 90 min following the ingestion of 500 mL of an unsweetened Yerba Mate tea ingested over 5 min either at cold (~3°C) or hot (~55°C) temperature, according to a randomized cross-over design. Results: Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion and compared to hot tea, cold tea induced (1) a decrease in heart rate (cold tea: −5 ± 1 beats.min−1; hot tea: −1 ± 1 beats.min−1, p < 0.05), double product, skin blood flow and hand temperature and (2) an increase in baroreflex sensitivity, fat oxidation and energy expenditure (cold tea: +8.3%; hot tea: +3.7%, p < 0.05). Averaged over the 90 min post-drink ingestion, we observed no differences of tea temperature on cardiac output work and mean blood pressure responses. Conclusion: Ingestion of an unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at cold temperature induced a greater stimulation of thermogenesis and fat oxidation than hot tea while decreasing cardiac load as suggested by the decrease in the double product. Further experiments are needed to evaluate the clinical impact of unsweetened caffeinated herbal tea at a cold temperature for weight control. PMID:29681860

  11. Effect of Green Tea Phytochemicals on Mood and Cognition.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Christina; Dekker, Matthijs

    2017-01-01

    Green tea is traditionally known to induce mental clarity, cognitive function, physical activation and relaxation. Recently, a special green tea, matcha tea, is rapidly gaining popularity throughout the world and is frequently referred to as a mood- and brain food. Matcha tea consumption leads to much higher intake of green tea phytochemicals compared to regular green tea. Previous research on tea constituents caffeine, L-theanine, and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) repeatedly demonstrated benefits on mood and cognitive performance. These effects were observed when these phytochemicals were consumed separately and in combination. A review was conducted on 49 human intervention studies to summarize the research on acute psychoactive effects of caffeine, L-theanine, and EGCG on different dimensions of mood and cognitive performance. Caffeine was found to mainly improve performance on demanding long-duration cognitive tasks and self-reported alertness, arousal, and vigor. Significant effects already occurred at low doses of 40 mg. L-theanine alone improved self-reported relaxation, tension, and calmness starting at 200 mg. L-theanine and caffeine combined were found to particularly improve performance in attention-switching tasks and alertness, but to a lesser extent than caffeine alone. No conclusive evidence relating to effects induced by EGCG could be given since the amount of intervention studies was limited. These studies provided reliable evidence showing that L-theanine and caffeine have clear beneficial effects on sustained attention, memory, and suppression of distraction. Moreover, L-theanine was found to lead to relaxation by reducing caffeine induced arousal. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  12. Effects of tea and coffee on cardiovascular disease risk.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv K; Ward, Natalie C; Hodgson, Jonathan M; Croft, Kevin D

    2012-06-01

    Tea and coffee have been associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), both positively and negatively. Epidemiological data suggest that black and green tea may reduce the risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke by between 10 and 20%. Experimental and clinical trial data generally indicate either neutral or beneficial effects on risk factors and pathways linked to the development of CVD. Controversy still exists regarding the effects of coffee, where there have been concerns regarding associations with hypercholesterolaemia, hypertension and myocardial infarction. However, long term moderate intake of coffee is not associated with detrimental effects in healthy individuals and may even protect against the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The detrimental effects of coffee may be associated with the acute pressor effects, most likely due to caffeine at high daily intakes, and lipids from boiled coffee can contribute to raised serum cholesterol. Genetic polymorphisms in enzymes involved in uptake, metabolism and excretion of tea and coffee compounds are also associated with differential biological effects. Potential mechanisms by which tea and coffee phytochemicals can exert effects for CVD protection include the regulation of vascular tone through effects on endothelial function, improved glucose metabolism, increased reverse cholesterol transport and inhibition of foam cell formation, inhibition of oxidative stress, immunomodulation and effects on platelet function (adhesion and activation, aggregation and clotting). The phytochemical compounds in tea and coffee and their metabolites are suggested to influence protective endogenous pathways by modulation of gene-expression. It is not known exactly which compounds are responsible for the suggestive protective effects of tea and coffee. Although many biologically active compounds have been identified with known biological effects, tea and coffee contain many unidentified compounds with potential

  13. Tea consumption and risk of ischaemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Yu, Canqing; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Si, Jiahui; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yiping; Ren, Xiaolan; Jiang, Ge; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Lv, Jun; Li, Liming

    2017-01-01

    Objective To prospectively examine the association between tea consumption and the risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods Prospective study using the China Kadoorie Biobank; participants from 10 areas across China were enrolled during 2004–2008 and followed up until 31 December 2013. After excluding participants with cancer, heart disease and stroke at baseline, the present study included 199 293 men and 288 082 women aged 30–79 years at baseline. Information on IHD incidence was collected through disease registries and the new national health insurance databases. Results During a median follow-up of 7.2 years, we documented 24 665 (7.19 cases/1000 person-years) incident IHD cases and 3959 (1.13 cases/1000 person-years) major coronary events (MCEs). Tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of IHD and MCE. In the whole cohort, compared with participants who never consumed tea during the past 12 months, the multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% CIs for less than daily and daily tea consumers were 0.97 (0.94 to 1.00) and 0.92 (0.88 to 0.95) for IHD, 0.92 (0.85 to 1.00) and 0.90 (0.82 to 0.99) for MCE. No linear trends in the HRs across the amount of tea were observed in daily consumers for IHD and MCE (PLinear >0.05). The inverse association between tea consumption and IHD was stronger in rural (PInteraction 0.006 for IHD, <0.001 for MCE), non-obese (PInteraction 0.012 for MCE) and non-diabetes participants (PInteraction 0.004 for IHD). Conclusions In this large prospective study, daily tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of IHD. PMID:28077466

  14. Comparative assessment of antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extract of commercially available black, green, and lemon tea: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Arun, S. Dodamani; Minal, M. Kshirsagar; Karibasappa, G. N.; Prashanth, V. K.; Girija, A. Dodamani; Harish, C. Jadhav

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine and compare antibacterial efficacy of aqueous extracts of black, green, and lemon tea of a commercially available brand. Materials and Methods: The well-diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial efficacy of commercially available black tea, green tea, and lemon tea at three different concentrations (1.5 g, 5 g, and 7.5 g) against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. After incubation in appropriate culture medium, diameter of zone of inhibition was measured to assess the antibacterial efficacy of tea. Results: Maximum zone of inhibition was found with lemon tea (27 mm) followed by green tea (26 mm) and black tea (13 mm) against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. Zone of inhibition was highest at 7.5 g concentration (1 and half tea spoon) for lemon tea followed by green tea and black tea. Results were statistically analyzed with the analysis of variance (ANOVA). For pairwise intergroup multiple comparisons, bonferroni test was applied. The difference between black tea, green tea, and lemon tea were statistically significant (P < 0.001) at 5% of level of significance. Conclusion: Lemon tea at 7.5 g concentration was more effective followed by green tea and black tea against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. PMID:29085267

  15. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Green Tea Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases affect millions of people globally and the incidence rate is on the rise. While inflammation contributes to the tissue healing process, chronic inflammation can lead to life-long debilitation and loss of tissue function and organ failure. Chronic inflammatory diseases include hepatic, gastrointestinal and neurodegenerative complications which can lead to malignancy. Despite the millennial advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, there remains no effective cure for patients who suffer from inflammatory diseases. Therefore, patients seek alternatives and complementary agents as adjunct therapies to relieve symptoms and possibly to prevent consequences of inflammation. It is well known that green tea polyphenols (GrTPs) are potent antioxidants with important roles in regulating vital signaling pathways. These comprise transcription nuclear factor-kappa B mediated I kappa B kinase complex pathways, programmed cell death pathways like caspases and B-cell lymphoma-2 and intervention with the surge of inflammatory markers like cytokines and production ofcyclooxygenase-2. This paper concisely reviews relevant investigations regarding protective effects of GrTPs and some reported adverse effects, as well as possible applications for GrTPs in the treatment of chronic and inflammatory complications. PMID:28587181

  16. Transient Ejector Analysis (TEA) code user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Colin K.

    1993-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program for the semi analytic prediction of unsteady thrust augmenting ejector performance has been developed, based on a theoretical analysis for ejectors. That analysis blends classic self-similar turbulent jet descriptions with control-volume mixing region elements. Division of the ejector into an inlet, diffuser, and mixing region allowed flexibility in the modeling of the physics for each region. In particular, the inlet and diffuser analyses are simplified by a quasi-steady-analysis, justified by the assumption that pressure is the forcing function in those regions. Only the mixing region is assumed to be dominated by viscous effects. The present work provides an overview of the code structure, a description of the required input and output data file formats, and the results for a test case. Since there are limitations to the code for applications outside the bounds of the test case, the user should consider TEA as a research code (not as a production code), designed specifically as an implementation of the proposed ejector theory. Program error flags are discussed, and some diagnostic routines are presented.

  17. Draft genome sequence of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis provides insights into the evolution of the tea genome and tea quality.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chaoling; Yang, Hua; Wang, Songbo; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Chun; Gao, Liping; Xia, Enhua; Lu, Ying; Tai, Yuling; She, Guangbiao; Sun, Jun; Cao, Haisheng; Tong, Wei; Gao, Qiang; Li, Yeyun; Deng, Weiwei; Jiang, Xiaolan; Wang, Wenzhao; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Shihua; Li, Haijing; Wu, Junlan; Wang, Ping; Li, Penghui; Shi, Chengying; Zheng, Fengya; Jian, Jianbo; Huang, Bei; Shan, Dai; Shi, Mingming; Fang, Congbing; Yue, Yi; Li, Fangdong; Li, Daxiang; Wei, Shu; Han, Bin; Jiang, Changjun; Yin, Ye; Xia, Tao; Zhang, Zhengzhu; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Zhao, Shancen; Wan, Xiaochun

    2018-05-01

    Tea, one of the world's most important beverage crops, provides numerous secondary metabolites that account for its rich taste and health benefits. Here we present a high-quality sequence of the genome of tea, Camellia sinensis var. sinensis (CSS), using both Illumina and PacBio sequencing technologies. At least 64% of the 3.1-Gb genome assembly consists of repetitive sequences, and the rest yields 33,932 high-confidence predictions of encoded proteins. Divergence between two major lineages, CSS and Camellia sinensis var. assamica (CSA), is calculated to ∼0.38 to 1.54 million years ago (Mya). Analysis of genic collinearity reveals that the tea genome is the product of two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGDs) that occurred ∼30 to 40 and ∼90 to 100 Mya. We provide evidence that these WGD events, and subsequent paralogous duplications, had major impacts on the copy numbers of secondary metabolite genes, particularly genes critical to producing three key quality compounds: catechins, theanine, and caffeine. Analyses of transcriptome and phytochemistry data show that amplification and transcriptional divergence of genes encoding a large acyltransferase family and leucoanthocyanidin reductases are associated with the characteristic young leaf accumulation of monomeric galloylated catechins in tea, while functional divergence of a single member of the glutamine synthetase gene family yielded theanine synthetase. This genome sequence will facilitate understanding of tea genome evolution and tea metabolite pathways, and will promote germplasm utilization for breeding improved tea varieties. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  18. Determination of lutein from green tea and green tea by-products using accelerated solvent extraction and UPLC.

    PubMed

    Heo, Ji-Young; Kim, Suna; Kang, Jae-Hyun; Moon, Bokyung

    2014-05-01

    We aimed to identify the optimum conditions for the extraction of lutein from green tea using accelerated solvent extraction, and achieve improved analytical resolution and sensitivity between lutein and zeaxanthin using an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system. The optimized method employed 80% ethanol as the extraction solvent, 160 °C as the temperature, 2 static cycles, and 5 min of static time. In the validation of the UPLC method, recovery was found to be in the range approximately 93.73 to 108.79%, with a correlation coefficient of 0.9974 and a relative standard deviation of <9.29% in inter- and intraday precision analyses. Finally, the lutein contents of green tea and green tea by-products were measured as 32.67 ± 0.70 and 18.18 ± 0.68 mg/100g dw, respectively. Furthermore, we verified that green tea by-products, which are discarded after producing green tea beverages, might be used as a great resource for massive lutein production. We have demonstrated that the common problem of inadequate resolution between lutein and zeaxanthin during carotenoid analyses can be overcome by optimizing the combined techniques of accelerated solvent extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). UPLC was highly effective for saving time, solvent, and labor, as well as providing better resolution. The results in this study demonstrated that green tea by-products could be used as new sources for industrial lutein production owing to their massive production during the extraction of green tea beverages. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. The Effect of Green Tea and Sour Tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) Supplementation on Oxidative Stress and Muscle Damage in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Amir; Pourmasoumi, Makan; Kafeshani, Marzieh; Karimian, Jahangir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2017-05-04

    Additional oxygen consumption during intense exercises may lead to oxidative stress and contribute to muscular fatigue. Green tea and sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.), which contain various flavonoids and polyphenols, have many healthful properties such as anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and heart protecting effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of green tea and sour tea supplementation on oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer athletes. This randomized, double-blind control trial was conducted on 54 male soccer players. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups to receive: 450 mg/d green tea extract (GTE) in the first group (n = 18), 450 mg/d sour tea extract (STE) in the second group (n = 18) and 450 mg/d maltodextrin in the control group (n = 18). Fasting whole blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and the end of the study to quantify the serum levels of muscle damage indices, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and oxidative stress biomarkers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). After six weeks intervention, athletes who received GTE and STE supplements compared with the placebo had a significantly decreased MDA level (P = 0.008). Furthermore, STE supplementation resulted in a significant increase in TAC level compared with GTE and placebo groups (P = 0.01). However, supplementation with GTE and STE had no significant effects on muscle damage indices. GTE and STE supplementation have beneficial effects on oxidative stress status in male athletes. However, both kinds of tea extract did not affect muscle damage status.

  20. Determination of catechins in matcha green tea by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David J; Anderton, Christopher R

    2003-09-05

    Catechins in green tea are known to have many beneficial health properties. Recently, it has been suggested that matcha has greater potential health benefits than other green teas. Matcha is a special powdered green tea used in the Japanese tea ceremony. However, there has been no investigation to quantitate the catechin intake from matcha compared to common green teas. We have developed a rapid method of analysis of five catechins and caffeine in matcha using micellar electrokinetic chromatography. Results are presented for water and methanol extractions of matcha compared with water extraction of a popular green tea. Using a mg catechin/g of dry leaf comparison, results indicate that the concentration of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) available from drinking matcha is 137 times greater than the amount of EGCG available from China Green Tips green tea, and at least three times higher than the largest literature value for other green teas.

  1. 5. NORTHWEST FACADE OF JAPANESE TEA HOUSE, 1950s, BY YOSHIMIERA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTHWEST FACADE OF JAPANESE TEA HOUSE, 1950s, BY YOSHIMIERA IN SUKIYA SHOIN STYLE AFTER THE KATSURA IMPERIAL VILLA - Kykuit, Japanese Tea House, 200 Lake Road, Pocantico Hills, Westchester County, NY

  2. [Effect of tea extracts, catechin and caffeine against type-I allergic reaction].

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, T; Sugiyama, K; Nakazato, K; Takeo, T

    1997-07-01

    The antiallergic effects of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea extracts by hot water were examined. These extracts inhibited the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction of rat after oral administration. Three tea catechins, (--)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (--)-epicatechin gallate (ECg), and (--)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) isolated from green tea showed stronger inhibitory effects than that of a green tea extract on the PCA reaction. The inhibitory effects of EGC and EGCg on the PCA reaction were greater than that of ECg. Caffeine also showed a inhibitory effect on the PCA reaction. These results indicate that tea could provide a significant protection against the type-I allergic reaction. These findings also suggest that tea catechins and caffeine play an important role in having an inhibitory effect on the type-I allergic reaction.

  3. [Short-term screening of anticarcinogenic ingredients of tea by cell biology assays].

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Han, C; Chen, J

    1998-01-01

    By using a panel of short term cell biology assays, several ingredients of tea (tea pigments, caffeine, tea polysaccharide, tea polyphenols tablet and mixed tea) were screened in order to investigate their anticarcinogenic effects. The cytokinesis block micronuclei test in V79 cells induced by mitomycin, the test of metabolic cooperation between V79 and M cells and the test of growth ability of Hela cells in soft agar were used in the screening. The results showed that the six kinds of tea ingredients tested were effective in the test involved in different stages of carcinogenesis, i.e. initiation, promotion and progression. The effects of mixed tea and tea pigments were the strongest among the ingredients tested.

  4. Amelioration of ethionine toxicity in the chick.

    PubMed

    Lowry, K R; Baker, D H

    1987-06-01

    Several chick bioassays were conducted to evaluate means of ameliorating ethionine toxicity. Supplementing a corn-soy diet marginally deficient in sulfur amino acids (methionine + cystine) with .075% D,L-ethionine reduced weight gain in 8-day-old chicks by 70% compared to gains of unsupplemented controls. Dietary addition of .50% DL-methionine prevented reduction in weight gain and feed intake resulting from ethionine supplementation whereas feeding supplemental L-cystine was without effect. Supplementation of the ethionine-containing diet with either choline or betaine ameliorated the growth depression, although neither compound was able to completely overcome the toxic effects of ethionine. Dietary ethionine did not affect plasma levels of free methionine or cystine but did increase plasma free glycine 6-fold. Dietary addition of .50% DL-methionine caused normalization of plasma glycine levels whereas it elevated plasma methionine concentration. Although results suggested the possibility of ethionine-induced serine or threonine deficiency, dietary additions of .75% L-serine or .75% L-threonine failed to improve chick weight gain. These studies suggest that ethionine, in addition to affecting transsulfuration and transmethylation activity may exert specific effects on certain amino acids in tissue pools.

  5. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOEpatents

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  6. Green tea catechins: defensive role in cardiovascular disorders.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Pooja; Khanna, Deepa

    2013-07-01

    Green tea, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae), a major source of flavonoids such as catechins, has recently shown multiple cardiovascular health benefits through various experimental and clinical studies. These studies suggest that green tea catechins prevent the incidence of detrimental cardiovascular events, and also lower the cardiovascular mortality rate. Catechins present in green tea have the ability to prevent atherosclerosis, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, ischemic heart diseases, cardiomyopathy, cardiac hypertrophy and congestive heart failure by decreasing oxidative stress, preventing inflammatory events, reducing platelet aggregation and halting the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. Catechins afford an anti-oxidant effect by inducing anti-oxidant enzymes, inhibiting pro-oxidant enzymes and scavenging free radicals. Catechins present anti-inflammatory activity through the inhibition of transcriptional factor NF-κB-mediated production of cytokines and adhesion molecules. Green tea catechins interfere with vascular growth factors and thus inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, and also inhibit thrombogenesis by suppressing platelet adhesion. Additionally, catechins could protect vascular endothelial cells and enhance vascular integrity and regulate blood pressure. In this review various experimental and clinical studies suggesting the role of green tea catechins against the markers of cardiovascular disorders and the underlying mechanisms for these actions are discussed. Copyright © 2013 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel EPR characterization of the antioxidant activity of tea leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morsy, M. A.; Khaled, M. M.

    2002-04-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is utilized to investigate several categories of green and black tea: Twining green tea (TGT), Chinese green tea (CGT), Red-labels black tea (RBT). Basically, two EPR signals from all the studied samples are observed: One of them is a very weak sharp EPR signal with Δ Hpp≅10 G and g-factor=2.00023 superimposed on the other broad signal with Δ Hpp≅550 G and g-factor=2.02489. The broad signal is a characteristic one of manganese(II) complex, while the sharp signal is related to a stable radical of aromatic origin exist in a powder condition. The feature of the manganese EPR signal is attributed to manganese(II) complex and reflected the molecular behavior of Mn(II) in the protein system of the natural leaves. The sharp signal, which is most probably due to a semiquinones radicals, is observed at room temperature and its intensity is remarkably affected by photo degradation of the studied samples. The intensity of manganese(II) EPR signal is found to be related to ageing and disintegration of the tea leaves. Moreover, direct relation between the relative intensity of the semiquinones radical signal and antioxidant activity of the studied samples was also correlated.

  8. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins and vascular function.

    PubMed

    Moore, Rosalind J; Jackson, Kim G; Minihane, Anne M

    2009-12-01

    The health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis) catechins are becoming increasingly recognised. Amongst the proposed benefits are the maintenance of endothelial function and vascular homeostasis and an associated reduction in atherogenesis and CVD risk. The mounting evidence for the influential effect of green tea catechins on vascular function from epidemiological, human intervention and animal studies is subject to review together with exploration of the potential mechanistic pathways involved. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, one of the most abundant and widely studied catechin found in green tea, will be prominent in the present review. Since there is a substantial inconsistency in the published data with regards to the impact of green tea catechins on vascular function, evaluation and interpretation of the inter- and intra-study variability is included. In conclusion, a positive effect of green tea catechins on vascular function is becoming apparent. Further studies in animal and cell models using physiological concentrations of catechins and their metabolites are warranted in order to gain some insight into the physiology and molecular basis of the observed beneficial effects.

  9. Green tea yogurt: major phenolic compounds and microbial growth.

    PubMed

    Amirdivani, Shabboo; Baba, Ahmad Salihin Hj

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate fermentation of milk in the presence of green tea (Camellia sinensis) with respect to changes in antioxidant activity, phenolic compounds and the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Pasteurized full fat cow's milk and starter culture were incubated at 41 °C in the presence of two different types of green tea extracts. The yogurts formed were refrigerated (4 °C) for further analysis. The total phenolic content was highest (p < 0.05) in air-dried green tea-yogurt (MGT) followed by steam-treated green tea (JGT) and plain yogurts. Four major compounds in MGTY and JGTY were detected. The highest concentration of major phenolic compounds in both samples was related to quercetin-rhamnosylgalactoside and quercetin-3-O-galactosyl-rhamnosyl-glucoside for MGTY and JGTY respectively during first 7 day of storage. Diphenyl picrylhydrazyl and ferric reducing antioxidant power methods showed highest antioxidant capacity in MGTY, JGTY and PY. Streptococcus thermophillus and Lactobacillus spp. were highest in MGTY followed by JGTY and PY. This paper evaluates the implementation of green tea yogurt as a new product with functional properties and valuable component to promote the growth of beneficial yogurt bacteria and prevention of oxidative stress by enhancing the antioxidant activity of yogurt.

  10. TEA: the epigenome platform for Arabidopsis methylome study.

    PubMed

    Su, Sheng-Yao; Chen, Shu-Hwa; Lu, I-Hsuan; Chiang, Yih-Shien; Wang, Yu-Bin; Chen, Pao-Yang; Lin, Chung-Yen

    2016-12-22

    Bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) has become a standard technology to profile genome-wide DNA methylation at single-base resolution. It allows researchers to conduct genome-wise cytosine methylation analyses on issues about genomic imprinting, transcriptional regulation, cellular development and differentiation. One single data from a BS-Seq experiment is resolved into many features according to the sequence contexts, making methylome data analysis and data visualization a complex task. We developed a streamlined platform, TEA, for analyzing and visualizing data from whole-genome BS-Seq (WGBS) experiments conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To capture the essence of the genome methylation level and to meet the efficiency for running online, we introduce a straightforward method for measuring genome methylation in each sequence context by gene. The method is scripted in Java to process BS-Seq mapping results. Through a simple data uploading process, the TEA server deploys a web-based platform for deep analysis by linking data to an updated Arabidopsis annotation database and toolkits. TEA is an intuitive and efficient online platform for analyzing the Arabidopsis genomic DNA methylation landscape. It provides several ways to help users exploit WGBS data. TEA is freely accessible for academic users at: http://tea.iis.sinica.edu.tw .

  11. Coffee and tea consumption in relation to prostate cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Geybels, Milan S.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Wright, Jonathan L.; Stott-Miller, Marni; Stanford, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bioactive compounds found in coffee and tea may delay the progression of prostate cancer. Methods We investigated associations of pre-diagnostic coffee and tea consumption with risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Study participants were men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2002–2005 in King County, Washington, USA. We assessed the usual pattern of coffee and tea consumption two years before diagnosis date. Prostate cancer outcome events were identified using a detailed follow-up survey. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The analysis of coffee intake in relation to prostate cancer recurrence/progression included 630 patients with a median follow-up of 6.4 years, during which 140 prostate cancer recurrence/progression events were recorded. Approximately 61% of patients consumed at least one cup of coffee per day. Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression; the adjusted HR for ≥4 cups/day versus ≤1 cup/week was 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.81; P for trend = 0.01). Approximately 14% of patients consumed one or more cups of tea per day, and tea consumption was unrelated to prostate cancer recurrence/progression. Conclusion Results indicate that pre-diagnostic coffee consumption is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer recurrence/progression. This finding will require replication in larger studies. PMID:23907772

  12. Coffee and tea consumption and the risk of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gang; Bidel, Siamak; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2007-11-15

    Several prospective studies have assessed the association between coffee consumption and Parkinson's disease (PD) risk, but the results are inconsistent. We examined the association of coffee and tea consumption with the risk of incident PD among 29,335 Finnish subjects aged 25 to 74 years without a history of PD at baseline. During a mean follow-up of 12.9 years, 102 men and 98 women developed an incident PD. The multivariate-adjusted (age, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, education, leisure-time physical activity, smoking, alcohol and tea consumption, and history of diabetes) hazard ratios (HRs) of PD associated with the amount of coffee consumed daily (0, 1-4, and > or = 5 cups) were 1.00, 0.55, and 0.41 (P for trend = 0.063) in men, 1.00, 0.50, and 0.39 (P for trend = 0.073) in women, and 1.00, 0.53, and 0.40 (P for trend = 0.005) in men and women combined (adjusted also for sex), respectively. In both sexes combined, the multivariate-adjusted HRs of PD for subjects drinking > or = 3 cups of tea daily compared with tea nondrinkers was 0.41 (95% CI 0.20-0.83). These results suggest that coffee drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. More tea drinking is associated with a lower risk of PD. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Enzymatic treatment to improve the quality of black tea extracts.

    PubMed

    Chandini, S K; Rao, L Jaganmohan; Gowthaman, M K; Haware, D J; Subramanian, R

    2011-08-01

    Enzymatic extraction was investigated to improve the quality of black tea extracts with pretreatment of pectinase and tannase independently, successively and simultaneously. Pectinase improved the extractable-solids-yield (ESY) up to 11.5%, without much of an improvement in polyphenols recovery, while tannase pre-treatment showed a significant improvement in polyphenols recovery (14.3%) along with an 11.1% improvement in ESY. Among the four treatments, tannase-alone treatment showed the maximum improvement in tea quality, with higher polyphenols-in-extracted solids. Treatments involving tannase resulted in the significant release of gallic acid, due to its hydrolytic activity, leading to greater solubility besides favourably improving TF/TR ratio. The results suggested that employing a single enzyme, tannase, for the pre-treatment of black tea is desirable. Enzymatic extraction may be preferred over enzymatic clarification as it not only displayed reduction in tea cream and turbidity but also improved the recovery of polyphenols and ESY in the extract, as well as maintaining a good balance of tea quality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. White and green teas (Camellia sinensis var. sinensis): variation in phenolic, methylxanthine, and antioxidant profiles.

    PubMed

    Unachukwu, Uchenna J; Ahmed, Selena; Kavalier, Adam; Lyles, James T; Kennelly, Edward J

    2010-08-01

    Recent investigations have associated white teas with anti-carcinogenic, immune-boosting, and antioxidative properties that may impact human health in a manner comparable to green teas. An in-depth chemical analysis of white tea types was conducted to quantify polyphenols and antioxidant potential of 8 commercially available white teas, and compare them to green tea. Extraction and HPLC protocols were optimized and validated for the quantification of 9 phenolic and 3 methylxanthine compounds to examine inter- and intra-variation in white and green tea types and subtypes. A sampling strategy was devised to assess various subtypes procured from different commercial sources. Variation in antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of both tea types was further assessed by the 1-1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocalteau (F-C) assays, respectively. Total catechin content (TCC) for white teas ranged widely from 14.40 to 369.60 mg/g of dry plant material for water extracts and 47.16 to 163.94 mg/g for methanol extracts. TCC for green teas also ranged more than 10-fold, from 21.38 to 228.20 mg/g of dry plant material for water extracts and 32.23 to 141.24 mg/g for methanol extracts. These findings indicate that statements suggesting a hierarchical order of catechin content among tea types are inconclusive and should be made with attention to a sampling strategy that specifies the tea subtype and its source. Certain white teas have comparable quantities of total catechins to some green teas, but lesser antioxidant capacity, suggesting that white teas have fewer non-catechin antioxidants present. Practical Application: In this investigation white and green teas were extracted in ways that mimic common tea preparation practices, and their chemical profiles were determined using validated analytical chemistry methods. The results suggest certain green and white tea types have comparable levels of catechins with potential health promoting qualities

  15. The protective activity of tea against infection by Vibrio cholerae O1.

    PubMed

    Toda, M; Okubo, S; Ikigai, H; Suzuki, T; Suzuki, Y; Shimamura, T

    1991-02-01

    Extracts of black tea exhibited bactericidal activity against Vibrio cholerae O1. The tea extract inhibited the haemolysin activity of V. cholerae O1, El Tor and the morphological changes of Chinese hamster ovary cells induced by cholera toxin. Tea extract also reduced fluid accumulation induced by cholera toxin in sealed adult mice and by V. cholerae O1 in ligated intestinal loops of rabbits. These findings suggest that tea has protective activity against V. cholerae O1.

  16. An analysis of antioxidants, organoleptics and hedonics with variations of boiling time in Jasmine tea and Jasmine root tea a study on Kaliprau, Pemalang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arifan, Fahmi; Winarni, Sri; Handoyo, Gentur; Nurdiana, Asri; Nabila Rahma H, Afkar; Risdiyanti, Sri

    2018-05-01

    There are so many jasmine plantations without any preservation and post production in Kaliprau, Pemalang. The aims of this research are analyzing the amount of antioxidant and organoleptic-hedonic test. The measurement of antioxidant used in this research is using DPPH. The organoleptic and hedonic test on 25 respondents. Jasmines that been used on this research are the flower and the root part. Through the test, some results have been found from the jasmine tea’s sampling with the boiling time of 15 minutes and it contain antioxidant for about 55.0% and 74.84% for the jasmine root tea. Whereas for the boiling time of 30 minutes, it contained 54.00% of antioxidant for the jasmine tea and 84.00% of antioxidant in jasmine root tea. Jasmine tea and jasmine root tea contains flavonoids. Despite the large amount of antioxidant were found in jasmine tea and jasmine root tea (50-100%). There’s a decreasing of antioxidant amount found in the samples, along with the prolonged boiling time. 84% of tresponden like the scent, flavor, color and the texture of jasmine tea and jasmine root tea. These products are finally accepted by the people and have its large amount of antioxidant contain for the jasmine tea.

  17. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing requirements under § 2.22(a), the applicant must: (1) File the following communications through TEAS: (i) Responses...

  18. Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation of Tea Production Chains in Anxi, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emergy and economic methods were used to evaluate and compare tea production systems in Anxi, China. Tea production was classified into three phases, i.e., the nursery, the plantation and tea processing, and each phase was evaluated. The results showed that the nursery subsystems...

  19. Oolong tea does not improve glucose metabolism in non-diabetic adults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Studies of the influence of tea on glucose metabolism have produced inconsistent results, possibly due to lack of dietary control and/or unclear characterization of tea products. Therefore, a double-blind crossover study was conducted in which healthy males (n=19) consumed each of three oolong tea ...

  20. Spontaneously Assembled Nano-aggregates in Clear Green Tea Infusions from Camellia ptilophylla and Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaorong; Gao, Xiong; Chen, Zhongzheng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Luo, Wei; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Bin

    2017-05-10

    Tea nano-aggregates spontaneously assembled in clear tea infusions are considered as the precursors of tea cream, although their molecular basis remains obscure. Here, we characterized nano-aggregates in green tea infusions from Camellia ptilophylla, a peculiar tea variety with 6.0% of theobromine, and Camellia sinensis as the control for comparative purpose. Numerous negatively charged spherical colloidal particles of 50-100 nm in diameter were primarily found in both green tea infusions. Catechins, proteins, and carbohydrates were confirmed as the dominant components in green tea nano-aggregates. In addition, iron, copper, nickel, proteins, and gallated catechins exhibited higher aggregating affinity than other components, whereas methylxanthines and calcium contributed to the transformation of nano-aggregates into tea cream. Green tea nano-aggregates were partly destroyed by simulated gastrointestinal digestion, and removing theses peculiar particles dramatically attenuated the bioaccessibility of methylxanthines, theanine, and some catechin monomers in green tea infusions. This study enhanced our knowledge of molecular interactions in the formation of green tea cream and provided insight into physicochemical profiles, phytochemical nature, and functional effects of green tea nano-aggregates.

  1. Associations of coffee, tea, and caffeine intake with coronary artery calcification and cardiovascular events

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Coffee and tea are 2 of the most commonly consumed beverages in the world. The association of coffee and tea intake with coronary artery calcium and major adverse cardiovascular events remains uncertain. We examined 6508 ethnically diverse participants with available coffee and tea data from the Mul...

  2. Pu-erh Tea Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Down-Regulating Mutant p53

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lanjun; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Sheng, Jun; Luo, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Pu-erh tea is a kind of fermented tea with the incorporation of microorganisms’ metabolites. Unlike green tea, the chemical characteristics and bioactivities of Pu-erh tea are still not well understood. Using water extracts of Pu-erh tea, we analyzed the tumor cell growth inhibition activities on several genetically engineered mouse tumor cell lines. We found that at the concentration that did not affect wild type mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) growth, Pu-erh tea extracts could inhibit tumor cell growth by down-regulated S phase and cause G1 or G2 arrest. Further study showed that Pu-erh tea extracts down-regulated the expression of mutant p53 in tumor cells at the protein level as well as mRNA level. The same concentration of Pu-erh tea solution did not cause p53 stabilization or activation of its downstream pathways in wild type cells. We also found that Pu-erh tea treatment could slightly down-regulate both HSP70 and HSP90 protein levels in tumor cells. These data revealed the action of Pu-erh tea on tumor cells and provided the possible mechanism for Pu-erh tea action, which explained its selectivity in inhibiting tumor cells without affecting wild type cells. Our data sheds light on the application of Pu-erh tea as an anti-tumor agent with low side effects. PMID:22174618

  3. The anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Fei, Tianyi; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang; Xie, Tianpei; Xu, Jifeng; Zhou, Yi; Yang, Ping

    2017-10-15

    Tea includes puer tea, black tea, green tea and many others. By using model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the anti-aging and anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract were systemically examined in this study. We found that water extract of puer tea, black tea and green tea all increased the lifespan of worms, postponed Aβ-induced progressive paralysis in Alzheimer's disease transgenic worms, and improved the tolerance of worms to the oxidative stress induced by heavy metal Cr 6+ . Moreover, the anti-oxidation effects of tea water extract at low concentration were different among 4 kinds of brands of green tea. The underlying mechanisms were further explored using genetically manipulated-mutant worms. The anti-oxidative stress effects of green tea water extract depend on the dietary restriction and germline signaling pathways, but not the FOXO and mitochondrial respiratory chain signals. Therefore, tea water extract provides benefits of anti-aging, anti-AD and anti-oxidation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. 37 CFR 2.22 - Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.22 Section 2.22 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.22 Filing requirements for a TEAS Plus application. (a) A trademark/service mark application for... reduced filing fee under § 2.6(a)(1)(iii) if it is filed through TEAS and includes: (1) The applicant's...

  5. 37 CFR 2.53 - Requirements for drawings filed through the TEAS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... filed through the TEAS. 2.53 Section 2.53 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for drawings filed through the TEAS. The drawing must meet the requirements of § 2.52. In addition, in a TEAS submission, the drawing must meet the following requirements: (a) Standard character drawings...

  6. 37 CFR 2.23 - Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TEAS Plus application. 2.23 Section 2.23 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... § 2.23 Additional requirements for TEAS Plus application. (a) In addition to the filing requirements under § 2.22(a), the applicant must: (1) File the following communications through TEAS: (i) Responses...

  7. Both phenolic and non-phenolic green tea fractions inhibit migration of cancer cells

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Green tea consumption is associated with chemoprevention of many cancer types. Fresh tea leaves are rich in polyphenolic catechins, which can constitute up to 30% of the dry leaf weight. While the polyphenols of green tea have been well investigated, it is still largely unknown, whether or not non-p...

  8. Review and perspective on the composition and safety of green tea extracts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growing body of evidence regarding the putative health benefits of green tea (Camellia sinensis), including reduced risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease, has led to an increase in the consumption of brewed green tea and the formulation of green tea extracts (GTE) into a variety of food and ...

  9. ANTIOXIDANTS AMELIORATION OF ARSENICAL-INDUCED EFFECTS IN VIVO

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antioxidant amelioration of arsenical-induced effects in vivo. ES Hunter and EH Rogers. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC.

    Antioxidants have been reported to ameliorate the effects of many developmental toxicants. We tested the hypothesis that oxi...

  10. The safety of green tea and green tea extract consumption in adults - Results of a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Webster, Donna; Cao, Joyce; Shao, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    A systematic review of published toxicology and human intervention studies was performed to characterize potential hazards associated with consumption of green tea and its preparations. A review of toxicological evidence from laboratory studies revealed the liver as the target organ and hepatotoxicity as the critical effect, which was strongly associated with certain dosing conditions (e.g. bolus dose via gavage, fasting), and positively correlated with total catechin and epigallocatechingallate (EGCG) content. A review of adverse event (AE) data from 159 human intervention studies yielded findings consistent with toxicological evidence in that a limited range of concentrated, catechin-rich green tea preparations resulted in hepatic AEs in a dose-dependent manner when ingested in large bolus doses, but not when consumed as brewed tea or extracts in beverages or as part of food. Toxico- and pharmacokinetic evidence further suggests internal dose of catechins is a key determinant in the occurrence and severity of hepatotoxicity. A safe intake level of 338 mg EGCG/day for adults was derived from toxicological and human safety data for tea preparations ingested as a solid bolus dose. An Observed Safe Level (OSL) of 704 mg EGCG/day might be considered for tea preparations in beverage form based on human AE data. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Migration and Accumulation of Octachlorodipropyl Ether in Soil-Tea Systems in Young and Old Tea Gardens.

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Shi, Yan-Hong; Cao, Hai-Qun; Fang, Qing-Kui; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Hua, Ri-Mao

    2017-09-08

    The migration and accumulation of octachlorodipropyl ether (OCDPE) in soil-tea systems were investigated using a gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) method in young and old tea gardens. When the residual concentration of OCDPE was 100 g a.i. hm -2 in soils, the peak concentrations of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were 0.365 mg/kg and 0.144 mg/kg, taking 45 days and 55 days, respectively. Equations for the accumulation curves of OCDPE in fresh leaves of young and old tea plants were C t = 0.0227e 0.0566t (R² = 0.9154) and C t = 0.0298e -0.0306t (R² = 0.7156), and were C t = 3.8435e 0.055t (R² = 0.9698) and C t = 1.5627e -0.048t (R² = 0.9634) for dissipation curves, with a half-life of 14.4 days and 12.6 days, respectively. These results have practical guiding significance for controlling tea food safety.

  12. Chemopreventive role of green tea in head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo Suk; Kim, Chul-Ho

    2014-03-01

    In the era of personalized medicine, selecting the ideal treatment modality for head and neck cancer is becoming more complex. Also, despite the use of the newest agents, overall survival has not been improved notably over the past few decades. Currently, in accordance with the development of diagnostic tools, prevention and early detection of cancer are being emphasized more in obtaining better treatment outcomes. Among the various cancer preventative methods, the use of green tea is one of the most common approaches, and tea is known to be involved in multiple steps of carcinogenesis. Thus, in this short review, the protective roles of green tea components against the initiation, progression, and metastasis of head and neck malignancies will be discussed.

  13. Interactions of tea tannins and condensed tannins with proteins.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Richard A; Deaville, Eddie R; Green, Rebecca J; Stringano, Elisabetta; Willoughby, Ian; Plant, John; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2010-01-20

    Binding parameters for the interactions of four types of tannins: tea catechins, grape seed proanthocyanidins, mimosa 5-deoxy proanthocyanidins, and sorghum procyanidins (mDP=17), with gelatin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) have been determined from isothermal titration calorimetry data. Equilibrium binding constants determined for the interaction with gelatin were in the range 10(4) to 10(6) M(-1) and in the order: sorghum procyanidins > grape seed proanthocyanidins > mimosa 5-deoxy proanthocyanidins > tea catechins. Interaction with BSA was generally weaker, with equilibrium binding constants of < or =10(3)M(-1) for grape seed proanthocyanidins, mimosa 5-deoxy proanthocyanidins and tea catechins, and 10(4)M(-1) for the sorghum procyanidins. In all cases the interactions with proteins were exothermic and involved multiple binding sites on the protein. The data are discussed in relation to the structures and the known nutritional effects of the condensed tannins.

  14. Aflatoxin in detannin coffee and tea and its destruction.

    PubMed

    Hasan, H A H

    2002-05-01

    The aflatoxins produced byAspergillus parasiticus var. globosus IMI 12090 in detannin-caffeinated coffee and black tea were five times more concentrated than in regular coffee and tea. The activity of caffeine and tannin on the fungus growth and aflatoxin production in liquid broth was tested at three levels: viz. 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6%. Tannin and caffeine induced 95% inhibition in aflatoxins at 0.3% and 0.6%, respectively. The antiaflatoxigenic properties of regular coffee and tea appear to be due to tannin, followed by caffeine. The roasting of contaminated coffee beans at 200 degrees C for 20 min is effective in the destruction of aflatoxins.

  15. Recovery of catechin compounds from Korean tea by solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Row, Kyung Ho; Jin, Yinzhe

    2006-03-01

    Catechin compounds from Korean green tea as potential sources of anticancer and antioxidant components were target materials in this work. The methodologies of solvent extraction and partition were utilized to recover catechin compounds from green tea. The optimum experimental condition was obtained by optimizing operating factors, such as, the extraction solvent, extraction time and operating temperature. After extracting the green tea with water at 80 degrees C for 40 min, the extract was partitioned with water/chloroform, which was best suited to remove caffeine impurity from the extract. Further, the resulting extract was partitioned water/ethyl acetate to deeply purify the catechin compounds of EGC, EC, EGCG and ECG. The experimental result in this work could be extended to preparative HPLC to obtain EGCG on commercial scale.

  16. How would you like your tea, vicar?

    PubMed

    Jamnadas-Khoda, Benjamin; See, M S; Cubison, Colonel T C; Dheansa, B S

    2010-05-01

    Scald injuries are the commonest cause of paediatric burns leading to hospital admission both in the United Kingdom (National Burn Care Review Committee Report; 2001) and around the world. The cost and significant morbidity resulting from scald injuries reiterates the need for effective prevention campaigns for primary caregivers. The majority of scalds in children occur in the kitchen (49%) at home. Three children a day under the age of 5 (1100/year) are involved in scalds resulting from pulling on a cup of beverage onto themselves. We therefore aim to study the temperature of common beverages made at home and their potential to cause significant thermal injury. Common household beverages were formulated to assess the thermal characteristics. Each beverage was made in a standardized environment with constant ambient temperature of 22 degrees C. Beverages were made in 230 ml ceramic mugs, using boiled water from an electric kettle, instant coffee granules and teabags. Hot milk and hot water were prepared for comparison. Temperature readings were taken from 0 to 10 min. Cooling curves were then plotted. Milky beverages had the lowest starting temperatures (75-77 degrees C). Black tea and black coffee remained at temperatures greater than 65 degrees C despite cooling for 10 min. The addition of sugar did not alter the cooling rate. Similarly there was very little difference in cooling rates for skimmed and full fat milk. Addition of 10 ml rather than 5 ml of milk lowered the starting temperature and increased the cooling rates. Hot beverages can cause significant scald injuries especially in the paediatric population. We demonstrated the potential for a full thickness burn despite cooling for 10 min or the addition of cold milk. Thus the complacent attitude surrounding beverages under such conditions should be abolished. Our work also reiterates the need for education amongst caregivers regarding the handling of hot beverages in order to reduce the number of

  17. Zinc stress affects ionome and metabolome in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfei; Wang, Yu; Ding, Zhaotang; Wang, Hui; Song, Lubin; Jia, Sisi; Ma, Dexin

    2017-02-01

    The research of physiological responses to Zn stress in plants has been extensively studied. However, the ionomics and metabolomics responses of plants to Zn stress remain largely unknown. In present study, the nutrient elements were identified involved in ion homeostasis and metabolomics changes related to Zn deficiency or excess in tea plants. Nutrient element analysis demonstrated that the concentrations of Zn affected the ion-uptake in roots and the nutrient element transportation to leaves, leading to the different distribution of P, S, Al, Ca, Fe and Cu in the tea leaves or roots. Metabolomics analysis revealed that Zn deficiency or excess differentially influenced the metabolic pathways in the tea leaves. More specifically, Zn deficiency affected the metabolism of carbohydrates, and Zn excess affected flavonoids metabolism. Additionally, the results showed that both Zn deficiency and Zn excess led to reduced nicotinamide levels, which speeded up NAD + degradation and thus reduced energy metabolism. Furthermore, element-metabolite correlation analysis illustrated that Zn contents in the tea leaves were positively correlated with organic acids, nitrogenous metabolites and some carbohydrate metabolites, and negatively correlated with the metabolites involved in secondary metabolism and some other carbohydrate metabolites. Meanwhile, metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis demonstrated that organic acids, sugars, amino acids and flavonoids played dominant roles in the regulation of the tea leaf metabolism under Zn stress. Therefore, the conclusion should be drawn that the tea plants responded to Zn stress by coordinating ion-uptake and regulation of metabolism of carbohydrates, nitrogenous metabolites, and flavonoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. TEA DRINKING AND COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN OLDEST-OLD CHINESE

    PubMed Central

    Feng, L.; Li, J.; Ng, T.-P.; Lee, T.-S.; Kua, E.-H.; Zeng, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. Design population-based longitudinal cohort study. Setting The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). Participants 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Measurements Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Results Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= −0.12, P=0.02; ‘Time’ was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Conclusion Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese. PMID:23131816

  19. Tea drinking and cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Li, J; Ng, T-P; Lee, T-S; Kua, E-H; Zeng, Y

    2012-01-01

    We examined the longitudinal association between tea drinking frequency and cognitive function in a large sample of oldest-old Chinese. population-based longitudinal cohort study. The Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS). 7139 participants aged 80 to 115 (mean age 91.4 years) who provided complete data at baseline (year 1998). Current frequency of tea drinking and past frequency at age 60 were ascertained at baseline, and baseline and follow-up cognitive assessments were performed in the years 1998 (n=7139), 2000 (n=4081), 2002 (n=2288) and 2005 (n=913) respectively. Verbal fluency test was used as measure of cognitive function. Tea drinking was associated at baseline with higher mean (SD) verbal fluency scores: daily=10.7 (6.6), occasional=9.2 (5.8), non-drinker=9.0 (5.5). In linear mixed effects model that adjusted for age, gender, years of schooling, physical exercise and activities score, the regression coefficient for daily drinking (at age 60) and occasional drinking was 0.72 (P<0.0001) and 0.41(P=0.01) respectively. Tea drinkers had higher verbal fluency scores throughout the follow-up period but concurrently had a steeper slope of cognitive decline as compared with non-drinkers (coefficient for the interaction term Time*Daily drinking= -0.12, P=0.02; "Time" was defined as the time interval from baseline to follow-up assessments in years). Similar results were found for current tea drinking status at study baseline year (1998) as predictor variable. Regular tea drinking is associated with better cognitive function in oldest-old Chinese.

  20. Green tea and its anti-angiogenesis effects.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Bahman; Malekzadeh, Mehrnoush; Goodarzi, Mohammad; Masoudifar, Aria; Mirzaei, Hamed

    2017-05-01

    The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis. Indeed, they are the targets for anti-angiogenic drugs currently approved. Green tea (from the Camellia sinensis plant) is one of the most popular beverages in the world. It is able to inhibit angiogenesis by different mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs). Green tea and its polyphenolic substances (like catechins) show chemo-preventive and chemotherapeutic features in various types of cancer and experimental models for human cancers. The tea catechins, including (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), have multiple effects on the cellular proteome and signalome. Note that the polyphenolic compounds from green tea are able to change the miRNA expression profile associated with angiogenesis in various cancer types. This review focuses on the ability of the green tea constituents to suppress angiogenesis signaling and it summarizes the mechanisms by which EGCG might inhibit the VEGF family. We also highlighted the miRNAs affected by green tea which are involved in anti-angiogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuronal dysfunction with aging and its amelioration

    PubMed Central

    ANDO, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    The author focused on the functional decline of synapses in the brain with aging to understand the underlying mechanisms and to ameliorate the deficits. The first attempt was to unravel the neuronal functions of gangliosides so that gangliosides could be used for enhancing synaptic activity. The second attempt was to elicit the neuronal plasticity in aged animals through enriched environmental stimulation and nutritional intervention. Environmental stimuli were revealed neurochemically and morphologically to develop synapses leading to enhanced cognitive function. Dietary restriction as a nutritional intervention restored the altered metabolism of neuronal membranes with aging, providing a possible explanation for the longevity effect of dietary restriction. These results obtained with aging and dementia models of animals would benefit aged people. PMID:22728441

  2. Heavy metal content in tea soils and their distribution in different parts of tea plants, Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Anderson, Todd Alan; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2016-07-01

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals may pose a threat to environment and human health if metals enter the food chain over and above threshold levels. In general, there is a lack of information on the presence of heavy metals in tea [Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze] plants and the soils in which they are grown. Therefore, an attempt was made to establish a database on the important heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). For an initial survey on heavy metals, soil samples were collected randomly from tea-growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka, India. Parallel studies were conducted in the greenhouse on uptake of Pb, Cd, and Ni from soils supplemented with these metals at different concentrations. Finally, metal distribution in the tea plants under field conditions was also documented to assess the accumulation potential and critical limit of uptake by plants.

  3. The design of tea garden environmental monitoring system based on WSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huajun; Yuan, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Through the application of wireless sensor network (WSN) in tea garden, it can realize the change of traditional tea garden to the modern ones, and effectively improves the comprehensive productive capacity of tea garden. According to the requirement of real-time remote in agricultural information collection and monitoring and the power supply affected by environmental limitations, based on WSN, this paper designs a set of tea garden environmental monitoring system, which achieves the monitoring nodes with ad-hoc network as well as automatic acquisition and transmission to the tea plantations of air temperature, light intensity, soil temperature and humidity.

  4. [A Meta-analysis on tea drinking and the risk of lung cancer in Chinese population].

    PubMed

    Jin, Zi-yi; Han, Ren-qiang; Liu, Ai-min; Wang, Xu-shan; Wu, Ming; Zhang, Zuo-feng; Zhao, Jin-kou

    2012-08-01

    To examine the association between tea drinking and the risk of lung cancer in Chinese population. All relevant published articles in Chinese and English literature database were identified. Meta-analysis was conducted. Combined odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate the associations and dose-response relationship between tea drinking and the risk of lung cancer. Twelve studies were included. An inverse association with lung cancer was observed on tea drinkers when compared to non-tea drinkers (OR = 0.66, 95%CI: 0.49 - 0.89). Tea drinking might serve as a protective factor on lung cancer in the Chinese population.

  5. Infusing pleasure: Mood effects of the consumption of a single cup of tea.

    PubMed

    Einöther, Suzanne J L; Rowson, Matthew; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Giesbrecht, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Tea has historically been associated with mood benefits. Nevertheless, few studies have empirically investigated mood changes after tea consumption. We explored immediate effects of a single cup of tea up to an hour post-consumption on self-reported valence, arousal, discrete emotions, and implicit measures of mood. In a parallel group design, 153 participants received a cup of tea or placebo tea, or a glass of water. Immediately (i.e. 5 min) after consumption, tea increased valence but reduced arousal, as compared to the placebo. There were no differences at later time points. Discrete emotions did not differ significantly between conditions, immediately or over time. Water consumption increased implicit positivity as compared to placebo. Finally, consumption of tea and water resulted in higher interest in activities overall and in specific activity types compared to placebo. The present study shows that effects of a single cup of tea may be limited to an immediate increase in pleasure and decrease in arousal, which can increase interest in activities. Differences between tea and water were not significant, while differences between water and placebo on implicit measures were unexpected. More servings over a longer time may be required to evoke tea's arousing effects and appropriate tea consumption settings may evoke more enduring valence effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Estimating Biochemical Parameters of Tea (camellia Sinensis (L.)) Using Hyperspectral Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, M.; Skidmore, A. K.; Schlerf, M.; Liu, Y.; Wang, T.

    2012-07-01

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis (L.)) is an important economic crop and the market price of tea depends largely on its quality. This research aims to explore the potential of hyperspectral remote sensing on predicting the concentration of biochemical components, namely total tea polyphenols, as indicators of tea quality at canopy scale. Experiments were carried out for tea plants growing in the field and greenhouse. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), which has proven to be the one of the most successful empirical approach, was performed to establish the relationship between reflectance and biochemical concentration across six tea varieties in the field. Moreover, a novel integrated approach involving successive projections algorithms as band selection method and neural networks was developed and applied to detect the concentration of total tea polyphenols for one tea variety, in order to explore and model complex nonlinearity relationships between independent (wavebands) and dependent (biochemicals) variables. The good prediction accuracies (r2 > 0.8 and relative RMSEP < 10 %) achieved for tea plants using both linear (partial lease squares regress) and nonlinear (artificial neural networks) modelling approaches in this study demonstrates the feasibility of using airborne and spaceborne sensors to cover wide areas of tea plantation for in situ monitoring of tea quality cheaply and rapidly.

  7. Ambient Profiling of Phenolic Content in Tea Infusions by Matrix-Assisted Ionization in Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cody, Robert B.

    2018-05-01

    Matrix-assisted ionization in vacuum (MAIV) was used to analyze the polyphenol content of ten different tea infusions. Nine different Camellia sinensis infusions were analyzed including three green teas, two black teas, two oolong teas, jasmine tea, and white tea. An infusion of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea was also analyzed. Each freshly brewed tea was diluted 1:1 with methanol, and 100 ppm of phenolphthalein was added as an internal standard. An excess of 3-nitrobenzonitrile (NBN) was added to each vial, and the solution containing NBN crystals was analyzed by aspiration directly into the mass spectrometer sampling orifice. A working curve constructed for dilutions of catechin with phenolphthalein internal standard showed good linearity for five replicates of each concentration. The measured relative abundances of flavonoid polyphenols in each tea were in good agreement with previously reported values. Polyphenol content in tea infusions varied from 19.2 to 108.6 mg 100 mL-1. In addition to the expected catechin flavonoids, abundant quinic acid and gallic acid was detected in the C. sinensis infusions. Characteristic A. linearis flavonoids were detected in the rooibos tea.

  8. Green Tea Polyphenols Extend the Lifespan of Male Drosophila melanogaster While Impairing Reproductive Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Terry; Schriner, Samuel E.; Okoro, Michael; Lu, David; Chiang, Beatrice T.; Huey, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Green tea is a popular beverage believed to have many health benefits, including a reduction in the risks of heart disease and cancer. Rich in polyphenolic compounds known as catechins, green tea and its components have been shown to increase the lifespan of various animal models, including Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we investigated the gender-specific effects of green tea on the lifespan of fruit flies and observed that green tea extended the lifespan of male flies only. This effect was found to be independent of typical aging interventions, such as dietary restriction, modulation of oxidative energy metabolism, and improved tolerance to environmental stresses. The one exception was that green tea did protect male flies against iron toxicity. Since there is an inverse correlation between lifespan and reproduction, the impact of green tea on male reproductive fitness was also investigated. We found that green tea negatively impacted male fertility as shown by a reduced number of offspring produced and increased mating latency. We further identified that the lifespan extension properties of green tea was only observed in the presence of females which alludes to a reproductive (or mating) dependent mechanism. Our findings suggest that green tea extends the lifespan of male flies by inhibiting reproductive potential, possibly by limiting iron uptake. To our knowledge, our study is the first to report the negative impact of green tea on Drosophila male reproduction. Our results also support previous studies that suggest that green tea might have a negative effect on reproductive fitness in humans. PMID:25058464

  9. Tea-induced improvement of endothelial function in humans: No role for epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG).

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Mario; Rauhut, Franziska; Hofer, Christine; Gwosc, Stefanie; Müller, Eda; Praeger, Damaris; Zimmermann, Benno F; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Baumann, Gert; Stangl, Karl; Stangl, Verena

    2017-05-23

    Consumption of tea is inversely associated with cardiovascular diseases. However, the active compound(s) responsible for the protective effects of tea are unknown. Although many favorable cardiovascular effects in vitro are mediated by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), its contribution to the beneficial effects of tea in vivo remains unresolved. In a randomised crossover study, a single dose of 200 mg EGCG was applied in three different formulas (as green tea beverage, green tea extract (GTE), and isolated EGCG) to 50 healthy men. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelial-independent nitro-mediated dilation (NMD) was measured before and two hours after ingestion. Plasma levels of tea compounds were determined after each intervention and correlated with FMD. FMD significantly improved after consumption of green tea containing 200 mg EGCG (p < 0.01). However, GTE and EGCG had no significant effect on FMD. NMD did not significantly differ between interventions. EGCG plasma levels were highest after administration of EGCG and lowest after consumption of green tea. Plasma levels of caffeine increased after green tea consumption. The results show that EGCG is most likely not involved in improvement of flow-mediated dilation by green tea. Instead, other tea compounds, metabolites or combinations thereof may play a role.

  10. Metabolomics analysis reveals the metabolic and functional roles of flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qunfeng; Liu, Meiya; Ruan, Jianyun

    2017-03-20

    As the predominant secondary metabolic pathway in tea plants, flavonoid biosynthesis increases with increasing temperature and illumination. However, the concentration of most flavonoids decreases greatly in light-sensitive tea leaves when they are exposed to light, which further improves tea quality. To reveal the metabolism and potential functions of flavonoids in tea leaves, a natural light-sensitive tea mutant (Huangjinya) cultivated under different light conditions was subjected to metabolomics analysis. The results showed that chlorotic tea leaves accumulated large amounts of flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings (e.g., catechin gallate, quercetin and its glycosides etc.), whereas total flavonoids (e.g., myricetrin glycoside, epigallocatechin gallate etc.) were considerably reduced, suggesting that the flavonoid components generated from different metabolic branches played different roles in tea leaves. Furthermore, the intracellular localization of flavonoids and the expression pattern of genes involved in secondary metabolic pathways indicate a potential photoprotective function of dihydroxylated flavonoids in light-sensitive tea leaves. Our results suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging and the antioxidation effects of flavonoids help chlorotic tea plants survive under high light stress, providing new evidence to clarify the functional roles of flavonoids, which accumulate to high levels in tea plants. Moreover, flavonoids with ortho-dihydroxylated B-rings played a greater role in photo-protection to improve the acclimatization of tea plants.

  11. Analyses of fungal community by Illumina MiSeq platforms and characterization of Eurotium species on Liupao tea, a distinctive post-fermented tea from China.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yan; Wei, BaoYao; Teng, JianWen; Huang, Li; Xia, Ning

    2017-09-01

    Liupao tea is a distinctive Chinese dark tea obtained by indigenous tea fermentation facilitated by the symbiotic association of bacteria and fungi. The composition of fungal community in 4 Liupao tea samples stored for several years under natural microbial fermentation was evaluated by MiSeq sequencing. Taxonomic analysis revealed 3 phyla, 6 families, 8 genera. The genera Eurotium and Aspergillus were dominant fungi in almost all the samples. A total of 85 strains found in 41 other tea samples were species of Eurotium. amstelodami, Eurotium. niveoglaucum, Eurotium. repens, Eurotium. rubrum, Eurotium. tonophilum and Eurotium. cristatum by culture-dependent method. Of these species, E. repens, E. rubrum and E. tonophilum have not been previously associated with Liupao tea. This report is the first to reveal fungal flora composition using Illumina-based sequencing and provide useful information for relevant studies on the isolation of Eurotium species in Liupao tea. The predominant molds are Eurotium species, and the comparison of fungal diversity in dark teas is worth considering. The taxonomic analysis of the microbial community would also aid the further study of functional genes and metabolic pathways of Liupao tea fermentation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Uptake, Translocation, Metabolism, and Distribution of Glyphosate in Nontarget Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Tong, Mengmeng; Gao, Wanjun; Jiao, Weiting; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yeyun; He, Lili; Hou, Ruyan

    2017-09-06

    The uptake, translocation, metabolism, and distribution behavior of glyphosate in nontarget tea plant were investigated. The negative effects appeared to grown tea saplings when the nutrient solution contained glyphosate above 200 mg L -1 . Glyphosate was highest in the roots of the tea plant, where it was also metabolized to aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The glyphosate and AMPA in the roots were transported through the xylem or phloem to the stems and leaves. The amount of AMPA in the entire tea plant was less than 6.0% of the amount of glyphosate. The glyphosate level in fresh tea shoots was less than that in mature leaves at each day. These results indicated that free glyphosate in the soil can be continuously absorbed by, metabolized in, and transported from the roots of the tea tree into edible leaves, and therefore, free glyphosate residues in the soil should be controlled to produce teas free of glyphosate.

  13. Spatial variability of theaflavins and thearubigins fractions and their impact on black tea quality.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Borah, Paban; Sabhapondit, Santanu; Gogoi, Ramen; Bhattacharyya, Pradip

    2015-12-01

    The spatial distribution of theaflavin and thearubigin fractions and their impact on black tea quality were investigated using multivariate and geostatistics techniques. Black tea samples were collected from tea gardens of six geographical regions of Assam and West Bengal, India. Total theaflavin (TF) and its four fractions of upper Assam, south bank and North Bank teas were higher than the other regions. Simple theaflavin showed highest significant correlation with tasters' quality. Low molecular weight thearubigins of south bank and North Bank were significantly higher than other regions. Total thearubigin (TR) and its fractions revealed significant positive correlation with tasters' organoleptic valuations. Tea tasters' parameters were significantly and positively correlated with each other. The semivariogram for quality parameters were best represented by gaussian models. The nugget/sill ratio indicated a strong/moderate spatial dependence of the studied parameters. Spatial variation of tea quality parameters may be used for quality assessment in the tea growing areas of India.

  14. Tea, coffee, and cocoa as ultraviolet radiation protectants for the beet armyworm nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    PubMed

    El-Salamouny, S; Ranwala, D; Shapiro, M; Shepard, B M; Farrar, Robert R

    2009-10-01

    The addition of 1% (wt:vol) aqueous extracts of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) (Malvales: Malvaceae), coffee (Coffea arabica L.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), and green and black tea (Camellia sinensis L.) (Ericales: Theaceae) provided excellent UV radiation protection for the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), nucleopolyhedrovirus under laboratory conditions. Aqueous extracts of coffee, green tea, and black tea at 0.5% provided 85-100% UV protection, whereas cocoa provided 50% UV protection. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a component of green tea, and caffeine, a component of tea and coffee, also were tested as UV protectants. Both compounds were ineffective when tested alone. When EGCG and caffeine were combined, UV protection increased in a synergistic manner, but <35% of the original virus activity was maintained. This study demonstrated that coffee was comparable to green tea and black tea as a UV protectant. Further studies should be conducted to optimize their use in biopesticide formulations.

  15. Phenolic antioxidants from green tea produced from Camellia taliensis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Da-Fang; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Chen, Ke-Ke; Jiang, Hong-Jian

    2008-08-27

    The chemical constituents of green tea prepared from the leaves of Camellia taliensis (W. W. Smith) Melchior (Theaceae) were investigated for the first time. Of these, 19 phenolic compounds including 8 hydrolyzable tannins (1-8), 6 catechin derivatives (9-14), 3 quinic acid aromatic esters (15-17), and 2 simple phenolics (18, 19) were identified, along with caffeine (20). Their antioxidant activities were evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibitory assays. Moreover, the chemical composition was compared with that in the cultivated tea plant, C. sinensis var. assamica, by HPLC analysis. It was noted that C. taliensis has similar chemical features with the cultivated tea plant; that is, both of them contain rich flavan-3-ols and caffeine. In addition, there are abundant hydrolyzable tannins as specific characteristic constituents contained in the leaves of C. taliensis. Therein, 1,2-di-O-galloyl-4,6-O-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (8), as a major compound in C. taliensis, showed remarkable antioxidant activity. The results suggested that C. taliensis could be a valuable plant resource for the production of tea.

  16. The Secret between Storytelling and Retelling: Tea, School, & Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I will tell two of my personal stories to try to explore the secret or opaque space between the original telling and retelling of stories in narrative inquiry. Based upon my difficult struggles with the two stories of tea, school, and narrative, I suggest that narrative inquiry has to be a complex loop of relationship, reflexivity,…

  17. [Identification of green tea brand based on hyperspectra imaging technology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Liang; Liu, Xiao-Li; Zhu, Feng-Le; He, Yong

    2014-05-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology was developed to identify different brand famous green tea based on PCA information and image information fusion. First 512 spectral images of six brands of famous green tea in the 380 approximately 1 023 nm wavelength range were collected and principal component analysis (PCA) was performed with the goal of selecting two characteristic bands (545 and 611 nm) that could potentially be used for classification system. Then, 12 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features (i. e., mean, covariance, homogeneity, energy, contrast, correlation, entropy, inverse gap, contrast, difference from the second-order and autocorrelation) based on the statistical moment were extracted from each characteristic band image. Finally, integration of the 12 texture features and three PCA spectral characteristics for each green tea sample were extracted as the input of LS-SVM. Experimental results showed that discriminating rate was 100% in the prediction set. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) assessment methods were used to evaluate the LS-SVM classification algorithm. Overall results sufficiently demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging technology can be used to perform classification of green tea.

  18. Black tea extract and dental caries formation in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Linke, Harald A B; LeGeros, Racquel Z

    2003-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that green tea and Oolong tea extracts have antibacterial and anticariogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of a standardized black tea extract (BTE) on caries formation in inbred hamsters on a regular and a cariogenic diet. Eighty hamsters were divided into four groups of 20 animals each. Two groups received a pelleted regular diet (LabChow) with water or BTE ad libitum. The other two groups received a powdered cariogenic diet (Diet 2000, containing 56% sucrose) with water or BTE ad libitum. The animals were kept for 3 months on their respective diets and then were sacrificed. The heads were retained, the jaws were prepared and stained using alizarin mordant red II, and were then scored for dental caries according to the Keyes method. This is the first study indicating that BTE, as compared with water, significantly decreased caries formation by 56.6% in hamsters on a regular diet and by 63.7% in hamsters on a cariogenic diet (P < 0.05). In the cariogenic diet group BTE, reduced the mandibular caries score of the hamsters slightly more than the maxillary caries score. The fluoride content of the standardized BTE solution was frequently monitored during the experiment; the mean fluoride concentration was found to be 4.22 ppm. A frequent intake of black tea can significantly decrease caries formation, even in the presence of sugars in the diet.

  19. Diversity of Catechin in Northeast Indian Tea Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Sabhapondit, Santanu; Karak, Tanmoy; Bhuyan, Lakshi Prasad; Goswami, Bhabesh Chandra; Hazarika, Mridul

    2012-01-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaf contains a large amount of catechins (a group of very active flavonoids) which contribute to major quality attributes of black tea. Based on morphological characters tea plants were classified as Assam, China, and Cambod varieties. The present study is an attempt for biochemical fingerprinting of the tea varieties based on catechin composition in green leaf of cultivars grown in Northeast India. Assam variety cultivars contained the highest level of catechins followed by Cambod and China. The average catechin contents were 231 ± 7 mg g−1, 202 ± 5 mg g−1, and 157 ± 4 mg g−1 of dry weight of green leaf for Assam, Cambod, and China cultivars, respectively. Among the individual catechins the variations in epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and epigallocatechin (EGC) were the most prominent among the varieties. High EGC content was found to be a characteristic of Assam variety which was further corroborated through multivariate analysis. PMID:22448135

  20. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in herbs and fruit teas].

    PubMed

    Ciemniak, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of which benzo[a]pyrene is the most commonly studied and measured, are fused - ring aromatic compounds formed in both natural and man made processes and are found widely distributed throughout the human environment. PAHs occur as contaminants in different food categories and beverages including water, vegetables, fruit, cereals, oils and fats, barbecued and smoked meat. The sources of PAHs in food are predominantly from environmental pollution and food processing. PAHs emissions from automobile traffic and industry activities were show to influence the PAHs levels in vegetables and fruits. The present study was carried out to determine levels of 16 basic PAHs in herbs and fruit teas. The method was based on the hexane extraction and cleaned up by florisil cartridge. The extracts were analysed by GC-MS. The levels of total PAHs varied from 48,27 microg/kg (hibiscus tea) to 1703 microg/kg (green tea). The highest level of BaP was found in lime tea (74,2 microg/kg).

  1. Effect of Tea Theaflavins and Catechins on Microvascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Dagmar; de Graaf, Young; van Kerckhoven, Roeland; Draijer, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial effects of flavonoid-rich black and green tea on macrocirculation have been well established. Theaflavins are unique to black tea as they are formed from catechins during the enzymatic oxidation of tea leaves. The study was performed to gain more insight into the effects of theaflavins on microcirculation and to compare effects with another important flavonoid class, the green tea derived catechins, which have been reported to improve vascular function. Twenty-four healthy subjects were included in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study. On six different days, subjects received capsules with a single dose of catechins (500 mg), four varying doses of theaflavins (100 to 500 mg) or placebo. Microcirculation was assessed after each treatment by Pulse Amplitude Tonometry (EndoPAT) at baseline and 2, 4 and 6 h after test product intake. The EndoPAT reactive hyperemia response was improved by 500 mg catechins (reactive hyperemia index (RHI): 0.2; p = 0.04) and by 500 mg theaflavins (RHI: 0.19; p = 0.06) compared to placebo. Also, 300 mg theaflavins increased the RHI (0.28; p = 0.02), but no effects were observed at lower doses. The study suggests moderate effects of single doses of catechins and theaflavins on peripheral microcirculation. PMID:25514559

  2. Extraction of caustic potash from spent tea for biodiesel Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Sarina; Faiz Che Fisol, Ahmad; Sharikh, Atikah Mohamed; Noraini Jimat, Dzun; Jamal, Parveen

    2018-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels due to its low gas emission and economical value. This study aims to extract caustic potash (KOH) from spent tea and to optimize the transesterfication process based on parameters such as amount of catalyst, reaction temperature and methanol to oil ratio. The spent tea was first dried at 60°C prior to calcination at 600°C for two hours. Caustic Potash were extracted from the calcined spent tea. The transesterification process was done based on Design of Experiments (DOE) to study the effects of amount of catalyst ranging from 0.5 wt % to 2.5 wt %, reaction temperature from 55°C to 65°C and methanol to oil ratio from 6:1 to 12:1 at a constant agitation rate of 300 rpm for three hours. The calcined spent tea produced was recorded the highest at 54.3 wt % and the extracted catalyst was 2.4 wt %. The optimized biodiesel yield recorded was 56.95% at the optimal conditions of 2.5 wt % amount of catalyst, 65°C reaction temperature and 9:1 methanol to oil ratio.

  3. Quantification of Tea Flavonoids by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Jessica D.; Niemeyer, Emily D.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a laboratory experiment that uses high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify flavonoid levels in a variety of commercial teas. Specifically, this experiment analyzes a group of flavonoids known as catechins, plant-derived polyphenolic compounds commonly found in many foods and beverages, including green and black…

  4. Tea Time: Raising Awareness and Support for Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franz, Nancy K.; Fahey, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In a time of reliance on electronic media for information, chaotic programming environments, and declining public resources, Extension workers need to find unique ways to connect with stakeholders to maintain and increase support for programming. To address this need, we developed, conducted, and evaluated a series of stakeholder teas. We found…

  5. Getting Something for Nothing: Trump, Fraud, and the Tea Party

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordelon, David

    2017-01-01

    David Bordelon identifies himself as one of the majority of Americans who voted to keep Trump out of office. In this article he discusses his confusion by the Tea Party's fixation on welfare fraud, and inability to recognize it in President Trump's behavior. The author says that he can only hope that his confusion will be shared, and progress to…

  6. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of 27 cultivars of tea.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Liang; Luo, Liyong; Li, Hongjun; Liu, Ruihai

    2017-08-01

    Tea, rich in phytochemicals, has been suggested to have human health benefits. The phenolic profiles, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of 27 tea cultivars were determined. Wide ranges of variation were found in analyzed cultivars for the contents of water-soluble phenolics (121.6-223.7 mg/g dry weight (DW)), total catechins (TC) (90.5-177.2 mg/g DW), antioxidant activities (PSC values 627.3-2332.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW, ORAC values (1865.1-3489.3 μmol of vitamin C equiv/g DW), CAA values (37.7-134.3 μmol of QE/g DW without PBS wash and 25.3-75.4 μmol of QE/g DW with PBS wash) and antiproliferative activity (53.0-90.8% at the concentration of 400 μg/mL extracts). The PSC, ORAC and CAA values were significantly correlated with phenolics, epicatechin gallate (ECG), CC and TC. Knowledge of specific differences among tea cultivars is important for breeding tea cultivars and gives sights to its potential application to promote health.

  7. Striking changes in tea metabolites due to elevational effects.

    PubMed

    Kfoury, Nicole; Morimoto, Joshua; Kern, Amanda; Scott, Eric R; Orians, Colin M; Ahmed, Selena; Griffin, Timothy; Cash, Sean B; Stepp, John Richard; Xue, Dayuan; Long, Chunlin; Robbat, Albert

    2018-10-30

    Climate effects on crop quality at the molecular level are not well-understood. Gas and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to measure changes of hundreds of compounds in tea at different elevations in Yunnan Province, China. Some increased in concentration while others decreased by 100's of percent. Orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis revealed compounds exhibiting analgesic, antianxiety, antibacterial, anticancer, antidepressant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-stress, and cardioprotective properties statistically (p = 0.003) differentiated high from low elevation tea. Also, sweet, floral, honey-like notes were higher in concentration in the former while the latter displayed grassy, hay-like aroma. In addition, multivariate analysis of variance showed low elevation tea had statistically (p = 0.0062) higher concentrations of caffeine, epicatechin gallate, gallocatechin, and catechin; all bitter compounds. Although volatiles represent a small fraction of the total mass, this is the first comprehensive report illustrating how normal variations in temperature, 5 °C, due to elevational effects impact tea quality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Interferometry using subnanosecond pulses from TEA nitrogen lasers.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, H; Salzmann, H; Strohwald, H

    1975-09-01

    The applicability of TEA nitrogen lasers emitting at 3371 A for high speed optical plasma interferometry of short lived plasmas is demonstrated. Interferograms of the dense phase of a 30-kJ plasma focus are obtained with an exposure time of less than 500 psec.

  9. Improving the sweet aftertaste of green tea infusion with tannase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Na; Yin, Jun-Feng; Chen, Jian-Xin; Wang, Fang; Du, Qi-Zhen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Xu, Yong-Quan

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (-)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective Subcritical Butane Extraction of Bifenthrin Residue in Black Tea.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yating; Gu, Lingbiao; Wang, Fei; Kong, Lingjun; Qin, Guangyong

    2017-03-30

    As a natural and healthy beverage, tea is widely enjoyed; however, the pesticide residues in tea leaves affect the quality and food safety. To develop a highly selective and efficient method for the facile removal of pesticide residues, the subcritical butane extraction (SBE) technique was employed, and three variables involving temperature, time and extraction cycles were studied. The optimum SBE conditions were found to be as follows: extraction temperature 45 °C, extraction time 30 min, number of extraction cycles 1, and in such a condition that the extraction efficiency reached as high as 92%. Further, the catechins, theanine, caffeine and aroma components, which determine the quality of the tea, fluctuated after SBE treatment. Compared with the uncrushed leaves, pesticide residues can more easily be removed from crushed leaves, and the practical extraction efficiency was 97%. These results indicate that SBE is a useful method to efficiently remove the bifenthrin, and as appearance is not relevant in the production process, tea leaves should first be crushed and then extracted in order that residual pesticides are thoroughly removed.

  11. America’s Food: Does Anthrax Pose A Threat?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-04-01

    a 1996 JAMA article, “Unexplained Severe Illness Possibly Associated with Consumption of Kombucha Tea - Iowa 1995.”13 For clarification, the... Kombucha “mush- room” is a “ symbiotic colony of several species of yeast and bacteria that are bound to- gether by a surrounding membrane.”14 Dr. Sadjadi...described an outbreak in Iran of cuta- 9 neous anthrax related to the Kombucha mushroom. In 1996 in a village on the outskirts of Tehran, 20 people

  12. Effect of different types of tea on Streptococcus mutans: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Eswara, Uma; Maheshwar Reddy, K R

    2012-01-01

    If tea can be shown to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of Streptococcus mutans there can be a basis for using it as an agent for reducing caries. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of aqueous and organic extracts of three types of tea (green, oolong, and black tea) on the growth of S. mutans. In vitro study. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis of the three types of tea was done. Organic extracts of methanol and ethanol and aqueous extracts (50% and 100%) of tea were prepared. Fifty microliters of these extracts were inoculated into wells prepared on Mueller-Hinton agar plates that had been previously smeared with S. mutans. The agar plates were incubated at 37΀C for 24 hours. A similar procedure was followed using 0.2% chlorhexidine, which served as the positive control. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), post hoc Tukey test, Student's 't ' test (two-tailed, dependent), and Student's 't' test (two-tailed, independent) were used for analysis of the data. All the phytochemicals were found to be higher in oolong tea. Both aqueous and organic extracts of oolong tea showed greatest zones of inhibition, followed by green tea and black tea. Aqueous extracts of oolong and green tea showed greater zone of inhibition than chlorhexidine. All the three types of tea inhibited growth of S. mutans. The greatest inhibition was observed with aqueous extract of oolong tea. Oolong tea extracts (aqueous and organic) showed a greater inhibitory effect on the growth of S. mutans than the other tea extracts .

  13. Changes of Constituents and Activity to Apoptosis and Cell Cycle During Fermentation of Tea

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest. PMID:21673927

  14. Changes of constituents and activity to apoptosis and cell cycle during fermentation of tea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hang; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Lu; Ge, Ya-Kun; Sheng, Jun; Shi, Wei

    2011-01-01

    Tea is believed to be beneficial for health, and the effects of the fermentation process on its contributions to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of gastric cancer cells have not been completely investigated. In this study, the chemical components in green tea, black tea and pu-erh tea aqueous extracts were analyzed and compared. The polysaccharide and caffeine levels were substantially higher in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, while the polyphenol level was higher in the unfermented green tea. Hence, a treatment of tea aqueous extract and the components, which are emerging as promising anticancer agents, were pursued to determine whether this treatment could lead to enhance apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. In the human gastric cancer cell line SGC-7901, the cell viability and flow cytometry analysis for apoptotic cells indicated effects in a dose-dependent inhibition manner for the three tea treatment groups. The apoptosis rates were found to be elevated after 48 h of treatment with 31.2, 125, and 500 μg/mL of green tea extract, the higher catechins content may be involved in the mechanism. Cell cycle was arrested in S phase in the fermented black tea and pu-erh tea, and the populations were significantly decreased in G2/M phases, possibly due to the oxidation of tea polyphenols, which causes an increase of theabrownins. CCC-HEL-1 normal cells were not sensitive to tea extract. These findings suggest that the fermentation process causes changes of the compounds which might be involved in the changes of cell proliferation inhibition, apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest.

  15. Design, formulation and evaluation of green tea chewing gum

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Khalafi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of this study is to design, formulate and evaluate the green tea gums with a suitable taste and quality in order to produce an anti-oxidant chewing gum. Materials and Methods: Fresh green tea leaves obtained from Northern Iran for extraction. Maceration is the extraction method that is used in this study. The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoids of the hydro alcoholic extract were measured. Various formulations of the 120 mg green tea extract chewing gums with different sweeteners, flavoring agents and various gum bases were prepared afterward release pattern, content uniformity, organoleptic results and other properties were characterized. Results: The contents of caffeine, catechin and flavonoid of the hydro alcoholic extraction were 207.32 mg/g, 130.00 mg/g and 200.82 mg/g, respectively. Release pattern of green tea chewing gum with different gum base ratios and various sweeteners in phosphate buffer were prepared. A total of 60 persons who were 20-30 years of age, participated in our panel test for organoleptic properties such as taste, stiffness, stickiness, etc., Acceptable gum was the one with the same ratio of the used rubber bases. Cinnamon selected as the preferred taste by volunteers. Combination of aspartame, sugar and maltitol has appropriate taste. The effect of various sweetener on release pattern was negligible, on the other hand rubber bases ratio variation, changed the release pattern obviously. Conclusion: The green tea chewing gum with sugar, maltitol and aspartame sweeteners and cinnamon flavor, using the same rubber bases ratio may be a desirable antioxidant product. PMID:25161989

  16. Spectral features based tea garden extraction from digital orthophoto maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent; Kucuk, Turgay; Zafer Seker, Dursun

    2018-05-01

    The advancements in the photogrammetry and remote sensing technologies has made it possible to extract useful tangible information from data which plays a pivotal role in various application such as management and monitoring of forests and agricultural lands etc. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of spectral signatures for extraction of tea gardens from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps obtained from Rize city in Turkey. First, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was derived from the input images to suppress the non-vegetation areas. NDVI values less than zero were discarded and the output images was normalized in the range 0-255. Individual pixels were then mapped into meaningful objects using global region growing technique. The resulting image was filtered and smoothed to reduce the impact of noise. Furthermore, geometrical constraints were applied to remove small objects (less than 500 pixels) followed by morphological opening operator to enhance the results. These objects served as building blocks for further image analysis. Finally, for the classification stage, a range of spectral values were empirically calculated for each band and applied on candidate objects to extract tea gardens. For accuracy assessment, we employed an area based similarity metric by overlapping obtained tea garden boundaries with the manually digitized tea garden boundaries created by experts of photogrammetry. The overall accuracy of the proposed method scored 89 % for tea gardens from 10 sample orthophoto maps. We concluded that exploiting the spectral signatures using object based analysis is an effective technique for extraction of dominant tree species from digital orthophoto maps.

  17. Possible green tea-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Liatsos, George D; Moulakakis, Antonios; Ketikoglou, Ioannis; Klonari, Stella

    2010-04-01

    A case of a patient who developed thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) after consuming a weight-loss product containing green tea is reported. A 38-year-old, 68-kg Caucasian woman arrived at the emergency department with a one-week history of malaise, fatigue, and petechiae of the skin. She had no symptoms of infection and denied illegal drug use. Her medical history included hypothyroidism, for which she was treated with levothyroxine 150 microg daily for the past four years. She reported that she had been using a green tea preparation for the two months before admission to lose body weight. The daily preparation contained 200 mg of green tea extract 5:1, equivalent to 1 g of natural green tea. On clinical examination, the patient appeared acutely ill and was afebrile, with pallor, petechiae, and purpura of the extremities. Laboratory test results at the time of admission revealed that the patient had anemia and marked thrombocytopenia. A peripheral blood smear demonstrated a feature of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. Immunoglobulin G autoantibodies against ADAM metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13 were detected. On hospital day 3, the patient appeared confused and exhibited aphasia that was initially transient but then recurrent. Brain computerized tomography did not exhibit focal pathology. Over the next few days, her neurologic symptoms subsided and her platelet count and hematocrit value gradually increased. Plasmapheresis was performed (12 procedures). Corticosteroid treatment was also initiated. After 20 days of hospitalization, the patient was discharged. A 38-year-old woman developed TTP after consuming a weight-loss product containing green tea extract for two months.

  18. Descriptive analysis and U.S. consumer acceptability of 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores H

    2010-03-01

    In the past, green tea has been one of the least popular nonalcoholic beverages for U.S. consumers. However, green tea has been receiving attention because of its potential health benefits. Knowing which green tea flavor attributes contribute to consumer liking will help the fast growing green tea business including green tea importers, tea shops, and beverage companies to understand which characteristics are most accepted by U.S. consumers. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine differences in acceptability of commonly available loose leaf and bagged green teas available from the major exporters to the U.S. (Japan, Korea, and China) and (2) to determine which green tea flavor characteristics are related to consumers' liking. In the study, consumers from the U.S. evaluated 6 green tea samples from China, Japan, and Korea for acceptability. A highly trained panel also evaluated the green tea samples to provide descriptive sensory attributes that might be related to acceptability. We found that U.S. consumers liked green tea samples with lower flavor intensity and lower bitterness intensity. Consumers' acceptability of green tea was negatively correlated with spinach and animalic flavor and bitterness and astringency of green teas evaluated using descriptive sensory analysis, but the correlation was only moderate. To learn what green tea flavor characteristics influence consumers' liking, future studies using more green tea samples with different flavor profiles are needed.

  19. iTRAQ-based proteomics monitors the withering dynamics in postharvest leaves of tea plant (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhi-Jun; Ma, Hong-Yu; Zhuang, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Tea plant [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] is a typical leaf-type beverage crop. Many secondary metabolites, such as tea polyphenols, theanine, and caffeine that accumulated in tea leaves are beneficial to human health. The fresh leaves of tea plant are harvested and timely processed into tea products with different flavors. The withering of fresh tea leaves is the first step in tea processing and directly affects tea color, taste, and fragrance. To understand the molecular mechanism that influences tea quality during withering, we investigated the dynamic changes in the proteome of postharvest tea leaves in four withering stages (0, 1, 4, and 12 h treatments). A total of 863 unique differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified by iTRAQ. The up- and down-regulated DEPs and the protein-protein interaction networks in different samples presented dynamic changes in their characteristics. The results of the functional annotation revealed that the molecular characteristics of tea withering are similar to leaf senescence. The biosynthesis of main tea-specific compounds that constitute tea color, taste, and fragrance of tea is restricted during withering. The substance transformation and degradation may have positive contributions to tea quality in withering technology. The proteome dynamics can be a useful aid for understanding the withering mechanisms and providing available information for functional discovery of proteins in the future.

  20. Improvement of green tea polyphenol with milk on skin with respect to antioxidation in healthy adults: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fang; Lin, Tung-Yi; Shen, You-Cheng; Venkatakrishnan, Kamesh; Wang, Chin-Kun

    2016-02-01

    Green tea polyphenols (GTP) have been widely tested for their effects on several metabolic syndromes and degenerative diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. The present study was formulated to assess the physiological efficacy of green tea polyphenol infused with milk (GTPM) on skin integrity in correlation with antioxidative status in healthy adults. Forty-four healthy voluntary subjects were recruited and assigned to two groups, who drank 240 ml of mineral water mixed with either an experimental (GTPM) or placebo package (2 packs per day) for the following 6 months. The experimental group then switched to the placebo package, and vice versa, for a further 6 months, with one month of washout period in between. During the initial, 3(rd), 6(th), 10(th), and 13(th) month anthropometric measurements were performed and fasting blood samples were withdrawn for various biochemical assays. Skin examination was performed at the initial, 6(th) and 13(th) month. No significant alterations were observed in any of the anthropometric measurements. Administration of GTPM significantly increased (p < 0.05) the antioxidant index and antioxidant enzyme activities when compared with the placebo group, whereas a concomitant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxidation were noted. Moreover, GTPM intake notably improved skin integrity and texture by markedly lowering (p < 0.05) skin wrinkles and roughness in elderly subjects. GTPM proved to be an effective antioxidant by lowering oxidative stress and thereby ameliorating skin texture and integrity.

  1. SOME ENGINEERING PROPERTIES OF SHELLED AND KERNEL TEA (Camellia sinensis) SEEDS.

    PubMed

    Altuntas, Ebubekir; Yildiz, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Camellia sinensis is the source of tea leaves and it is an economic crop now grown around the World. Tea seed oil has been used for cooking in China and other Asian countries for more than a thousand years. Tea is the most widely consumed beverages after water in the world. It is mainly produced in Asia, central Africa, and exported throughout the World. Some engineering properties (size dimensions, sphericity, volume, bulk and true densities, friction coefficient, colour characteristics and mechanical behaviour as rupture force of shelled and kernel tea ( Camellia sinensis ) seeds were determined in this study. This research was carried out for shelled and kernel tea seeds. The shelled tea seeds used in this study were obtained from East-Black Sea Tea Cooperative Institution in Rize city of Turkey. Shelled and kernel tea seeds were characterized as large and small sizes. The average geometric mean diameter and seed mass of the shelled tea seeds were 15.8 mm, 10.7 mm (large size); 1.47 g, 0.49 g (small size); while the average geometric mean diameter and seed mass of the kernel tea seeds were 11.8 mm, 8 mm for large size; 0.97 g, 0.31 g for small size, respectively. The sphericity, surface area and volume values were found to be higher in a larger size than small size for the shelled and kernel tea samples. The shelled tea seed's colour intensity (Chroma) were found between 59.31 and 64.22 for large size, while the kernel tea seed's chroma values were found between 56.04 68.34 for large size, respectively. The rupture force values of kernel tea seeds were higher than shelled tea seeds for the large size along X axis; whereas, the rupture force values of along X axis were higher than Y axis for large size of shelled tea seeds. The static coefficients of friction of shelled and kernel tea seeds for the large and small sizes higher values for rubber than the other friction surfaces. Some engineering properties, such as geometric mean diameter, sphericity, volume, bulk

  2. What is in your cup of tea? DNA Verity Test to characterize black and green commercial teas

    PubMed Central

    Comparone, Maria; Di Maio, Antonietta; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Menale, Bruno; Troisi, Jacopo; Aliberti, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we used several molecular techniques to develop a fast and reliable protocol (DNA Verity Test, DVT) for the characterization and confirmation of the species or taxa present in herbal infusions. As a model plant for this protocol, Camellia sinensis, a traditional tea plant, was selected due to the following reasons: its historical popularity as a (healthy) beverage, its high selling value, the importation of barely recognizable raw product (i.e., crushed), and the scarcity of studies concerning adulterants or contamination. The DNA Verity Test includes both the sequencing of DNA barcoding markers and genotyping of labeled-PCR DNA barcoding fragments for each sample analyzed. This protocol (DVT) was successively applied to verify the authenticity of 32 commercial teas (simple or admixture), and the main results can be summarized as follows: (1) the DVT protocol is suitable to detect adulteration in tea matrices (contaminations or absence of certified ingredients), and the method can be exported for the study of other similar systems; (2) based on the BLAST analysis of the sequences of rbcL+matK±rps7-trnV(GAC) chloroplast markers, C. sinensis can be taxonomically characterized; (3) rps7-trnV(GAC) can be employed to discriminate C. sinensis from C. pubicosta; (4) ITS2 is not an ideal DNA barcode for tea samples, reflecting potential incomplete lineage sorting and hybridization/introgression phenomena in C. sinensis taxa; (5) the genotyping approach is an easy, inexpensive and rapid pre-screening method to detect anomalies in the tea templates using the trnH(GUG)-psbA barcoding marker; (6) two herbal companies provided no authentic products with a contaminant or without some of the listed ingredients; and (7) the leaf matrices present in some teabags could be constituted using an admixture of different C. sinensis haplotypes and/or allied species (C. pubicosta). PMID:28542606

  3. Determination and comparison of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in pu-erh and other types of Chinese tea.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Ma, Yan; Wei, Zhen-zhen; Yuan, Wen-xia; Li, Ya-li; Zhang, Chun-hua; Xue, Xiao-ting; Zhou, Hong-jie

    2011-04-27

    Two previous studies have reported that pu-erh tea contains a high level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and has several physiological functions. However, two other researchers have demonstrated that the GABA content of several pu-erh teas was low. Due to the high value and health benefits of GABA, analysis of mass-produced pu-erh tea is necessary to determine whether it is actually enriched with GABA. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of GABA in tea, the results of which were verified by amino acid analysis using an Amino Acid Analyzer (AAA). A total of 114 samples of various types of Chinese tea, including 62 pu-erh teas, 13 green teas, 8 oolong teas, 8 black teas, 3 white teas, 4 GABA teas, and 16 process samples from two industrial fermentations of pu-erh tea (including the raw material and the first to seventh turnings), were analyzed using HPLC. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the GABA content in pu-erh tea was significantly lower than that in other types of tea (p < 0.05) and that the GABA content decreased during industrial fermentation of pu-erh tea (p < 0.05). This mass analysis and comparison suggested GABA was not a major bioactive constituent and resolved the disagreement GABA content in pu-erh tea. In addition, the GABA content in white tea was found to be significantly higher than that in the other types of tea (p < 0.05), leading to the possibility of producing GABA-enriched white tea.

  4. Sensory and Instrumental Flavor Changes in Green Tea Brewed Multiple Times

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Delores; Chambers, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Green teas in leaf form are brewed multiple times, a common selling point. However, the flavor changes, both sensory and volatile compounds, of green teas that have been brewed multiple times are unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine how the aroma and flavor of green teas change as they are brewed multiple times, to determine if a relationship exists between green tea flavors and green tea volatile compounds, and to suggest the number of times that green tea leaves can be brewed. The first and second brews of the green tea samples provided similar flavor intensities. The third and fourth brews provided milder flavors and lower bitterness and astringency when measured using descriptive sensory analysis. In the brewed liquor of green tea mostly linalool, nonanal, geraniol, jasmone, and β-ionone volatile compounds were present at low levels (using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The geraniol, linalool, and linalool oxide compounds in green tea may contribute to the floral/perfumy flavor. Green teas in leaf form may be brewed up to four times: the first two brews providing stronger flavor, bitterness, and astringency whereas the third and fourth brews will provide milder flavor, bitterness, and astringency. PMID:28239138

  5. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers. PMID:27042093

  6. Daily Fluoride Intake from Iranian Green Tea: Evaluation of Various Flavorings on Fluoride Release.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Daraei, Hiua; Mohammadi, Elham; Zandi, Shiva; Teymouri, Pari; Mahvi, Amir Hossien; Gharibi, Fardin

    2016-01-01

    With increased awareness of the health benefits of the compounds in green tea, especially polyphenols, its consumption is rising. The main purpose of this study is to determine the effect of different additives on the released fluoride into tea liquor and also daily fluoride intake. The concentrations of fluoride, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride were measured in 15 different flavored green teas (Refah-Lahijan). The fluoride and other anion concentrations were measured by ion chromatography method. The data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.0. The results showed that the minimum and maximum concentrations of fluoride in the green tea infusions were 0.162 mg/L (cinnamon-flavored green tea) and 3.29 mg/L (bagged peach-flavored green tea), respectively. The mean concentration of fluoride in the green tea leaves was 52 mg/kg, and approximately 89% of the fluoride was released from the green tea leaves into the infusions after brewing. The fluoride concentrations varied significantly among the examined green teas (P < 0.05). However, the additives had no significant effect on the fluoride release into the infusions (P > 0.05). Finally, drinking of the studied green teas cannot make a significant contribution to the daily dietary intake of F for consumers.

  7. An EPR study on tea: Identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bıyık, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-01

    Tea ( Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 °C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 °C while Mn 2+ sextet disappears just above 100 °C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn 2+ and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe 3+ line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  8. Application of enzymes in the production of RTD black tea beverages: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Chandini S; Subramanian, R; Rao, L Jaganmohan

    2013-01-01

    Ready-to-drink (RTD) tea is a popular beverage in many countries. Instability due to development of haze and formation of tea cream is the common problem faced in the production of RTD black tea beverages. Thus decreaming is an important step in the process to meet the cold stability requirements of the product. Enzymatic decreaming approaches overcome some of the disadvantages associated with other conventional decreaming methods such as cold water extraction, chill decreaming, chemical stabilization, and chemical solubilization. Enzyme treatments have been attempted at three stages of black tea processing, namely, enzymatic treatment to green tea and conversion to black tea, enzymatic treatment to black tea followed by extraction, and enzymatic clarification of extract. Tannase is the most commonly employed enzyme (tannin acyl hydrolase EC 3.1.1.20) aiming at improving cold water extractability/solubility and decreasing tea cream formation as well as improving the clarity. The major enzymatic methods proposed for processing black tea having a direct or indirect bearing on RTD tea production, have been discussed along with their relative advantages and limitations.

  9. An EPR study on tea: identification of paramagnetic species, effect of heat and sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Biyik, Recep; Tapramaz, Recep

    2009-10-15

    Tea (Camellia Sinensis) is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, and is known to be having therapeutic, antioxidant and nutritional effects. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectral studies made on the tea cultivated along the shore of Black Sea, Turkey, show Mn(2+) and Fe(3+) centers in green tea leaves and in black tea extract. Dry black tea flakes and dry extract show additional sharp line attributed to semiquinone radical. The origins of the paramagnetic species in black tea are defined and discussed. Effect of humidity and heat are investigated. It is observed that dry extract of black tea melts at 100 degrees C and the semiquinone radical lives up to 140 degrees C while Mn(2+) sextet disappears just above 100 degrees C in tea extract. Natural and synthetics sweeteners have different effects on the paramagnetic centers. White sugar (sucrose) quenches the Mn(2+) and semiquinone lines in black tea EPR spectrum, and glucose, fructose, lactose and maltose quench Fe(3+) line while synthetic sweeteners acesulfam potassium, aspartame and sodium saccharine do not have any effect on paramagnetic species in tea.

  10. Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011.

  11. Tea consumption is not associated with reduced plasma folate concentration among Chinese pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jufen; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Yali; Zhang, Le; Li, Zhiwen; Wang, Linlin; Ye, Rongwei; Ren, Aiguo

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tea consumption and plasma folate concentration in populations with high and low prevalence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in China. Cross-sectional survey was conducted in three cities/counties in China, in which 1724 pregnant women during early second trimester were recruited and interviewed about tea consumption and folic acid use in 2011 to 2012. A total of 5-ml nonfasting blood sample was collected and plasma folate concentration was determined by microbiological assay. Approximately 16.2% of the women reported that they had ever drank tea during and before the current pregnancy, women with higher educational level, and those who resided in urban were more likely to drink tea. Most of them prefer green tea (55.2%); 13.6% of women drank tea ">6 times/week," and 29.0% of them drank "less than once a week." The median of plasma folate concentration was 48.7 nmol/L in women who drank tea while it is 45.2 nmol/L in women who did not drink tea, with no statistical difference. The results showed there was no association between tea drinking and plasma folate concentration in Chinese pregnant women stratified by folic acid supplementation and other selected characteristics. Low level of tea drinking is not associated with decreased plasma folate concentration in the Chinese populations with high and low prevalence of NTDs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Characterization of tea polyphenols as potential environment-friendly fire retardants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Fengqi; Zhai, Chunjie; Wang, Haihui; Tao, Junjun

    2018-02-01

    In this work we investigated the oxidation properties of tea polyphenols and their potential as the fire retardants. Two types of tea polyphenols were adopted, which were extracted from red tea and green tea leaves, respectively. Their macroscopic performance during pyrolysis and oxidation at elevated temperatures were examined by using a heating furnace. Mass change, heat evolution and gas products of tea polyphenols during heating in air were also monitored by using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA) integrated with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in conjunction with online Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and mass spectroscopy (MS). A tea polyphenol sample first becomes a brown semi-fluid after heating, and gradually turns into highly-porous black chars with significantly expanded volume. By raising the temperature to ∼550 °C at a rate of 10 °C/min, the mass of a sample reduces by nearly 70% to form a large quantity of inert gases that are mainly composed of H2O and CO2. It was found that the aerial oxidation products of tea polyphenols in the solid phase possess good heat insulation property; meanwhile, the substantial release of a lot of water and its evaporation during oxidation of tea polyphenols removes a large amount of heat from a sample located in a heating environment. The heat insulation of tea polyphenols may withstand up to 550 °C. The present work confirms tea polyphenols as potential superior and environment-friendly fire retardants.

  13. Tea Consumption Reduces the Incidence of Neurocognitive Disorders: Findings from the Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Feng, L; Chong, M-S; Lim, W-S; Gao, Q; Nyunt, M S; Lee, T-S; Collinson, S L; Tsoi, T; Kua, E-H; Ng, T-P

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between tea consumption habits and incident neurocognitive disorders (NCD) and explore potential effect modification by gender and the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Population-based longitudinal study. The Singapore Longitudinal Aging Study (SLAS). 957 community-living Chinese elderly who were cognitively intact at baseline. We collected tea consumption information at baseline from 2003 to 2005 and ascertained incident cases of neurocognitive disorders (NCD) from 2006 to 2010. Odds ratio (OR) of association were calculated in logistic regression models that adjusted for potential confounders. A total of 72 incident NCD cases were identified from the cohort. Tea intake was associated with lower risk of incident NCD, independent of other risk factors. Reduced NCD risk was observed for both green tea (OR=0.43) and black/oolong tea (OR=0.53) and appeared to be influenced by the changing of tea consumption habit at follow-up. Using consistent non-tea consumers as the reference, only consistent tea consumers had reduced risk of NCD (OR=0.39). Stratified analyses indicated that tea consumption was associated with reduced risk of NCD among females (OR=0.32) and APOE ε4 carriers (OR=0.14) but not males and non APOE ε4 carriers. Regular tea consumption was associated with lower risk of neurocognitive disorders among Chinese elderly. Gender and genetic factors could possibly modulate this association.

  14. Green Tea Polyphenols Require the Mitochondrial Iron Transporter, mitoferrin, for Lifespan Extension in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Terry E.; Pham, Hoang M.; Nguyen, Benjamin V.; Tahmasian, Yerazik; Ramsden, Shannon; Coskun, Volkan; Schriner, Samuel E.; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-01-01

    Green tea has been found to increase the lifespan of various experimental animal models including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. High in polyphenolic content, green tea has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in part by its ability to bind free iron, a micronutrient that is both essential for and toxic to all living organisms. Due to green tea’s iron-binding properties, we questioned whether green tea acts to increase the lifespan of the fruit fly by modulating iron regulators, specifically, mitoferrin, a mitochondrial iron transporter, and transferrin, found in the hemolymph of flies. Publicly available hypomorph mutants for these iron-regulators were utilized to investigate the effect of green tea on lifespan and fertility. We identified that green tea could not increase the lifespan of mitoferrin mutants but did rescue the reduced male fertility phenotype. The effect of green tea on transferrin mutant lifespan and fertility were comparable to w1118 flies, as observed in our previous studies, in which green tea increased male fly lifespan and reduced male fertility. Expression levels in both w1118 flies and mutant flies, supplemented with green tea, showed an up-regulation of mitoferrin but not transferrin. Total body and mitochondrial iron levels were significantly reduced by green tea supplementation in w1118 and mitoferrin mutants but not transferrin mutant flies. Our results demonstrate that green tea may act to increase the lifespan of Drosophila in part by the regulation of mitoferrin and reduction of mitochondrial iron. PMID:27696504

  15. Cluster analysis of the biochemical composition in 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. H.; Chen, S. X.; Zhu, M. Z.; Meng, X. L.

    2017-09-01

    The EGCG3"Me contents in the young tea leaves of 102 tea resources in sichuan were analyzed accurately using HPLC-DAD. The results revealed that there was a wide variation in EGCG3"Me levels among different tea resources. The EGCG3"Me content in different tea resources was in a range from 0 to 11.04 mg/g, mean was 2.33 mg/g.53 tea resources contained EGCG3"Me, accounting for 51.96% of the total number of resources survey. Shucha5, Jinguanyin, Chengxi11, Fenghuang-dancong, Chongpi 71-1 were found to contain higher EGCG3"Me content (>10mg/g).Cluster analysis showed that: 53 Sichuan EGCG3"Me tea resources were divided into six groups and the difference was obvious between their biochemical composition; tea resources rich in EGCG3"Me were mainly distributed in Sichuan, Chongqing and Fujian Province, mostly were shrub and mid-leaf, mainly existed in tea resources which were suitable to make green tea, oolong tea. The morphological and biochemical distribution provided a good theoretical basis for selecting and utilizing higher EGCG3"Me resources.

  16. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8–12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. Results The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Conclusions Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis. PMID:26499132

  17. Prevalence of Brick Tea-Type Fluorosis in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhipeng; Gao, Yanhui; Wang, Wei; Gong, Hongqiang; Guo, Min; Zhao, Shengcheng; Liu, Xuehui; Yu, Bing; Sun, Dianjun

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis is high in Tibet because of the habit of drinking brick tea in this region. Brick tea-type fluorosis has become an urgent public health problem in China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to investigate prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis in all districts of Tibet using a stratified cluster sampling method. Dental fluorosis in children aged 8-12 years and clinical skeletal fluorosis in adults were diagnosed according to the national criteria. A total of 423 children and 1320 adults participated in the study. Samples of drinking water, brick tea, brick tea infusion (or buttered tea), and urine were collected and measured for fluoride concentrations by the fluoride ion selective electrode method. The fluoride level in all but one of the brick tea samples was above the national standard. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea in all seven districts in Tibet was much higher than the national standard. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33.57%, and the prevalence of clinical skeletal fluorosis was 46.06%. The average daily fluoride intake from drinking brick tea (r = 0.292, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in children (r = 0.134, P < 0.05), urine fluoride concentrations in adults (r = 0.162, P < 0.05), and altitude (r = 0.276, P < 0.05) were positively correlated with the prevalence of brick tea-type fluorosis. Herdsmen had the highest fluoride exposure and the most severe skeletal fluorosis. Brick tea-type fluorosis in Tibet is more serious than in other parts of China. The altitude and occupational factors are important risk factors for brick tea-type fluorosis.

  18. Changing climate and the value of the tea landscape in Assam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biggs, E. M.; Gupta, N.; Duncan, J.; Saikia, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tea production has a measurable impact upon millions of people's livelihoods in northeast India. The region is experiencing changes in climate characteristics which are placing added pressure on the tea industry for sustaining livelihoods. To increase understanding of the role of tea within the Assam landscape, this research has engaged with multiple local tea-producing stakeholders. Approximately 65% of Assam's tea is produced in large plantations, with the remaining 35% produced in smallholdings. Questionnaires were used to obtain information on land management practices operationalised by plantation managers and smallholders. Focus group sessions using the Delphi technique were conducted with tea workers (labourers for the plantations) to ascertain the level of importance of the tea sector to sustaining their livelihoods. Questionnaires and focus group surveys also attempted to establish stakeholder understanding of climate change. Data were analysed using spatial statistics to investigate intra- and inter-region variation in responses. Focus group responses were categorised to determine the livelihood asset base available to tea workers within plantations, with patterns of (dis)similarity observed spatially. Results indicate that land management practices (e.g. fertiliser and pesticide application), tea processing methods (e.g. onsite factory and energy generation), and social provisions for tea workers (e.g. sanitation and education facilities) varied greatly across the main tea growing regions of Assam. Tea workers listed numerous environmental and social factors as important for sustaining livelihoods, with the top ranked factors similar across some plantations (e.g. drinking water availability and access). Plantation managers are highly concerned with how climate conditions are affecting tea production, and although workers were aware of climate change issues in some plantations, socioeconomic conditions seemed of more pressing concern to their livelihoods.

  19. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activities of Chinese dark teas obtained by different processing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hai-Peng; Zhang, Yue; Shi, Jiang; Lin, Zhi

    2017-10-01

    Dark teas are rich in secondary metabolites, such as phenolics and flavonoids, which have been suggested to be associated with their health benefits. In this study, the concentrations of tea polyphenols, tea pigments, catechins, flavonoids, alkaloid, and volatile components in 44 dark tea samples, including Pu-erh, Fuzhuan and Liubao teas, were systematically examined. Among the samples tested, Pu-erh tea contained the highest total flavonoid content (5.24±0.05%), followed by Liubao (4.45±0.61%) and Fuzhuan teas (3.33±0.23%). The tea polyphenols levels in the dark teas were approximately 10%, and no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found among the different types. Hexadecanoic acid was the most abundant aroma component in the dark teas, accounting for 15-20% of the total volatile oils. Moreover, the antioxidant activities of these dark teas were analyzed using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay (HepG2 cells). The fat metabolism modulation activities (FMMA) of the dark teas were tested using a high-throughput screening method (SMMC-7221 cells). The results indicated that the different dark teas had diverse antioxidant activities, and the variation in the activities was significant. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between the levels of EGCG and antioxidant activities measured using the ABTS (r=0.916) and FRAP (r=0.853) assays, and the levels of total flavonoids and theabrownins correlated well with the values determined using the CAA (r=0.845 and 0.865, respectively) assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in the Composition of Raw Tea Leaves from the Korean Yabukida Plant during High-temperature Processing to Pan-Fried Kamairi-cha Green Tea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To develop a better understanding of compositional changes occurring during the production of commercial teas, we determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) changes in ingredient levels during each of several manufacturing steps used to produce Kamairi-cha, a premium green tea. We ...

  1. Tracking residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in green, herbal, and black tea leaves and infusions of commercially available tea products marketed in Poland.

    PubMed

    Witczak, Agata; Abdel-Gawad, Hassan; Zalesak, Michal; Pohoryło, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The content of residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) was examined in green, herbal, and black tea leaves as well as in their infusions prepared from tea products marketed in the main supermarkets in Poland. It was found that the detected mean levels of organochlorine residues in tea leaves ranged from tea occurred in the highest concentrations. Among dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites the highest level of p,p'DDT (1.96 ng g -1 dw) was in green tea samples. The transfer of OCPs from tea leaves to brew was investigated. The present study revealed that during the infusion process, a significant percentage of the residues, particularly pesticides with high water solubility, were transferred to the infusions. The obtained results show that the percentage transfer of each pesticides from tea to the tea infusions ranged from 6.74% (heptachlor) to 86.6% (endrin). The detected residues were below current MRLs for these pesticides.

  2. Antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea.

    PubMed

    Melo da Cunha, Janielle da Silva; Alfredo, Tamaeh Monteiro; Dos Santos, Jéssica Maurino; Alves Junior, Valter Vieira; Rabelo, Luiza Antas; Lima, Emerson Silva; Boleti, Ana Paula de Araújo; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Dos Santos, Edson Lucas; de Picoli Souza, Kely

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as one of the largest global epidemics; it is estimated that by 2035, there will be 592 million diabetic people in the world. Brazilian biodiversity and the knowledge of traditional peoples have contributed to the treatment of several diseases, including diabetes. Apis mellifera bee tea is used by indigenous Brazilians to treat diabetes, and this traditional knowledge needs to be recorded and studied.The objective of this study was to record the use and to evaluate the antioxidant, antihyperglycemic, and antidiabetic activity of Apis mellifera bee tea, which is used by the Guarani and Kaiowá indigenous people for the treatment of diabetes. Semi-structured interviews were performed with Guarani and Kaiowá ethnic indigenous people from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, seeking to identify the animal species used for medicinal purposes. For the experimental procedures, tea prepared with macerated Apis mellifera bees was used. In vitro assays were performed to evaluate antioxidant activity; direct free radical scavenging, protection against oxidative hemolysis, lipid peroxidation were evaluated in human erythrocytes and potential in inhibiting the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In vivo, normoglycemic Swiss male mice treated with Apis mellifera tea (AmT) were subjected to the oral glucose tolerance test and compared with control and metformin-treated groups. Diet-induced diabetic mice were treated for 21 days with AmT and evaluated for glycemia and malondialdehyde levels in the blood, liver, nervous system, and eyes. During interviews, the indigenous people described the use of Apis mellifera bee tea for the treatment of diabetes. In in vitro assays, AmT showed direct antioxidant activity and reduced oxidative hemolysis and malondialdehyde generation in human erythrocytes. The AmT inhibited the formation of AGEs by albumin-fructose pathways and methylglyoxal products. In vivo, after oral glucose overload, normoglycemic

  3. Fusion of Potentiometric & Voltammetric Electronic Tongue for Classification of Black Tea Taste based on Theaflavins (TF) Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Legin, Andrey; Papieva, Irina; Sarkar, Subrata; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Kartsova, Anna; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib

    2011-09-01

    Black tea is an extensively consumed beverage worldwide with an expanding market. The final quality of black tea depends upon number of chemical compounds present in the tea. Out of these compounds, theaflavins (TF), which is responsible for astringency in black tea, plays an important role in determining the final taste of the finished black tea. The present paper reports our effort to correlate the theaflavins contents with the voltammetric and potentiometric electronic tongue (e-tongue) data. Noble metal-based electrode array has been used for collecting data though voltammetric electronic tongue where as liquid filled membrane based electrodes have been used for potentiometric electronic tongue. Black tea samples with tea taster score and biochemical results have been collected from Tea Research Association, Tocklai, India for the analysis purpose. In this paper, voltammetric and potentiometric e-tongue responses are combined to demonstrate improvement of cluster formation among tea samples with different ranges of TF values.

  4. Volatile and non-volatile compounds in green tea affected in harvesting time and their correlation to consumer preference.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmok; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Mina K

    2016-10-01

    Current study was designed to find out how tea harvesting time affects the volatile and non-volatile compounds profiles of green tea. In addition, correlation of instrumental volatile and non-volatile compounds analyses to consumer perception were analyzed. Overall, earlier harvested green tea had stronger antioxidant capacity (~61.0%) due to the polyphenolic compounds from catechin (23,164 mg/L), in comparison to later harvested green teas (11,961 mg/L). However, high catechin content in green tea influenced negatively the consumer likings of green tea, due to high bitterness (27.6%) and astringency (13.4%). Volatile compounds drive consumer liking of green tea products were also identified, that included linalool, 2,3-methyl butanal, 2-heptanone, (E,E)-3,5-Octadien-2-one. Finding from current study are useful for green tea industry as it provide the difference in physiochemical properties of green tea harvested at different intervals.

  5. Effect of Trap Color, Height, and Orientation on the Capture of Yellow and Stick Tea Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Nontarget Insects in Tea Gardens.

    PubMed

    Bian, L; Yang, P X; Yao, Y J; Luo, Z X; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2016-02-03

    Two thrips species-the yellow tea thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and the stick tea thrips (Dendrothrips minowai Priesner)-are serious pests affecting tea plants in southern China. Although the stick tea thrips is primarily restricted to southern China, the yellow tea thrips is gradually proliferating worldwide. Colored sticky card traps may be useful for monitoring and capturing these species, but a systematic analysis has not been conducted to identify the most effective trap color, height, and orientation. We performed indoor experiments using an orthogonal experimental design, as well as field tests in tea gardens, to identify the color most attractive to the two thrips species. Field tests were then conducted using color-optimized traps-lawngreen (RGB: 124, 252, 0) for yellow thrips and lime (RGB: 0, 255, 0) for stick tea thrips-to determine the most effective trap height and orientation. The greatest numbers of both yellow and stick tea thrips were captured on traps positioned 0-20 cm above the tea canopy in an east-west orientation. We also evaluated the performance of the color-optimized sticky card traps compared with commercially available yellow ones. Significantly more yellow and stick tea thrips and fewer natural enemies were captured on the color-optimized traps than on commercial ones. Although additional research is needed to explain the responses of the two different species and to increase trap effectiveness, our findings should assist in the control of these harmful insects. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Sensory quality evaluation for appearance of needle-shaped green tea based on computer vision and nonlinear tools.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chun-Wang; Zhu, Hong-Kai; Zhao, Jie-Wen; Jiang, Yong-Wen; Yuan, Hai-Bo; Chen, Quan-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    Tea is one of the three greatest beverages in the world. In China, green tea has the largest consumption, and needle-shaped green tea, such as Maofeng tea and Sparrow Tongue tea, accounts for more than 40% of green tea (Zhu et al., 2017). The appearance of green tea is one of the important indexes during the evaluation of green tea quality. Especially in market transactions, the price of tea is usually determined by its appearance (Zhou et al., 2012). Human sensory evaluation is usually conducted by experts, and is also easily affected by various factors such as light, experience, psychological and visual factors. In the meantime, people may distinguish the slight differences between similar colors or textures, but the specific levels of the tea are hard to determine (Chen et al., 2008). As human description of color and texture is qualitative, it is hard to evaluate the sensory quality accurately, in a standard manner, and objectively. Color is an important visual property of a computer image (Xie et al., 2014; Khulal et al., 2016); texture is a visual performance of image grayscale and color changing with spatial positions, which can be used to describe the roughness and directivity of the surface of an object (Sanaeifar et al., 2016). There are already researchers who have used computer visual image technologies to identify the varieties, levels, and origins of tea (Chen et al., 2008; Xie et al., 2014; Zhu et al., 2017). Most of their research targets are crush, tear, and curl (CTC) red (green) broken tea, curly green tea (Bilochun tea), and flat-typed green tea (West Lake Dragon-well green tea) as the information sources. However, the target of the above research is to establish a qualitative evaluation method on tea quality (Fu et al., 2013). There is little literature on the sensory evaluation of the appearance quality of needle-shaped green tea, especially research on a quantitative evaluation model (Zhou et al., 2012; Zhu et al., 2017).

  7. Authentication of Botanical Origin in Herbal Teas by Plastid Noncoding DNA Length Polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a DNA barcode assay to authenticate the botanical origin of herbal teas. To reach this aim, we tested the efficiency of a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on commercial herbal tea samples using two noncoding plastid barcodes, the trnL intron and the intergenic spacer between trnL and trnF. Barcode DNA length polymorphisms proved successful in authenticating the species origin of herbal teas. We verified the validity of our approach by sequencing species-specific barcode amplicons from herbal tea samples. Moreover, we displayed the utility of PCR-CE assays coupled with sequencing to identify the origin of undeclared plant material in herbal tea samples. The PCR-CE assays proposed in this work can be applied as routine tests for the verification of botanical origin in herbal teas and can be extended to authenticate all types of herbal foodstuffs.

  8. Green tea consumption affects cognitive dysfunction in the elderly: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ide, Kazuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Takuma, Norikata; Park, Mijong; Wakamiya, Noriko; Nakase, Junpei; Ukawa, Yuuichi; Sagesaka, Yuko M

    2014-09-29

    Green tea is known to have various health benefits for humans. However, the effect of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction remains to be clinically verified. We conducted a clinical study to investigate the effects of green tea consumption on cognitive dysfunction. Twelve elderly nursing home residents with cognitive dysfunction (Mini-Mental State Examination Japanese version (MMSE-J) score: <28) participated in the study (2 men, 10 women; mean age, 88 years). The participants consumed green tea powder 2 g/day for 3 months. After three months of green tea consumption, the participants' MMSE-J scores were significantly improved (before, 15.3 ± 7.7; after, 17.0 ± 8.2; p = 0.03). This result suggests that green tea consumption may be effective in improving cognitive function or reducing the progression of cognitive dysfunction; however, long-term large-scale controlled studies are needed to further clarify the effect.

  9. Effect of tea products on the in vitro enzymatic digestibility of starch.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haihua; Jiang, Yulan; Pan, Junxian; Lv, Yangjun; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Shikang; Zhu, Yuejin

    2018-03-15

    The importance of postprandial hyperglycemia in the treatment of diabetes has been recognized recently. Tea products, such as tea polyphenols (TP), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), matcha, and instant tea, were chosen as constituents of tea-flour food, aimed at regulating the release of glucose from starchy foods in the postprandial period. Six starches were chosen for internal composition analysis and hydrolysis studies in vitro. Corn starch, wheat starch, and lily root flour appeared to have higher resistant starch content, slower digestion profiles, and lower kinetic constants, implying sustained release of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract. The effect of tea products on starch digestion was determined in order to get a desired formulation of dietary product for patients with hyperglycemia. Compared with macha and instant tea, TP and EGCG exerted greater inhibition of amylase and amyloglucosidase, especially for corn starch with 0.5% TP or 0.5% EGCG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A billion cups: The diversity, traditional uses, safety issues and potential of Chinese herbal teas.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yao; Yang, Jin-Chao; Cunningham, Anthony B; Towns, Alexandra Maria; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Hua-Ying; Li, Jian-Wen; Yang, Xue-Fei

    2018-08-10

    Herbal teas have long been consumed by Chinese people for preventive and/or therapeutic healthcare. Although herbal teas are widely consumed by many cultural groups in different regions of China, no thorough review has been undertaken to assess the diversity of the country's herbal tea usage. This literature review, complemented by a quantitative survey in an important tea market in Kunming, begins to fill this knowledge gap. The study aims to summarize the current knowledge of plant species used as herbal teas by different cultural groups in different regions of China, with a focus on the teas' perceived traditional healthcare functions, related phytochemical/pharmaceutical research, and safety issues. The study involved a comprehensive literature review and a market survey. The literature review was based on published ethnobotanical studies of herbal teas in China. We searched the Web of Science™, ELSEVIER, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the China Science and Technology Journal Database to locate relevant studies (including journal articles, Masters/PhD dissertations and books) that were published before March 2017. A species list was compiled based on the review and supplemented with information retrieved from the Scifinder database (https://scifinder.cas.org) and the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010). A Use Value Index was employed for ranking the most cited species. Based on the 29 most cited species, we discussed the current research status in relation to healthcare benefits and safety concerns of herbal teas in China. To better understand the current status of the herbal tea market in China, we also surveyed 136 tea vendors at the Xiongda Tea Market in Kunming. Information gathered from the survey included the species sold, the sale prices and the form of the herbal tea product. The literature identified 759 plant species used as herbal tea in China and the market survey identified an additional 23 species. Most of the species used were

  11. Effect of tea on iron absorption from the typical Tunisian meal 'couscous' fed to healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Hamdaoui, M; Hedhili, A; Doghri, T; Tritar, B

    1994-01-01

    Black and green tea decoctions are popular beverages in Tunisia, especially after eating. Our study was performed to examine the effect of graded amounts of black and green tea decoction prepared under realistic Tunisian conditions on nonheme iron absorption from a typical Tunisian meal, 'couscous', by extrinsic radioiron labeling in rats. Concentrations of 300, 200 and 100 micrograms/ml of black tea decreased dramatically nonheme iron bioavailability from couscous, but 50 micrograms/ml did not influence iron absorption. The inhibition of nonheme iron from couscous varied from 36 to 61% with black tea and 30.5% with green tea. Taken together, our findings show that the tea decoction in Tunisia has a great inhibitory power and may constitute an important factor for the development of iron deficiency anemia throughout Tunisia.

  12. [Progress in research for pharmacological effects of Pu-erh tea].

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao-Pan; Pan, Bo; Wu, Zhen; Zhao, Yun-Fang; Tu, Peng-Fei; Zheng, Jiao

    2017-06-01

    Pu-erh tea has gradually aroused general concern with social development and people's enhanced awareness of health. Pu-erh tea is rich in multiple active constitute such as flavonoids, catechins, phenolic acids, flavanols polymer, purine alkaloids, and hydrolysable tannin as a microbial-fermented tea.It is reported that Pu-erh tea have a variety of pharmacologically activities, such as anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidative, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-viral effects. In this paper, the main pharmacological effects of Pu-erh tea are reviewed. We wish this work will provide some references and clues for further research of Pu-erh tea. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. Study unique artistic lopburi province for design brass tea set of bantahkrayang community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pliansiri, V.; Seviset, S.

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of this study were as follows: 1) to study the production process of handcrafted Brass Tea Set; and 2) to design and develop the handcrafted of Brass Tea Set. The process of design was started by mutual analytical processes and conceptual framework for product design, Quality Function Deployment, Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, Principles of Craft Design, and Principle of Reverse Engineering. The experts in field of both Industrial Product Design and Brass Handicraft Product, have evaluated the Brass Tea Set design and created prototype of Brass tea set by the sample of consumers who have ever bought the Brass Tea Set of Bantahkrayang Community on this research. The statistics methods used were percentage, mean ({{{\\overline X}} = }) and standard deviation (S.D.) 3. To assess consumer satisfaction toward of handcrafted Brass tea set was at the high level.

  14. Pheophorbide a Content and Chlorophyllase Activity in Green Tea.

    PubMed

    Kohata, K; Hanada, K; Yamauchi, Y; Horie, H

    1998-01-01

    We investigated the total content of pheophorbide a (PB a), which is sum of the contents of newly produced PB a, including PB a initially present and that converted from chlorophyllide a (Chd a) by the chlorophyllase reaction during incubation, in green tea samples, and found that the total content of PB a markedly increased in both Sencha and Matcha, compared with the initially present PB a content in each. This result demonstrates that chlorophyllase activity still remains in green tea, even after processing fresh green leaves. A comparison of the total contents of PB a produced during the incubation of chlorophyll a (Chl a) with Sencha and fresh green leaf acetone powder indicates that the ratio of chlorophyllase activity in Sencha and in fresh green leaves was about 1:20.

  15. Dissipation kinetics of bifenazate in tea under tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Satheshkumar, Annamalai; Senthurpandian, Velu Kalaipandian; Shanmugaselvan, Veilumuthu Anandham

    2014-02-15

    Field experiments were conducted during April and May of 2011 in Valparai, Coonoor and Gudalur (Tamil Nadu, India) to determine the residues of bifenazate in black tea. From this study, residue levels of bifenazate at different harvest intervals, persistence, dissipation pattern during processing, rate constant and half-life values were calculated. Residues of bifenazate dissipated exponentially after spraying and at Gudalur trial, on the 16th day after application residues were below the maximum residue level of 0.02 mg/kg set by the European Union. However, no residues were detected in the tea brew. Regression lines drawn for bifenazate showed that it followed first order dissipation kinetics. Half-life values varied from 1.03 to 1.36 days for bifenazate and a pre-harvest interval of 16 days is suggested. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A new antioxidant beverage produced with green tea and apple.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M

    2014-08-01

    Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages.

  17. Antioxidant effect of green tea on polymer gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, E. J. J.; Sathiyaraj, P.; Deena, T.; Kumar, D. S.

    2015-01-01

    Extract from Green Tea (GTE) acts as an antioxidant in acrylamide based polymer gel dosimeter. In this work, PAGAT gel was used for investigation of antioxidant effect of GTE.PAGAT was called PAGTEG (Polyacrylamide green tea extract gel dosimeter) after adding GTE. Free radicals in water cause pre polymerization of polymer gel before irradiation. Polyphenols from GTE are highly effective to absorb the free radicals in water. THPC is used as an antioxidant in polymer gel dosimeter but here we were replaced it by GTE and investigated its effect by spectrophotometer. GTE added PAGAT samples response was lower compared to THPC added sample. To increase the sensitivity of the PAGTEG, sugar was added. This study confirmed that THPC was a good antioxidant for polymer gel dosimeter. However, GTE also can be used as an antioxidant in polymer gel if use less quantity (GTE) and add sugar as sensitivity enhancer.

  18. Chitosan pretreatment for cotton dyeing with black tea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, J.; Díaz-García, P.; Montava, I.; Bonet-Aracil, M.; Bou-Belda, E.

    2017-10-01

    Chitosan is used in a wide range of applications due to its intrinsic properties. Chitosan is a biopolymer obtained from chitin and among their most important aspects highlights its bonding with cotton and its antibacterial properties. In this study two different molecular weight chitosan are used in the dyeing process of cotton with black tea to evaluate its influence. In order to evaluate the effect of the pretreatment with chitosan, DSC and reflection spectrophotometer analysis are performed. The curing temperature is evaluated by the DSC analysis of cotton fabric treated with 15 g/L of chitosan, whilst the enhancement of the dyeing is evaluated by the colorimetric coordinates and the K/S value obtained spectrophotometrically. This study shows the extent of improvement of the pretreatment with chitosan in dyeing with natural products as black tea.

  19. Health-Beneficial Phenolic Aldehyde in Antigonon leptopus Tea

    PubMed Central

    Mulabagal, Vanisree; Alexander-Lindo, Ruby L.; DeWitt, David L.; Nair, Muraleedharan G.

    2011-01-01

    Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus is used as a remedy for cold and pain relief in many countries. In this study, A. leptopus tea, prepared from the dried aerial parts, was evaluated for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) enzyme inhibitory activities. The tea as a dried extract inhibited LPO, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by 78%, 38% and 89%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract yielded a selective COX-2 enzyme inhibitory phenolic aldehyde, 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzaldehyde. Also, it showed LPO inhibitory activity by 68.3% at 6.25 μg/mL. Therefore, we have studied other hydroxy benzaldehydes and their methoxy analogs for LPO, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes inhibitory activities and found that compound 1 gave the highest COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activity as indicated by a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) at 9.7 μg/mL. The analogs showed only marginal LPO activity at 6.25 μg/mL. The hydroxy analogs 6, 7 and 9 showed 55%, 61% and 43% of COX-2 inhibition at 100 μg/mL. However, hydroxy benzaldehydes 3 and 12 showed selective COX-1 inhibition while compounds 4 and 10 gave little or no COX-2 enzyme inhibition at 100 μg/mL. At the same concentration, compounds 14, 21 and 22 inhibited COX-1 by 83, 85 and 70%, respectively. Similarly, compounds 18, 19 and 23 inhibited COX-2 by 68%, 72% and 70%, at 100 μg/mL. This is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from A. leptopus tea with selective COX-2 enzyme and LPO inhibitory activities. PMID:19454555

  20. Whistling Tea Kettles, Train Whistles, and Organ Pipes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    The object on the right-hand side of Fig. 1 is the whistling mechanism of an old-fashioned tea kettle. This started me thinking about similar devices in which a thin blade of air strikes a sharp wedge and a resonator is used to pick out specific frequencies. This note tells how I went about using the frequency spectrum application on a smartphone…

  1. Green Tea in Prevention and Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-01

    that polyphenols present in green tea especially its major constituent (-) epigallocatechin - 3- gallate ( EGCG ) possesses both cancer preventive and...androgen-sensitive 22Rv1 and androgen-insensitive PC-3 CaP cells. We found that intraperitoneal administration of EGCG resulted in significant inhibition...in tumor growth and serum PSA levels. Importantly, mice treated with EGCG exhibited a marked decrease in tumor proliferation along with significant

  2. Sustained Release Oral Nanoformulated Green Tea for Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    of EGCG : 457/168.9; • m/z transitions of ethyl gallate (internal standard): 168.9/124.9 Page 8 (A...with green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin -3- gallate . Cancer Res 2009; 69:1712-6. PMID: 19223530 3. Perez C, Sanchez A, Putnam D, Ting D, Langer R...We developed an HPLC method to determine the amount of EGCG encapsulated in the nanoparticles. HPLC analysis showed that chitosan nanoparticles can

  3. Antioxidant and antibacterial properties of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eric W C; Soh, Eu Ying; Tie, Pei Pei; Law, Yon Peng

    2011-10-01

    The role of non-polymeric phenolic (NP) and polymeric tannin (PT) constituents in the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of six brands of green, black, and herbal teas of Camellia sinensis were investigated. Total phenolic content (TPC) and ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity (AEAC) were assessed using the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, respectively. Minimum inhibitory dose (MID) against Gram-positive Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus, and Gram-negative. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was assessed using the disc-diffusion method. Teas were extracted with hot water successively three times for one hour each time. The extracts were fractionated using Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography to obtain the NP and PT constituents. Extraction yields ranged from 12 to 23%. Yields of NP fractions (70-81%) were much higher than those of PT fractions (1-11%), suggesting that the former are the major tea components. Ranking of antioxidant properties of extracts was green tea>black tea>herbal tea. For all six teas, antioxidant properties of PT fractions were significantly higher than extracts and NP fractions. Extracts and fractions of all six teas showed no activity against the three Gram-negative bacteria. Green teas inhibited all three Gram-positive bacteria with S. aureus being the least susceptible. Black and herbal teas inhibited the growth of M. luteus and B. cereus, but not S. aureus. The most potent were the PT fractions of Boh Cameron Highlands and Ho Yan Hor with MID of 0.01 and 0.03 mg/disc against M. luteus. Results suggested that NP constituents are major contributors to the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of teas of C. sinensis. Although PT constituents have stronger antioxidant and antibacterial properties, they constitute only a minor component of the teas.

  4. Proline-rich proteins moderate the inhibitory effect of tea on iron absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Seon; Miller, Dennis D

    2005-03-01

    Tea inhibits iron absorption in studies in which tea is given with radiolabeled iron to humans as a single dose. Our objective was to test the hypothesis that proline-rich proteins (PRPs) may act as a defense against this effect by forming complexes with tannins, thereby preventing them from inhibiting iron absorption. Two studies were conducted. In study 1, rats were given test solutions containing (59)FeCl(3) in water, tea, or tea + gelatin (T/G). In study 2, the rats were divided into 3 groups and assigned to one of 3 nutritionally complete diets: control, tea (5 g tea tannin/kg diet), or T/G (5 g tea tannin + 60 g gelatin/kg diet). Rats were fed the respective diets for 5 d and then given a single (59)Fe-labeled meal of the diet. Iron absorption was measured by whole-body retention of the (59)Fe over a 2-wk period. Iron absorption in study 1 was lower in the tea group (24 +/- 9.6%, P < 0.05) than in the T/G (42 +/- 19.4%) or water groups (50 +/- 7.5%). In study 2, iron absorption did not differ among the groups. Rats fed the tea diet had dramatic hypertrophy of the parotid salivary glands. Adding gelatin as a proxy for salivary PRPs to the tea eliminated the inhibitory effect of tea on iron absorption. The results suggest that PRPs, whether from salivary glands or diet, can protect against the inhibition of iron absorption by tea.

  5. Flavor characteristics of seven grades of black tea produced in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Alasalvar, Cesarettin; Topal, Bahar; Serpen, Arda; Bahar, Banu; Pelvan, Ebru; Gökmen, Vural

    2012-06-27

    Seven grades of black tea [high-quality black tea (grades 1-3) and low-quality black tea (grades 4-7)], processed by ÇAYKUR Tea Processing Plant (Rize, Turkey), were compared for their differences in descriptive sensory analysis (DSA), aroma-active compounds (volatile compounds), and taste-active compounds (sugar, organic acid, and free amino acid compositions). Ten flavor attributes such as 'after taste', 'astringency', 'bitter', 'caramel-like', 'floral/sweet', 'green/grassy', 'hay-like', 'malty', 'roasty', and 'seaweed' were identified. Intensities for a number of flavor attributes ('after taste', 'caramel-like', 'malty', and 'seaweed') were not significantly different (p > 0.05) among seven grades of black tea. A total of 57 compounds in seven grades of black tea (14 aldehydes, eight alcohols, eight ketones, two esters, four aromatic hydrocarbons, five aliphatic hydrocarbons, nine terpenes, two pyrazines, one furan, two acids, and two miscellaneous compounds) were tentatively identified. Of these, aldeyhdes comprised more than 50% to the total volatile compounds identified. In general, high-grade quality tea had more volatiles than low-grade quality tea. With respect to taste-active compounds, five sugars, six organic acids, and 18 free amino acids were positively identified in seven grades of black tea, of which fructose, tannic acid, and theanine predominated, respectively. Some variations (p < 0.05), albeit to different extents, were observed among volatile compounds, sugars, organic acids, and free amino acids in seven grades of black tea. The present study suggests that a certain flavor attributes correlate well with taste- and aroma-active compounds. High- and low-quality black teas should not be distinguished solely on the basis of their DSA and taste- and aroma-active compounds. The combination of taste-active compounds together with aroma-active compounds renders combination effects that provide the characteristic flavor of each grade of black tea.

  6. In vitro anticancer effects of insect tea in TCA8113 cells.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Li, Gui-Jie; Wang, Rui; Zhou, Ya-Lin; Sun, Peng; Zhao, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Insect tea is widely used a traditional drink or traditional Chinese medicine in China. This study was conducted with an aim to determine the in vitro anticancer effect of Insect tea in cancer cells. The anticancer effects of Insect tea were evaluated in human tongue carcinoma TCA8113 cells using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry analysis, nuclear staining with 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, and western bolt assay. At 200 μg/mL, Insect tea inhibited the growth of TCA8113 cells by 80.7%, which was higher than the inhibition caused by 100 μg/mL Insect tea but lower than that of 200 μg/mL green tea. Compared to the control cancer cells, Insect tea significantly (P<0.05) induced apoptosis as determined by DAPI staining and flow cytometry analysis results. Insect tea significantly induced apoptosis in cancer cells by upregulating BAX, CASP3, CASP9 and downregulating BCL2. Genes encoding nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were significantly downregulated by Insect tea, demonstrating its anti-inflammatory properties. Insect tea also exerted a great anti-metastasis effect on cancer cells as demonstrated by decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) genes and increased expression of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). The results showed that Insect tea has good in vitro anticancer effects in TCA8113 cells, like green tea.

  7. Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Julia A.; Wu, Anna H.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wong, Alvin S.; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. To date, observational data from prospective cohort studies investigating the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk are sparse and equivocal. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of Chinese men in Singapore, we investigated the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Methods Tea consumption data for 27,293 men were collected at baseline (between 1993 and 1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After an average of 11.2 years of follow-up, 298 men had developed prostate cancer. Proportional hazards regression methods were used to assess the associations between tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Results There was no association between daily green tea intake and prostate cancer risk, compared with no green tea intake [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.47]. For black tea, a statistically significant positive association and trend were observed for daily intake compared with no black tea intake (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03, 1.92; p for trend <0.01) Conclusions Few prospective data are available from populations that have both a high level and wide range of black and green tea intake; this study represents a unique opportunity to evaluate their individual effects on prostate cancer risk. Our findings support the notion that green tea intake does not protect against prostate cancer and that black tea intake may increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:22864870

  8. Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese.

    PubMed

    Montague, Julia A; Butler, Lesley M; Wu, Anna H; Genkinger, Jeanine M; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wong, Alvin S; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C

    2012-10-01

    Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. To date, observational data from prospective cohort studies investigating the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk are sparse and equivocal. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of Chinese men in Singapore, we investigated the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Tea consumption data for 27,293 men were collected at baseline (between 1993 and 1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After an average of 11.2 years of follow-up, 298 men had developed prostate cancer. Proportional hazards regression methods were used to assess the associations between tea intake and prostate cancer risk. There was no association between daily green tea intake and prostate cancer risk, compared with no green tea intake [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.47]. For black tea, a statistically significant positive association and trend were observed for daily intake compared with no black tea intake (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03, 1.92; p for trend <0.01) Few prospective data are available from populations that have both a high level and wide range of black and green tea intake; this study represents a unique opportunity to evaluate their individual effects on prostate cancer risk. Our findings support the notion that green tea intake does not protect against prostate cancer and that black tea intake may increase prostate cancer risk.

  9. Acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on lipoprotein oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, J M; Puddey, I B; Croft, K D; Burke, V; Mori, T A; Caccetta, R A; Beilin, L J

    2000-05-01

    Tea has been associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. One proposed mechanism of this risk reduction involves inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation in vivo by antioxidant polyphenolic compounds derived from tea. However, controlled interventions uniformly failed to show that ingestion of tea can inhibit LDL oxidation ex vivo. The absence of effects in previous studies may be due to the isolation of LDL particles from polyphenolic compounds that are present in the aqueous phase of serum. The objective of this study was to examine the acute effects of ingestion of black and green tea on ex vivo Cu(2+)-induced lipoprotein oxidation without prior isolation of lipoproteins from serum. The acute effects of 4 hot drinks-green tea and black tea (each at a dose equivalent to 4 standard cups), water matched to the teas for caffeine content, and water-were assessed in 20 healthy men by using a Latin-square design. The lag time to lipoprotein diene formation, slope of the propagation phase of the oxidation curve, and area under the oxidation curve were calculated. Urinary concentrations of 4-O-methylgallic acid were used as a marker of uptake and metabolism of polyphenolic compounds from tea. Significant increases in urinary 4-O-methylgallic acid for black and green tea (P < 0. 0001) were observed. Caffeine did not significantly influence lipoprotein oxidation. Compared with the water control, there was a greater lag time for black tea (5.4 +/- 2.9 min; P = 0.05) that was of borderline significance and a similar trend for green tea (4.4 +/- 2.8 min; P = 0.17). Slope and area under the oxidation curve were not altered. Black tea has a mild acute effect on ex vivo lipoprotein oxidation in human serum. 2000;71:-7.

  10. Potential use of tea extract as a complementary mouthwash: comparative evaluation of two commercial samples.

    PubMed

    Esimone, C O; Adikwu, M U; Nwafor, S V; Okolo, C O

    2001-10-01

    To evaluate the potential of using tea extracts as complementary mouthwash and to test the comparative efficacy of two commercial samples. A randomized controlled trial with 30 healthy human volunteers was carried out. The subjects were randomly assigned to 5 groups of 6 subjects per group. The ability of Ndu tea (from Cameroon) and Lipton tea (from Nigeria) to reduce colony forming units (CFU) in the liquid expectorated after 60 seconds of gargling from the mouth of the volunteers at 5 and 60 minutes were evaluated. These were compared to the values obtained from bank water and Minty Brett (thymol 0.047%), a standard antiseptic. University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. Thirty healthy human volunteers (18 males and 12 females, between 22-30 years of age) who met the eligibility requirement of being nonsmokers and not taking any other antimicrobial agent were selected for the study. Relative to the bank water, the results indicated that the hot water extract of both teas significantly (p < 0.05) reduced CFU per milliliter in the liquid expectorated after gargling at both 5 and 60 minutes. Minty Brett showed higher activity than both tea extracts; however, unlike Minty Brett both extracts still reduced the CFU per milliliter at time 60 minutes (an indication of longer duration of activity). The combination of the tea extracts with sodium lauryl sulfate (1.2% w/v), a surfactant and emulsifier, significantly increased the antimicrobial activity relative to each tea alone. Comparatively, the activity of Ndu tea was found to be slightly higher than that of Lipton tea but this was not significant (p < 0.05). Lipton and Ndu tea extracts potently reduced the CFU per milliliter. This activity was potentiated by sodium lauryl sulfate. Although Minty Brett had more potent antimicrobial activity, both tea extracts have longer duration of activity. The results indicate the potential usefulness of tea extracts as a complementary mouthwash.

  11. Evaluation of chemical property, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick teas.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guijie; Wang, Mingjia; Xie, Minhao; Wan, Peng; Chen, Dan; Hu, Bing; Ye, Hong; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Liu, Zhonghua

    2018-05-03

    Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) possesses various health-promoting functions. However, the available information regarding biological activity of polysaccharides from FBT (FBTPS) is still limited. In this work, the chemical property, cytotoxicity and antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo of FBTPS were evaluated. It was found that FBTPSs were typical acidic heteropolysaccharides mainly composed of Man, Rha, GalA, Glc, Gal and Ara with little molar content of Rib and GlcA. FBTPS showed little toxicity to human hepatic epithelial (L-02) cell. FBTPS exhibited antioxidant activities, including limited scavenging activity on DPPH free radicals (ranged from 54.3 ± 1.9 to 67.8 ± 2.5%), noticeable scavenging activity on superoxide radicals (over 85%), superior scavenging activity on ABTS radicals (near 100%), and protective effect on H 2 O 2 -induced oxidative injury in rat pheochromocytoma line 12 (PC12) cell. Moreover, FBTPS showed significant amelioration of high-fat diet-induced oxidative injury in mice. The results suggest that FBTPS, as natural safe antioxidants, may have potential application in functional foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. In vitro analysis of the properties of Beiqishen tea.

    PubMed

    Blázovics, A; Szentmihályi, K; Lugasi, A; Balázs, A; Hagymási, K; Bányai, E; Then, M; Rapavi, E; Héthelyi, E

    2003-10-01

    Chinese Beiqishen tea was studied in an in vitro test system. Phytochemical screening, trace element analysis, and the analysis of antioxidant properties were carried out. Characteristic constituents were determined by chromatographic (capillary gas chromatography and GCQ Ion Trap mass spectrometry) and spectrometric (ultraviolet and UV-VIS) methods. Element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Antioxidant capacity was studied by spectrophotometric and luminometric techniques using a Berthold Lumat 9501 luminometer. Hydrogen-donating activity, reducing power, and total scavenger capacity were measured. Total polyphenol content was 20.77 +/- 0.52 g/100 g of drug; total flavonoid content was 0.485 +/- 0.036 g/100 g of drug; and tannin content was 9.063 +/- 0.782 g/100 g of drug. Caffeine content was 1.08 mg/100 g of drug. Essential oils were identified by gas chromatography: (+)-limonene (21%), p-cymene (1.7%), estragol (3.2%), beta-ocimene (1.4%), and thymol (2.6%). Metallic ion analysis showed significantly high concentrations of Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Ti in the drug. Antioxidant and scavenger properties were identified as a function of concentration. The tea infusion contained some non-desirable trace elements and caffeine in addition to polyphenols and tannins in high concentrations. Therefore, the consumption of this tea may involve risks.

  13. A Bio-Inspired Herbal Tea Flavour Assessment Technique

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Nur Zawatil Isqi; Masnan, Maz Jamilah; Zakaria, Ammar; Shakaff, Ali Yeon Md

    2014-01-01

    Herbal-based products are becoming a widespread production trend among manufacturers for the domestic and international markets. As the production increases to meet the market demand, it is very crucial for the manufacturer to ensure that their products have met specific criteria and fulfil the intended quality determined by the quality controller. One famous herbal-based product is herbal tea. This paper investigates bio-inspired flavour assessments in a data fusion framework involving an e-nose and e-tongue. The objectives are to attain good classification of different types and brands of herbal tea, classification of different flavour masking effects and finally classification of different concentrations of herbal tea. Two data fusion levels were employed in this research, low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. Four classification approaches; LDA, SVM, KNN and PNN were examined in search of the best classifier to achieve the research objectives. In order to evaluate the classifiers' performance, an error estimator based on k-fold cross validation and leave-one-out were applied. Classification based on GC-MS TIC data was also included as a comparison to the classification performance using fusion approaches. Generally, KNN outperformed the other classification techniques for the three flavour assessments in the low level data fusion and intermediate level data fusion. However, the classification results based on GC-MS TIC data are varied. PMID:25010697

  14. Green tea and cocoa enhance cognition in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    Swinton, Erin; de Freitas, Emily; Swinton, Cayley; Shymansky, Tamila; Hiles, Emily; Zhang, Jack; Rothwell, Cailin; Lukowiak, Ken

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT A flavonoid, (-)-epicatechi (Epi), enhances long-term memory (LTM) formation in Lymnaea and reverses memory obstruction caused by stress. Many foods contain substantial amounts of Epi, (e.g. green tea and cocoa). In humans eating such foods may directly or indirectly enhance cognition. We directly test whether operant conditioning training Lymnaea in these natural foods result in the same effects as training snails in pure Epi. We found that exposure to products containing high concentrations of Epi (e.g. green tea and cocoa) during training enhanced memory formation and could even reverse a learning and memory deficit brought about by stress. Epi can be photo-inactivated by exposure to ultraviolet light. We found that following photo-inactivation of Epi, memory enhancement did not occur. Photo-inactivation of foods containing Epi (e,g. green tea) blocked their ability to enhance LTM. Our data are thus consistent with the hypothesis that dietary sources of Epi can have positive benefits on cognitive ability and be able to reverse memory aversive states. PMID:29497476

  15. Chamomile tea: herbal hypoglycemic alternative for conventional medicine.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saira Saeed; Najam, Rahila; Anser, Humera; Riaz, Bushra; Alam, Nausheen

    2014-09-01

    Chamomile is considered as one of the oldest and also documented as medicinal plant. It has shown to be an anti-inflammatory, astringent and antioxidant especially in floral part since ancient times. Recent studies reported that chamomile has potential to lower blood sugar levels in hyperglycemia. In the present study we have investigated the pharmacological effects of chamomile tea on fasting and post prandial glucose levels and HbA1C in blood of diabetic rats (alloxan induced) and the results were compared with glibenclamide as standard. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. It has been observed in our study that it has reduced progressively the fasting and post prandial blood sugar levels, significantly in alloxan induced diabetic rats particularly on day 30 and 60. It also reduced the level of HbA1C significantly at the end of the study and the effects were similar to that of the standard group. Chamomile tea administration has also controlled the reduction in weight in diabetic rats as compared to diabetic control and the results were not very much different from standard. Results from the present study indicate that chamomile tea have a glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats so its daily consumption can be potentially useful in hyperglycemia and it can be used as a substitute of conventional drug treatment. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the exact molecular mechanism involved in anti-diabetic action of chamomile.

  16. A physiological model of tea-induced astringency.

    PubMed

    Nayak, A; Carpenter, G H

    2008-10-20

    The mechanism by which solutions containing polyphenols are perceived as astringent is not clearly understood. Salivary proline-rich proteins and histatins are products of salivary glands and rapidly bind polyphenols - thought to be the main astringent compound in such as tea and wine. However it is unclear how this interaction leads to the altered oral mouthfeel known as astringency which is characterised by a dry, puckered feeling all around the mouth. To determine the role of saliva in the perception of astringency a protocol was used to decrease the volume of saliva from the mouth (by washing with water) and then by chewing to increase the volume of saliva above resting levels. Following each of these conditions subjects tasted the same solution of black tea and were asked to rate the relative astringency. Compared to the astringency rating of black tea at rest the majority of subjects (10 out of 15) perceived an increase in astringency following washing the mouth with water. Most subjects then perceived a decrease in astringency following chewing compared to the previous state. In all subjects a reduction in salivary proteins was detected following water washout and an increase above resting levels detected following chewing although there was no change in oral mucosal wetness. A separate experiment revealed several of the proteins interacting following the water washout were salivary in origin. We conclude that salivary proteins in solution inhibit the mouthfeeling of astringency which is mediated, at least in part, by salivary proteins adhered to buccal mucosal cells.

  17. Phosphate stresses affect ionome and metabolome in tea plants.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhaotang; Jia, Sisi; Wang, Yu; Xiao, Jun; Zhang, Yinfei

    2017-11-01

    In order to study the response of tea plants to P stress, we conducted the ionomic and metabolomic analysis by ICP-OES, GC-MS and LC-MS. The results demonstrated that P was antagonistic with S, and was cooperative with Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe under P-deficiency. However, P was antagonistic with Mn, Fe and S, and was cooperative with Cu and Zn under P-excess. Moreover, P-deficiency or excess reduced the syntheses of flavonoids and phosphorylated metabolites. P-deficiency decreased the amount of glutamate and increased the content of glutamine, while P-excess decreased the content of glutamine. Besides, P-deficiency increased three organic acids and decreased three organic acids. P-excess increased the contents of malic acid, oxalic acid, ribonic acid and etc. involved in primary metabolism, but decreased the contents of p-coumaric acid, indoleacrylic acid, related to secondary metabolism. Furthermore, the contents of Mn and Zn were found to be positively related to the amounts of myricetin and quercetin, and the content of Mn to be positively related to the amount of arabinose. The results implied that the P stresses severely disturbed the metabolism of minerals and metabolites in tea plants, which influenced the yield and quality of tea. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. [Role of green tea in oxidative stress prevention].

    PubMed

    Metro, D; Muraca, U; Manasseri, L

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or by a shortage of the mechanisms of cellular protection and antioxidant defence. ROS have a potential oxidative effect towards various cellular macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, proteoglycans, lipids, with consequent damages in several cellular districts and promotion of the ageing process of the organism. However, some substances are able to prevent and/or reduce the damages caused by ROS; therefore, they are defined antioxidant. The present research studied, in a group of subjects, the antioxidant effects of the green tea, that was administered with fruit and vegetables in a strictly controlled diet. 50 subjects were selected and requested to daily consume 2-3 fruit portions (especially pineapple), 3-5 portions of vegetables (especially tomato) and 2-3 glasses of green tea for about 2 months to integrate the controlled basic diet. Some indicators of the oxidative stress were measured in the plasma before and after the integration period. The integration of a basic diet with supplements of fruit, vegetables and green tea turned out to be able in increasing both plasmatic total antioxidant capacity and endogenous antioxidant levels and to reduce the lipid peroxidation of the membranes, suggesting a reduction of the oxidative stress. These data suggest that an adequate supplement of antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress and correlated pathologies.

  19. Tea, cocoa, coffee, and affective disorders: vicious or virtuous cycle?

    PubMed

    García-Blanco, Tatiana; Dávalos, Alberto; Visioli, Francesco

    2017-12-15

    The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is increasing worldwide, which underscores the importance of increasing research in this field, in terms of better detection, prevention based on improvement of lifestyle and diet, and effectiveness of treatment. Increasing evidence suggest that diet and exercise can affect proper neuronal development and physiology and protect the brain from neurological illnesses or injuries. Of note, cocoa, tea, and coffee are being actively investigated because they are rich in (poly)phenolic compounds that can modulate mental health, namely brain plasticity, behavior, mood, depression, and cognition. We here systematically review human studies conducted on tea, cocoa, and coffee as related to affective disorders such as depression and anxiety. We carried out a systematic literature search in April 2016, using MEDLINE, on data from the last 10 years. After screening 955 articles, we selected 17 articles that met the criteria of being human studies and that used whole foods or their components. The results of our systematic review indicate that consumption of tea, cocoa, or coffee might have protective effects against depression. Even though this is encouraging, it should be underscored that the near totality of the current evidence comes from observational studies. Ad-hoc human trials and mechanistic, basic science studies are needed before we can provide sound advice to the public. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Indications for Three Independent Domestication Events for the Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) and New Insights into the Origin of Tea Germplasm in China and India Revealed by Nuclear Microsatellites

    PubMed Central

    Meegahakumbura, M. K.; Wambulwa, M. C.; Thapa, K. K.; Li, M. M.; Möller, M.; Xu, J. C.; Yang, J. B.; Liu, B. Y.; Ranjitkar, S.; Liu, J.; Li, D. Z.; Gao, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tea is the world’s most popular non-alcoholic beverage. China and India are known to be the largest tea producing countries and recognized as the centers for the domestication of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). However, molecular studies on the origin, domestication and relationships of the main teas, China type, Assam type and Cambod type are lacking. Methodology/Principal Findings Twenty-three nuclear microsatellite markers were used to investigate the genetic diversity, relatedness, and domestication history of cultivated tea in both China and India. Based on a total of 392 samples, high levels of genetic diversity were observed for all tea types in both countries. The cultivars clustered into three distinct genetic groups (i.e. China tea, Chinese Assam tea and Indian Assam tea) based on STRUCTURE, PCoA and UPGMA analyses with significant pairwise genetic differentiation, corresponding well with their geographical distribution. A high proportion (30%) of the studied tea samples were shown to possess genetic admixtures of different tea types suggesting a hybrid origin for these samples, including the Cambod type. Conclusions We demonstrate that Chinese Assam tea is a distinct genetic lineage from Indian Assam tea, and that China tea sampled from India was likely introduced from China directly. Our results further indicate that China type tea, Chinese Assam type tea and Indian Assam type tea are likely the result of three independent domestication events from three separate regions across China and India. Our findings have important implications for the conservation of genetic stocks, as well as future breeding programs. PMID:27218820

  1. Low-dose green tea intake reduces incidence of atrial fibrillation in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-Chen; Yan, Jian-Jun; Wang, You-Nan; Wang, Ze-Mu; Xie, Zhi-Yong; Ma, Yao; Yang, Yang; Yang, Li; Wang, Lian-Sheng

    2016-12-20

    The aim of the p