Lateral manipulation and interplay of local Kondo resonances in a two-impurity Kondo system
Ren, Jindong; Wu, Xu; Guo, Haiming Pan, Jinbo; Du, Shixuan; Gao, Hong-Jun; Luo, Hong-Gang
2015-08-17
The atomic-scale spatial relationship of a two-impurity Kondo system has been determined at varying lateral distance by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy. The localized spins of two cobalt magnetic adatoms that are placed on different electrodes of an STM form two individual Kondo singlet states, each showing quite different Kondo coupling, i.e., the tip-Kondo with low Kondo temperature and the sample-Kondo with high Kondo temperature. The differential conductance dI/dV spectra show the continuous changes of the resonance peak feature when approaching the Kondo tip laterally to the local sample-Kondo impurity on the surface. The result indicates a notable interplay between these two Kondo systems. We propose a convolution model based on the q factor of the sample-Kondo (q{sub s}) and tip-Kondo (q{sub t}) to interpret the change of various tunneling channels and the evolution of the experimental spectra.
Nuclear magnetic resonance in Kondo lattice systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curro, Nicholas J.
2016-06-01
Nuclear magnetic resonance has emerged as a vital tool to explore the fundamental physics of Kondo lattice systems. Because nuclear spins experience two different hyperfine couplings to the itinerant conduction electrons and to the local f moments, the Knight shift can probe multiple types of spin correlations that are not accessible via other techniques. The Knight shift provides direct information about the onset of heavy electron coherence and the emergence of the heavy electron fluid.
Influence of organic ligands on the line shape of the Kondo resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer, Jörg; Ohmann, Robin; Nickel, Anja; Toher, Cormac; Gresser, Roland; Leo, Karl; Ryndyk, Dmitry A.; Moresco, Francesca; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio
2016-04-01
The Kondo resonance of an organic molecule containing a Co atom is investigated by scanning tunneling spectroscopy and ab initio calculations on a Ag(100) surface. High resolution mapping of the line shape shows evidence of local nonradially symmetric variations of the Fano factor and the Kondo amplitude, revealing a strong influence of the molecular ligand. We show that the decay of the amplitude of the Kondo resonance is determined by the spatial distribution of the ligand's orbital being hybridized with the singly occupied Co dz2 orbital, forming together the singly occupied Kondo-active orbital.
Kondo effect and non-Fermi-liquid behavior in Dirac and Weyl semimetals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Principi, Alessandro; Vignale, Giovanni; Rossi, E.
2015-07-01
We study the Kondo effect in three-dimensional (3D) Dirac materials and Weyl semimetals. We find the scaling of the Kondo temperature with respect to the doping n and the coupling J between the moment of the magnetic impurity and the carriers of the semimetal. We consider the interplay of long-range scalar disorder and Kondo screening and find that it causes the Kondo effect to be characterized not by a Kondo temperature, but by a distribution of Kondo temperatures with features that cause the appearance of strong non-Fermi-liquid behavior. We then consider the effect of Kondo screening, and of the interplay of Kondo screening and long-range scalar disorder, on the transport properties of Weyl semimetals. Finally, we compare the properties of the Kondo effect in 3D and 2D Dirac materials such as graphene and topological insulators.
Self-sustained oscillations in nanoelectromechanical systems induced by Kondo resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Taegeun; Kiselev, Mikhail N.; Kikoin, Konstantin; Shekhter, Robert I.; Gorelik, Leonid Y.
2014-03-01
We investigate the instability and dynamical properties of nanoelectromechanical systems represented by a single-electron device containing movable quantum dots attached to a vibrating cantilever via asymmetric tunnel contacts. The Kondo resonance in electron tunneling between the source and shuttle facilitates self-sustained oscillations originating from the strong coupling of mechanical and electronic/spin degrees of freedom. We analyze a stability diagram for the two-channel Kondo shuttling regime due to limitations given by the electromotive force acting on a moving shuttle, and find that the saturation oscillation amplitude is associated with the retardation effect of the Kondo cloud. The results shed light on possible ways to experimentally realize the Kondo-cloud dynamical probe by using high mechanical dissipation tunability as well as supersensitive detection of mechanical displacement.
Kondo effect in alkaline-earth-metal atomic gases with confinement-induced resonances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ren; Zhang, Deping; Cheng, Yanting; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Peng; Zhai, Hui
2016-04-01
Alkaline-earth-metal atoms have a long-lived electronic excited state, and when atoms in this excited state are localized in the Fermi sea of ground-state atoms by an external potential, they serve as magnetic impurities, due to the spin-exchange interaction between the excited- and the ground-state atoms. This can give rise to the Kondo effect. However, in order to achieve this effect in current atomic gas experiments, it requires the Kondo temperature to be increased to a sizable portion of the Fermi temperature. In this paper we calculate the confinement-induced resonance (CIR) for the spin-exchanging interaction between the ground and the excited states of the alkaline-earth-metal atoms and propose that the spin-exchange interaction can be strongly enhanced by utilizing the CIR. We analyze this system by the renormalization-group approach and show that near a CIR, the Kondo temperature can be significantly enhanced.
Understanding the Kondo resonance in the d-CoPc/Au(111) adsorption system.
Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong
2014-08-28
By combining the density functional theory (DFT) and a hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach, we investigate the Kondo phenomena in a composite system consisting of a dehydrogenated cobalt phthalocyanine molecule (d-CoPc) adsorbed on an Au(111) surface. DFT calculations are performed to determine the ground-state geometric and electronic structures of the adsorption system. It is found that the singly occupied dz(2) orbital of Co forms a localized spin, which could be screened by the substrate conduction electrons. This screening leads to the prominent Kondo features as observed in the scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We then employ the HEOM approach to characterize the Kondo correlations of the adsorption system. The calculated temperature-dependent differential conductance spectra and the predicted Kondo temperature agree well with the experiments, and the universal Kondo scaling behavior is correctly reproduced. This work thus provides important insights into the relevant experiments, and it also highlights the applicability of the combined DFT+HEOM approach to the studies of strongly correlated condensed matter systems. PMID:25173036
Understanding the Kondo resonance in the d-CoPc/Au(111) adsorption system
Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong
2014-08-28
By combining the density functional theory (DFT) and a hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach, we investigate the Kondo phenomena in a composite system consisting of a dehydrogenated cobalt phthalocyanine molecule (d-CoPc) adsorbed on an Au(111) surface. DFT calculations are performed to determine the ground-state geometric and electronic structures of the adsorption system. It is found that the singly occupied d{sub z{sup 2}} orbital of Co forms a localized spin, which could be screened by the substrate conduction electrons. This screening leads to the prominent Kondo features as observed in the scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We then employ the HEOM approach to characterize the Kondo correlations of the adsorption system. The calculated temperature-dependent differential conductance spectra and the predicted Kondo temperature agree well with the experiments, and the universal Kondo scaling behavior is correctly reproduced. This work thus provides important insights into the relevant experiments, and it also highlights the applicability of the combined DFT+HEOM approach to the studies of strongly correlated condensed matter systems.
Understanding the Kondo resonance in the d-CoPc/Au(111) adsorption system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao; Li, Bin; Yang, Jinlong
2014-08-01
By combining the density functional theory (DFT) and a hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach, we investigate the Kondo phenomena in a composite system consisting of a dehydrogenated cobalt phthalocyanine molecule (d-CoPc) adsorbed on an Au(111) surface. DFT calculations are performed to determine the ground-state geometric and electronic structures of the adsorption system. It is found that the singly occupied d_{z^2} orbital of Co forms a localized spin, which could be screened by the substrate conduction electrons. This screening leads to the prominent Kondo features as observed in the scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. We then employ the HEOM approach to characterize the Kondo correlations of the adsorption system. The calculated temperature-dependent differential conductance spectra and the predicted Kondo temperature agree well with the experiments, and the universal Kondo scaling behavior is correctly reproduced. This work thus provides important insights into the relevant experiments, and it also highlights the applicability of the combined DFT+HEOM approach to the studies of strongly correlated condensed matter systems.
Sub-molecular modulation of a 4f driven Kondo resonance by surface-induced asymmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warner, Ben; El Hallak, Fadi; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Seibt, Philipp; Pruser, Henning; Caciuc, Vasile; Waters, Michael; Fisher, Andrew J.; Blugel, Stefan; van Slageren, Joris; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.
Coupling between a magnetic impurity and an external bath can give rise to many-body quantum phenomena, including Kondo and Hund's Impurity states in metals, and Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in superconductors. While advances have been made in probing the magnetic properties of d-shell impurities on surfaces, the confinement of f orbitals makes them much more difficult to access directly. Here we show that a 4f driven Kondo resonance can be modulated spatially by asymmetric coupling between a metallic surface and a molecule containing a 4f-like moment. Strong hybridisation of dysprosium double-decker phthalocyanine (DyPc2) with Cu(001) induces Kondo screening of the central magnetic moment. Misalignment between the symmetry axes of the molecule and the surface induces asymmetry in the molecule's electronic structure, spatially mediating electronic access to the magnetic moment through the Kondo resonance. This work demonstrates the important role that molecular ligands play in mediating electronic and magnetic coupling and in accessing many-body quantum states.
Blocking transport resonances via Kondo many-body entanglement in quantum dots
Niklas, Michael; Smirnov, Sergey; Mantelli, Davide; Margańska, Magdalena; Nguyen, Ngoc-Viet; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Cleuziou, Jean-Pierre; Grifoni, Milena
2016-01-01
Many-body entanglement is at the heart of the Kondo effect, which has its hallmark in quantum dots as a zero-bias conductance peak at low temperatures. It signals the emergence of a conducting singlet state formed by a localized dot degree of freedom and conduction electrons. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to study the emergence of the Kondo entanglement by tuning many-body correlations with a gate voltage. Here we show another side of Kondo correlations, which counterintuitively tend to block conduction channels: inelastic co-tunnelling lines in the magnetospectrum of a carbon nanotube strikingly disappear when tuning the gate voltage. Considering the global SU(2) ⊗ SU(2) symmetry of a nanotube coupled to leads, we find that only resonances involving flips of the Kramers pseudospins, associated to this symmetry, are observed at temperatures and voltages below the corresponding Kondo scale. Our results demonstrate the robust formation of entangled many-body states with no net pseudospin. PMID:27526870
Blocking transport resonances via Kondo many-body entanglement in quantum dots.
Niklas, Michael; Smirnov, Sergey; Mantelli, Davide; Margańska, Magdalena; Nguyen, Ngoc-Viet; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Cleuziou, Jean-Pierre; Grifoni, Milena
2016-01-01
Many-body entanglement is at the heart of the Kondo effect, which has its hallmark in quantum dots as a zero-bias conductance peak at low temperatures. It signals the emergence of a conducting singlet state formed by a localized dot degree of freedom and conduction electrons. Carbon nanotubes offer the possibility to study the emergence of the Kondo entanglement by tuning many-body correlations with a gate voltage. Here we show another side of Kondo correlations, which counterintuitively tend to block conduction channels: inelastic co-tunnelling lines in the magnetospectrum of a carbon nanotube strikingly disappear when tuning the gate voltage. Considering the global SU(2) ⊗ SU(2) symmetry of a nanotube coupled to leads, we find that only resonances involving flips of the Kramers pseudospins, associated to this symmetry, are observed at temperatures and voltages below the corresponding Kondo scale. Our results demonstrate the robust formation of entangled many-body states with no net pseudospin. PMID:27526870
Rakhmilevitch, D; Korytár, R; Bagrets, A; Evers, F; Tal, O
2014-12-01
The interaction of individual electrons with vibrations has been extensively studied. However, the nature of electron-vibration interaction in the presence of many-body electron correlations such as a Kondo state has not been fully investigated. Here, we present transport measurements on a Copper-phthalocyanine molecule, suspended between two silver electrodes in a break-junction setup. Our measurements reveal both zero bias and satellite conductance peaks, which are identified as Kondo resonances with a similar Kondo temperature. The relation of the satellite peaks to electron-vibration interaction is corroborated using several independent spectroscopic indications, as well as ab initio calculations. Further analysis reveals that the contribution of vibration-induced inelastic current is significant in the presence of a Kondo resonance. PMID:25526145
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Dong-Ming
2015-10-01
We present nonequilibrium Green function calculations for electronic transport through a laterally coupled carbon-nanotube quantum-dot system. In this system, a one-dimensional double carbon nanotube quantum dot attached to polarised electrodes forms a main channel for electronic tunnelling. Each carbon nanotube quantum dot in the main channel couples to a dangling carbon nanotube quantum dot. Then, the conductance spectrum is calculated. The insulating band and resonance peak in this spectrum, due to Fano antiresonance and Kondo resonance, are discussed. The intradot electron's Coulomb interaction effect on the insulating band is also investigated. By controlling the coupling coefficient between the quantum dots, we can realise mutual transformation between Kondo resonance and Fano antiresonance at the Fermi level. The spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field's influence on the Kondo resonance peak are discussed in detail. Finally, spin magnetic moment and orbital magnetic moment of electrons in the quantum dot by applying parallel magnetic field are also predicted.
Mapping itinerant electrons around Kondo impurities.
Prüser, H; Wenderoth, M; Weismann, A; Ulbrich, R G
2012-04-20
We investigate single Fe and Co atoms buried below a Cu(100) surface using low temperature scanning tunneling spectroscopy. By mapping the local density of states of the itinerant electrons at the surface, the Kondo resonance near the Fermi energy is analyzed. Probing bulk impurities in this well-defined scattering geometry allows separating the physics of the Kondo system and the measuring process. The line shape of the Kondo signature shows an oscillatory behavior as a function of depth of the impurity as well as a function of lateral distance. The oscillation period along the different directions reveals that the spectral function of the itinerant electrons is anisotropic. PMID:22680744
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bernal, Oscar Orlando
The intermetallic Kondo alloy system UCu _{5-x}Pd_{x } is one of a number of recently-discovered Kondo materials which exhibit deviations from Fermi liquid behavior in their thermodynamic and transport properties down to micro-Kelvin temperatures. Studying local electronic structure by nuclear magnetic resonance techniques (NMR) in this unconventional system, we find anomalous behavior of NMR parameters versus magnetic susceptibility chi in UCu_4Pd and UCu_{3.5}Pd_ {1.5}. Metallic alloys containing magnetic impurities usually display a linear relation between the susceptibility and the Knight shift and its distribution, the magnetic broadening. In UCu_{5 -x}Pd_{x}, as the temperature is lowered, it is found that for both concentrations the magnetic broadening of the ^{63}Cu NMR spectra grows non-linearly with respect to chi, reaching enhancements at the lowest temperatures of ~100% over the values expected from a high-temperature linear relation. Enhancement of the linewidth over the susceptibility might indicate the possibility of U-spin freezing, as observed in some dilute Kondo alloys. The absence of any anomalies in either the specific heat or the magnetic susceptibility of these samples suggests, however, that spin freezing does not account for the observations, and that the enhancement is related to intrinsic behavior of the paramagnetic alloys. Smaller but similar anomalies are found for the isotropic and axial components of the Knight shift {cal K} as functions chi in the two materials. {cal K} presents a linear relation with chi only down to ~30 K. Below this temperature, the absolute value of the Knight-shift components grows more slowly than would be expected from extrapolating their high temperature behavior, suggesting temperature-dependent transferred-hyperfine fields at the Cu sites or a temperature-dependent lineshape asymmetry. We interpret these observations in terms of disorder of the density of conduction-electron states (DOS). A simple model of
Emergent Kondo Lattice Behavior in Iron-Based Superconductors A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, Cs)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Y. P.; Zhao, D.; Wang, A. F.; Wang, N. Z.; Xiang, Z. J.; Luo, X. G.; Wu, T.; Chen, X. H.
2016-04-01
Here, we experimentally study the origin of d -electron heavy fermion (HF) behavior in iron-based superconductors (FeSCs) A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, Cs). Nuclear magnetic resonance on 75As reveals a universal coherent-incoherent crossover with a characteristic temperature T*. Below T*, a so-called "Knight shift anomaly" is first observed in FeSCs, which exhibits a scaling behavior similar to f -electron HF materials. Furthermore, the scaling rule also regulates the manifestation of magnetic fluctuation. These results undoubtedly support an emergent Kondo lattice scenario for the d -electron HF behavior, which qualifies the A Fe2As2 (A =K , Rb, Cs) as d -electron HF superconductors.
Emergent Kondo Lattice Behavior in Iron-Based Superconductors AFe_{2}As_{2} (A=K, Rb, Cs).
Wu, Y P; Zhao, D; Wang, A F; Wang, N Z; Xiang, Z J; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Chen, X H
2016-04-01
Here, we experimentally study the origin of d-electron heavy fermion (HF) behavior in iron-based superconductors (FeSCs) AFe_{2}As_{2} (A=K, Rb, Cs). Nuclear magnetic resonance on ^{75}As reveals a universal coherent-incoherent crossover with a characteristic temperature T^{*}. Below T^{*}, a so-called "Knight shift anomaly" is first observed in FeSCs, which exhibits a scaling behavior similar to f-electron HF materials. Furthermore, the scaling rule also regulates the manifestation of magnetic fluctuation. These results undoubtedly support an emergent Kondo lattice scenario for the d-electron HF behavior, which qualifies the AFe_{2}As_{2} (A=K, Rb, Cs) as d-electron HF superconductors. PMID:27104721
4 f excitations in Ce Kondo lattices studied by resonant inelastic x-ray scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amorese, A.; Dellea, G.; Fanciulli, M.; Seiro, S.; Geibel, C.; Krellner, C.; Makarova, I. P.; Braicovich, L.; Ghiringhelli, G.; Vyalikh, D. V.; Brookes, N. B.; Kummer, K.
2016-04-01
The potential of resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering to measure 4 f crystal electric-field excitation spectra in Ce Kondo lattices has been examined. Spectra have been obtained for several Ce systems and show a well-defined structure determined by crystal-field, spin-orbit, and charge-transfer excitations only. The spectral shapes of the excitation spectra can be well understood in the framework of atomic multiplet calculations. For CeCu2Si2 we found notable disagreement between the inelastic x-ray-scattering spectra and theoretical calculations when using the crystal-field scheme proposed from inelastic neutron scattering. Modified sets of crystal-field parameters yield better agreement. Our results also show that, with the very recent improvements of soft x-ray spectrometers in resolution to below 30 meV at the Ce M4 ,5 edges, resonant inelastic x-ray scattering could be an ideal tool to determine the crystal-field scheme in Ce Kondo lattices and other rare-earth compounds.
Goker, A
2015-05-01
We study the optical absorption of a system consisting of a diatomic molecule that exhibits strong electron correlations coupled to metal nanoparticles possessing plasmon resonances by invoking the time-dependent non-crossing approximation. We investigate the evolution of the Fano resonance arising from the plasmon-exciton coupling when both atoms are Coulomb blockaded. We found that the Fano resonance rapidly dwindles as the ambient temperature exceeds the Kondo temperature of the singly occupied discrete state with higher energy and vanishes entirely at elevated temperatures. Our results show that even boosting the plasmon-exciton coupling above this temperature scale fails to revive the Fano resonance. We propose a microscopic model that accounts for these results. We suggest that a possible remedy for observation of the Fano resonance at high ambient temperatures is to position the singly occupied discrete state with the higher energy as close as possible to the Fermi level of the contacts while keeping the emitter resonance constant to prevent the merger of the Fano and plasmon resonances. PMID:25858207
Surface-Supported Hydrocarbon π Radicals Show Kondo Behavior
2013-01-01
Stable hydrocarbon radicals are utilized as spin standards and prototype metal-free molecular magnets able to withstand ambient conditions. Our study presents experimental results obtained with submolecular resolution by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy from monomers and dimers of stable hydrocarbon π radicals adsorbed on the Au(111) surface at 7–50 K. We provide conclusive evidence of the preservation of the radical spin-1/2 state, aiming to establish α,γ-bisdiphenylene-β-phenylallyl (BDPA) on Au(111) as a novel Kondo system, where the impurity spin is localized in a metal-free π molecular orbital of a neutral radical state in gas phase preserved on a metal support. PMID:23539333
Magnetic ordering and non-Fermi-liquid behavior in the multichannel Kondo-lattice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irkhin, Valentin Yu.
2016-05-01
Scaling equations for the Kondo lattice in the paramagnetic and magnetically ordered phases are derived to next-leading order with account of spin dynamics. The results are applied to describe various mechanisms of the non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior in the multichannel Kondo-lattice model where a fixed point occurs in the weak-coupling region. The corresponding temperature dependences of electronic and magnetic properties are discussed. The model describes naturally formation of a magnetic state with soft boson mode and small moment value. An important role of Van Hove singularities in the magnon spectral function is demonstrated. The results are rather sensitive to the type of magnetic ordering and space dimensionality, the conditions for NFL behavior being more favorable in the antiferromagnetic and 2D cases.
Kondo-type behavior of the Ru4 + lattice in LaCu3Ru4O12
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riegg, S.; Widmann, S.; Meir, B.; Sterz, S.; Günther, A.; Büttgen, N.; Ebbinghaus, S. G.; Reller, A.; von Nidda, H.-A. Krug; Loidl, A.
2016-03-01
Rare d -electron-derived heavy-fermion properties of the solid-solution series LaCu3RuxTi4 -xO12 were studied for 1 ≤x ≤4 by resistivity, susceptibility, specific-heat measurements, and magnetic-resonance techniques. Our results suggest the existence of a coherent Kondo lattice formed by localized Ru 4 d electrons leading to strongly enhanced effective electron masses. Pure ruthenate (x =4 ) is a heavy-fermion metal characterized by a resistivity proportional to T2 at low temperatures T . By increasing titanium substitution the coherent Fermi-liquid state is disturbed, yielding single-ion Kondo-type properties as in the paradigm 4 f -based heavy-fermion compound CexLa1 -xCu2.05Si2 [M. Ocko et al., Phys. Rev. B 64, 195106 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevB.64.195106]. In LaCu3RuxTi4 -xO12 the heavy-fermion behavior finally breaks down upon crossing the metal-to-insulator transition close to x =2 .
Interplay of localized and itinerant behavior in the one-dimensional Kondo-Heisenberg model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Neng; Yang, Yi-feng
2015-05-01
We use the density matrix renormalization group method to study the interplay of the localized and itinerant behaviors in the one-dimensional Kondo-Heisenberg model. We find signatures of simultaneously localized and itinerant behaviors of the local spins and attribute this duality to their simultaneous entanglement within the spin chain and with conduction electrons due to incomplete hybridization. We propose a microscopic definition of the hybridization parameter that measures this "partial" itinerancy. Our results provide a microscopic support for the dual nature of f electrons and the resulting two-fluid behavior widely observed in heavy electron materials.
Ferromagnetic Kondo lattice CeRuSi{sub 2} with non-Fermi-liquid behavior
Nikiforov, V. N.; Baran, M.; Irkhin, V. Yu.
2013-05-15
The structure, electronic, thermodynamic, and magnetic properties of the CeRuSi{sub 2} Kondo lattice with ferromagnetic ordering characterized by a small moment of the ground state are investigated. Anomalies in the temperature dependences of heat capacity and resistivity (unusual power or logarithmic behavior) observed in the low-temperature range indicate a non-Fermi-liquid behavior. The results are compared with those for other Ce{sub l}Ru{sub n}X{sub m} compounds and anomalous systems based on rare-earth elements and actinides that had been studied earlier.
Spin Relaxation in Kondo Lattice Systems with Anisotropic Kondo Interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Belov, S. I.; Kutuzov, A. S.
2016-04-01
We study the influence of the Kondo effect on the spin relaxation in systems with anisotropic Kondo interaction at temperatures both high and low as compared with the static magnetic field. In the absence of the Kondo effect, the electron spin resonance linewidth is not narrowed in the whole temperature range due to the high anisotropy of the Kondo interaction. The Kondo effect leads to the universal energy scale, which regulates the temperature and magnetic field dependence of different kinetic coefficients and results in a mutual cancelation of their singular parts in a collective spin mode.
NMR evidence of anisotropic Kondo liquid behavior in CeIrIn5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shockley, A. C.; Shirer, K. R.; Crocker, J.; Dioguardi, A. P.; Lin, C. H.; Nisson, D. M.; apRoberts-Warren, N.; Klavins, P.; Curro, N. J.
2015-08-01
We report detailed Knight-shift measurements of the two indium sites in the heavy-fermion compound CeIrIn5 as a function of temperature and field orientation. We find that the Knight-shift anomaly is orientation dependent, with a crossover temperature T* that varies by 50% as the field is rotated from (001) to (100). This result suggests that the hybridization between the Ce 4 f states and the itinerant conduction electrons is anisotropic, a result that reflects its collective origin, and may lead to anisotropic Kondo liquid behavior and unconventional superconductivity.
Resonant behavior of dielectric objects (electrostatic resonances).
Fredkin, D R; Mayergoyz, I D
2003-12-19
Resonant behavior of dielectric objects occurs at certain frequencies for which the object permittivity is negative and the free-space wavelength is large in comparison with the object dimensions. Unique physical features of these resonances are studied and a novel technique for the calculation of resonance values of permittivity, and hence resonance frequencies, is proposed. Scale invariance of resonance frequencies, unusually strong orthogonality properties of resonance modes, and a two-dimensional phenomenon of "twin" spectra are reported. The paper concludes with brief discussions of optical controllability of these resonances in semiconductor nanoparticles and a plausible, electrostatic resonance based, mechanism for nucleation and formation of ball lightning. PMID:14754117
Renormalization group theory for Kondo breakdown in Kondo lattice systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballmann, K.; Nejati, A.; Kroha, J.
2015-03-01
We present a renormalization group (RG) theory for the breakdown of Kondo screening in the Kondo lattice model (KLM) without pre-assumptions about the competition between Kondo effect and magnetic ordering or Fermi surface criticality. We show that the vertex between a single, local Kondo spin and the extended conduction electrons obtains RKKY- induced, non-local contributions in the in-and out-going coordinates of scattering electrons due to scattering at surrounding Kondo sites, but it remains local in the Kondo spin position. This enables the existence of a local Kondo screening scale TK(y) in the KLM, controlled by the effective RKKY coupling parameter y. TK(y) is determined by the RG flow of the local spin exchange coupling in the presence of the self-consistent spin response on surrounding Kondo sites. We show that TK(y) exhibits universal behavior and is suppressed by the antiferromagnetic RKKY coupling. Beyond a maximal RKKY parameter value ymax Kondo screening ceases to exist even without magnetic ordering. The theory opens up the possibility of describing quantum critical scenarios involving spin wave instabilities or local Kondo breakdown on the same footing.
Two-fluid behavior of the Kondo lattice in the 1/N slave boson approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barzykin, Victor
2006-03-01
It has been recently shown by Nakatsuji, Pines, and Fisk [S. Nakatsuji, D. Pines, and Z. Fisk, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 016401 (2004)] from the phenomenological analysis of experiments in Ce1-xLaxCoIn5 and CeIrIn5 that thermodynamic and transport properties of Kondo lattices below coherence temperature can be very successfully described in terms of a two-fluid model, with Kondo impurity and heavy electron Fermi liquid contributions. We analyze thermodynamic properties of Kondo lattices using 1/N slave boson treatment of the periodic Anderson model and show that these two contributions indeed arise below the coherence temperature. We find that the Kondo impurity contribution to thermodynamics corresponds to thermal excitations into the flat portion of the energy spectrum.
Quantum Critical Behavior of the Bose-Fermi Kondo Model with Ising Anisotropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Tae-Ho
2005-03-01
The existence of a continous quantum phase transition of the Bose-Fermi Kondo Model (BFKM) with a self-consistently determined bosonic bath has been demonstrated within the Extended Dynamical Mean Field Approach to the anisotropic Kondo lattice model and φ/T-scaling near the quantum critical point(QCP)was found[1,2]. We study the quantum critical properties of the anisotropic BFKM with specified bath spectral function, where the spectrum of the bosonic bath vanishes in a power-law fashion with exponent γ for small frequencies. Motivated by very recent results that the quantum to classical mapping for a related class of models fails[3,4]. We determine the critical local susceptibility using both the classical and quantum Monte Carlo approaches of Ref.5. Our results cover several values of γ below and above the upper critical dimension of the classical model for temperatures down to 1% of the bare Kondo scale. [1]D. Grempel and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 026402 (2003). [2]J.Zhu, D. Grempel, and Q. Si, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 156404 (2003). [3]L. Zhu, S. Kirchner, Q. Si nad A. Georges, Phys. Rev. Lett. in press (cond-mat/0406293). [4]M. Vojta, N. Tong, and R. Bulla, cond-mat/0410132. [5]D. Grempel and M. Rozenberg, Phys. Rev. B 60, 4702 (1999).
Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J.L.; Thompson, J.D.
1994-10-01
The Kondo insulating materials present a particularly simple limiting case of the strongly correlated electron lattice problem: one occupied f-state interacting with a single half-filled conduction band. Experiment shows that the solution to this problem has some remarkably simple aspects. Optical conductivity data display the strong coupling nature of this physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzero, Maxim; Xia, Jing; Galitski, Victor; Coleman, Piers
2016-03-01
This article reviews recent theoretical and experimental work on a new class of topological material -- topological Kondo insulators, which develop through the interplay of strong correlations and spin-orbit interactions. The history of Kondo insulators is reviewed along with the theoretical models used to describe these heavy fermion compounds. The Fu-Kane method of topological classification of insulators is used to show that hybridization between the conduction electrons and localized f electrons in these systems gives rise to interaction-induced topological insulating behavior. Finally, some recent experimental results are discussed, which appear to confirm the theoretical prediction of the topological insulating behavior in samarium hexaboride, where the long-standing puzzle of the residual low-temperature conductivity has been shown to originate from robust surface states.
Kondo lattice and antiferromagnetic behavior in quaternary CeTAl4Si2 (T = Rh, Ir) single crystals
Maurya, Arvind; Kulkarni, Ruta; Thamizhavel, Arumugam; Paudyal, Durga; Dhar, Sudesh Kumar
2016-02-26
Here, we have explored in detail the anisotropic magnetic properties of CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2, which undergo two antiferromagnetic transitions, at TN1 = 12.6 and 15.5 K, followed by a second transition at TN2 = 9.4 and 13.8 K, respectively, with the [001]-axis as the relatively easy axis of magnetization. The electrical resistivity at ambient and applied pressure provides evidence of Kondo interaction in both compounds, further supported by a reduced value of the entropy associated with the magnetic ordering. The Sommerfeld coefficient γ is inferred to be 195.6 and 49.4 mJ/(mol K2) for CeRhAl4Si2 and CeIrAl4Si2, respectively, classifying these materialsmore » as moderate heavy-fermion compounds. The crystal electric field energy levels are derived from the peak seen in the Schottky heat capacity. Furthermore, we have also performed electronic structure calculations by using the local spin density approximation + U [LSDA+U] approach, which provide physical insights on the observed magnetic behavior of these two compounds.« less
Probing the Kondo State using Terahertz Radiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wetli, Christoph; Kroha, Johann; Krellner, Cornelius; Kliemt, Kristin; Stockert, Oliver; v. Loehneysen, Hilbert; Fiebig, Manfred
The appearance of quantum critical phase transitions is boosting the interest in the field of Kondo-lattice systems. After intense research over the last decades, experimental insights have been mainly gained by measuring the specific heat capacity or the magnetic susceptibility and relating them to the increase of the effective mass. Lately, it has been demonstrated that ARPES experiments allow direct access to the electrons contributing to the Kondo-lattice effect, but with some experimental restrictions. We will show that THz radiation is a powerful and highly accurate alternative for investigating the approach to the coherent Kondo-state of heavy-fermion systems. Photons in the THz range directly couple to the electronic heavy quasiparticles causing the Kondo-singlet behavior. Additionally, this technique allows studying Kondo-state dynamics on the picosecond time scale. We report lifetime measurements of excited Kondo singlets for the two crystalline rare earth heavy-fermion systems CeCu6 and YbRh2Si2, where the lifetimes scale inversely proportional to the Kondo-temperature. THz spectroscopy thus gives a very different perspective towards the Kondo-lattice effect, with the unique ability to combine temporal resolution and possible measurements in magnetic field.
A holographic model of the Kondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erdmenger, Johanna; Hoyos, Carlos; O'Bannon, Andy; Wu, Jackson
2013-12-01
We propose a model of the Kondo effect based on the Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, also known as holography. The Kondo effect is the screening of a magnetic impurity coupled anti-ferromagnetically to a bath of conduction electrons at low temperatures. In a (1+1)-dimensional CFT description, the Kondo effect is a renormalization group flow triggered by a marginally relevant (0+1)-dimensional operator between two fixed points with the same Kac-Moody current algebra. In the large- N limit, with spin SU( N) and charge U(1) symmetries, the Kondo effect appears as a (0+1)-dimensional second-order mean-field transition in which the U(1) charge symmetry is spontaneously broken. Our holographic model, which combines the CFT and large- N descriptions, is a Chern-Simons gauge field in (2+1)-dimensional AdS space, AdS 3, dual to the Kac-Moody current, coupled to a holographic superconductor along an AdS 2 sub-space. Our model exhibits several characteristic features of the Kondo effect, including a dynamically generated scale, a resistivity with power-law behavior in temperature at low temperatures, and a spectral flow producing a phase shift. Our holographic Kondo model may be useful for studying many open problems involving impurities, including for example the Kondo lattice problem.
Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip induced by a local moment.
Niu, Pengbin; Shi, Yun-Long; Sun, Zhu; Nie, Yi-Hang; Luo, Hong-Gang
2015-01-01
Many features like spin-orbit coupling, bias and magnetic fields applied, and so on, can strongly influence the Kondo effect. One of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting. However, Kondo peak splitting led by a local moment has not been investigated systematically. In this research we study theoretically electronic transport through a single-level quantum dot exchange coupled to a local magnetic moment in the Kondo regime. We focus on the Kondo peak splitting induced by an anisotropic exchange coupling between the quantum dot and the local moment, which shows rich splitting behavior. We consider the cases of a local moment with S = 1/2 and S = 1. The longitudinal (z-component) coupling plays a role of multivalued magnetic fields and the transverse (x, y-components) coupling lifts the degeneracy of the quantum dot, both of which account for the fine Kondo peak splitting structures. The inter-level or intra-level transition processes are identified in detail. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at the Fermi level under the proper parameters. The possible experimental observations of these theoretical results should deepen our understanding of Kondo physics. PMID:26658128
Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip induced by a local moment
Niu, Pengbin; Shi, Yun-Long; Sun, Zhu; Nie, Yi-Hang; Luo, Hong-Gang
2015-01-01
Many features like spin-orbit coupling, bias and magnetic fields applied, and so on, can strongly influence the Kondo effect. One of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting. However, Kondo peak splitting led by a local moment has not been investigated systematically. In this research we study theoretically electronic transport through a single-level quantum dot exchange coupled to a local magnetic moment in the Kondo regime. We focus on the Kondo peak splitting induced by an anisotropic exchange coupling between the quantum dot and the local moment, which shows rich splitting behavior. We consider the cases of a local moment with S = 1/2 and S = 1. The longitudinal (z-component) coupling plays a role of multivalued magnetic fields and the transverse (x, y-components) coupling lifts the degeneracy of the quantum dot, both of which account for the fine Kondo peak splitting structures. The inter-level or intra-level transition processes are identified in detail. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at the Fermi level under the proper parameters. The possible experimental observations of these theoretical results should deepen our understanding of Kondo physics. PMID:26658128
The Kondo effect in ferromagnetic atomic contacts.
Calvo, M Reyes; Fernández-Rossier, Joaquín; Palacios, Juan José; Jacob, David; Natelson, Douglas; Untiedt, Carlos
2009-04-30
Iron, cobalt and nickel are archetypal ferromagnetic metals. In bulk, electronic conduction in these materials takes place mainly through the s and p electrons, whereas the magnetic moments are mostly in the narrow d-electron bands, where they tend to align. This general picture may change at the nanoscale because electrons at the surfaces of materials experience interactions that differ from those in the bulk. Here we show direct evidence for such changes: electronic transport in atomic-scale contacts of pure ferromagnets (iron, cobalt and nickel), despite their strong bulk ferromagnetism, unexpectedly reveal Kondo physics, that is, the screening of local magnetic moments by the conduction electrons below a characteristic temperature. The Kondo effect creates a sharp resonance at the Fermi energy, affecting the electrical properties of the system; this appears as a Fano-Kondo resonance in the conductance characteristics as observed in other artificial nanostructures. The study of hundreds of contacts shows material-dependent log-normal distributions of the resonance width that arise naturally from Kondo theory. These resonances broaden and disappear with increasing temperature, also as in standard Kondo systems. Our observations, supported by calculations, imply that coordination changes can significantly modify magnetism at the nanoscale. Therefore, in addition to standard micromagnetic physics, strong electronic correlations along with atomic-scale geometry need to be considered when investigating the magnetic properties of magnetic nanostructures. PMID:19407797
Antiferromagnetic order and Kondo-lattice behavior in single-crystalline Ce2RhSi3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Szlawska, M.; Kaczorowski, D.; Ślebarski, A.; Gulay, L.; Stępień-Damm, J.
2009-04-01
Single crystal of Ce2RhSi3 was investigated by means of x-ray diffraction, magnetization, electrical resistivity, and heat-capacity measurements. Moreover, its electronic structure was studied by cerium core-level x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The results revealed that Ce2RhSi3 is an antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice due to the presence of stable trivalent Ce ions.
From Kondo behavior to high temperature superconductivity in Sr(Ni1-xFex)2As2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wakeham, Nicholas; Ni, Ni; Bauer, Eric; Thompson, Joe; Ronning, Filip
SrFe2As2 has an antiferromagnetic groundstate at ambient pressure that can be suppressed by chemical doping or pressure to produce unconventional superconductivity. SrNi2As2 is a non-magnetic conventional superconductor with Tc of 0.6 K. It has been shown that in Sr(Ni1-xFex)2As2 there is a dome of superconductivity between x = 0 . 95 and x = 0 . 9 . However, little is known about this doping series for small x values. We will present the study of the thermodynamic and transport properties of the doping series of Sr(Ni(1-x)Fex)2As2 for x <= 0 . 6 . In the dilute Fe limit (x <= 0 . 01) we find strong evidence for single-ion Kondo behaviour. As the concentration of Fe is increased, Fe-Fe interaction effects become significant and the Kondo scale increases. For 0 . 2 <= x <= 0 . 6 magnetic susceptibility measurements show the presence of a spin glass transition. The presence of Kondo behaviour in Sr(Ni(1-x)Fex)2As2 indicates the formation of local moments interacting with conduction electrons. Therefore, we will address the relevance of this result to the discussion of the itineracy of the magnetism in SrFe2As2, as well as the observed enhancement of the effective mass seen in many pnictide compounds.
Fano-Kondo and the Kondo box regimes crossover in a quantum dot coupled to a quantum box.
Apel, Victor M; Orellana, Pedro A; Pacheco, Monica; Anda, Enrique V
2013-12-18
In this work, we study the Kondo effect of a quantum dot (QD) connected to leads and to a discrete set of one-particle states provided by a quantum box represented by a quantum ring (QR) pierced by a magnetic flux side attached to the QD. The interplay between the bulk Kondo effect and the so-called Kondo box regime is studied. In this system the QR energies can be continuously modified by the application of the magnetic field. The crossover between these two regimes is analyzed by changing the connection of the QD to the QR from the weak to the strong coupling regime. In the weak coupling regime, the differential conductance develops a sequence of Fano-Kondo anti-resonances due to destructive interference between the discrete quantum ring levels and the conducting Kondo channel provided by the leads. In the strong coupling regime the differential conductance has very sharp resonances when one of the Kondo discrete sub-levels characterizing the Kondo box is tuned by the applied potential. The conductance, the current fluctuations and the Fano coefficient result as being the relevant physical magnitudes to be analyzed to reveal the physical properties of these two Kondo regimes and the crossover region between them. The results were obtained by using the slave boson mean field theory (SBMFT). PMID:24275637
Photoinduced Kondo effect in CeZn3P3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitagawa, J.; Kitajima, D.; Shimokawa, K.; Takaki, H.
2016-01-01
The Kondo effect, which originates from the screening of a localized magnetic moment by a spin-spin interaction, is widely observed in nonartificial magnetic materials, artificial quantum dots, and carbon nanotubes. In devices based on quantum dots or carbon nanotubes that target quantum information applications, the Kondo effect can be tuned by a gate voltage, a magnetic field, or light. However, the manipulation of the Kondo effect in nonartificial materials has not been thoroughly studied; in particular, the artificial creation of the Kondo effect remains unexplored. Per this subject study, however, a route for the optical creation of the Kondo effect in the nonartificial material p -type semiconductor CeZn3P3 is presented. The Kondo effect emerges under visible-light illumination of the material by a continuous-wave laser diode and is ultimately revealed by photoinduced electrical resistivity, which clearly exhibits a logarithmic temperature dependency. By contrast, a La-based compound (LaZn3P3 ) displays only normal metallic behavior under similar illumination. The photoinduced Kondo effect, which occurs at higher temperatures when compared with the Kondo effect in artificial systems, provides a potential range of operation for not only quantum information/computation devices but also for operation of magneto-optic devices, thereby expanding the range of device applications based on the Kondo effect.
Kondo peak splitting and Kondo dip in single molecular magnet junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niu, Pengbin; Shi, Yunlong; Sun, Zhu; Nie, Yi-Hang; Luo, Hong-Gang
2016-01-01
Many factors containing bias, spin-orbit coupling, magnetic fields applied, and so on can strongly influence the Kondo effect, and one of the consequences is Kondo peak splitting (KPS). It is natural that KPS should also appear when another spin degree of freedom is involved. In this work we study the KPS effects of single molecular magnets (SMM) coupled with two metallic leads in low-temperature regime. It is found that the Kondo transport properties are strongly influenced by the exchange coupling and anisotropy of the magnetic core. By employing Green's function method in Hubbard operator representation, we give an analytical expression for local retarded Green's function of SMM and discussed its low-temperature transport properties. We find that the anisotropy term behaves as a magnetic field and the splitting behavior of exchange coupling is quite similar to the spin-orbit coupling. These splitting behaviors are explained by introducing inter-level or intra-level transitions, which account for the seven-peak splitting structure. Moreover, we find a Kondo dip at Fermi level under proper parameters. These Kondo peak splitting behaviors in SMM deepen our understanding to Kondo physics and should be observed in the future experiments.
Application of the underscreened Kondo lattice model to neptunium compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simoes, Acirete S.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Coqublin, B.
2012-12-01
The coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order has been observed in many uranium and neptunium compounds such as UTe or Np2PdGa3. This coexistence can be described within the underscreened Anderson lattice model with two f-electrons and S = 1 spins on each site. After performing the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation on this model, we have obtained an effective Hamiltonian with a f-band term in addition to the Kondo interaction for S = 1 spins. The results indicate a coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetic order, with different relative values of the Kondo TK and Curie TC temperatures. We emphasize here especially the case TK < TC where there is a Kondo behavior below TC and a clear decrease of the magnetization below TK. Such a behavior has been observed in the magnetization curves of NpNiSi2 at low temperatures.
Thermoelectric effect in the Kondo dot side-coupled to a Majorana mode
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khim, Heunghwan; López, Rosa; Lim, Jong Soo; Lee, Minchul
2015-06-01
We investigate the linear thermoelectric response of an interacting quantum dot side-coupled by one of two Majorana modes hosted by a topological superconducting wire. We employ the numerical renormalization group technique to obtain the thermoelectrical conductance L in the Kondo regime while the background temperature T, the Majorana-dot coupling Γm, and the overlap ɛm between the two Majorana modes are tuned. We distinguish two transport regimes in which L displays different features: the weak- (Γm
Colossal magnetoresistance in topological Kondo insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slieptsov, Igor O.; Karnaukhov, Igor N.
2016-04-01
Abnormal electronic properties of complex systems require new ideas concerning explanation of their behavior and possibility of realization. In this acticle we show that a colossal magnetoresistance is realized in the state of the topological Kondo insulator, that is similar to the Kondo insulator state in the Kondo lattice. The mechanism of the phenomenon is the following: in the spin gapless phase an external magnetic field induces the gap in the spectrum of spin excitations, the gap in the spectrum of fermions is opened due to a hybridization between spin and fermion subsystems at half-filling, as the result the magnetic field leads to metal–insulator (or bad metal–insulator) phase transition. A model of the topological Kondo lattice defined on a honeycomb lattice is studied for the case when spinless fermion bands are half-filled. It is shown that the hybridization between local moments and itinerant fermions should be understood as the hybridization between corresponding Majorana fermions of the spin and charge sectors. The system is a topological insulator, single fermion and spin excitations at low energies are massive. We will show that a spin gap induces a gap in the charge channel, it leads to an appearance of a topological insulator state with chiral gapless edge modes and the Chern number one or two depending on the exchange integrals’ values. The relevance of this to the traditional Kondo insulator state is discussed.
From Kondo lattices to Kondo superlattices.
Shimozawa, Masaaki; Goh, Swee K; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji
2016-07-01
The realization of new classes of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems continues to be a major issue in condensed matter physics. Heavy fermion materials, whose electronic structure is essentially three-dimensional, are one of the most suitable systems for obtaining novel electronic states because of their intriguing properties associated with many-body effects. Recently, a state-of-the-art molecular beam epitaxy technique was developed to reduce the dimensionality of heavy electron systems by fabricating artificial superlattices that include heavy fermion compounds; this approach can produce a new type of electronic state in two-dimensional (2D) heavy fermion systems. In artificial superlattices of the antiferromagnetic heavy fermion compound CeIn3 and the conventional metal LaIn3, the magnetic order is suppressed by a reduction in the thickness of the CeIn3 layers. In addition, the 2D confinement of heavy fermions leads to enhancement of the effective electron mass and deviation from the standard Fermi liquid electronic properties, which are both associated with the dimensional tuning of quantum criticality. In the superconducting superlattices of the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 and nonmagnetic metal YbCoIn5, signatures of superconductivity are observed even at the thickness of one unit-cell layer of CeCoIn5. The most remarkable feature of this 2D heavy fermion superconductor is that the thickness reduction of the CeCoIn5 layers changes the temperature and angular dependencies of the upper critical field significantly. This result is attributed to a substantial suppression of the Pauli pair-breaking effect through the local inversion symmetry breaking at the interfaces of CeCoIn5 block layers. The importance of the inversion symmetry breaking in this system has also been supported by site-selective nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which can resolve spectroscopic information from each layer separately, even within the same CeCoIn5
From Kondo lattices to Kondo superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimozawa, Masaaki; Goh, Swee K.; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji
2016-07-01
The realization of new classes of ground states in strongly correlated electron systems continues to be a major issue in condensed matter physics. Heavy fermion materials, whose electronic structure is essentially three-dimensional, are one of the most suitable systems for obtaining novel electronic states because of their intriguing properties associated with many-body effects. Recently, a state-of-the-art molecular beam epitaxy technique was developed to reduce the dimensionality of heavy electron systems by fabricating artificial superlattices that include heavy fermion compounds; this approach can produce a new type of electronic state in two-dimensional (2D) heavy fermion systems. In artificial superlattices of the antiferromagnetic heavy fermion compound CeIn3 and the conventional metal LaIn3, the magnetic order is suppressed by a reduction in the thickness of the CeIn3 layers. In addition, the 2D confinement of heavy fermions leads to enhancement of the effective electron mass and deviation from the standard Fermi liquid electronic properties, which are both associated with the dimensional tuning of quantum criticality. In the superconducting superlattices of the heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 and nonmagnetic metal YbCoIn5, signatures of superconductivity are observed even at the thickness of one unit-cell layer of CeCoIn5. The most remarkable feature of this 2D heavy fermion superconductor is that the thickness reduction of the CeCoIn5 layers changes the temperature and angular dependencies of the upper critical field significantly. This result is attributed to a substantial suppression of the Pauli pair-breaking effect through the local inversion symmetry breaking at the interfaces of CeCoIn5 block layers. The importance of the inversion symmetry breaking in this system has also been supported by site-selective nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, which can resolve spectroscopic information from each layer separately, even within the same CeCoIn5
Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System.
Antipov, Andrey E; Dong, Qiaoyuan; Gull, Emanuel
2016-01-22
We examine the dynamics of a correlated quantum dot in the mixed valence regime. We perform numerically exact calculations of the current after a quantum quench from equilibrium by rapidly applying a bias voltage in a wide range of initial temperatures. The current exhibits short equilibration times and saturates upon the decrease of temperature at all times, indicating Kondo behavior both in the transient regime and in the steady state. The time-dependent current saturation temperature connects the equilibrium Kondo temperature to a substantially increased value at voltages outside of the linear response. These signatures are directly observable by experiments in the time domain. PMID:26849606
Competing Kondo Effects in Non-Kramers Doublet Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kusunose, Hiroaki
2016-06-01
In non-Kramers Kondo systems with quadrupolar degrees of freedom, an ordinary magnetic Kondo effect can compete with the quadrupolar Kondo effect. We discuss such competition keeping PrT2Zn20 (T = Ir, Rh) and PrT2Al20 (T = V, Ti) in mind, where the Γ3 non-Kramers crystalline-electric-field (CEF) doublet ground state is realized in a Pr3+ ion with a (4f)2 configuration under cubic symmetry. The quadrupolar Kondo effect can be described by the two-channel Kondo model, which leads to the local non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) ground state, while the magnetic Kondo effect favors the ordinary local Fermi-liquid (FL) ground state. On the basis of the minimal extended two-channel Kondo model including the magnetic Kondo coupling as well, we investigate the competition and resulting thermodynamics, and orbital/magnetic and single-particle excitation spectra by Wilson's numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. There is a first-order transition between the NFL and FL ground states. In addition to these two states, the alternative FL state accompanied by a free magnetic spin appears in the intermediate temperature range, which eventually reaches the true NFL ground state, as a consequence of the stronger competition between the magnetic and quadrupolar Kondo effects. In this peculiar state, the magnetic susceptibility shows a Curie-like behavior, while the orbital fluctuation exhibits the FL behavior. Moreover, the single-particle spectra yield a more singular behavior. Implications to the Pr 1-2-20 systems are briefly discussed.
Kondo Force in Shuttling Devices: Dynamical Probe for a Kondo Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselev, M. N.; Kikoin, K. A.; Gorelik, L. Y.; Shekhter, R. I.
2013-02-01
We consider the electromechanical properties of a single-electronic device consisting of a movable quantum dot attached to a vibrating cantilever, forming a tunnel contact with a nonmovable source electrode. We show that the resonance Kondo tunneling of electrons amplifies exponentially the strength of nanoelectromechanical (NEM) coupling in such a device and make the latter insensitive to mesoscopic fluctuations of electronic levels in a nanodot. It is also shown that the study of a Kondo-NEM phenomenon provides additional (as compared with standard conductance measurements in a nonmechanical device) information on retardation effects in the formation of a many-particle cloud accompanying the Kondo tunneling. A possibility for superhigh tunability of mechanical dissipation as well as supersensitive detection of mechanical displacement is demonstrated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakatsuji, Satoru
2008-03-01
Among metallic magnets on geometrical frustrated lattices, the pyrochlore oxide Pr2Ir2O7 is unique for its metallic spin liquid behavior ootnotetextS. Nakatsuji, Y. Machida, Y. Maeno, T. Tayama, T. Sakakibara, J. v. Duijn, L. Balicas, J. N. Millican, R. T. Macaluso, and Julia Y. Chan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 087204 (2006)., and unconventional Hall transport phenomena ootnotetextY. Machida, S. Nakatsuji, Y. Maeno, T. Tayama, T. Sakakibara, and S. Onoda, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 057203 (2007).. Despite the Weiss temperature T^* = 20 K deu to the RKKY interaction, Pr2Ir2O7 exhibits no magnetic long range order, but spin freezing at a very low temperature ˜120 mK. Instead, the Kondo effect, including lnT dependence in the resistivity, emerges and leads to partial screening of the 4f-moments below T^*. Moreover, the underscreened 4f- moments show spin-liquid behavior below a renormalized energy scale of θw˜1.7 K. Interestingly, in this spin-liquidlike paramagnetic regime, the Hall resistivity ρxy becomes largely enhanced, and shows behavior far different from anomalous Hall effects (AHE) due to the spin- orbit coupling observed in ordinary magnetic conductors. We discuss the origin of the metallic spin liquid behavior and unconventional AHE in terms of the spin chirality due to the non-coplanar texture of the <111> Ising-like Pr moments. This work is based on the collaboration with Y. Machida, T. Tayama, T. Sakakibara (ISSP, Univ.of Tokyo), Y. Maeno (Kyoto Univ.), S. Onoda (RIKEN, Tokyo), C. Broholm (Johns Hopkins Univ.), C. Stock and J. van Duijn (ISIS), L. Balicas (NHMFL), Jung Young Cho, and Julia Y. Chan (Louisiana State Univ.).
Tunable unconventional Kondo effect on topological insulator surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, L.; Ortiz, G.; Vekhter, I.
2015-11-01
We study Kondo physics of a spin-1/2 impurity in electronic matter with strong spin-orbit interaction, which can be realized by depositing magnetic adatoms on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator. We show that magnetic properties of topological surface states and the very existence of Kondo screening strongly depend on details of the bulk material, and specifics of surface preparation encoded in time-reversal preserving boundary conditions for electronic wavefunctions. When this tunable Kondo effect occurs, the impurity spin is screened by purely orbital motion of surface electrons. This mechanism gives rise to a transverse magnetic response of the surface metal, and to spin textures that can be used to experimentally probe signatures of a Kondo resonance. Our predictions are particularly relevant for STM measurements in Pb Te -class crystalline topological insulators, but we also discuss implications for other classes of topological materials.
Kondo effect in a semiconductor quantum dot coupled to ferromagnetic electrodes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamaya, K.; Kitabatake, M.; Shibata, K.; Jung, M.; Kawamura, M.; Hirakawa, K.; Machida, T.; Taniyama, T.; Ishida, S.; Arakawa, Y.
2007-12-01
Using a laterally fabricated quantum-dot (QD) spin-valve device, we experimentally study the Kondo effect in the electron transport through a semiconductor QD with an odd number of electrons (N). In a parallel magnetic configuration of the ferromagnetic electrodes, the Kondo resonance at N =3 splits clearly without external magnetic fields. With applying magnetic fields (B), the splitting is gradually reduced, and then the Kondo effect is almost restored at B =1.2T. This means that, in the Kondo regime, an inverse effective magnetic field of B ˜1.2T can be applied to the QD in the parallel magnetic configuration of the ferromagnetic electrodes.
Panel resonant behavior of wind turbine blades.
Paquette, Joshua A.; Griffith, Daniel Todd
2010-03-01
The principal design drivers in the certification of wind turbine blades are ultimate strength, fatigue resistance, adequate tip-tower clearance, and buckling resistance. Buckling resistance is typically strongly correlated to both ultimate strength and fatigue resistance. A composite shell with spar caps forms the airfoil shape of a blade and reinforcing shear webs are placed inside the blade to stiffen the blade in the flap-wise direction. The spar caps are dimensioned and the shear webs are placed so as to add stiffness to unsupported panel regions and reduce their length. The panels are not the major flap-wise load carrying element of a blade; however, they must be designed carefully to avoid buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static testing of blades under a simulated extreme loading condition. The focus of this paper is on the use of experimental modal analysis to measure localized resonances of the blade panels. It can be shown that the resonant behavior of these panels can also provide a means to evaluate buckling resistance by means of analytical or experimental modal analysis. Further, panel resonances have use in structural health monitoring by observing changes in modal parameters associated with panel resonances, and use in improving panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. In recent modal testing of wind turbine blades, a set of panel modes were measured. This paper will report on the findings of these tests and accompanying numerical and analytical modeling efforts aimed at investigating the potential uses of panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design.
Competition between Kondo Screening and Quantum Hall Edge Reconstruction.
Heine, A W; Tutuc, D; Zwicknagl, G; Haug, R J
2016-03-01
We report on a Kondo correlated quantum dot connected to two-dimensional leads where we demonstrate the renormalization of the g factor in the pure Zeeman case. i.e., for magnetic fields parallel to the plane of the quantum dot. For the same system, we study the influence of orbital effects by investigating the quantum Hall regime; i.e., a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. In this case an unusual behavior of the suppression of the Kondo effect and of the split zero-bias anomaly is observed. The splitting decreases with magnetic field and shows discontinuous changes that are attributed to the intricate interplay between Kondo screening and the quantum Hall edge structure originating from electrostatic screening. This edge structure, made up of compressible and incompressible stripes, strongly affects the Kondo temperature of the quantum dot and thereby influences the renormalized g factor. PMID:26991192
Competition between Kondo Screening and Quantum Hall Edge Reconstruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heine, A. W.; Tutuc, D.; Zwicknagl, G.; Haug, R. J.
2016-03-01
We report on a Kondo correlated quantum dot connected to two-dimensional leads where we demonstrate the renormalization of the g factor in the pure Zeeman case. i.e., for magnetic fields parallel to the plane of the quantum dot. For the same system, we study the influence of orbital effects by investigating the quantum Hall regime; i.e., a perpendicular magnetic field is applied. In this case an unusual behavior of the suppression of the Kondo effect and of the split zero-bias anomaly is observed. The splitting decreases with magnetic field and shows discontinuous changes that are attributed to the intricate interplay between Kondo screening and the quantum Hall edge structure originating from electrostatic screening. This edge structure, made up of compressible and incompressible stripes, strongly affects the Kondo temperature of the quantum dot and thereby influences the renormalized g factor.
Tunable Kondo effect and spin textures on topological insulators surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vekhter, Ilya; Ortiz, Gerardo; Isaev, Leonid
We consider screening of a spin- 1 / 2 impurity at the surface of a topological insulator, and show that the very existence of Kondo screening strongly depend on details of the bulk material and surface preparation whose details are encoded in time-reversal preserving boundary conditions for electronic wavefunctions. We investigate in detail the formation of the Kondo resonance by studying the ''orbital-flip'' processes that screen the impurity spin in the resulting strongly spin-orbit coupled system. This mechanism gives rise to spin textures that can be used to experimentally probe signatures of a Kondo resonance in topological insulators, and we give examples relevant to specific materials. L.I. was supported by the NSF (PIF-1211914 and PFC-1125844), AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NIST and ARO individual investigator awards, and also in part by ICAM. I.V. acknowledges support from NSF Grant DMR-1105339.
Quantitative Calculation of the Spatial Extension of the Kondo Cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerd, Bergmann
2008-03-01
A recently developed compact solution for the singlet state of the Friedel-Anderson and the Kondo impurity is applied to investigate the old question of a Kondo cloud in the Kondo ground state. Wilson's states with an exponentially decreasing frame of energy cells towards the Fermi level are used. The Wilson states are expressed as free electron waves with a linear dispersion and integrated over the width of their energy cells. For the magnetic state of the Friedel-Anderson impurity one finds essentially no spin polarization in the vicinity of the d-impurity. However, for the magnetic component of the singlet state a spin polarization cloud is observed which screens the spin (magnetic moment) of the d-electron. The range ξK of this polarization cloud is investigated in detail for the Kondo impurity. The range is inversely proportional to the Kondo energy δK. The extent of the electron density in real space is a detector for a resonance in energy. The spatial extension ξ and the resonance width δ are reciprocal and given by the relation ξδ vF.
Quantitative calculation of the spatial extension of the Kondo cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bergmann, Gerd
2008-03-01
A recently developed compact solution for the singlet state of the Friedel-Anderson and the Kondo impurity is applied to investigate the old question of a Kondo cloud in the Kondo ground state. Wilson’s states with an exponentially decreasing frame of energy cells toward the Fermi level are used. The Wilson states are expressed as free electron waves with a linear dispersion and integrated over the width of their energy cells. For the magnetic state of the Friedel-Anderson impurity, one finds essentially no spin polarization in the vicinity of the d impurity. However, for the magnetic component of the singlet state, a spin polarization cloud is observed which screens the spin (magnetic moment) of the d electron. The range ξK of this polarization cloud is investigated in detail for the Kondo impurity. The range is inversely proportional to the Kondo energy ΔK . The extent of the electron density in real space is a detector for a resonance in energy. The spatial extension ξ and the resonance width Δ are reciprocal and given by the relation ξΔ≈ℏvF .
Measurement of Valley Kondo Effect in a Si/SiGe Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yuan, Mingyun; Yang, Zhen; Tang, Chunyang; Rimberg, A. J.; Joynt, R.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Eriksson, M. A.
2013-03-01
The Kondo effect in Si/SiGe QDs can be enriched by the valley degree of freedom in Si. We have observed resonances showing temperature dependence characteristic of the Kondo effect in two consecutive Coulomb diamonds. These resonances exhibit unusual magnetic field dependence that we interpret as arising from Kondo screening of the valley degree of freedom. In one diamond two Kondo peaks due to screening of the valley index exist at zero magnetic field, revealing a zero-field valley splitting of Δ ~ 0.28 meV. In a non-zero magnetic field the peaks broaden and coalesce due to Zeeman splitting. In the other diamond, a single resonance at zero bias persists without Zeeman splitting for non-zero magnetic field, a phenomenon characteristic of valley non-conservation in tunneling. This research is supported by the NSA and ARO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kettemann, S.; Mucciolo, E. R.; Varga, I.; Slevin, K.
2012-03-01
Dilute magnetic impurities in a disordered Fermi liquid are considered close to the Anderson metal-insulator transition (AMIT). Critical power-law correlations between electron wave functions at different energies in the vicinity of the AMIT result in the formation of pseudogaps of the local density of states. Magnetic impurities can remain unscreened at such sites. We determine the density of the resulting free magnetic moments in the zero-temperature limit. While it is finite on the insulating side of the AMIT, it vanishes at the AMIT, and decays with a power law as function of the distance to the AMIT. Since the fluctuating spins of these free magnetic moments break the time-reversal symmetry of the conduction electrons, we find a shift of the AMIT, and the appearance of a semimetal phase. The distribution function of the Kondo temperature TK is derived at the AMIT, in the metallic phase, and in the insulator phase. This allows us to find the quantum phase diagram in an external magnetic field B and at finite temperature T. We calculate the resulting magnetic susceptibility, the specific heat, and the spin relaxation rate as a function of temperature. We find a phase diagram with finite-temperature transitions among insulator, critical semimetal, and metal phases. These new types of phase transitions are caused by the interplay between Kondo screening and Anderson localization, with the latter being shifted by the appearance of the temperature-dependent spin-flip scattering rate. Accordingly, we name them Kondo-Anderson transitions.
Gate-tunable split Kondo effect in a carbon nanotube quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichler, A.; Weiss, M.; Schönenberger, C.
2011-07-01
We show a detailed investigation of the split Kondo effect in a carbon nanotube quantum dot with multiple gate electrodes. Two conductance peaks, observed at finite bias in nonlinear transport measurements, are found to approach each other for increasing magnetic field, to result in a recovered zero bias Kondo resonance at finite magnetic field. Surprisingly, in the same charge state, but under different gate configurations, the splitting does not disappear for any value of the magnetic field, but we observe an avoided crossing. We think that our observations can be understood in terms of a two-impurity Kondo effect with two spins coupled antiferromagnetically. The exchange coupling between the two spins can be influenced by a local gate, and the non-recovery of the Kondo resonance for certain gate configurations is explained by the existence of a small antisymmetric contribution to the exchange interaction between the two spins.
Kondo effect in triple quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Žitko, R.; Bonča, J.; Ramšak, A.; Rejec, T.
2006-04-01
Numerical analysis of the simplest odd-numbered system of coupled quantum dots reveals an interplay between magnetic ordering, charge fluctuations, and the tendency of itinerant electrons in the leads to screen magnetic moments. The transition from local-moment to molecular-orbital behavior is visible in the evolution of correlation functions as the interdot coupling is increased. Resulting Kondo phases are presented in a phase diagram which can be sampled by measuring the zero-bias conductance. We discuss the origin of the even-odd effects by comparing with the double quantum dot.
Universal Symmetry-Protected Resonances in a Spinful Luttinger Liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yichen; Kane, Charles
We study the problem of resonant tunneling through a quantum dot in a spinful Luttinger liquid. It provides the simplest example of a (0 + 1) d system with symmetry-protected topological phases. Transitions between different symmetry-protected topological phases separated by fixed points are achieved by tuning the system through resonance. For a particular interaction strength (Luttinger parameter gρ =1/3 , gσ = 1), we show that the problem is equivalent to a two channel SU (3) Kondo problem. Both problems can be mapped to a quantum Brownian motion model on a Kagome lattice, which in turn is related to quantum Brownian motion on a honeycomb lattice and the three channel SU (2) Kondo problem. Utilizing boundary conformal field theory, we find the universal peak conductance g*e2/h as well as dimensions of the leading relevant operators of the problem. This allows us to compute the scaling behavior of the resonance line-shape as a function of temperature. We also established the fact that the fixed point quantum Brownian motion on both generalized honeycomb lattice(SU(2)k Kondo) and generalized Kagome lattice(SU(k)2 Kondo) flow into are the same (with k = 3 our original resonant tunneling problem).
Spin polarization of the split Kondo state.
von Bergmann, Kirsten; Ternes, Markus; Loth, Sebastian; Lutz, Christopher P; Heinrich, Andreas J
2015-02-20
Spin-resolved scanning tunneling microscopy is employed to quantitatively determine the spin polarization of the magnetic field-split Kondo state. Tunneling conductance spectra of a Kondo-screened magnetic atom are evaluated within a simple model taking into account inelastic tunneling due to spin excitations and two Kondo peaks positioned symmetrically around the Fermi energy. We fit the spin state of the Kondo-screened atom with a spin Hamiltonian independent of the Kondo effect and account for Zeeman splitting of the Kondo peak in the magnetic field. We find that the width and the height of the Kondo peaks scales with the Zeeman energy. Our observations are consistent with full spin polarization of the Kondo peaks, i.e., a majority spin peak below the Fermi energy and a minority spin peak above. PMID:25763966
Analysis of the antiferromagnetic phase transitions of the 2D Kondo lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Barbara
2010-03-01
The Kondo lattice continues to present an interesting and relevant challenge, with its interactions between Kondo, RKKY, and coherent order. We present our study[1] of the antiferromagnetic quantum phase transitions of a 2D Kondo-Heisenberg square lattice. Starting from the nonlinear sigma model as a model of antiferromagnetism, we carry out a renormalization group analysis of the competing Kondo-RKKY interaction to one-loop order in an ɛ-expansion. We find a new quantum critical point (QCP) strongly affected by Kondo fluctuations. Near this QCP, there is a breakdown of hydrodynamic behavior, and the spin waves are logarithmically frozen out. The renormalization group results allow us to propose a new phase diagram near the antiferromagnetic fixed point of this 2D Kondo lattice model. The T=0 phase diagram contains four phases separated by a tetracritical point, the new QCP. For small spin fluctuations, we find a stable local magnetic moment antiferromagnet. For stronger coupling, region II is a metallic quantum disordered paramagnet. We find in region III a paramagnetic phase driven by Kondo interactions, with possible ground states of a heavy fermion liquid or a Kondo driven spin-liquid. The fourth phase is a spiral phase, or a large-Fermi-surface antiferromagnetic phase. We will describe these phases in more detail, including possible experimental confirmation of the spiral phase. The existence of the tetracritical point found here would be expected to affect the phase diagram at finite temperatures as well. In addition, It is hoped that these results, and particularly the Kondo interaction paramagnetic phase, will serve to bridge to solutions starting from the opposite limit, of a Kondo effect leading to a heavy fermion ground state. Work in collaboration with T. Tzen Ong. [4pt] [1] T. Ong and B. A. Jones, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 066405 (2009).
Entanglement probe of two-impurity Kondo physics in a spin chain.
Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato; Sodano, Pasquale; Johannesson, Henrik
2012-08-10
We propose that real-space properties of the two-impurity Kondo model can be obtained from an effective spin model where two single-impurity Kondo spin chains are joined via an Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between the two impurity spins. We then use a density matrix renormalization group approach, valid in all ranges of parameters, to study its features using two complementary quantum-entanglement measures, the negativity and the von Neumann entropy. This nonperturbative approach enables us to uncover the precise dependence of the spatial extent ξ(K) of the Kondo screening cloud with the Kondo and RKKY couplings. Our results reveal an exponential suppression of the Kondo temperature T(K)~1/ξ(K) with the size of the effective impurity spin in the limit of large ferromagnetic RKKY coupling, a striking display of "Kondo resonance narrowing" in the two-impurity Kondo model. We also show how the antiferromagnetic RKKY interaction produces an effective decoupling of the impurities from the bulk already for intermediate strengths of this interaction, and, furthermore, exhibit how the non-Fermi liquid quantum critical point is signaled in the quantum entanglement between various parts of the system. PMID:23006288
Fano resonance in a normal metal/ferromagnet-quantum dot-superconductor device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Lin; Cao, Zhan; Luo, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Chen, Wei-Qiang
2015-11-01
We investigate theoretically the Andreev transport through a quantum dot strongly coupled with a normal metal/ferromagnet and a superconductor (N/F-QD-S), in which the interplay between the Kondo resonance and the Andreev bound states (ABSs) has not been clearly clarified yet. Here we show that the interference between the Kondo resonance and the ABSs modifies seriously the line shape of the Kondo resonance, which manifests as a Fano resonance. The ferromagnetic lead with spin polarization induces an effective field, which leads to splitting of both the Kondo resonance and the ABSs. The spin polarization together with the magnetic field applied provides an alternative way to tune the line shape of the Kondo resonances, which is dependent of the relative positions of the Kondo resonance and the ABSs. These results indicate that the interplay between the Kondo resonance and the ABSs can significantly affect the Andreev transport, which could be tested by experiments.
A Maximally Supersymmetric Kondo Model
Harrison, Sarah; Kachru, Shamit; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-02-17
We study the maximally supersymmetric Kondo model obtained by adding a fermionic impurity to N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. While the original Kondo problem describes a defect interacting with a free Fermi liquid of itinerant electrons, here the ambient theory is an interacting CFT, and this introduces qualitatively new features into the system. The model arises in string theory by considering the intersection of a stack of M D5-branes with a stack of N D3-branes, at a point in the D3 worldvolume. We analyze the theory holographically, and propose a dictionary between the Kondo problem and antisymmetric Wilson loops in N = 4 SYM. We perform an explicit calculation of the D5 fluctuations in the D3 geometry and determine the spectrum of defect operators. This establishes the stability of the Kondo fixed point together with its basic thermodynamic properties. Known supergravity solutions for Wilson loops allow us to go beyond the probe approximation: the D5s disappear and are replaced by three-form flux piercing a new topologically non-trivial S3 in the corrected geometry. This describes the Kondo model in terms of a geometric transition. A dual matrix model reflects the basic properties of the corrected gravity solution in its eigenvalue distribution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takada, Yasutami; Maezono, Ryo; Yoshizawa, Kanako
2015-10-01
Hydrogen in metals has attracted much attention for a long time from both basic scientific and technological points of view. Its electronic state has been investigated in terms of a proton embedded in the electron gas mostly by the local density approximation (LDA) to the density functional theory. At high electronic densities, it is well described by a bare proton H+ screened by metallic electrons (charge resonance), while at low densities two electrons are localized at the proton site to form a closed-shell negative ion H- protected from surrounding metallic electrons by the Pauli exclusion principle. However, no details are known about the transition from H+ to H- in the intermediate-density region. Here, by accurately determining the ground-state electron distribution n (r ) by the use of LDA and diffusion Monte Carlo simulations with the total electron number up to 170, we obtain a complete picture of the transition, in particular, a sharp transition from short-range H+ screening charge resonance to long-range Kondo-type spin-singlet resonance, the emergence of which is confirmed by the presence of an anomalous Friedel oscillation characteristic to the Kondo singlet state with the Kondo temperature TK well beyond 1000 K. This study not only reveals interesting competition between charge and spin resonances, enriching the century-old paradigm of metallic screening to a point charge, but also discovers a high-TK system long sought in relation to the development of exotic superconductivity in the quantum critical regime.
Kondo effect in a quantum dot side-coupled to a topological superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Minchul; Lim, Jong Soo; López, Rosa
2013-06-01
We investigate the dynamical and transport features of a Kondo dot side coupled to a topological superconductor (TS). The Majorana fermion states (MFSs) formed at the ends of the TS are found to be able to alter the Kondo physics profoundly: For an infinitely long wire where the MFSs do not overlap (ɛm=0) a finite dot-MFS coupling (Γm) reduces the unitary-limit value of the linear conductance by exactly a factor 3/4 in the weak-coupling regime (Γm
Kondo effect of trivalent Tm in Y 0.9Tm 0.1S
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haen, P.; Lapierre, F.; Mignot, J. M.; Flouquet, J.; Holtzberg, F.; Penney, T.
1983-02-01
The existence of a Kondo effect in a trivalent alloy Y 0.9Tm 0.1 S is shown by the Curie-Weiss behavior of the susceptibility and by a ln T decrease of Δϱ = ϱ alloy - ϱ YS above ˜ 12 K comparable with that observed in TmS. Comparisons are made with the Kondo dilute alloys of the intermediate valent system (Y,Tm)Se.
Yang, Yifeng; Urbano, Ricardo; Nicholas, Curro; Pines, David
2009-01-01
We report Knight shift experiments on the superconducting heavy electron material CeCoIn{sub 5} that allow one to track with some precision the behavior of the heavy electron Kondo liquid in the superconducting state with results in agreement with BCS theory. An analysis of the {sup 115}In nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) spin-lattice relaxation rate T{sub 1}{sup -1} measurements under pressure reveals the presence of 2d magnetic quantum critical fluctuations in the heavy electron component that are a promising candidate for the pairing mechanism in this material. Our results are consistent with an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point (QCP) located at slightly negative pressure in CeCoIn{sub 5} and provide additional evidence for significant similarities between the heavy electron materials and the high T{sub c} cuprates.
Emergence of a Fermionic Finite-Temperature Critical Point in a Kondo Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Po-Hao; Zhai, Liang-Jun; Chung, Chung-Hou; Mou, Chung-Yu; Lee, Ting-Kuo
2016-04-01
The underlying Dirac point is central to the profound physics manifested in a wide class of materials. However, it is often difficult to drive a system with Dirac points across the massless fermionic critical point. Here by exploiting screening of local moments under spin-orbit interactions in a Kondo lattice, we show that below the Kondo temperature, the Kondo lattice undergoes a topological transition from a strong topological insulator to a weak topological insulator at a finite temperature TD. At TD, massless Dirac points emerge and the Kondo lattice becomes a Dirac semimetal. Our analysis indicates that the emergent relativistic symmetry dictates nontrivial thermal responses over large parameter and temperature regimes. In particular, it yields critical scaling behaviors both in magnetic and transport responses near TD.
Emergence of a Fermionic Finite-Temperature Critical Point in a Kondo Lattice.
Chou, Po-Hao; Zhai, Liang-Jun; Chung, Chung-Hou; Mou, Chung-Yu; Lee, Ting-Kuo
2016-04-29
The underlying Dirac point is central to the profound physics manifested in a wide class of materials. However, it is often difficult to drive a system with Dirac points across the massless fermionic critical point. Here by exploiting screening of local moments under spin-orbit interactions in a Kondo lattice, we show that below the Kondo temperature, the Kondo lattice undergoes a topological transition from a strong topological insulator to a weak topological insulator at a finite temperature T_{D}. At T_{D}, massless Dirac points emerge and the Kondo lattice becomes a Dirac semimetal. Our analysis indicates that the emergent relativistic symmetry dictates nontrivial thermal responses over large parameter and temperature regimes. In particular, it yields critical scaling behaviors both in magnetic and transport responses near T_{D}. PMID:27176534
Discovery of a 3d-transition-metal-based ferromagnetic Kondo lattice system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Us Saleheen, Ahmad; Samanta, Tapas; Lepkowski, Daniel; Shankar, Alok; Prestigiacomo, Joseph; Dubenko, Igor; Quetz, Abdiel; McDougald, Roy, Jr.; McCandless, Gregory; Chan, Julia; Adams, Philip; Young, David; Ali, Naushad; Stadler, Shane
2015-03-01
The formation of a Kondo lattice results in a wide variety of exotic phenomena associated with the competition between the Kondo effect and the RKKY interaction, such as heavy fermions, non-Fermi liquid behavior, unconventional superconductivity, and so on. A quantum critical point (QCP) has been frequently observed at the boundaries of competing phases for antiferromagnetic materials. However, the existence of a ferromagnetic (FM) QCP is unclear. Moreover, FM Kondo lattices are rare. Here we report the discovery of a FM Kondo lattice system Mn1-xFexCoGe, which is the first example of a 3d-metal-based system (i.e., not rare-earth-based). Resistivity, magnetic susceptibility, heat capacity and thermopower studies on a single crystal sample indicate that the anisotropic FM kondo lattice has formed along c-axis. The signature of a spin density wave transition was also observed above the Kondo minimum, below which the resistivity follows a log(T) behavior. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (Grant Nos. DE-FG02-13ER46946 and DE-FG02-06ER46291).
Observation of the underscreened Kondo effect in a molecular transistor.
Roch, Nicolas; Florens, Serge; Costi, Theo A; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Balestro, Franck
2009-11-01
We present the first quantitative experimental evidence for the underscreened Kondo effect, an incomplete compensation of a quantized magnetic moment by conduction electrons, as originally proposed by Nozières and Blandin. The device consists of an even charge spin S=1 molecular quantum dot, obtained by electromigration of C60 molecules into gold nanogaps and operated in a dilution fridge. The persistence of logarithmic singularities in the low temperature conductance is demonstrated by a comparison to the fully screened configuration obtained in odd charge spin S=1/2 Coulomb diamonds. We also discover an extreme sensitivity of the underscreened Kondo resonance to the magnetic field that we confirm on the basis of numerical renormalization group calculations. PMID:20365950
Observation of the Underscreened Kondo Effect in a Molecular Transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roch, Nicolas; Florens, Serge; Costi, Theo A.; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Balestro, Franck
2009-11-01
We present the first quantitative experimental evidence for the underscreened Kondo effect, an incomplete compensation of a quantized magnetic moment by conduction electrons, as originally proposed by Nozières and Blandin. The device consists of an even charge spin S=1 molecular quantum dot, obtained by electromigration of C60 molecules into gold nanogaps and operated in a dilution fridge. The persistence of logarithmic singularities in the low temperature conductance is demonstrated by a comparison to the fully screened configuration obtained in odd charge spin S=1/2 Coulomb diamonds. We also discover an extreme sensitivity of the underscreened Kondo resonance to the magnetic field that we confirm on the basis of numerical renormalization group calculations.
Antiferromagnetism and Kondo screening on a honeycomb lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Heng-Fu; Hong-Shuai, Tao; Guo, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Wu-Ming
2015-05-01
Magnetic adatoms in the honeycomb lattice have received tremendous attention due to the interplay between Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction and Kondo coupling leading to very rich physics. Here we study the competition between the antiferromagnetism and Kondo screening of local moments by the conduction electrons on the honeycomb lattice using the determinant quantum Monte Carlo method. While changing the interband hybridization V, we systematically investigate the antiferromagnetic-order state and the Kondo singlet state transition, which is characterized by the behavior of the local moment, antiferromagnetic structure factor, and the short range spin-spin correlation. The evolution of the single particle spectrum are also calculated as a function of hybridization V, we find that the system presents a small gap in the antiferromagnetic-order region and a large gap in the Kondo singlet region in the Fermi level. We also find that the localized and itinerant electrons coupling leads to the midgap states in the conduction band in the Fermi level at very small V. Moreover, the formation of antiferromagnetic order and Kondo singlet are studied as on-site interaction U or temperature T increasing, we have derived the phase diagrams at on-site interaction U (or temperature T) and hybridization V plane. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Special Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 2011CB921502 and 2012CB821305), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61227902, 61378017, and 11434015), the State Key Laboratory for Quantum Optics and Quantum Optical Devices, China (Grant No. KF201403).
Effect of Spin-Orbit Coupling on Kondo Phenomena in f7-Electron Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hotta, Takashi
2015-11-01
In order to promote our basic understanding of the Kondo behavior recently observed in europium compounds, we analyze an impurity Anderson model with seven f electrons at an impurity site by employing a numerical renormalization group method. The local part of the model consists of Coulomb interactions among f electrons, spin-orbit coupling λ, and crystalline electric field (CEF) potentials, while we consider the hybridization V between local f electrons and single-band conduction electrons with au symmetry. For λ = 0, we observe underscreening Kondo behavior for appropriate values of V, characterized by an entropy change from ln 8 to ln 7, in which one of the seven f electrons is screened by conduction electrons. When λ is increased, we obtain two types of behavior depending on the value of V. For large V, we find an entropy release of ln 7 at low temperatures, determined by the level splitting energy due to the hybridization. For small V, we also observe an entropy change from ln 8 to ln 2 by the level splitting due to the hybridization, but at low temperatures, ln 2 entropy is found to be released, leading to the Kondo effect. We emphasize that the Kondo behavior for small V is observed for realistic values of λ on the order of 0.1 eV. We also discuss the effect of CEF potentials and the multipole properties in the Kondo behavior reported in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yanagisawa, Takashi
2015-07-01
We investigate the Kondo effect in Dirac systems, where Dirac electrons interact with the localized spin via the s-d exchange coupling. The Dirac electron in solid state has the linear dispersion and is described typically by the Hamiltonian such as Hk = vk · σ for the wave number k where σj are Pauli matrices. We derived the formula of the Kondo temperature TK by means of the Green's function theory for small J. The TK is determined from a singularity of Green's functions in the form T{K} ≃ bar{D}exp ( - {const}{.}/ρ |J|) when the exchange coupling |J| is small where bar{D} = D/√{1 + D2/(2μ )2} for a cutoff D and ρ is the density of states at the Fermi surface. When |μ| ≪ D, TK is proportional to |μ|: TK ≃ |μ| exp(-const./ρ|J|). The Kondo screening will, however, disappear when the Fermi surface shrinks to a point called the Dirac point, that is, TK vanishes when the chemical potential μ is just at the Dirac point. The resistivity and the specific heat exhibit a log-T singularity in the range TK < T ≪ |μ|/kB. Instead, for T ˜ O(|μ|) or T > |μ|, they never show log-T.
Quantum spins on star graphs and the Kondo model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crampé, N.; Trombettoni, A.
2013-06-01
We study the XX model for quantum spins on the star graph with three legs (i.e., on a Y-junction). By performing a Jordan-Wigner transformation supplemented by the introduction of an auxiliary space we find a Kondo Hamiltonian of fermions, in the spin 1 representation of su(2), locally coupled with a magnetic impurity. In the continuum limit our model is shown to be equivalent to the 4-channel Kondo model coupling spin-1/2 fermions with a spin-1/2 impurity and exhibiting a non-Fermi liquid behavior. We also show that it is possible to find an XY model such that - after the Jordan-Wigner transformation - one obtains a quadratic fermionic Hamiltonian directly diagonalizable.
Conductance fingerprint of Majorana fermions in the topological Kondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galpin, Martin R.; Mitchell, Andrew K.; Temaismithi, Jesada; Logan, David E.; Béri, Benjamin; Cooper, Nigel R.
2014-01-01
We consider an interacting nanowire/superconductor heterostructure attached to metallic leads. The device is described by an unusual low-energy model involving spin-1 conduction electrons coupled to a nonlocal spin-1/2 Kondo impurity built from Majorana fermions. The topological origin of the resulting Kondo effect is manifest in distinctive non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior, and the existence of Majorana fermions in the device is demonstrated unambiguously by distinctive conductance line shapes. We study the physics of the model in detail, using the numerical renormalization group, perturbative scaling, and Abelian bosonization. In particular, we calculate the full scaling curves for the differential conductance in ac and dc fields, onto which experimental data should collapse. Scattering t matrices and thermodynamic quantities are also calculated, recovering asymptotes from conformal field theory. We show that the NFL physics is robust to asymmetric Majorana-lead couplings, and here we uncover a duality between strong and weak coupling. The NFL behavior is understood physically in terms of competing Kondo effects. The resulting frustration is relieved by inter-Majorana coupling which generates a second crossover to a regular Fermi liquid.
Motor resonance evoked by observation of subtle nonverbal behavior.
van Ulzen, Niek R; Fiorio, Mirta; Cesari, Paola
2013-01-01
This study was designed to combine two, otherwise separated, fields of research regarding motor resonance and mimicry by adopting a naturalistic mimicry paradigm while probing motor resonance with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). At stake was whether the motor system resonates instantaneously with unobtrusive nonverbal behavior of another person. We measured excitability in the left and right hand while participants viewed sequences of video clips and static images. In the video clips an actor performed several clerical tasks, while either inconspicuously touching his face (face-touching (FT) condition) or not (no face-touching (NFT) condition). We found that excitability was higher in the FT condition than in the NFT and baseline conditions. Furthermore, our data showed a general heightened excitability in the left motor cortex relative to the right. Taken together, the results suggest that observed hand-face gestures--even though outside the primary focus of attention and occurring inconspicuously throughout an ongoing action setting--can cause instantaneous resonant activity in the observer's motor system. It thus supports the idea of motor resonance involvement in mimicry and demonstrates that this can be studied using a naturalistic mimicry paradigm. PMID:23758553
Utilization of localized panel resonant behavior in wind turbine blades.
Griffith, Daniel Todd
2010-11-01
The shear webs and laminates of core panels of wind turbine blades must be designed to avoid panel buckling while minimizing blade weight. Typically, buckling resistance is evaluated by consideration of the load-deflection behavior of a blade using finite element analysis (FEA) or full-scale static loading of a blade to failure under a simulated extreme loading condition. This paper examines an alternative means for evaluating blade buckling resistance using non-destructive modal tests or FEA. In addition, panel resonances can be utilized for structural health monitoring by observing changes in the modal parameters of these panel resonances, which are only active in a portion of the blade that is susceptible to failure. Additionally, panel resonances are considered for updating of panel laminate model parameters by correlation with test data. During blade modal tests conducted at Sandia Labs, a series of panel modes with increasing complexity was observed. This paper reports on the findings of these tests, describes potential ways to utilize panel resonances for blade evaluation, health monitoring, and design, and reports recent numerical results to evaluate panel resonances for use in blade structural health assessment.
A Quantum Electrodynamics Kondo Circuit with Orbital and Spin Entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiro, Marco; Deng, Guang-Wei; Henriet, Loic; Wei, Da; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Le Hur, Karyn; Guo, Guo-Ping
Recent progress in nanotechnology allows to engineer hybrid mesoscopic devices comprising on chip an artificial atom or quantum dot, capacitively coupled to a microwave (superconducting) resonator and to biased metallic leads. Here, we build such a prototype system where the artificial atom is a graphene double quantum dot (DQD) to probe non-equilibrium aspects of strongly-entangled many body states between light and matter at the nanoscale. Controlling the coupling of the photon field and the charge states of the DQD, we measure the microwave reflection spectrum of the resonator. When the DQD is at the charge degeneracy points, experimental results are consistent with a Kondo impurity model entangling charge, spin and orbital degrees of freedom with the quantum fluctuations of the cavity photon. The light coming out from the resonator reveals the formation of the Kondo or Abrikosov-Suhl resonance at low temperatures. We also explore other routes to investigate nonlinear transport by increasing the microwave power, the bias and gate voltages.
Multipeak Kondo effect in one- and two-electron quantum dots.
Vidan, A; Stopa, M; Westervelt, R M; Hanson, M; Gossard, A C
2006-04-21
We have fabricated a few-electron quantum dot that can be tuned down to zero electrons while maintaining strong coupling to the leads. Using a nearby quantum point contact as a charge sensor, we can determine the absolute number of electrons in the quantum dot. We find several sharp peaks in the differential conductance, occurring at both zero and finite source-drain bias, for the one- and two-electron quantum dot. We attribute the peaks at finite bias to a Kondo effect through excited states of the quantum dot and investigate the magnetic field dependence of these Kondo resonances. PMID:16712183
Field-dependent ordered phases and Kondo phenomena in the filled skutterudite compound PrOs4As12
Maple, M. B.; Butch, N. P.; Frederick, N. A.; Ho, P.-C.; Jeffries, J. R.; Sayles, T. A.; Yanagisawa, T.; Yuhasz, W. M.; Chi, Songxue; Kang, H. J.; Lynn, J. W.; Dai, Pengcheng; McCall, S. K.; McElfresh, M. W.; Fluss, M. J.; Henkie, Z.; Pietraszko, A.
2006-01-01
Electrical resistivity, specific heat, and magnetization measurements to temperatures as low as 80 mK and magnetic fields up to 16 T were made on the filled skutterudite compound PrOs4As12. The measurements reveal the presence of two ordered phases at temperatures below approximately 2.3 K and in fields below approximately 3 T. Neutron-scattering experiments in zero field establish an antiferromagnetic ground state <2.28 K. In the antiferromagnetically ordered state, the electronic-specific heat coefficient γ ≈ 1 J/mol·K2 below 1.6 K and 0 ≤ H ≤ 1.25 T. The temperature and magnetic-field dependence of the electrical resistivity and specific heat in the paramagnetic state are consistent with single-ion Kondo behavior with a low Kondo temperature on the order of 1 K. The electronic-specific heat in the paramagnetic state can be described by the resonance-level model with a large zero-temperature electronic-specific heat coefficient that decreases with increasing magnetic field from approximately 1 J/mol·K2 at 3 T to approximately 0.2 J/mol·K2 at 16 T. PMID:16632603
Influence of kinetic effects on the resonance behavior of the Multipole Resonance Probe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oberrath, Jens; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter
2012-10-01
Active plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well known diagnostic method. Many concepts of this method are theoretically investigated and realized as a diagnostic tool. One of these tools is the multipole resonance probe (MRP) [1]. The application of such a probe in plasmas with pressures of only a few Pa raises the question whether kinetic effects have to be taken into account or not. To address this question a kinetic model is necessary. A general kinetic model for an electrostatic concept of active plasma resonance spectroscopy has already been presented by the authors [2]. This model can be used to describe the dynamical behavior of the MRP, which is interpretable as a special case of the general model. Neglecting electron-neutral collisions, this model can be solved analytically. Based on this solution we derive an approximated expression for the admittance of the system to investigate the influence of kinetic effects on the resonance behavior of the MRP. [4pt] [1] M. Lapke et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 20, 2011, 042001[0pt] [2] J. Oberrath et al., Proceedings of the 30th International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, 28th August - 2nd September, 2011
Broken SU(4) symmetry in a Kondo-correlated carbon nanotube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmid, Daniel R.; Smirnov, Sergey; Margańska, Magdalena; Dirnaichner, Alois; Stiller, Peter L.; Grifoni, Milena; Hüttel, Andreas K.; Strunk, Christoph
2015-04-01
Understanding the interplay between many-body phenomena and nonequilibrium in systems with entangled spin and orbital degrees of freedom is a central objective in nanoelectronics. We demonstrate that the combination of Coulomb interaction, spin-orbit coupling, and valley mixing results in a particular selection of the inelastic virtual processes contributing to the Kondo resonance in carbon nanotubes at low temperatures. This effect is dictated by conjugation properties of the underlying carbon nanotube spectrum at zero and finite magnetic field. Our measurements on a clean carbon nanotube are complemented by calculations based on a field-theoretical Keldysh approach to the nonequilibrium Kondo problem which well reproduces the rich experimental observations in Kondo transport.
Kondo interactions from band reconstruction in YbInCu4
Jarrige, I.; Kotani, A.; Yamaoka, H.; Tsujii, N.; Ishii, K.; Upton, M.; Casa, D.; Kim, J.; Gog, T.; Hancock, J. N.
2015-03-27
We combine resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and model calculations in the Kondo lattice compound YbInCu₄, a system characterized by a dramatic increase in Kondo temperature and associated valence fluctuations below a first-order valence transition at T≃42 K. In this study, the bulk-sensitive, element-specific, and valence-projected charge excitation spectra reveal an unusual quasi-gap in the Yb-derived state density which drives an instability of the electronic structure and renormalizes the low-energy effective Hamiltonian at the transition. Our results provide long-sought experimental evidence for a link between temperature-driven changes in the low-energy Kondo scale and the higher-energy electronic structure of this system.
Kondo interactions from band reconstruction in YbInCu(4).
Jarrige, I; Kotani, A; Yamaoka, H; Tsujii, N; Ishii, K; Upton, M; Casa, D; Kim, J; Gog, T; Hancock, J N
2015-03-27
We combine resonant inelastic x-ray scattering and model calculations in the Kondo lattice compound YbInCu_{4}, a system characterized by a dramatic increase in Kondo temperature and associated valence fluctuations below a first-order valence transition at T≃42 K. The bulk-sensitive, element-specific, and valence-projected charge excitation spectra reveal an unusual quasigap in the Yb-derived state density which drives an instability of the electronic structure and renormalizes the low-energy effective Hamiltonian at the transition. Our results provide long-sought experimental evidence for a link between temperature-driven changes in the low-energy Kondo scale and the higher-energy electronic structure of this system. PMID:25860761
Kondo state for a compact Cr trimer on a metallic surface.
Kudasov, Yu B; Uzdin, V M
2002-12-30
The ground state of a Cr trimer supported on the Au(111) surface is investigated by means of a variational approach to the Coqblin-Schrieffer Hamiltonian. The temperature of Kondo-resonance formation (T(K)) for equilateral trimers increases drastically as compared to T(K) for a single Cr adatom. The Kondo state of a Cr trimer proves to be very sensitive to geometry and a small shift of any atom from the symmetrical position leads to a rapid decrease in T(K). These results are in good agreement with recent observations of the Kondo response of a single antiferromagnetic chromium trimer [T. Jamneala, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 256804 (2001)
Resonance behavior in the presence of space charge
Month, M.; Weng, W.T.
1983-01-01
An analysis is presented of the resonance behavior of particle beams in the presence of space charge fields. Since self-consistent requirements are ignored, the results describe onset or early behavior. It is shown that in a beam of uniform current resonances excited by magnetic field errors are stabilized by the detuning effect of the self-field space charge force. This situation is changed when a radiofrequency accelerating field is applied. As beam bunching results after rf turn-on, the space charge force becomes modulated along the bunches, vanishing at the ends. At these regions of small or vanishing space charge, stabilization from non-linear detuning tends to disappear, thus leaving particles susceptible to resonance blow-up. This picture of the effect of beam bunching can be studied by considering the phase space structure for particles at different positions along the bunches. A somewhat unusual conclusion is made on the use of this analysis to model beam capture in a synchrotron at low energy.
Terahertz transmission and reflection studies of the topological Kondo insulator candidate SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morris, Christopher M.; Laurita, N. J.; Koopayeh, S.; Cottingham, P.; Phelan, W. A.; Schoop, L.; McQueen, T. M.; Armitage, N. P.
2015-03-01
The Kondo insulator SmB6 has long been known to display anomalous transport behavior at low temperatures (T < 10 K) and high pressures. At low temperatures, a plateau is observed in the resistivity, contrary to the logarithmic divergence expected for a normal Kondo insulator. Recent theoretical calculations suggest that SmB6 may be the first topological Kondo insulator, a material with a Kondo insulating bulk, but topologically protected metallic surface states. Here, time domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS) is used to investigate the temperature dependent optical conductivity of single crystals of SmB6. A saturation of the transmission is observed associated with the resistance plateau as the bulk becomes insulating. A secondary bulk conduction mechanism remains down to the lowest measured temperature, 1.6 K. Additionally, FTIR measurements have been performed that show the Kondo gap of SmB6 opening at low temperatures. Work supported by The Institute of Quantum Matter under DOE Grant DE-FG02-08ER46544 and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Spatiotemporal behavior and nonlinear dynamics in a phase conjugate resonator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Siuying Raymond
1993-01-01
The work described can be divided into two parts. The first part is an investigation of the transient behavior and stability property of a phase conjugate resonator (PCR) below threshold. The second part is an experimental and theoretical study of the PCR's spatiotemporal dynamics above threshold. The time-dependent coupled wave equations for four-wave mixing (FWM) in a photorefractive crystal, with two distinct interaction regions caused by feedback from an ordinary mirror, was used to model the transient dynamics of a PCR below threshold. The conditions for self-oscillation were determined and the solutions were used to define the PCR's transfer function and analyze its stability. Experimental results for the buildup and decay times confirmed qualitatively the predicted behavior. Experiments were carried out above threshold to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of the PCR as a function of Pragg detuning and the resonator's Fresnel number. The existence of optical vortices in the wavefront were identified by optical interferometry. It was possible to describe the transverse dynamics and the spatiotemporal instabilities by modeling the three-dimensional-coupled wave equations in photorefractive FWM using a truncated modal expansion approach.
Phonon-assisted tunneling and two-channel Kondo physics in molecular junctions
Dias Da Silva, Luis G; Dagotto, Elbio R
2009-01-01
The interplay between vibrational modes and Kondo physics is a fundamental aspect of transport properties of correlated molecular conductors. We present theoretical results for a single molecule in the Kondo regime connected to left and right metallic leads, creating the usual coupling to a conduction channel with left-right parity even. A center-of-mass vibrational mode introduces an additional phonon-assisted tunneling through the antisymmetric odd channel. A non-Fermi-liquid fixed point, reminiscent of the two-channel Kondo effect, appears at a critical value of the phonon-mediated coupling strength. Our numerical renormalization-group calculations for this system reveal non-Fermi-liquid behavior at low temperatures over lines of critical points. Signatures of this strongly correlated state are prominent in the thermodynamic properties and in the linear conductance.
Block entropy and quantum phase transition in the anisotropic Kondo necklace model
Mendoza-Arenas, J. J.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.
2010-06-15
We study the von Neumann block entropy in the Kondo necklace model for different anisotropies {eta} in the XY interaction between conduction spins using the density matrix renormalization group method. It was found that the block entropy presents a maximum for each {eta} considered, and, comparing it with the results of the quantum criticality of the model based on the behavior of the energy gap, we observe that the maximum block entropy occurs at the quantum critical point between an antiferromagnetic and a Kondo singlet state, so this measure of entanglement is useful for giving information about where a quantum phase transition occurs in this model. We observe that the block entropy also presents a maximum at the quantum critical points that are obtained when an anisotropy {Delta} is included in the Kondo exchange between localized and conduction spins; when {Delta} diminishes for a fixed value of {eta}, the critical point increases, favoring the antiferromagnetic phase.
Kondo phase shift at the zero-bias anomaly of quantum point contacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, Boris; Martins, Frederico; Faniel, Sébastien; Hackens, Benoit; Cavanna, Antonella; Ulysse, Christian; Ouerghi, Albdelkarim; Gennser, Ulf; Mailly, Dominique; Simon, Pascal; Huant, Serge; Bayot, Vincent; Sanquer, Marc; Sellier, Hermann
The Kondo effect is the many-body screening of a local spin by a cloud of electrons at very low temperature. It has been proposed as an explanation of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum point contacts where interactions drive a spontaneous charge localization. However, the Kondo origin of this anomaly remains under debate, and additional experimental evidence is necessary. Here we report on the first phase-sensitive measurement of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum point contacts using a scanning gate microscope to create an electronic interferometer. We observe an abrupt shift of the interference fringes by half a period in the bias range of the zero-bias anomaly, a behavior which cannot be reproduced by single-particle models. We instead relate it to the phase shift experienced by electrons scattering off a Kondo system. Our experiment therefore provides new evidence of this many-body effect in quantum point contacts.
Can magnetic noise from Kondo traps explain high frequency flux noise in superconducting qubits?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias da Silva, Luis; de Sousa, Rogerio
2015-03-01
In solid state devices, charge and magnetic noise have common microscopic origin. Both occur due to the presence of Kondo traps nearby metallic wires. We use numerical renormalization group calculations to show that, despite their common origin, charge and magnetic noise have opposing behavior controlled by completely different energy scales. While magnetic noise follows an universal scaling with the Kondo temperature, charge noise remains well described by non-interacting theory even when the trap is deep into the Kondo regime. We show how these results may explain the high frequency (f= 1-10 GHz) Ohmic flux noise observed in SQUIDs and superconducting qubits. LGDS acknowledges support from Brazilian agencies FAPESP (2013/50220-7), CNPq (307107/2013-2) and PRP-USP NAP-QNano. RdS acknowledges support from the Canadian program NSERC-Discovery and a FAPESP-UVic exchange award.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flottat, T.; Hébert, F.; Rousseau, V. G.; Scalettar, R. T.; Batrouni, G. G.
2015-07-01
We study, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, the bosonic Kondo-Hubbard model in a two-dimensional square lattice. We explore the phase diagram and analyze the mobility of particles and magnetic properties. At unit filling, the transition from a paramagnetic Mott insulator to a ferromagnetic superfluid appears continuous, contrary to what was predicted with mean field. For double occupation per site, both the Mott insulating and superfluid phases are ferromagnetic and the transition is still continuous. Multiband tight-binding Hamiltonians can be realized in optical lattice experiments, which offer not only the possibility of tuning the different energy scales over wide ranges, but also the option of loading the system with either fermionic or bosonic atoms.
Mpemba-Like Behavior in Carbon Nanotube Resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greaney, P. Alex; Lani, Giovanna; Cicero, Giancarlo; Grossman, Jeffrey C.
2011-12-01
Surprising Mpemba-like dissipation is observed during computer simulated ring-down of the flexural modes of a single-walled carbon nanotube resonator. Vibrations are made to decay to zero faster by adding a larger initial excitation. We liken this counterintuitive observation to the well-known Mpemba effect in which hot water freezes faster that cold water. In both cases, the system seems to pose a memory of its thermal history; a paradoxical result that is reconciled if the dissipative state of the system is not described uniquely by the system's average temperature. A vibrational mode projection algorithm is used to track the dissipation pathway, showing that dissipation is dependent strongly on the development of an athermal phonon population. The implications of Mpemba-like behavior in more general, and continuously driven, nanomechanical systems are discussed.
Ion Behavior in an Electrically Compensated Ion Cyclotron Resonance Trap
Brustkern, Adam M.; Rempel, Don L.; Gross, Michael L.
2010-01-01
We recently described a new electrically compensated trap in FT ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and developed a means of tuning traps of this general design. Here, we describe a continuation of that research by comparing the ion transient lifetimes and the resulting mass resolving powers and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios that are achievable in the compensated vs. uncompensated modes of this trap. Transient lifetimes are ten times longer under the same conditions of pressure, providing improved mass resolving power and S/N ratios. The mass resolving power as a function of m/z is linear (log-log plot) and nearly equal to the theoretical maximum. Importantly, the ion cyclotron frequency as a function of ion number decreases linearly in accord with theory, unlike its behavior in the uncompensated mode. This linearity should lead to better control in mass calibration and increased mass accuracy than achievable in the uncompensated mode. PMID:21499521
The Kondo effect in three-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Xianhao; Yeh, Mao-Chuang
2013-07-01
We investigate the role of magnetic impurities in the transport properties of surface states on a three-dimensional topological insulator. First, we use second-order perturbation theory and the Boltzmann transport equation to calculate the magnetically induced resistivity in a topological insulator. Our result shows a non-perturbative behavior when conducting electrons and magnetic impurities’ spins are antiferromagnetically coupled. The surface resistivity is found to display an oscillatory rather than isotropic behavior compared to the conventional Kondo effect. Both the variational method and renormalization group (RG) analysis are employed to compute the Kondo temperature, through which the non-perturbative behavior is confirmed. We further study the RG flows and demonstrate that the RG trajectories flow into a strong coupling regime if coupling is antiferromagnetic. Our work is motivated by the recent transport experiments with surface currents on topological insulators. Our calculation is qualitatively consistent with the low temperature dip observed in the experimental R-T curve and might be one of the possible origins of the dip.
Chern Kondo Insulator in an Optical Lattice.
Chen, Hua; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X C
2016-01-29
We propose to realize and observe Chern Kondo insulators in an optical superlattice with laser-assisted s and p orbital hybridization and a synthetic gauge field, which can be engineered based on the recent cold atom experiments. Considering a double-well square optical lattice, the localized s orbitals are decoupled from itinerant p bands and are driven into a Mott insulator due to the strong Hubbard interaction. Raman laser beams are then applied to induce tunnelings between s and p orbitals, and generate a staggered flux simultaneously. Because of the strong Hubbard interaction of s orbital states, we predict the existence of a critical Raman laser-assisted coupling, beyond which the Kondo screening is achieved, and then a fully gapped Chern Kondo phase emerges, with the topology characterized by integer Chern numbers. Being a strongly correlated topological state, the Chern Kondo phase is different from the single-particle quantum anomalous Hall state, and can be identified by measuring the band topology and double occupancy of s orbitals. The experimental realization and detection of the predicted Chern Kondo insulator are also proposed. PMID:26871345
Chern Kondo Insulator in an Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Hua; Liu, Xiong-Jun; Xie, X. C.
2016-01-01
We propose to realize and observe Chern Kondo insulators in an optical superlattice with laser-assisted s and p orbital hybridization and a synthetic gauge field, which can be engineered based on the recent cold atom experiments. Considering a double-well square optical lattice, the localized s orbitals are decoupled from itinerant p bands and are driven into a Mott insulator due to the strong Hubbard interaction. Raman laser beams are then applied to induce tunnelings between s and p orbitals, and generate a staggered flux simultaneously. Because of the strong Hubbard interaction of s orbital states, we predict the existence of a critical Raman laser-assisted coupling, beyond which the Kondo screening is achieved, and then a fully gapped Chern Kondo phase emerges, with the topology characterized by integer Chern numbers. Being a strongly correlated topological state, the Chern Kondo phase is different from the single-particle quantum anomalous Hall state, and can be identified by measuring the band topology and double occupancy of s orbitals. The experimental realization and detection of the predicted Chern Kondo insulator are also proposed.
State identification and tunable Kondo effect of MnPc on Ag(001)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kügel, Jens; Karolak, Michael; Krönlein, Andreas; Senkpiel, Jacob; Hsu, Pin-Jui; Sangiovanni, Giorgio; Bode, Matthias
2015-06-01
We present a detailed investigation of spectroscopic features located at the central metal ion of MnPc (where Pc represents phthalocyanine) on Ag(001) by means of scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and first-principles theory. STS data taken close to the Fermi level reveal an asymmetric feature that cannot be fitted with a single Fano function representing a one-channel Kondo effect. Instead, our data indicate the existence of a second superimposed feature. Two potential physical origins, a second Kondo channel related to the dx z /y z orbitals, and a spectral feature of the dz2 orbital itself, are discussed. A systematic experimental and theoretical comparison of MnPc with CoPc and FePc indicates that the second feature observed on MnPc is caused by the dz2 orbital. This conclusion is corroborated by STM-induced dehydrogenation experiments on FePc and MnPc which in both cases result in a gradual shift towards more positive binding energies and a narrowing of the Kondo resonance. Theoretical analysis reveals that the latter is caused by the reduced hybridization between the d orbital and the substrate. Spatially resolved differential conductivity maps taken close to the respective peak positions show that the intensity of both features is highest over the central Mn ion, thereby providing further evidence against a second Kondo channel originating from the dx z /y z orbital of the central Mn ion.
The Kondo Effect and Controlled Spin Entanglement in Coupled Double-Quantum-Dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Albert M.
2005-07-01
Semiconductor double-quantum dots represent an ideal system for studying the novel spin physics of localized spins. On each quantum dot when the number of electrons is odd and the net spin is 1/2, a strong coupling of this localized spin to conducting electrons in the leads gives rise to Kondo correlation. On the other hand, in the coupled double-quantum-dot if the inter-dot antiferromagnetic interaction is strong, the two spins can form a correlated spin-singlet state, quenching the Kondo effect. This competition between Kondo and antiferromagnetic correlation is studied in a controlled manner by tuning the inter-dot tunnel coupling. Increasing the inter-dot tunneling, we observe a continuous transition from a single-peaked to a double-peaked Kondo resonance in the differential conductance. On the double-peaked side, the differential conductance becomes suppressed at zero source-drain bias. The observed strong suppression of the differential conductance at zero bias provides direct evidence signaling the formation of an entangled spin-singlet state. This evidence for entanglement and the tunability of our devices bode well for quantum computation applications.
Bohm-Aharonov and Kondo effects on tunneling currents in a mesoscopic ring
Davidovich, M.A.; Anda, E.V.; Chiappe, G.
1997-03-01
We present an analysis of the Kondo effect on the Bohm-Aharonov oscillations of the tunneling currents in a mesoscopic ring with a quantum dot inserted in one of its arms. The system is described by an Anderson-impurity tight-binding Hamiltonian where the electron-electron interaction is restricted to the dot. The currents are obtained using nonequilibrium Green functions calculated through a cumulant diagrammatic expansion in the chain approximation. It is shown that at low temperature, even with the system out of resonance, the Kondo peak provides a channel for the electron to tunnel through the dot, giving rise to the Bohm-Aharonov oscillations of the current. At high temperature these oscillations are important only if the dot level is aligned to the Fermi level, when the resonance condition is satisfied. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Intersite coupling effects in a Kondo lattice near an antiferromagnetic instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakatsuji, Satoru
2003-03-01
Critcal fluctuations due to the proximity to a magnetic instability are believed to be the origin of a variety of non-Fermi-liquid behavior and unconventional superconductivity observed in heavy fermion systems. Near the quantum critical points, prominent effect of intersite coupling in Kondo lattice systems may appear. With this in mind, we studied the La dilution effects in CeCoIn_5, a heavy fermion superconductor located near an antiferromangetic instability [1,2]. The scaling laws found for the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat reveal two well-separated energy scales, corresponding to the single impurity Kondo temperature TK and an intersite spin-liquid temperature T. The Ce-dilute alloy has the expected Fermi liquid ground state, while the specific heat and resistivity in the dense Kondo regime exhibit non-Fermi-liquid behavior, which scales with T^*. These observations indicate that the screening of the magnetic moments in the lattice involves antiferromagnetic intersite correlations with a larger energy scale in comparison with the Kondo impurity case. This work was supported by NSF DMR-9527035. [1] C. Petrovic ´it et al., J.Phys.: Condens. Matter ´bf 13, L337 (2001). [2] S. Nakatsuji ´it et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 106402 (2002) ^´ast Work done in collaboration with Zachary Fisk, Sunmog Yeo, Luis Balicas, Pedro Schlottmann, Pagliuso G. Pagliuso, Nelson O. Moreno, John L. Sarrao, and Joe D. Thompson
Kondo bahavior in antiferromagnetic NpPdSn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shrestha, K.; Prokes, K.; Griveau, J.-C.; Jardin, R.; Colineau, E.; Caciuffo, R.; Eloirdi, R.; Gofryk, K.
Actinide-based intermetallics show a large variety of exotic physical phenomena mainly coming from 5f hybridization with both on-site and neighboring ligand states. Depending on the strength of these process unusual behaviors such as long-range magnetic order, Kondo effect, heavy-fermion ground state, valence fluctuations, and/or superconductivity have been observed. Here we report results of our extensive studies on NpPdSn. The compound crystalizes in hexagonal ZrNiAl-type of crystal structure and is studied by means of x-ray and neutron diffraction, magnetization, heat capacity, electrical resistivity, and thermoelectric power measurements, performed over a wide range of temperatures and applied magnetic fields. All the results revealed Kondo lattice behavior and antiferromagnetic ordering below 19 K. NpPdSn can be classified as a moderately enhanced heavy-fermion system, one of very few known amidst Np-based intermetallics. Work at Idaho National Laboratory was supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences, and Engineering Division.
Alternative Kondo breakdown mechanism: Orbital-selective orthogonal metal transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yin; Liu, Ke; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Luo, Hong-Gang
2012-09-01
In a recent paper of Nandkishore, Metlitski, and Senthil [Phys. Rev. B1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.86.045128 86, 045128 (2012)], a concept of orthogonal metal has been introduced to reinterpret the disordered state of slave-spin representation in the Hubbard model as an exotic gapped metallic state. We extend this concept to study the corresponding quantum phase transition in the extended Anderson lattice model. It is found that the disordered state of slave spins in this model is an orbital-selective orthogonal metal, a generalization of the concept of the orthogonal metal in the Hubbard model. The quantum critical behaviors are multiscale and dominated by a z=3 and z=2 critical modes in the high- and low-temperature regime, respectively. Such behaviors are obviously in contrast to the naive expectation in the Hubbard model. The result provides alternative Kondo breakdown mechanism for heavy fermion compounds underlying the physics of the orbital-selective orthogonal metal in the disordered state, which is different from the conventional Kondo breakdown mechanism with the fractionalized Fermi-liquid picture. This work is expected to be useful in understanding the quantum criticality happening in some heavy fermion materials and other related strongly correlated systems.
Kondo effect in charm and bottom nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yasui, Shigehiro
2016-06-01
The Kondo effect for isospin-exchange interaction between a D ¯, B meson and a valence nucleon in charm and bottom atomic nuclei including the discrete energy levels for valence nucleons is discussed. To investigate the binding energy by the Kondo effect, I introduce the mean-field approach for the bound state of the D ¯, B meson in charm and bottom nuclei. Assuming a simple model, I examine the validity of the mean-field approximation by comparing the results with the exact solutions. The effect of the quantum fluctuation is estimated beyond the mean-field approximation. The competition between the Kondo effect and the other correlations in valence nucleons, the isospin symmetry breaking and the nucleon pairings, are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heyder, Jan; Bauer, Florian; Schubert, Enrico; Borowsky, David; Schuh, Dieter; Wegscheider, Werner; von Delft, Jan; Ludwig, Stefan
2015-11-01
Quantum point contacts (QPCs) and quantum dots (QDs), two elementary building blocks of semiconducting nanodevices, both exhibit famously anomalous conductance features: the 0.7 anomaly in the former case, the Kondo effect in the latter. For both the 0.7 anomaly and the Kondo effect, the conductance shows a remarkably similar low-energy dependence on temperature T , source-drain voltage Vsd, and magnetic field B . In a recent publication [F. Bauer et al., Nature (London) 501, 73 (2013), 10.1038/nature12421], we argued that the reason for these similarities is that both a QPC and a Kondo QD (KQD) feature spin fluctuations that are induced by the sample geometry, confined in a small spatial regime, and enhanced by interactions. Here, we further explore this notion experimentally and theoretically by studying the geometric crossover between a QD and a QPC, focusing on the B -field dependence of the conductance. We introduce a one-dimensional model with local interactions that reproduces the essential features of the experiments, including a smooth transition between a KQD and a QPC with 0.7 anomaly. We find that in both cases the anomalously strong negative magnetoconductance goes hand in hand with strongly enhanced local spin fluctuations. Our experimental observations include, in addition to the Kondo effect in a QD and the 0.7 anomaly in a QPC, Fano interference effects in a regime of coexistence between QD and QPC physics, and Fabry-Perot-type resonances on the conductance plateaus of a clean QPC. We argue that Fabry-Perot-type resonances occur generically if the electrostatic potential of the QPC generates a flatter-than-parabolic barrier top.
Global phase diagram and single particle excitations in Kondo insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, Qimiao; Pixley, Jedediah; Yu, Rong; Paschen, Silke
Motivated by quantum criticality in Kondo insulators tuned by pressure or doping we study the effects of magnetic frustration and the properties of the single particle excitations in a Kondo lattice model. Focusing on the Kondo insulating limit we study the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo lattice and determine the zero temperature phase diagram, which incorporates a valence bond solid, antiferromagnet, and Kondo insulating ground states, with metal-to-insulator quantum phase transitions. We argue that this phase diagram is generic and represents a ``global'' phase diagram of Kondo insulators in terms of quantum fluctuations and the Kondo interaction. We then focus on the momentum distribution of single particle excitations within the Kondo insulating ground state. We show how features of the Fermi-surface of the underlying conduction electrons appear in the Kondo insulating phase. Lastly, we discuss the implications of our results for quantum criticality in Kondo insulators as well as for the recent de Haas-von Alphen measurements in the Kondo insulator SmB6.
Effect of anisotropy in the S=1 underscreened Kondo lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Lacroix, Claudine; Iglesias, José Roberto; Coqblin, Bernard
2014-12-01
We study the effect of crystal field anisotropy in the underscreened S=1 Kondo lattice model. Starting from the two orbital Anderson lattice model and including a local anisotropy term, we show, through Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, that local anisotropy is equivalent to an anisotropic Kondo interaction (J∥≠J⊥). The competition and coexistence between ferromagnetism and Kondo effect in this effective model is studied within a generalized mean-field approximation. Several regimes are obtained, depending on the parameters, exhibiting or not coexistence of magnetic order and Kondo effect. Particularly, we show that a re-entrant Kondo phase at low temperature can be obtained. We are also able to describe phases where the Kondo temperature is smaller than the Curie temperature (TK
The physics of Kondo impurities in graphene.
Fritz, Lars; Vojta, Matthias
2013-03-01
This article summarizes our understanding of the Kondo effect in graphene, primarily from a theoretical perspective. We shall describe different ways to create magnetic moments in graphene, either by adatom deposition or via defects. For dilute moments, the theoretical description is in terms of effective Anderson or Kondo impurity models coupled to graphene's Dirac electrons. We shall discuss in detail the physics of these models, including their quantum phase transitions and the effect of carrier doping, and confront this with existing experimental data. Finally, we will point out connections to other quantum impurity problems, e.g., in unconventional superconductors, topological insulators, and quantum spin liquids. PMID:23411583
The physics of Kondo impurities in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritz, Lars; Vojta, Matthias
2013-03-01
This article summarizes our understanding of the Kondo effect in graphene, primarily from a theoretical perspective. We shall describe different ways to create magnetic moments in graphene, either by adatom deposition or via defects. For dilute moments, the theoretical description is in terms of effective Anderson or Kondo impurity models coupled to graphene's Dirac electrons. We shall discuss in detail the physics of these models, including their quantum phase transitions and the effect of carrier doping, and confront this with existing experimental data. Finally, we will point out connections to other quantum impurity problems, e.g., in unconventional superconductors, topological insulators, and quantum spin liquids.
Kondo Tunneling through Real and Artificial Molecules
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kikoin, Konstantin; Avishai, Yshai
2001-03-01
When an asymmetric double dot is hybridized with itinerant electrons, its singlet ground state and lowly excited triplet state cross, leading to a competition between the Zhang-Rice mechanism of singlet-triplet splitting in a confined cluster and the Kondo effect (which accompanies the tunneling through quantum dot under a Coulomb blockade restriction). The rich physics of an underscreened S = 1 Kondo impurity in the presence of low-lying triplet-singlet excitations is exposed and estimates of the magnetic susceptibility and the electric conductance are presented, together with applications for molecule chemisorption on metallic substrates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Po-Hao; Zhai, Liang-Jun; Chung, Chung-Hou; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Mou, Chung-Yu
The energy gap in Dirac materials controls the topology and critical behaviors of the quantum phase transition associated with the critical point when the gap vanishes. However, it is often difficult to access the critical point as it requires tunablity of electronic structures. Here by exploiting the many-body screening interaction of localized spins and conduction electrons in a Kondo lattice, we demonstrate that the electronic band structures in a Kondo lattice are tunable in temperature. When spin-orbit interactions are included, we find that below the Kondo temperature, the Kondo lattice is a strong topological insulator at low temperature and undergoes a topological transition to a weak topological insulator at a higher temperature TD. At TD, Dirac points emerge and the Kondo lattice becomes a Dirac semimetal. Our results indicate that the topological phase transition though a Dirac semi-metallic phase at finite temperatures also manifests profound physics and results in critical-like behavior both in magnetic and transport properties near TD. We acknowledge support from NCTS and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST), Taiwan.
Transport across two interacting quantum dots: bulk Kondo, Kondo box and molecular regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa Ribeiro, Laercio; Hamad, Ignacio; Chiappe, Guillermo; Victoriano Anda, Enrique
2014-03-01
We analyze the transport properties of a double quantum dot device with both dots coupled to perfect conducting leads and to a finite chain of N non-interacting sites connecting both of them. The inter-dot chain strongly influences the transport across the system and the local density of states of the dots. We study the case of small number of sites, so that Kondo box effects are present. For odd N and small coupling between the inter-dot chain and the dots, a state with two coexisting Kondo regimes develops: the bulk Kondo due to the quantum dots connected to leads and the one produced by the screening of the quantum dots spins by the spin in the finite chain. As the coupling to the inter-dot chain increases, there is a crossover to a molecular Kondo effect, due to the screening of the molecule spin by the leads. For even N the two-Kondo temperatures regime does not develop and the physics is dominated by the usual competition between Kondo and antiferromagnetism. We finally study how the transport properties are affected as N is increased. We used exact multi-configurational Lanczos calculations and finite U slave-boson mean-field theory. The results obtained with both methods describe qualitatively and also quantitatively the same physics.
Transport across two interacting quantum dots: Bulk Kondo, Kondo box, and molecular regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa Ribeiro, Laercio; Hamad, Ignacio; Chiappe, Guillermo; Victoriano Anda, Enrique
2015-03-01
We analyze the transport properties of a double quantum dot device with both dots coupled to perfect conducting leads and to a finite chain of N noninteracting sites connecting both of them. The interdot chain strongly influences the transport across the system and the local density of states of the dots. We study the case of a small number of sites, so that Kondo box effects are present, varying the coupling between the dots and the chain. For odd N and small coupling between the interdot chain and the dots, a state with two coexisting Kondo regimes develops: the bulk Kondo due to the quantum dots connected to leads and the one produced by the screening of the quantum dot spins by the spin in the finite chain at the Fermi level. As the coupling to the interdot chain increases, there is a crossover to a molecular Kondo effect, due to the screening of the molecule (formed by the finite chain and the quantum dots) spin by the leads. For even N the two Kondo temperatures regime does not develop and the physics is dominated by the usual competition between Kondo and antiferromagnetism between the quantum dots. We acknowledge financial support from the Brazilian agencies FAPERJ and CNPq.
Transport across two interacting quantum dots: Bulk Kondo, Kondo box, and molecular regimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ribeiro, L. C.; Hamad, I. J.; Chiappe, G.; Anda, E. V.
2014-01-01
We analyze the transport properties of a double quantum dot device with both dots coupled to perfect conducting leads and to a finite chain of N noninteracting sites connecting both of them. The interdot chain strongly influences the transport across the system and the local density of states of the dots. We study the case of a small number of sites, so that Kondo box effects are present, varying the coupling between the dots and the chain. For odd N and small coupling between the interdot chain and the dots, a state with two coexisting Kondo regimes develops: the bulk Kondo due to the quantum dots connected to leads and the one produced by the screening of the quantum dot spins by the spin in the finite chain at the Fermi level. As the coupling to the interdot chain increases, there is a crossover to a molecular Kondo effect, due to the screening of the molecule (formed by the finite chain and the quantum dots) spin by the leads. For even N the two Kondo temperatures regime does not develop and the physics is dominated by the usual competition between Kondo and antiferromagnetism between the quantum dots. We finally study how the transport properties are affected as N is increased. For the study we used exact multiconfigurational Lanczos calculations and finite-U slave-boson mean-field theory at T =0. The results obtained with both methods describe qualitatively and also quantitatively the same physics.
Terahertz transmission studies of the topological Kondo insulator candidate SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurita, Nicholas J.; Morris, Christopher M.; Koopayeh, Seyed; Cottingham, Patrick; Phelan, W. Adam; Schoop, Leslie; McQueen, Tyrel M.; Armitage, N. Peter
2014-03-01
The Kondo insulator SmB6 has long been known to display anomalous transport behavior at low temperatures (T < 10 K) and high pressures. At low temperatures, a plateau is observed in the resistivity, contrary to the divergence expected for a normal Kondo insulator. Recent theoretical calculations suggest that SmB6 may be the first topological Kondo insulator, a material with a Kondo insulating bulk, but topologically protected metallic surface states. Here, time domain terahertz spectroscopy (TDTS) is used to investigate the temperature dependent low frequency optical conductivity of single crystals of SmB6. We find evidence for a substantial bulk conductivity at a frequency of a few hundred GHz, which challenges the notion of this material as having a clean gap. The evidence for topological surface states and their properties will be discussed. Work supported by The Institute of Quantum Matter under DOE grant DE-FG02-08ER46544 and by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF2628.
Holographic optical traps for atom-based topological Kondo devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buccheri, F.; Bruce, G. D.; Trombettoni, A.; Cassettari, D.; Babujian, H.; Korepin, V. E.; Sodano, P.
2016-07-01
The topological Kondo (TK) model has been proposed in solid-state quantum devices as a way to realize non-Fermi liquid behaviors in a controllable setting. Another motivation behind the TK model proposal is the demand to demonstrate the quantum dynamical properties of Majorana fermions, which are at the heart of their potential use in topological quantum computation. Here we consider a junction of crossed Tonks–Girardeau gases arranged in a star-geometry (forming a Y-junction), and we perform a theoretical analysis of this system showing that it provides a physical realization of the TK model in the realm of cold atom systems. Using computer-generated holography, we experimentally implement a Y-junction suitable for atom trapping, with controllable and independent parameters. The junction and the transverse size of the atom waveguides are of the order of 5 μm, leading to favorable estimates for the Kondo temperature and for the coupling across the junction. Since our results show that all the required theoretical and experimental ingredients are available, this provides the demonstration of an ultracold atom device that may in principle exhibit the TK effect.
Spin fluctations and heavy fermions in the Kondo lattice
Khaliullin, G.G.
1994-09-01
This paper studies the spectrum of the spin and electronic excitations of the Kondo lattice at low temperatures. To avoid unphysical states, the Mattis {open_quotes}drone{close_quotes}-fermion representation for localized spins is employed. First, the known Fermi liquid properties of a single impurity are examined. The behavior of the correlator between a localized spin and the electron spin density at large distances shows that the effective interaction between electrons on the Fermi level and low-energy localized spin fluctuations scales as {rho}{sup {minus}1}, where {rho} is the band-state density. This fact is developed into a renormalization of the band spectrum in a periodic lattice. If the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction between localized spins is much smaller than the Kondo fluctuation frequency {omega}{sub k}, the temperature of the crossover to the single-parameter Fermi liquid mode is determined by {omega}{sub k}. When the RKKY interaction becomes of order {omega}{sub k}, there is a new scale {omega}{sub sf}, the energy of the (antiferromagnetic) paramagnon mode, with {omega}{sub sf}{much_lt}{omega}{sub k}. Here the coherent Fermi liquid regime is realized only below a temperature T{sub coh} of order {omega}{sub sf}, while above T{sub coh} quasiparticle damping exhibits a linear temperature dependence. Finally, the nuclear-spin relaxation rate is calculated. 42 refs.
Local moment formation and Kondo screening in impurity trimers.
Mitchell, Andrew K; Jarrold, Thomas F; Galpin, Martin R; Logan, David E
2013-10-24
We study theoretically a triangular cluster of three magnetic impurities, hybridizing locally with conduction electrons of a metallic host. Such a cluster is the simplest to exhibit frustration, an important generic feature of many complex molecular systems in which different interactions compete. Here, low-energy doublet states of the trimer are favored by effective exchange interactions produced by strong electronic repulsion in localized impurity orbitals. Parity symmetry protects a level crossing of such states on tuning microscopic parameters, while an avoided crossing arises in the general distorted case. Upon coupling to a metallic host, the behavior is shown to be immensely rich because collective quantum many-body effects now also compete. In particular, impurity degrees of freedom are totally screened at low temperatures in a Kondo-screened Fermi liquid phase, while degenerate ground states persist in a local moment phase. Local frustration drives the quantum phase transition between the two, which may be first order or of Kosterlitz-Thouless type, depending on symmetries. Unusual mechanisms for local moment formation and Kondo screening are found due to the orbital structure of the impurity trimer. Our results are of relevance for triple quantum dot devices. The problem is studied by a combination of analytical arguments and the numerical renormalization group. PMID:23527540
Kondo physics in a dissipative environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ingersent, K.; Glossop, M. T.; Khoshkhou, N.
2007-03-01
In recent years impurity models with quantum critical points have attracted much interest. Well-studied examples include the pseudogap and Bose-Fermi Kondo models. In the former model, the depletion of the host density of states at the Fermi level can destroy the Kondo effect; in the latter case, Kondo screening competes with coupling to a dissipative bosonic bath representing, e.g., collective spin fluctuations of the host. The physics of both models is dominated by an interacting quantum critical point. Here, we focus on the more general case of a magnetic impurity interacting with a pseudogap fermionic density of states ρ(ɛ)|ɛ|^r and with a bosonic bath having a spectral function B(φ)ŝ. Perturbative renormalization-group (RG) studies of the resulting model, discussed in relation to Kondo temperature suppression in underdoped cuprates [1], have established a rich phase diagram with three stable and two critical fixed points. We report nonperturbative results for this model, obtained using a Bose-Fermi numerical RG approach [2]. We discuss the phase diagram for the Ising-anisotropic case, together with quantum critical properties probed via response to a local magnetic field. [1] M. Vojta and M. Kir'can, PRL 90, 157203 (2003). [2] M. T. Glossop and K. Ingersent, PRL 95, 067202 (2005); PRB (2006).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Mueller, Erich
2015-05-01
We propose an experimental protocol to directly observe the Kondo effect by scattering ultracold atoms with spin-dependent interactions. The Kondo effect is a transport anomaly which occurs when conduction electrons interact with magnetic impurities. We consider an ultracold system consisting of a gas of fermionic 6Li atoms and a gas of bosonic 87Rb atoms, where 6Li atoms play the role of conduction electrons and 87Rb atoms play the role of magnetic impurities. We propose a method to engineer Kondo-like interactions between them. To measure the Kondo effect, we imagine launching the 87Rb gas into the 6Li gas, and calculate the momentum transferred to the 6Li gas. We show that the temperature dependence of this momentum is logarithmic at low temperatures and has a minimum, characteristic of the Kondo effect and analogous to the behavior of electrical resistance of magnetic alloys. Experimental implementation of our proposal will give a new perspective on an iconic problem.
Sarkar, T. P.; Gopinadhan, K.; Motapothula, M.; Saha, S.; Huang, Z.; Dhar, S.; Patra, A.; Lu, W. M.; Telesio, F.; Pallecchi, I.; Ariando; Marré, D.; Venkatesan, T.
2015-01-01
We report the observation of spatially separated Kondo scattering and ferromagnetism in anatase Ta0.06Ti0.94O2 thin films as a function of thickness (10–200 nm). The Kondo behavior observed in thicker films is suppressed on decreasing thickness and vanishes below ~25 nm. In 200 nm film, transport data could be fitted to a renormalization group theory for Kondo scattering though the carrier density in this system is lower by two orders of magnitude, the magnetic entity concentration is larger by a similar magnitude and there is strong electronic correlation compared to a conventional system such as Cu with magnetic impurities. However, ferromagnetism is observed at all thicknesses with magnetic moment per unit thickness decreasing beyond 10 nm film thickness. The simultaneous presence of Kondo and ferromagnetism is explained by the spatial variation of defects from the interface to surface which results in a dominantly ferromagnetic region closer to substrate-film interface while the Kondo scattering is dominant near the surface and decreasing towards the interface. This material system enables us to study the effect of neighboring presence of two competing magnetic phenomena and the possibility for tuning them. PMID:26265554
Buildup of the Kondo effect from real-time effective action for the Anderson impurity model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bock, Sebastian; Liluashvili, Alexander; Gasenzer, Thomas
2016-07-01
The nonequilibrium time evolution of a quantum dot is studied by means of dynamic equations for time-dependent Green's functions derived from a two-particle-irreducible (2PI) effective action for the Anderson impurity model. Coupling the dot between two leads at different voltages, the dynamics of the current through the dot is investigated. We show that the 2PI approach is capable of describing the dynamical buildup of the Kondo effect, which shows up as a sharp resonance in the spectral function, with a width exponentially suppressed in the electron self-coupling on the dot. An external voltage applied to the dot is found to deteriorate the Kondo effect at the hybridization scale. The dynamic equations are evaluated within different nonperturbative resummation schemes, within the direct, particle-particle, and particle-hole channels, as well as their combination, and the results compared with those from other methods.
Interplay between the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prüser, Henning; Dargel, Piet E.; Bouhassoune, Mohammed; Ulbrich, Rainer G.; Pruschke, Thomas; Lounis, Samir; Wenderoth, Martin
2014-11-01
The interplay between the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction and the Kondo effect is expected to provide the driving force for the emergence of many phenomena in strongly correlated electron materials. Two magnetic impurities in a metal are the smallest possible system containing all these ingredients and define a bottom-up approach towards a long-term understanding of concentrated/dense systems. Here we report on the experimental and theoretical investigation of iron dimers buried below a Cu(100) surface by means of low-temperature scanning tunnelling spectroscopy combined with density functional theory and numerical renormalization group calculations. The Kondo effect, in particular the width of the Abrikosov-Suhl resonance, is strongly altered or even suppressed due to magnetic coupling between the impurities. It oscillates as a function of dimer separation revealing that it is related to indirect exchange interactions mediated by the conduction electrons.
Pressure effects on the optical conductivity of Kondo insulators
Zhang, Sun
2001-06-01
The effects of pressure on the optical conductivity of Kondo insulators are studied in the framework of the slave-boson mean-field theory under the coherent potential approximation. A unified picture is presented for both the hole-type Kondo insulators [H. Okamura , Phys. Rev. B >58, R7496 (1998)] and the electron-type Kondo insulators [B. Bucher , Phys. Rev. Lett. >72, 522 (1994)]. The density of states of f electrons under the applied pressure and its variation with the concentration of the impurity doping are calculated self-consistently. The Kondo temperature and the optical conductivity are obtained, in agreement with the experiments qualitatively. The two contrasting pressure-dependent effects for the hole-type Kondo insulators and the electron-type Kondo insulators are also given as predictions for further observations.
Linear and nonlinear behavior of crystalline optical whispering gallery mode resonators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Maleki, Lute
2004-01-01
We demonstrate strong nonlinear behavior of high-Q whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators made out of various crystals adn devices based on the resonators. The maximum WGM optical Q-fact or achieved at room temperature exceeds 2X10 to the tenth power.
The Helmholtz resonance behavior of single and multiple rooms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hubbard, H. H.; Shepherd, K. P.
1986-01-01
The results of exploratory measurements of the noise fields inside rooms which are excited to resonance either acoustically or mechanically are presented. The data illustrate the nature and extent of the sound pressure level enhancements in single rooms and also how multiple rooms may resonate by means of either acoustic or mechanical coupling. Sound pressure level enhancements of about 5 dB were measured during resonance of rooms having flexible walls. For such conditions the sound pressure levels in the room were essentially uniform and in phase. Variability of up to 20 dB was measured in a room hallway complex having significant acoustic interactions. Resonant frequency prediction methods which work well at model scale, give only fair results for rooms.
Kondo effect in the presence of van Hove singularities: A numerical renormalization group study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravlev, A. K.; Irkhin, V. Yu.
2011-12-01
A numerical renormalization-group investigation of the one-center t-t' Kondo problem is performed for the square lattice accounting for logarithmic Van Hove singularities (VHS) in the electron density of states near the Fermi level. The magnetic susceptibility, entropy, and specific heat are calculated. The temperature dependencies of the thermodynamic properties in the presence of VHS turn out to be nontrivial. When the distance Δ between VHS and the Fermi level decreases, the inverse logarithm of the corresponding Kondo temperature TK demonstrates a crossover from the standard linear to square-root dependence on the s-d exchange coupling. The low-temperature behavior of the magnetic susceptibility and specific heat are investigated, and the Wilson ratio is obtained. For Δ→0 the Fermi-liquid behavior is broken.
Dynamical symmetries in Kondo tunneling through complex quantum dots.
Kuzmenko, T; Kikoin, K; Avishai, Y
2002-10-01
Kondo tunneling reveals hidden SO(n) dynamical symmetries of evenly occupied quantum dots. As is exemplified for an experimentally realizable triple quantum dot in parallel geometry, the possible values n=3,4,5,7 can be easily tuned by gate voltages. Following construction of the corresponding o(n) algebras, scaling equations are derived and Kondo temperatures are calculated. The symmetry group for a magnetic field induced anisotropic Kondo tunneling is SU(2) or SO(4). PMID:12366008
Charge Kondo effect in a triple quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Gwangsu; Park, Jinhong; Lee, S. S.-B.; Sim, H.-S.
2014-03-01
We predict that the charge Kondo effect appears in a triangular triple quantum dot. The system has two-fold degenerate ground-state charge configurations, interdot Coulomb interactions, lead-dot electron tunnelings, but no interdot electron tunneling. We show, using bosonization and refermionization, that the system is described by the anisotropic Kondo model. The anisotropy can be tuned by changing lead-dot electron tunneling strength, which allows one to experimentally explore the transition between the ferromagnetic non-Fermi liquid and antiferromagnetic Kondo phases in the Kondo phase diagram. Using numerical renormalization group method, we demonstrate that the transition is manifested in electron conductances through the dot.
Kondo Effect in a Triple Quantum-Dot Array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oguri, Akira; Nisikawa, Yunori; Hewson, A. C.
2006-09-01
We study the ground-state properties of a triple quantum dot based on a three-site Hubbard model connected to two non-interacting leads. Using the numerical renormalization group (NRG), the many-body phase shifts and dc conductance are calculated away from half-filling as a function of the onsite energy ɛd, which corresponds to the gate voltage. The results for conductance g show the typical Kondo plateaus of the Unitary limit g ≈ 2e2/h at some finite ranges of the gate-voltage corresponding to odd Nel (≈ 1, 3 and 5), where Nel is the total number of electrons in the triple dot. The conductance shows broad minima for even Nel(≈ 2 and 4). The local charge Nel shows a staircase behavior as a function of ɛd.
Resonance behavior of internal conversion coefficients at low γ-ray energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trzhaskovskaya, M. B.; Kibédi, T.; Nikulin, V. K.
2010-02-01
A resonance-like structure of internal conversion coefficients (ICCs) at low γ-ray energy (≲100 keV) is studied. Our calculations revealed new, previously unknown resonance minima in the energy dependence of ICCs for the ns shells at E2-E5 transitions. The resonances are the most defined for ICCs in light and medium elements with Z≲ 50. It is shown that ICCs may have up to four resonances for outer shells while it has been assumed so far that only one resonance exists. Well-pronounced resonances in ICCs at E1 transition were discovered for the ns shells with n⩾2 as well as for the np shells with n⩾3 and the nd shells with n⩾4 of all elements up to superheavy ones. Simple expressions for approximate values of the E1 resonance energy were obtained which are of importance for determination of the resonance energy range where the interpolation of ICCs taken from tables or databases may give significant errors. The occurrence of resonances in ICCs is explained by vanishing conversion matrix elements under changes of sign. The peculiarities of the behavior of the matrix elements and electron wave functions at the resonance energy are considered. Available experimental ICCs for electric transitions with energies near the expected position of resonances satisfactory agree with our calculations.
Interpreting the behavior of a quarter-wave transmission line resonator in a magnetized plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gogna, G. S.; Karkari, S. K.; Turner, M. M.
2014-12-01
The quarter wave resonator immersed in a strongly magnetized plasma displays two possible resonances occurring either below or above its resonance frequency in vacuum, fo. This fact was demonstrated in our recent articles [G. S. Gogna and S. K. Karkari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151503 (2010); S. K. Karkari, G. S. Gogna, D. Boilson, M. M. Turner, and A. Simonin, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 50(9), 903 (2010)], where the experiments were carried out over a limited range of magnetic fields at a constant electron density, ne. In this paper, we present the observation of dual resonances occurring over the frequency scan and find that ne calculated by considering the lower resonance frequency is 25%-30% smaller than that calculated using the upper resonance frequency with respect to fo. At a given magnetic field strength, the resonances tend to shift away from fo as the background density is increased. The lower resonance tends to saturate when its value approaches electron cyclotron frequency, fce. Interpretation of these resonance conditions are revisited by examining the behavior of the resonance frequency response as a function of ne. A qualitative discussion is presented which highlights the practical application of the hairpin resonator for interpreting ne in a strongly magnetized plasma.
Interpreting the behavior of a quarter-wave transmission line resonator in a magnetized plasma
Gogna, G. S. Turner, M. M.; Karkari, S. K.
2014-12-15
The quarter wave resonator immersed in a strongly magnetized plasma displays two possible resonances occurring either below or above its resonance frequency in vacuum, f{sub o}. This fact was demonstrated in our recent articles [G. S. Gogna and S. K. Karkari, Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 151503 (2010); S. K. Karkari, G. S. Gogna, D. Boilson, M. M. Turner, and A. Simonin, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 50(9), 903 (2010)], where the experiments were carried out over a limited range of magnetic fields at a constant electron density, n{sub e}. In this paper, we present the observation of dual resonances occurring over the frequency scan and find that n{sub e} calculated by considering the lower resonance frequency is 25%–30% smaller than that calculated using the upper resonance frequency with respect to f{sub o}. At a given magnetic field strength, the resonances tend to shift away from f{sub o} as the background density is increased. The lower resonance tends to saturate when its value approaches electron cyclotron frequency, f{sub ce}. Interpretation of these resonance conditions are revisited by examining the behavior of the resonance frequency response as a function of n{sub e}. A qualitative discussion is presented which highlights the practical application of the hairpin resonator for interpreting n{sub e} in a strongly magnetized plasma.
Kondo effect and STM spectroscopy of Dirac electrons in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sengupta, Krishnendu
2011-03-01
We show that graphene, whose low-energy quasiparticles display Dirac like behavior, may exhibit a two-channel Kondo effect in the presence of magnetic impurities. We present a large N analysis for a generic spin S local moment coupled to Dirac electrons in graphene and demonstrate that the corresponding Kondo temperature can be tuned by an experimentally controllable applied gate voltage. We also study the STM spectra of these Dirac electrons in the presence of such impurities and demonstrate that such spectra depend qualitatively on the position of the impurity atom in the graphene matrix. More specifically, for impurity atoms atop the hexagon center, the zero-bias tunneling conductance, as measured by a STM, shows a peak; for those atop a graphene site, it shows a dip. We provide a qualitative theoretical explanation of this phenomenon and show that this unconventional behavior is a consequence of conservation/breaking of pseudospin symmetry of the Dirac quasiparticles by the impurity. We also predict that tuning the Fermi energy to zero by a gate voltage would not lead to qualitative change in the shape of the conductance spectra when the impurity is atop the hexagon center. A similar tuning of the Fermi energy for the impurity atop a site, however, would lead to a change in the tunneling conductance from a dip to a peak via an antiresonance. We discuss some recent experiments on a doped graphene sample that seem to have qualitative agreement with our theory and suggest further experiments to test our predictions. DST, India.
Antiferromagnetic phases of the Kondo lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eder, R.; Grube, K.; Wróbel, P.
2016-04-01
We discuss the paramagnetic and Néel-ordered phases of the Kondo lattice Hamiltonian on the two-dimensional square lattice by means of bond fermions. In the doped case we find two antiferromagnetic solutions, the first one with small ordered moment, heavy bands, and an antiferromagnetically folded large Fermi surface—i.e., including the localized spins—the second one with large ordered moment, light bands, and an antiferromagnetically folded conduction electron-only Fermi surface. The zero temperature phase diagram as a function of Kondo coupling and conduction electron density shows first- and second-order transition lines between the three different phases and agrees qualitatively with previous numerical studies. We compare to experiments on CeRh1 -xCoxIn5 and find qualitative agreement.
Scattering Theory of Kondo Mirages and Observation of Single Kondo Atom Phase Shift*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiete, Gregory A.; Hersch, Jesse S.; Heller, Eric J.; Manoharan, H. C.; Lutz, C. P.; Eigler, D. M.
2001-03-01
We explain the origin of the Kondo mirage seen in recent quantum corral Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) experiments with a scattering theory of electrons on the surfaces of metals. Our theory combined with experimental data provides the first direct observation of a single Kondo atom phase shift. The Kondo mirage observed at the empty focus of an elliptical quantum corral is shown to arise from multiple electron bounces off the corral wall adatoms in a manner analagous to the formation of a real image in optics. We demonstrate our theory with direct quantitive comparision to experimental data. *This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE9610501 and by ITAMP.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xiaoli; Hou, Dong; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing
2016-01-01
The magnetic anisotropy and Kondo phenomena in a mechanically stretched magnetic molecular junction are investigated by combining the density functional theory (DFT) and hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach. The system is comprised of a magnetic complex Co(tpy-SH)2 sandwiched between adjacent gold electrodes, which is mechanically stretched in experiments done by Parks et al. [Science 328, 1370 (2010)]. The electronic structure and mechanical property of the stretched system are investigated via the DFT calculations. The HEOM approach is then employed to characterize the Kondo resonance features, based on the Anderson impurity model parameterized from the DFT results. It is confirmed that the ground state prefers the S = 1 local spin state. The structural properties, the magnetic anisotropy, and corresponding Kondo peak splitting in the axial stretching process are systematically evaluated. The results reveal that the strong electron correlations and the local magnetic properties of the molecule magnet are very sensitive to structural distortion. This work demonstrates that the combined DFT+HEOM approach could be useful in understanding and designing mechanically controlled molecular junctions.
Orbital signatures of Fano-Kondo line shapes in STM adatom spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frank, Sebastian; Jacob, David
2015-12-01
We investigate the orbital origin of the Fano-Kondo line shapes measured in STM spectroscopy of magnetic adatoms on metal substrates. To this end we calculate the low-bias tunnel spectra of a Co adatom on the (001) and (111) Cu surfaces with our density functional theory-based ab initio transport scheme augmented by local correlations. In order to associate different d orbitals with different Fano line shapes we only correlate individual 3 d orbitals instead of the full Co 3 d shell. We find that Kondo peaks arising in different d levels indeed give rise to different Fano features in the conductance spectra. Hence, the shape of measured Fano features allows us to draw some conclusions about the orbital responsible for the Kondo resonance, although the actual shape is also influenced by temperature, effective interaction, and charge fluctuations. Comparison with a simplified model shows that line shapes are mostly the result of interference between tunneling paths through the correlated d orbital and the s p -type orbitals on the Co atom. Very importantly, the amplitudes of the Fano features vary strongly among orbitals, with the 3 z2 orbital featuring by far the largest amplitude due to its strong direct coupling to the s -type conduction electrons.
Robust topological surface state in Kondo insulator SmB{sub 6} thin films
Yong, Jie Jiang, Yeping; Zhang, Xiaohang; Greene, Richard L.; Usanmaz, Demet; Curtarolo, Stefano; Li, Linze; Pan, Xiaoqing; Shin, Jongmoon; Takeuchi, Ichiro
2014-12-01
Fabrication of smooth thin films of topological insulators with true insulating bulk are extremely important for utilizing their novel properties in quantum and spintronic devices. Here, we report the growth of crystalline thin films of SmB{sub 6}, a topological Kondo insulator with true insulating bulk, by co-sputtering both SmB{sub 6} and B targets. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy indicate films that are polycrystalline with a (001) preferred orientation. When cooling down, resistivity ρ shows an increase around 50 K and saturation below 10 K, consistent with the opening of the hybridization gap and surface dominated transport, respectively. The ratio ρ{sub 2K}/ρ{sub 300K} is only about two, much smaller than that of bulk, which indicates a much larger surface-to-bulk ratio. Point contact spectroscopy using a superconductor tip on SmB{sub 6} films shows both a Kondo Fano resonance and Andeev reflection, indicating an insulating Kondo lattice with metallic surface states.
Photoemission and the electronic properties of heavy fermions -- limitations of the Kondo model
Joyce, J.J.; Arko, A.J.; Andrews, A.B.
1993-09-01
The electronic properties of Yb-based heavy fermions have been investigated by means of high resolution synchrotron radiation photoemission and compared with predictions of the Kondo model. The Yb heavy fermion photoemission spectra show massive disagreement with the Kondo model predictions (as calculated within the Gunnarsson-Schonhammer computational method). Moreover, the Yb heavy fermion photoemission spectra give very strong indications of core-like characteristics and compare favorable to purely divalent Yb metal and core-like Lu 4f levels. The heavy fermions YbCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, YbAgCu{sub 4} and YbAl{sub 3} were measured and shown to have lineshapes much broader and deeper in binding energy than predicted by the Kondo model. The lineshape of the bulk component of the 4f emission for these three heavy fermion materials was compared with that from Yb metal and the Lu 4f levels in LuAl{sub 3}, the heavy fermion materials show no substantive spectroscopic differences from simple 4f levels observed in Yb metal and LuAl{sub 3}. Also, the variation with temperature of the 4f fineshape was measured for Yb metal and clearly demonstrates that phonon broadening plays a major role in 4f level lineshape analysis and must be accounted for before considerations of correlated electron resonance effects are presumed to be at work.
Field-Controlled Spin and Charge Distributions in Kondo System with a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Mikito; Matsumoto, Masashige; Kusunose, Hiroaki
2013-09-01
The Kondo effect plays an important role in the emergence of electric polarization in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is connected to a metallic lead through a point contact. The interplay between spin and charge distributions is investigated on the basis of an impurity Anderson model where the impurity-site cluster is described by a three-site Hubbard model. The numerical renormalization group analysis demonstrates that an applied magnetic field suppresses the Kondo effect and that the three-site spin correlations lead to an abrupt change in the local electric and magnetic polarizations. The controllability of this multiferroic behavior on the nanoscale is also discussed.
Magnetic frustration in itinerant systems: the Kondo polaron problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, Leonid; Batista, Cristian; Vekhter, Ilya
2013-03-01
We study the interplay between magnetic frustration and Kondo screening in Kondo lattices by analyzing the J1-J2 antiferromagnetic chain coupled to a conduction band. The system is tuned to the Majumdar-Ghosh point J2 =J1 / 2 which stabilizes a dimer valence-bond solid at weak Kondo coupling JK. We use an effective low-energy theory to demonstrate that sufficiently large JK results in a proliferation of ``Kondo polarons'', i.e. Kondo-screened domain-wall excitations of the dimer state, and collapse of the dimer order via a 2nd order quantum phase transition. At the quantum critical point, JK =JKc , these polarons become gapless, and we argue that the transition itself belongs to a 2D Ising universality class. For JK >JKc increasing concentration of the polarons leads to a continuous growth of the electron Fermi momentum until all spins are absorbed by the Fermi sea.
Anisotropic charge Kondo effect in a triple quantum dot.
Yoo, Gwangsu; Park, Jinhong; Lee, S-S B; Sim, H-S
2014-12-01
We predict that an anisotropic charge Kondo effect appears in a triple quantum dot, when the system has twofold degenerate ground states of (1,1,0) and (0,0,1) charge configurations. Using bosonization and refermionization methods, we find that at low temperature the system has the two different phases of massive charge fluctuations between the two charge configurations and vanishing fluctuations, which are equivalent with the Kondo-screened and ferromagnetic phases of the anisotropic Kondo model, respectively. The phase transition is identifiable by electron conductance measurement, offering the possibility of experimentally exploring the anisotropic Kondo model. Our charge Kondo effect has a similar origin to that in a negative-U Anderson impurity. PMID:25526143
Anisotropic Charge Kondo Effect in a Triple Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Gwangsu; Park, Jinhong; Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.
2014-12-01
We predict that an anisotropic charge Kondo effect appears in a triple quantum dot, when the system has twofold degenerate ground states of (1,1,0) and (0,0,1) charge configurations. Using bosonization and refermionization methods, we find that at low temperature the system has the two different phases of massive charge fluctuations between the two charge configurations and vanishing fluctuations, which are equivalent with the Kondo-screened and ferromagnetic phases of the anisotropic Kondo model, respectively. The phase transition is identifiable by electron conductance measurement, offering the possibility of experimentally exploring the anisotropic Kondo model. Our charge Kondo effect has a similar origin to that in a negative-U Anderson impurity.
Calculation of the quasi-energies and resonances behavior of the hydrogen Lyman-alpha problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ruyten, Wilhelmus M.
1992-01-01
Recently, Bakshi and Kalman presented numerical results for the quasi-energies of the n = 2 multiplet in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha transition for a plasma in which both strong static and oscillating electric fields are present. Recent work on related magnetic and optical resonance problems provides a simplified mathematical treatment, as well as greater insight into the complex resonance behavior of this interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nan Yang, Shin; Kiswandhi, Alvin; Xie, Ju-Jun
2011-10-01
We study whether the nonmonotonic behavior found in the differential cross section of the φ-meson photoproduction near threshold can be described by a resonance. The resonant contribution is evaluated by using an effective Lagrangian approach. We find that, with the assumption of a JP = 3/2- resonance with mass of 2.10±0.03 GeV and width of 0.465±0.141 GeV, LEPS data can indeed be well described. The ratio of the helicity amplitudes A1/2/A3/2 calculated from the re-22 sulting coupling constants differs in sign from that of the known D13(2080). We further find that the addition of this postulated resonance can substantially improve the agreement between the existing theoretical predictions and the recent ω photoproduction data if a large value of the OZI evading parameter xOZI = 12 is assumed for the resonance.
Collapse Dynamics and Resonance Behavior of Axisymmetric Slender Liquid Bridges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsige, Mesfin; Alexander, J. I. D.; Rosenblatt, C.; Taylor, P. L.
2001-03-01
The evolution of axisymetric liquid bridges subjected to static and oscillatory forces have been studied numerically. When the liquid bridge is subject to constant axial gravity, the collapse time is found to be largely independent of the length of the bridge when other parameters are held constant. For the case of dynamic oscillations and a given forcing amplitude, the frequency of the first resonance peak is found to be maximum when the static body force is zero and decreases with increasing total body force or length of the bridge.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Bo; Zhang, Xiao; Zhang, Lu; Luo, Mao-Kang
2016-08-01
The long-time collective behavior of globally coupled Langevin equations in a dichotomous fluctuating potential driven by a periodic source is investigated. By describing the collective behavior using the moments of the mean field and single-particle displacements, we study stochastic resonance and synchronization using the exact steady-state solutions and related stability criteria. Based on the simulation results and the criterion of the stationary regime, the notable differences between the stationary and nonstationary regimes are demonstrated. For the stationary regime, stochastic resonance with synchronization is discussed, and for the nonstationary regime, the volatility clustering phenomenon is observed.
Kondo interactions from band reconstruction in ${\mathrm{YbInCu}}_{4}$
Jarrige, I.; Kotani, A.; Yamaoka, H.; Tsujii, N.; Ishii, K.; Upton, M.; Casa, D.; Kim, J.; Gog, T.; Hancock, J. N.
2015-03-27
We combine resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and model calculations in the Kondo lattice compound YbInCu₄, a system characterized by a dramatic increase in Kondo temperature and associated valence fluctuations below a first-order valence transition at T≃42 K. In this study, the bulk-sensitive, element-specific, and valence-projected charge excitation spectra reveal an unusual quasi-gap in the Yb-derived state density which drives an instability of the electronic structure and renormalizes the low-energy effective Hamiltonian at the transition. Our results provide long-sought experimental evidence for a link between temperature-driven changes in the low-energy Kondo scale and the higher-energy electronic structure of this system.
Microwave memristive behavior in split-ring resonator metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, H. Y.; Shi, S. K.; Wang, C. H.; Jiang, X. J.; Yu, G.; Qin, G. Q.; Fu, H.; Zhou, J.
2016-07-01
Photonic memristors, which behave as memristors operating with electromagnetic fields, present an effective means to achieve all-optical networking, and can promote the development of optical communications and computer technology. In this paper, we report a microwave memristive phenomenon at room temperature in metamaterials consisting of negative temperature coefficient thermistor ceramic disk and split-ring resonator (SRR). Hysteretic transmission-incident field power loops, the area of which varies with the scan rate of power, (similar to the fingerprint of memristors) were observed in the metamaterials. These effects are attributed to the increasing conductivity of the ceramic disk with increasing temperature generated by the interaction between electromagnetic waves and metamaterials. This work offers new opportunities for the development of photonic memristors.
Pressure-Resistant Intermediate Valence in the Kondo Insulator SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Butch, Nicholas P.; Paglione, Johnpierre; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Marianetti, Chris A.; Booth, Corwin H.; Jeffries, Jason R.
2016-04-01
Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy was used to determine the pressure dependence of the f -electron occupancy in the Kondo insulator SmB6 . Applied pressure reduces the f occupancy, but surprisingly, the material maintains a significant divalent character up to a pressure of at least 35 GPa. Thus, the closure of the resistive activation energy gap and onset of magnetic order are not driven by stabilization of an integer valent state. Over the entire pressure range, the material maintains a remarkably stable intermediate valence that can in principle support a nontrivial band structure.
Pressure-Resistant Intermediate Valence in the Kondo Insulator SmB_{6}.
Butch, Nicholas P; Paglione, Johnpierre; Chow, Paul; Xiao, Yuming; Marianetti, Chris A; Booth, Corwin H; Jeffries, Jason R
2016-04-15
Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy was used to determine the pressure dependence of the f-electron occupancy in the Kondo insulator SmB_{6}. Applied pressure reduces the f occupancy, but surprisingly, the material maintains a significant divalent character up to a pressure of at least 35 GPa. Thus, the closure of the resistive activation energy gap and onset of magnetic order are not driven by stabilization of an integer valent state. Over the entire pressure range, the material maintains a remarkably stable intermediate valence that can in principle support a nontrivial band structure. PMID:27127976
Interplay between Kondo screening and local singlets in SU (N) -symmetric cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, Leonid; Rey, Ana Maria
2015-03-01
We study collective phenomena in strongly interacting fermionic alkaline-earth atoms (AEAs) loaded in an optical lattice. Owing to the strong decoupling between electronic orbital and nuclear-spin degrees of freedom, AEAs prepared in the two lowest electronic states are predicted to obey an accurate SU (N > 2 I + 1) symmetry in their two-body collisions (I is the nuclear spin). The SU (N) symmetric models offer a great opportunity to generate exotic many-body behavior emerging from the increased degeneracy and strict conservation laws. We focus on a parameter regime that realizes an SU (N > 2) (Coqblin-Schrieffer) generalization of the usual Kondo lattice model, and show that for band fillings above one atom per site, the system exhibits a peculiar interplay between Kondo screening and formation of singlets between localized atoms. In the limit of large Kondo coupling, we derive an effective Hamiltonian and determine its phase diagram. Our results can be tested in experiments with ultracold 173 Yb or 87 Sr atoms and are relevant for the physics of heavy-fermion materials with magnetic frustration. Supported by AFOSR, MURI-AFOSR and NSF.
Natural orbitals renormalization group approach to the two-impurity Kondo critical point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Rong-Qiang; Dai, Jianhui; Lu, Zhong-Yi
2015-04-01
The problem of two magnetic impurities in a normal metal exposes the two opposite tendencies in the formation of a singlet ground state, driven respectively by the single-ion Kondo effect with conduction electrons to screen impurity spins or the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction between the two impurities to directly form impurity spin singlet. However, whether the competition between these two tendencies can lead to a quantum critical point has been debated over more than two decades. Here, we study this problem by applying the newly proposed natural orbitals renormalization group method to a lattice version of the two-impurity Kondo model with a direct exchange K between the two impurity spins. The method allows for unbiased access to the ground state wave functions and low-lying excitations for sufficiently large system sizes. We demonstrate the existence of a quantum critical point, characterized by the power-law divergence of impurity staggered susceptibility with critical exponent γ =0.60 (1 ) , on the antiferromagnetic side of K when the interimpurity distance R is even lattice spacing, while a crossover behavior is recovered when R is odd lattice spacing. These results have ultimately resolved the long-standing discrepancy between the numerical renormalization group and quantum Monte Carlo studies, confirming a link of this two-impurity Kondo critical point to a hidden particle-hole symmetry predicted by the local Fermi liquid theory.
Two-channel Kondo effect and phonon-assisted transport in single-molecular junctions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias da Silva, Luis; Dagotto, Elbio
2009-03-01
The interplay between vibrational modes and Kondo physics is a fundamental aspect of transport properties of correlated molecular conductors. In this theoretical work, we study such interplay in a system consisting of a single molecule in a metallic break junction tuned (by gate voltages) to be in an ``odd-N'' coulomb blockade valley (Kondo-prone). The connection to left and right metallic leads creates the usual coupling to a conduction channel with left-right symmetry (the ``even"-parity channel). A center-of-mass vibrational mode introduces an additional, phonon-assisted tunneling through the asymmetric (``odd''-parity channel). Our numerical renormalization-group calculations reveal that the phonon-mediated coupling to the odd channel leads to the appearance of a two-channel Kondo (2chK) effect, characterized by a non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) fixed point. The ground-state has NFL properties for a critical value of the phonon-mediated coupling strength and critical lines are present for wide range of parameters, including the regime away from particle-hole symmetry. Signatures of this 2chK non-Fermi-liquid behavior are prominent in the thermodynamic properties as well as in the linear conductance.
Integrable Two-Impurity Kondo Model
Schlottmann, P.
1998-06-01
The exact solution by means of Bethe{close_quote}s {ital Ansatz} of a variant of the two-impurity Kondo problem is presented. The occupation of the singlet and triplet states, the expectation value {l_angle}{rvec S}{sub 1}{center_dot} {cflx S}{sub 2}{r_angle} , the homogeneous and staggered magnetic field susceptibilities, and the specific heat {gamma} coefficient are studied for the ground state as a function of the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida{endash}coupling strength. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Numerical analysis of the spatial range of the Kondo effect
Busser, C. A.; Martins, G. B.; Ribeiro, L. Costa; Vernek, E.; Anda, E. V.; Dagotto, Elbio R
2010-01-01
The spatial length of the Kondo screening is still a controversial issue related to Kondo physics. While renormalization-group and Bethe-Ansatz solutions have provided detailed information about the thermodynamics of magnetic impurities, they are insufficient to study the effect on the surrounding electrons, i.e., the spatial range of the correlations created by the Kondo effect between the localized magnetic moment and the conduction electrons. The objective of this work is to present a quantitative way of measuring the extension of these correlations by studying their effect directly on the local density of states (LDOS) at arbitrary distances from the impurity. The numerical techniques used, the embedded cluster approximation, the finite-U slave bosons, and numerical renormalization group, calculate the Green s functions in real space. With this information, one can calculate how the local density of states away from the impurity is modified by its presence, below and above the Kondo temperature, and then estimate the range of the disturbances in the noninteracting Fermi sea due to the Kondo effect, and how it changes with the Kondo temperature TK. The results obtained agree with results obtained through spin-spin correlations, showing that the LDOS captures the phenomenology of the Kondo cloud as well.
Self-other resonance, its control and prosocial inclinations: Brain-behavior relationships.
Christov-Moore, Leonardo; Iacoboni, Marco
2016-04-01
Humans seem to place a positive reward value on prosocial behavior. Evidence suggests that this prosocial inclination is driven by our reflexive tendency to share in the observed sensations, emotions and behavior of others, or "self-other resonance". In this study, we examine how neural correlates of self-other resonance relate to prosocial decision-making. Subjects performed two tasks while undergoing fMRI: observation of a human hand pierced by a needle, and observation and imitation of emotional facial expressions. Outside the scanner, subjects played the Dictator Game with players of low or high income (represented by neutral-expression headshots). Subjects' offers in the Dictator Game were correlated with activity in neural systems associated with self-other resonance and anticorrelated with activity in systems implicated in the control of pain, affect, and imitation. Functional connectivity between areas involved in self-other resonance and top-down control was negatively correlated with subjects' offers. This study suggests that the interaction between self-other resonance and top-down control processes are an important component of prosocial inclinations towards others, even when biological stimuli associated with self-other resonance are limited. These findings support a view of prosocial decision-making grounded in embodied cognition. PMID:26954937
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Yuya; Takai, Shun; Matsumura, Takeshi; Tanida, Hiroshi; Sera, Masafumi; Matsubayashi, Kazuyuki; Uwatoko, Yoshiya; Ochiai, Akira
2016-03-01
We have measured the electrical resistivity of cerium monochalcogenides, CeS, CeSe, and CeTe, under high pressures of up to 8 GPa. The pressure dependences of the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature TN, crystal field splitting, and the ln T anomaly of the Kondo effect have been studied to cover the entire region from the magnetic ordering regime at low pressure to the Fermi liquid regime at high pressure. TN initially increases with increasing pressure, and starts to decrease at high pressure as expected from Doniach’s diagram. Simultaneously, the ln T behavior in the resistivity is enhanced, indicating the enhancement of the Kondo effect by pressure. It is also characteristic of CeXc that the crystal field splitting rapidly decreases at a common rate of -12.2 K/GPa. This leads to the increase in the degeneracy of the f state and the further enhancement of the Kondo effect. It is shown that the pressure-dependent degeneracy of the f state is a key factor for understanding the pressure dependence of TN, the Kondo effect, magnetoresistance, and the peak structure in the temperature dependence of resistivity.
Collective Kondo effect in the Anderson-Hubbard lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fazekas, P.; Itai, K.
1997-02-01
The periodic Anderson model is extended by switching on a Hubbard U for the conduction electrons. We use the Gutzwiller variational method to study the nearly integral valent limit. The lattice Kondo energy contains the U-dependent chemical potential of the Hubbard subsystem in the exponent, and the correlation-induced band narrowing in the prefactor. Both effects tend to suppress the Kondo scale, which can be understood to result from the blocking of hybridization. At half-filling, we find a Brinkman-Rice-type transition from a Kondo insulator to a Mott insulator.
Modulating resonance behaviors by noise recycling in bistable systems with time delay
Sun, Zhongkui Xu, Wei; Yang, Xiaoli; Xiao, Yuzhu
2014-06-01
In this paper, the impact of noise recycling on resonance behaviors is studied theoretically and numerically in a prototypical bistable system with delayed feedback. According to the interior cooperating and interacting activity of noise recycling, a theory has been proposed by reducing the non-Markovian problem into a two-state model, wherein both the master equation and the transition rates depend on not only the current state but also the earlier two states due to the recycling lag and the feedback delay. By virtue of this theory, the formulae of the power spectrum density and the linear response function have been found analytically. And the theoretical results are well verified by numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that both the recycling lag and the feedback delay play a crucial role in the resonance behaviors. In addition, the results also suggest an alternative scheme to modulate or control the coherence or stochastic resonance in bistable systems with time delay.
Resonant-state expansions and the long-time behavior of quantum decay
Garcia-Calderon, Gaston; Maldonado, Irene; Villavicencio, Jorge
2007-07-15
It is shown that a representation of the decaying wave function as a resonant sum plus a nonexponential integral term may be written as a purely discrete resonant sum by evaluating at long times the integral term by the steepest descents method, and then expanding the resulting expression in terms of resonant states. This leads to a representation that is valid along the exponential and the inverse power in time regimes. A model calculation using the {delta} potential allows us to make a comparison of the expansion with numerical integrations in terms of continuum wave functions and, in the long time regime, with an exact analytic expression of the integral term obtained using the steepest descents method. The results demonstrate that resonant states give a correct description of the long-time behavior of decay.
Spin dynamics and Kondo physics in optical tweezers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Yiheng; Lester, Brian J.; Brown, Mark O.; Kaufman, Adam M.; Long, Junling; Ball, Randall J.; Isaev, Leonid; Wall, Michael L.; Rey, Ana Maria; Regal, Cindy A.
2016-05-01
We propose to use optical tweezers as a toolset for direct observation of the interplay between quantum statistics, kinetic energy and interactions, and thus implement minimum instances of the Kondo lattice model in systems with few bosonic rubidium atoms. By taking advantage of strong local exchange interactions, our ability to tune the spin-dependent potential shifts between the two wells and complete control over spin and motional degrees of freedom, we design an adiabatic tunneling scheme that efficiently creates a spin-singlet state in one well starting from two initially separated atoms (one atom per tweezer) in opposite spin state. For three atoms in a double-well, two localized in the lowest vibrational mode of each tweezer and one atom in an excited delocalized state, we plan to use similar techniques and observe resonant transfer of two-atom singlet-triplet states between the wells in the regime when the exchange coupling exceeds the mobile atom hopping. Moreover, we argue that such three-atom double-tweezers could potentially be used for quantum computation by encoding logical qubits in collective spin and motional degrees of freedom. Current address: Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.
Fano-Andreev effect in Quantum Dots in Kondo regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orellana, Pedro; Calle, Ana Maria; Pacheco, Monica; Apel, Victor
In the present work, we investigate the transport through a T-shaped double quantum dot system coupled to two normal leads and to a superconducting lead. We study the role of the superconducting lead in the quantum interferometric features of the double quantum dot and by means of a slave boson mean field approximation at low temperature regime. We inquire into the influence of intradot interactions in the electronic properties of the system as well. Our results show that Fano resonances due to Andreev bound states are exhibited in the transmission from normal to normal lead as a consequence of quantum interference and proximity effect. This Fano effect produced by Andreev bound states in a side quantum dot was called Fano-Andreev effect, which remains valid even if the electron-electron interaction are taken into account, that is, the Fano-Andreev effect is robust against e-e interactions even in Kondo regime. We acknowledge the financial support from FONDECYT program Grants No. 3140053 and 11400571.
Coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetism in the Underscreened Kondo Lattice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, C.; Simões, A. S. R.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.
2011-12-01
In this work we use a Schrieffer-Wolff transformation in a two-fold degenerate periodic Anderson lattice to describe the coexistence of Kondo effect and ferromagnetism in some uranium and neptunium compounds. We show that the inclusion of a bandwidth for the f electrons can account for a weak delocalization of 5f electrons. Using a mean field approximation, we show that a maximum of TC versus JK can be found when the bandwidth is proportional to JK.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos, J. T.; Holz, T.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Costa, F. M.; Chu, V.; Conde, J. P.
2015-02-01
Diamond-based microelectromechanical resonators have the potential of enhanced performance due to the chemical inertness of the diamond structural layer and its high Young’s modulus, high wear resistance, low thermal expansion coefficient, and very high thermal conductivity. In this work, the resonance frequency and quality factor of MEMS resonators based on nanocrystalline diamond films are characterized under different air pressures. The dynamic behavior of 50-300 μm long linear bridges and double ended tuning forks, with resonance frequencies between 0.5 and 15 MHz and quality factors as high as 50 000 are described as a function of measurement pressure from high vacuum(~10 mTorr) up to atmospheric conditions. The resonance frequencies and quality factors in vacuum show good agreement with the theoretical models including anchor and thermoelastic dissipation (TED). The Young’s moduli for nanocrystalline diamond films extrapolated from experimental data are between 840-920 GPa. The critical pressure values, at which the quality factor starts decreasing due to dissipation in air, are dependent on the resonator length. Longer structures, with quality factors limited by TED and lower resonance frequencies, have low critical pressures, of the order of 1-10 Torr and go from an intrinsic dissipation, to a molecular dissipation regime and finally to a region of viscous dissipation. Shorter resonators, with higher resonance frequencies and quality factors limited by anchor losses, have higher critical pressures, some higher than atmospheric pressure, and enter directly into the viscous dissipation regime from the intrinsic region.
MEAN MOTION RESONANCES IN EXOPLANET SYSTEMS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO NODDING BEHAVIOR
Ketchum, Jacob A.; Adams, Fred C.; Bloch, Anthony M.
2013-01-10
Motivated by the large number of extrasolar planetary systems that are near mean motion resonances, this paper explores a related type of dynamical behavior known as 'nodding'. Here, the resonance angle of a planetary system executes libration (oscillatory motion) for several cycles, circulates for one or more cycles, and then enters once again into libration. This type of complicated dynamics can affect our interpretation of observed planetary systems that are in or near mean motion resonance. This work shows that planetary systems in (near) mean motion resonance can exhibit nodding behavior, and outlines the portion of parameter space where it occurs. This problem is addressed using both full numerical integrations of the planetary systems and via model equations obtained through expansions of the disturbing function. In the latter approach, we identify the relevant terms that allow for nodding. The two approaches are in agreement, and show that nodding often occurs when a small body is in an external mean motion resonance with a larger planet. As a result, the nodding phenomenon can be important for interpreting observations of transit timing variations, where the existence of smaller bodies is inferred through their effects on larger, observed transiting planets. For example, in actively nodding planetary systems, both the amplitude and frequency of the transit timing variations depend on the observational time window.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Wang, Ling-Ling; Li, Xiao-Fei; Chen, Tong; Li, Quan
2015-09-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are attractive in spintronics. Here, we propose GNR/CNT/GNR heterojunctions constructed by attaching zigzag-GNRs at the side-wall of CNT for spintronic devices. The thermal stability and electronic transport properties were explored using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and nonequilibrium Green's function methods, respectively. Results demonstrate that the sp3-hybridized contacts formed at the interface assure a good thermal stability of the system and make the CNT to be regarded as resonator. Only the electron of one spin-orientation and resonant energy is allowed to transport, resulting in the remarkable spin-selective transport behavior at the ferromagnetic state.
Visualizing the formation of the Kondo lattice and the hidden order in URu2Si2
Aynajian, Pegor; da Silva Neto, Eduardo H.; Parker, Colin V.; Huang, Yingkai; Pasupathy, Abhay; Mydosh, John; Yazdani, Ali
2010-01-01
Heavy electronic states originating from the f atomic orbitals underlie a rich variety of quantum phases of matter. We use atomic scale imaging and spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope to examine the novel electronic states that emerge from the uranium f states in URu2Si2. We find that, as the temperature is lowered, partial screening of the f electrons’ spins gives rise to a spatially modulated Kondo–Fano resonance that is maximal between the surface U atoms. At T = 17.5 K, URu2Si2 is known to undergo a second-order phase transition from the Kondo lattice state into a phase with a hidden order parameter. From tunneling spectroscopy, we identify a spatially modulated, bias-asymmetric energy gap with a mean-field temperature dependence that develops in the hidden order state. Spectroscopic imaging further reveals a spatial correlation between the hidden order gap and the Kondo resonance, suggesting that the two phenomena involve the same electronic states. PMID:20498090
Magnetic-field-tunable Kondo effect in alkaline-earth cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, Leonid; Rey, Ana Maria
We study quantum magnetism and emergent Kondo physics in strongly interacting fermionic alkaline-earth atoms in an optical lattice with two Bloch bands: one localized and one itinerant. For a fully filled narrow band (two atoms per lattice site) we demonstrate that an applied magnetic field provides an efficient control of the ground state degeneracy due to the field-induced crossing of singlet and triplet state of the localized atomic pairs. We exploit this singlet-triplet resonance, as well as magnetically tunable interactions of atoms in different electronic states via the recently-discovered inter-orbital Feshbach resonance, and demonstrate that the system exhibits a magnetic field-induced Kondo phase characterized by delocalization of local singlets and a large Fermi surface. We also determine the phase diagram of the system within an effective low-energy model that incorporates the above magnetic-field effect as well as atomic interactions in the two optical lattice bands. Our results can be tested with ultracold 173 Yb , and provide a model for the magnetic field-induced heavy-fermion state in filled skutterudites such as PrOs4Sb12 . This work was supported by the NSF (PIF-1211914 and PFC-1125844), AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI, NIST and ARO individual investigator awards.
Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite
Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao
2015-01-01
The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 108 Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 108 Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior. PMID:26314913
Dielectric relaxation, resonance and scaling behaviors in Sr3Co2Fe24O41 hexaferrite.
Tang, Rujun; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Wenhu; Jian, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Yang, Hao
2015-01-01
The dielectric properties of Z-type hexaferrite Sr3Co2Fe24O41 (SCFO) have been investigated as a function of temperature from 153 to 503 K between 1 and 2 GHz. The dielectric responses of SCFO are found to be frequency dependent and thermally activated. The relaxation-type dielectric behavior is observed to be dominating in the low frequency region and resonance-type dielectric behavior is found to be dominating above 10(8) Hz. This frequency dependence of dielectric behavior is explained by the damped harmonic oscillator model with temperature dependent coefficients. The imaginary part of impedance (Z″) and modulus (M″) spectra show that there is a distribution of relaxation times. The scaling behaviors of Z″ and M″ spectra further suggest that the distribution of relaxation times is temperature independent at low frequencies. The dielectric loss spectra at different temperatures have not shown a scaling behavior above 10(8) Hz. A comparison between the Z″ and the M″ spectra indicates that the short-range charges motion dominates at low temperatures and the long-range charges motion dominates at high temperatures. The above results indicate that the dielectric dispersion mechanism in SCFO is temperature independent at low frequencies and temperature dependent at high frequencies due to the domination of resonance behavior. PMID:26314913
A universal scaling behavior in magnetic resonance peak in high temperature superconductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Seung Joon; Salk, Sung-Ho Suck
2015-08-01
Eminent inelastic neutron scattering (INS) measurements of high temperature cuprates currently lacking theoretical interpretations are the observed temperature dependence of magnetic resonance peak and linear scaling relation between the resonance peak energy, Eres and the superconducting transition temperature, Tc. Using our slave-boson approach of the t-J Hamiltonian (Phys. Rev. 64, 052501 (2001)) for this study, we show that starting from the pseudogap temperature T∗, the magnetic resonance peak increases with decreasing temperature, revealing its inflection point at Tc and that spin pairing correlations are responsible for d-wave superconductivity. We find that there exists a universal linear scaling behavior of Eres/Tc = const., irrespective of the Heisenberg exchange coupling.
Qubit-induced phonon blockade as a signature of quantum behavior in nanomechanical resonators
Liu Yuxi; Miranowicz, Adam; Gao, Y. B.; Bajer, Jiri; Sun, C. P.; Nori, Franco
2010-09-15
The observation of quantized nanomechanical oscillations by detecting femtometer-scale displacements is a significant challenge for experimentalists. We propose that a phonon blockade can serve as a signature of quantum behavior in nanomechanical resonators. In analogy to the photon blockade and Coulomb blockade for electrons, the main idea for phonon blockade is that the second phonon cannot be excited when there is one phonon in the nonlinear oscillator. To realize phonon blockade, a superconducting quantum two-level system is coupled to the nanomechanical resonator and is used to induce the phonon self-interaction. Using Monte Carlo simulations, the dynamics of the induced nonlinear oscillator is studied via the Cahill-Glauber s-parametrized quasiprobability distributions. We show how the oscillation of the resonator can occur in the quantum regime and demonstrate how the phonon blockade can be observed with the currently accessible experimental parameters.
{ital Ab Initio} Calculation of Crystalline Electric Fields and Kondo Temperatures in Ce Compounds
Han, J.; Alouani, M.; Cox, D.; Han, J.; Cox, D.; Alouani, M.
1997-02-01
We have calculated the band-f hybridizations for Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}M{sub 3} compounds (x=1 and x{r_arrow}0; M=Pb,In,Sn,Pd) within the local density approximation and fed this into a noncrossing approximation for the Anderson impurity model applied to both dilute and concentrated limits. Our calculations produce crystalline electric field splittings and Kondo temperatures with trends in good agreement with experiment and demonstrate the need for detailed electronic structure information on hybridization to describe the diverse behaviors of these Ce compounds. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
On the dynamics of bistable micro/nano resonators: Analytical solution and nonlinear behavior
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tajaddodianfar, Farid; Nejat Pishkenari, Hossein; Hairi Yazdi, Mohammad Reza; Maani Miandoab, Ehsan
2015-03-01
With the rapid development of micro/nano-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS), arch shaped resonators are becoming increasingly attractive for different applications. Nevertheless, the dynamics of bistable resonators is poorly understood, and the conditions for their appropriate performance are not well known. In this paper, an initially curved arch shaped MEMS resonator under combined DC and AC distributed electrostatic actuation is investigated. A reduced order model obtained from first mode Galerkin's decomposition method is used for numerical and analytical investigations. We have used the Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM) in order to derive analytical solutions both for the amplitude and the temporal average of nonlinear vibrations. The obtained analytical expressions, validated by numerical simulations, are able to capture nonlinear behaviors including softening type vibrations and dynamic snap-through. We have used the derived analytical results in order to study the nonlinear vibrations of the bistable MEMS resonator. According to our results, in the bistability region the overall dynamic response of the system is described by means of a pair of softening type frequency responses merging together in a specific frequency band. The dynamic snap-through is then described by transitions between these two frequency responses, each of which corresponding to one of the stable configurations of the arch. This fresh insight to the problem can be used in the design and optimization of bistable resonators and determination of their sharp roll-off frequencies. A feature that can be implemented in the design of bandpass filters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vernek, Edson; Ruiz-Tijerina, David; da Silva, Luis D.; Egues, José Carlos
2015-09-01
Quantum dot attached to topological wires has become an interesting setup to study Majorana bound state in condensed matter[1]. One of the major advantage of using a quantum dot for this purpose is that it provides a suitable manner to study the interplay between Majorana bound states and the Kondo effect. Recently we have shown that a non-interacting quantum dot side-connected to a 1D topological superconductor and to metallic normal leads can sustain a Majorana mode even when the dot is empty. This is due to the Majorana bound state of the wire leaking into the quantum dot. Now we investigate the system for the case in which the quantum dot is interacting[3]. We explore the signatures of a Majorana zero-mode leaking into the quantum dot, using a recursive Green's function approach. We then study the Kondo regime using numerical renormalization group calculations. In this regime, we show that a "0.5" contribution to the conductance appears in system due to the presence of the Majorana mode, and that it persists for a wide range of the dot parameters. In the particle-hole symmetric point, in which the Kondo effect is more robust, the total conductance reaches 3e^2/2h, clearly indicating the coexistence of a Majorana mode and the Kondo resonance in the dot. However, the Kondo effect is suppressed by a gate voltage that detunes the dot from its particle-hole symmetric point as well as by a Zeeman field. The Majorana mode, on the other hand, is almost insensitive to both of them. We show that the zero-bias conductance as a function of the magnetic field follows a well-known universal curve. This can be observed experimentally, and we propose that this universality followed by a persistent conductance of 0.5,e^2/h are evidence for the presence of Majorana-Kondo physics. This work is supported by the Brazilians agencies FAPESP, CNPq and FAPEMIG. [1] A. Y. Kitaev, Ann.Phys. {bf 303}, 2 (2003). [2] E. Vernek, P.H. Penteado, A. C. Seridonio, J. C. Egues, Phys. Rev. B {bf
Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator SmB_{6}
Fuhrman, W. T.; Leiner, Jonathan C.; Nikolić, P.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Stone, Matthew B.; Lumsden, Mark D.; DeBeer-Schmitt, Lisa M.; Alekseev, Pavel A.; Mignot, Jean-Michel; Koohpayeh, S. M.; Cottingham, P.; Phelan, William Adam; Schoop, L.; McQueen, T. M.; Broholm, C.
2015-01-21
In this paper, using inelastic neutron scattering, we map a 14 meV coherent resonant mode in the topological Kondo insulator SmB_{6} and describe its relation to the low energy insulating band structure. The resonant intensity is confined to the X and R high symmetry points, repeating outside the first Brillouin zone and dispersing less than 2 meV, with a 5d-like magnetic form factor. We present a slave-boson treatment of the Anderson Hamiltonian with a third neighbor dominated hybridized band structure. This approach produces a spin exciton below the charge gap with features that are consistent with the observed neutron scattering. Finally, we find that maxima in the wave vector dependence of the inelastic neutron scattering indicate band inversion.
Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator SmB6
Fuhrman, W. T.; Leiner, Jonathan C.; Nikolić, P.; Granroth, Garrett E.; Stone, Matthew B.; Lumsden, Mark D.; DeBeer-Schmitt, Lisa M.; Alekseev, Pavel A.; Mignot, Jean-Michel; Koohpayeh, S. M.; et al
2015-01-21
In this paper, using inelastic neutron scattering, we map a 14 meV coherent resonant mode in the topological Kondo insulator SmB6 and describe its relation to the low energy insulating band structure. The resonant intensity is confined to the X and R high symmetry points, repeating outside the first Brillouin zone and dispersing less than 2 meV, with a 5d-like magnetic form factor. We present a slave-boson treatment of the Anderson Hamiltonian with a third neighbor dominated hybridized band structure. This approach produces a spin exciton below the charge gap with features that are consistent with the observed neutron scattering.more » Finally, we find that maxima in the wave vector dependence of the inelastic neutron scattering indicate band inversion.« less
How does a Kondo impurity respond to its local environment?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heinrich, Andreas
2008-03-01
The interplay between localized electrons on a magnetic atom and the conducting electrons in a metal can lead to intriguing many-body ground states such as the Kondo effect. When a spin is Kondo screened by conduction electrons the entire spin system performs a complicated dance that results in the formation of a spin singlet at sufficiently low temperature. For simplicity, most theoretical considerations of Kondo screening focus on magnetic impurities with the lowest possible spin S = 1/2. Such systems can be studied experimentally in exquisite detail and with great control using quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures or carbon nanotubes. However, in Kondo systems consisting of localized magnetic atoms, the spin is often larger, making the Kondo effect richer and more complex. Here we use the imaging and spectroscopy capabilities of a scanning tunnelling microscope to study how the Kondo screening of a known high-spin atom is determined by its local environment. Co and Ti atoms were deposited on a thin insulating layer (Cu2N) on a copper substrate. We study the influence of external magnetic fields, crystalline magnetic anisotropy, as well as spin-coupling to surrounding atomic spins on the Kondo effect that forms on the Co or Ti atoms. We find that the anisotropy of the crystalline field quenches the high-spin system of Co (S = 3/2) into an effective S = 1/2 Kramers doublet. Surprisingly, much of the impact of these environmental factors on the complex many-body ground state can be understood simply through their effects on the energy levels of the unscreened spin.
Rakhmilevitch, David
2015-01-01
Summary The vibration-mediated Kondo effect attracted considerable theoretical interest during the last decade. However, due to lack of extensive experimental demonstrations, the fine details of the phenomenon were not addressed. Here, we analyze the evolution of vibration-mediated Kondo effect in molecular junctions during mechanical stretching. The described analysis reveals the different contributions of Kondo and inelastic transport. PMID:26734532
Vernek, E.; Büsser, C. A.; Anda, E. V.; Feiguin, A. E.; Martins, G. B.
2014-03-31
A double quantum dot device, connected to two channels that only interact through interdot Coulomb repulsion, is analyzed using the numerical renormalization group technique. Using a two-impurity Anderson model, and realistic parameter values [S. Amasha, A. J. Keller, I. G. Rau, A. Carmi, J. A. Katine, H. Shtrikman, Y. Oreg, and D. Goldhaber-Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 046604 (2013)], it is shown that, by applying a moderate magnetic field and independently adjusting the gate potential of each quantum dot at half-filling, a spin-orbital SU(2) Kondo state can be achieved where the Kondo resonance originates from spatially separated parts of the device. Our results clearly link this spatial separation effect to currents with opposing spin polarizations in each channel, i.e., the device acts as a spin filter. In addition, an experimental probe of this polarization effect is suggested, pointing to the exciting possibility of experimentally probing the internal structure of an SU(2) Kondo state.
Quantum entanglement in the two-impurity Kondo model
Cho, Sam Young; McKenzie, Ross H.
2006-01-15
In order to quantify quantum entanglement in two-impurity Kondo systems, we calculate the concurrence, negativity, and von Neumann entropy. The entanglement of the two Kondo impurities is shown to be determined by two competing many-body effects, namely the Kondo effect and the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction, I. Due to the spin-rotational invariance of the ground state, the concurrence and negativity are uniquely determined by the spin-spin correlation between the impurities. It is found that there exists a critical minimum value of the antiferromagnetic correlation between the impurity spins which is necessary for entanglement of the two impurity spins. The critical value is discussed in relation with the unstable fixed point in the two-impurity Kondo problem. Specifically, at the fixed point there is no entanglement between the impurity spins. Entanglement will only be created [and quantum information processing (QIP) will only be possible] if the RKKY interaction exchange energy, I, is at least several times larger than the Kondo temperature, T{sub K}. Quantitative criteria for QIP are given in terms of the impurity spin-spin correlation.
Haldane phase in one-dimensional topological Kondo insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mezio, Alejandro; Lobos, Alejandro M.; Dobry, Ariel O.; Gazza, Claudio J.
2015-11-01
We investigate the ground-state properties of a recently proposed model for a topological Kondo insulator in one dimension (i.e., the p -wave Kondo-Heisenberg lattice model) by means of the density-matrix renormalization-group method. The nonstandard Kondo interaction in this model is different from the usual (i.e., local) Kondo interaction in that the localized spins couple to the "p -wave" spin density of conduction electrons, inducing a topologically nontrivial insulating ground state. Based on the analysis of the charge- and spin-excitation gaps, the string order parameter, and the spin profile in the ground state, we show that, at half filling and low energies, the system is in the Haldane phase and hosts topologically protected spin-1/2 end states. Beyond its intrinsic interest as a useful "toy model" to understand the effects of strong correlations on topological insulators, we show that the p -wave Kondo-Heisenberg model could be experimentally implemented in p -band optical lattices loaded with ultracold Fermi gases.
On the Resonance-Like Behavior in the pp Scattering Amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otofuji, T.; Sakai, K.; Kanada, H.; Saito, S.; Yasuno, M.
1985-03-01
The series of ``dibaryons'' is investigated in detail by means of a coupled-channel model of the NN, N Delta and Delta Delta channels. The π and rho meson exchange potential is employed with cutoff form factors and inner hard core. It is shown that the model reproduces the series of the ``dibaryons'' of the natural-parity states; that is the resonance-like behavior (RLB) in the 1D2, 3F3, 1G4, (3H5) and 1I6 states. The masses and widths of these ``resonances'' agree well with those given by Auer et al. A detailed study shows that the RLB is mainly due to the coupling with the N Delta aligned states (NDAS) (L=J-2 and S=2), and that the NDAS give rise to a spectrum of rotational-like structure. It is suggested that aligned states (SAS) of L=J and S=2 bring about resonance-like behavior for the even-parity states in the higher energy region.
Gomez Sal, J.C.; Garcia Soldevilla, J.; Blanco, J.A.; Espeso, J.I.; Rodriguez Fernandez, J.; Luis, F.; Bartolome, F.; Bartolome, J.
1997-11-01
The low-temperature magnetic and transport properties of the orthorhombic CeNi{sub 0.4}Cu{sub 0.6} compound have been determined from the analysis of specific heat, ac magnetic susceptibility, electrical resistivity, elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. These measurements present intriguing experimental results that could not be explained within the usual phenomenology of Ce-based compounds. C{sub p} and {chi}{sub ac} present anomalies around 1 K corresponding to ferromagnetic order as confirmed by neutron diffraction. The magnetic structure is collinear with very reduced moments, 0.6{mu}{sub B}/Ce lying in the b direction. Additionally, a clear Kondo behavior is observed with a Kondo temperature T{sub K}=1.9K estimated from quasielastic neutron scattering. Above the ordering temperature, further anomalies are observed in C{sub p} and {chi}{sub ac} that could not be explained as originating from crystal electric field or Kondo effects. From the frequency and field dependence of the {chi}{sub ac}, above T{sub c}, a spin-glass state with a freezing temperature T{sub f}=2K is proposed for this compound. This unusual magnetic behavior is discussed in terms of mixed (positive and negative) Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions, randomness (structural disorder), large hybridization (Kondo effect), and strong magnetocrystalline anisotropy (crystal electric field effects). {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Evolution of the Kondo effect in a quantum dot probed by shot noise.
Yamauchi, Yoshiaki; Sekiguchi, Koji; Chida, Kensaku; Arakawa, Tomonori; Nakamura, Shuji; Kobayashi, Kensuke; Ono, Teruo; Fujii, Tatsuya; Sakano, Rui
2011-04-29
We measure the current and shot noise in a quantum dot in the Kondo regime to address the nonequilibrium properties of the Kondo effect. By systematically tuning the temperature and gate voltages to define the level positions in the quantum dot, we observe an enhancement of the shot noise as temperature decreases below the Kondo temperature, which indicates that the two-particle scattering process grows as the Kondo state evolves. Below the Kondo temperature, the Fano factor defined at finite temperature is found to exceed the expected value of unity from the noninteracting model, reaching 1.8±0.2. PMID:21635054
Trichotomous Noise Induced Resonance Behavior for a Fractional Oscillator with Random Mass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Suchuan; Wei, Kun; Gao, Shilong; Ma, Hong
2015-04-01
We investigate the stochastic resonance (SR) phenomenon in a fractional oscillator with random mass under the external periodic force. The fluctuations of the mass are modeled as a trichotomous noise. Applying the Shapiro-Loginov formula and the Laplace transform technique, we obtain the exact expression of the first moment of the system. The non-monotonic behaviors of the spectral amplification (SPA) versus the driving frequency indicate that the bona fide SR appears. The necessary and sufficient conditions for the emergence of the generalized stochastic resonance phenomena on the noise flatness and on the noise intensity in the particular case of are established. Particularly, the hypersensitive response of the SPA to the noise intensity is found, which is previously reported and believed to be absent in the case of dichotomous noise.
Scanning Tunneling Electron Transport into a Kondo Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Fu-Bin; Wu, Hua
2016-05-01
We theoretically present the results for a scanning tunneling transport between a metallic tip and a Kondo lattice. We calculate the density of states (DOS) and the tunneling current and differential conductance (DC) under different conduction-fermion band hybridization and temperature in the Kondo lattice. It is found that the hybridization strength and temperature give asymmetric coherent peaks in the DOS separated by the Fermi energy. The corresponding current and DC intensity depend on the temperature and quantum interference effect among the c-electron and f-electron states in the Kondo lattice. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11547203, and the Research Project of Education Department in Sichuan Province of China under Grant No. 15ZB0457
Cotunneling into a Kondo lattice with odd hybridization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Vojta, Matthias
2016-06-01
Cotunneling into Kondo systems, where an electron enters an f -electron material via a cotunneling process through the local-moment orbital, has been proposed to explain the characteristic line shapes observed in scanning-tunneling-spectroscopy (STS) experiments. Here we extend the theory of electron cotunneling to Kondo-lattice systems in which the bulk hybridization between conduction and f electrons is odd under inversion, being particularly relevant to Kondo insulators. Compared to the case of even hybridization, we show that the interference between normal tunneling and cotunneling processes is fundamentally altered: it is entirely absent for layered, i.e., quasi-two-dimensional materials, while its energy dependence is strongly modified for three-dimensional materials. We discuss implications for STS experiments.
Quadrupolar Kondo effect in uranium heavy-electron materials?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cox, D. L.
1987-01-01
The possibility of an electric quadrupole Kondo effect for a non-Kramers doublet on a uranium (U) ion is a cubic metallic host is demonstrated by model calculations showing a Kondo upturn in the resistivity, universal quenching of the quadrupolar moment, and a heavy-electron anomaly in the electronic specific heat. With inclusion of excited crystal-field levels, some of the unusual magnetic-response data in the heavy-electron superconductor UBe13 may be understood. Structural phase transitions at unprecedented low temperatures may occur in U-based heavy-electron materials.
The entanglement structure of the Kondo singlet in energy space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Chun; Feiguin, Adrian
We unveil the entanglement structure of the Kondo singlet in energy space by studying the contribution of each individual free electron eigenstate. This is a problem of two spins coupled to a bath, where the bath is formed by the remaining conduction electrons. Being a mixed state, we resort to the ''concurrence'' as a good measure of entanglement. Using the density matrix renormalization group and analytical variational calculations with the Yoshida wave-function, and slave bosons, we find a distinct transition between weak and strong coupling regimes characterized by very different entanglement distributions. We discuss implications to the theory of the Kondo cloud.
Robust Josephson-Kondo screening cloud in circuit quantum electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Snyman, Izak; Florens, Serge
2015-08-01
We investigate the entanglement properties of a standard circuit-QED setup that consists of a Cooper pair box coupled to a long chain of Josephson junctions. We calculate the static charge polarization at finite distances along the device. Our calculations reveal a deep connection to the Kondo screening cloud, together with robust correlations that are difficult to measure in a condensed matter context. We also find weak sensitivity of these Kondo signatures to the actual parameters and design of the device, demonstrating the universality of the Josephson entanglement cloud.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perozzi, E.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
A resonance in CELESTIAL MECHANICS occurs when some of the quantities characterizing the motion of two or more celestial bodies can be considered as commensurable, i.e. their ratio is close to an integer fraction. In a simplified form, this can be expressed as ...
Observation of Strong Resonant Behavior in the Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Ce Oxide
Tobin, J G; Yu, S W; Chung, B W; Waddill, G D; Damian, E; Duda, L; Nordgren, J
2009-12-15
X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy (RIPES) have been used to investigate the photon emission associated with the Ce3d5/2 and Ce3d3/2 thresholds. Strong resonant behavior has been observed in the RIPES of Ce Oxide near the 5/2 and 3/2 edges. Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy (IPES) and its high energy variant, Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy (BIS), are powerful techniques that permit a direct interrogation of the low-lying unoccupied electronic structure of a variety of materials. Despite being handicapped by counting rates that are approximately four orders of magnitude less that the corresponding electron spectroscopies (Photoelectron Spectroscopy, PES, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, XPS) both IPES and BIS have a long history of important contributions. Over time, an additional variant of this technique has appeared, where the kinetic energy (KE) of the incoming electron and photon energy (hv) of the emitted electron are roughly the same magnitude as the binding energy of a core level of the material in question. Under these circumstances and in analogy to Resonant Photoelectron Spectroscopy, a cross section resonance can occur, giving rise to Resonant Inverse Photoelectron Spectroscopy or RIPES. Here, we report the observation of RIPES in an f electron system, specifically the at the 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} thresholds of Ce Oxide. The resonant behavior of the Ce4f structure at the 3d thresholds has been addressed before, including studies of the utilization of the technique as a probe of electron correlation in a variety of Ce compounds. Interestingly, the first RIPES work on rare earths dates back to 1974, although under conditions which left the state of the surface and near surface regions undefined. Although they did not use the more modern terminology of 'RIPES,' it is clear that RIPES was actually first performed in 1974 by Liefeld, Burr and Chamberlain on both La and Ce based materials. In
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pillet, J.-D.; Joyez, P.; Žitko, Rok; Goffman, M. F.
2013-07-01
We performed tunneling spectroscopy of a carbon nanotube quantum dot (QD) coupled to a metallic reservoir either in the normal or in the superconducting state. We explore how the Kondo resonance, observed when the QD's occupancy is odd and the reservoir is normal, evolves towards Andreev bound states (ABS) in the superconducting state. Within this regime, the ABS spectrum observed is consistent with a quantum phase transition from a singlet to a degenerate magnetic doublet ground state, in quantitative agreement with a single-level Anderson model with superconducting leads.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maurand, Romain; Meng, Tobias; Bonet, Edgar; Florens, Serge; Marty, Laëtitia; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang
2012-01-01
We study a carbon-nanotube quantum dot embedded in a superconducting-quantum-interference-device loop in order to investigate the competition of strong electron correlations with a proximity effect. Depending on whether local pairing or local magnetism prevails, a superconducting quantum dot will exhibit a positive or a negative supercurrent, referred to as a 0 or π Josephson junction, respectively. In the regime of a strong Coulomb blockade, the 0-to-π transition is typically controlled by a change in the discrete charge state of the dot, from even to odd. In contrast, at a larger tunneling amplitude, the Kondo effect develops for an odd-charge (magnetic) dot in the normal state, and quenches magnetism. In this situation, we find that a first-order 0-to-π quantum phase transition can be triggered at a fixed valence when superconductivity is brought in, due to the competition of the superconducting gap and the Kondo temperature. The superconducting-quantum-interference-device geometry together with the tunability of our device allows the exploration of the associated phase diagram predicted by recent theories. We also report on the observation of anharmonic behavior of the current-phase relation in the transition regime, which we associate with the two accessible superconducting states. Our results finally demonstrate that the spin-singlet nature of the Kondo state helps to enhance the stability of the 0 phase far from the mixed-valence regime in odd-charge superconducting quantum dots.
Constructive influence of the induced electron pairing on the Kondo state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Domański, T.; Weymann, I.; Barańska, M.; Górski, G.
2016-03-01
Superconducting order and magnetic impurities are usually detrimental to each other. We show, however, that in nanoscopic objects the induced electron pairing can have constructive influence on the Kondo effect originating from the effective screening interactions. Such situation is possible at low temperatures in the quantum dots placed between the conducting and superconducting reservoirs, where the proximity induced electron pairing cooperates with the correlations amplifying the spin-exchange potential. The emerging Abrikosov-Suhl resonance, which is observable in the Andreev conductance, can be significantly enhanced by increasing the coupling to superconducting lead. We explain this intriguing tendency within the Anderson impurity model using: the generalized Schrieffer-Wolff canonical transformation, the second order perturbative treatment of the Coulomb repulsion, and the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group calculations. We also provide hints for experimental observability of this phenomenon.
Constructive influence of the induced electron pairing on the Kondo state.
Domański, T; Weymann, I; Barańska, M; Górski, G
2016-01-01
Superconducting order and magnetic impurities are usually detrimental to each other. We show, however, that in nanoscopic objects the induced electron pairing can have constructive influence on the Kondo effect originating from the effective screening interactions. Such situation is possible at low temperatures in the quantum dots placed between the conducting and superconducting reservoirs, where the proximity induced electron pairing cooperates with the correlations amplifying the spin-exchange potential. The emerging Abrikosov-Suhl resonance, which is observable in the Andreev conductance, can be significantly enhanced by increasing the coupling to superconducting lead. We explain this intriguing tendency within the Anderson impurity model using: the generalized Schrieffer-Wolff canonical transformation, the second order perturbative treatment of the Coulomb repulsion, and the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group calculations. We also provide hints for experimental observability of this phenomenon. PMID:27009681
Constructive influence of the induced electron pairing on the Kondo state
Domański, T.; Weymann, I.; Barańska, M.; Górski, G.
2016-01-01
Superconducting order and magnetic impurities are usually detrimental to each other. We show, however, that in nanoscopic objects the induced electron pairing can have constructive influence on the Kondo effect originating from the effective screening interactions. Such situation is possible at low temperatures in the quantum dots placed between the conducting and superconducting reservoirs, where the proximity induced electron pairing cooperates with the correlations amplifying the spin-exchange potential. The emerging Abrikosov-Suhl resonance, which is observable in the Andreev conductance, can be significantly enhanced by increasing the coupling to superconducting lead. We explain this intriguing tendency within the Anderson impurity model using: the generalized Schrieffer-Wolff canonical transformation, the second order perturbative treatment of the Coulomb repulsion, and the nonperturbative numerical renormalization group calculations. We also provide hints for experimental observability of this phenomenon. PMID:27009681
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, N.; Shi, X.; Biswas, P. K.; Matt, C. E.; Dhaka, R. S.; Huang, Y.; Plumb, N. C.; Radović, M.; Dil, J. H.; Pomjakushina, E.; Conder, K.; Amato, A.; Salman, Z.; Paul, D. McK.; Mesot, J.; Ding, H.; Shi, M.
2013-09-01
Recent theoretical calculations and experimental results suggest that the strongly correlated material SmB6 may be a realization of a topological Kondo insulator. We have performed an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy study on SmB6 in order to elucidate elements of the electronic structure relevant to the possible occurrence of a topological Kondo insulator state. The obtained electronic structure in the whole three-dimensional momentum space reveals one electron-like 5d bulk band centered at the X point of the bulk Brillouin zone that is hybridized with strongly correlated f electrons, as well as the opening of a Kondo band gap (ΔB ˜ 20 meV) at low temperature. In addition, we observe electron-like bands forming three Fermi surfaces at the center Γ¯ point and boundary X¯ point of the surface Brillouin zone. These bands are not expected from calculations of the bulk electronic structure, and their observed dispersion characteristics are consistent with surface states. Our results suggest that the unusual low-temperature transport behavior of SmB6 is likely to be related to the pronounced surface states sitting inside the band hybridization gap and/or the presence of a topological Kondo insulating state.
Critical-field theory of the Kondo lattice model in two dimensions
Kim, Ki-Seok
2005-05-15
In the context of the U(1) slave-boson theory we derive a critical-field theory near the quantum-critical point of the Kondo lattice model in two spatial dimensions. First, we argue that strong gauge fluctuations in the U(1) slave-boson theory give rise to confinement between spinons and holons, thus causing 'neutralized' spinons in association with the slave-boson U(1) gauge field. Second, we show that critical fluctuations of Kondo singlets near the quantum-critical point result in a new U(1) gauge field. This emergent gauge field has nothing to do with the slave-boson U(1) gauge field. Third, we find that the slave-boson U(1) gauge field can be exactly integrated out in the low-energy limit. As a result we find a critical-field theory in terms of renormalized conduction electrons and neutralized spinons interacting via the new emergent U(1) gauge field. Based on this critical-field theory we obtain the temperature dependence of the specific heat and the imaginary part of the self-energy of the renormalized electrons. These quantities display non-Fermi-liquid behavior near the quantum-critical point.
Is the black phase of SmS a topological Kondo insulator?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauer, Eric; Ghimire, N. J.; Ronning, F.; Batista, C.; Byler, D.; Thompson, J. D.; Rahmanisisan, A.; Fisk, Z.
2015-03-01
SmS is a prototypical Kondo insulator where electronic correlations drive a system insulating that would otherwise be metallic. Whether or not such a system is also a topological insulator that hosts a protected metallic surface state, depends on the parity of the wavefunction of the occupied states. However, unlike weakly correlated materials, it is unclear whether state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations accurately predict the parity of the occupied wavefunctions of correlated insulators. Nevertheless, Dzero and collaborators suggest that Kondo insulators such as SmB6 can be topological. Like SmB6, Cubic SmS is a non-magnetic semiconductor with an insulating behavior at ambient pressure and low temperatures driven by hybridization with the Sm f-electrons. At 6 kbar, SmS undergoes a phase transition into a valance fluctuating phase accompanied by a visible color change from black to gold. It then undergoes a second phase transition at about 20 kbar to an antiferromagnetic order at low temperatures. We will discuss whether electronic structure calculations indicate a topological state of SmS at P =0. We will also discuss whether or not the magnetic, thermal and transport properties of the black phase of SmS are consistent with the existence of a topological protected surface state.
Magnetic structure of the Kondo lattice compound CeZn0.6Sb2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Lynn, J. W.; Lee, H.; Klavins, P.; Fisk, Z.; Nakatsuji, S.; Bao, W.; Thompson, J.; Park, T.; Macaluso, R.; Chan, J.; Carter, B.
2006-03-01
The new Kondo lattice compound CeZn0.6Sb2 has a tetragonal structure with space group P4/nmm and shows ferromagnetic behavior below 2.5 K. The Curie-Weiss temperature is 22 K along the tetragonal ab plane, indicating ferromagnetic interactions in the plane. Along the c axis, however, the Curie-Weiss temperature is -145 K, suggesting antiferromagnetic exchange interaction in this direction [1]. We determined the magnetic structure of CeZn0.6Sb2 using single crystal neutron diffraction. (h,0,l) and (h,h,l) scattering planes were investigated. We found CeZn0.6Sb2 orders ferromagnetically at TC=2.5 K. The magnetic structure is collinear with a low temperature ordered Ce moment of 1.3 (1) μB that lies in the ab plane. In addition, we measured the order parameter of the ferromagnetic transition. [1] Studies of the ferromagnetic Kondo lattice system of single crystal CeZnSb2, H. Lee, S. Nakatsuji, Y. Chen, W. Bao, R. Macaluso, J. Chan, T. Park, B. Carter, P. Klavins, J. Thompson, Z. Fisk, BAPS, Session L41, 2005.
Photoemission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis of 3D topological and Kondo insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibayev, Pavel
2015-03-01
The advantage of studying 3D topological insulators (TIs), compounds that have attracted the attention of many in the condensed matter field, is the ability for their existence at room temperature and no magnetic fields, allowing both for resolving their band structure via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and understanding electrical transport and other properties via X-ray diffraction (XRD) and point-contact spectroscopy (PCS). A comprehensive quantitative analysis of Bi2Se3, a 3D TI, was carried out using these methods. The Bi2Se3\\ crystals were synthesized in-house at Princeton University. A first-principles calculation based on density functional theory, DFT, was performed using the Abinit software. The band structure of the crystal was then resolved via ARPES at the Advanced Light Source in LBNL, resulting in a surprisingly stark and clear single Dirac cone. A large band gap was confirmed, suggesting an increased potential for applications. In contrast, Kondo insulators are found in rare-earth based materials with f-electron degrees of freedom. Photon energy dependent dispersion relationships and temperature dependence studies were performed on a Kondo candidate CeB6 via ARPES, showing an even number of Dirac cones and a non-TI behavior. Analysis of I-V characteristics through PCS will follow, in addition to characterization via Bruker XRD for both compounds. Research group led by Professor M. Zahid Hasan (Princeton University).
Kondo effect in a topological insulator quantum dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xin, Xianhao; Zhou, Di
2015-04-01
We investigate theoretically the nonequilibrium transport properties of a topological insulator quantum dot (TIQD) in the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regime. An Anderson impurity model is applied to a TIQD system coupled to two external leads, and we show that the model realizes the spin-orbital Kondo effect at the Dirac point where the edge states are not split by a finite-size effect, leading to an additional S U (4 ) symmetry because of the presence of strong mixture among four internal degrees of freedom. In a more realistic situation where the degeneracy is lifted due to the finite-size effect, we demonstrate that there is a richer structure in transport measurements. We illustrate a continuous crossover from four (spin and orbital) Coulomb peaks with large interpair spacing and small intrapair spacing to a double-peak structure in the local density of states (LDOS) as increasing the hybridization strength Γ within the Coulomb blockade regime. When temperature falls below the Kondo temperature TK, four Kondo peaks show up in the nonequilibrium LDOS. Two of them are located at the chemical potential of each lead, and the other two are shifted away from the chemical potential by an amount proportional to the TIQD's bare energy level, leading to a triple-peak structure in the differential conductance when a bias voltage is applied.
Surface Kondo effect and non-trivial metallic state of the Kondo insulator YbB12.
Hagiwara, Kenta; Ohtsubo, Yoshiyuki; Matsunami, Masaharu; Ideta, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Kiyohisa; Miyazaki, Hidetoshi; Rault, Julien E; Fèvre, Patrick Le; Bertran, François; Taleb-Ibrahimi, Amina; Yukawa, Ryu; Kobayashi, Masaki; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Sumida, Kazuki; Okuda, Taichi; Iga, Fumitoshi; Kimura, Shin-Ichi
2016-01-01
A synergistic effect between strong electron correlation and spin-orbit interaction has been theoretically predicted to realize new topological states of quantum matter on Kondo insulators (KIs), so-called topological Kondo insulators (TKIs). One TKI candidate has been experimentally observed on the KI SmB6(001), and the origin of the surface states (SS) and the topological order of SmB6 has been actively discussed. Here, we show a metallic SS on the clean surface of another TKI candidate YbB12(001) using angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. The SS shows temperature-dependent reconstruction corresponding to the Kondo effect observed for bulk states. Despite the low-temperature insulating bulk, the reconstructed SS with c-f hybridization is metallic, forming a closed Fermi contour surrounding on the surface Brillouin zone and agreeing with the theoretically expected behaviour for SS on TKIs. These results demonstrate the temperature-dependent holistic reconstruction of two-dimensional states localized on KIs surface driven by the Kondo effect. PMID:27576449
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Si, Qimiao; Goswami, Pallab
2014-03-01
Heavy fermion systems represent a prototypical setting to study magnetic quantum phase transitions. In this context, we study the spin one-half Kondo-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice at half filling. The problem is approached from the Kondo destroyed, antiferromagnetically ordered insulating phase. We describe the local moments in terms of a coarse grained quantum non-linear sigma model, and show that the skyrmion defects of the antiferromagnetic order parameter host a number of competing order parameters. In addition to the spin Peierls, charge and current density wave order parameters, we identify for the first time Kondo singlets as the competing dual orders of the antiferromagnetism, which can be related to each other via generalized chiral transformations of the underlying fermions. We also show that the conduction electrons acquire a Berry phase through their coupling to the hedgehog configurations of the Néel order, which cancels the Berry phase of the local moments. Our results demonstrate the competition between the Kondo-singlet formation and spin-Peierls order when the antiferromagnetic order is suppressed, thereby shedding new light on the global phase diagram of heavy fermion systems at zero temperature. NSF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yin; Wang, Yu-Feng; Lu, Han-Tao; Luo, Hong-Gang
2014-08-01
We have studied Kondo spin liquid phase of Kondo necklace models from the perspective of quantum O(N) non-linear sigma model (NLSM) field theory, particularly we focus on its possible topologically nontrivial phases. In the one-dimensional case, the Kondo spin liquid phase is a usual quantum disordered phase in contrast to the well-known topologically nontrivial Haldane phase due to destructive interference effect of topological θ term. In the two-dimensional case, the system can be mapped onto an O(4)-like NLSM with some O(3) anisotropy. Interestingly, if hedgehog-like point defects are included together with the restoration of the full O(4) symmetry, our model is identical to a kind of SU(2) symmetry-protected topological (SPT) state, which highlights a possible link between the extended Kondo necklace models and the desirable SPT states. Additionally, if the system has the expanded O(5) symmetry instead, the effective NLSM with the Wess-Zumino-Witten term is just a description of the surface modes of a three-dimensional SPT state. The deviations from fully symmetrical cases are discussed. We expect that the results might provide useful threads to identify certain microscopic bilayer antiferromagnet models (and related materials), which can support the SPT states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kerouedan, Julien; Quéffélec, Patrick; Talbot, Philippe; Quendo, Cédric; DeBlasi, Serge; LeBrun, Alain
2008-10-01
This paper demonstrates how micro-cracks at the surface of metals can be detected and imaged by near-field microwave techniques from the crack-induced variations of the resonance frequency and of the resonant circuit quality factor. It deals with two resonant sensors: a quarter wavelength microstrip line resonator terminated by an electric dipole and an original dual-behavior resonator (DBR) band-pass filter probe. The detection principle is developed, at first, from the use of the electric dipole probe. The low sensitivity of the electric dipole resonator led us to investigate whether first-order band-pass filters based on dual behavior resonators were able to detect a 200 µm wide and 3 mm deep rectangular EDM notch at the surface of a steel plate used to validate our method. Simulation data and measurements results carried out on a stainless steel mock-up with several 200 µm wide EDM rectangular notches showed that the DBR sensor is more sensitive than the electric dipole probe, and highlighted the link between the spatial resolution and the width of the high-frequency stub of the DBR filter. Moreover, we demonstrate the notch detection for any orientation of the defect in relation to the DBR sensor and the ability to differentiate between notches of different depths. Simulation data and measurement results are presented and discussed.
Kondo effect in magnetic tunnel junctions with an AlOx tunnel barrier
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zheng, Chao; Shull, Robert D.; Chen, P. J.; Pong, Philip W. T.
2016-06-01
The influence of the magnetization configuration on the Kondo effect in a magnetic tunnel junction is investigated. In the parallel configuration, an additional resistance contribution (R*) below 40 K exhibits a logarithmic temperature dependence, indicating the presence of the Kondo effect. However, in the anti-parallel configuration, the Kondo-effect-associated spin-flip scattering has a nontrivial contribution to the tunneling current, which compensates the reduction of the current directly caused by Kondo scattering, making R* disappear. These results indicate that suppression and restoration of the Kondo effect can be experimentally achieved by altering the magnetization configuration, enhancing our understanding of the role of the Kondo effect in spin-dependent transport.
Zaĭchenko, M I; Merzhanova, G Kh; Demina, A V
2010-01-01
Rats divided into groups of "impulsive" and "self-controlled" animals by their preference of either high valuable but delayed or a low valuable but immediate food reward were studied by the method of "emotional resonance". It was shown that all rats of the "self-controlled" group choosing a high valuable although delayed reinforcement did not escape the defensive signals of another animal of the same species and for the most part of the trial time preferred to stay in the dark "house". The majority of animals belonging to the "impulsive" group (80%) spent more than a half of the time of the experiment in the bright compartment and thus saved a partner from electrical stimulation. The existence of some general mechanisms that underlie these two types of behavior is discussed. PMID:20469594
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Zhi-Yun; Chen, Pei-Jie; Zhang, Liang-Ying
2015-05-01
By using a generalized Langevin equation to describe the vertical oscillations of a general relativistic disk subjected to a memory-damped friction and a stochastic force, we derive the power spectrum density (PSD) of accretion disk oscillating luminosity by the method of Laplace transform, and discuss the influence of the system parameters on the resonant behavior in PSD curves. The results show that as the damping strength α and memory time τ of the friction increase, the variation of PSD with spectrum frequency f from monotonous decreasing to occurring maximums, and the phenomenon of a general stochastic resonance (SR) with a single peak and multi-peaks can be found in PSD curves. The radial distance parameter n, the mass M, and spin parameter a* of the black hole determine the inherent frequency of vertical oscillations in the disk, and they have significant influences on the SR phenomena in a system of black hole binaries. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11045004) and the Key Program of the Scientific Research Foundation of the Education Bureau of Hubei Province, China (Grant No. D20132603).
Non-Kondo Mechanism for Resistivity Minimum in Spin Ice Conduction Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Udagawa, Masafumi; Ishizuka, Hiroaki; Motome, Yukitoshi
2012-02-01
We present a mechanism of resistivity minimum in conduction electron systems coupled with localized moments, which is distinguished from the Kondo effect. Instead of the spin-flip process in the Kondo effect, electrons are elastically scattered by local spin correlations which evolve in a particular way under geometrical frustration as decreasing temperature. This is demonstrated by the cellular dynamical mean-field theory for a spin-ice-type Kondo lattice model on a pyrochlore lattice. Peculiar temperature dependences of the resistivity, specific heat, and magnetic susceptibility in the non-Kondo mechanism are compared with the experimental data in metallic Ir pyrochlore oxides.
Low-temperature magnetic fluctuations in the Kondo insulator SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biswas, P. K.; Salman, Z.; Neupert, T.; Morenzoni, E.; Pomjakushina, E.; von Rohr, F.; Conder, K.; Balakrishnan, G.; Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Lees, M. R.; Paul, D. McK.; Schilling, A.; Baines, C.; Luetkens, H.; Khasanov, R.; Amato, A.
2014-04-01
We present the results of a systematic investigation of the magnetic properties of the three-dimensional Kondo topological insulator SmB6 using magnetization and muon-spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) measurements. The μSR measurements exhibit magnetic field fluctuations in SmB6 below ˜15 K due to electronic moments present in the system. However, no evidence for magnetic ordering is found down to 19 mK. The observed magnetism in SmB6 is homogeneous in nature throughout the full volume of the sample. Bulk magnetization measurements on the same sample show consistent behavior. The agreement between μSR, magnetization, and NMR results strongly indicate the appearance of intrinsic bulk magnetic in-gap states associated with fluctuating magnetic fields in SmB6 at low temperature.
Two-dimensional Fermi surfaces in Kondo insulator SmB₆.
Li, G; Xiang, Z; Yu, F; Asaba, T; Lawson, B; Cai, P; Tinsman, C; Berkley, A; Wolgast, S; Eo, Y S; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Kurdak, C; Allen, J W; Sun, K; Chen, X H; Wang, Y Y; Fisk, Z; Li, Lu
2014-12-01
In the Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride (SmB6), strong correlation and band hybridization lead to an insulating gap and a diverging resistance at low temperature. The resistance divergence ends at about 3 kelvin, a behavior that may arise from surface conductance. We used torque magnetometry to resolve the Fermi surface topology in this material. The observed oscillation patterns reveal two Fermi surfaces on the (100) surface plane and one Fermi surface on the (101) surface plane. The measured Fermi surface cross sections scale as the inverse cosine function of the magnetic field tilt angles, which demonstrates the two-dimensional nature of the conducting electronic states of SmB6. PMID:25477456
Low temperature transport properties of the quadrupolar Kondo lattice system PrTi2Al20
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakai, Akito; Nakatsuji, Satoru
2013-08-01
We have investigated the low temperature transport properties of the cubic Γ3 compound PrTi2Al20. This is a quadrupolar Kondo lattice system where the nongmagnetic quadrupoles, which form a long-range order at low temperatures, have strong hybridization with the conduction electrons. A sharp drop of the resistivity due to a ferroquadrupole ordering is observed at T Q = 2.0 K. The T 2 dependence of the resistivity and the large Sommerfeld coefficient γ above T Q suggest the formation of a heavy-fermion state. The temperature dependence of the resistivity below T Q does not show a power law but exponential law behavior, indicating the emergence of an anisotropy gap Δ in the collective mode associated with the ferroquadrupole order below T Q. The Fisher-Langer relation holds around T Q, suggesting the higher order scattering processes than those in Born approximation are not dominant for this ferroquadrupole ordering.
Domijan, Dražen; Šetić, Mia
2016-01-01
Research on grounded cognition suggests that the processing of a word or concept reactivates the perceptual representations that are associated with the referent object. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how behavioral and functional neuroimaging data on grounded cognition can be understood as different manifestations of the same cortical circuit designed to achieve stable category learning, as proposed by the adaptive resonance theory (ART). We showed that the ART neural network provides a mechanistic explanation of why reaction times in behavioral studies depend on the expectation or attentional priming created by the word meaning (Richter and Zwaan, 2009). A mismatch between top-down expectation and bottom-up sensory data activates an orienting subsystem that slows execution of the current task. Furthermore, we simulated the data from functional neuroimaging studies of color knowledge retrieval that showed anterior shift (Chao and Martin, 1999; Thompson-Schill, 2003) and an overlap effect (Simmons et al., 2007; Hsu et al., 2011) in the left fusiform gyrus. We explain the anterior effect as a result of the partial activation of different components of the same ART circuit in the condition of passive viewing. Conversely, a demanding perceptual task requires activation of the whole ART circuit. This condition is reflected in the fMRI image as an overlap between cortical activation during perceptual and conceptual processing. We conclude that the ART neural network is able to explain how the brain grounds symbols in perception via perceptual simulation. PMID:26903933
Domijan, Dražen; Šetić, Mia
2016-01-01
Research on grounded cognition suggests that the processing of a word or concept reactivates the perceptual representations that are associated with the referent object. The objective of this work is to demonstrate how behavioral and functional neuroimaging data on grounded cognition can be understood as different manifestations of the same cortical circuit designed to achieve stable category learning, as proposed by the adaptive resonance theory (ART). We showed that the ART neural network provides a mechanistic explanation of why reaction times in behavioral studies depend on the expectation or attentional priming created by the word meaning (Richter and Zwaan, 2009). A mismatch between top-down expectation and bottom-up sensory data activates an orienting subsystem that slows execution of the current task. Furthermore, we simulated the data from functional neuroimaging studies of color knowledge retrieval that showed anterior shift (Chao and Martin, 1999; Thompson-Schill, 2003) and an overlap effect (Simmons et al., 2007; Hsu et al., 2011) in the left fusiform gyrus. We explain the anterior effect as a result of the partial activation of different components of the same ART circuit in the condition of passive viewing. Conversely, a demanding perceptual task requires activation of the whole ART circuit. This condition is reflected in the fMRI image as an overlap between cortical activation during perceptual and conceptual processing. We conclude that the ART neural network is able to explain how the brain grounds symbols in perception via perceptual simulation. PMID:26903933
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dlugach, Janna M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.
2014-01-01
By using the results of highly accurate T-matrix computations for randomly oriented oblate and prolate spheroids and Chebyshev particles with varying degrees of asphericity, we analyze the effects of a deviation of water-droplet shapes from that of a perfect sphere on the behavior of Lorenz-Mie morphology-dependent resonances of various widths. We demonstrate that the positions and profiles of the resonances can change significantly with increasing asphericity. The absolute degree of asphericity required to suppress a Lorenz-Mie resonance is approximately proportional to the resonance width. Our results imply that numerical averaging of scattering characteristics of real cloud droplets over sizes may rely on a significantly coarser size-parameter resolution than that required for ideal, perfectly spherical particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dlugach, Janna M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.
2014-10-01
By using the results of highly accurate T-matrix computations for randomly oriented oblate and prolate spheroids and Chebyshev particles with varying degrees of asphericity, we analyze the effects of a deviation of water-droplet shapes from that of a perfect sphere on the behavior of Lorenz-Mie morphology-dependent resonances of various widths. We demonstrate that the positions and profiles of the resonances can change significantly with increasing asphericity. The absolute degree of asphericity required to suppress a Lorenz-Mie resonance is approximately proportional to the resonance width. Our results imply that numerical averaging of scattering characteristics of real cloud droplets over sizes may rely on a significantly coarser size-parameter resolution than that required for ideal, perfectly spherical particles.
Kondo effect goes anisotropic in vanadate oxide superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rotella, H.; Pautrat, A.; Copie, O.; Boullay, P.; David, A.; Mercey, B.; Morales, M.; Prellier, W.
2015-11-01
We study the transport properties in SrVO3/LaVO3 (SVO/LVO) superlattices deposited on SrTiO3 (STO) substrates. We show that the electronic conduction occurs in the metallic LVO layers with a galvanomagnetism typical of a 2D Fermi surface. In addition, a Kondo-like component appears in both the thermal variation of resistivity and the magnetoresistance. Surprisingly, in this system where the STO interface does not contribute to the measured conduction, the Kondo correction is strongly anisotropic. We show that the growth temperature allows a direct control of this contribution. Finally, the key role of vanadium mixed valency stabilized by oxygen vacancies is enlightened.
Kondo and Majorana doublet interactions in quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Younghyun; Liu, Dong E.; Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Paaske, Jens; Flensberg, Karsten; Lutchyn, Roman
We study the properties of a quantum dot coupled to a normal lead and a time-reversal topological superconductor with Majorana Kramers pair at the end. We explore the phase diagram of the system as a function of Kondo and Majorana-induced coupling strengths using perturbative renormalization group study and slave-boson mean-field theory. We find that, in the presence of coupling between a quantum dot and a Majorana doublet, the system flows to a new fixed point controlled by the Majorana doublet, rather than the Kondo coupling, which is characterized by correlations between a localized spin and the fermion parity of each spin sector of the topological superconductor. We find that this fixed point is stable with respect to Gaussian fluctuations. We also investigate the effect of spin-spin interaction between a quantum dot and Majorana doublet and compare the result with a case where a normal lead is directly coupled to Majorana doublet.
Characterization of a correlated topological Kondo insulator in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagymási, I.; Legeza, Ö.
2016-04-01
We investigate the ground state of a p -wave Kondo-Heisenberg model introduced by Alexandrov and Coleman with an Ising-type anisotropy in the Kondo interaction and correlated conduction electrons. Our aim is to understand how they affect the stability of the Haldane state obtained in the SU(2)-symmetric case without the Hubbard interaction. By applying the density-matrix renormalization group algorithm and calculating the entanglement entropy we show that in the anisotropic case a phase transition occurs and a Néel state emerges above a critical value of the Coulomb interaction. These findings are also corroborated by the examination of the entanglement spectrum and the spin profile of the system which clarify the structure of each phase.
First principles electron transport simulations in the Kondo regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rungger, Ivan; Radonjic, Milos; Appelt, Wilhelm; Chioncel, Liviu; Droghetti, Andrea
When magnetic atoms, molecules or thin films are brought into contact with metals the electron-electron interaction leads to the appearance of the correlated Kondo state at low temperatures. In this talk we will present results for the electronic structure and conductance in the Kondo regime of recent STM and break junction experiments for stable radical molecules, which correspond to spin half molecular magnets. We will outline the methodological approach to evaluate the conductance of such systems from first principles, as implemented in the Smeagol electron transport code. The method combines the density functional theory (DFT) with Anderson impurity solvers within the continuum time quantum Monte Carlo (CTQMC) and numerical renormalization group (NRG) approaches.
Ferromagnetic Kondo Effect in a Triple Quantum Dot System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruselli, P. P.; Requist, R.; Fabrizio, M.; Tosatti, E.
2013-07-01
A simple device of three laterally coupled quantum dots, the central one contacted by metal leads, provides a realization of the ferromagnetic Kondo model, which is characterized by interesting properties like a nonanalytic inverted zero-bias anomaly and an extreme sensitivity to a magnetic field. Tuning the gate voltages of the lateral dots allows us to study the transition from a ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic Kondo effect, a simple case of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. We model the device by three coupled Anderson impurities that we study by numerical renormalization group. We calculate the single-particle spectral function of the central dot, which at zero frequency is proportional to the zero-bias conductance, across the transition, both in the absence and in the presence of a magnetic field.
Ferromagnetic Kondo effect in a triple quantum dot system.
Baruselli, P P; Requist, R; Fabrizio, M; Tosatti, E
2013-07-26
A simple device of three laterally coupled quantum dots, the central one contacted by metal leads, provides a realization of the ferromagnetic Kondo model, which is characterized by interesting properties like a nonanalytic inverted zero-bias anomaly and an extreme sensitivity to a magnetic field. Tuning the gate voltages of the lateral dots allows us to study the transition from a ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic Kondo effect, a simple case of a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition. We model the device by three coupled Anderson impurities that we study by numerical renormalization group. We calculate the single-particle spectral function of the central dot, which at zero frequency is proportional to the zero-bias conductance, across the transition, both in the absence and in the presence of a magnetic field. PMID:23931401
Resonances and resonance widths
Collins, T.
1986-05-01
Two-dimensional betatron resonances are much more important than their simple one-dimensional counterparts and exhibit a strong dependence on the betatron phase advance per cell. A practical definition of ''width'' is expanded upon in order to display these relations in tables. A primarily pedagogical introduction is given to explain the tables, and also to encourage a wider capability for deriving resonance behavior and wider use of ''designer'' resonances.
Kondo physics from quasiparticle poisoning in Majorana devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Plugge, S.; Zazunov, A.; Eriksson, E.; Tsvelik, A. M.; Egger, R.
2016-03-01
We present a theoretical analysis of quasiparticle poisoning in Coulomb-blockaded Majorana fermion systems tunnel-coupled to normal-conducting leads. Taking into account finite-energy quasiparticles, we derive the effective low-energy theory and present a renormalization group analysis. We find qualitatively new effects when a quasiparticle state with very low energy is localized near a tunnel contact. For M =2 attached leads, such "dangerous" quasiparticle poisoning processes cause a spin S =1 /2 single-channel Kondo effect, which can be detected through a characteristic zero-bias anomaly conductance peak in all Coulomb blockade valleys. For more than two attached leads, the topological Kondo effect of the unpoisoned system becomes unstable. A strong-coupling bosonization analysis indicates that at low energy the poisoned lead is effectively decoupled and hence, for M >3 , the topological Kondo fixed point re-emerges, though now it involves only M -1 leads. As a consequence, for M =3 , the low-energy fixed point becomes trivial corresponding to decoupled leads.
Neutron scattering from the Kondo Insulator SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Broholm, Collin
A review of neutron scattering work probing the Kondo insulator SmB6 is presented with special emphasis on assessing the topology of the underlying strongly renormalized band structure. A 14 meV excition dominates the spectrum and is evidence of strong electron correlations [1]. Though the data generally supports the proposal that SmB6 is a topological Kondo insulator, specific heat and high-resolution neutron scattering data show a continuum of states well below the bulk transport gap, which enrich the problem and may connect to the recent surprising de Haas van Alpen results. ``Interaction Driven Subgap Spin Exciton in the Kondo Insulator SmB6,'' W. T. Fuhrman, J. Leiner, P. Nikolic, G. E. Granroth, M. B. Stone, M. D. Lumsden, L. DeBeer-Schmitt, P. A. Alekseev, J.-M. Mignot, S. M. Koohpayeh, P. Cottingham, W. Adam Phelan, L. Schoop, T. M. McQueen, and C. Broholm, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 036401 (2015). Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Material Sciences and Engineering, under Grant No. DEFG02-08ER46544 and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation.
Observation of the two-channel Kondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potok, R. M.; Rau, I. G.; Shtrikman, Hadas; Oreg, Yuval; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2007-03-01
Some of the most intriguing problems in solid-state physics arise when the motion of one electron dramatically affects the motion of surrounding electrons. Traditionally, such highly correlated electron systems have been studied mainly in materials with complex transition metal chemistry. Over the past decade, researchers have learned to confine one or a few electrons within a nanometre-scale semiconductor `artificial atom', and to understand and control this simple system in detail3. Here we combine artificial atoms to create a highly correlated electron system within a nano-engineered semiconductor structure. We tune the system in situ through a quantum phase transition between two distinct states, each a version of the Kondo state, in which a bound electron interacts with surrounding mobile electrons. The boundary between these competing Kondo states is a quantum critical point-namely, the exotic and previously elusive two-channel Kondo state, in which electrons in two reservoirs are entangled through their interaction with a single localized spin.
Kondo physics from quasiparticle poisoning in Majorana devices
Plugge, S.; Tsvelik, A. M.; Zazunov, A.; Eriksson, E.; Egger, R.
2016-03-24
Here, we present a theoretical analysis of quasiparticle poisoning in Coulomb-blockaded Majorana fermion systems tunnel-coupled to normal-conducting leads. Taking into account finite-energy quasiparticles, we derive the effective low-energy theory and present a renormalization group analysis. We find qualitatively new effects when a quasiparticle state with very low energy is localized near a tunnel contact. For M = 2 attached leads, such “dangerous” quasiparticle poisoning processes cause a spin S = 1/2 single-channel Kondo effect, which can be detected through a characteristic zero-bias anomaly conductance peak in all Coulomb blockade valleys. For more than two attached leads, the topological Kondo effectmore » of the unpoisoned system becomes unstable. A strong-coupling bosonization analysis indicates that at low energy the poisoned lead is effectively decoupled and hence, for M > 3, the topological Kondo fixed point re-emerges, though now it involves only M–1 leads. As a consequence, for M = 3, the low-energy fixed point becomes trivial corresponding to decoupled leads.« less
Quantum phase transitions and anomalous Hall effect in a pyrochlore Kondo lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grefe, Sarah; Ding, Wenxin; Si, Qimiao
The metallic variant of the pyrochlore iridates Pr2Ir2O7 has shown characteristics of a possible chiral spin liquid state [PRL 96 087204 (2006), PRL 98, 057203 (2007), Nature 463, 210 (2010)] and quantum criticality [Nat. Mater. 13, 356 (2014)]. An important question surrounding the significant anomalous Hall response observed in Pr2Ir2O7 is the nature of the f-electron local moments, including their Kondo coupling with the conduction d-electrons. The heavy effective mass and related thermodynamic characteristics indicate the involvement of the Kondo effect in this system's electronic properties. In this work, we study the effects of Kondo coupling on candidate time-reversal-symmetry-breaking spin liquid states on the pyrochlore lattice. Representing the f-moments as slave fermions Kondo-coupled to conduction electrons, we study the competition between Kondo-singlet formation and chiral spin correlations and determine the zero-temperature phase diagram. We derive an effective chiral interaction between the local moments and the conduction electrons and calculate the anomalous Hall response across the quantum phase transition from the Kondo destroyed phase to the Kondo screened phase. We discuss our results' implications for Pr2Ir2O7 and related frustrated Kondo-lattice systems.
Optical Study of Interactions in a d-Electron Kondo Lattice with Ferromagnetism
Burch, K. S.; Schafgans, A.; Butch, N. P.; Sayles, T. A.; Maple, M. B.; Sales, Brian C; Mandrus, David; Basov, D. N.
2005-01-01
We report on a comprehensive optical, transport, and thermodynamic study of the Zintl compound Yb{sub 14}MnSb{sub 11}, demonstrating that it is the first ferromagnetic Kondo lattice compound in the underscreened limit. We propose a scenario whereby the combination of Kondo and Jahn-Teller effects provides a consistent explanation of both transport and optical data.
Reappearance of the Kondo effect in serially coupled symmetric triple quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yongxi; Wei, Jianhua; Yan, Yijing
2015-12-01
We investigate the spectral properties of a serially coupled triple quantum dot (STQD) system by means of the hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach. We find that with the increase of the interdot coupling t, the first Kondo screening is followed by another Kondo effect reappearing due to the transition from the respective Kondo singlet state of individual QD to the coherence bonding state generated among the three QDs. The reappearance of the Kondo effect results in the three-peak structure of the spectral functions of peripheral QD-1(3). By investigating the susceptibility χ, we find that the local susceptibility of intermediate QD-2 is a positive value at weak interdot coupling, while it changes into a negative value at strong interdot coupling, at which the STQD system gives rise to the reappearance of the Kondo effect. We also find that the slopes of 1/χ will deviate from a straight line behaviour at low temperature in the reappearing Kondo regime. In addition, the influence of temperature and dot-lead coupling strength on the reappearing Kondo effect as well as the Kondo-correlated transport properties are afterwards exploited in detail.
Fermionology in the Kondo-Heisenberg model: the case of CeCoIn5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Lu, Han-Tao; Luo, Hong-Gang
2015-09-01
The Fermi surface of heavy electron systems plays a fundamental role in understanding their variety of puzzling phenomena, for example, quantum criticality, strange metal behavior, unconventional superconductivity and even enigmatic phases with yet unknown order parameters. The spectroscopy measurement of the typical heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5 has demonstrated multi-Fermi surface structure, which has not been studied in detail theoretically in a model system like the Kondo-Heisenberg model. In this work, we take a step toward such a theoretical model by revisiting the Kondo-Heisenberg model. It is found that the usual self-consistent calculation cannot reproduce the fermionology of the experimental observation of the system due to the sign binding between the hopping of the conduction electrons and the mean-field valence-bond order. To overcome such inconsistency, the mean-field valence-bond order is considered as a free/fitting parameter to correlate them with real-life experiments as performed in recent experiments [M.P. Allan, F. Massee, D.K. Morr, J. Van Dyke, A.W. Rost, A.P. Mackenzie, C. Petrovic, J.C. Davis, Nat. Phys. 9, 468 (2013); J. Van Dyke, F. Massee, M.P. Allan, J.C. Davis, C. Petrovic, D.K. Morr, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 111, 11663 (2014)], which also explicitly reflects the intrinsic dispersion of local electrons observed in experimental measurements. Given the fermionology, the calculated effective mass enhancement, entropy, superfluid density and Knight shift are all in qualitative agreement with the experimental results of CeCoIn5, which confirms our assumption. Our result supports a d_{x^2 - y^2 }-wave pairing structure in the heavy fermion material CeCoIn5.
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of a magnetic atom on graphene in the Kondo regime
Zhuang, Huai -Bin; Sun, Qing -feng; Xie, X. C.
2009-06-23
In this study, the Kondo effect in the system consisting of a magnetic adatom on the graphene is studied. By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field approximation, the local density of state (LDOS) and the conductance are calculated. For a doped graphene, the Kondo phase is present at all time. Surprisingly, two kinds of Kondo regimes are revealed. But for the undoped graphene, the Kondo phase only exists if the adatom’s energy level is beyond a critical value. The conductance is similar to the LDOS, thus, the Kondo peak in the LDOS can be observedmore » with the scanning tunneling spectroscopy. In addition, in the presence of a direct coupling between the STM tip and the graphene, the conductance may be dramatically enhanced, depending on the coupling site.« less
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of a magnetic atom on graphene in the Kondo regime
Zhuang, Huai -Bin; Sun, Qing -feng; Xie, X. C.
2009-06-23
In this study, the Kondo effect in the system consisting of a magnetic adatom on the graphene is studied. By using the non-equilibrium Green function method with the slave-boson mean field approximation, the local density of state (LDOS) and the conductance are calculated. For a doped graphene, the Kondo phase is present at all time. Surprisingly, two kinds of Kondo regimes are revealed. But for the undoped graphene, the Kondo phase only exists if the adatom’s energy level is beyond a critical value. The conductance is similar to the LDOS, thus, the Kondo peak in the LDOS can be observed with the scanning tunneling spectroscopy. In addition, in the presence of a direct coupling between the STM tip and the graphene, the conductance may be dramatically enhanced, depending on the coupling site.
Exploring the phase diagram of the two-impurity Kondo problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spinelli, A.; Gerrits, M.; Toskovic, R.; Bryant, B.; Ternes, M.; Otte, A. F.
2015-11-01
A system of two exchange-coupled Kondo impurities in a magnetic field gives rise to a rich phase space hosting a multitude of correlated phenomena. Magnetic atoms on surfaces probed through scanning tunnelling microscopy provide an excellent platform to investigate coupled impurities, but typical high Kondo temperatures prevent field-dependent studies from being performed, rendering large parts of the phase space inaccessible. We present a study of pairs of Co atoms on insulating Cu2N/Cu(100), which each have a Kondo temperature of only 2.6 K. The pairs are designed to have interaction strengths similar to the Kondo temperature. By applying a sufficiently strong magnetic field, we are able to access a new phase in which the two coupled impurities are simultaneously screened. Comparison of differential conductance spectra taken on the atoms to simulated curves, calculated using a third-order transport model, allows us to independently determine the degree of Kondo screening in each phase.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hester, Sarah
Throughout the study of high frequency combustion instability in a single element Continuously Variable Resonance Combustor (CVRC), the excitation of the fundamental longitudinal mode is closely followed by the excitation of higher harmonic modes. In an attempt to establish a heuristic relationship between the appearances of the fundamental mode and its harmonics, several unstable fixed geometry and variable geometry tests from the CVRC are analyzed through traditional Fourier-based methods and alternative signal processing methods such as wavelet analysis and Instantaneous Frequency (IF) Analysis from PC Signal Analysis. Early results led to the conclusion that traditional Fourier-based analysis provides believable and consistent results for the first three modes. However, Fourier analysis is sensitive to effects from non-sinusoidal waveforms. Further work using manufactured signals with both sinusoidal and steepfronted waveforms established that it is unclear which parts of the calculated harmonic signals are data artifacts and which are true signal. Supplementary assessment of IF Analysis and the traditional Fourier-based analysis explored the applicability of each method, the inherent data artifacts, and distinguishing behavior between the experimental data and those data artifacts. The results obtained from the IF Analysis provide good agreement with the traditional Fourier-based analysis, though one uses FIR filters and the other uses IIR filters. The validity of the results is sensitive to the settings chosen for these filters. It is shown that harmonic modal content exists in the CVRC, but it is also shown that the current results include indistinguishable Fourier artifacts. Both methods are sensitive to the sinusoidal assumption and cannot correctly interpret steep-fronted waveforms. This supplementary assessment has shown that IF Analysis is no worse than traditional Fourier-based analysis, but it fails to provide additional useful information
From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Tagliacozzo, Arturo; Trombettoni, Andrea
2016-08-01
We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a "critical" line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair) channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.
Surface plasmon resonances behavior in visible light of non-metal perovskite oxides AgNbO{sub 3}
Zhou, Fei; Zhu, Jingchuan Liu, Yong; Zhao, Xiaoliang; Lai, Zhonghong
2014-12-08
We investigate the surface plasmon resonances (SPRs) behavior of silver niobate (AgNbO{sub 3}) experimentally and theoretically. Result shows that the localized SPRs (LSPRs) of AgNbO{sub 3} combining with its interband transitions enlarge the absorption band across the whole ultraviolet-visible range. The LSPRs behavior in visible-light is mainly ascribed to the metal-like state of silver ion and self-assembled microstructures of AgNbO{sub 3} microcrystal. The ab initio density functional theory calculations are carried out to obtain the further insight of the SPRs behaviors. Theoretical study indicates that the Ag atoms are weakly bound in the perovskite structure, leading to a metal-like state, which was the key factor to SPRs behavior of AgNbO{sub 3}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Che-Kuan; Tu, Yi-Chou; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chu, Chih-Ken; Chen, Shih-Yang; Chi, Ting-Ta; Kiang, Yean-Woei; Yang, Chih-Chung
2015-02-01
Au nanorings (NRIs), which have the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength around 1058 nm, either with or without linked antibodies, are applied to SAS oral cancer cells for cell inactivation through the LSPR-induced photothermal effect when they are illuminated by a laser of 1065 nm in wavelength. Different incubation times of cells with Au NRIs are considered for observing the variations of cell uptake efficiency of Au NRI and the threshold laser intensity for cell inactivation. In each case of incubation time, the cell sample is washed for evaluating the total Au NRI number per cell adsorbed and internalized by the cells based on inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement. Also, the Au NRIs remaining on cell membrane are etched with KI/I2 solution to evaluate the internalized Au NRI number per cell. The threshold laser intensities for cell inactivation before washout, after washout, and after KI/I2 etching are calibrated from the circular area sizes of inactivated cells around the illuminated laser spot center with various laser power levels. By using Au NRIs with antibodies, the internalized Au NRI number per cell increases monotonically with incubation time up to 24 h. However, the number of Au NRI remaining on cell membrane reaches a maximum at 12 h in incubation time. The cell uptake behavior of an Au NRI without antibodies is similar to that with antibodies except that the uptake NRI number is significantly smaller and the incubation time for the maximum NRI number remaining on cell membrane is delayed to 20 h. By comparing the threshold laser intensities before and after KI/I2 etching, it is found that the Au NRIs remaining on cell membrane cause more effective cancer cell inactivation, when compared with the internalized Au NRIs.
Unconventional superconductivity from local spin fluctuations in the Kondo lattice.
Bodensiek, Oliver; Žitko, Rok; Vojta, Matthias; Jarrell, Mark; Pruschke, Thomas
2013-04-01
The explanation of heavy-fermion superconductivity is a long-standing challenge to theory. It is commonly thought to be connected to nonlocal fluctuations of either spin or charge degrees of freedom and therefore of unconventional type. Here we present results for the Kondo-lattice model, a paradigmatic model to describe heavy-fermion compounds, obtained from dynamical mean-field theory which captures local correlation effects only. Unexpectedly, we find robust s-wave superconductivity in the heavy-fermion state. We argue that this novel type of pairing is tightly connected to the formation of heavy quasiparticle bands and the presence of strong local spin fluctuations. PMID:25167017
YbNi Si3 : An antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice with strong exchange interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avila, M. A.; Sera, M.; Takabatake, T.
2004-09-01
We report on the structural, thermodynamic, and transport properties of high quality single crystals of YbNiSi3 grown by the flux method. This compound crystallizes in the SmNiGe3 layered structure type of the Cmmm space group. The general physical behavior is that of a Kondo lattice showing an antiferromagnetic ground state below TN=5.1K . This is among the highest ordering temperatures for a Yb-based intermetallic, indicating strong exchange interaction between the Yb ions, which are in or very close to +3 valency based on the effective moment of 4.45μB/f.u . The compound has moderately heavy-electron behavior with a Sommerfeld coefficient of 190mJ/molK2 . Resistivity is highly anisotropic and for I⊥b exhibits the signature logarithmic increase below a local minimum, followed by a sharp decrease in the coherent/magnetically ordered state, resulting in a residual resistivity of 1.5μΩcm and a residual resistivity ratio of 40. Fermi-liquid behavior consistent with a ground-state doublet is clearly observed below 1K .
Transport through side-coupled multilevel double quantum dots in the Kondo regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrade, J. A.; Cornaglia, Pablo S.; Aligia, A. A.
2014-03-01
We analyze the transport properties of a double quantum dot device in the side-coupled configuration. A small quantum dot (QD), having a single relevant electronic level, is coupled to source and drain electrodes. A larger QD, whose multilevel nature is considered, is tunnel-coupled to the small QD. A Fermi-liquid analysis shows that the low-temperature conductance of the device is determined by the total electronic occupation of the double QD. When the small dot is in the Kondo regime, an even number of electrons in the large dot leads to a conductance that reaches the unitary limit, while for an odd number of electrons a two-stage Kondo effect is observed and the conductance is strongly suppressed. The Kondo temperature of the second-stage Kondo effect is strongly affected by the multilevel structure of the large QD. For increasing level spacing, a crossover from a large Kondo temperature regime to a small Kondo temperature regime is obtained when the level spacing becomes of the order of the large Kondo temperature.
Application of the S=1 underscreened Anderson lattice model to Kondo uranium and neptunium compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Christopher; da Rosa Simões, Acirete S.; Iglesias, J. R.; Lacroix, C.; Perkins, N. B.; Coqblin, B.
2011-01-01
Magnetic properties of uranium and neptunium compounds showing the coexistence of the Kondo screening effect and ferromagnetic order are investigated within the Anderson lattice Hamiltonian with a two-fold degenerate f level in each site, corresponding to 5f2 electronic configuration with S=1 spins. A derivation of the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation is presented and the resulting Hamiltonian has an effective f-band term, in addition to the regular exchange Kondo interaction between the S=1 f spins and the s=1/2 spins of the conduction electrons. The resulting effective Kondo lattice model can describe both the Kondo regime and a weak delocalization of the 5f electrons. Within this model we compute the Kondo and Curie temperatures as a function of model parameters, namely the Kondo exchange interaction constant JK, the magnetic intersite exchange interaction JH, and the effective f bandwidth. We deduce, therefore, a phase diagram of the model which yields the coexistence of the Kondo effect and ferromagnetic ordering and also accounts for the pressure dependence of the Curie temperature of uranium compounds such as UTe.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilling, James S.; Song, Jing; Soni, Vikas; Lim, Jinhyuk
Most elemental lanthanides order magnetically at temperatures To well below ambient, the highest being 292 K for Gd. Sufficiently high pressure is expected to destabilize the well localized magnetic 4 f state of the heavy lanthanides, leading to increasing influence of Kondo physics on the RKKY interaction. For pressures above 80 GPa, To for Dy and Tb begins to increase dramatically, extrapolating for Dy to a record-high value near 400 K at 160 GPa. This anomalous increase may be an heretofore unrecognized feature of the Kondo lattice state; if so, one would expect To to pass through a maximum and fall rapidly at even higher pressures. A parallel is suggested to the ferromagnet CeRh3B2 where To = 115 K at ambient pressure, a temperature more than 100-times higher than anticipated from simple de Gennes scaling. Here we discuss recent experiments on Nd where anomalous behavior in To (P) is found to occur at lower pressures, perhaps reflecting the fact that Nd's 4 f wave function is less localized. Work at Washington University is supported by NSF Grant DMR-1104742 and CDAC through NNSA/DOE Grant DE-FC52-08NA28554.
Antiferromagnetic Kondo lattice in the layered compounds Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Pr, Sm)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Yanglin; Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Adams, Daniel; Spinu, Leonard; Mao, Zhiqiang
Intermetallic compounds containing rare-earth/actinide elements with 4f/5f electrons have formed a special family of strongly correlated materials, i.e. heavy fermion systems. We have recently found a new layered rare earth intermetallic system showing moderate heavy fermion behavior: Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Sm, Pr). The Re =Ce and Sm members were previously synthesized, while their electronic properties have not been reported. We have recently grown single crystals of Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Sm, Pr) and characterized their electronic and magnetic properties. We find all these materials are antiferromagnetic, with TN = 2.5 K, 5 K, 3.4 K respectively for Re =Ce, Pr and Sm. Moreover, they also exhibit large values of electronic specific coefficient: γ ~ 101 mJ mol-Ce-1 K-2 for Re =Ce, 368 mJ mol-Pr-1 K-2 for Re =Pr, and 196.4 mJ mol-Sm-1 K-2 for Re =Sm, indicating enhanced Kondo effect and the presence of AFM Kondo lattice. Our findings suggest that Re2NiGa9Ge2 (Re =Ce, Pr, Sm) could be interesting candidate materials for exploring novel exotic properties of correlated electrons through external parameter tuning such as chemical substitution and pressure.
Magnetotransport study of Kondo compound Ce(Ni0.7Cu0.3)2Al3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yadam, Sankararao; Singh, Durgesh; Venkateshwarlu, D.; Gangrade, Mohan Kumar; Samatham, S. Shanmukharao; Ganesan, V.
2015-06-01
CeNi2Al3 system has evolved in to a known thermoelectric material with a usable figure of merit at low temperatures. Kondo effect plays a crucial role in the enhancement of TEP in this system especially when the Ni site is substituted with non-magnetic elements like Cu. Effect of high magnetic fields on various properties of this system is yet to be explored. Ce(Ni0.7Cu0.3)2Al3 is a representative sample that has a significant enhancement of TEP whose reasons are being explored recently. Here we report the magnetoresistivity measurements on this sample down to 2K and fields upto 14T. The famous negative ln(T) rise with a minimum at 14.5 K is getting suppressed by the magnetic fields. Magnetic correlations are observed with increasing magnetic field strength in the form of a hump like behavior due to competition between Kondo and RKKY interactions. This hump is shifted to higher temperatures with increase in the field strength which indicates probable onset of ferromagnetic correlations that is being corroborated by the observed negative magnetoresistance at low temperatures.
Dai, Mai Duc; Kim, Chang-Wan; Eom, Kilho
2012-01-01
Graphene has received significant attention due to its excellent mechanical properties, which has resulted in the emergence of graphene-based nano-electro-mechanical system such as nanoresonators. The nonlinear vibration of a graphene resonator and its application to mass sensing (based on nonlinear oscillation) have been poorly studied, although a graphene resonator is able to easily reach the nonlinear vibration. In this work, we have studied the nonlinear vibration of a graphene resonator driven by a geometric nonlinear effect due to an edge-clamped boundary condition using a continuum elastic model such as a plate model. We have shown that an in-plane tension can play a role in modulating the nonlinearity of a resonance for a graphene. It has been found that the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator can be improved by using nonlinear vibration induced by an actuation force-driven geometric nonlinear effect. It is also shown that an in-plane tension can control the detection sensitivity of a graphene resonator that operates both harmonic and nonlinear oscillation regimes. Our study suggests the design principles of a graphene resonator as a mass sensor for developing a novel detection scheme using graphene-based nonlinear oscillators. PMID:22947221
Interaction effect in the Kondo energy of the periodic Anderson-Hubbard model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Itai, K.; Fazekas, P.
1996-07-01
We extend the periodic Anderson model by switching on a Hubbard U for the conduction band. The nearly integral valent limit of the Anderson-Hubbard model is studied with the Gutzwiller variational method. The lattice Kondo energy shows U dependence both in the prefactor and the exponent. Switching on U reduces the Kondo scale, which can be understood to result from the blocking of hybridization. At half filling, we find a Brinkman-Rice-type transition from a Kondo insulator to a Mott insulator. Our findings should be relevant for a number of correlated two-band models of recent interest.
Noise characteristics of the Fano effect and the Fano-Kondo effect in triple quantum dots.
Tanamoto, T; Nishi, Y; Fujita, S
2009-04-01
We theoretically compare transport properties of the Fano-Kondo effect with those of the Fano effect, focusing on the effect of a two-level state in a triple quantum dot (QD) system. We analyze shot noise characteristics in the Fano-Kondo region at zero temperature, and discuss the effect of strong electronic correlation in QDs. We found that the modulation of the Fano dip is strongly affected by the on-site Coulomb interaction in QDs, and stronger Coulomb interaction (Fano-Kondo case) induces larger noise. PMID:21825341
Magnetic Flux Effect on a Kondo-Induced Electric Polarization in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Mikito; Matsumoto, Masashige; Kusunose, Hiroaki
2014-08-01
A magnetic flux effect is studied theoretically on an electric polarization induced by the Kondo effect in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is connected to a metallic lead. This electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux penetrating through the triangular loop. The numerical renormalization group analysis reveals how the oscillation pattern depends on the Kondo coupling of a local spin with lead electrons, which is sensitive to the point contact with the lead. It provides an experimental implication that the Kondo effect is the origin of the emergent electric polarization.
Entanglement structure of the two-channel Kondo model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alkurtass, Bedoor; Bayat, Abolfazl; Affleck, Ian; Bose, Sougato; Johannesson, Henrik; Sodano, Pasquale; Sørensen, Erik S.; Le Hur, Karyn
2016-02-01
Two electronic channels competing to screen a single impurity spin, as in the two-channel Kondo model, are expected to generate a ground state with a nontrivial entanglement structure. We exploit a spin-chain representation of the two-channel Kondo model to probe the ground-state block entropy, negativity, tangle, and Schmidt gap, using a density matrix renormalization group approach. In the presence of symmetric coupling to the two channels, we confirm field-theory predictions for the boundary entropy difference ln(gUV/gIR) =ln(2 ) /2 between the ultraviolet and infrared limits and the leading ln(x )/x impurity correction to the block entropy. The impurity entanglement Simp is shown to scale with the characteristic length ξ2 CK. We show that both the Schmidt gap and the entanglement of the impurity with one of the channels—as measured by the negativity—faithfully serve as order parameters for the impurity quantum phase transition appearing as a function of channel asymmetry, allowing for explicit determination of critical exponents, ν ≈2 and β ≈0.2 . Remarkably, we find the emergence of tripartite entanglement only in the vicinity of the critical channel-symmetric point.
Kondo route to spin inhomogeneities in the honeycomb Kitaev model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, S. D.; Dhochak, K.; Tripathi, V.
2016-07-01
Paramagnetic impurities in a quantum spin liquid give rise to Kondo effects with highly unusual properties. We have studied the effect of locally coupling a paramagnetic impurity with the spin-1/2 honeycomb Kitaev model in its gapless spin-liquid phase. The (impurity) scaling equations are found to be insensitive to the sign of the coupling. The weak and strong coupling fixed points are stable, with the latter corresponding to a noninteracting vacancy and an interacting, spin-1 defect for the antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic cases, respectively. The ground state in the strong coupling limit in both cases has a nontrivial topology associated with a finite Z2 flux at the impurity site. For the antiferromagnetic case, this result has been obtained straightforwardly owing to the integrability of the Kitaev model with a vacancy. The strong-coupling limit of the ferromagnetic case is, however, nonintegrable, and we address this problem through exact-diagonalization calculations with finite Kitaev fragments. Our exact diagonalization calculations indicate that the weak-to-strong coupling transition and the topological phase transition occur rather close to each other and are possibly coincident. We also find an intriguing similarity between the magnetic response of the defect and the impurity susceptibility in the two-channel Kondo problem.
Quantum phase transitions in the Kondo-necklace model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghassemi, Nader; Hemmatiyan, Shayan; Rahimi Movassagh, Mahsa; Kargarian, Mahdi; Rezakhani, Ali T.; Langari, Abdollah
2015-03-01
Kondo-necklace model can describe the magnetic low-energy limit of strongly correlated heavy fermion materials. There exist multiple energy scales in this model corresponding to each phase of the system. Here, we study quantum phase transitions between these different phases, and show the effect of anisotropies in terms of quantum information properties and vanishing energy gap. We employ the perturbative unitary transformations to calculate the energy gap and spin-spin correlations for the model one, two, and three spatial dimensions as well as for the spin ladders. In particular, we show that the method, although being perturbative, can predict the expected quantum critical point by imposing the spontaneous symmetry breaking, which is in good agreement with the results of numerical and Green's function analyses. We also use concurrence, a bipartite entanglement measure, to study the criticality of the model. Absence of singularities in the derivative of the concurrence in 2d and 3d in Kondo-necklace model shows this model has multipartite entanglement. We also discuss the crossover from the one-dimensional to the two-dimensional model via the ladder structure. Sharif University of Technology.
Co adatoms on Cu surfaces: Ballistic conductance and Kondo temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruselli, P. P.; Requist, R.; Smogunov, A.; Fabrizio, M.; Tosatti, E.
2015-07-01
The Kondo zero-bias anomaly of Co adatoms probed by scanning tunneling microscopy is known to depend on the height of the tip above the surface, and this dependence is different on different low index Cu surfaces. On the (100) surface, the Kondo temperature first decreases then increases as the tip approaches the adatom, while on the (111) surface it is virtually unaffected. These trends are captured by combined density functional theory and numerical renormalization-group calculations. The adatoms are found to be described by an S =1 Anderson model on both surfaces, and ab initio calculations help identify the symmetry of the active d orbitals. We correctly reproduce the Fano line shape of the zero-bias anomaly for Co/Cu(100) in the tunneling regime but not in the contact regime, where it is probably dependent on the details of the tip and contact geometry. The line shape for Co/Cu(111) is presumably affected by the presence of surface states, which are not included in our method. We also discuss the role of symmetry, which is preserved in our model scattering geometry but most likely broken in experimental conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goswami, Pallab; Si, Qimiao
2014-01-01
Heavy-fermion systems represent a prototypical setting to study magnetic quantum phase transitions. A particular focus has been on the physics of Kondo destruction, which captures quantum criticality beyond the Landau framework of order-parameter fluctuations. In this context, we study the spin one-half Kondo-Heisenberg model on a honeycomb lattice at half filling. The problem is approached from the Kondo-destroyed, antiferromagnetically ordered insulating phase. We describe the local moments in terms of a coarse grained quantum nonlinear sigma model, and show that the skyrmion defects of the antiferromagnetic order parameter host a number of competing order parameters. In addition to the spin Peierls, charge and current density wave order parameters, we identify for the first time Kondo singlets as the competing orders of the antiferromagnetism. We show that the antiferromagnetism and various competing singlet orders can be related to each other via generalized chiral transformations of the underlying fermions. We also show that the conduction electrons acquire a Berry phase through their coupling to the hedgehog configurations of the Néel order, which cancels the Berry phase of the local moments. Our results demonstrate the competition between the Kondo singlet formation and spin-Peierls order when the antiferromagnetic order is suppressed, thereby shedding new light on the global phase diagram of heavy-fermion systems at zero temperature.
Sensitivity and temperature behavior of a novel z-axis differential resonant micro accelerometer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Comi, C.; Corigliano, A.; Langfelder, G.; Zega, V.; Zerbini, S.
2016-03-01
The present work concerns the operating principle and a thorough experimental characterization of a new polysilicon resonant micro accelerometer for out-of-plane measurements, fabricated using an industrial surface micromachining technique. This device is characterized by differential resonant sensing, obtained from the variation of the electrostatic stiffness of two torsional resonators under the application of an external acceleration. The sensitivity, defined as the differential shift in resonance frequencies per gravity unit (lg = 9.8 m s-2), is of about 10 Hz g-1when operated at a DC bias of 1.5 V only. Over an acceleration range larger than 10 g, the deviation from linearity is lower than 1% and the cross-axis rejection is larger than 34 dB. The resonators temperature coefficients of frequency, in the order of -29 ppm {{}\\circ} C-1, are matched within about 0.1%, resulting in linear offset drifts against temperature lower than 5 mg up to 95 {{}\\circ} C in absence of any digital compensation.
Kondo physics in the Josephon junction with DIII-class topological and s-wave superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Z.; Gong, W. J.
2015-12-01
We discuss the Kondo effect in the Josephson junction formed by the indirect coupling between a one-dimensional DIII-class topological and s-wave superconductors via a quantum dot. By performing the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation, we find that the single-electron occupation in the quantum dot induces various correlation modes, such as the Kondo and singlet-triplet correlations between the quantum dot and the s-wave superconductor and the spin-exchange correlation between the dot and Majorana doublet. Also, it modifies the Josephson effect by introducing the high-order anisotropic Kondo-like correlation and extra spin-exchange correlations. However, the Kondo temperature is still governed by the antiferromagnetic correlation between the dot and s-wave superconductor. We believe that this work shows the fundamental property of the DIII-class topological superconductor.
Surface-State Spin Textures and Mirror Chern Numbers in Topological Kondo Insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legner, Markus; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred
2015-10-01
The recent discovery of topological Kondo insulators has triggered renewed interest in the well-known Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride, which is hypothesized to belong to this family. In this Letter, we study the spin texture of the topologically protected surface states in such a topological Kondo insulator. In particular, we derive close relationships between (i) the form of the hybridization matrix at certain high-symmetry points, (ii) the mirror Chern numbers of the system, and (iii) the observable spin texture of the topological surface states. In this way, a robust classification of topological Kondo insulators and their surface-state spin texture is achieved. We underpin our findings with numerical calculations of several simplified and realistic models for systems like samarium hexaboride.
Surface-State Spin Textures and Mirror Chern Numbers in Topological Kondo Insulators.
Legner, Markus; Rüegg, Andreas; Sigrist, Manfred
2015-10-01
The recent discovery of topological Kondo insulators has triggered renewed interest in the well-known Kondo insulator samarium hexaboride, which is hypothesized to belong to this family. In this Letter, we study the spin texture of the topologically protected surface states in such a topological Kondo insulator. In particular, we derive close relationships between (i) the form of the hybridization matrix at certain high-symmetry points, (ii) the mirror Chern numbers of the system, and (iii) the observable spin texture of the topological surface states. In this way, a robust classification of topological Kondo insulators and their surface-state spin texture is achieved. We underpin our findings with numerical calculations of several simplified and realistic models for systems like samarium hexaboride. PMID:26550740
Interdiffusion-controlled Kondo suppression of injection efficiency in metallic nonlocal spin valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, L.; Spivak, D.; Jeong, J. S.; Mkhoyan, K. A.; Crowell, P. A.; Leighton, C.
2016-01-01
Nonlocal spin valves (NLSVs) generate pure spin currents, providing unique insight into spin injection and relaxation at the nanoscale. Recently it was shown that the puzzling low temperature nonmonotonicity of the spin accumulation in all-metal NLSVs occurs due to a manifestation of the Kondo effect arising from dilute local-moment-forming impurities in the nonmagnetic material. Here it is demonstrated that precise control over interdiffusion in Fe/Cu NLSVs via thermal annealing can induce dramatic increases in this Kondo suppression of injection efficiency, observation of injector/detector separation-dependent Kondo effects in both charge and spin channels simultaneously, and, in the limit of large interdiffusion, complete breakdown of standard Valet-Fert-based models. The Kondo effect in the charge channel enables extraction of the exact interdiffusion profile, quantifying the influence of local moment density on the injection efficiency and presenting a well-posed challenge to theory.
The Kondo temperature of a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling.
Chen, Liang; Sun, Jinhua; Tang, Ho-Kin; Lin, Hai-Qing
2016-10-01
We use the Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo method to study the single magnetic impurity problem in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We calculate the spin susceptibility for various values of spin-orbit coupling, Hubbard interaction, and chemical potential. The Kondo temperatures for different parameters are estimated by fitting the universal curves of spin susceptibility. We find that the Kondo temperature is almost a linear function of Rashba spin-orbit energy when the chemical potential is close to the edge of the conduction band. When the chemical potential is far away from the band edge, the Kondo temperature is independent of the spin-orbit coupling. These results demonstrate that, for single impurity problems in this system, the most important reason to change the Kondo temperature is the divergence of density of states near the band edge, and the divergence is induced by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling. PMID:27494800
Katoh, Keiichi; Komeda, Tadahiro; Yamashita, Masahiro
2010-05-28
The crystal structures of double-decker single-molecule magnets (SMMs) LnPc(2) (Ln = Tb(III) and Dy(III); Pc = phthalocyanine) and non-SMM YPc(2) were determined by using single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The compounds are isomorphous to each other. The compounds have metal-centers (M(3+) = Tb, Dy, and Y) sandwiched by two Pc ligands via eight isoindole-nitrogen atoms in a square-antiprism fashion. The twist angle between the two Pc ligands is 41.4 degrees. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) was used to investigate the compounds adsorbed on a Au(111) surface, deposited by using thermal evaporation in ultra-high vacuum. Both MPc(2) with eight-lobes and MPc with four-lobes, which has lost one Pc ligand, were observed. In the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) images of TbPc molecules at 4.8 K, a Kondo peak with a Kondo temperature (T(K)) of approximately 250 K was observed near the Fermi level (V = 0 V). On the other hand, DyPc, YPc and MPc(2) exhibited no Kondo peak. In order to understand the observed Kondo effect, the energy splitting of sublevels in a crystal field should be taken into consideration. As the next step in our studies on the SMM/Kondo effect in Tb-Pc derivatives, we investigated the electronic transport properties of Ln-Pc molecules as the active layer in top- and bottom-contact thin-film organic field effect transistor (OFETs) devices. Tb-Pc molecule devices exhibit p-type semiconducting properties with a hole mobility (mu(H)) of approximately 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, the Dy-Pc based devices exhibited ambipolar semiconducting properties with an electron mobility (mu(e)) of approximately 10(-5) and a hole mobility (mu(H)) of approximately 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This behavior has important implications for the electronic structure of the molecules. PMID:20396817
A fully controllable Kondo system: Coupling a flux qubit and an ultracold Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patton, Kelly
We show that a composite spin-1/2 Kondo system can be formed by coupling a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to the internal hyperfine states of a trapped ultracold atomic Fermi gas. Here, the SQUID, or flux qubit, acts as an effective magnetic impurity that induces spin-flip scattering near the Fermi energies of the trapped gas. Although the ultracold gas and SQUID are at vastly different temperatures, the formation of a strongly correlated Kondo state between the two systems is found when the gas is cooled below the Kondo temperature. We find that the Kondo temperature of this hybrid system is within current experimental limits. Furthermore, the momentum distribution of the trapped fermions is calculated. We find that it clearly contains an experimental signature of this correlated state and the associated Kondo screening length. In addition to probing Kondo physics, the con- trollability of this system can be used to systematically explore the relaxation and equilibration of a strongly correlated system that has been initially prepared in a selected nonequilibrium state.
Fully controllable Kondo system: Coupling a flux qubit and an ultracold Fermi gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patton, Kelly R.
2016-02-01
We show that a composite spin-½ Kondo system can be formed by coupling a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) to the internal hyperfine states of a trapped ultracold atomic Fermi gas. Here, the SQUID, or flux qubit, acts as an effective magnetic impurity that induces spin-flip scattering near the Fermi energies of the trapped gas. Although the ultracold gas and SQUID are at vastly different temperatures, the formation of a strongly correlated Kondo state between the two systems is found when the gas is cooled below the Kondo temperature. We find that the Kondo temperature of this hybrid system is within current experimental limits. Furthermore, the momentum distribution of the trapped fermions is calculated, which clearly shows an experimental signature of the Kondo screening length. In addition to probing Kondo physics, the controllability of this system can be used to systematically explore the relaxation and equilibration of a strongly correlated system that has been initially prepared in a selected nonequilibrium state.
Local susceptibility and Kondo scaling in the presence of finite bandwidth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hanl, Markus; Weichselbaum, Andreas
2014-02-01
The Kondo scale TK for impurity systems is expected to guarantee universal scaling of physical quantities. However, in practice, not every definition of TK necessarily supports this notion away from the strict scaling limit. Specifically, this paper addresses the role of finite bandwidth D in the strongly correlated Kondo regime. For this, various theoretical definitions of TK are analyzed based on the inverse magnetic impurity susceptibility at zero temperature. While conventional definitions in that respect quickly fail to ensure universal Kondo scaling for a large range of D, this paper proposes an altered definition of TKsc that allows universal scaling of dynamical or thermal quantities for a given fixed Hamiltonian. If the scaling is performed with respect to an external parameter that directly enters the Hamiltonian, such as magnetic field, the corresponding TKsc,B for universal scaling differs, yet becomes equivalent to TKsc in the scaling limit. The only requirement for universal scaling in the full Kondo parameter regime with a residual error of less than 1% is a well-defined isolated Kondo feature with TK≲0.01D irrespective of specific other impurity parameter settings. By varying D over a wide range relative to the bare energies of the impurity, for example, this allows a smooth transition from the Anderson to the Kondo model.
Kondo cloud mediated long-range entanglement after local quench in a spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sodano, Pasquale; Bayat, Abolfazl; Bose, Sougato
2010-03-01
We show that, in the gapless Kondo regime, a single local quench at one end of a Kondo spin chain induces a fast and long-lived oscillatory dynamics. This quickly establishes a high-quality entanglement between the spins at the opposite ends of the chain. This entanglement is mediated by the Kondo cloud, attains a constant high value independent of the length for large chains, and shows thermal robustness. In contrast, when the Kondo cloud is absent, e.g., in the gapped dimer regime, only finite-size end to end effects can create some entanglement on a much longer time scale for rather short chains. By decoupling one end of the chain during the dynamics, one can distinguish between this end-end effect which vanishes, and the global Kondo cloud mediated entanglement, which persists. This quench approach paves the way to detect the elusive Kondo cloud through the entanglement between two individual spins. Our results show that nonperturbative cooperative phenomena from condensed matter may be exploited for quantum information.
How Kondo-holes create intense nanoscale heavy-fermion hybridization disorder.
Hamidian, Mohammad H; Schmidt, Andrew R; Firmo, Inês A; Allan, Milan P; Bradley, Phelim; Garrett, Jim D; Williams, Travis J; Luke, Graeme M; Dubi, Yonatan; Balatsky, Alexander V; Davis, J C
2011-11-01
Replacing a magnetic atom by a spinless atom in a heavy-fermion compound generates a quantum state often referred to as a "Kondo-hole". No experimental imaging has been achieved of the atomic-scale electronic structure of a Kondo-hole, or of their destructive impact [Lawrence JM, et al. (1996) Phys Rev B 53:12559-12562] [Bauer ED, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci. 108:6857-6861] on the hybridization process between conduction and localized electrons which generates the heavy-fermion state. Here we report visualization of the electronic structure at Kondo-holes created by substituting spinless thorium atoms for magnetic uranium atoms in the heavy-fermion system URu(2)Si(2). At each thorium atom, an electronic bound state is observed. Moreover, surrounding each thorium atom we find the unusual modulations of hybridization strength recently predicted to occur at Kondo-holes [Figgins J, Morr DK (2011) Phys Rev Lett 107:066401]. Then, by introducing the "hybridization gapmap" technique to heavy-fermion studies, we discover intense nanoscale heterogeneity of hybridization due to a combination of the randomness of Kondo-hole sites and the long-range nature of the hybridization oscillations. These observations provide direct insight into both the microscopic processes of heavy-fermion forming hybridization and the macroscopic effects of Kondo-hole doping. PMID:22006302
How Kondo-holes create intense nanoscale heavy-fermion hybridization disorder
Hamidian, Mohammad H.; Schmidt, Andrew R.; Firmo, Inês A.; Allan, Milan P.; Bradley, Phelim; Garrett, Jim D.; Williams, Travis J.; Luke, Graeme M.; Dubi, Yonatan; Balatsky, Alexander V.; Davis, J. C.
2011-01-01
Replacing a magnetic atom by a spinless atom in a heavy-fermion compound generates a quantum state often referred to as a “Kondo-hole”. No experimental imaging has been achieved of the atomic-scale electronic structure of a Kondo-hole, or of their destructive impact [Lawrence JM, et al. (1996) Phys Rev B 53:12559–12562] [Bauer ED, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci. 108:6857–6861] on the hybridization process between conduction and localized electrons which generates the heavy-fermion state. Here we report visualization of the electronic structure at Kondo-holes created by substituting spinless thorium atoms for magnetic uranium atoms in the heavy-fermion system URu2Si2. At each thorium atom, an electronic bound state is observed. Moreover, surrounding each thorium atom we find the unusual modulations of hybridization strength recently predicted to occur at Kondo-holes [Figgins J, Morr DK (2011) Phys Rev Lett 107:066401]. Then, by introducing the “hybridization gapmap” technique to heavy-fermion studies, we discover intense nanoscale heterogeneity of hybridization due to a combination of the randomness of Kondo-hole sites and the long-range nature of the hybridization oscillations. These observations provide direct insight into both the microscopic processes of heavy-fermion forming hybridization and the macroscopic effects of Kondo-hole doping. PMID:22006302
Quantum Phases of the Shastry-Sutherland Kondo Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pixley, Jedediah; Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao
2013-03-01
Motivated by the discovery of the geometrically frustrated heavy fermion metal Yb2Pt2Pb, which has a quasi two dimensional Shastry-Sutherland lattice structure, we consider the Heisenberg-Kondo lattice model on a two dimensional Shastry-Sutherland geometry. Using a large-N method, we obtain the phase diagram and, in particular, the quantum transitions between a valence bond solid phase and a heavy Fermi liquid phase. Interestingly, we find intermediate states that break the C4 symmetry. We discuss the implications of our results for the experiments on Yb2Pt2Pb and related 221 materials, as well as the possible placement of these systems in a proposed global phase diagram for heavy fermion metals.
Anomalous Hall effect on the surface of topological Kondo insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, E. J.; Ostrovsky, P. M.; Dzero, M.; Levchenko, A.
2016-07-01
We calculate the anomalous Hall conductivity σx y of the surface states in cubic topological Kondo insulators. We consider a generic model for the surface states with three Dirac cones on the (001) surface. The Fermi velocity, the Fermi momentum, and the Zeeman energy in different Dirac pockets may be unequal. The microscopic impurity potential mediates mixed intra- and interband extrinsic scattering processes. Our calculation of σx y is based on the Kubo-Streda diagrammatic approach. It includes diffractive skew scattering contributions originating from the rare two-impurity complexes. Remarkably, these contributions yield anomalous Hall conductivity that is independent of impurity concentration, and thus is of the same order as other known extrinsic side jump and skew scattering terms. We discuss various special cases of our results and the experimental relevance of our study in the context of the recent hysteretic magnetotransport data in SmB6 samples.
Superconductivity from spoiling magnetism in the Kondo lattice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asadzadeh, Mohammad Zhian; Fabrizio, Michele; Becca, Federico
2014-11-01
We find evidence that superconductivity intrudes into the paramagnetic-to-magnetic transition of the Kondo lattice model if magnetic frustration is added. Specifically, we study by the variational method the model on a square lattice in the presence of both nearest-neighbor (t ) and next-nearest-neighbor (t') hopping of the conduction electrons. We find that, when t'/t >0 , a d -wave superconducting dome emerges between the magnetic and paramagnetic metal phases and close to the compensated regime, i.e., the number of conduction electrons equals the number of localized spin-1/2 moments. Superconductivity is further strengthened by a direct antiferromagnetic exchange, JH, between the localized moments, to such an extent that we observe coexistence with magnetic order.
Kondo Effects in Single Layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Michael; Aji, Vivek
2015-03-01
Inversion symmetry breaking and strong spin orbit coupling in two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides leads to interesting new phenomena such as the valley hall and spin hall effects. They display optical circular dichroism and the ability to generate excitation with valley specificity. In this talk we report on the consequences of these properties on correlated states in hole doped systems focussing on the physics of the screening of magnetic impurities. Unlike typical metals, the breaking of inversion symmetry leads to the mixing of a triplet component to the Kondo cloud. Using a variational wave function approach we determine the nature of the many body state. With the ground state in hand we analyze the excitations generated by valley discriminating perturbations. Graduate Student.
Kondo Breakdown and Quantum Oscillations in SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erten, Onur; Ghaemi, Pouyan; Coleman, Piers
2016-01-01
Recent quantum oscillation experiments on SmB6 pose a paradox, for while the angular dependence of the oscillation frequencies suggest a 3D bulk Fermi surface, SmB6 remains robustly insulating to very high magnetic fields. Moreover, a sudden low temperature upturn in the amplitude of the oscillations raises the possibility of quantum criticality. Here we discuss recently proposed mechanisms for this effect, contrasting bulk and surface scenarios. We argue that topological surface states permit us to reconcile the various data with bulk transport and spectroscopy measurements, interpreting the low temperature upturn in the quantum oscillation amplitudes as a result of surface Kondo breakdown and the high frequency oscillations as large topologically protected orbits around the X point. We discuss various predictions that can be used to test this theory.
Nonuniversal weak antilocalization effect in cubic topological Kondo insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dzero, Maxim; Vavilov, Maxim G.; Kechedzhi, Kostyantyn; Galitski, Victor M.
2015-10-01
We study the quantum correction to conductivity on the surface of cubic topological Kondo insulators with multiple Dirac bands. We consider the model of time-reversal invariant disorder which induces the scattering of the electrons within the Dirac bands as well as between the bands. When only intraband scattering is present we find three long-range diffusion modes leading to weak antilocalization correction to conductivity which remains independent of the microscopic details such as Fermi velocities and relaxation times. Interband scattering gaps out two diffusion modes leaving only one long-range mode. We find that depending on the value of the phase coherence time, either three or only one long-range diffusion modes contribute to weak localization correction rendering the quantum correction to conductivity nonuniversal. We provide an interpretation for the results of the recent transport experiments on samarium hexaboride where weak antilocalization has been observed.
Anomalous Hall Effect on the surface of topological Kondo insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
König, Elio; Ostrovsky, Pavel; Dzero, Maxim; Levchenko, Alex
We calculate the anomalous Hall conductivity σxy of surface states on three dimensional topological Kondo insulators with cubic symmetry and multiple Dirac cones. We treat a generic model in which the Fermi velocity, the Fermi momentum and the Zeeman energy in different pockets may be unequal and in which the microscopic impurity potential is short ranged on the scale of the smallest Fermi wavelength. Our calculation of σxy to the zeroth (i.e. leading) order in impurity concentration is based on the Kubo-Smrcka-Streda diagrammatic approach. It also includes certain extrinsic contributions with a single cross of impurity lines, which are of the same order in impurity concentration and were, to the best of our knowledge, scrutinized in a single band model, only. We discuss various special cases of our result and the experimental relevance of our study in the context of recent hysteretic magnetotransport data in SmB6 samples.
One-dimensional Kondo lattice model at quarter filling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xavier, J. C.; Miranda, E.
2008-10-01
We revisit the problem of the quarter-filled one-dimensional Kondo lattice model, for which the existence of a dimerized phase and a nonzero charge gap had been reported by Xavier [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 247204 (2003)]. Recently, some objections were raised claiming that the system is neither dimerized nor has a charge gap. In the interest of clarifying this important issue, we show that these objections are based on results obtained under conditions in which the dimer order is artificially suppressed. We use the incontrovertible dimerized phase of the Majumdar-Ghosh point of the J1-J2 Heisenberg model as a paradigm with which to illustrate this artificial suppression. Finally, by means of extremely accurate density-matrix renormalization-group calculations, we show that the charge gap is indeed nonzero in the dimerized phase.
Entanglement switching via the Kondo effect in triple quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tooski, S. B.; Bułka, Bogdan R.; Žitko, Rok; Ramšak, Anton
2014-06-01
We consider a triple quantum dot system in a triangular geometry with one of the dots connected to metallic leads. Using Wilson's numerical renormalization group method, we investigate quantum entanglement and its relation to the thermodynamic and transport properties in the regime where each of the dots is singly occupied on average, but with non-negligible charge fluctuations. It is shown that even in the regime of significant charge fluctuations the formation of the Kondo singlets induces switching between separable and perfectly entangled states. The quantum phase transition between unentangled and entangled states is analyzed quantitatively and the corresponding phase diagram is explained by exactly solvable spin model. In the framework of an effective model we also explain smearing of the entanglement transition for cases when the symmetry of the triple quantum dot system is relaxed.
Microwave Dielectric Resonance and Negative Permittivity Behavior in Al2O3-CuO-Cu Nanocomposites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calame, Jeffrey; Battat, Jacob
2006-03-01
The frequency-dependent microwave (0.1-18 GHz) complex permittivity of nanocomposites based on the Al2O3/CuO/Cu system is investigated. The composites are formed by solution infusion of copper precursors into a porous Al2O3 matrix, followed by thermal decomposition to copper oxides and localized formation of CuAl2O4 spinels, and finally partial reduction by H2 firing. The final material has a complicated microstructure and exhibits strong amplitude, relatively narrowband dielectric resonance in the microwave regime at intermediate concentrations (˜15-18% by volume) of Cu. The resonances are superficially similar in structure to plasmon and Reststrahlen resonances typically seen in conductors at far-infrared to optical frequencies, but occurring at much lower frequencies in the composites. This is in contrast to the usual broadband induced-polarization dielectric relaxations observed in standard composites. Large concentrations of copper cause negative permittivity behavior below 6 GHz. Permittivity data, SEM micrographs, and possible explanations will be presented.
Topological surface states in Kondo insulator SmB6 via planar tunneling spectroscopy*
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Wan Kyu; Sun, Lunan; Noddings, Alex; Greene, Laura; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Fisk, Zachary
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) belongs to a class of materials called Kondo insulators in which the hybridization between itinerant electrons and local moments leads to an emergent state of matter. With inherently large spin-orbit coupling along with strong correlation, SmB6 has been recently predicted to be topological meaning that topologically robust conducting states should exist at its surfaces. Although extensive investigations have provided growing evidence for the existence of such states, corroborative spectroscopic evidences are still lacking unlike in the weakly correlated counterparts. We adopt planar tunneling spectroscopy to unveil their detailed nature and behavior utilizing its inherently high energy resolution. Measurements of tunneling conductance on two different crystal surfaces (001) and (011) reveal the expected linear density of states for two and one Dirac cones, respectively. Moreover, it is found that these topological states cease to be protected well before they merge into the bulk states at the gap edges. Microscopic modeling of the tunneling processes accounting for the interaction with spin excitons as predicted by a recent theory provide consistent explanations for all the observed features, corroborating the proposed picture on the incompletely protected surface states in SmB6
Nonlinear dynamic behaviors of clamped laminated shallow shells with one-to-one internal resonance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abe, Akira; Kobayashi, Yukinori; Yamada, Gen
2007-07-01
This paper investigates one-to-one internal resonance of laminated shallow shells with rigidly clamped edges. It is assumed that the natural frequencies ω2 and ω3 of two asymmetric (second and third) vibration modes have the relationship ω2≈ ω3. The displacements are expressed by using eigenvectors for linear vibration modes calculated by the Ritz method. Applying Galerkin's procedure to the equation of motion, nonlinear differential equations are derived. By considering the first vibration mode in addition to the two asymmetric vibration modes, quadratic nonlinear terms expressing the interaction between the asymmetric and the first modes appear in the differential equations. Shooting method is used to obtain the steady-state response when the driving frequency Ω is near ω2. The dynamic characteristics of the shells with the internal resonance are discussed.
Influence of the Basset force on the resonant behavior of an oscillator with fluctuating frequency
Rekker, A. Mankin, R.
2015-10-28
The influence of hydrodynamic interactions, such as Stokes and Basset forces, on the dynamics of a harmonically trapped Brownian tracer is considered. A generalized Langevin equation is used to describe the tracer’s response to an external periodic force and to dichotomous fluctuations of the stiffness of the trapping potential. Relying on the Shapiro-Loginov formula, exact expressions for the complex susceptibility and for the response function are presented. On the basis of these exact formulas, it is demonstrated that interplay of a multiplicative colored noise and the Basset force induced memory effects can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as multiresonance versus the driving frequency, as well as stochastic resonance versus noise parameters. In particular, in certain parameter regions the response function exhibits a resonance-like enhancement at intermediate values of the intensity of the Basset force. Conditions for the appearance of these effects are also discussed.
Influence of the Basset force on the resonant behavior of an oscillator with fluctuating frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rekker, A.; Mankin, R.
2015-10-01
The influence of hydrodynamic interactions, such as Stokes and Basset forces, on the dynamics of a harmonically trapped Brownian tracer is considered. A generalized Langevin equation is used to describe the tracer's response to an external periodic force and to dichotomous fluctuations of the stiffness of the trapping potential. Relying on the Shapiro-Loginov formula, exact expressions for the complex susceptibility and for the response function are presented. On the basis of these exact formulas, it is demonstrated that interplay of a multiplicative colored noise and the Basset force induced memory effects can generate a variety of cooperation effects, such as multiresonance versus the driving frequency, as well as stochastic resonance versus noise parameters. In particular, in certain parameter regions the response function exhibits a resonance-like enhancement at intermediate values of the intensity of the Basset force. Conditions for the appearance of these effects are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pisani Altafim, Ruy Alberto; Corrêa Altafim, Ruy Alberto; Qiu, Xunlin; Raabe, Sebastian; Wirges, Werner; Basso, Heitor Cury; Gerhard, Reimund
2012-06-01
Ferro- or piezoelectrets are dielectric materials with two elastically very different macroscopic phases and electrically charged interfaces between them. One of the newer piezoelectret variants is a system of two fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP) films that are first laminated around a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) template. Then, by removing the PTFE template, a two-layer FEP structure with open tubular channels is obtained. After electrical charging, the channels form easily deformable macroscopic electric dipoles whose changes under mechanical or electrical stress lead to significant direct or inverse piezoelectricity, respectively. Here, different PTFE templates are employed to generate channel geometries that vary in height or width. It is shown that the control of the channel geometry allows a direct adjustment of the resonance frequencies in the tubular-channel piezoelectrets. By combining several different channel widths in a single ferroelectret, it is possible to obtain multiple resonance peaks that may lead to a rather flat frequency-response region of the transducer material. A phenomenological relation between the resonance frequency and the geometrical parameters of a tubular channel is also presented. This relation may help to design piezoelectrets with a specific frequency response.
Magnetic moments and non-Fermi-liquid behavior in quasicrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrade, Eric
Motivated by the intrinsic non-Fermi-liquid behavior observed in the heavy-fermion quasicrystal Au51Al34Yb15, we study the low-temperature behavior of dilute magnetic impurities placed in metallic quasicrystals. We find that a large fraction of the magnetic moments are not quenched down to very low temperatures, leading to a power-law distribution of Kondo temperatures, accompanied by a non-Fermi-liquid behavior, in a remarkable similarity to the Kondo-disorder scenario found in disordered heavy-fermion metals. This work was supported by FAPESP (Brazil) Grant No. 2013/00681-8.
If It's Resonance, What is Resonating?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerber, Robert C.
2006-01-01
The phenomenon under the name "resonance," which, is based on the mathematical analogy between mechanical resonance and the behavior of wave functions in quantum mechanical exchange phenomena was described. The resonating system does not have a structure intermediate between those involved in the resonance, but instead a structure which is further…
Orbital two-channel Kondo effect in epitaxial ferromagnetic L10-MnAl films
Zhu, L. J.; Nie, S. H.; Xiong, P.; Schlottmann, P.; Zhao, J. H.
2016-02-24
The orbital two-channel Kondo effect displaying exotic non-Fermi liquid behaviour arises in the intricate scenario of two conduction electrons compensating a pseudo-spin-1/2 impurity of two-level system. Despite extensive efforts for several decades, no material system has been clearly identified to exhibit all three transport regimes characteristic of the two-channel Kondo effect in the same sample, leaving the interpretation of the experimental results a subject of debate. Here we present a transport study suggestive of a robust orbital two-channel Kondo effect in epitaxial ferromagnetic L10-MnAl films, as evidenced by a magnetic field-independent resistivity upturn with a clear transition from logarithmic- tomore » square-root temperature dependence and deviation from it in three distinct temperature regimes. Lastly, our results also provide an experimental indication of the presence of two-channel Kondo physics in a ferromagnet, pointing to considerable robustness of the orbital two-channel Kondo effect even in the presence of spin polarization of the conduction electrons.« less
Lateral spin-orbit coupling and the Kondo effect in quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vernek, Edson; Ngo, Anh; Ulloa, Sergio
2010-03-01
We present studies of the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regimes of transport of a quantum dot connected to current leads through spin-polarizing quantum point contacts (QPCs) [1]. This configuration, arising from the effect of lateral spin-orbit fields, results in spin-polarized currents even in the absence of external magnetic fields and greatly affects the correlations in the dot. Using an equation-of-motion technique and numerical renormalization group calculations we obtain the conductance and spin polarization for this system under different parameter regimes. Our results show that both the Coulomb blockade and Kondo regimes exhibit non-zero spin-polarized conductance. We analyze the role that the spin-dependent tunneling amplitudes of the QPC play in determining the charge and net magnetic moment in the dot. We find that the Kondo regime exhibits a strongly dependent Kondo temperature on the QPC polarizability. These effects, controllable by lateral gate voltages, may provide a new approach for exploring Kondo correlations, as well as possible spin devices. Supported by NSF DMR-MWN and PIRE. [1] P. Debray et al., Nature Nanotech. 4, 759 (2009).
Study of ultrasonic attenuation for the Kondo and magnetic effects in heavy fermion systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baral, Purna Chandra; Rout, Govind Chandra
2013-05-01
The heavy fermion (HF) systems draw considerable attention due to their cooperative phenomena and anomalous properties arising out of the huge effective mass. A heavy fermion system is described by a model Hamiltonian consisting of the Kondo lattice model in addition to the Heisenberg-type spin-spin interaction among the localised electrons. The Hamiltonian is treated in the mean-field approximation to find the Kondo singlet parameter λ and the short-ranged f-electron correlation parameter Γ. In order to investigate ultrasonic absorption in the system, we consider the phonon interaction with the bare f-electrons, and the phonon coupling to the Kondo singlets. Further, the phonon Hamiltonian is considered in the harmonic approximation. The phonon Green's function is calculated in closed form. The imaginary part of the phonon self-energy describes the ultrasonic attenuation for the HF systems. The calculated ultrasonic attenuation clearly displays the f-electron correlation region separated by the Kondo singlet state at low temperatures. The correlation transition temperature and the Kondo temperature are located at dips in the temperature-dependent ultrasonic attenuation. The parameter dependence of the attenuation is investigated by varying the physical parameters of the HF systems and the wave frequency, and the experimental observations are explained on the basis of the model calculations.
Orbital two-channel Kondo effect in epitaxial ferromagnetic L10-MnAl films
Zhu, L. J.; Nie, S. H.; Xiong, P.; Schlottmann, P.; Zhao, J. H.
2016-01-01
The orbital two-channel Kondo effect displaying exotic non-Fermi liquid behaviour arises in the intricate scenario of two conduction electrons compensating a pseudo-spin-1/2 impurity of two-level system. Despite extensive efforts for several decades, no material system has been clearly identified to exhibit all three transport regimes characteristic of the two-channel Kondo effect in the same sample, leaving the interpretation of the experimental results a subject of debate. Here we present a transport study suggestive of a robust orbital two-channel Kondo effect in epitaxial ferromagnetic L10-MnAl films, as evidenced by a magnetic field-independent resistivity upturn with a clear transition from logarithmic- to square-root temperature dependence and deviation from it in three distinct temperature regimes. Our results also provide an experimental indication of the presence of two-channel Kondo physics in a ferromagnet, pointing to considerable robustness of the orbital two-channel Kondo effect even in the presence of spin polarization of the conduction electrons. PMID:26905518
Exploring the phase diagram of the two-impurity Kondo problem
Spinelli, A.; Gerrits, M.; Toskovic, R.; Bryant, B.; Ternes, M.; Otte, A. F.
2015-01-01
A system of two exchange-coupled Kondo impurities in a magnetic field gives rise to a rich phase space hosting a multitude of correlated phenomena. Magnetic atoms on surfaces probed through scanning tunnelling microscopy provide an excellent platform to investigate coupled impurities, but typical high Kondo temperatures prevent field-dependent studies from being performed, rendering large parts of the phase space inaccessible. We present a study of pairs of Co atoms on insulating Cu2N/Cu(100), which each have a Kondo temperature of only 2.6 K. The pairs are designed to have interaction strengths similar to the Kondo temperature. By applying a sufficiently strong magnetic field, we are able to access a new phase in which the two coupled impurities are simultaneously screened. Comparison of differential conductance spectra taken on the atoms to simulated curves, calculated using a third-order transport model, allows us to independently determine the degree of Kondo screening in each phase. PMID:26616044
Moon, Jungwoo; Oh, Seogil; Kang, Taewook; Hong, Surin; Yi, Jongheop
2006-11-01
Molecular adsorption of bisphenol A (BPA) on three types of self-assembled monolayers with different functionalities, such as -CH3, -SH, and -COOH, was examined using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy. BPA molecules in an aqueous solution were easily adsorbed onto a hydrophobic surface compared to a hydrophilic surface. Sorption behavior of BPA into poly(2-methoxyethyl acrylate) (PMEA) layer, which is known as a biocompatible polymer, was also investigated. Sorption and desorption dynamics of BPA into PMEA were found to be very rapid and quite reversible. The swelling of PMEA by sorption of BPA results in the change in SPR angle and allows one to quantify the BPA concentration below 100 ppm. In addition, the transport mechanism of BPA within the membrane of organ can be inferred by the experimental results. PMID:17252807
Analysis of Frequency-Temperature Behavior of X-Cut LiTaO3 Strip Resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sekimoto, Hitoshi; Gong, Xun; Goka, Sigeyoshi; Watanabe, Yasuaki
2002-01-01
We numerically study the frequency-temperature (f-T) behavior of a partially plated X-cut LiTaO3 strip resonator operating in the fundamental thickness-shear fast mode. The plate orientation is designated by (XZt)\\psi based on the IEEE standard notation. The f-T curves are calculated as functions of the electrode length and the plate-orientation angle \\psi. The results confirm that the turnover temperature of the f-T curve decreases with increasing electrode length. Furthermore, we find that the turnover temperature changes depending on the coupling between thickness shear and thickness width flexure through c56, and that it therefore depends on \\psi. An angle \\psi=40\\circ that yields a turnover temperature in the range of 33-6.5°C is optimal for the material constants of [J. Appl. Phys. 42 (1971) 2219] because c56 is zero. We also show that the external loading of both series and parallel capacitances can make the adjustment of turnover temperature of high electro-mechanical coupling resonators very simple.
ESR (electron spin resonance)-determined osmotic behavior of bull spermatozoa
Du, J.; Kleinhans, F.W.; Spitzer, V.J.; Critser, J.K. . Dept. of Medical Research); Horstman, L. . School of Veterinary Medicine); Mazur, P. )
1990-01-01
Our laboratories are pursuing a fundamental approach to the problems of semen cryopreservation. For many cell types (human red cells, yeast, HeLa) it has been demonstrated that there is an optimum cooling rate for cryopreservation. Faster rates allow insufficient time for cell dehydration and result in intracellular ice formation and cell death. It is possible to predict this optimal rate provided that the cell acts as an ideal osmometer and several other cell parameters are known such as the membrane hydraulic conductivity. It is the purpose of this work to examine the osmotic response of bull sperm to sucrose and NaCl utilizing electron spin resonance (ESR) to measure cell volume. For calibration purposes we also measured the ESR response of human red cells (RBC), the osmotic response of which is well documented with other methods. 15 refs., 1 fig.
First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Jian-Xin; Albers, R. C.; Haule, K.; Wills, J. M.
2015-04-01
Based on its condensed-matter properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, which includes a phase diagram with six allotropic phases, plutonium is one of the most complicated pure elements in its solid state. Its anomalous properties, which are indicative of a very strongly correlated state, are related to its special position in the periodic table, which is at the boundary between the light actinides that have itinerant 5 f electrons and the heavy actinides that have localized 5 f electrons. As a foundational study to probe the role of local electronic correlations in Pu, we use the local-density approximation together with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the electronic structure of a single Pu atom that is either substitutionally embedded in the bulk and or adsorbed on the surface of a Th host. This is a simpler case than the solid phases of Pu metal. For the Pu impurity atom we have found a Kondo resonance peak, which is an important signature of electronic correlations, in the local density of states around the Fermi energy. Furthermore, we show that the peak width of this resonance is narrower for Pu atoms at the surface of Th than for those in the bulk due to a weakened Pu -5 f hybridization with the ligands at the surface.
First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host
Zhu, Jian -Xin; Albers, R. C.; Haule, K.; Wills, J. M.
2015-04-23
Based on its condensed-matter properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, which includes a phase diagram with six allotropic phases, plutonium is one of the most complicated pure elements in its solid state. Its anomalous properties, which are indicative of a very strongly correlated state, are related to its special position in the periodic table, which is at the boundary between the light actinides that have itinerant 5f electrons and the heavy actinides that have localized 5f electrons. As a foundational study to probe the role of local electronic correlations in Pu, we use the local-density approximation together with a continuous-time quantummore » Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the electronic structure of a single Pu atom that is either substitutionally embedded in the bulk and or adsorbed on the surface of a Th host. This is a simpler case than the solid phases of Pu metal. With the Pu impurity atom we have found a Kondo resonance peak, which is an important signature of electronic correlations, in the local density of states around the Fermi energy. We show that the peak width of this resonance is narrower for Pu atoms at the surface of Th than for those in the bulk due to a weakened Pu - 5f hybridization with the ligands at the surface.« less
First-principles study of the Kondo physics of a single Pu impurity in a Th host
Zhu, Jian -Xin; Albers, R. C.; Haule, K.; Wills, J. M.
2015-04-23
Based on its condensed-matter properties, crystal structure, and metallurgy, which includes a phase diagram with six allotropic phases, plutonium is one of the most complicated pure elements in its solid state. Its anomalous properties, which are indicative of a very strongly correlated state, are related to its special position in the periodic table, which is at the boundary between the light actinides that have itinerant 5f electrons and the heavy actinides that have localized 5f electrons. As a foundational study to probe the role of local electronic correlations in Pu, we use the local-density approximation together with a continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the electronic structure of a single Pu atom that is either substitutionally embedded in the bulk and or adsorbed on the surface of a Th host. This is a simpler case than the solid phases of Pu metal. With the Pu impurity atom we have found a Kondo resonance peak, which is an important signature of electronic correlations, in the local density of states around the Fermi energy. We show that the peak width of this resonance is narrower for Pu atoms at the surface of Th than for those in the bulk due to a weakened Pu - 5f hybridization with the ligands at the surface.
Transport Spectroscopy of Coupled Quantum Dots in Conditions of the Kondo Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glazman, Leonid
2005-03-01
We develop electron transport theory for novel devices [1,2], which are interesting in the context of correlated electrons physics. The device proposed in Ref. [1] is designed for an observation of a non-Fermi-liquid behavior of itinerant electrons. The device measured in Ref. [2] may serve a similar purpose, and also may become important for quantum computing.In the case of Ref. [1], our theory [3] provides a strategy for tuning to the non-Fermi-liquid fixed point -- a quantum critical point in the space of device parameters. We explore the corresponding quantum phase transition, and make explicit predictions for the behavior of differential conductance in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. Motivated by the measurements [2], we developed a theory of conductance of Kondo quantum dots coupled by the RKKY interaction [4]. Investigation of the differential conductance at fixed interaction strength may allow one to distinguish between the possible ground states of the system. Transition between the ground states is achieved by tuning the interaction strength; the nature of the transition (which includes a possibility of a non-Fermi-liquid point) can be extracted from the temperature dependence of the linear conductance.This research is supported by NSF grants DMR02-37296 and EIA02- 10736.1. Y. Oreg and D. Goldhaber-Gordon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, p. 136602 (2003). 2. N.J. Craig J.M. Taylor, E.A. Lester, C.M. Marcus, M.P. Hanson, and A.C. Gossard, Science 304, 565 (2004).3. M.G. Vavilov and L.I. Glazman, preprint cond-mat/0404366.4. M. Pustilnik, L. Borda, L.I. Glazman, and J. von Delft, Phys. Rev. B 69, 115316 (2004).
From the Cover: PNAS Plus: Long range order and two-fluid behavior in heavy electron materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shirer, Kent R.; Shockley, Abigail C.; Dioguardi, Adam P.; Crocker, John; Lin, Ching H.; apRoberts-Warren, Nicholas; Nisson, David M.; Klavins, Peter; Cooley, Jason C.; Yang, Yi-feng; Curro, Nicholas J.
2012-11-01
The heavy electron Kondo liquid is an emergent state of condensed matter that displays universal behavior independent of material details. Properties of the heavy electron liquid are best probed by NMR Knight shift measurements, which provide a direct measure of the behavior of the heavy electron liquid that emerges below the Kondo lattice coherence temperature as the lattice of local moments hybridizes with the background conduction electrons. Because the transfer of spectral weight between the localized and itinerant electronic degrees of freedom is gradual, the Kondo liquid typically coexists with the local moment component until the material orders at low temperatures. The two-fluid formula captures this behavior in a broad range of materials in the paramagnetic state. In order to investigate two-fluid behavior and the onset and physical origin of different long range ordered ground states in heavy electron materials, we have extended Knight shift measurements to URu2Si2, CeIrIn5, and CeRhIn5. In CeRhIn5 we find that the antiferromagnetic order is preceded by a relocalization of the Kondo liquid, providing independent evidence for a local moment origin of antiferromagnetism. In URu2Si2 the hidden order is shown to emerge directly from the Kondo liquid and so is not associated with local moment physics. Our results imply that the nature of the ground state is strongly coupled with the hybridization in the Kondo lattice in agreement with phase diagram proposed by Yang and Pines.
SU(2)–SU(4) Kondo Crossover and Emergent Electric Polarization in a Triangular Triple Quantum Dot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Mikito; Matsumoto, Masashige; Kusunose, Hiroaki
2016-06-01
We study an orbitally degenerate Kondo effect in a triangular triple quantum dot (TTQD), where the three dots are connected vertically with a single metallic lead through electron tunneling. Both spin and orbital degrees of freedom play an important role in the SU(4) Kondo effect. This is demonstrated by an equilateral TTQD Kondo system at half-filling, by Wilson's numerical renormalization group method. We show how an emergent electric polarization of the TTQD is associated with a crossover from SU(4) to SU(2) symmetry in the low-temperature state. A marked sign reversal of the electric polarization is generated by the fine-tuning of Kondo coupling with degenerate orbitals, which can be utilized to reveal orbital dynamics in the SU(4) Kondo effect.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Öner, Y.; Kamer, O.; Ross, Joseph H.
2006-12-01
Electrical resistivity measurements have been carried out for both flash-evaporated reentrant spin glasses (RSGs) (Ni76-xPdx)Mn24 and Ni74.5Mn23.5Pd2, as well as Ni75Mn23Pd2, a pure SG. These measurements were carried out at temperatures down to 4K. We observed a very deep resistivity minimum at about 75K for Ni74Mn24Pd2. It was found previously [Öner et al., J. Appl. Phys. 89, 7044 (2001)] that this sample shows the largest coercivity and exchange unidirectional anisotropy among these films. In addition, magnetization measurements show that this takes place just on the border of the RSG such that it could be handled as a superparamagnetic sample. Previously it was assumed that the exchange bias created in the sample between the domains plays the dominant role in the resistivity minimum. On the other hand, in order to account for the temperature dependence of the resistivity below the minimum we have analyzed these data using the Kondo, two-channel Kondo, weak localization, and Cochrane models for structural disorder based on the Anderson mechanism. We have deduced that the two-channel Kondo model gives the best agreement with the data; a logarithmic temperature dependence Δρ(T )=βlog10(T/TK), was observed at the temperatures below Tf accompanied by a resistivity behavior Δρ(T )=ρ0m(0)(1-αT1/2), at lower temperatures. All parameters deduced from the fitting correlate consistently with the strength of the exchange anisotropy and coercivity in the RSG films, and thus provide a separate measure of the presence of antiferromagnetically coupled domains in these materials.
Kondo physics in non-local metallic spin transport devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Brien, L.; Erickson, M. J.; Spivak, D.; Ambaye, H.; Goyette, R. J.; Lauter, V.; Crowell, P. A.; Leighton, C.
2014-05-01
The non-local spin-valve is pivotal in spintronics, enabling separation of charge and spin currents, disruptive potential applications and the study of pressing problems in the physics of spin injection and relaxation. Primary among these problems is the perplexing non-monotonicity in the temperature-dependent spin accumulation in non-local ferromagnetic/non-magnetic metal structures, where the spin signal decreases at low temperatures. Here we show that this effect is strongly correlated with the ability of the ferromagnetic to form dilute local magnetic moments in the NM. This we achieve by studying a significantly expanded range of ferromagnetic/non-magnetic combinations. We argue that local moments, formed by ferromagnetic/non-magnetic interdiffusion, suppress the injected spin polarization and diffusion length via a manifestation of the Kondo effect, thus explaining all observations. We further show that this suppression can be completely quenched, even at interfaces that are highly susceptible to the effect, by insertion of a thin non-moment-supporting interlayer.
Kondo physics in non-local metallic spin transport devices.
O'Brien, L; Erickson, M J; Spivak, D; Ambaye, H; Goyette, R J; Lauter, V; Crowell, P A; Leighton, C
2014-01-01
The non-local spin-valve is pivotal in spintronics, enabling separation of charge and spin currents, disruptive potential applications and the study of pressing problems in the physics of spin injection and relaxation. Primary among these problems is the perplexing non-monotonicity in the temperature-dependent spin accumulation in non-local ferromagnetic/non-magnetic metal structures, where the spin signal decreases at low temperatures. Here we show that this effect is strongly correlated with the ability of the ferromagnetic to form dilute local magnetic moments in the NM. This we achieve by studying a significantly expanded range of ferromagnetic/non-magnetic combinations. We argue that local moments, formed by ferromagnetic/non-magnetic interdiffusion, suppress the injected spin polarization and diffusion length via a manifestation of the Kondo effect, thus explaining all observations. We further show that this suppression can be completely quenched, even at interfaces that are highly susceptible to the effect, by insertion of a thin non-moment-supporting interlayer. PMID:24873934
Kondo hole route to incoherence in the periodic Anderson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Pramod; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.
2013-03-01
The interplay of disorder and interactions in strongly correlated electronic systems is a subject of perennial interest. In this work, we have investigated the effect of Kondo-hole type disorder on the dynamics and transport properties of heavy fermion systems. We employ the periodic Anderson model within the framework of coherent potential approximation and dynamical mean field theory. The crossover from lattice coherent behaviour to an incoherent single-impurity behaviour is reflected in all aspects: a highly frequency (ω)-dependent hybridization becomes almost flat, the coherence peak in resistivity (per impurity) gives way to a Hammann form that saturates at low temperature (T); the Drude peak and the mid-infrared peak in the optical conductivity vanish almost completely. The zero temperature resistivity can be captured in a closed form expression, and we show how the Nordheim's rule gets strongly modified in these systems. The thermopower exhibits a characteristic peak, which changes sign with increasing disorder, and its location is shown to correspond to the low energy scale of the system (ωL). In fact, the thermopower appears to be much more sensitive to disorder variations than the resistivity. A comparison to experiments yields quantitative agreement. JNCASR and CSIR
Spin- and angle-resolved photoemission on the topological Kondo insulator candidate: SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Nan; Ding, Hong; Shi, Ming
2016-09-01
Topological Kondo insulators are a new class of topological insulators in which metallic surface states protected by topological invariants reside in the bulk band gap at low temperatures. Unlike other 3D topological insulators, a truly insulating bulk state, which is critical for potential applications in next-generation electronic devices, is guaranteed by many-body effects in the topological Kondo insulator. Furthermore, the system has strong electron correlations that can serve as a testbed for interacting topological theories. This topical review focuses on recent advances in the study of SmB6, the most promising candidate for a topological Kondo insulator, from the perspective of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with highlights of some important transport results.
Spin- and angle-resolved photoemission on the topological Kondo insulator candidate: SmB6.
Xu, Nan; Ding, Hong; Shi, Ming
2016-09-14
Topological Kondo insulators are a new class of topological insulators in which metallic surface states protected by topological invariants reside in the bulk band gap at low temperatures. Unlike other 3D topological insulators, a truly insulating bulk state, which is critical for potential applications in next-generation electronic devices, is guaranteed by many-body effects in the topological Kondo insulator. Furthermore, the system has strong electron correlations that can serve as a testbed for interacting topological theories. This topical review focuses on recent advances in the study of SmB6, the most promising candidate for a topological Kondo insulator, from the perspective of spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy with highlights of some important transport results. PMID:27391865
Kondo decoherence : finding the right spin model for iron impurities in gold and silver.
Costi, T. A.; Bergqvist, L.; Weichselbaum, A.; von Delft, J.; Micklitz, T.; Rosch, A.; Mavropoulos, P.; Dederichs, P. H.; Mallet, F.; Saminadayar, L.; Bauerle, C.
2009-02-01
We exploit the decoherence of electrons due to magnetic impurities, studied via weak localization, to resolve a long-standing question concerning the classic Kondo systems of Fe impurities in the noble metals gold and silver: which Kondo-type model yields a realistic description of the relevant multiple bands, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom? Previous studies suggest a fully screened spin S Kondo model, but the value of S remained ambiguous. We perform density functional theory calculations that suggest S=3/2. We also compare previous and new measurements of both the resistivity and decoherence rate in quasi-one-dimensional wires to numerical renormalization group predictions for S=1/2, 1, and 3/2, finding excellent agreement for S=3/2.
Kondo-type transport through a quantum dot under magnetic fields
Dong, Bing; Lei, X. L.
2001-06-15
In this paper, we investigate the Kondo correlation effects on linear and nonlinear transport in a quantum dot connected to reservoirs under finite magnetic fields, using the slave-boson mean field approach suggested by Kotliar and Ruckenstein [Phys. Rev. Lett. >57, 1362 (1986)]. A brief comparison between the present formulation and other slave-boson formulation is presented to justify this approach. The numerical results show that the linear conductance near electron-hole symmetry is suppressed by the application of the magnetic fields, but an anomalous enhancement is predicted in the nonsymmetry regime. The effect of external magnetic fields on the nonlinear differential conductances is discussed for the Kondo system. A significant reduction of the peak splitting is observed due to the strong Kondo correlation, which agrees well with experimental data.
Replicas of the Kondo peak due to electron-vibration interaction in molecular transport properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roura-Bas, P.; Tosi, L.; Aligia, A. A.
2016-03-01
The low temperature properties of single level molecular quantum dots including both electron-electron and electron-vibration interactions, are theoretically investigated. The calculated differential conductance in the Kondo regime exhibits not only the zero bias anomaly but also side peaks located at bias voltages which coincide with multiples of the energy of vibronic mode V ˜ℏ Ω /e . We obtain that the evolution with temperature of the two main satellite conductance peaks follows the corresponding one of the Kondo peak when ℏ Ω ≫kBTK , TK being the Kondo temperature, in agreement with recent transport measurements in molecular junctions. However, we find that this is no longer valid when ℏ Ω is of the order of a few times kBTK .
Two-channel orbital Kondo effect in a quantum dot with SO(n) symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuzmenko, T.; Kikoin, K.; Avishai, Y.
2013-09-01
A scenario for the formation of non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) Kondo effect (KE) with spin variable enumerating Kondo channels is suggested and worked out. In a doubly occupied symmetric triple quantum dot within parallel geometry, the NFL low-energy regime arises provided the device possesses both source-drain and left-right parity. Kondo screening follows a multistage renormalization group mechanism: reduction of the energy scale is accompanied by the change of the relevant symmetry group from SO(8) to SO(5). At low energy, three phases compete: (1) an underscreening spin-triplet (conventional) KE, (2) a spin-singlet potential scattering, and (3) a NFL phase where the roles of spin and orbital degrees of freedom are swapped.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schiemer, Jason; Spalek, Leszek J.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Panagopoulos, Christos; Katsufuji, Takuro; Bussmann-Holder, Annette; Köhler, Jürgen; Carpenter, Michael A.
2016-02-01
Magnetoelectric coupling phenomena in EuTiO3 are of considerable fundamental interest and are also understood to be key to reported multiferroic behavior in strained films, which exhibit distinctly different properties to the bulk. Here, the magnetoelastic coupling of EuTiO3 is investigated by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy with in situ applied magnetic field and stress as a function of temperature ranging from temperatures above the structural transition temperature T s to below the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature T n. One single crystal and two polycrystalline samples are investigated and compared to each other. Both paramagnetic and diamagnetic transducer carriers are used, allowing an examination of the effect of both stress and magnetic field on the behavior of the sample. The properties are reported in constant field/variable temperature and in constant temperature/variable field mode where substantial differences between both data sets are observed. In addition, elastic and magnetic poling at high fields and stresses at low temperature has been performed in order to trace the history dependence of the elastic constants. Four different temperature regions are identified, characterized by unusual elastic responses. The low-temperature phase diagram has been explored and found to exhibit rich complexity. The data evidence a considerable relaxation of elastic constants at high temperatures, but with little effect from magnetic field alone above 20 K, in addition to the known low-temperature coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoshida, Shuhei M.; Ueda, Masahito
2015-05-01
A series of universal relations, which include high-momentum or short-range behaviors of correlation functions and thermodynamic relations, have attracted great attention, especially in studies of the unitary regime of the BCS-BEC crossover. So far, most studies of the universal relations have been conducted within the regime in which a contact interaction model and a local effective field theoretical approach are available. What remains elusive is a spinless Fermi gas with a resonant p-wave interaction, in which a strong singularity due to the centrifugal barrier precludes a contact interaction description. We study high-momentum or short-range behaviors in such a gas and show several relations which are insensitive to its short-range details. We find universal asymptotes in the momentum distribution and the density correlation function, which originate from the two-body collisions. We also find a common coefficient on them which we call a p-wave contact and discuss its physical interpretation. We show that the p-wave contact is proportional to the number of closed-channel molecules, and derive an adiabatic sweep theorem, which states that the p-wave contact is the adiabatic derivative of the energy with respect to the scattering volume.
Thermal behavior of resonant waveguide-grating mirrors in Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers.
Rumpel, Martin; Dannecker, Benjamin; Voss, Andreas; Moeller, Michael; Moormann, Christian; Graf, Thomas; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou
2013-11-15
We present the experimental investigations of different designs of resonant waveguide-grating (RWG) mirrors, used as intracavity folding mirrors in an Yb:YAG thin-disk laser (TDL). The investigation was focused on the rise of the surface temperature due to the coupling of the incident radiation to a waveguide mode as well as on laser efficiency, polarization, and wavelength selectivity. It was found that the damage threshold and efficiency can be increased significantly with a proper design of the structure in comparison to the simplest design with a single waveguide layer. So far, the presented RWG allow the generation of linear polarization with a narrow spectral linewidth down to 25 pm FWHM in a fundamental mode Yb:YAG TDL. Damage thresholds of 60 kW/cm(2) have been reached where only 63 K of surface temperature increase was observed. This showed that the improved mirrors are suitable for the generation of kW-class narrow linewidth, linearly polarized Yb:YAG TDL. PMID:24322127
Wright, David K.; Trezise, Jack; Kamnaksh, Alaa; Bekdash, Ramsey; Johnston, Leigh A.; Ordidge, Roger; Semple, Bridgette D.; Gardner, Andrew J.; Stanwell, Peter; O’Brien, Terence J.; Agoston, Denes V.; Shultz, Sandy R.
2016-01-01
Repeated mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) may lead to serious neurological consequences, especially if re-injury occurs within the period of increased cerebral vulnerability (ICV) triggered by the initial insult. MRI and blood proteomics might provide objective measures of pathophysiological changes in mTBI, and indicate when the brain is no longer in a state of ICV. This study assessed behavioral, MRI, and blood-based markers in a rat model of mTBI. Rats were given a sham or mild fluid percussion injury (mFPI), and behavioral testing, MRI, and blood collections were conducted up to 30 days post-injury. There were cognitive impairments for three days post-mFPI, before normalizing by day 5 post-injury. In contrast, advanced MRI (i.e., tractography) and blood proteomics (i.e., vascular endothelial growth factor) detected a number of abnormalities, some of which were still present 30 days post-mFPI. These findings suggest that MRI and blood proteomics are sensitive measures of the molecular and subtle structural changes following mTBI. Of particular significance, this study identified novel tractography measures that are able to detect mTBI and may be more sensitive than traditional diffusion-tensor measures. Furthermore, the blood and MRI findings may have important implications in understanding ICV and are translatable to the clinical setting. PMID:27349514
Observation of the Kondo effect in a spin-3/2 hole quantum dot
Klochan, O.; Micolich, A. P.; Hamilton, A. R.; Trunov, K.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.
2013-12-04
We report the observation of the Kondo effect in a spin-3/2 hole quantum dot formed near pinch-off in a GaAs quantum wire. We clearly observe two distinctive hallmarks of quantum dot Kondo physics. First, the zero-bias peak in the differential conductance splits an in-plane magnetic field and the splitting is independent of gate voltage. Second, the splitting rate is twice as large as that for the lowest one-dimensional subband. We show that the Zeeman splitting of the zero-bias peak is highly anisotropic and attribute this to the strong spin-orbit interaction for holes in GaAs.
Emergent p-Wave Kondo Coupling in Multi-Orbital Bands with Mirror Symmetry Breaking
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhim, Jun Won; Han, Jung Hoon
2013-10-01
Kondo effect in the periodic Anderson model is examined for situations where the conduction bands are of multi-orbital character and subject to mirror-symmetry-breaking electric field. Taking p-orbital-based model for analysis, we find that a new hybridization channel opens up between p-orbital electrons and the local moments, leading to Kondo-coupled phases with nematic, or two-fold symmetry, although the microscopic Hamiltonian has the full square symmetry. The reduced symmetry in the band structure should be readily observable in spectroscopic or transport measurements for heavy fermion system in a multilayer environment such as successfully grown recently.
Magnetoresistance in the Spin-Orbit Kondo State of Elemental Bismuth
Craco, Luis; Leoni, Stefano
2015-01-01
Materials with strong spin-orbit coupling, which competes with other particle-particle interactions and external perturbations, offer a promising route to explore novel phases of quantum matter. Using LDA + DMFT we reveal the complex interplay between local, multi-orbital Coulomb and spin-orbit interaction in elemental bismuth. Our theory quantifies the role played by collective dynamical fluctuations in the spin-orbit Kondo state. The correlated electronic structure we derive is promising in the sense that it leads to results that might explain why moderate magnetic fields can generate Dirac valleys and directional-selective magnetoresistance responses within spin-orbit Kondo metals. PMID:26358556
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kusunose, H.
2015-03-01
The Kondo effect plays an important role in emergence of electric polarization in a triangular triple-quantum-dot system, where one of the three dots is point-contacted with a single lead, and a magnetic flux penetrates through the triangular loop. The Kondo-induced electric polarization exhibits an Aharonov-Bohm type oscillation as a function of the magnetic flux. Our theoretical study shows various oscillation patterns associated with the field-dependent mixing of twofold orbitally degenerate ground states and their sensitivity to the point contact.
Robertson, Benjamin D.; Sawicki, Gregory S.
2015-01-01
In terrestrial locomotion, there is a missing link between observed spring-like limb mechanics and the physiological systems driving their emergence. Previous modeling and experimental studies of bouncing gait (e.g., walking, running, hopping) identified muscle-tendon interactions that cycle large amounts of energy in series tendon as a source of elastic limb behavior. The neural, biomechanical, and environmental origins of these tuned mechanics, however, have remained elusive. To examine the dynamic interplay between these factors, we developed an experimental platform comprised of a feedback-controlled servo-motor coupled to a biological muscle-tendon. Our novel motor controller mimicked in vivo inertial/gravitational loading experienced by muscles during terrestrial locomotion, and rhythmic patterns of muscle activation were applied via stimulation of intact nerve. This approach was based on classical workloop studies, but avoided predetermined patterns of muscle strain and activation—constraints not imposed during real-world locomotion. Our unconstrained approach to position control allowed observation of emergent muscle-tendon mechanics resulting from dynamic interaction of neural control, active muscle, and system material/inertial properties. This study demonstrated that, despite the complex nonlinear nature of musculotendon systems, cyclic muscle contractions at the passive natural frequency of the underlying biomechanical system yielded maximal forces and fractions of mechanical work recovered from previously stored elastic energy in series-compliant tissues. By matching movement frequency to the natural frequency of the passive biomechanical system (i.e., resonance tuning), muscle-tendon interactions resulting in spring-like behavior emerged naturally, without closed-loop neural control. This conceptual framework may explain the basis for elastic limb behavior during terrestrial locomotion. PMID:26460038
Robertson, Benjamin D; Sawicki, Gregory S
2015-10-27
In terrestrial locomotion, there is a missing link between observed spring-like limb mechanics and the physiological systems driving their emergence. Previous modeling and experimental studies of bouncing gait (e.g., walking, running, hopping) identified muscle-tendon interactions that cycle large amounts of energy in series tendon as a source of elastic limb behavior. The neural, biomechanical, and environmental origins of these tuned mechanics, however, have remained elusive. To examine the dynamic interplay between these factors, we developed an experimental platform comprised of a feedback-controlled servo-motor coupled to a biological muscle-tendon. Our novel motor controller mimicked in vivo inertial/gravitational loading experienced by muscles during terrestrial locomotion, and rhythmic patterns of muscle activation were applied via stimulation of intact nerve. This approach was based on classical workloop studies, but avoided predetermined patterns of muscle strain and activation-constraints not imposed during real-world locomotion. Our unconstrained approach to position control allowed observation of emergent muscle-tendon mechanics resulting from dynamic interaction of neural control, active muscle, and system material/inertial properties. This study demonstrated that, despite the complex nonlinear nature of musculotendon systems, cyclic muscle contractions at the passive natural frequency of the underlying biomechanical system yielded maximal forces and fractions of mechanical work recovered from previously stored elastic energy in series-compliant tissues. By matching movement frequency to the natural frequency of the passive biomechanical system (i.e., resonance tuning), muscle-tendon interactions resulting in spring-like behavior emerged naturally, without closed-loop neural control. This conceptual framework may explain the basis for elastic limb behavior during terrestrial locomotion. PMID:26460038
Minimalistic behavioral rule derived from bacterial chemotaxis in a stochastic resonance setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikemoto, Shuhei; Dallalibera, Fabio; Hosoda, Koh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi
2012-02-01
Animals are able to cope with the noise, uncertainties, and complexity of the real world. Often even elementary living beings, equipped with very limited sensory organs, are able to reach regions favorable to their existence, using simple stochastic policies. In this paper we discuss a minimalistic stochastic behavioral rule, inspired from bacteria chemotaxis, which is able to increase the value of a specified evaluation function in a similar manner. In particular, we prove that, under opportune assumptions, the direction that is taken with maximum probability by an agent that follows this rule corresponds to the optimal direction. The rule does not require a specific agent dynamics, needs no memory for storing observed states, and works in generic n-dimensional spaces. It thus reveals itself interesting for the control of simple sensing robots as well.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.
2015-12-01
Distribution of supercritical (sc) CO2 has a large impact on its flow behavior as well as on the properties of seismic waves used for monitoring. Simultaneous imaging of scCO2 distribution in a rock core using X-ray computed tomography (CT) and measurements of seismic waves in the laboratory can help understand how the distribution evolves as scCO2 invades through rock, and the resulting seismic signatures. To this end, we performed a series of laboratory scCO2 core-flood experiments in intact and fractured anisotropic Carbon Tan sandstone samples. In these experiments, we monitored changes in the CO2 saturation distribution and sonic-frequency acoustic resonances (yielding both seismic velocity and attenuation) over the course of the floods. A short-core resonant bar test system (Split-Hopkinson Resonant Bar Apparatus) custom fit into a long X-ray transparent pressure vessel was used for the seismic measurements, and a modified General Electric medical CT scanner was used to acquire X-ray CT data from which scCO2 saturation distributions were determined. The focus of the experiments was on the impact of single fractures on the scCO2 distribution and the seismic properties. For this reason, we examined several cases including 1. intact, 2. a closely mated fracture along the core axis, 3. a sheared fracture along the core axis (both vertical and horizontal for examining the buoyancy effect), and 4. a sheared fracture perpendicular to the core axis. For the intact and closely mated fractured cores, Young's modulus declined with increasing CO2 saturation, and attenuation increased up to about 15% CO2 saturation after which attenuation declined. For cores having wide axial fractures, the Young's modulus was lower than for the intact and closely mated cases, however did not change much with CO2 pore saturation. Much lower CO2 pore saturations were achieved in these cases. Attenuation increased more rapidly however than for the intact sample. For the core
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanida, H.; Nakamura, M.; Sera, M.; Nishioka, T.; Matsumura, M.
2015-12-01
We examined the chemical doping effect on the Kondo semiconductor CeFe2Al10 with a nonmagnetic ground state by means of the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, electrical resistivity, and thermopower. The effect of Ru doping on the ground state is small. On the other hand, by a small amount of Rh doping, the magnetic susceptibility is strongly enhanced along the orthorhombic a axis, and a Curie-Weiss behavior is observed in a wide temperature range. The low-temperature specific heat is also strongly enhanced by the doping, and a metallic ground state is realized at low temperatures. These results suggest the collapse of the spin and charge gap due to the suppression of the c -f hybridization effect. From the results of a crystalline electric field analysis on the magnetic susceptibility of Ce (Fe1 -xRhx )2Al10 , it was revealed that the Rh-doping effect on the c -f hybridization effect is anisotropic, especially for the a axis. Similar doping effects are seen in the Rh-doped CeRu2Al10 , Ir-doped CeOs2Al10 , and Si-doped CeRu2Al10 . From these results, we conclude that the collapse of the spin and charge gap by such an excess electron doping is one of the universal features of the Kondo semiconductor Ce T2Al10 (T = Fe, Ru, and Os).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.
2015-07-01
The layered compound CePd1 -xBi2 with the tetragonal ZrCuSi2-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd1 -xBi2 show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the a b plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ of 0.191 J mol Ce -1 K -2 obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd1 -xBi2. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 K which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd1 -xBi2 around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.
Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; et al
2015-07-13
The layered compound CePd1–xBi₂ with the tetragonal ZrCuSi₂-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd1–xBi₂ show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the ab plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ of 0.191 J mol Ce⁻¹ K⁻² obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd1–xBi₂. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 Kmore » which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd1–xBi₂ around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.« less
Competing Kondo and e-e interaction in Ce2.1Nd0.9Al
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Durgesh; Samatham, S. Shanmukharao; Venkateshwarlu, D.; Gangrade, Mohan; Ganesan, V.
2013-02-01
We report electrical resistivity of Ce2.1Nd0.9Al compound under applied magnetic fields. Magnetic field effect on the structural transition and Kondo ordering is studied. 30% Nd doping in Ce3Al makes TS = TK˜25K. Resistivity fits at low temperatures at different magnetic fields reveal a clear competition between Kondo and e-e interactions. It is demonstrated that Kondo interactions are weakened by the applied magnetic field and thus enhancing the e-e interaction. There seems a characteristic field where both the interactions contribute equally and for this sample it is around 6T.
Environment-modulated Kondo phenomena in FePc/Au(111) adsorption systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xiao; Yang, Jinlong
2016-03-01
Recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiments on electron transport through iron(II) phthalocyanine (FePc) molecules adsorbed on the Au(111) surface have revealed that the measured Kondo conductance signature depends strongly on the specific adsorption site. To understand the physical origin of experimental observations, particularly the variation of Kondo features with the molecular adsorption site, we employ a combined density functional theory (DFT) and hierarchical equations of motion (HEOM) approach to investigate the electronic structure and Kondo correlation in FePc/Au(111) composite systems. The calculation results indicate that, for the on-top adsorption configuration, the two degenerate spin-unpaired dπ orbitals on the Fe center are coupled indirectly through substrate band states, leading to the Fano-like antiresonance line shape in the d I /d V spectra, while for the bridge adsorption configuration, the environment-induced couplings are largely suppressed because of the two different spin-unpaired d orbitals. Therefore, our work suggests that the environment-induced coupling as an essential physical factor could greatly influence the Fano-Kondo features in magnetic molecule/metal composites, and the crucial role of local orbital degeneracy and symmetry is discovered. These findings provide important insights into the electron correlation effects in complex solid-state systems. The usefulness and practicality of the combined DFT+HEOM method is also highlighted.
Analytical expression of Kondo temperature in quantum dot embedded in Aharonov-Bohm ring.
Yoshii, Ryosuke; Eto, Mikio
2011-01-01
We theoretically study the Kondo effect in a quantum dot embedded in an Aharonov-Bohm ring, using the "poor man's" scaling method. Analytical expressions of the Kondo temperature TK are given as a function of magnetic flux Φ penetrating the ring. In this Kondo problem, there are two characteristic lengths, Lc=ℏvF∕|ε̃0| and LK = ħvF = TK, where vF is the Fermi velocity and ε̃0 is the renormalized energy level in the quantum dot. The former is the screening length of the charge fluctuation and the latter is that of the spin fluctuation, i.e., size of Kondo screening cloud. We obtain diferent expressions of TK(Φ) for (i) Lc ≪ LK ≪ L, (ii) Lc ≪ L ≪ LK, and (iii) L ≪ Lc ≪ LK, where L is the size of the ring. TK is remarkably modulated by Φ in cases (ii) and (iii), whereas it hardly depends on Φ in case (i).PACS numbers: PMID:22112300
Stefański, Piotr
2013-02-27
A system composed of two quantum dots, i.e. a strongly interacting Kondo dot and a noninteracting one, placed in the arms of the Aharonov-Bohm ring, is investigated theoretically. The ring is coupled to normal leads. This configuration is mapped on the system of a correlated impurity embedded in a host with energy and flux dependent density of states. Additionally, the presence of the Rashba field allows a spin selective opening of the pseudogap in the density of states of the host, when the level of the noninteracting dot is tuned to the Fermi energy. This selectively diminishes electron correlations in the Kondo dot and creates resultant spin polarization at the Fermi level. It is shown that this polarization arises in the absence of any exchange field. Interestingly, this Rashba-correlation-induced spin polarization reaches its maximum for the position of the Kondo dot level corresponding to the Kondo temperature of the Anderson impurity in the host with constant density of states. PMID:23370331
Kondo physics in a Ni impurity embedded in O-doped Au chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Di Napoli, S.; Barral, M. A.; Roura-Bas, P.; Manuel, L. O.; Llois, A. M.; Aligia, A. A.
2015-08-01
By means of ab initio calculations we study the effect of O doping of Au chains containing a nanocontact represented by a Ni atom as a magnetic impurity. In contrast to pure Au chains, we find that with a minimum O doping the 5 dx z ,y z states of Au are pushed up, crossing the Fermi level. We also find that for certain O configurations, the Ni atom has two holes in the degenerate 3 dx z ,y z orbitals, forming a spin S =1 due to a large Hund interaction. The coupling between the 5 dx z ,y z Au bands and the 3 dx z ,y z of Ni states leads to a possible realization of a two-channel S =1 Kondo effect. While this kind of Kondo effect is commonly found in bulk systems, it is rarely observed in low dimensions. The estimated Kondo scale of the system lies within the present achievable experimental resolution in transport measurements. Another possible scenario for certain atomic configurations is that one of the holes resides in a 3 dz2 orbital, leading to a two-stage Kondo effect, the second one with SU(4) symmetry.
Ciudad D.; Arena D.; We, Z.-C.; Hindmarch, A.T.; Negusse, E.; Han, X.-F.Han; Marrows, C.H.
2012-06-07
The transition between Kondo and Coulomb blockade effects in discontinuous double magnetic tunnel junctions is explored as a function of the size of the CoPt magnetic clusters embedded between AlO{sub x} tunnel barriers. A gradual competition between cotunneling enhancement of the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) and the TMR suppression due to the Kondo effect has been found in these junctions, with both effects having been found to coexist even in the same sample. It is possible to tune between these two states with temperature (at a temperature far below the cluster blocking temperature). In addition, when further decreasing the size of the CoPt clusters, another gradual transition between the Kondo effect and direct tunneling between the electrodes takes place. This second transition shows that the spin-flip processes found in junctions with impurities in the barrier are in fact due to the Kondo effect. A simple theoretical model able to account for these experimental results is proposed.
Spin relaxation through Kondo scattering in Cu/Py lateral spin valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batley, J. T.; Rosaond, M. C.; Ali, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Burnell, G.; Hickey, B. J.
Within non-magnetic metals it is reasonable to expect the Elliot-Yafet mechanism to govern spin-relaxation and thus the temperature dependence of the spin diffusion length might be inversely proportional to resistivity. However, in lateral spin valves, measurements have found that at low temperatures the spin diffusion length unexpectedly decreases. We have fabricated lateral spin valves from Cu with different concentrations of magnetic impurities. Through temperature dependent charge and spin transport measurements we present clear evidence linking the presence of the Kondo effect within Cu to the suppression of the spin diffusion length below 30 K. We have calculated the spin-relaxation rate and isolated the contribution from magnetic impurities. At very low temperatures electron-electron interactions play a more prominent role in the Kondo effect. Well below the Kondo temperature a strong-coupling regime exists, where the moments become screened and the magnetic dephasing rate is reduced. We also investigate the effect of this low temperature regime (>1 K) on a pure spin current. This work shows the dominant role of Kondo scattering, even in low concentrations of order 1 ppm, within pure spin transport.
Quantum phase transitions, frustration, and the Fermi surface in the Kondo lattice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eidelstein, Eitan; Moukouri, S.; Schiller, Avraham
2011-07-01
The quantum phase transition from a spin-Peierls phase with a small Fermi surface to a paramagnetic Luttinger-liquid phase with a large Fermi surface is studied in the framework of a one-dimensional Kondo-Heisenberg model that consists of an electron gas away from half filling, coupled to a spin-1/2 chain by Kondo interactions. The Kondo spins are further coupled to each other with isotropic nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg interactions which are tuned to the Majumdar-Ghosh point. Focusing on three-eighths filling and using the density-matrix renormalization-group (DMRG) method, we show that the zero-temperature transition between the phases with small and large Fermi momenta appears continuous, and involves a new intermediate phase where the Fermi surface is not well defined. The intermediate phase is spin gapped and has Kondo-spin correlations that show incommensurate modulations. Our results appear incompatible with the local picture for the quantum phase transition in heavy fermion compounds, which predicts an abrupt change in the size of the Fermi momentum.
Kato, Yushi; Furuki, Hideyuki; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki
2006-03-15
Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been widely used for production of high-intensity multicharged ion beams. Making good use of microwave modes is proposed for enhancing the efficiency of ECR for production of multicharged ions (TAIKO II). We can assign the peak position of the electric field of the standing waves to the ECR zone in the directly excited cavity resonator, i.e., the vacuum chamber with the fixed and the mobile plates for selecting and tuning the modes. Periodicity of the extracted multicharged ion currents and plasma parameters is observed as the position of the mobile plate moves. We measure the intensity of the electric field in the ECR plasma by using the insulated semidipole probe and the standing waves are observed. The correlation between the production of multicharged ions and the microwave modes is clarified by measuring the electric field and plasma parameters in the circular cavity resonator.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kirchner, Stefan; Munoz, Enrique; Bolech, C. J.
2012-02-01
The non-linear conductance of semiconductor heterostructures and single molecule devices exhibiting Kondo physics has recently attracted attention [1,2]. We address the observed sample-dependence across various systems by considering additional electronic contributions present in the effective low-energy model underlying these experiments. To this end we develop a novel version of the superperturbation theory [3] in terms of dual fermions on the Keldysh contour. We analyze the role of particle hole asymmetry on the transport coefficients. Our approach [4] systematically extends the work of Yamada and Yosida and others to the particle-hole asymmetric Anderson model and reproduce the exactly solvable resonant level model and the special case considered in [5]. It correctly describes the strong coupling physics and is free of internal inconsistencies that would lead to a breakdown of current conservation. [4pt] [1] M. Grobis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 246601 (2008).[0pt] [2] G. D. Scott et al., Phys. Rev. B 79, 165413 (2009).[0pt] [3] H. Hafermann et al., EPL 85, 27007 (2009).[0pt] [4] Enrique Munoz, C.J. Bolech, and Stefan Kirchner, submitted (2011).[0pt] [5] K. Yamada, Prog. Theo. Phys. 62, 354 (1979).
Conduction electron spin resonance in the α-Yb1-xFexAlB4 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.50) and α-LuAlB4 compounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holanda, L. M.; Lesseux, G. G.; Magnavita, E. T.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Nakatsuji, S.; Kuga, K.; Fisk, Z.; Oseroff, S. B.; Urbano, R. R.; Rettori, C.; Pagliuso, P. G.
2015-06-01
β-YbAlB4 has become one of the most studied heavy fermion systems since its discovery due to its remarkable physical properties. This system is the first reported Yb-based heavy-fermion superconductor (HFS) for which the low-T superconducting state emerges from a non-fermi-liquid (NFL) normal state associated with quantum criticality Nakatsuji et al 2008 Nature 4 603. Additionally, it presents a striking and unprecedented electron spin resonance (ESR) signal which behaves as a conduction electron spin resonance (CESR) at high temperatures and acquires features of the Yb3+ local moment ESR at low temperatures. The latter, also named Kondo quasiparticles spin resonance (KQSR), has been defined as a 4f-ce strongly coupled ESR mode that behaves as a local probe of the Kondo quasiparticles in a quantum critical regime, Holanda et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 026402. Interestingly, β-YbAlB4 possesses a previously known structural variant, namely the α-YbAlB4, phase which is a paramagnetic Fermi liquid (FL) at low temperatures Macaluso et al 2007 Chem. Mater. 19 1918. However, it has been recently suggested that the α-YbAlB4 phase may be tuned to NFL behavior and/or magnetic ordering as the compound is doped with Fe. Here we report ESR studies on the α-Yb1-xFexAlB4 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.50) series as well as on the reference compound α-LuAlB4. For all measured samples, the observed ESR signal behaves as a CESR in the entire temperature range (10 K ≲ T ≲ 300 K) in clear contrast with what has been observed for β-YbAlB4. This striking result indicates that the proximity to a quantum critical point is crucial to the occurrence of a KQSR signal.
Kondo effects in a triangular triple quantum dot with lower symmetries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oguri, A.; Amaha, S.; Nishikawa, Y.; Numata, T.; Shimamoto, M.; Hewson, A. C.; Tarucha, S.
2011-05-01
We study the low-energy properties and characteristic Kondo energy scale of a triangular triple quantum dot, connected to two non-interacting leads, in a wide parameter range of a gate voltage and distortions which lower the symmetry of an equilateral structure, using the numerical renormalization group approach. For large Coulomb interactions, the ground states with different characters can be classified according to the plateaus of Θ≡(δe-δo)(2/π), where δe and δo are the phase shifts for the even and odd partial waves. At these plateaus of Θ, both Θ and the occupation number Ntot≡(δe+δo)(2/π) take values close to integers, and thus the ground states can be characterized by these two integers. The Kondo effect with a local moment with total spin S=1 due to a Nagaoka mechanism appears on the plateau, which can be identified by Θ≃2.0 and Ntot≃4.0. For large distortions, however, the high-spin moment disappears through a singlet-triplet transition occurring within the four-electron region. It happens at a crossover to the adjacent plateaus for Θ≃0.0 and Θ≃4.0, and the two-terminal conductance has a peak in the transient regions. For weak distortions, the SU(4) Kondo effect also takes place for Ntot≃3.0. It appears as a sharp conductance valley between the S=1/2 Kondo ridges on both sides. We also find that the characteristic energy scale T* reflect these varieties of the Kondo effect. Particularly, T* is sensitive to the distribution of the charge and spin in the triangular triple dot.
Magnetic impurities in nanotubes: From density functional theory to Kondo many-body effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baruselli, P. P.; Fabrizio, M.; Smogunov, A.; Requist, R.; Tosatti, E.
2013-12-01
Low-temperature electronic conductance in nanocontacts, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and metal break junctions involving magnetic atoms or molecules is a growing area with important unsolved theoretical problems. While the detailed relationship between contact geometry and electronic structure requires a quantitative ab initio approach such as density functional theory (DFT), the Kondo many-body effects ensuing from the coupling of the impurity spin with metal electrons are most properly addressed by formulating a generalized Anderson impurity model to be solved with, for example, the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. Since there is at present no seamless scheme that can accurately carry out that program, we have in recent years designed a systematic method for semiquantitatively joining DFT and NRG. We apply this DFT-NRG scheme to the ideal conductance of single wall (4,4) and (8,8) nanotubes with magnetic adatoms (Co and Fe), both inside and outside the nanotube, and with a single carbon atom vacancy. A rich scenario emerges, with Kondo temperatures generally in the Kelvin range, and conductance anomalies ranging from a single channel maximum to destructive Fano interference with cancellation of two channels out of the total four. The configuration yielding the highest Kondo temperature (tens of Kelvins) and a measurable zero-bias anomaly is that of a Co or Fe impurity inside the narrowest nanotube. The single atom vacancy has a spin, but a very low Kondo temperature is predicted. The geometric, electronic, and symmetry factors influencing this variability are all accessible, which makes this approach methodologically instructive and highlights many delicate and difficult points in the first-principles modeling of the Kondo effect in nanocontacts.
Kondo conductance across the smallest spin 1/2 radical molecule
Requist, Ryan; Modesti, Silvio; Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Smogunov, Alexander; Fabrizio, Michele; Tosatti, Erio
2014-01-01
Molecular contacts are generally poorly conducting because their energy levels tend to lie far from the Fermi energy of the metal contact, necessitating undesirably large gate and bias voltages in molecular electronics applications. Molecular radicals are an exception because their partly filled orbitals undergo Kondo screening, opening the way to electron passage even at zero bias. Whereas that phenomenon has been experimentally demonstrated for several complex organic radicals, quantitative theoretical predictions have not been attempted so far. It is therefore an open question whether and to what extent an ab initio-based theory is able to make accurate predictions for Kondo temperatures and conductance lineshapes. Choosing nitric oxide (NO) as a simple and exemplary spin 1/2 molecular radical, we present calculations based on a combination of density functional theory and numerical renormalization group (DFT+NRG), predicting a zero bias spectral anomaly with a Kondo temperature of 15 K for NO/Au(111). A scanning tunneling spectroscopy study is subsequently carried out to verify the prediction, and a striking zero bias Kondo anomaly is confirmed, still quite visible at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Comparison shows that the experimental Kondo temperature of about 43 K is larger than the theoretical one, whereas the inverted Fano lineshape implies a strong source of interference not included in the model. These discrepancies are not a surprise, providing in fact an instructive measure of the approximations used in the modeling, which supports and qualifies the viability of the density functional theory and numerical renormalization group approach to the prediction of conductance anomalies in larger molecular radicals. PMID:24367113
Kondo conductance across the smallest spin 1/2 radical molecule.
Requist, Ryan; Modesti, Silvio; Baruselli, Pier Paolo; Smogunov, Alexander; Fabrizio, Michele; Tosatti, Erio
2014-01-01
Molecular contacts are generally poorly conducting because their energy levels tend to lie far from the Fermi energy of the metal contact, necessitating undesirably large gate and bias voltages in molecular electronics applications. Molecular radicals are an exception because their partly filled orbitals undergo Kondo screening, opening the way to electron passage even at zero bias. Whereas that phenomenon has been experimentally demonstrated for several complex organic radicals, quantitative theoretical predictions have not been attempted so far. It is therefore an open question whether and to what extent an ab initio-based theory is able to make accurate predictions for Kondo temperatures and conductance lineshapes. Choosing nitric oxide (NO) as a simple and exemplary spin 1/2 molecular radical, we present calculations based on a combination of density functional theory and numerical renormalization group (DFT+NRG), predicting a zero bias spectral anomaly with a Kondo temperature of 15 K for NO/Au(111). A scanning tunneling spectroscopy study is subsequently carried out to verify the prediction, and a striking zero bias Kondo anomaly is confirmed, still quite visible at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Comparison shows that the experimental Kondo temperature of about 43 K is larger than the theoretical one, whereas the inverted Fano lineshape implies a strong source of interference not included in the model. These discrepancies are not a surprise, providing in fact an instructive measure of the approximations used in the modeling, which supports and qualifies the viability of the density functional theory and numerical renormalization group approach to the prediction of conductance anomalies in larger molecular radicals. PMID:24367113
Anderson, Iain; Teshima, Hazuki; Nolan, Matt; Lapidus, Alla L.; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Liolios, Konstantinos; Mavromatis, K; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Rohde, Manfred; Lang, Elke; Detter, J. Chris; Goker, Markus; Woyke, Tanja; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter
2013-01-01
rateuria aurantia (ex Kondo and Ameyama 1958) Swings et al. 1980 is a member of the bispecific genus Frateuria in the family Xanthomonadaceae, which is already heavily targeted for non-type strain genome sequencing. Strain Kondo 67(T) was initially (1958) identified as a member of 'Acetobacter aurantius', a name that was not considered for the approved list. Kondo 67(T) was therefore later designated as the type strain of the newly proposed acetogenic species Frateuria aurantia. The strain is of interest because of its triterpenoids (hopane family). F. aurantia Kondo 67(T) is the first member of the genus Frateura whose genome sequence has been deciphered, and here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 3,603,458-bp long chromosome with its 3,200 protein-coding and 88 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.
Colaneri, Michael J; Teat, Simon J; Vitali, Jacqueline
2015-11-12
Electron paramagnetic resonance and crystallographic studies of copper-doped cadmium dl-histidine, abbreviated as CdDLHis, were undertaken to gain further understanding on the relationship between site structure and dynamic behavior in biological model complexes. X-ray diffraction measurements determined the crystal structure of CdDLHis at 100 and 298 K. CdDLHis crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P21/c with two cadmium complexes per asymmetric unit. In each complex, the Cd is hexacoordinated to two histidine molecules. Both histidines are l in one complex and d in the other. Additionally, each complex contains multiple waters of varying disorder. Single crystal EPR spectroscopic splitting (g) and copper hyperfine (A(Cu)) tensors at room temperature (principal values: g = 2.249, 2.089, 2.050; A(Cu) = -453, -30.5, -0.08 MHz) were determined from rotational experiments. Alignments of the tensor directions with the host structure were used to position the copper unpaired dx(2)-y(2) orbital in an approximate plane made by four proposed ligand atoms: the N-imidazole and N-amino of one histidine, and the N-amino and O-carboxyl of the other. Each complex has two such planes related by noncrystallographic symmetry, which make an angle of 65° and have a 1.56 Å distance between their midpoints. These findings are consistent with three interpretations that can adequately explain previous temperature-dependent EPR powder spectra of this system: (1) a local structural distortion (static strain) at the copper site has a temperature dependence significant enough to affect the EPR pattern, (2) the copper can hop between the two sites in each complex at high temperature, and (3) there exists a dynamic Jahn-Teller effect involving the copper ligands. PMID:26501364
Xiang, Z J; Wang, N Z; Wang, A F; Zhao, D; Sun, Z L; Luo, X G; Wu, T; Chen, X H
2016-10-26
We study the normal-state transport properties of AFe2As2 (A = K, Rb and Cs) single crystals using Hall coefficient, resistivity and magnetoresistance (MR) measurements. In all three materials, the Hall coefficient R H shows a strong temperature dependence, which is typical for multi-band systems. In particular, R H develops an upturn below a characteristic temperature [Formula: see text], which is in agreement with the incoherence-coherence crossover reported in recent nuclear magnetic resonance studies. A Fermi-liquid-like state, characterized by T (2) behavior of the resistivity and a positive orbital MR obeying Kohler's rule, emerges below T FL ∼0.4 [Formula: see text]. The superconducting transition temperature T c experiences a simultaneous suppression with [Formula: see text] and T FL as the alkali ion's radius increases from A = K to A = Cs, suggesting that the unconventional superconductivity in the AFe2As2 series is related to the strength of the electronic coherence. A phase diagram, similar to that in the heavy fermion Kondo lattice system, is obtained. Based on all the experimental evidence, we argue that the physical properties of this family of heavily hole-doped Fe-based superconductors are controlled by the hybridization between itinerant carriers and localized orbitals, and the Kondo scenario could be effective in such a case. PMID:27589485
Pressure-tuned quantum criticality in the antiferromagnetic Kondo semimetal CeNi2–δAs2
Luo, Yongkang; Ronning, F.; Wakeham, N.; Lu, Xin; Park, Tuson; Xu, Z. -A.; Thompson, J. D.
2015-10-19
The easily tuned balance among competing interactions in Kondo-lattice metals allows access to a zero-temperature, continuous transition between magnetically ordered and disordered phases, a quantum-critical point (QCP). Indeed, these highly correlated electron materials are prototypes for discovering and exploring quantum-critical states. Theoretical models proposed to account for the strange thermodynamic and electrical transport properties that emerge around the QCP of a Kondo lattice assume the presence of an indefinitely large number of itinerant charge carriers. Here, we report a systematic transport and thermodynamic investigation of the Kondo-lattice system CeNi2–δAs2 (δ ≈ 0.28) as its antiferromagnetic order is tuned by pressuremore » and magnetic field to zero-temperature boundaries. These experiments show that the very small but finite carrier density of ~0.032 e–/formular unit in CeNi2–δAs2 leads to unexpected transport signatures of quantum criticality and the delayed development of a fully coherent Kondo-lattice state with decreasing temperature. Here, the small carrier density and associated semimetallicity of this Kondo-lattice material favor an unconventional, local-moment type of quantum criticality and raises the specter of the Nozières exhaustion idea that an insufficient number of conduction-electron spins to separately screen local moments requires collective Kondo screening.« less
Pressure-tuned quantum criticality in the antiferromagnetic Kondo semimetal CeNi2−δAs2
Luo, Yongkang; Ronning, F.; Wakeham, N.; Lu, Xin; Park, Tuson; Xu, Z.-A.; Thompson, J. D.
2015-01-01
The easily tuned balance among competing interactions in Kondo-lattice metals allows access to a zero-temperature, continuous transition between magnetically ordered and disordered phases, a quantum-critical point (QCP). Indeed, these highly correlated electron materials are prototypes for discovering and exploring quantum-critical states. Theoretical models proposed to account for the strange thermodynamic and electrical transport properties that emerge around the QCP of a Kondo lattice assume the presence of an indefinitely large number of itinerant charge carriers. Here, we report a systematic transport and thermodynamic investigation of the Kondo-lattice system CeNi2−δAs2 (δ ≈ 0.28) as its antiferromagnetic order is tuned by pressure and magnetic field to zero-temperature boundaries. These experiments show that the very small but finite carrier density of ∼0.032 e−/formular unit in CeNi2−δAs2 leads to unexpected transport signatures of quantum criticality and the delayed development of a fully coherent Kondo-lattice state with decreasing temperature. The small carrier density and associated semimetallicity of this Kondo-lattice material favor an unconventional, local-moment type of quantum criticality and raises the specter of the Nozières exhaustion idea that an insufficient number of conduction-electron spins to separately screen local moments requires collective Kondo screening. PMID:26483465
Pressure-tuned quantum criticality in the antiferromagnetic Kondo semimetal CeNi2-δAs2.
Luo, Yongkang; Ronning, F; Wakeham, N; Lu, Xin; Park, Tuson; Xu, Z-A; Thompson, J D
2015-11-01
The easily tuned balance among competing interactions in Kondo-lattice metals allows access to a zero-temperature, continuous transition between magnetically ordered and disordered phases, a quantum-critical point (QCP). Indeed, these highly correlated electron materials are prototypes for discovering and exploring quantum-critical states. Theoretical models proposed to account for the strange thermodynamic and electrical transport properties that emerge around the QCP of a Kondo lattice assume the presence of an indefinitely large number of itinerant charge carriers. Here, we report a systematic transport and thermodynamic investigation of the Kondo-lattice system CeNi2-δAs2 (δ ≈ 0.28) as its antiferromagnetic order is tuned by pressure and magnetic field to zero-temperature boundaries. These experiments show that the very small but finite carrier density of ~0.032 E-/formular unit in CeNi2-δAs2 leads to unexpected transport signatures of quantum criticality and the delayed development of a fully coherent Kondo-lattice state with decreasing temperature. The small carrier density and associated semimetallicity of this Kondo-lattice material favor an unconventional, local-moment type of quantum criticality and raises the specter of the Nozières exhaustion idea that an insufficient number of conduction-electron spins to separately screen local moments requires collective Kondo screening. PMID:26483465
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, Po-Wei; Guo, Guang-Yu; Anders, Frithjof B.
2014-05-01
Motivated by the recent observation of the Kondo effect in graphene in transport experiments, we investigate the resistivity and dephasing rate in the Kondo regime due to magnetic impurities in graphene with different chemical potentials (μ). The Kondo effect due to either carbon vacancies or magnetic adatoms in graphene is described by the single-orbital pseudogap asymmetric Anderson impurity model which is solved by the accurate numerical renormalization group method. We find that although the Anderson impurity model considered here is a mixed-valence system, it can be driven into either the Kondo [μ >μc (critical value) >0], mixed-valency (μ ≈μc), or empty-orbital (μ <μc) regime by a gate voltage, giving rise to characteristic features in resistivity and dephasing rate in each regime. Specifically, in the case of μ <μc, the shapes of the resistivity (dephasing rate) curves for different μ are nearly identical. However, as temperature decreases, they start to increase to their maxima at a lower T /TK, but more rapidly [as (TK/T)3/2] than in normal metals [here, T (TK) denotes the (Kondo) temperature]. As T further decreases, after reaching the maximum, the dephasing rate drops more quickly than in normal metals, behaving as (T/TK)3 instead of (T/TK)2. Furthermore, the resistivity has a distinct peak above the saturation value near TK. In the case of μ >μc, in contrast, the resistivity curve has an additional broad shoulder above 10TK and the dephasing rate exhibits an interesting shoulder-peak shape. In the narrow boundary region (μ ≈μc), both the resistivity and dephasing rate curves are similar to the corresponding ones in normal metals. This explains the conventional Kondo-like resistivity from recent experiments on graphene with defects, although the distinct features in the resistivity in the other cases (μ <μc or μ >μc) were not seen in the experiments. The interesting features in the resistivity and dephasing rate are analyzed in
Effect of Si Substitution on the Antiferromagnetic Ordering in the Kondo Semiconductor CeRu2Al10
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Kyosuke; Muro, Yuji; Fukuhara, Tadashi; Kawabata, Jo; Kuwai, Tomohiko; Takabatake, Toshiro
2016-03-01
We have studied the effect of 3p electron doping on the unusual antiferromagnetic (AFM) order in the Kondo semiconductor CeRu2Al10 with TN = 27 K by measuring the magnetic susceptibility χ, specific heat C, and electrical resistivity ρ for polycrystalline samples of CeRu2Al10-ySiy. The large decrease in the absolute value of paramagnetic Curie temperature |θP| with increasing y indicates the suppression of c-f hybridization. The thermal activation behavior in ρ(T) above TN disappears for y ≥ 0.3 and TN decreases to 12 K for y = 0.38. These systematic changes in |θP|, ρ(T), and TN coincide with those reported in the 4d-electron doped system Ce(Ru1-xRhx)2Al10 with respect to the number of doped electrons per formula unit. This coincidence indicates that the Al 3p- and Ru 4d-electrons in CeRu2Al10 play the equivalent role in both the formation of hybridization gap and the unusual AFM ordering.
Quantum critical Mott transitions in a bilayer Kondo insulator-metal model system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Sudeshna; Vidhyadhiraja, N. S.
2016-04-01
A bilayer system comprising a Kondo insulator coupled to a simple metal (KI-M) is considered. Employing the framework of dynamical mean-field theory, the model system is shown to exhibit a surface of quantum critical points (QCPs) that separates a Kondo screened, Fermi liquid phase from a local moment, Mott insulating phase. The quantum critical nature of these Mott transitions is characterized by the vanishing of (a) the coherence scale on the Fermi liquid side, and (b) the Mott gap on the MI side. In contrast to the usual "large-to-small" Fermi surface (FS) QCPs in heavy-fermion systems, the bilayer KI-M system exhibits a complete FS destruction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hagymási, I.; Sólyom, J.; Legeza, Ö.
2015-07-01
We study the ground-state properties of an extended periodic Anderson model to understand the role of Hund's coupling between localized and itinerant electrons using the density-matrix renormalization group algorithm. By calculating the von Neumann entropies we show that two phase transitions occur and two new phases appear as the hybridization is increased in the symmetric half-filled case due to the competition between Kondo effect and Hund's coupling. In the intermediate phase, which is bounded by two critical points, we found a dimerized ground state, while in the other spatially homogeneous phases the ground state is Haldane-like and Kondo-singlet-like, respectively. We also determine the entanglement spectrum and the entanglement diagram of the system by calculating the mutual information thereby clarifying the structure of each phase.
Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire.
Cho, Sungjae; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A; Gu, Genda; Mason, Nadya
2016-01-01
Zero-bias anomalies in topological nanowires have recently captured significant attention, as they are possible signatures of Majorana modes. Yet there are many other possible origins of zero-bias peaks in nanowires--for example, weak localization, Andreev bound states, or the Kondo effect. Here, we discuss observations of differential-conductance peaks at zero-bias voltage in non-superconducting electronic transport through a 3D topological insulator (Bi(1.33)Sb(0.67))Se3 nanowire. The zero-bias conductance peaks show logarithmic temperature dependence and often linear splitting with magnetic fields, both of which are signatures of the Kondo effect in quantum dots. We characterize the zero-bias peaks and discuss their origin. PMID:26911258
Anomalous Temperature Dependence of the Dephasing Time in Mesoscopic Kondo Wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schopfer, Félicien; Bäuerle, Christopher; Rabaud, Wilfried; Saminadayar, Laurent
2003-02-01
We present measurements of the magnetoconductance of long and narrow quasi-one-dimensional gold wires containing magnetic iron impurities in a temperature range extending from 15mK to 4.2K. The dephasing rate extracted from the weak antilocalization shows a pronounced plateau in a temperature region of 300 800mK, associated with the phase breaking due to the Kondo effect. Below the Kondo temperature, the dephasing rate decreases linearly with temperature, in contradiction with standard Fermi-liquid theory. Our data suggest that the formation of a spin glass due to the interactions between the magnetic moments is responsible for the observed anomalous temperature dependence.
Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire
Cho, Sungjae; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Mason, Nadya
2016-01-01
Zero-bias anomalies in topological nanowires have recently captured significant attention, as they are possible signatures of Majorana modes. Yet there are many other possible origins of zero-bias peaks in nanowires—for example, weak localization, Andreev bound states, or the Kondo effect. Here, we discuss observations of differential-conductance peaks at zero-bias voltage in non-superconducting electronic transport through a 3D topological insulator (Bi1.33Sb0.67)Se3 nanowire. The zero-bias conductance peaks show logarithmic temperature dependence and often linear splitting with magnetic fields, both of which are signatures of the Kondo effect in quantum dots. We characterize the zero-bias peaks and discuss their origin. PMID:26911258
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Yun; Lu, Haiyan; Zhu, Xiegang; Tan, Shiyong; Chen, Qiuyun; Feng, Wei; Xie, Donghua; Luo, Lizhu; Zhang, Wen; Lai, Xinchun; Donglai Feng Team; Huiqiu Yuan Team
One basic concept in heavy fermions systems is the entanglement of localized spin state and itinerant electron state. It can be tuned by two competitive intrinsic mechanisms, Kondo effect and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interaction, with external disturbances. The key issue regarding heavy fermions properties is how the two mechanisms work in the same phase region. To investigate the relation of the two mechanisms, the cubic antiferromagnetic heavy fermions compound CeIn3 was investigated by soft x-ray angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The hybridization between f electrons and conduction bands in the paramagnetic state was observed directly, providing compelling evidence for Kondo screening scenario and coexistence of two mechanisms. The hybridization strength shows slight and regular anisotropy in K space, implying that the two mechanisms are competitive and anisotropic. This work illuminates the concomitant and competitive relation between the two mechanisms and supplies some evidences for the anisotropic superconductivity of CeIn3
Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire
Cho, Sungjae; Zhong, Ruidan; Schneeloch, John A.; Gu, Genda; Mason, Nadya
2016-02-25
Zero-bias anomalies in topological nanowires have recently captured significant attention, as they are possible signatures of Majorana modes. Yet there are many other possible origins of zero-bias peaks in nanowires—for example, weak localization, Andreev bound states, or the Kondo effect. Here, we discuss observations of differential-conductance peaks at zero-bias voltage in non-superconducting electronic transport through a 3D topological insulator (Bi1.33Sb0.67)Se3 nanowire. The zero-bias conductance peaks show logarithmic temperature dependence and often linear splitting with magnetic fields, both of which are signatures of the Kondo effect in quantum dots. As a result, we characterize the zero-bias peaks and discuss their origin.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundbom, Jesper; Heikkinen, Sami; Fielding, Barbara; Hakkarainen, Antti; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Lundbom, Nina
2009-11-01
AimThis study investigated the impact of fatty acid (FA) composition on the echo time behavior of triglyceride resonances in a clinical setting. The feasibility of 1H NMR spectroscopy to detect these resonances was also evaluated in human adipose tissue in vivo. MethodTen edible oils chosen to cover a wide spectrum of FA compositions were used as phantom material. The detailed FA composition and intrinsic proton spectra of the oils were characterized by gas chromatography and high-resolution 1H NMR spectroscopy (11.7 T), respectively. The detailed echo time behavior of the oils were subsequently measured by 1H NMR spectroscopy in a clinical scanner (1.5 T) using PRESS. The effect of temperature was investigated in five oils. ResultsThe olefinic (5.3 ppm) and diallylic (2.8 ppm) resonances exhibited distinct J-modulation patterns independent of oil FA composition. The methylene resonance (1.3 ppm) displayed an exponential decay, with the apparent T2 showing a weak positive correlation with oil unsaturation ( R = 0.628, P = 0.052), probably a result of changes in viscosity. For the methyl resonance (0.9 ppm), oils high in ω-3 FA displayed a markedly different J-modulation pattern compared to non-ω-3 oils. The characteristic J-modulation of the ω-3 methyl group could be attributed to the phase behavior of the ω-3 methyl triplet signal (all triplet lines in-phase at TE of 135 ms), a result of the ω-3 methyl end forming a first order spin system. The ω-3 methyl outer triplet line at 1.08 ppm of the TE = 140 ms spectrum was found to be useful for determining the ω-3 content of the oils ( R = 0.999, standard error of estimate (SE) 0.80). The olefinic and diallylic proton resonance (measured at TE = 50 ms) areas correlated with the olefinic ( R = 0.993, SE 0.33) and diallylic ( R = 0.997, SE 0.19) proton contents calculated from the GC data. Information derived from long echo time spectra (TE = 200) demonstrated good correlations to GC data and showed no change with
Phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model with a superlattice potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva-Valencia, J.; Franco, R.; Figueira, M. S.
2016-02-01
We study the ground state of a Kondo lattice model where the free carries undergo a superlattice potential. Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we establish that the model exhibits a ferromagnetic phase and spiral phase whose boundaries in the phase diagram depend on the depth of the potential. Also, we observed that the spiral to ferromagnetic quantum phase transition can be tuned by changing the local coupling or the superlattice strength.
Competition between Kondo and RKKY correlations in the presence of strong randomness.
Tran, Minh-Tien; Kim, Ki-Seok
2011-10-26
We propose that competition between Kondo and magnetic correlations results in a novel universality class for heavy fermion quantum criticality in the presence of strong randomness. Starting from an Anderson lattice model with disorder, we derive an effective local field theory in the dynamical mean-field theory approximation, where randomness is introduced into both hybridization and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions. Performing the saddle-point analysis in the U(1) slave-boson representation, we reveal its phase diagram which shows a quantum phase transition from a spin liquid state to a local Fermi liquid phase. In contrast with the clean limit case of the Anderson lattice model, the effective hybridization given by holon condensation turns out to vanish, resulting from the zero mean value of the hybridization coupling constant. However, we show that the holon density becomes finite when the variance of the hybridization is sufficiently larger than that of the RKKY coupling, giving rise to the Kondo effect. On the other hand, when the variance of the hybridization becomes smaller than that of the RKKY coupling, the Kondo effect disappears, resulting in a fully symmetric paramagnetic state, adiabatically connected to the spin liquid state of the disordered Heisenberg model. We investigate the quantum critical point beyond the mean-field approximation. Introducing quantum corrections fully self-consistently in the non-crossing approximation, we prove that the local charge susceptibility has exactly the same critical exponent as the local spin susceptibility, suggesting an enhanced symmetry at the local quantum critical point. This leads us to propose novel duality between the Kondo singlet phase and the critical local moment state beyond the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm. The Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson forbidden duality serves the mechanism of electron fractionalization in critical impurity dynamics, where such fractionalized excitations are
Controlling Kondo-like Scattering at the SrTiO3-based Interfaces
Han, K.; Palina, N.; Zeng, S. W.; Huang, Z.; Li, C. J.; Zhou, W. X.; Wan, D.-Y.; Zhang, L. C.; Chi, X.; Guo, R.; Chen, J. S.; Venkatesan, T.; Rusydi, A.; Ariando, A
2016-01-01
The observation of magnetic interaction at the interface between nonmagnetic oxides has attracted much attention in recent years. In this report, we show that the Kondo-like scattering at the SrTiO3-based conducting interface is enhanced by increasing the lattice mismatch and growth oxygen pressure PO2. For the 26-unit-cell LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface with lattice mismatch being 3.0%, the Kondo-like scattering is observed when PO2 is beyond 1 mTorr. By contrast, when the lattice mismatch is reduced to 1.0% at the (La0.3Sr0.7)(Al0.65Ta0.35)O3/SrTiO3 (LSAT/STO) interface, the metallic state is always preserved up to PO2 of 100 mTorr. The data from Hall measurement and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy reveal that the larger amount of localized Ti3+ ions are formed at the LAO/STO interface compared to LSAT/STO. Those localized Ti3+ ions with unpaired electrons can be spin-polarized to scatter mobile electrons, responsible for the Kondo-like scattering observed at the LAO/STO interface. PMID:27147407
Momentum-resolved evolution of the Kondo lattice into "hidden order" in URu2Si2.
Boariu, F L; Bareille, C; Schwab, H; Nuber, A; Lejay, P; Durakiewicz, T; Reinert, F; Santander-Syro, A F
2013-04-12
We study, using high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, the evolution of the electronic structure in URu2Si2 at the Γ, Z, and X high-symmetry points from the high-temperature Kondo-screened regime to the low-temperature hidden-order (HO) state. At all temperatures and symmetry points, we find structures resulting from the interaction between heavy and light bands related to the Kondo-lattice formation. At the X point, we directly measure a hybridization gap of 11 meV already open at temperatures above the ordered phase. Strikingly, we find that while the HO induces pronounced changes at Γ and Z, the hybridization gap at X does not change, indicating that the hidden-order parameter is anisotropic. Furthermore, at the Γ and Z points, we observe the opening of a gap in momentum in the HO state, and show that the associated electronic structure results from the hybridization of a light electron band with the Kondo-lattice bands characterizing the paramagnetic state. PMID:25167291
Spin fluctuations in the anisotropic Kondo insulator CeRu4 Sn6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuhrman, Wesley T.; Haenel, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Paschen, S.; Broholm, C. L.
We report and model anisotropic quasi-elastic magnetic neutron scattering from single crystalline CeRu4Sn6. For T ~ 2 K the magnetic neutron scattering is broad in momentum (Q) with a persistent 1 / ℏω spectrum throughout the Brillouin zone. This indicates a lack of spatial coherence and no characteristic energy scale beyond the 0.2 meV resolution of the measurement. We find the Q-dependence of the scattering can be modeled by a Kondo-Heisenberg Hamiltonian that describes residual carriers and incompletely compensated localized electrons. These findings support the interpretation of tetragonal CeRu4Sn6 as an anisotropic or nodal Kondo insulator, markedly different from typical cubic Kondo insulators. We further discuss potential topological implications. Work at IQM was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-FG02-08ER4654. W.T.F. thanks the ARCS foundation and Lockheed Martin for additional support.
Controlling Kondo-like Scattering at the SrTiO3-based Interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, K.; Palina, N.; Zeng, S. W.; Huang, Z.; Li, C. J.; Zhou, W. X.; Wan, D.-Y.; Zhang, L. C.; Chi, X.; Guo, R.; Chen, J. S.; Venkatesan, T.; Rusydi, A.; Ariando
2016-05-01
The observation of magnetic interaction at the interface between nonmagnetic oxides has attracted much attention in recent years. In this report, we show that the Kondo-like scattering at the SrTiO3-based conducting interface is enhanced by increasing the lattice mismatch and growth oxygen pressure PO2. For the 26-unit-cell LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface with lattice mismatch being 3.0%, the Kondo-like scattering is observed when PO2 is beyond 1 mTorr. By contrast, when the lattice mismatch is reduced to 1.0% at the (La0.3Sr0.7)(Al0.65Ta0.35)O3/SrTiO3 (LSAT/STO) interface, the metallic state is always preserved up to PO2 of 100 mTorr. The data from Hall measurement and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy reveal that the larger amount of localized Ti3+ ions are formed at the LAO/STO interface compared to LSAT/STO. Those localized Ti3+ ions with unpaired electrons can be spin-polarized to scatter mobile electrons, responsible for the Kondo-like scattering observed at the LAO/STO interface.
Controlling Kondo-like Scattering at the SrTiO3-based Interfaces.
Han, K; Palina, N; Zeng, S W; Huang, Z; Li, C J; Zhou, W X; Wan, D-Y; Zhang, L C; Chi, X; Guo, R; Chen, J S; Venkatesan, T; Rusydi, A; Ariando
2016-01-01
The observation of magnetic interaction at the interface between nonmagnetic oxides has attracted much attention in recent years. In this report, we show that the Kondo-like scattering at the SrTiO3-based conducting interface is enhanced by increasing the lattice mismatch and growth oxygen pressure PO2. For the 26-unit-cell LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interface with lattice mismatch being 3.0%, the Kondo-like scattering is observed when PO2 is beyond 1 mTorr. By contrast, when the lattice mismatch is reduced to 1.0% at the (La0.3Sr0.7)(Al0.65Ta0.35)O3/SrTiO3 (LSAT/STO) interface, the metallic state is always preserved up to PO2 of 100 mTorr. The data from Hall measurement and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy reveal that the larger amount of localized Ti(3+) ions are formed at the LAO/STO interface compared to LSAT/STO. Those localized Ti(3+) ions with unpaired electrons can be spin-polarized to scatter mobile electrons, responsible for the Kondo-like scattering observed at the LAO/STO interface. PMID:27147407
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aktas, Oktay; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Crossley, Sam; Lampronti, Giulio I.; Whatmore, Roger W.; Mathur, Neil D.; Carpenter, Michael A.
2013-11-01
A novel experimental technique, resonant piezoelectric spectroscopy (RPS), has been applied to investigate polar precursor effects in highly (65%) B-site ordered PbSc0.5Ta0.5O3 (PST), which undergoes a ferroelectric phase transition near 300 K. The cubic-rhombohedral transition is weakly first order, with a coexistence interval of ˜4 K, and is accompanied by a significant elastic anomaly over a wide temperature interval. Precursor polarity in the cubic phase was detected as elastic vibrations generated by local piezoelectric excitations in the frequency range 250-710 kHz. The RPS resonance frequencies follow exactly the frequencies of elastic resonances generated by conventional resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) but RPS signals disappear on heating beyond an onset temperature, Tonset, of 425 K. Differences between the RPS and RUS responses can be understood if the PST structure in the precursor regime between Tonset and the transition point, Ttrans=300 K, has locally polar symmetry even while it remains macroscopically cubic. It is proposed that this precursor behavior could involve the development of a tweed microstructure arising by coupling between strain and multiple order parameters, which can be understood from the perspective of Landau theory. As a function of temperature the transition is driven by the polar displacement P and the order parameter for cation ordering on the crystallographic B site Qod. Results in the literature show that, as a function of pressure, there is a separate instability driven by octahedral tilting for which the assigned order parameter is Q. The two mainly displacive order parameters, P and Q, are unfavorably coupled via a biquadratic term Q2P2, and complex tweedlike fluctuations in the precursor regime would be expected to combine aspects of all the order parameters. This would be different from the development of polar nanoregions, which are more usually evoked to explain relaxor ferroelectric behavior, such as occurs in
Xu, Xiaohao; Cheng, Chang; Zhang, Yao; Lei, Hongxiang; Li, Baojun
2016-01-21
Linearly polarized light can exert an orienting torque on plasmonic nanorods. The torque direction has generally been considered to change when the light wavelength passes through a plasmon longitudinal resonance. Here, we use the Maxwell stress tensor to evaluate this torque in general terms. According to distinct light-matter interaction processes, the total torque is decomposed into scattering and extinction torques. The scattering torque tends to orient plasmonic nanorods parallel to the light polarization, independent of the choice of light wavelength. The direction of the extinction torque is not only closely tied to the excitation of plasmon resonance but also depends on the specific plasmon mode around which the light wavelength is tuned. Our findings show that the conventional wisdom that simply associates the total torque with the plasmon longitudinal resonances needs to be replaced with an understanding based on the different torque components and the details of spectral distribution. PMID:26720710
Non-Kondo-like electronic structure in the correlated rare-earth hexaboride YbB(6).
Neupane, Madhab; Xu, Su-Yang; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Kim, D J; Liu, Chang; Belopolski, I; Chang, T-R; Jeng, H-T; Durakiewicz, T; Lin, H; Bansil, A; Fisk, Z; Hasan, M Z
2015-01-01
We present angle-resolved photoemission studies on the rare-earth-hexaboride YbB(6), which has recently been predicted to be a topological Kondo insulator. Our data do not agree with the prediction and instead show that YbB(6) exhibits a novel topological insulator state in the absence of a Kondo mechanism. We find that the Fermi level electronic structure of YbB(6) has three 2D Dirac cone like surface states enclosing the Kramers's points, while the f orbital that would be relevant for the Kondo mechanism is ∼1 eV below the Fermi level. Our first-principles calculation shows that the topological state that we observe in YbB(6) is due to an inversion between Yb d and B p bands. These experimental and theoretical results provide a new approach for realizing novel correlated topological insulator states in rare-earth materials. PMID:25615485
Vojta, Matthias; Mitchell, Andrew K; Zschocke, Fabian
2016-07-15
Kitaev's honeycomb-lattice compass model describes a spin liquid with emergent fractionalized excitations. Here, we study the physics of isolated magnetic impurities coupled to the Kitaev spin-liquid host. We reformulate this Kondo-type problem in terms of a many-state quantum impurity coupled to a multichannel bath of Majorana fermions and present the numerically exact solution using Wilson's numerical renormalization group technique. Quantum phase transitions occur as a function of Kondo coupling and locally applied field. At zero field, the impurity moment is partially screened only when it binds an emergent gauge flux, while otherwise it becomes free at low temperatures. We show how Majorana degrees of freedom determine the fixed-point properties, make contact with Kondo screening in pseudogap Fermi systems, and discuss effects away from the dilute limit. PMID:27472132
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vojta, Matthias; Mitchell, Andrew K.; Zschocke, Fabian
2016-07-01
Kitaev's honeycomb-lattice compass model describes a spin liquid with emergent fractionalized excitations. Here, we study the physics of isolated magnetic impurities coupled to the Kitaev spin-liquid host. We reformulate this Kondo-type problem in terms of a many-state quantum impurity coupled to a multichannel bath of Majorana fermions and present the numerically exact solution using Wilson's numerical renormalization group technique. Quantum phase transitions occur as a function of Kondo coupling and locally applied field. At zero field, the impurity moment is partially screened only when it binds an emergent gauge flux, while otherwise it becomes free at low temperatures. We show how Majorana degrees of freedom determine the fixed-point properties, make contact with Kondo screening in pseudogap Fermi systems, and discuss effects away from the dilute limit.
Maheshwari, Priya; Dutta, Dhanadeep; Mukherjee, Saurabh; Madhu, Perunthiruthy K; Mote, Kaustubh R; Pujari, Pradeep K
2016-05-14
We investigated the molecular origin of the phase behavior of water confined in MCM 41 mesopores at different levels of hydration using positron annihilation spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The level of hydration influenced the phase behavior of the nanoconfined water. Two transitions above and below the bulk freezing temperature were observed depending on the level of hydration. At the highest level of hydration, nucleation seemed to predominate over the effect of confinement, leading to the complete freezing of water, whereas disrupted H-bonding dominated at the lowest level of hydration, leading to the disappearance of the transitions. A transition at c. T = 188 K (close to the reported glass transition temperature of interface-affected water) was observed at intermediate hydration level. This study suggests that the H-bonding network within nanoconfined water, which can be tampered by the degree of hydration, is the key factor responsible for the phase behavior of supercooled water. This study on the phase behavior and associated transitions of nanoconfined water has implications for nanofluidics and drug-delivery systems, in addition to understanding the fundamentals of water in confinement. PMID:27105178
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moore, J.
2011-01-01
Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…
Two-channel Kondo effect and the low-temperature crossover
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Andrew; Peeters, Lucas; Weymann, Ireneusz; Moca, Cătălin Paşcu; Mahalu, Diana; Umansky, Vladimir; Zaránd, Gergely; Goldhaber-Gordon, David
2015-03-01
The two-channel Kondo (2CK) state, where a spin-1/2 impurity is equally exchange-coupled to two independent reservoirs, is a canonical non-Fermi liquid state. Experimental observations are rare because of its sensitivity to common and hard-to-control perturbations. We implement experimentally a 2CK state in a coupled dot-grain system (Potok, et al., doi:10.1038/nature05556), and explore the physics of the low-temperature crossover: how magnetic field and gate voltage drive the system towards a Fermi liquid ground state. Our experimental findings are corroborated by detailed numerical renormalization group modeling of our device.
Growth and Intrinsic Physical Properties of the Kondo Insulator SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phelan, William; Koohpayeh, Seyed; Cottingham, Patrick; Schoop, Leslie; Cava, Robert; Broholm, Collin; McQueen, Tyrel
2014-03-01
SmB6 is a long-studied Kondo Insulator that has come back into focus recently following theoretical predictions that it may harbor topologically protected surface states. Materials containing such surface states are referred to as topological insulators, and may impact technologically important areas such as quantum computing and spintronics. We report the preparation of single crystals of SmB6 via the floating zone technique, and the impact of growth conditions on the physical properties, including low temperature electrical transport. These results provide insights into the nature of the anomalous low temperature state of SmB6.
A low-temperature derivation of spin spin exchange in Kondo lattice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Sze-Shiang; Mochena, Mogus
2005-11-01
Using Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation and drone-fermion representations for spin-1/2 > and for spin-3/2, which is presented for the first time, we make a path-integral formulation of the Kondo lattice model. In the case of weak coupling and low temperature, the functional integral over conduction fermions can be approximated to the quadratic order and this gives the well-known RKKY interaction. In the case of strong coupling, the same quadratic approximation leads to an effective local spin-spin interaction linear in hopping energy t.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koverga, A. Yu.; Kubyshkin, E. P.
2013-05-01
Two-frequency parametric resonance in nonlinear dynamical systems is studied by analyzing a delay differential equation with the delay obeying a two-frequency law, which arises in the mathematical simulation of some physical processes. It is shown that the system can exhibit chaotic oscillations (strange attractors) when the parametric excitation frequencies are both close to the doubled eigenfrequency of the system (degenerate case). The formation mechanisms of chaotic attractors are discussed, and the Lyapunov exponents and the Lyapunov dimension are calculated for them. If only one of the parametric excitation frequencies is close to the double eigenfrequency, a two-frequency regime occurs in the system.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, X.; Stroud, D.
1993-09-01
We calculate the ac dielectric function of a model Drude metal-insulator composite, using a three-dimensional (d=3) transfer-matrix algorithm. The real part of the effective conductivity, Rege(ω), reveals (i) a Drude peak that appears only above the percolation threshold pc; and (ii) a broad spectrum of surface-plasmon resonances whose lower edge approaches zero frequency at pc. Sufficiently near pc, the dielectric function is consistent with an expected scaling form previously verified in d=2. The surface-plasmon spectrum resembles effective-medium predictions except for a weak but persistent peak near 0.4ω/ωp.
Han, Fei; Wan, Xiangang; Phelan, Daniel; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Sturza, Mihai; Malliakas, Christos D.; Li, Qing'an; Han, Tian-Heng; Zhao, Qingbiao; Chung, Duck Young; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.
2015-07-13
The layered compound CePd_{1–x}Bi₂ with the tetragonal ZrCuSi₂-type structure was obtained from excess Bi flux. Magnetic susceptibility data of CePd_{1–x}Bi₂ show an antiferromagnetic ordering below 6 K and are anisotropic along the c axis and the ab plane. The anisotropy is attributed to crystal-electric-field (CEF) effects and a CEF model which is able to describe the susceptibility data is given. An enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient γ of 0.191 J mol Ce⁻¹ K⁻² obtained from specific-heat measurement suggests a moderate Kondo effect in CePd_{1–x}Bi₂. Other than the antiferromagnetic peak at 6 K, the resistivity curve shows a shoulderlike behavior around 75 K which could be attributed to the interplay between Kondo and CEF effects. Magnetoresistance and Hall-effect measurements suggest that the interplay reconstructs the Fermi-surface topology of CePd_{1–x}Bi₂ around 75 K. Electronic structure calculations reveal that the Pd vacancies are important to the magnetic structure and enhance the CEF effects which quench the orbital moment of Ce at low temperatures.
Kondo effect in a carbon nanotube with spin-orbit interaction and valley mixing: A DM-NRG study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantelli, Davide; Paşcu Moca, Cătălin; Zaránd, Gergely; Grifoni, Milena
2016-03-01
We investigate the effects of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and valley mixing on the transport and dynamical properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT) quantum dot in the Kondo regime. As these perturbations break the pseudo-spin symmetry in the CNT spectrum but preserve time-reversal symmetry, they induce a finite splitting Δ between formerly degenerate Kramers pairs. Correspondingly, a crossover from the SU(4) to the SU(2)-Kondo effect occurs as the strength of these symmetry breaking parameters is varied. Clear signatures of the crossover are discussed both at the level of the spectral function as well as of the conductance. In particular, we demonstrate numerically and support with scaling arguments that the Kondo temperature scales inversely with the splitting Δ in the crossover regime. In presence of a finite magnetic field, time reversal symmetry is also broken. We investigate the effects of both parallel and perpendicular fields (with respect to the tube's axis) and discuss the conditions under which Kondo revivals may be achieved.
Tuning the Magnetic Quantum Criticality of Artificial Kondo Superlattices CeRhIn_{5}/YbRhIn_{5}.
Ishii, T; Toda, R; Hanaoka, Y; Tokiwa, Y; Shimozawa, M; Kasahara, Y; Endo, R; Terashima, T; Nevidomskyy, A H; Shibauchi, T; Matsuda, Y
2016-05-20
The effects of reduced dimensions and the interfaces on antiferromagnetic quantum criticality are studied in epitaxial Kondo superlattices, with alternating n layers of heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn_{5} and seven layers of normal metal YbRhIn_{5}. As n is reduced, the Kondo coherence temperature is suppressed due to the reduction of effective Kondo screening. The Néel temperature is gradually suppressed as n decreases and the quasiparticle mass is strongly enhanced, implying dimensional control toward a quantum critical point. Magnetotransport measurements reveal that a quantum critical point is reached for the n=3 superlattice by applying small magnetic fields. Remarkably, the anisotropy of the quantum critical field is opposite to the expectations from the magnetic susceptibility in bulk CeRhIn_{5}, suggesting that the Rashba spin-orbit interaction arising from the inversion symmetry breaking at the interface plays a key role for tuning the quantum criticality in the two-dimensional Kondo lattice. PMID:27258878
Tuning the Magnetic Quantum Criticality of Artificial Kondo Superlattices CeRhIn5 /YbRhIn5
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishii, T.; Toda, R.; Hanaoka, Y.; Tokiwa, Y.; Shimozawa, M.; Kasahara, Y.; Endo, R.; Terashima, T.; Nevidomskyy, A. H.; Shibauchi, T.; Matsuda, Y.
2016-05-01
The effects of reduced dimensions and the interfaces on antiferromagnetic quantum criticality are studied in epitaxial Kondo superlattices, with alternating n layers of heavy-fermion antiferromagnet CeRhIn5 and seven layers of normal metal YbRhIn5 . As n is reduced, the Kondo coherence temperature is suppressed due to the reduction of effective Kondo screening. The Néel temperature is gradually suppressed as n decreases and the quasiparticle mass is strongly enhanced, implying dimensional control toward a quantum critical point. Magnetotransport measurements reveal that a quantum critical point is reached for the n =3 superlattice by applying small magnetic fields. Remarkably, the anisotropy of the quantum critical field is opposite to the expectations from the magnetic susceptibility in bulk CeRhIn5 , suggesting that the Rashba spin-orbit interaction arising from the inversion symmetry breaking at the interface plays a key role for tuning the quantum criticality in the two-dimensional Kondo lattice.
Non-equilibrium conductance through a benzene molecule in the Kondo regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tosi, L.; Roura-Bas, P.; Aligia, A. A.
2012-09-01
Starting from exact eigenstates for a symmetric ring, we derive a low-energy effective generalized Anderson Hamiltonian which contains two spin doublets with opposite momenta and a singlet for the neutral molecule. For benzene, the singlet (doublets) represent the ground state of the neutral (singly charged) molecule. We calculate the non-equilibrium conductance through a benzene molecule, doped with one electron or a hole (i.e. in the Kondo regime), and connected to two conducting leads at different positions. We solve the problem using the Keldysh formalism and the non-crossing approximation. When the leads are connected in the para position (at 180°), the model is equivalent to the ordinary impurity Anderson model and its known properties are recovered. For other positions, there is a partial destructive interference in the co-tunneling processes involving the two doublets and, as a consequence, the Kondo temperature and the height and width of the central peak (for bias voltage Vb near zero) of the differential conductance G = dI/dVb (where I is the current) are reduced. In addition, two peaks at finite Vb appear. We study the position of these peaks, the temperature dependence of G and the spectral densities. Our formalism can also be applied to carbon nanotube quantum dots with intervalley mixing.
Influence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling on the Kondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Arturo; Ulloa, Sergio E.; Sandler, Nancy; Ingersent, Kevin
2016-02-01
An Anderson model for a magnetic impurity in a two-dimensional electron gas with bulk Rashba spin-orbit interaction is solved using the numerical renormalization group under two different experimental scenarios. For a fixed Fermi energy, the Kondo temperature TK varies weakly with Rashba coupling λR, as reported previously. If instead the band filling is low and held constant, increasing λR can drive the system into a helical regime with exponential enhancement of TK. Under either scenario, thermodynamic properties at low temperatures T exhibit the same dependencies on T /TK as are found for λR=0 . Unlike the conventional Kondo effect, however, the impurity exhibits static spin correlations with conduction electrons of nonzero orbital angular momentum about the impurity site. We also consider a magnetic field that Zeeman splits the conduction band but not the impurity level, an effective picture that arises under a proposed route to access the helical regime in a driven system. The impurity contribution to the system's ground-state angular momentum is found to be a universal function of the ratio of the Zeeman energy to a temperature scale that is not TK (as would be the case in a magnetic field that couples directly to the impurity spin), but rather is proportional to TK divided by the impurity hybridization width. This universal scaling is explained via a perturbative treatment of field-induced changes in the electronic density of states.
Breakdown of the Kondo insulating state in SmB6 by introducing Sm vacancies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valentine, Michael E.; Koohpayeh, Seyed; Phelan, W. Adam; McQueen, Tyrel M.; Rosa, Priscila F. S.; Fisk, Zachary; Drichko, Natalia
2016-08-01
We explore the stability of the hybridization gap in SmB6 to the presence of a small number of Sm vacancies typical for this material, and demonstrate the extreme fragility of the Kondo insulating state. For the most stoichiometric sample we detect the hybridization gap which appears below 50 K as a depressed electronic Raman intensity below about 30 meV. The spectral weight that shifts to higher frequencies on the opening of the hybridization gap forms two electronic maxima at 100 and 41 meV. We assign these maxima to the excitations between hybridized 4 f -5 d bands using recent band structure calculations. Below 30 K, in-gap exciton modes with long lifetimes protected by the hybridization gap develop at 16-18 meV. With the increase of the number of Sm vacancies the exciton features broaden, evidencing a decrease in the lifetime due to the presence of electronic states in the gap. At a concentration of Sm vacancies of only about 1% the in-gap exciton is completely quenched, and the hybridization gap is not fully opened. We suggest that only the most stoichiometric SmB6 samples possess a bulk gap necessary for the topological Kondo insulator state.
Magnetotransport in (Ce1-xNdx)Cu6 Kondo alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strydom, André M.; du Plessis, Paul de V.
1999-03-01
The results of electrical resistivity ρ(T) and magnetoresistivity MR(T, B) for Kondo lattice is characterized through coherence effects in ρ(T) at low temperatures. The ρ(T) data above room temperature are used to resolve the electron-phonon scattering, and it is indicated that the single-ion Kondo interaction dominates both ρ(T) and MR(B) for a wide range of intermediate Ce concentrations. Based on this, the MR(B) data for different isotherms and alloy compositions are analysed according to the Bethe- ansatz description. We also discuss the observed deviations of our data from the preceding theoretical description due to the onset of magnetic order in alloys with high Nd content, and to phase coherence at low temperatures.
Heavy-fermion quantum criticality and destruction of the Kondo effect in a nickel oxypnictide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luo, Yongkang; Pourovskii, Leonid; Rowley, S. E.; Li, Yuke; Feng, Chunmu; Georges, Antoine; Dai, Jianhui; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu'An; Si, Qimiao; Ong, N. P.
2014-08-01
A quantum critical point arises at a continuous transformation between distinct phases of matter at zero temperature. Studies in antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion materials have revealed that quantum criticality has several classes, with an unconventional type that involves a critical destruction of the Kondo entanglement. To understand such varieties, it is important to extend the materials basis beyond the usual setting of intermetallic compounds. Here we show that a nickel oxypnictide, CeNiAsO, exhibits a heavy-fermion antiferromagnetic quantum critical point as a function of either pressure or P/As substitution. At the quantum critical point, non-Fermi-liquid behaviour appears, which is accompanied by a divergent effective carrier mass. Across the quantum critical point, the low-temperature Hall coefficient undergoes a rapid sign change, suggesting a sudden jump of the Fermi surface and a destruction of the Kondo effect. Our results imply that the enormous materials basis for the oxypnictides, which has been so crucial in the search for high-temperature superconductivity, will also play a vital role in the effort to establish the universality classes of quantum criticality in strongly correlated electron systems.
Non-Kondo Mechanism of Resistivity Minimum in Frustrated Itinerant Mangets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batista, Cristian; Wang, Zhentao; Barros, Kipton; Chern, Gia-Wei
Frustration can induce novel phenomena in the transport properties of itinerant magnets. The ''amount of frustration'' is typically quantified by the | ΘCW | / TC ratio. A large value of this ratio corresponds to a broad temperature regime TC < T <ΘCW , where the spins are in spin liquid state, i.e., the magnetic structure factor is not flat, as in the gas (T >ΘCW) state and it does not contain Bragg peaks, as in the ordered or ''solid'' state at TTC . We demonstrate that when interaction between magnetic moments is mediated by the conduction electrons, the electronic resistivity increases upon lowering temperature, due to enhanced scattering rate for k <= 2kF . To illustrate this phenomenon we consider a triangular Kondo lattice model with classical local moments. By using both analytical and numerical methods, we unambiguously demonstrate that the electronic resistivity grows upon lowering temperature inside the spin liquid regime. This growth necessarily leads to a resistivity minimum when electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering are included. We note that the origin of this resistivity minimum is radically different from the well-known minimum induced by the Kondo effect.
Possible undercompensation effect in the Kondo insulator (Yb,Tm)B12
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, P. A.; Nemkovski, K. S.; Mignot, J.-M.; Clementyev, E. S.; Ivanov, A. S.; Rols, S.; Bewley, R. I.; Filipov, V. B.; Shitsevalova, N. Yu.
2014-03-01
The effects of Tm substitution on the dynamical magnetic response of Yb1-xTmxB12 (x=0, 0.08, 0.15, and 0.75) and Lu0.92Tm0.08B12 compounds have been studied using time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering. Major changes were observed in the spectral structure and temperature evolution of the Yb contribution to the inelastic response for a rather low content of magnetic Tm ions. A sizable influence of the RB12 host (YbB12, as compared to LuB12 or pure TmB12) on the crystal-field splitting of the Tm3+ ion is also reported. The results point to a specific effect of impurities carrying a magnetic moment (Tm, as compared to Lu or Zr) in a Kondo insulator, which is thought to reflect the "undercompensation" of Yb magnetic moments, originally Kondo screened in pure YbB12. A parallel is made with the strong effect of Tm substitution on the temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient in Yb1-xTmxB12, which was reported previously.
NMR investigations on single crystals of U2Ru2Sn: A Kondo insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rajarajan, A. K.; Rabis, A.; Baenitz, M.; Gippius, A. A.; Morozova, E. N.; Mydosh, J. A.; Steglich, F.
2005-04-01
U2Ru2Sn is unique among all Kondo insulators because of its tetragonal structure and an energy gap of about 150 K being the smallest of all the uranium-based Kondo insulators. We report Knight shift K(T) and relaxation rate T1-1 measurements from 119Sn(I={1}/{2})-NMR for the first time in single crystals and oriented micro-crystallites. At low temperatures the anisotropy in K(T) increases ( K∥/K⊥(4.2 K)≈2), a trend observed also in χ(T) and ρ(T). K(H⊥c) exhibits a smooth variation, whereas for K(H ∥ c) a change of slope occurs at 150 K with a more rapid decrease below. The anisotropy is not as prominent in T1-1(T). The hyperfine coupling constant exhibits a cross-over behaviour from one linear regime of K(T) vs. χ(T) to another around a characteristic temperature.
Wigner and Kondo physics in quantum point contacts revealed by scanning gate microscopy.
Brun, B; Martins, F; Faniel, S; Hackens, B; Bachelier, G; Cavanna, A; Ulysse, C; Ouerghi, A; Gennser, U; Mailly, D; Huant, S; Bayot, V; Sanquer, M; Sellier, H
2014-01-01
Quantum point contacts exhibit mysterious conductance anomalies in addition to well-known conductance plateaus at multiples of 2e(2)/h. These 0.7 and zero-bias anomalies have been intensively studied, but their microscopic origin in terms of many-body effects is still highly debated. Here we use the charged tip of a scanning gate microscope to tune in situ the electrostatic potential of the point contact. While sweeping the tip distance, we observe repetitive splittings of the zero-bias anomaly, correlated with simultaneous appearances of the 0.7 anomaly. We interpret this behaviour in terms of alternating equilibrium and non-equilibrium Kondo screenings of different spin states localized in the channel. These alternating Kondo effects point towards the presence of a Wigner crystal containing several charges with different parities. Indeed, simulations show that the electron density in the channel is low enough to reach one-dimensional Wigner crystallization over a size controlled by the tip position. PMID:24978440
Wigner and Kondo physics in quantum point contacts revealed by scanning gate microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brun, B.; Martins, F.; Faniel, S.; Hackens, B.; Bachelier, G.; Cavanna, A.; Ulysse, C.; Ouerghi, A.; Gennser, U.; Mailly, D.; Huant, S.; Bayot, V.; Sanquer, M.; Sellier, H.
2014-06-01
Quantum point contacts exhibit mysterious conductance anomalies in addition to well-known conductance plateaus at multiples of 2e2/h. These 0.7 and zero-bias anomalies have been intensively studied, but their microscopic origin in terms of many-body effects is still highly debated. Here we use the charged tip of a scanning gate microscope to tune in situ the electrostatic potential of the point contact. While sweeping the tip distance, we observe repetitive splittings of the zero-bias anomaly, correlated with simultaneous appearances of the 0.7 anomaly. We interpret this behaviour in terms of alternating equilibrium and non-equilibrium Kondo screenings of different spin states localized in the channel. These alternating Kondo effects point towards the presence of a Wigner crystal containing several charges with different parities. Indeed, simulations show that the electron density in the channel is low enough to reach one-dimensional Wigner crystallization over a size controlled by the tip position.
Excitonic and nematic instabilities on the surface of topological Kondo insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Bitan; Hofmann, Johannes; Stanev, Valentin; Sau, Jay D.; Galitski, Victor
2015-12-01
We study the effects of strong electron-electron interactions on the surface of cubic topological Kondo insulators (such as samarium hexaboride, SmB6). Cubic topological Kondo insulators generally support three copies of massless Dirac nodes on the surface, but only two of them are energetically degenerate and exhibit an energy offset relative to the third one. With a tunable chemical potential, when the surface states host electron and hole pockets of comparable size, strong interactions may drive this system into rotational symmetry breaking nematic and translational symmetric breaking excitonic spin- or charge-density-wave phases, depending on the relative chirality of the Dirac cones. Taking a realistic surface band structure into account we analyze the associated Ginzburg-Landau theory and compute the mean-field phase diagram for interacting surface states. Beyond mean-field theory, this system can be described by a two-component isotropic Ashkin-Teller model at finite temperature, and we outline the phase diagram of this model. Our theory provides a possible explanation of recent measurements which detect a twofold symmetric magnetoresistance and an upturn in surface resistivity with tunable gate voltage in SmB6. Our discussion can also be germane to other cubic topological insulators, such as ytterbium hexaboride (YbB6) and plutonium hexaboride (PuB6).
Formation of metallic magnetic clusters in a Kondo-lattice metal: Evidence from an optical study
Kovaleva, N. N.; Kugel, K. I.; Bazhenov, A. V.; Fursova, T. N.; Löser, W.; Xu, Y.; Behr, G.; Kusmartsev, F. V.
2012-01-01
Magnetic materials are usually divided into two classes: those with localised magnetic moments, and those with itinerant charge carriers. We present a comprehensive experimental (spectroscopic ellipsomerty) and theoretical study to demonstrate that these two types of magnetism do not only coexist but complement each other in the Kondo-lattice metal, Tb2PdSi3. In this material the itinerant charge carriers interact with large localised magnetic moments of Tb(4f) states, forming complex magnetic lattices at low temperatures, which we associate with self-organisation of magnetic clusters. The formation of magnetic clusters results in low-energy optical spectral weight shifts, which correspond to opening of the pseudogap in the conduction band of the itinerant charge carriers and development of the low- and high-spin intersite electronic transitions. This phenomenon, driven by self-trapping of electrons by magnetic fluctuations, could be common in correlated metals, including besides Kondo-lattice metals, Fe-based and cuprate superconductors. PMID:23189239
Kondo effect in a neutral and stable all organic radical single molecule break junction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burzuri, Enrique; Gaudenzi, Rocco; Frisenda, Riccardo; Franco, Carlos; Mas-Torrent, Marta; Rovira, Concepcio; Veciana, Jaume; Alcon, Isaac; Bromley, Stefan T.; van der Zant, Herre S. J.
Organic radicals are neutral, purely organic molecules exhibiting an intrinsic magnetic moment due to the presence of an unpaired electron in the molecule in its ground state. This property, added to the low spin-orbit coupling makes organic radicals good candidates for molecular spintronics insofar as the radical character is stable in solid state electronic devices. We show that the paramagnetism of the PTM radical molecule, in the shape of a Kondo anomaly is preserved in two- and three-terminal solid-state devices, regardless of mechanical and electrostatic changes. Indeed, our results demonstrate that the Kondo anomaly is robust under electrodes displacement and changes of the electrostatic environment, pointing to a localized orbital in the radical as the source of magnetism. Strong support to this picture is provided by density functional calculations and measurements of the corresponding nonradical specie. We further study polyradical systems, where several unpaired spins interact in the same molecule. This work was supported by the EU FP7 program through project 618082 ACMOL and ERC grant advanced Mols@Mols. It was also supported by the Dutch funding organization NWO (VENI).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allerdt, Andrew; Büsser, C. A.; Martins, G. B.; Feiguin, A. E.
2015-02-01
Magnetic impurities embedded in a metal interact via an effective Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling mediated by the conduction electrons, which is commonly assumed to be long ranged, with an algebraic decay in the interimpurity distance. However, they can also form a Kondo screened state that is oblivious to the presence of other impurities. We study the competition mechanisms between both effects on the square and cubic lattices by introducing an exact mapping onto an effective one-dimensional problem that we can solve with the density matrix renormalization group method. We show a dramatic departure from the conventional RKKY theory, that can be attributed to the dimensionality and different densities of states, as well as the quantum nature of the magnetic moments. In particular, for dimension d >1 , Kondo physics dominates even at short distances, while the ferromagnetic RKKY state is energetically unfavorable. Our findings can have clear implications in the interpretation of experiments and for tailoring the magnetic properties of surfaces.
Kondo physics in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interactions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wong, Arturo; Ulloa, Sergio; Sandler, Nancy; Ingersent, Kevin
Recent theoretical studies have shown that Rashba spin-orbit interactions in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) affect the thermodynamics of the impurity Kondo effect only through changes in the host density of states. These changes are generally modest, but yield exponential enhancement of the Kondo temperature TK if the 2DEG can be tuned to a helical regime in which all electrons at the Fermi surface have the same relation between the directions of their spin and momentum. It has been proposed to access the helical regime using irradiation with circularly polarized light, giving rise to an effective Zeeman splitting of the conduction band without any direct splitting of the impurity level. We show that under this scenario, the impurity contribution to the system's net angular momentum is a universal function of the Zeeman energy divided by a temperature scale that (surprisingly at first sight) is not TK, but rather is proportional to TK divided by the impurity hybridization width. This universal scaling can be understood via a perturbative treatment of irradiation-induced changes in the electron densities of states
Spin relaxation through Kondo scattering in Cu/Py lateral spin valves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batley, J. T.; Rosamond, M. C.; Ali, M.; Linfield, E. H.; Burnell, G.; Hickey, B. J.
2015-12-01
The temperature dependence of the spin diffusion length typically reflects the scattering mechanism responsible for spin relaxation. Within nonmagnetic metals it is reasonable to expect the Elliot-Yafet mechanism to play a role and thus the temperature dependence of the spin diffusion length might be inversely proportional to resistivity. In lateral spin valves, measurements have found that at low temperatures the spin diffusion length unexpectedly decreases. By measuring the transport properties of lateral Py/Cu/Py spin valves, fabricated from Cu with magnetic impurities of <1 ppm and ˜4 ppm, we extract a spin diffusion length which shows this suppression below 30 K only in the presence of the Kondo effect. We have calculated the spin-relaxation rate and isolated the contribution from magnetic impurities. We find the spin-flip probability of a magnetic impurity to be 34%. Our analysis demonstrates the dominant role of Kondo scattering in spin relaxation, even in low concentrations of order 1 ppm, and hence illustrates its importance to the reduction in spin diffusion length observed by ourselves and others.
Magnetic properties of Ce{sup 3+} in Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Ce{sub x}Se: Kondo and crystal-field effect
Gratens, X.; Charar, S.; Averous, M.; Isber, S.; Deportes, J.; Golacki, Z.
1997-10-01
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments were performed on a Pb{sub 1{minus}x}Ce{sub x}Se crystal at liquid-helium temperatures and show very clearly that the doublet {Gamma}{sub 7} is the ground state for cerium ions. The cubic symmetry is shown and the effective Land{acute e} factor for the Ce{sup 3+} is determined to be 1.354{plus_minus}0.003. An orbital reduction factor is introduced to explain the g experimental value. High-field magnetization results are in good agreement with the EPR results. The nominal Ce composition in PbSe deduced from saturation of the magnetization, x=0.0405{plus_minus}0.0003, is very closed to the value determined by microprobe analysis (x=0.04). At 1.5 K, an antiferromagnetic interaction between the nearest-neighbor cerium atoms is found, J{sub ex}/k{sub B}={minus}0.715thinspK. The low-field magnetic-susceptibility results show that the magnetic moment of cerium impurities is strongly temperature dependent, explained by the presence of the crystal-field effect and the Kondo effect. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Investigation on thermal behavior of resonant waveguide-grating mirrors in an Yb:YAG thin-disk laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rumpel, Martin; Dannecker, Benjamin; Voss, Andreas; Möller, Michael; Moormann, Christian; Graf, Thomas; Abdou Ahmed, Marwan
2014-05-01
We present the experimental investigations of different designs of resonant waveguide-grating mirrors (RWG) which are used as intracavity folding mirror in an Yb:YAG thin-disk laser. The studied mirrors combine structured fused silica substrates, a thin-layer waveguide (Ta2O5), a buffer layer (SiO2) and partial reflectors. The grating period was chosen to be 510 nm to allow resonances at an angle of incidence of ~10° for TE polarization. The waveguide layer has a thickness of 236 nm. It is followed by the buffer layer with a thickness of 580 nm and the subsequent alternating Ta2O5/SiO2 layers. The exact coating sequence depends on the two design approaches which were investigated in this work: either introducing different partial reflectors, i.e. stacks of quarter-wave layers on top of the waveguide while keeping the groove depth of the grating constant, or increasing the grating depth, while keeping an identical partial reflector. The investigation was focused on the rise of the surface temperature due to the coupling of the incident radiation to a waveguide mode, as well as on the laser efficiency, polarization and wavelength selectivity. It is found that, when compared to the simplest RWG design which consists of only a single Ta2O5 waveguide layer, damage threshold as well as laser efficiency can be significantly increased, while the laser performances in terms of polarization- and wavelength selectivity are maintained. So far, the presented RWG allow the generation of linear polarization with a narrow spectral linewidth down to 25 pm FWHM in a fundamental mode Yb:YAG thin-disk laser. Damage thresholds of 60kW/cm2 have been reached where only 63K of surface temperature increase was observed. This shows that the improved mirrors are suitable for the generation of kW-class narrow linewidth, linearly polarized Yb:YAG thin-disk lasers.
Gong, Ping; Lee, Chi-Ying; Gamble, Lara J; Castner, David G; Grainger, David W
2006-05-15
Nucleic acid assay from a complex biological milieu is attractive but currently difficult and far from routine. In this study, DNA hybridization from serum dilutions into mixed DNA/mercaptoundecanol (MCU) adlayers on gold was monitored by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Immobilized DNA probe and hybridized target densities on these surfaces were quantified using 32P-radiometric assays as a function of MCU diluent exposure. SPR surface capture results correlated with radiometric analysis for hybridization performance, demonstrating a maximum DNA hybridization on DNA/MCU mixed adlayers. The maximum target surface capture produced by MCU addition to the DNA probe layer correlates with structural and conformational data on identical mixed DNA/MCU adlayers on gold derived from XPS, NEXAFS, and fluorescence intensity measurements reported in a related study (Lee, C.-Y.; Gong, P.; Harbers, G. M.; Grainger, D. W.; Castner, D. G.; Gamble, L. J. Anal. Chem. 2006, 78, 3316-3325.). MCU addition into the DNA adlayer on gold also improved surface resistance to both nonspecific DNA and serum protein adsorption. Target DNA hybridization from serum dilutions was monitored with SPR on the optimally mixed DNA/MCU adlayers. Both hybridization kinetics and efficiency were strongly affected by nonspecific protein adsorption from a complex milieu even at a minimal serum concentration (e.g., 1%). No target hybridization was detected in SPR assays from serum concentrations above 30%, indicating nonspecific protein adsorption interference of DNA capture and hybridization from complex milieu. Removal of nonsignal proteins from nucleic acid targets prior to assay represents a significant issue for direct sample-to-assay nucleic acid diagnostics from food, blood, tissue, PCR mixtures, and many other biologically complex sample formats. PMID:16689533
Ueda, Keisuke; Higashi, Kenjirou; Limwikrant, Waree; Sekine, Shuichi; Horie, Toshiharu; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu
2012-11-01
A solid dispersion (SPD) of carbamazepine (CBZ) with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMC-AS) was prepared by the spray drying method. The apparent solubility (37 °C, pH 7.4) of CBZ observed with the SPD was over 3 times higher than the solubility of unprocessed CBZ. The supersaturated solution was stable for 7 days. A higher concentration of CBZ in aqueous medium was also achieved by mixing with Poloxamer 407 (P407), a solubilizing agent. From permeation studies of CBZ using Caco-2 monolayers and dialysis membranes, we observed improved CBZ permeation across the membrane in the supersaturated solution of CBZ/HPMC-AS SPD. On the contrary, the CBZ-solubilized P407 solution exhibited poor permeation by CBZ. The chemical shifts of CBZ on the (1)H NMR spectrum from CBZ/HPMC-AS SPD solution were not altered significantly by coexistence with HPMC-AS. In contrast, an upfield shift of CBZ was observed in the CBZ/P407 solution. The spin-lattice relaxation time (T(1)) over spin-spin relaxation time (T(2)) indicated that the mobility of CBZ in the HPMC-AS solution was much lower than that in water. Meanwhile, the mobility of CBZ in P407 solution was significantly higher than that in water. NMR data indicate that CBZ does not strongly interact with HPMC-AS. CBZ mobility was suppressed due to self-association and microviscosity around CBZ, which do not affect permeation behavior. Most of the CBZ molecules in the CBZ/P407 solution were solubilized in the hydrophobic core of P407, and a few were free to permeate the membrane. The molecular state of CBZ, as evaluated by NMR measurements, directly correlated with permeation behavior. PMID:22970935
Pressure-tuned quantum criticality in the antiferromagnetic Kondo semimetal CeNi_{2–δ}As_{2}
Luo, Yongkang; Ronning, F.; Wakeham, N.; Lu, Xin; Park, Tuson; Xu, Z. -A.; Thompson, J. D.
2015-10-19
The easily tuned balance among competing interactions in Kondo-lattice metals allows access to a zero-temperature, continuous transition between magnetically ordered and disordered phases, a quantum-critical point (QCP). Indeed, these highly correlated electron materials are prototypes for discovering and exploring quantum-critical states. Theoretical models proposed to account for the strange thermodynamic and electrical transport properties that emerge around the QCP of a Kondo lattice assume the presence of an indefinitely large number of itinerant charge carriers. Here, we report a systematic transport and thermodynamic investigation of the Kondo-lattice system CeNi_{2–δ}As_{2} (δ ≈ 0.28) as its antiferromagnetic order is tuned by pressure and magnetic field to zero-temperature boundaries. These experiments show that the very small but finite carrier density of ~0.032 e^{–}/formular unit in CeNi_{2–δ}As_{2} leads to unexpected transport signatures of quantum criticality and the delayed development of a fully coherent Kondo-lattice state with decreasing temperature. Here, the small carrier density and associated semimetallicity of this Kondo-lattice material favor an unconventional, local-moment type of quantum criticality and raises the specter of the Nozières exhaustion idea that an insufficient number of conduction-electron spins to separately screen local moments requires collective Kondo screening.
Landau quantization and spin-momentum locking in topological Kondo insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlottmann, P.
2016-05-01
SmB6 has been predicted to be a strong topological Kondo insulator and experimentally it has been confirmed that at low temperatures the electrical conductivity only takes place at the surfaces of the crystal. Quantum oscillations and ARPES measurements revealed several Dirac cones on the (001) and (101) surfaces of the crystal. We considered three types of surface Dirac cones with an additional parabolic dispersion and studied their Landau quantization and the expectation value of the spin of the electrons. The Landau quantization is quite similar in all three cases and would give rise to very similar de Haas-van Alphen oscillations. The spin-momentum locking, on the other hand, differs dramatically. Without the additional parabolic dispersion the spins are locked in the plane of the surface. The parabolic dispersion, however, produces a gradual canting of the spins out of the surface plane.
Kondo effect and thermoelectric transport in CePd3Be x
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gumeniuk, Roman; Schnelle, Walter; Kvashnina, Kristina O.; Leithe-Jasper, Andreas
2016-04-01
The physical properties of the series CePd3Be x (0≤slant x≤slant 0.47 ) have been studied. Introducing Be into CePd3 results in a drastic reduction of the Seebeck coefficient from 100 μV K-1 at 300 K to -2 μV K-1, respectively. Paramagnetism of Ce3+ free ions and metallic conduction dominate the physical properties. A structural transition at x = 0.25 is accompanied by a significant lowering of the Kondo temperature and leads to a successive suppression of the thermoelectric performance of CePd3Be x with increasing x.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perfetto, E.; Stefanucci, G.
2012-08-01
We show that the energy functional of ensemble density functional theory (DFT) [Perdew , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.49.1691 49, 1691 (1982)] in systems with attractive interactions is a convex function of the fractional particle number N and is given by a series of straight lines joining a subset of ground-state energies. As a consequence the exchange-correlation (XC) potential is not discontinuous for all N. We highlight the importance of this exact result in the ensemble-DFT description of the negative-U Anderson model. In the atomic limit the discontinuity of the XC potential is missing for odd N while for finite hybridizations the discontinuity at even N is broadened. We demonstrate that the inclusion of these properties in any approximate XC potential is crucial to reproduce the characteristic signatures of the charge-Kondo effect in the conductance and charge susceptibility.
Variational Monte Carlo approach to the two-dimensional Kondo lattice model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asadzadeh, Mohammad Zhian; Becca, Federico; Fabrizio, Michele
2013-05-01
We study the phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model with nearest-neighbor hopping in the square lattice by means of the variational Monte Carlo technique. Specifically, we analyze a wide class of variational wave functions that allow magnetic and superconducting order parameters, so as to assess the possibility that superconductivity might emerge close to the magnetic instability, as is often observed in heavy-fermion systems. Indeed, we do find evidence of d-wave superconductivity in the paramagnetic sector, i.e., when magnetic order is not allowed in the variational wave function. However, when magnetism is allowed, it completely covers the superconducting region, which thus disappears from the phase diagram.
Phase diagram of the Kondo lattice model on the kagome lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Shivam; O'Brien, Patrick; Henley, Christopher L.; Lawler, Michael J.
2016-01-01
We consider the potential for novel forms of magnetism arising from the subtle interplay between electrons and spins in the underscreened kagome Kondo lattice model. At weak coupling, we show that incommensurate noncoplanar multiwave vector magnetic orders arise at nearly all fillings and that this results from Fermi surface effects that introduce competing interactions between the spins. At strong coupling, we find that such a complex order survives near half filling despite the presence of ferromagnetism at all other fillings. We show this arises due to state selection among a massive degeneracy of states at infinite coupling. Finally, we show that at intermediate filling only commensurate orders seem to survive, but these orders still include noncoplanar magnetism. So, the mere presence of both local moments and itinerant electrons enables complex orders to form unlike any currently observed in kagome materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ślebarski, A.; Goraus, J.
2012-12-01
We present the Ce 3d x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra for CeM2Al10 (M=Ru, Os, Fe) from which we determined the on-site hybridization between the f and conduction electron states, Δcf, and the 4f-level occupancy, nf. Those parameters have been obtained using the Gunnarsson-Schönhammer approach. We found Δcf stronger for the Kondo insulator CeFe2Al10 than for the remaining compounds with Ru and Os. We discuss the type of behaviour of CeM2Al10 on the base of the earlier theoretical phase diagram obtained within the Anderson-lattice model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoshino, Shintaro; Yada, Keiji; Tanaka, Yukio
2016-06-01
Junction systems of odd-frequency (OF) superconductors are investigated based on a mean-field Hamiltonian formalism. One-dimensional two-channel Kondo lattice (TCKL) is taken as a concrete example of OF superconductors. Properties of normal and Andreev reflections are examined in a normal metal/superconductor junction. Unlike conventional superconductors, normal reflection is always present due to the normal self energy that necessarily appears in the present OF pairing state. The conductance reflects the difference between repulsive and attractive potentials located at the interface, which is in contrast with the preexisting superconducting junctions. Josephson junction is also constructed by connecting TCKL with the other types of superconductors. The results can be understood from symmetry of the induced Cooper pairs at the edge in the presence of spin/orbital symmetry breaking. It has also been demonstrated that the symmetry argument for Cooper pairs is useful in explaining Meissner response in bulk.
Spiral to ferromagnetic transition in a Kondo lattice model with a double-well potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caro, R. C.; Franco, R.; Silva-Valencia, J.
2016-02-01
Using the density matrix renormalization group method, we study a system of 171Yb atoms confined in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The atoms in the 1So state undergo a double-well potential, whereas the atoms in the 3P0 state are localized. This system is modelled by the Kondo lattice model plus a double-well potential for the free carries. We obtain phase diagrams composed of ferromagnetic and spiral phases, where the critical points always increase with the interwell tunneling parameter. We conclude that this quantum phase transition can be tuned by the double-well potential parameters as well as by the common parameters: local coupling and density.
Spin-orbital and spin Kondo effects in parallel coupled quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krychowski, D.; Lipiński, S.
2016-02-01
Strong electron correlations and interference effects are discussed in parallel-coupled single-level or orbitally doubly degenerate quantum dots. The finite-U mean-field slave boson approach is used to study many-body effects. The analysis is carried out in a wide range of parameter space including both atomic-like and molecular-like Kondo regimes and taking into account various perturbations, like interdot tunneling, interdot interaction, mixing of the electrode channels, and exchange interaction. We also discuss the influence of singularities of electronic structure and the impact of polarization of electrodes. Special attention is paid to potential spintronic applications of these systems showing how current polarization can be controlled by adjusting interference conditions and correlations by gate voltage. Simple proposals of double dot spin valve and bipolar electrically tunable spin filter are presented.
Low energy properties of the Kondo chain in the RKKY regime
D. H. Schimmel; Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.
2016-05-03
We study the Kondo chain in the regime of high spin concentration where the low energy physics is dominated by the Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida interaction. As has been recently shown (Tsvelik and Yevtushenko 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 216402), this model has two phases with drastically different transport properties depending on the anisotropy of the exchange interaction. In particular, the helical symmetry of the fermions is spontaneously broken when the anisotropy is of the easy plane type. This leads to a parametrical suppression of the localization effects. In the present paper we substantially extend the previous theory, in particular, by analyzing amore » competition of forward- and backward- scattering, including into the theory short range electron interactions and calculating spin correlation functions. In conclusion, we discuss applicability of our theory and possible experiments which could support the theoretical findings.« less
Universality and Scaling in a Charge Two-Channel Kondo Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mitchell, A. K.; Landau, L. A.; Fritz, L.; Sela, E.
2016-04-01
We study a charge two-channel Kondo model, demonstrating that recent experiments [Z. Iftikhar et al, Nature (London) 526, 233 (2015)] realize an essentially perfect quantum simulation—not just of its universal physics, but also nonuniversal effects away from the scaling limit. Numerical renormalization group (RG) calculations yield conductance line shapes encoding RG flow to a critical point involving a free Majorana fermion. By mimicking the experimental protocol, the experimental curve is reproduced quantitatively over 9 orders of magnitude, although we show that far greater bandwidth/temperature separation is required to obtain the universal result. Fermi liquid instabilities are also studied: In particular, our exact analytic results for nonlinear conductance provide predictions away from thermal equilibrium, in the regime of existing experiments.
Low energy properties of the Kondo chain in the RKKY regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schimmel, D. H.; Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.
2016-05-01
We study the Kondo chain in the regime of high spin concentration where the low energy physics is dominated by the Ruderman–Kittel–Kasuya–Yosida interaction. As has been recently shown (Tsvelik and Yevtushenko 2015 Phys. Rev. Lett. 115 216402), this model has two phases with drastically different transport properties depending on the anisotropy of the exchange interaction. In particular, the helical symmetry of the fermions is spontaneously broken when the anisotropy is of the easy plane type. This leads to a parametrical suppression of the localization effects. In the present paper we substantially extend the previous theory, in particular, by analyzing a competition of forward- and backward- scattering, including into the theory short range electron interactions and calculating spin correlation functions. We discuss applicability of our theory and possible experiments which could support the theoretical findings.
Large high quality crystals of the Topological Kondo Insulator, SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balakrishnan, Geetha; Ciomaga Hatnean, Monica; Paul, D. Mck.; Lees, M. R.
2014-03-01
SmB6 has been predicted to be a Topological Kondo Insulator, the first strongly correlated heavy fermion material to exhibit topological surface states. High quality crystals are necessary to investigate the topological properties of this material. Single crystal growth of the rare earth hexaboride, SmB6, has been carried out by the floating zone technique using a high power xenon arc lamp image furnace. Large, high quality single-crystals are obtained by this technique. The crystals produced by the floating zone technique are free of contamination from flux materials and have been characterised by resistivity and magnetisation measurements. These crystals are ideally suited for the investigation of both the surface and bulk properties of SmB6.
Large, high quality single-crystals of the new Topological Kondo Insulator, SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatnean, M. Ciomaga; Lees, M. R.; Paul, D. M. K.; Balakrishnan, G.
2013-10-01
SmB6 has recently been predicted to be a Topological Kondo Insulator, the first strongly correlated heavy fermion material to exhibit topological surface states. High quality crystals are necessary to investigate the topological properties of this material. Single crystal growth of the rare earth hexaboride, SmB6, has been carried out by the floating zone technique using a high power xenon arc lamp image furnace. Large, high quality single-crystals are obtained by this technique. The crystals produced by the floating zone technique are free of contamination from flux materials and have been characterised by resistivity and magnetisation measurements. These crystals are ideally suited for the investigation of both the surface and bulk properties of SmB6.
Quantum phase transition and protected ideal transport in a Kondo chain
Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.
2015-11-30
We study the low energy physics of a Kondo chain where electrons from a one-dimensional band interact with magnetic moments via an anisotropic exchange interaction. It is demonstrated that the anisotropy gives rise to two different phases which are separated by a quantum phase transition. In the phase with easy plane anisotropy, Z2 symmetry between sectors with different helicity of the electrons is broken. As a result, localization effects are suppressed and the dc transport acquires (partial) symmetry protection. This effect is similar to the protection of the edge transport in time-reversal invariant topological insulators. The phase with easy axis anisotropy corresponds to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with a pronounced spin-charge separation. The slow charge density wave modes have no protection against localizatioin.
Quantum phase transition and protected ideal transport in a Kondo chain
Tsvelik, A. M.; Yevtushenko, O. M.
2015-11-30
We study the low energy physics of a Kondo chain where electrons from a one-dimensional band interact with magnetic moments via an anisotropic exchange interaction. It is demonstrated that the anisotropy gives rise to two different phases which are separated by a quantum phase transition. In the phase with easy plane anisotropy, Z2 symmetry between sectors with different helicity of the electrons is broken. As a result, localization effects are suppressed and the dc transport acquires (partial) symmetry protection. This effect is similar to the protection of the edge transport in time-reversal invariant topological insulators. The phase with easy axismore » anisotropy corresponds to the Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid with a pronounced spin-charge separation. The slow charge density wave modes have no protection against localizatioin.« less
Foundations of heavy-fermion superconductivity: lattice Kondo effect and Mott physics.
Steglich, Frank; Wirth, Steffen
2016-08-01
This article overviews the development of heavy-fermion superconductivity, notably in such rare-earth-based intermetallic compounds which behave as Kondo-lattice systems. Heavy-fermion superconductivity is of unconventional nature in the sense that it is not mediated by electron-phonon coupling. Rather, in most cases the attractive interaction between charge carriers is apparently magnetic in origin. Fluctuations associated with an antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP) play a major role. The first heavy-fermion superconductor CeCu2Si2 turned out to be the prototype of a larger group of materials for which the underlying, often pressure-induced, AF QCP is likely to be of a three-dimensional (3D) spin-density-wave (SDW) variety. For UBe13, the second heavy-fermion superconductor, a magnetic-field-induced 3D SDW QCP inside the superconducting phase can be conjectured. Such a 'conventional', itinerant QCP can be well understood within Landau's paradigm of order-parameter fluctuations. In contrast, the low-temperature normal-state properties of a few heavy-fermion superconductors are at odds with the Landau framework. They are characterized by an 'unconventional', local QCP which may be considered a zero-temperature 4 f-orbital selective Mott transition. Here, as concluded for YbRh2Si2, the breakdown of the Kondo effect concurring with the AF instability gives rise to an abrupt change of the Fermi surface. Very recently, superconductivity was discovered for this compound at ultra-low temperatures. Therefore, YbRh2Si2 along with CeRhIn5 under pressure provide a natural link between the large group of about fifty low-temperature heavy-fermion superconductors and other families of unconventional superconductors with substantially higher T c, e.g. the doped Mott insulators of the perovskite-type cuprates and the organic charge-transfer salts. PMID:27376190
Foundations of heavy-fermion superconductivity: lattice Kondo effect and Mott physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steglich, Frank; Wirth, Steffen
2016-08-01
This article overviews the development of heavy-fermion superconductivity, notably in such rare-earth-based intermetallic compounds which behave as Kondo-lattice systems. Heavy-fermion superconductivity is of unconventional nature in the sense that it is not mediated by electron-phonon coupling. Rather, in most cases the attractive interaction between charge carriers is apparently magnetic in origin. Fluctuations associated with an antiferromagnetic (AF) quantum critical point (QCP) play a major role. The first heavy-fermion superconductor CeCu2Si2 turned out to be the prototype of a larger group of materials for which the underlying, often pressure-induced, AF QCP is likely to be of a three-dimensional (3D) spin-density-wave (SDW) variety. For UBe13, the second heavy-fermion superconductor, a magnetic-field-induced 3D SDW QCP inside the superconducting phase can be conjectured. Such a ‘conventional’, itinerant QCP can be well understood within Landau’s paradigm of order-parameter fluctuations. In contrast, the low-temperature normal-state properties of a few heavy-fermion superconductors are at odds with the Landau framework. They are characterized by an ‘unconventional’, local QCP which may be considered a zero-temperature 4 f-orbital selective Mott transition. Here, as concluded for YbRh2Si2, the breakdown of the Kondo effect concurring with the AF instability gives rise to an abrupt change of the Fermi surface. Very recently, superconductivity was discovered for this compound at ultra-low temperatures. Therefore, YbRh2Si2 along with CeRhIn5 under pressure provide a natural link between the large group of about fifty low-temperature heavy-fermion superconductors and other families of unconventional superconductors with substantially higher T c, e.g. the doped Mott insulators of the perovskite-type cuprates and the organic charge-transfer salts.
Weisser, Thomas; Groby, Jean-Philippe; Dazel, Olivier; Gaultier, François; Deckers, Elke; Futatsugi, Sideto; Monteiro, Luciana
2016-02-01
The acoustic response of a rigidly backed poroelastic layer with a periodic set of elastic cylindrical inclusions embedded is studied. A semi-analytical approach is presented, based on Biot's 1956 theory to account for the deformation of the skeleton, coupling mode matching technique, Bloch wave representation, and multiple scattering theory. This model is validated by comparing the derived absorption coefficients to finite element simulations. Numerical results are further exposed to investigate the influence of the properties of the inclusions (type, material properties, size) of this structure, while a modal analysis is performed to characterize the dynamic behaviors leading to high acoustic absorption. Particularly, in the case of thin viscoelastic membranes, an absorption coefficient larger than 0.8 is observed on a wide frequency band. This property is found to be due to the coupling between the first volume mode of the inclusion and the trapped mode induced by the periodic array and the rigid backing, for a wavelength in the air smaller than 11 times the material thickness. PMID:26936546
Conduction electron spin resonance in the α-Yb1-xFexAlB4 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.50) and α-LuAlB4 compounds.
Holanda, L M; Lesseux, G G; Magnavita, E T; Ribeiro, R A; Nakatsuji, S; Kuga, K; Fisk, Z; Oseroff, S B; Urbano, R R; Rettori, C; Pagliuso, P G
2015-07-01
β-YbAlB4 has become one of the most studied heavy fermion systems since its discovery due to its remarkable physical properties. This system is the first reported Yb-based heavy-fermion superconductor (HFS) for which the low-T superconducting state emerges from a non-fermi-liquid (NFL) normal state associated with quantum criticality Nakatsuji et al 2008 Nature 4 603. Additionally, it presents a striking and unprecedented electron spin resonance (ESR) signal which behaves as a conduction electron spin resonance (CESR) at high temperatures and acquires features of the Yb(3+) local moment ESR at low temperatures. The latter, also named Kondo quasiparticles spin resonance (KQSR), has been defined as a 4f-ce strongly coupled ESR mode that behaves as a local probe of the Kondo quasiparticles in a quantum critical regime, Holanda et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 026402. Interestingly, β-YbAlB4 possesses a previously known structural variant, namely the α-YbAlB4, phase which is a paramagnetic Fermi liquid (FL) at low temperatures Macaluso et al 2007 Chem. Mater. 19 1918. However, it has been recently suggested that the α-YbAlB4 phase may be tuned to NFL behavior and/or magnetic ordering as the compound is doped with Fe. Here we report ESR studies on the α-Yb1-xFexAlB4 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.50) series as well as on the reference compound α-LuAlB4. For all measured samples, the observed ESR signal behaves as a CESR in the entire temperature range (10 K ≲ T ≲ 300 K) in clear contrast with what has been observed for β-YbAlB4. This striking result indicates that the proximity to a quantum critical point is crucial to the occurrence of a KQSR signal. PMID:26045483
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pixley, J. H.; Yu, Rong; Si, Qimiao
2014-10-01
Considerable recent theoretical and experimental effort has been devoted to the study of quantum criticality and novel phases of antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion metals. In particular, quantum phase transitions have been discovered in heavy-fermion compounds with geometrical frustration. These developments have motivated us to study the competition between the Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida and Kondo interactions on the Shastry-Sutherland lattice. We determine the zero-temperature phase diagram as a function of magnetic frustration and Kondo coupling within a slave-fermion approach. Pertinent phases include the valence bond solid and heavy Fermi liquid. In the presence of antiferromagnetic order, our zero-temperature phase diagram is remarkably similar to the global phase diagram proposed earlier based on general grounds. We discuss the implications of our results for the experiments on Yb2Pt2Pb and related compounds.
Talley Watts, Lora; Long, Justin Alexander; Boggs, Robert Cole; Manga, Hemanth; Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q
2016-01-15
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a primary cause of death and disability in both civilian and military populations worldwide. There is a critical need for the development of neuroprotective agents that can circumvent damage and provide functional recovery. We previously showed that methylene blue (MB), a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-grandfathered drug with energy-enhancing and antioxidant properties, given 1 and 3 h post-TBI, had neuroprotective effects in rats. This study aimed to further investigate the neuroprotection of delayed MB treatment (24 h postinjury) post-TBI as measured by lesion volume and functional outcomes. Comparisons were made with vehicle and acute MB treatment. Multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral studies were performed at 1 and 3 h and 2, 7, and 14 days after an impact to the primary forelimb somatosensory cortex. We found that delaying MB treatment 24 h postinjury still minimized lesion volume and functional deficits, compared to vehicle-treated animals. The data further support the potential for MB as a neuroprotective treatment, especially when medical teatment is not readily available. MB has an excellent safety profile and is clinically approved for other indications. MB clinical trials on TBI can thus be readily explored. PMID:25961471
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Shixuan
Control over charge and spin states at the single molecule level is crucial not only for a fundamental understanding of charge and spin interactions but also represents a prerequisite for development of molecular electronics and spintronics. In this talk, I will talk about the extended spin distribution in space beyond the central Mn ion, and onto the non-magnetic constituent atoms of the MnPc molecule. This extended spin distribution results in an extended Kondo effect, which can be explained by spin polarization induced by symmetry breaking of the molecular framework, as confirmed by DFT calculations. Measuring the evolution of the Kondo splitting with applied magnetic fields at different atomic sites, we find a spatial variation of the g-factor within a single molecule for the first time. The existence of atomic site-dependent g-factors can be attributed to specific molecular orbitals distributed over the entire molecule. This work not only open up a new opportunity for quantum information recording, but also provide a new route to explore the internal electronic and spin structure of complex molecules, hard to achieve otherwise. (L. W. Liu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2015, 114, 126601. In collaboration with Liwei Liu, Kai Yang, Yuhang Jiang, Li Gao, Qi Liu, Boqun Song, Wende Xiao, Haitao Zhou, Hongjun Gao in CAS, Min Ouyang in MU, and A.H. Castro Neto in SNU.) Revealing the Atomic Site-Dependent g Factor within a Single Magnetic Molecule via the Extended Kondo Effect.
Non-Kondo-like electronic structure in the correlated rare-earth hexaboride YbB6
Neupane, Madhab; Xu, Su -Yang; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Kim, D. J.; Liu, Chang; Belopolski, I.; Chang, T. -R.; Jeng, H. -T.; Durakiewicz, T.; et al
2015-01-07
Here, we present angle-resolved photoemission studies on the rare-earth-hexaboride YbB6, which has recently been predicted to be a topological Kondo insulator. Our data do not agree with the prediction and instead show that YbB6 exhibits a novel topological insulator state in the absence of a Kondo mechanism. We find that the Fermi level electronic structure of YbB6 has three 2D Dirac cone like surface states enclosing the Kramers’s points, while the f orbital that would be relevant for the Kondo mechanism is ~1 eV below the Fermi level. Our first-principles calculation shows that the topological state that we observe inmore » YbB6 is due to an inversion between Yb d and B p bands. These experimental and theoretical results provide a new approach for realizing novel correlated topological insulator states in rare-earth materials.« less
Patil, S.; Generalov, A.; Güttler, M.; Kushwaha, P.; Chikina, A.; Kummer, K.; Rödel, T. C.; Santander-Syro, A. F.; Caroca-Canales, N.; Geibel, C.; Danzenbächer, S.; Kucherenko, Yu.; Laubschat, C.; Allen, J. W.; Vyalikh, D. V.
2016-01-01
The hybridization between localized 4f electrons and itinerant electrons in rare-earth-based materials gives rise to their exotic properties like valence fluctuations, Kondo behaviour, heavy-fermions, or unconventional superconductivity. Here we present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of the Kondo lattice antiferromagnet CeRh2Si2, where the surface and bulk Ce-4f spectral responses were clearly resolved. The pronounced 4f 0 peak seen for the Ce terminated surface gets strongly suppressed in the bulk Ce-4f spectra taken from a Si-terminated crystal due to much larger f-d hybridization. Most interestingly, the bulk Ce-4f spectra reveal a fine structure near the Fermi edge reflecting the crystal electric field splitting of the bulk magnetic 4f 15/2 state. This structure presents a clear dispersion upon crossing valence states, providing direct evidence of f-d hybridization. Our findings give precise insight into f-d hybridization penomena and highlight their importance in the antiferromagnetic phases of Kondo lattices. PMID:26987899
Patil, S; Generalov, A; Güttler, M; Kushwaha, P; Chikina, A; Kummer, K; Rödel, T C; Santander-Syro, A F; Caroca-Canales, N; Geibel, C; Danzenbächer, S; Kucherenko, Yu; Laubschat, C; Allen, J W; Vyalikh, D V
2016-01-01
The hybridization between localized 4f electrons and itinerant electrons in rare-earth-based materials gives rise to their exotic properties like valence fluctuations, Kondo behaviour, heavy-fermions, or unconventional superconductivity. Here we present an angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) study of the Kondo lattice antiferromagnet CeRh2Si2, where the surface and bulk Ce-4f spectral responses were clearly resolved. The pronounced 4f (0) peak seen for the Ce terminated surface gets strongly suppressed in the bulk Ce-4f spectra taken from a Si-terminated crystal due to much larger f-d hybridization. Most interestingly, the bulk Ce-4f spectra reveal a fine structure near the Fermi edge reflecting the crystal electric field splitting of the bulk magnetic 4f (1)5/2 state. This structure presents a clear dispersion upon crossing valence states, providing direct evidence of f-d hybridization. Our findings give precise insight into f-d hybridization penomena and highlight their importance in the antiferromagnetic phases of Kondo lattices. PMID:26987899
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eder, R.; Wróbel, P.
2011-07-01
We study the two-dimensional Kondo lattice model with an additional Heisenberg exchange between localized spins. In a first step, we use mean-field theory with two order parameters. The first order parameter is a complex pairing amplitude between conduction electrons and localized spins that describes condensation of Kondo (or Zhang-Rice) singlets. A nonvanishing value implies that the localized spins contribute to the Fermi surface volume. The second-order parameter describes singlet pairing between the localized spins and competes with the Kondo-pairing order parameter. Reduction of the carrier density in the conduction band reduces the energy gain due to the formation of the large Fermi surface and induces a phase transition to a state with strong singlet correlations between the localized spins and a Fermi surface that comprises only the conduction electrons. The model thus shows a doping driven change of its Fermi surface volume. At intermediate doping and low temperature, there is a phase where both order parameters coexist, which has a gapped large Fermi surface and dx2-y2 superconductivity. The theory thus qualitatively reproduces the phase diagram of cuprate superconductors. In the second part of this paper, we show how the two phases with different Fermi surface volume emerge in a strong-coupling theory applicable in the limit of large Kondo exchange. The large Fermi surface phase corresponds to a “vacuum” of localized Kondo singlets with uniform phase, and the quasiparticles are spin-1/2 charge fluctuations around this fully paired state. In the small Fermi surface phase, the quasiparticles correspond to propagating Kondo singlets or triplets whereby the phase of a given Kondo singlet corresponds to its momentum. In this picture, a phase transition occurs for low filling of the conduction band as well.
Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior in Metallic Quasicrystals with Local Magnetic Moments.
Andrade, Eric C; Jagannathan, Anuradha; Miranda, Eduardo; Vojta, Matthias; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir
2015-07-17
Motivated by the intrinsic non-Fermi-liquid behavior observed in the heavy-fermion quasicrystal Au51Al34Yb15, we study the low-temperature behavior of dilute magnetic impurities placed in metallic quasicrystals. We find that a large fraction of the magnetic moments are not quenched down to very low temperatures T, leading to a power-law distribution of Kondo temperatures P(T(K))∼T(K)(α-1), with a nonuniversal exponent α, in a remarkable similarity to the Kondo-disorder scenario found in disordered heavy-fermion metals. For α<1, the resulting singular P(T(K)) induces non-Fermi-liquid behavior with diverging thermodynamic responses as T→0. PMID:26230810
Non-Fermi-Liquid Behavior in Metallic Quasicrystals with Local Magnetic Moments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrade, Eric C.; Jagannathan, Anuradha; Miranda, Eduardo; Vojta, Matthias; Dobrosavljević, Vladimir
2015-07-01
Motivated by the intrinsic non-Fermi-liquid behavior observed in the heavy-fermion quasicrystal Au51Al34Yb15 , we study the low-temperature behavior of dilute magnetic impurities placed in metallic quasicrystals. We find that a large fraction of the magnetic moments are not quenched down to very low temperatures T , leading to a power-law distribution of Kondo temperatures P (TK)˜TKα -1, with a nonuniversal exponent α , in a remarkable similarity to the Kondo-disorder scenario found in disordered heavy-fermion metals. For α <1 , the resulting singular P (TK) induces non-Fermi-liquid behavior with diverging thermodynamic responses as T →0 .
Various Kondo Effects for a Model Cerium Impurity in Normal Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Tae-Suk
1995-11-01
In this dissertation, we study a realistic extension of the conventional simple approach to the Kondo effect for Cerium(Ce^{3+}) ions, including the finite Coulomb interaction, the strong spin -orbit coupling, the crystal electric field effect, and multiple configurations in their simplest form. In the conventional approach, the f^2 configuration was removed from the problem, assuming the infinite on-site Coulomb interaction. Then only the one-channel exchange interaction is present between f ^0 and f^1 configurations for Ce ions. Relaxing the infinite on-site Coulomb interaction and including the detailed atomic energy structure leads to rich physics. Keeping the lowest lying doublet in the f^1 configuration, we find various exchange interactions which were missing in the conventional theory. In the hybridization between f^1 and f^2 configurations, we find with the impurity pseudospin S_ {I} = 1/2: (i) a two-channel exchange interaction with the conduction electron pseudo spin S _{c} = 1/2; (ii) a one-channel exchange interaction with the conduction electron pseudo spin S_{c} 3/2; (iii) One-channel ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic exchange interactions with the conduction electron pseudo spin S_{c} = 1/2; (iv) Mixing exchange interactions among the conduction electrons belonging to the different partial wave channels. We analyze various exchange interactions using the scaling theory to study the stability of non-Fermi liquid fixed points. In this model study, we find only three types of stable fixed points. The well-studied one -channel strong coupling fixed point is stable. The two -channel fixed point of model (i) remains stable even in the presence of the channel symmetry breaking and channel mixing interactions. The unexpected three-channel fixed point of the combined model for (i) and (iii) is stable. Furthermore, we discovered a "zoo" of unstable fixed points where all kinds of exchange interactions are realized. Using the non-crossing approximation, we
Kondo Physics at Interfaces in Metallic Non-Local Spin Transport Devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leighton, Chris
2015-03-01
Despite the maturity of metallic spintronics there remain large gaps in our understanding of spin transport in metals, particularly with injection of spins across ferromagnetic/non-magnetic (FM/NM) interfaces, and their subsequent diffusion and relaxation. Unresolved issues include the limits of applicability of Elliott-Yafet spin relaxation, quantification of the influence of defects, surfaces, and interfaces on spin relaxation at nanoscopic dimensions, and the importance of magnetic and spin-orbit scattering. The non-local spin-valve is an enabling device in this context as, in addition to offering potentially disruptive applications, it allows for the separation of charge and spin currents. One particularly perplexing issue in metallic non-local spin valves is the widely observed non-monotonicity in the T-dependent spin accumulation, where the spin signal actually decreases at low T, in contrast to simple expectations. In this work, by studying an expanded range of FM/NM combinations (encompassing Ni80Fe20, Ni, Fe, Co, Cu, and Al), we demonstrate that this effect is not a property of a given FM or NM, but rather of the FM/NM pair. The non-monotonicity is in fact strongly correlated with the ability of the FM to form a dilute local magnetic moment in the NM. We show that local moments, resulting in this case from the ppm-level tail of the FM/NM interdiffusion profile, suppress the injected spin polarization and diffusion length via a novel manifestation of the Kondo effect, explaining all observations associated with the low T downturn in spin accumulation. We further show: (a) that this effect can be promoted by thermal annealing, at which point the conventional charge transport Kondo effect is simultaneously detected in the NM, and (b) that this suppression in spin accumulation can be quenched, even at interfaces that are highly susceptible to the effect, by insertion of a thin non-moment-supporting interlayer. Important implications for room temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, J.; Roy, B.; Tanatar, M. A.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Prozorov, R.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.
2015-11-01
We report 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of single-crystalline Ca (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 (x =0.023 , 0.028, 0.033, and 0.059) annealed at 350 °C for 7 days. From the observation of a characteristic shape of 75As NMR spectra in the stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, as in the case of x =0 (TN=170 K), clear evidence for the commensurate AFM phase transition with the concomitant structural phase transition is observed in x =0.023 (TN=106 K) and x =0.028 (TN=53 K). Through the temperature dependence of the Knight shifts and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1 /T1 ), although stripe-type AFM spin fluctuations are realized in the paramagnetic state as in the case of other iron pnictide superconductors, we found a gradual decrease of the AFM spin fluctuations below a crossover temperature T* that was nearly independent of Co-substitution concentration, and it is attributed to a pseudogaplike behavior in the spin excitation spectra of these systems. The T* feature finds correlation with features in the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity, ρc(T ) , but not with the in-plane resistivity ρa(T ) . The temperature evolution of anisotropic stripe-type AFM spin fluctuations is tracked in the paramagnetic and pseudogap phases by the 1 /T1 data measured under magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the c axis. Based on our NMR data, we have added a pseudogaplike phase to the magnetic and electronic phase diagram of Ca (Fe1-xCox) 2As2 .
Cui, J.; Roy, B.; Tanatar, M. A.; Ran, S.; Bud'ko, S. L.; Prozorov, R.; Canfield, P. C.; Furukawa, Y.
2015-11-06
We report 75As nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of single-crystalline Ca(Fe1–xCox)2As2 (x=0.023, 0.028, 0.033, and 0.059) annealed at 350°C for 7 days. From the observation of a characteristic shape of 75As NMR spectra in the stripe-type antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, as in the case of x=0 (TN=170 K), clear evidence for the commensurate AFM phase transition with the concomitant structural phase transition is observed in x=0.023 (TN=106 K) and x=0.028 (TN=53 K). Through the temperature dependence of the Knight shifts and the nuclear spin lattice relaxation rates (1/T1), although stripe-type AFM spin fluctuations are realized in the paramagnetic state as inmore » the case of other iron pnictide superconductors, we found a gradual decrease of the AFM spin fluctuations below a crossover temperature T* that was nearly independent of Co-substitution concentration, and it is attributed to a pseudogaplike behavior in the spin excitation spectra of these systems. The T* feature finds correlation with features in the temperature-dependent interplane resistivity, ρc(T), but not with the in-plane resistivity ρa(T). The temperature evolution of anisotropic stripe-type AFM spin fluctuations is tracked in the paramagnetic and pseudogap phases by the 1/T1 data measured under magnetic fields parallel and perpendicular to the c axis. As a result, based on our NMR data, we have added a pseudogaplike phase to the magnetic and electronic phase diagram of Ca(Fe1–xCox)2As2.« less
Hybridization gap and Fano resonance in SmB6
Rößler, Sahana; Jang, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Tjeng, L. H.; Fisk, Zachary; Steglich, Frank; Wirth, Steffen
2014-01-01
Hybridization between conduction electrons and the strongly interacting f-electrons in rare earth or actinide compounds may result in new states of matter. Depending on the exact location of the concomitant hybridization gap with respect to the Fermi energy, a heavy fermion or an insulating ground state ensues. To study this entanglement locally, we conducted scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STS) measurements on the “Kondo insulator” SmB6. The vast majority of surface areas investigated were reconstructed, but infrequently, patches of varying sizes of nonreconstructed Sm- or B-terminated surfaces also were found. On the smallest patches, clear indications for the hybridization gap with logarithmic temperature dependence (as expected for a Kondo system) and for intermultiplet transitions were observed. On nonreconstructed surface areas large enough for coherent cotunneling, we were able to observe clear-cut Fano resonances. Our locally resolved STS indicated considerable finite conductance on all surfaces independent of their structure, not proving but leaving open the possibility of the existence of a topologically protected surface state. PMID:24639519
One-dimensional edge state transport in a topological Kondo insulator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Syers, Paul; Wang, Xiangfeng; Wang, Renxiong; Paglione, Johnpierre
2016-03-01
Topological insulators, with metallic boundary states protected against time-reversal-invariant perturbations, are a promising avenue for realizing exotic quantum states of matter, including various excitations of collective modes predicted in particle physics, such as Majorana fermions and axions. According to theoretical predictions, a topological insulating state can emerge from not only a weakly interacting system with strong spin-orbit coupling, but also in insulators driven by strong electron correlations. The Kondo insulator compound SmB6 is an ideal candidate for realizing this exotic state of matter, with hybridization between itinerant conduction electrons and localized f-electrons driving an insulating gap and metallic surface states at low temperatures. Here we exploit the existence of surface ferromagnetism in SmB6 to investigate the topological nature of metallic surface states by studying magnetotransport properties at very low temperatures. We find evidence of one-dimensional surface transport with a quantized conductance value of e2/h originating from the chiral edge channels of ferromagnetic domain walls, providing strong evidence that topologically non-trivial surface states exist in SmB6.
Magnetic doping and kondo effect in bi(2)se(3) nanoribbons.
Cha, Judy J; Williams, James R; Kong, Desheng; Meister, Stefan; Peng, Hailin; Bestwick, Andrew J; Gallagher, Patrick; Goldhaber-Gordon, David; Cui, Yi
2010-03-10
A simple surface band structure and a large bulk band gap have allowed Bi2Se3 to become a reference material for the newly discovered three-dimensional topological insulators, which exhibit topologically protected conducting surface states that reside inside the bulk band gap. Studying topological insulators such as Bi2Se3 in nanostructures is advantageous because of the high surface-to-volume ratio, which enhances effects from the surface states; recently reported Aharonov-Bohm oscillation in topological insulator nanoribbons by some of us is a good example. Theoretically, introducing magnetic impurities in topological insulators is predicted to open a small gap in the surface states by breaking time-reversal symmetry. Here, we present synthesis of magnetically doped Bi2Se3 nanoribbons by vapor-liquid-solid growth using magnetic metal thin films as catalysts. Although the doping concentration is less than approximately 2%, low-temperature transport measurements of the Fe-doped Bi2Se3 nanoribbon devices show a clear Kondo effect at temperatures below 30 K, confirming the presence of magnetic impurities in the Bi2Se3 nanoribbons. The capability to dope topological insulator nanostructures magnetically opens up exciting opportunities for spintronics. PMID:20131918
Incomplete Protection of the Surface Weyl Cones of Kondo Insulators: Spin Exciton Scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riseborough, Peter; Kapilevich, Gary A.>; Gray, Alex; Gulacsi, Miklos; Durakiewicz, Tomasz; Smith, James L.
The material SmB6 is a Kondo Insulator, where the lowest-energy bulk electronic excitations are spin excitons. The material also has surface states which are subjected to strong spin-orbit coupling. It has been suggested that SmB6 is also a topological insulator. Here we show that, despite the absence of time-reversal symmetry breaking and the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling, the chiral spin texture of the Weyl cone is not completely protected. In particular, we show that the spin-exciton mediated scattering produces features in the surface electronic spectrum at energies separated from the surface Fermi-energy by the spin-exciton energy. Despite the features being far removed from the surface Fermi-energy, the features are extremely temperature dependent. The temperature variation occurs over a characteristic scale determined by the dispersion of the spin exciton. The structures may be observed by electron spectroscopy at low temperatures. US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, via the Award DE-FG02-01ER45872.
Strong correlations in Kondo topological insulators: Two-dimensional heavy fermions, and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolic, Predrag
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6) is a candidate topological insulator with strong electron correlations. Empowered by the time-reversal (TR) symmetry and topology, the low-energy surface states of hybridized samarium's d and f orbitals can exhibit a rich two-dimensional heavy-fermion phenomenology. This talk will survey several interesting possibilities for correlated surface states, which depend on microscopic surface conditions. A pronounced participation of the f orbitals is expected to create a heavy-fermion Dirac metal, possibly unstable to spin density waves, superconductivity, or exotic Mott insulators (e.g. algebraic and non-Abelian spin liquids). The opposite limit of ``localized magnetic moments'' can produce a non-Fermi liquid of d electrons that exhibits two-dimensional quantum electrodynamics. Ultrathin films made from topological Kondo insulators can host lattices of SU(2) vortices, which need not break the TR symmetry. Landau-Ginzburg theory and numerical model calculations reveal the nature and stability of such vortex lattices, while field theory arguments predict that their quantum melting could yield novel incompressible quantum liquids with non-Abelian fractional excitations.
Two-dimensional Fermi surfaces in Kondo insulating SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Gang
There has been renewed interest in Samarium Hexaboride, which is a strongly correlated heavy Fermion material. Hybridization between itinerant electrons and localized orbitals lead to an opening of charge gap at low temperature. However, the resistivity of SmB6 does not diverge at low temperature. Former studies suggested that this residual conductance is contributed by various origins. Recent theoretical developments suggest that the particular symmetry of energy bands of SmB6 may host a topologically non-trivial surface state, i.e., a topological Kondo insulator. To probe the Fermiology of the possible metallic surface state, we use sensitive torque magnetometry to detect the de Haas van Alphen (dHvA) effect due to Landau level quantization on flux-grown crystals, down to He-3 temperature and up to 45 Tesla. Our angular and temperature dependent data suggest two-dimensional Fermi Surfaces lie in both crystalline (001) and (101) surface planes of SmB6.
Magnetic-field-tunable Kondo effect in alkaline-earth cold atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Isaev, Leonid; Rey, Ana Maria
2015-05-01
We study quantum magnetism in strongly interacting fermionic alkaline-earth atoms (AEAs). Due to the decoupling of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom, AEAs in two lowest electronic states (1S0 and 3P0) obey an accurate SU(N 2 I + 1) symmetry in their two-body collisions (I is the nuclear spin). We consider a system that realizes the simplest SU(2) case (for atoms prepared in two nuclear-spin states) in an optical lattice with two bands: one localized and one itinerant. For the fully filled narrow band (two atoms per lattice site) we demonstrate that an applied magnetic field provides an efficient control of the local ground state degeneracy due to mixing of spin and orbital two-body states. We derive an effective low-energy model that includes this magnetic-field effect as well as atomic interactions in the two optical lattice bands, and show that it exhibits a peculiar phenomenon of a magnetic field-induced Kondo effect, so far observed only in Coulomb blockaded quantum dots. We expect that our results can be tested with ultracold 173 Yb or 87 Sr atoms. Supported by JILA-NSF-PFC-1125844, NSF-PIF-1211914, ARO, AFOSR, AFOSR-MURI.
Guerrero, M.; Yu, C.C.
1995-04-15
In order to better understand Kondo insulators, we have studied both the symmetric and asymmetric Anderson lattices at half filling in one dimension using the density-matrix formulation of the numerical renormalization group. The asymmetric case is treated in the mixed-valence regime. We have calculated the charge gap, the spin gap, and the quasiparticle gap as a function of the repulsive interaction {ital U} using open boundary conditions for lattices as large as 24 sites. We find that the charge gap is larger than the spin gap for all {ital U} for both the symmetric and asymmetric cases. Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida interactions are evident in the {ital f}-spin--{ital f}-spin correlation functions at large {ital U} in the symmetric case, but are suppressed in the asymmetric case as the {ital f} level approaches the Fermi energy. This suppression can also be seen in the staggered susceptibility {chi}({ital q}=2{ital k}{sub {ital F}}) and it is consistent with neutron scattering measurements of {chi}({ital q}) in CeNiSn.
Dispersive tristability in microring resonators.
Dumeige, Yannick; Féron, Patrice
2005-12-01
Combining a transfer matrix analysis and slowly varying envelope approximation, we propose a simple method to describe steady states associated with dispersive multistability in coupled microring resonators. This approach allows us to consider nonlinear interactions between independent forward and backward propagative fields. We applied this simple formalism first to decrease the tristability intensity threshold in linearly coupled resonators and second to optically control the tristable behavior in a single microring resonator. PMID:16486080
Scaling in the Emergent Behavior of Heavy Electron Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curro, N.; Young, B.-L.; Pines, D.; Schmalian, Joerg
2004-03-01
We show that the two fluid description of the Kondo lattice developed by Nakatsuji, Pines, and Fisk provides a quantitative explanation of the Knight shift anomaly that has been measured in a number of heavy electron materials. It enables us to identify the onset of the anomaly at a temperature, T, at which the heavy electron liquid emerges from a lattice of non-interacting Kondo centers, and to determine quantitatively the temperature evolution of the heavy electron spin susceptibility by combining measurements of the temperature dependence of the Knight shift with those of the bulk electronic spin susceptibility. We find that an excellent fit to existing experimental data in Ce, Yb and U based materials is obtained with a susceptibility whose temperature dependence follows the simple form: (1-T/T*)log T^*/T; a result that suggests that quite generally in Kondo lattices the emergent behavior of the heavy electron liquid can be characterized entirely by the single energy scale, T^*, that Nakatsuji et al. have proposed is a direct measure of the strength of nearest neighbor intersite magnetic coupling.
Field dependence of the magnon dispersion in the Kondo lattice CeCu2 up to 12 T
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schedler, R.; Witte, U.; Rotter, M.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Schmidt, W.
2005-05-01
CeCu2 can be classified as a Kondo lattice which shows antiferromagnetic (AF) order below TN=3.5K [R. Trump et al., J. Appl. Phys. 69, 4699 (1991)]. The orthorhombic crystal and the simple AF magnetic structure with two magnetic moments in the primitive unit cell requires two magnon modes which are observed in zero and low magnetic fields and well described by spin wave theory. However, at higher fields, at and above 3T, an unexpected, additional magnetic excitation is observed. In contrast to the two low-energy magnon modes, it exhibits a steeper (factor 2) field dependence and a flat dispersion. Its origin is unclear.
Keres, L.J.
1990-11-01
The purpose of this project was to develop quartz crystal resonator designs, production processes, and test capabilities for 5-MHz, 6.2-MHz, and 10-MHz resonators for Tactical Miniature Crystal Oscillator (TMXO) applications. GE Neutron Devices (GEND) established and demonstrated the capability to produce and test quartz crystal resonators for use in the TMXO developed by the US Army ERADCOM (now LABCOM). The goals in this project were based on the ERADCOM statement of work. The scope of work indicated that the resonator production facilities for this project would not be completely independent, but that they would be supported in part by equipment and processes in place at GEND used in US Department of Energy (DOE) work. In addition, provisions for production test equipment or or eventual technology transfer costs to a commercial supplier were clearly excluded from the scope of work. The demonstrated technical capability of the deep-etched blank design is feasible and practical. It can be manufactured in quantity with reasonable yield, and its performance is readily predictable. The ceramic flatpack is a very strong package with excellent hermeticity. The four-point mount supports the crystal to reasonable shock levels and does not perturb the resonator's natural frequency-temperature behavior. The package can be sealed with excellent yields. The high-temperature, high-vacuum processing developed for the TMXO resonator, including bonding the piezoid to its mount with conductive polyimide adhesive, is consistent with precision resonator fabrication. 1 fig., 6 tabs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nghiem, H. T. M.; Kennes, D. M.; Klöckner, C.; Meden, V.; Costi, T. A.
2016-04-01
We investigate the thermodynamics and transient dynamics of the (unbiased) Ohmic two-state system by exploiting the equivalence of this model to the interacting resonant level model. For the thermodynamics, we show, by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method, how the universal specific heat and susceptibility curves evolve with increasing dissipation strength α from those of an isolated two-level system at vanishingly small dissipation strength, with the characteristic activatedlike behavior in this limit, to those of the isotropic Kondo model in the limit α →1- . At any finite α >0 , and for sufficiently low temperature, the behavior of the thermodynamics is that of a gapless renormalized Fermi liquid. Our results compare well with available Bethe ansatz calculations at rational values of α , but go beyond these, since our NRG calculations, via the interacting resonant level model, can be carried out efficiently and accurately for arbitrary dissipation strengths 0 ≤α <1- . We verify the dramatic renormalization of the low-energy thermodynamic scale T0 with increasing α , finding excellent agreement between NRG and density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) approaches. For the zero-temperature transient dynamics of the two-level system, P (t ) =<σz(t ) > , with initial-state preparation P (t ≤0 )=+1 , we apply the time-dependent extension of the NRG (TDNRG) to the interacting resonant level model, and compare the results obtained with those from the noninteracting-blip approximation (NIBA), the functional renormalization group (FRG), and the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group (TD-DMRG). We demonstrate excellent agreement on short to intermediate time scales between TDNRG and TD-DMRG for 0 ≲α ≲0.9 for P (t ) , and between TDNRG and FRG in the vicinity of α =1/2 . Furthermore, we quantify the error in the NIBA for a range of α , finding significant errors in the latter even for 0.1 ≤α ≤0.4 . We also briefly
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Müller, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.
2014-03-01
Francis turbines operating at part load condition experience the development of a cavitating helical vortex rope in the draft tube cone at the runner outlet. The precession movement of this vortex rope induces local convective pressure fluctuations and a synchronous pressure pulsation acting as a forced excitation for the hydraulic system, propagating in the entire system. In the draft tube, synchronous pressure fluctuations with a frequency different to the precession frequency may also be observed in presence of cavitation. In the case of a matching between the precession frequency and the synchronous surge frequency, hydro-acoustic resonance occurs in the draft tube inducing high pressure fluctuations throughout the entire hydraulic system, causing torque and power pulsations. The risk of such resonances limits the possible extension of the Francis turbine operating range. A more precise knowledge of the phenomenon occurring at such resonance conditions and prediction capabilities of the induced pressure pulsations needs therefore to be developed. This paper proposes a detailed study of the occurrence of hydro-acoustic resonance for one particular part load operating point featuring a well-developed precessing vortex rope and corresponding to 64% of the BEP. It focuses particularly on the evolution of the local interaction between the pressure fluctuations at the precession frequency and the synchronous surge mode passing through the resonance condition. For this purpose, an experimental investigation is performed on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine, including pressure fluctuation measurements in the draft tube and in the upstream piping system. Changing the pressure level in the draft tube, resonance occurrences are highlighted for different Froude numbers. The evolution of the hydro-acoustic response of the system suggests that a lock-in effect between the excitation frequency and the natural frequency may occur at low Froude number, inducing a hydro
NMR relaxation in the topological Kondo insulator SmB6
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schlottmann, P.
2014-10-01
SmB6 has been predicted to be a strong topological Kondo insulator, and experimentally it has been confirmed that at low temperatures the electrical conductivity only takes place at the surfaces of the crystal. We study the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the NMR Knight shift and relaxation rate arising from the topological conduction states. For the clean surface the Landau quantization of the surface states gives rise to highly degenerate discrete levels for which the Knight shift is proportional to the magnetic field B and inversely proportional to the temperature T. The relaxation rate 1/T1 is not Korringa-like. For the more realistic case of a surface with a low concentration of defects (dirty limit) the scattering of the electrons leads to a broadening of the Landau levels and hence to a finite density of states. The mildly dirty surface case leads to a T-independent Knight shift proportional to B and a Korringa-like 1/T1 at low T. The wave functions of the surface states are expected to fall off exponentially with distance from the surface giving rise to a superposition of relaxation times, i.e., a stretched exponential. It is questionable that the experimental 11B Knight shift and relaxation rate arise from the surface states of the TKI. An alternative explanation is that the bulk susceptibility and the 11B NMR properties are the consequence of the in-gap bulk states originating from magnetic exciton bound states proposed by Riseborough [Phys. Rev. B 68, 235213 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevB.68.235213].
On the resonances and polarizabilities of split ring resonators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-García, J.; Martín, F.; Baena, J. D.; Marqués, R.; Jelinek, L.
2005-08-01
In this paper, the behavior at resonance of split ring resonators (SRRs) and other related topologies, such as the nonbianisotropic SRR and the broadside-coupled SRR, are studied. It is shown that these structures exhibit a fundamental resonant mode (the quasistatic resonance) and other higher-order modes which are related to dynamic processes. The excitation of these modes by means of a properly polarized time varying magnetic and/or electric fields is discussed on the basis of resonator symmetries. To verify the electromagnetic properties of these resonators, simulations based on resonance excitation by nonuniform and uniform external fields have been performed. Inspection of the currents at resonances, inferred from particle symmetries and full-wave electromagnetic simulations, allows us to predict the first-order dipolar moments induced at the different resonators and to develop a classification of the resonances based on this concept. The experimental data, obtained in SRR-loaded waveguides, are in agreement with the theory and point out the rich phenomenology associated with these planar resonant structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantelli, Davide; Paşcu Moca, Cătălin; Zaránd, Gergely; Grifoni, Milena
2016-08-01
We investigate the effects of spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and valley mixing on the transport and dynamical properties of a carbon nanotube (CNT) quantum dot in the Kondo regime. As these perturbations break the pseudo-spin symmetry in the CNT spectrum but preserve time-reversal symmetry, they induce a finite splitting Δ between formerly degenerate Kramers pairs. Correspondingly, a crossover from the SU(4) to the SU(2)-Kondo effect occurs as the strength of these symmetry breaking parameters is varied. Clear signatures of the crossover are discussed both at the level of the spectral function as well as of the conductance. In particular, we demonstrate numerically and support with scaling arguments that the Kondo temperature scales inversely with the splitting Δ in the crossover regime. In presence of a finite magnetic field, time reversal symmetry is also broken. We investigate the effects of both parallel and perpendicular fields (with respect to the tube's axis) and discuss the conditions under which Kondo revivals may be achieved.
Non-Fermi Liquid Behaviour in the Heavy-Fermion Kondo Lattice Ce2Rh3Al9
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falkowski, M.; Strydom, A. M.
2014-04-01
In the heavy fermion class of strongly correlated electron systems, the Landau Fermi liquid description of metals has become a rather fragile basis on which to formulate an understanding of their ground state. The proximity to cooperative phenomena such as magnetic order and superconductivity and the amenability of Ce- and Yb-based compounds to be tuned into quantum criticality have been found to have extraordinary effects on the T→0 thermal scaling of electronic and magnetic properties. A collection of non-Fermi liquid scaling relations have thus far been proposed in the search for universality. Here we report on the physical properties of the heavy fermion Kondo lattice Ce2Rh3Al9. The low-temperature specific heat and electrical resistivity are best described by power laws in their temperature dependence, and we model these according to the expectation for a system close to a magnetic phase transition. We demonstrate how applied magnetic fields drive the transition from the Kondo coherent state, through a cross-over phase, and into Fermi-liquid behaviour at high fields and low temperatures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jingdi; Yong, Jie; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Greene, Richard; Averitt, Richard
We utilize terahertz time domain spectroscopy to investigate thin films of the heavy fermion compound SmB6, a prototype Kondo insulator. Temperature dependent terahertz (THz) conductivity measurements reveal a rapid decrease in the Drude weight and carrier scattering rate at ~T* =20 K, well below the hybridization gap onset temperature (100 K). Moreover, a low-temperature conductivity plateau (below 20K) indicates the emergence of a surface state with an effective electron mass of 0.1me. Conductivity dynamics following optical excitation are also measured and interpreted using Rothwarf-Taylor (R-T) phenomenology, yielding a hybridization gap energy of 17 meV. However, R-T modeling of the conductivity dynamics reveals a deviation from the expected thermally excited quasiparticle density at temperatures below 20K, indicative of another channel opening up in the low energy electrodynamics. Taken together, these results suggest the onset of a surface state well below the crossover temperature (100K) after long-range coherence of the f-electron Kondo lattice is established. JZ and RDA acknowledge support from DOE - Basic Energy Sciences under Grant No. DE-FG02-09ER46643, under which the THz measurements and data analysis were performed. JY, IT and RLG acknowledge support from ONR N00014-13-1-0635 and NSF DMR 1410665.
Light induced suppression of Kondo effect at amorphous LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, G. Z.; Qiu, J.; Jiang, Y. C.; Zhao, R.; Yao, J. L.; Zhao, M.; Feng, Y.; Gao, J.
2016-07-01
We report photoelectric properties of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at an amorphous LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Under visible light illumination (650 nm), an enhancement of electric conductivity is observed over the temperature range from 2 to 300 K. Particularly, a resistance upturn appearing below 25 K, which is further proved to from the Kondo effect, is suppressed by the 650 nm visible light. From the results of light-assisted Hall measurements, light irradiation increases the carrier mobility rather than carrier density in the Kondo regime. It is suggested that light induces the decoherence effect of localized spin states, hence the electron scattering is weakened and the carrier mobility is improved accordingly. Moreover, the enhancement of electrical conductivity by visible light verifies that in-gap states located in the SrTiO3 side of the interface play an important role in the electrical transport of the amorphous SrTiO3-based oxide 2DEG system. Our results provide deeper insight into the photoinduced effects in the 2DEG system, paving the way for the design of optoelectronic devices based on oxides.
Park, Wan Kyu; Sun, Lunan; Noddings, Alexander; Kim, Dae-Jeong; Fisk, Zachary; Greene, Laura H
2016-06-14
Samarium hexaboride (SmB6), a well-known Kondo insulator in which the insulating bulk arises from strong electron correlations, has recently attracted great attention owing to increasing evidence for its topological nature, thereby harboring protected surface states. However, corroborative spectroscopic evidence is still lacking, unlike in the weakly correlated counterparts, including Bi2Se3 Here, we report results from planar tunneling that unveil the detailed spectroscopic properties of SmB6 The tunneling conductance obtained on the (001) and (011) single crystal surfaces reveals linear density of states as expected for two and one Dirac cone(s), respectively. Quite remarkably, it is found that these topological states are not protected completely within the bulk hybridization gap. A phenomenological model of the tunneling process invoking interaction of the surface states with bulk excitations (spin excitons), as predicted by a recent theory, provides a consistent explanation for all of the observed features. Our spectroscopic study supports and explains the proposed picture of the incompletely protected surface states in this topological Kondo insulator SmB6. PMID:27233936
Competition between Kondo and indirect exchange at the edges and bulk of graphene, and 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allerdt, Andrew; Martins, George; Feiguin, Adrian
We study the problem of two magnetic impurities at the surface of graphene, BN, MoS2, phosphorene, silicene and germanene using exact numerical methods. We map the band structure of these materials onto one dimensional tight-binding chains in the same spirit as Wilson's numerical renormalization group. We use the density matrix renormalization group to solve the problem exactly, keeping all the information about the underlying lattice. Competition between Kondo and Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interactions is non-trivial, due to strong non-perturbative effects. Depending on the presence of a pseudogap, or gap, we identify an important directionality and position dependence of the correlations. We present scenarios and regimes where impurities prefer to form their own Kondo clouds instead of an RKKY singlet state, or remain as uncoupled local moments. In the particular case of graphene, ferromagnetism is only stable at half-filling. In addition, we study the effects of spin-orbit coupling, and the presence of edge states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allerdt, Andrew; Feiguin, Adrian; Busser, Carlos; Martins, George
2015-03-01
Magnetic impurities embedded in a metal interact via an effective Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) coupling mediated by the conduction electrons, which is commonly assumed to be long ranged, with an algebraic decay in the inter-impurity distance. However, they can also form a Kondo screened state that is oblivious to the presence of other impurities. We study the competition mechanisms between both effects on the square and cubic lattices by introducing an exact mapping onto an effective one-dimensional problem that we can solve with the density matrix renormalization group method (DMRG). We show a dramatic departure from the conventional RKKY theory, that can be attributed to the dimensionality and different densities of states, as well as the quantum nature of the magnetic moments. In particular, for dimension d > 1 , Kondo physics dominates even at short distances, while the ferromagnetic RKKY state is energetically unfavorable. Our findings can have clear implications in the interpretation of experiments and for tailoring the magnetic properties of surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)
2006-01-01
The invention discloses a semi-ring Fabry-Perot (SRFP) optical resonator structure comprising a medium including an edge forming a reflective facet and a waveguide within the medium, the waveguide having opposing ends formed by the reflective facet. The performance of the SRFP resonator can be further enhanced by including a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in the waveguide on one side of the gain medium. The optical resonator can be employed in a variety of optical devices. Laser structures using at least one SRFP resonator are disclosed where the resonators are disposed on opposite sides of a gain medium. Other laser structures employing one or more resonators on one side of a gain region are also disclosed.
Collins, T.
1986-06-01
Protons lost in a ring leave at a few preferred locations, determined by some non-linear property of the dipoles. This paper suggests taking control of lost protons by beating the magnets at their own game - by means of a designed resonance used as a beam scraper. It is a study of suitable resonances, including estimates of the required multipole element strengths. The appropriate resonances are two-dimensional. A large number of figures is included.
Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize: Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Emergent Behavior in Quantum Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pines, David
We live in an emergent universe in which interactions between the basic building blocks of matter and their environment give rise to unpredicted and unexpected emergent behavior at every scale. As physicists we seek to identify the organizing principles responsible for that behavior, construct soluble models that incorporate these, and explain experiment. In this lecture, I illustrate this approach to understanding emergent behavior in quantum matter through three examples: collective modes in electron, helium, and nuclear liquids; the emergence of superconductivity in conventional and unconventional superconductors, nuclei, and neutron stars; and the emergence of heavy electrons in Kondo lattice materials.
Julius Edgar Lilienfeld Prize: Lilienfeld Prize Lecture: Emergent Behavior in Quantum Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pines, David
We live in an
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Lin-Kun; Lu, Cheng-Hung
1993-06-01
The performance of a resistively coated dielectric strip used to suppress the first TM-type resonant backscatter associated with a 2D slotted conducting rectangular shell is analyzed in this paper using the moment method technique. Results obtained indicate that almost perfect resonance damping performances are attained when a finite-dimensioned resistively coated dielectric strip with dielectric constant epsilon(r) = 4 - j(0.4) and film resistance R(s) = 188.5 ohms is placed: (1) at the slot (which directly faces the normally incident TM-polarized plane wave), (2) on the interior perimeter of the shell adjacent to the slot, or (3) at the center of the back wall of the shell. Poorer damping performances are observed, however, when the resistively coated dielectric strip is placed at other positions and/or with the same or higher film resistance. Finally, it is also shown that in general the knowledge of the waveguide theory can be used advantageously in the placement of the resistively coated dielectric strip for achieving best resonance damping performance.
Luo, Yongkang; Chen, Hua; Dai, Jianhui; Xu, Zhu -an; Thompson, J. D.
2015-02-25
Motivated by the high sensitivity to Fermi surface topology and scattering mechanisms in magnetothermoelectric transport, we have measured the thermopower and Nernst effect on the (011) plane of the proposed topological Kondo insulator SmB6. These experiments, together with electrical resistivity and Hall effect measurements, suggest that the (011) plane also harbors a metallic surface with an effective mass on the order of 10–102 m0. The surface and bulk conductances are well distinguished in these measurements and are categorized into metallic and nondegenerate semiconducting regimes, respectively. As a result, electronic correlations play an important role in enhancing scattering and also contributemore » to the heavy surface state.« less
Anomalous Hall effect in L 10-MnAl films with controllable orbital two-channel Kondo effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, L. J.; Nie, S. H.; Zhao, J. H.
2016-05-01
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in strongly disordered magnetic systems has been buried in persistent confusion despite its long history. We report the AHE in perpendicularly magnetized L 10-MnAl epitaxial films with a variable orbital two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect arising from the strong coupling of conduction electrons and the structural disorders of two-level systems. The AHE is observed to excellently scale with ρAH/f =a0ρx x 0+b ρxx 2 at high temperatures where phonon scattering prevails. In contrast, significant deviation occurs at low temperatures where the orbital 2CK effect becomes important, suggesting a negative AHE contribution. The deviation of the scaling agrees with the orbital 2CK effect in the breakdown temperatures and deviation magnitudes.
Th-doped URu 2Si 2: influence of “Kondo holes” on coexisting superconductivity and magnetism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Torre, A. Lopez; Visani, P.; Dalichaouch, Y.; Lee, B. W.; Maple, M. B.
1992-07-01
The effect of thorium impurities on superconductivity and antiferromagnetism, which coexist below the superconducting critical temperature Tc, has been investigated in the heavy electron compound URu 2Si 2. The substitution of up to 5 at% Th for U was found to (1) enhance the low temperature normal state magnetic susceptibility and electronic specific heat coefficient γ, (2) broaden the superconducting and antiferromagnetic transitions, (3) suppress the specific heat jump associated with the superconductivity at Tc and antiferromagnetism at the Néel temperature TN, and (4) induce a Kondo-like minimum in the electrical resistivity at low temperatures. The increase in γ and decrease in TN and the antiferromagnetic energy gap Δ with negative “chemical pressure” associated with the substitution of Th for U correlates with the decrease in γ and increase in TN and Δ upon application of an external pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edge, Christopher James
1988-06-01
Since the late 1960's, quasi-Landau resonances (QLR's) have been observed in photoionization spectra of atoms in magnetic fields. Since the middle 1970's, photodetachment of negative ions in a magnetic field has also resulted in behaviour reminiscent of Landau level structure. Unlike the QLR's of photoionization which have an energy spacing of 3/2(hbaromega), these resonances appear to have energy spacings indistinguishable from Landau level spacings of hbaromega. The Blumberg-Itano-Larson (BIL) model that was developed to explain the photodetachment data assumed that the final state wave function of the departing electron could be accurately described by an exact Landau solution. Another model has characterized the final state wave function as being similar to those of the QLR's. As such, it was predicted that the experimentally observed photodetachment resonances may be shifted significantly from the Landau energy level spacings. These shifts would be revealed in the data. The primary objective of this dissertation was to assemble photodetachment data for S- and Se- at low and high magnetic fields in order to measure as accurately as possible any deviations from the expected minimum Landau energy, 1/2 times hbaromega. This was accomplished for 18 sets of data for S- and 13 sets of data for Se-. It was found that the Landau-type resonance occurred at 0.497(5) times hbaromega for S- and 0.493(5) times hbaromega for Se -. There is very little suggestion from the data, if any, that the Landau energies are shifted. A second objective was to extrapolate a value for the electron affinity at zero magnetic field based on the above analysis for S- and Se -. The values obtained were 16752.996(9) cm ^{-1} for S- and 16297.835(19) cm^{-1} for Se-. Finally, there is a strong suggestion in much of the data that the Zeeman populations formed during the process of dissociative attachment are somewhat aligned. Unless an alternative explanation can be found, it would seem that the
Crystal-field states of Kondo lattice heavy fermions CeRuSn3 and CeRhSn3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anand, V. K.; Adroja, D. T.; Britz, D.; Strydom, A. M.; Taylor, J. W.; Kockelmann, W.
2016-07-01
Inelastic neutron scattering experiments have been carried out to determine the crystal-field states of the Kondo lattice heavy fermions CeRuSn3 and CeRhSn3. Both the compounds crystallize in LaRuSn3-type cubic structure (space group P m 3 ¯n ) in which the Ce atoms occupy two distinct crystallographic sites with cubic (m 3 ¯ ) and tetragonal (4 ¯m .2 ) point symmetries. The INS data of CeRuSn3 reveal the presence of a broad excitation centered around 6-8 meV, which is accounted by a model based on crystal electric field (CEF) excitations. On the other hand, the INS data of isostructural CeRhSn3 reveal three CEF excitations around 7.0, 12.2, and 37.2 meV. The neutron intensity sum rule indicates that the Ce ions at both cubic and tetragonal Ce sites are in Ce3 + state in both CeRuSn3 and CeRhSn3. The CEF level schemes for both the compounds are deduced. We estimate the Kondo temperature TK=3.1 (2 ) K for CeRuSn3 from neutron quasielastic linewidth in excellent agreement with that determined from the scaling of magnetoresistance which gives TK=3.2 (1 ) K. For CeRhSn3, the neutron quasielastic linewidth gives TK≈4.6 K. For both CeRuSn3 and CeRhSn3, the ground state of Ce3 + turns out to be a quartet for the cubic site and a doublet for the tetragonal site.
Bouteille, Romain; Perez, Jeanne; Khifer, Farid; Jouan-Rimbaud-Bouveresse, Delphine; Lecanu, Bruno; This, Hervé
2013-04-01
Dairy gels (DG), such as yoghurts, contain both solid and liquid fats at the time of consumption, as their temperature rises to anything between 10 and 24 °C after being introduced into the mouth at 4 °C. The mass ratio between solid and liquid fats, which depends on the temperature, impacts the organoleptic properties of DG. As the ordinary methods for determining this ratio can only be applied to samples consisting mainly in fat materials, a fat extraction step needs to be added into the analytical process when applied to DG, which prevents the study of the potential impact of their colloidal structure on milk fat fusion behavior. In situ quantitative proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (isq (1) H NMR) was investigated as a method for direct measurements in DG: at temperatures between 20.0 and 70.0 °C, the liquid fat content and the composition of triacylglycerols of the liquid phase (in terms of alkyl chains length) were determined. Spectra of isolated milk fat also enable the quantification of the double bonds of triacylglycerols. Statistical tests showed no significant difference between isolated milk fat and milk fat inside a DG in terms of melting behavior: the fat globule membrane does not seem to have a significant influence on the fat melting behavior. PMID:23464867
Napier, Mary A.; Hadler, Nortin M.
1978-01-01
Natural-abundance 13C NMR at 25.16 MHz has been used to study a 2.5% matrix of hyaluronic acid at various degrees of polymerization and at various ionic strengths. Peak assignment is facilitated by comparing proton-decoupled and off-resonance-decoupled spectra of a hyaluronidase-depolymerized matrix with spectra from relevant monosaccharides. In contrast to the spectrum following depolymerization, the spectrum for intact matrix has considerable broadening, particularly for peaks assigned to the N-acetylglucosamine moiety. This is most dramatic for the hydroxymethylene carbon. With the addition of Ca2+ above 5 mM these broadened peaks narrow and approach the sharpness observed for the hyaluronidase digest. There is no shift in resonance peak positions. These changes are quantitatively less impressive if Na+ is substituted for Ca2+. The data suggest the existence of a considerable degree of order in regions of the matrix at physiological concentrations of Ca2+. Within such a matrix the translational movement of lysine and glucose is enhanced relative to that in a matrix of agarose. Further addition of Ca2+ abrogates not only matrix order, but the enhanced diffusivity as well. PMID:276867
Sivakumar Swamy, G; Swamy, Sivakumar G; Ramanarayan, K; Inamdar, Laxmi S; Inamdar, Sanjeev R
2009-04-01
Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), time-resolved fluorescence and anisotropy decays were determined in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) of egg phosphatidylcholine with the FRET pair N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)-1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-ethanolamine as donor and lissamine rhodamine B 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine as acceptor, using 2-ps pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser on LUVs with incorporated plant growth regulators: triacontanol (TRIA) and jasmonic acid (JA). FRET efficiency, energy transfer rate, rotation correlation time, microviscosity, and diffusion coefficient of lateral diffusion of lipids were calculated from these results. It was observed that TRIA and JA differentially modulated all parameters studied. The effect of JA in such modulations was always partially reversed by TRIA. Also, the generalized polarization of laurdan fluorescence indicated that JA enhances the degree of hydration in lipid bilayers to a larger extent than does TRIA. Solid-state (31)P magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of LUVs showed two chemical shifts, at 0.009 and -11.988 ppm, at low temperatures (20 degrees C), while at increasing temperatures (20-60 degrees C) only one (at -11.988 ppm) was prominent and the other (0.009 ppm) gradually became obscure. However, LUVs with TRIA exhibited only one of the shifts at 0.353 ppm even at lower temperatures and JA did not affect the chemical shifts. PMID:19418089
Resonance lock and planetary dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Haghighipour, Nader
1999-11-01
The main purpose of this study is to utilize the method of partial averaging in order to analyze the dynamics of a planetary system while captured in resonance. A restricted planar circular three-body system, consisting of a star and two planets, is studied as a simple model for a planetary system. The mass of the inner planet is considered to be larger and the system is assumed to be moving in a freely rotating uniform interplanetary medium with constant density. Numerical integrations of this system indicate a resonance capture when the dynamical friction of the interplanetary medium is taken into account. As a result of this resonance trapping, the ratio of orbital periods of the two planets becomes nearly commensurable and the eccentricity and semimajor axis of the osculating orbit of the outer planet and also its angular momentum and total energy become constant. It appears from the numerical work that the resulting commensurability and also the resonant values of the orbital elements of the outer planet are essentially independent of the initial relative positions of the two bodies. In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is utilized and the dynamics of the partially averaged system at resonance is studied. The finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of the two planets is confirmed by analyzing the dynamics of the first order partially averaged system at resonance. It is also shown in this study that the first- order partially averaged system at resonance does not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system holds only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation and a complete picture of the dynamical behavior of the system at
Upper critical field and Kondo effects in Fe(Te0.9Se0.1) thin films by pulsed field measurements
Salamon, Myron B.; Cornell, Nicholas; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Zakhidov, Anvar; Huang, Jijie; Wang, Haiyan
2016-02-10
The transition temperatures of epitaxial films of Fe(Te0:9Se0:1) are remarkably insensitive to applied magnetic field, leading to predictions of upper critical fields Bc2(T = 0) in excess of 100 T. Using pulsed magnetic fields, we find Bc2(0) to be on the order of 45 T, similar to values in bulk material and still in excess of the paramagnetic limit. The same films show strong magnetoresistance in fields above Bc2(T), consistent with the observed Kondo minimum seen above Tc. Fits to the temperature dependence in the context of the WHH model, using the experimental value of the Maki parameter, require anmore » effective spin-orbit relaxation parameter of order unity. Lastly, we suggest that Kondo localization plays a similar role to spin-orbit pair breaking in making WHH fits to the data.« less
Upper Critical Field and Kondo Effects in Fe(Te0.9Se0.1) Thin Films by Pulsed Field Measurements
Salamon, Myron B.; Cornell, Nicholas; Jaime, Marcelo; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Zakhidov, Anvar; Huang, Jijie; Wang, Haiyan
2016-01-01
The transition temperatures of epitaxial films of Fe(Te0:9Se0:1) are remarkably insensitive to applied magnetic field, leading to predictions of upper critical fields Bc2(T = 0) in excess of 100 T. Using pulsed magnetic fields, we find Bc2(0) to be on the order of 45 T, similar to values in bulk material and still in excess of the paramagnetic limit. The same films show strong magnetoresistance in fields above Bc2(T), consistent with the observed Kondo minimum seen above Tc. Fits to the temperature dependence in the context of the WHH model, using the experimental value of the Maki parameter, require an effective spin-orbit relaxation parameter of order unity. We suggest that Kondo localization plays a similar role to spin-orbit pair breaking in making WHH fits to the data. PMID:26861588
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karube, K.; Hattori, T.; Ishida, K.; Kimura, N.
2015-02-01
In order to investigate physical properties around a ferromagnetic (FM) quantum transition point and a tricritical point (TCP) in the itinerant-electron metamagnetic compound UCoAl, we have performed the 59Co nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurement for the Fe-substituted U(Co1-xFex)Al(x =0 ,0.5 ,1 ,and2 %) in zero external magnetic field. The Fe concentration dependence of 59Co -NQR spectra at low temperatures indicates that the first-order FM transition occurs at least above x =1 % . The magnetic fluctuations along the c axis detected by the nuclear spin-spin relaxation rate 1 /T2 exhibit an anomaly at Tmax˜20 K and enhance with increasing x . These results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions and indicate the presence of prominent critical fluctuations at the TCP in this system.
Finite size effect and Friedel oscillations for a Friedel-Anderson impurity by FAIR method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Yaqi
A compact solution consisting of 4-8 Slater states (FAIR solution) is introduced to treat the Friedel Anderson and Kondo impurity problem. The ground state energy is obtained with impressively high accuracy. Net integrated polarization density is calculated and it confirms the existence of Kondo cloud. Finite size effect in the impurity problem is studied using FAIR method. It is shown that the formation of a Kondo ground state requires a minimum sample size and is accompanied by the presence of Kondo cloud. The Friedel Oscillations in the vicinity of a Friedel-Anderson impurity are investigated by FAIR method. The development of Friedel oscillation with a phase shift of pi/2 outside the Kondo radius is confirmed. And the amplitude A(xi) of the Friedel oscillations show a very similar behavior to that of a simple non-interacting Friedel impurity with a narrow resonance at the Fermi level. This similarity supports the concept of a "Kondo" resonance. And the Kondo resonance half width GammaFA is suggested to be GammaFA ≈ Echi/2.4, where Echi is the Kondo energy calculated from susceptibility.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivaldi, Franco
2015-12-01
The concept of resonance has been instrumental to the study of Hamiltonian systems with divided phase space. One can also define such systems over discrete spaces, which have a finite or countable number of points, but in this new setting the notion of resonance must be re-considered from scratch. I review some recent developments in the area of arithmetic dynamics which outline some salient features of linear and nonlinear stable (elliptic) orbits over a discrete space, and also underline the difficulties that emerge in their analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vivaldi, Franco
The concept of resonance has been instrumental to the study of Hamiltonian systems with divided phase space. One can also define such systems over discrete spaces, which have a finite or countable number of points, but in this new setting the notion of resonance must be re-considered from scratch. I review some recent developments in the area of arithmetic dynamics which outline some salient features of linear and nonlinear stable (elliptic) orbits over a discrete space, and also underline the difficulties that emerge in their analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harper, L. L. (Inventor)
1983-01-01
An optical resonator cavity configuration has a unitary mirror with oppositely directed convex and concave reflective surfaces disposed into one fold and concertedly reversing both ends of a beam propagating from a laser rod disposed between two total internal reflection prisms. The optical components are rigidly positioned with perpendicularly crossed virtual rooflines by a compact optical bed. The rooflines of the internal reflection prisms, are arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the laser beam and to the optical axes of the optical resonator components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Feng; Xu, Ju; Chen, Daqin; Wang, Yuansheng
2012-10-01
In this communication, a thermolysis route is developed to synthesize novel Cu1.94S-ZnS-Cu1.94S nanoheterostructures with interesting sandwich-like architectures, taking Cu1.94S nanoplates as precursors. Evidently, the trimeric nanostructure is formed by a three-stage process, which includes the Zn-oleate induced assembling of Cu1.94S nanoplate couples, the heteronucleation and growth of a ZnS layer between two Cu1.94S plates dominated by interfacial diffusion, and the catalyst assisted axial growth of ZnS nanorod following the solution-liquid-solid mechanism. With epitaxial growth of ZnS nanocrystal between two Cu1.94S nanoplates, the localized surface plasmon resonance frequency of Cu1.94S shifts from 1875 to 1323 nm, indicating that this new material is potentially applicable as a light absorbing agent in laser photothermal therapy. The reported growth mechanism may provide new strategies for designing and fabricating various technologically important polymeric nanoheterostructures.
Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W. |; Kavaliers, M.; Cullen, A.P.
1997-05-01
Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been shown to attenuate endogenous opioid peptide mediated antinociception or analgesia in the terrestrial pulmonate snail, Cepaea nemoralis. Here the authors examine the roles of light in determining this effect and address the mechanisms associated with mediating the effects of the ELF magnetic fields in both the presence and absence of light. Specifically, they consider whether the magnetic field effects involve an indirect induced electric current mechanism or a direct effect such as a parametric resonance mechanism (PRM). They exposed snails in both the presence and absence of light at three different frequencies (30, 60, and 120 Hz) with static field values (B{sub DC}) and ELF magnetic field amplitude (peak) and direction (B{sub AC}) set according to the predictions of the PRM for Ca{sup 2+}. Analgesia was induced in snails by injecting them with an enkephalinase inhibitor, which augments endogenous opioid (enkephalin) activity. They found that the magnetic field exposure reduced this opioid-induced analgesia significantly more if the exposure occurred in the presence rather than the absence of light. However, the percentage reduction in analgesia in both the presence and absence of light was not dependent on the ELF frequency. This finding suggests that in both the presence and the absence of light the effect of the ELF magnetic field was mediated by a direct magnetic field detection mechanism such as the PRM rather than an induced current mechanism.
Shot noise in quantum dots in presence of Fano and Dicke effects in Kondo regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orellana, Pedro; Cortes, Natalia; Apel, Victor
The quantum dots allow studying systematically quantum-interference effects as Fano and Dicke effects due to the possibility of continuous tuning the relevant parameters governing the properties of these resonances, in equilibrium and nonequilibrium regimes. The condition for the Fano resonance is the existence of two scattering channels: a discrete level and a broad continuum band. On the other hand, the electronic version of the Dicke effect is analogous to the Dicke effect in optics, which takes place in the spontaneous emission of two closely-lying atoms radiating a photon into the same environment. In quantum dots this effect is due to quantum interference in the passage of an electron through two closely lying resonant states of the quantum dots coupled to common leads. In this work, we present a systematic investigation of the influence of the Dicke effect on shot-noise and Fano factor in a cross-shaped quantum dot array. The relevant quantities are obtained by the non-equilibrium Green's function technique. Our results show that at zero temperature, the electrical current, shot-noise and Fano factor exhibit characteristics of the Dicke effect. This work was partially supported by FONDECYT under Grant 140571.
Apparatus for investigating resonance with application to magnetic resonance imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, Sytil; Jones, Dyan L.; Gross, Josh; Zollman, Dean
2015-11-01
Resonance is typically studied in the context of either a pendulum or a mass on a spring. We have developed an apparatus that enables beginning students to investigate resonant behavior of changing magnetic fields, in addition to the properties of the magnetic field due to a wire and the superposition of magnetic fields. In this resonant system, a compass oscillates at a frequency determined by the compass's physical properties and an external magnetic field. While the analysis is mathematically similar to that of the pendulum, this apparatus has an advantage that the magnetic field is easily controlled, while it is difficult to control the strength of gravity. This apparatus has been incorporated into a teaching module on magnetic resonance imaging.
Designing dielectric resonators on substrates: combining magnetic and electric resonances.
van de Groep, J; Polman, A
2013-11-01
High-performance integrated optics, solar cells, and sensors require nanoscale optical components at the surface of the device, in order to manipulate, redirect and concentrate light. High-index dielectric resonators provide the possibility to do this efficiently with low absorption losses. The resonances supported by dielectric resonators are both magnetic and electric in nature. Combined scattering from these two can be used for directional scattering. Most applications require strong coupling between the particles and the substrate in order to enhance the absorption in the substrate. However, the coupling with the substrate strongly influences the resonant behavior of the particles. Here, we systematically study the influence of particle geometry and dielectric environment on the resonant behavior of dielectric resonators in the visible to near-IR spectral range. We show the key role of retardation in the excitation of the magnetic dipole (MD) mode, as well as the limit where no MD mode is supported. Furthermore, we study the influence of particle diameter, shape and substrate index on the spectral position, width and overlap of the electric dipole (ED) and MD modes. Also, we show that the ED and MD mode can selectively be enhanced or suppressed using multi-layer substrates. And, by comparing dipole excitation and plane wave excitation, we study the influence of driving field on the scattering properties. Finally, we show that the directional radiation profiles of the ED and MD modes in resonators on a substrate are similar to those of point-dipoles close to a substrate. Altogether, this work is a guideline how to tune magnetic and electric resonances for specific applications. PMID:24216852
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pediatric Anxiety
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pine, Daniel S.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Peterson, Bradley S.; Gerber, Andrew
2008-01-01
The use of functional magnetic resonance imaging in investigating pediatric anxiety disorders is studied. Functional magnetic resonance imaging can be utilized in demonstrating parallels between the neural architecture of difference in anxiety of humans and the neural architecture of attention-orienting behavior in nonhuman primates or rodents.…
Resonance Trapping in Planetary Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pour, Nader H.
1998-09-01
We study dynamics of a planetary system that consists of a star and two planets taking into account dynamical friction. Numerical integrations of a restricted planar circular three body model of this system indicate resonance capture. The main purpose of this paper is to present the results of an extensive numerical experiment performed on this model and also to present analytical arguments for the observed resonance trapping and its consequences. The equations of motion are written in terms of Delaunay variables and the recently developed method of partial averaging near resonance* is employed in order to account for the behavior of the system at resonance. * C.Chicone, B.Mashhoon and D.Retzloff, Ann.Inst.Henri Poincare, Vol.64, no 1, 1996, p.87-125.
Fermi-edge singularity in the vicinity of the resonant scattering condition.
Mkhitaryan, V V; Raikh, M E
2011-05-13
Fermi-edge absorption theory predicting the spectrum A(ω) ∝ ω(-2δ(0)/π+δ(0)92)/π2) relies on the assumption that scattering phase δ(0) is frequency independent. The dependence of δ(0) on ω becomes crucial near the resonant condition, where the phase changes abruptly by π. In this limit, because of the finite time spent by electron on a resonant level, the scattering is dynamic. We incorporate the finite time delay into the theory, solve the Dyson equation with a modified kernel, and find that, near the resonance, A(ω) behaves as ω(-3/4)|lnω|. Scattering off the core hole becomes resonant in 1D and 2D in the presence of an empty subband above the Fermi level; then a deep hole splits off a level from the bottom of this subband. Fermi-edge absorption in the regime when resonant level transforms into a Kondo peak is discussed. PMID:21668193
Tunable Micro- and Nanomechanical Resonators
Zhang, Wen-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang
2015-01-01
Advances in micro- and nanofabrication technologies have enabled the development of novel micro- and nanomechanical resonators which have attracted significant attention due to their fascinating physical properties and growing potential applications. In this review, we have presented a brief overview of the resonance behavior and frequency tuning principles by varying either the mass or the stiffness of resonators. The progress in micro- and nanomechanical resonators using the tuning electrode, tuning fork, and suspended channel structures and made of graphene have been reviewed. We have also highlighted some major influencing factors such as large-amplitude effect, surface effect and fluid effect on the performances of resonators. More specifically, we have addressed the effects of axial stress/strain, residual surface stress and adsorption-induced surface stress on the sensing and detection applications and discussed the current challenges. We have significantly focused on the active and passive frequency tuning methods and techniques for micro- and nanomechanical resonator applications. On one hand, we have comprehensively evaluated the advantages and disadvantages of each strategy, including active methods such as electrothermal, electrostatic, piezoelectrical, dielectric, magnetomotive, photothermal, mode-coupling as well as tension-based tuning mechanisms, and passive techniques such as post-fabrication and post-packaging tuning processes. On the other hand, the tuning capability and challenges to integrate reliable and customizable frequency tuning methods have been addressed. We have additionally concluded with a discussion of important future directions for further tunable micro- and nanomechanical resonators. PMID:26501294