Science.gov

Sample records for kontrolya oborudovaniya aehs

  1. Scalable Coupling of Multiscale AEH and PARADYN Analyses for Impact Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    development of homogenization theories. Licht Frottement (1987), Lene (1984), Moulinec and Suquet (1994), Bensoussan et al. (1978), and Sanchez...Lene, F. Damage Constitutive Relations for Composite Materials. Engineering Fracture Mechanics 1986, 25, (5/6), 713–728. Licht Frottement , C...substituted into the governing equations of motion. Next, the micro and macro equations are identified by selecting the appropriate coefficients to the

  2. Experiments with "wide field" for Space Surveillance Systems in Odessa Astronomical observatory (Ukraine). Prodolzhen eksperiment s "shirokim polem" dlya zadach kontrolya kosmicheskogo prostranstva v Odesskoy astronomicheskoy observatorii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P. P.

    2007-08-01

    In OAO on point Mayaki (40 km for city) is continued observations geostationary (GSS) and low orbital (LEO) satellites with using more inexpensive domestic, "ready to use", wide field optic lens for the reason: To get limited magnitude on high orbital cosmic object (HEO) to 15m in to view telescope 3 -7 degrees for time accumulation 10-15 sec. To value the possibility of the use WFO for monitoring LEO on low orbit by height less than 2 000 km with limited magnitude to 11m on star for 1 sec. accumulations. 90% LEO from 39 objects are surely identified using catalog NORAD. About obtain the results possible to read in article: "About using wide field lens optics for Space Surveillance Systems in Odessa Astronomical observatory" (in Russian).

  3. About using wide lens field optics for observations artificial satellites and space surveillance (O primenenii shirokopol'nykh linzovykh ob"yektivov dlya zadach kontrolya kosmicheskogo prostranstva, on Russian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhov, P. P.; Volkov, S. K.; Karpenko, G. F.; Gubin, E. G.; Titenko, V. V.; Yamnitsky, V. A.; Tkachenko, A. A.

    On base results of the observations in Odessa astronomical observatory (Ukraine), is shown. The possibility of the using domestic wide field lens optics for monitoring high orbital objects. With wide field lens optics "Tair-19 5003", limited mag = 15m.5 per 10 seconds of the accumulation, average square-error (ASE) of the measurements of the coordinates slowly moving GSS not more than 2 arcsec. About 90% measurements has ASE less 1 arcsec. At surveillance of the area of the equator by width 5° areas 500 square deg. are discovered 46 active GSS, 12 passive GSS and 2 high elliptical orbital satellites (HEO). Is shown perspective possibility of the use WFO for monitoring LEO height before of 2 000 km. 90% of 39 objects LEO fixed in mode "beam-park" in current 1 hour, surely are identified using catalog NORAD.

  4. Real-world impact of neurocognitive deficits in acute and early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Katie L; Morgan, Erin E; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M; Little, Susan; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Moore, David J; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-12-01

    The acute and early period of HIV-1 infection (AEH) is characterized by neuroinflammatory and immunopathogenic processes that can alter the integrity of neural systems and neurocognitive functions. However, the extent to which central nervous system changes in AEH confer increased risk of real-world functioning (RWF) problems is not known. In the present study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 seronegative comparison participants completed standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluations, alongside a comprehensive assessment of RWF that included cognitive symptoms in daily life, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, clinician-rated global functioning, and employment. Results showed that AEH was associated with a significantly increased risk of dependence in RWF, which was particularly elevated among AEH persons with global neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Among those with AEH, NCI (i.e., deficits in learning and information processing speed), mood disorders (i.e., Bipolar Disorder), and substance dependence (e.g., methamphetamine dependence) were all independently predictive of RWF dependence. Findings suggest that neurocognitively impaired individuals with AEH are at notably elevated risk of clinically significant challenges in normal daily functioning. Screening for neurocognitive, mood, and substance use disorders in AEH may facilitate identification of individuals at high risk of functional dependence who may benefit from psychological and medical strategies to manage their neuropsychiatric conditions.

  5. Neurobehavioral Disturbances During Acute and Early HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Rujvi; Doyle, Katie L.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Morgan, Erin E.; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Acute and early human immunodeficiency virus infection (AEH) is accompanied by neuroinflammatory processes as well as impairment in neurocognitive and everyday functions, but little is known about the frequency and clinical correlates of the neurobehavioral disturbances during this period. We compared pre-seroconversion with current levels of apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction; we also examined everyday function and HIV disease correlates of neuropsychiatric impairment in individuals with AEH. Methods In this study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 HIV-seronegative participants completed neuromedical and neuropsychological assessments, a structured psychiatric interview, and the apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction subscales of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale. Results Independent of any substance use and mood disorders, the AEH group had significantly higher levels of current apathy and executive dysfunction than the controls, but not greater disinhibition. Retrospective ratings of pre-seroconversion levels of apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction were all higher in the AEH group than the controls. After seroconversion, the AEH cohort had increases in current apathy and executive dysfunction, but not disinhibition. In the AEH cohort, higher current global neurobehavioral dysfunction was significantly associated with lower nadir CD4 counts, slowed information processing speed, and more everyday function problems. Conclusions These data suggest that individuals who have recently acquired HIV experienced higher-than-normal premorbid levels of neurobehavioral disturbance. Apathy and executive dysfunction are exacerbated during AEH, particularly in association with lower CD4 counts. PMID:27008244

  6. Real-World Impact of Neurocognitive Deficits in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Katie L.; Morgan, Erin E.; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Moore, David J.; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-01-01

    The acute and early period of HIV-1 infection (AEH) is characterized by neuroinflammatory and immunopathogenic processes that can alter the integrity of neural systems and neurocognitive functions. However, the extent to which central nervous system changes in AEH confer increased risk of real-world functioning (RWF) problems is not known. In the present study, 34 individuals with AEH and 39 seronegative comparison participants completed standardized neuromedical, psychiatric, and neurocognitive research evaluations, alongside a comprehensive assessment of RWF that included cognitive symptoms in daily life, basic and instrumental activities of daily living, clinician-rated global functioning, and employment. Results showed that AEH was associated with a significantly increased risk of dependence in RWF, which was particularly elevated among AEH persons with global neurocognitive impairment (NCI). Among those with AEH, NCI (i.e., deficits in learning and information processing speed), mood disorders (i.e., Bipolar Disorder), and substance dependence (e.g., methamphetamine dependence) were all independently predictive of RWF dependence. Findings suggest that neurocognitively impaired individuals with AEH are at notably elevated risk of clinically significant challenges in normal daily functioning. Screening for neurocognitive, mood, and substance use disorders in AEH may facilitate identification of individuals at high risk of functional dependence who may benefit from psychological and medical strategies to manage their neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:24277439

  7. Antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus in experimental diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hericium erinaceus, as a commonly used medicine or food, has attracted much attention due to its health effects when used as a home remedy for some diseases. The aim of this work was to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of aqueous extract of Hericium erinaceus (AEHE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats by the administration of STZ (55 mg/kg BW.) intraperitoneally. AEHE (100 and 200 mg/kg BW.) was administered for a period of 28 days. The effects of AEHE on glucose, insulin, and lipid files in blood, and oxidative stress parameters in the liver were evaluated. The body weights of rats were recorded at day 0, 14 and 28th days. Results The administration of AEHE for 28 days in STZ diabetic rats resulted in a significant decrease in serum glucose level and a significant rise in serum insulin level. AEHE treatment attenuated lipid disorders. In addition, AEHE administration increased the activities of CAT, SOD, and GSH-Px, and GSH level, and reduced MDA level in the liver tissue significantly. Conclusion Our results suggest that AEHE possesses hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant properties in STZ-induced diabetes rats. PMID:24090482

  8. Contributed Review: Recent developments in acoustic energy harvesting for autonomous wireless sensor nodes applications.

    PubMed

    Khan, Farid Ullah; Khattak, Muhammad Umair

    2016-02-01

    Rapid developments in micro electronics, micro fabrication, ultra-large scale of integration, ultra-low power sensors, and wireless technology have greatly reduced the power consumption requirements of wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) and make it possible to operate these devices with energy harvesters. Likewise, other energy harvesters, acoustic energy harvesters (AEHs), have been developed and are gaining swift interest in last few years. This paper presents a review of AEHs reported in the literature for the applications of WSNs. Based on transduction mechanism, there are two types of AEHs: piezoelectric acoustic energy harvesters (PEAEHs) and electromagnetic acoustic energy harvesters (EMAEHs). The reported AEHs are mostly characterized under the sound pressure level (SPL) that ranges from 45 to 161 dB. The range for resonant frequency of the produced AEHs is from 146 Hz to 24 kHz and these produced 0.68 × 10(-6) μW to 30 mW power. The maximum power (30 mW) is produced by a PEAEH, when the harvester is subjected to a SPL of 161 dB and 2.64 kHz frequency. However, for EMAEHs, the maximum power reported is about 1.96 mW (at 125 dB and 143 Hz). Under the comparable SPLs, the power production by the reported EMAEHs is relatively better than that of PEAEHs, moreover, due to lower resonant frequency, the EMAEHs are more feasible for the low frequency band acoustical environment.

  9. In vitro synergistic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract in combination with standard antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif T S; Berchová, Kateřina; Majerová, Michaela; Pokorná, Marie; Švajdlenka, Emil

    2016-09-01

    Context The increasing problem of drug-resistant strains has led to the failure of current treatment regimens of Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection. Recently, a new treatment strategy has been developed to overcome the problem by using natural products in combination with antibiotics to enhance the treatment efficacy. Objective The antimicrobial combinatory effect of the aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) (AEHS) with antibiotics (clarithromycin, CLA; amoxicillin, AMX; metronidazole, MTZ) has been evaluated in vitro against HP strains. Materials and methods Hibiscus calyces (35 g) were brewed in 250 mL of boiled water for 30 min, and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by agar dilution method. The checkerboard assay was used to evaluate the antimicrobial combinatory effect according to the sum of fractional inhibitory concentration (∑FIC) indices. Results In this study, AEHS exerted remarkable bacteriostatic effect against all HP strains tested with MICs values ranging from 9.18 to 16.68 μg/mL. Synergy effect of AEHS with CLA or MTZ was obtained against four of seven HP strains tested with ∑FIC ranging from 0.21 to 0.39. The additive effect of AEHS with AMX was obtained against five of seven HP strains tested with ∑FIC ranging from 0.61 to 0.91. Conclusion This study presents AEHS as a potent therapeutic candidate alone, or in combination with antibiotics for the treatment of HP infection.

  10. Substance use is a risk factor for neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric distress in acute and early HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E; Iudicello, Jennifer E; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J; Letendre, Scott L; Little, Susan; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M; Moore, David J; Woods, Steven Paul

    2013-02-01

    The acute and early stages of HIV infection (AEH) are characterized by substantial viral replication, immune activation, and alterations in brain metabolism. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances during this period. The present study examined the impact of demographic, HIV disease, and substance use factors on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and self-reported neuropsychiatric distress among 46 antiretroviral-naive adults with median duration of infection of 75 days relative to a sample of 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) adults with comparable demographics and risk factors. Participants were administered a brief neurocognitive battery that was adjusted for demographics and assessed executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency, as well as the Profile of Mood States, a self-report measure of neuropsychiatric distress. Odds ratios revealed that AEH participants were nearly four times more likely than their seronegative counterparts to experience neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the areas of learning and information processing speed. Similarly, AEH was associated with a nearly fivefold increase in the odds of neuropsychiatric distress, most notably in anxiety and depression. Within the AEH sample, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment was associated with problematic methamphetamine use and higher plasma HIV RNA levels, whereas neuropsychiatric distress was solely associated with high-risk alcohol use. Extending prior neuroimaging findings, the results from this study indicate that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric distress are highly prevalent during AEH and are associated with high-risk substance use.

  11. Metabolic and clinical markers of prognosis in the era of CT imaging in children with acute epidural hematomas.

    PubMed

    Ben Abraham, R; Lahat, E; Sheinman, G; Feldman, Z; Barzilai, A; Harel, R; Barzilay, Z; Paret, G

    2000-08-01

    Acute epidural hematoma (AEH), a relatively common complication of head injury in children, persists in bearing high morbidity and mortality. Early establishment of prognosis could guide optimal patient allocation, and early identification of predictive signs could assist in choosing appropriate therapeutic interventions. This study aimed to delineate expeditiously obtainable prognostic markers for determining outcome in a subset of children with AEH. We reviewed our 11-year experience with 61 consecutive children <16 years old with head trauma and isolated AEH. Treatment followed a standard advanced trauma life support protocol. A medical history was obtained, and all patients underwent neurosurgical and physical evaluations. CT scans were performed, as were laboratory tests which included arterial blood gases, glucose, electrolytes (K(+), Na(+)), hemoglobin and coagulation studies. Evaluation of the data collected on cause of injury, interval between trauma occurrence and presentation, clinical symptoms, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, vital signs, laboratory test results, physical findings and surgical versus conservative management revealed that the best single predictors of outcome following AEH were the GCS and focal neurological deficits. Of all laboratory data obtained on admission, the blood potassium, pH and glucose test results correlated significantly with prognosis. Prognosis can be adequately and expeditiously estimated by selected markers within a comprehensive evaluation of children with AEH.

  12. Non-traumatic spontaneous acute epidural hematoma in a patient with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Serarslan, Yurdal; Aras, Mustafa; Altaş, Murat; Kaya, Hasan; Urfalı, Boran

    2014-01-01

    A 19-year-old female with sickle cell anemia (SCD) was referred to our hospital after two days of hospitalization at another hospital for a headache crisis. This headache crisis was due to a raised intracranial pressure; these symptoms were noted and included in her comprehensive list of symptoms. There was an acute drop in the hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The cranial CT scan demonstrated a left fronto-parietal acute epidural hematoma (AEH) and a calvarial bone expansion, which was suggestive of medullary hematopoiesis. The patient underwent emergent craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma. There were no abnormal findings intra-operatively apart from the AEH, except skull thickening and active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries. Repeated CT scan showed a complete evacuation of the hematoma. The possible underlying pathophysiological mechanisms were discussed. In addition to the factors mentioned in the relevant literature, any active petechial bleeding from the dural arteries on the separated surface of the dura from the skull could have contributed to the expanding of the AEH in our patient. Neurosurgeons and other health care providers should be aware of spontaneous AEH in patients with SCD.

  13. 77 FR 50956 - Exclusion of Tethered Launches From Licensing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Licensing Requirements AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed...\\ See A.E.H. Love, A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory of Elasticity, 179-180, Cambridge University... object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. Wear is the erosion of...

  14. Patterns in Authoring of Adaptive Educational Hypermedia: A Taxonomy of Learning Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Elizabeth; Cristea, Alexandra; Stewart, Craig; Brailsford, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the use of adaptation patterns in the task of formulating standards for adaptive educational hypermedia (AEH) systems that is currently under investigation by the EU ADAPT project. Within this project, design dimensions for high granularity patterns have been established. In this paper we focus on detailing lower granularity…

  15. Expression and characterization of hyperthermostable exo-polygalacturonase TtGH28 from Thermotoga thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene TtGH28 encoding a putative GH28 polygalacturonase from Pseudothermotoga thermarum DSM 5069 (Theth_0397, NCBI# AEH50492.1) was synthesized, expressed in E. coli, and characterized. Alignment of the amino acid sequence of gene product TtGH28 with other GH28 proteins whose structures and detai...

  16. Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Liver Caused by Piroxicam in Mice and Protective Effects of Leaf Extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam is one of the important therapeutic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory class of drugs used mainly to suppress pain and inflammation in arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders. Besides being anti-inflammatory, these drugs are analgesic and antipyretic often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition. Recently, piroxicam has also gained attention as an effective therapy for tumors, colorectal, and invasive bladder cancers. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (AEH), Malvaceae, against piroxicam-induced toxicity in mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were divided into four groups (n = 10), which included a control group, a group treated orally with AEH (30 mg kg−1 b.w.) for 15 days, a group treated orally with piroxicam (6.6 mg kg−1 b.w.) for 15 days, and another group treated orally with piroxicam and AEH for 15 days. The results indicated that treatment with piroxicam alone resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum marker enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase with profound hepatic lipid peroxidation as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thoibarbituric acid reactive substances along with a distinct diminution in reduced glutathoine content and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver. However, treatment with AEH during piroxicam treatment retrieved or partially antagonized the effects induced by piroxicam toward the normal values of controls. Histopathological observations also corroborate with the above findings. It can be concluded that AEH exhibited a protective action against piroxicam toxicity and effective in combating oxidative stress-induced hepatic damage. PMID:26819562

  17. Mechanisms Involved in Toxicity of Liver Caused by Piroxicam in Mice and Protective Effects of Leaf Extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L.

    PubMed

    Sahu, C R

    2016-01-01

    Piroxicam is one of the important therapeutic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory class of drugs used mainly to suppress pain and inflammation in arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders. Besides being anti-inflammatory, these drugs are analgesic and antipyretic often used for the relief of nonspecific fever condition. Recently, piroxicam has also gained attention as an effective therapy for tumors, colorectal, and invasive bladder cancers. The objective of the current study is to evaluate the protective effects of the alcoholic leaf extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (AEH), Malvaceae, against piroxicam-induced toxicity in mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were divided into four groups (n = 10), which included a control group, a group treated orally with AEH (30 mg kg(-1) b.w.) for 15 days, a group treated orally with piroxicam (6.6 mg kg(-1) b.w.) for 15 days, and another group treated orally with piroxicam and AEH for 15 days. The results indicated that treatment with piroxicam alone resulted in a significant increase in the activities of serum marker enzymes, namely, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase with profound hepatic lipid peroxidation as evidenced by a marked increment in the level of thoibarbituric acid reactive substances along with a distinct diminution in reduced glutathoine content and various antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in the liver. However, treatment with AEH during piroxicam treatment retrieved or partially antagonized the effects induced by piroxicam toward the normal values of controls. Histopathological observations also corroborate with the above findings. It can be concluded that AEH exhibited a protective action against piroxicam toxicity and effective in combating oxidative stress-induced hepatic damage.

  18. Substance Use is a Risk Factor for Neurocognitive Deficits and Neuropsychiatric Distress in Acute and Early HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Erica; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Grant, Igor; Ellis, Ronald J.; Letendre, Scott L.; Little, Susan; Morris, Sheldon; Smith, Davey M.; Moore, David J.; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    The acute and early stages of HIV infection (AEH) are characterized by substantial viral replication, immune activation, and alterations in brain metabolism. However, little is known about the prevalence and predictors of neurocognitive deficits and neuropsychiatric disturbances during this period. The present study examined the impact of demographic, HIV disease, and substance use factors on HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and self-reported neuropsychiatric distress among 46 antiretroviral-naïve adults with median duration of infection of 75 days, relative to sample a of 21 HIV seronegative (HIV-) adults with comparable demographics and risk factors. Participants were administered a brief neurocognitive battery that was adjusted for demographics and assessed executive functions, memory, psychomotor speed, and verbal fluency, as well as the Profile of Mood States (POMS), a self-report measure of neuropsychiatric distress. Odds ratios revealed that AEH participants were nearly four times more likely than their seronegative counterparts to experience neurocognitive impairment, particularly in the areas of learning and information processing speed. Similarly, AEH was associated with a nearly five-fold increase in the odds of neuropsychiatric distress, most notably in anxiety and depression. Within the AEH sample, HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment was associated with problematic methamphetamine use and higher plasma HIV RNA levels, whereas neuropsychiatric distress was solely associated with high-risk alcohol use. Extending prior neuroimaging findings, results from this study indicate that HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric distress are highly prevalent during AEH and are associated with high-risk substance use. PMID:23250704

  19. Analysis and Modeling of Target Echo and Reverberation: FY15 Annual Report for ONR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    during the past year: • Michael A. Ainslie, Dale D. Ellis, and Chris H. Harrison . Low frequency bottom reverberation in a Pekeris waveguide with...Chris H. Harrison . Towards benchmarks of low frequency reverberation level in a Pekeris waveguide: Insight from analytical solutions. J. Acoust...USA, 23–27 May 2011. [AEH15] Michael A. Ainslie, Dale D. Ellis, and Chris H. Harrison . Low frequency bottom reverberation in a Pekeris waveguide

  20. First description of the dermatoscopic features of acquired elastotic hemangioma—a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Tristan; Katz, Ian

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of acquired elastotic hemangioma (AEH), a rare, benign vascular tumor. A Caucasian male in his 60s presented with an asymptomatic, solitary, non-pigmented and violaceous lesion of short duration on the dorsum of his hand. The lesion had unique clinical, dermatoscopic and pathological features. Dermatoscopic images of the lesion are presented for characterization and histopathological correlation that have not previously been published or described. PMID:27867745

  1. Latent cytomegalovirus infection enhances anti-tumour cytotoxicity through accumulation of NKG2C+ NK cells in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Bigley, A B; Rezvani, K; Shah, N; Sekine, T; Balneger, N; Pistillo, M; Agha, N; Kunz, H; O'Connor, D P; Bollard, C M; Simpson, R J

    2016-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection markedly expands NKG2C+/NKG2A- NK cells, which are potent killers of infected cells expressing human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-E. As HLA-E is also over-expressed in several haematological malignancies and CMV has been linked to a reduced risk of leukaemic relapse, we determined the impact of latent CMV infection on NK cell cytotoxicity against four tumour target cell lines with varying levels of HLA-E expression. NK cell cytotoxicity against K562 (leukaemia origin) and U266 (multiple myeloma origin) target cells was strikingly greater in healthy CMV-seropositive donors than seronegative donors and was associated strongly with target cell HLA-E and NK cell NKG2C expression. NK cell cytotoxicity against HLA-E transfected lymphoma target cells (221.AEH) was ∼threefold higher with CMV, while NK cell cytotoxicity against non-transfected 721.221 cells was identical between the CMV groups. NK cell degranulation (CD107a(+) ) and interferon (IFN)-γ production to 221.AEH cells was localized almost exclusively to the NKG2C subset, and antibody blocking of NKG2C completely eliminated the effect of CMV on NK cell cytotoxicity against 221.AEH cells. Moreover, 221.AEH feeder cells and interleukin (IL)-15 were found to expand NKG2C(+) /NKG2A(-) NK cells preferentially from CMV-seronegative donors and increase NK cell cytotoxicity against HLA-E(+) tumour cell lines. We conclude that latent CMV infection enhances NK cell cytotoxicity through accumulation of NKG2C(+) NK cells, which may be beneficial in preventing the initiation and progression of haematological malignancies characterized by high HLA-E expression.

  2. Controlling the Cost of C4I Upgrades on Naval Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Abbreviations iii UFO UHF Follow-On UHF ultra-high frequency VHF very high frequency WGS Wideband Global Satellites WOO window of opportunity 1 ChAPTER ONE...Common Data Link Narrow Band (UHF, UFO , MUOS) Protected (EHF, AEHF, TSAT) Wideband (DSCS, WGS, GBS, TSAT) Commercial (Inmarsat, GlobalStar, INTELSAT...joint interoperable “core” and “hard- core” communications (via AEhF, Milstar, UFO , Polar, DSCS, and WGS satellites) and protected and wideband

  3. Dredging Research: Information from the Engineer Research and Development Center. Volume 7, Number 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Conference on Remediation of Contaminated Sediments, Sheraton New Orleans Hotel , New Orleans, LA, www.batelle.org/sediments, POC: sedimentscon...Island, GA. dpashley@abcbirds.org. March 14-17, 2005 - AEHS 15th Annual West Coast Conference on Soils, Sediments, and Water, Mariott Mission Valley, San...8th International In Situ and On-site Bioremediation Symposium, Marriott Waterfront Hotel , Baltimore, MD, www.battelle.org/biosymp, POC: info

  4. Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization for Multiscale Nuclear Fuel Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, J. D.; Tonks, M. R.; Chockalingam, K.; Perez, D. M.; Novascone, S. R.; Spencer, B. W.; Williamson, R. L.

    2015-03-01

    Engineering scale nuclear fuel performance simulations can benefit by utilizing high-fidelity models running at a lower length scale. Lower length-scale models provide a detailed view of the material behavior that is used to determine the average material response at the macroscale. These lower length-scale calculations may provide insight into material behavior where experimental data is sparse or nonexistent. This multiscale approach is especially useful in the nuclear field, since irradiation experiments are difficult and expensive to conduct. The lower length-scale models complement the experiments by influencing the types of experiments required and by reducing the total number of experiments needed. This multiscale modeling approach is a central motivation in the development of the BISON-MARMOT fuel performance codes at Idaho National Laboratory. These codes seek to provide more accurate and predictive solutions for nuclear fuel behavior. One critical aspect of multiscale modeling is the ability to extract the relevant information from the lower length-scale sim- ulations. One approach, the asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) technique, has proven to be an effective method for determining homogenized material parameters. The AEH technique prescribes a system of equations to solve at the microscale that are used to compute homogenized material constants for use at the engineering scale. In this work, we employ AEH to explore the effect of evolving microstructural thermal conductivity and elastic constants on nuclear fuel performance. We show that the AEH approach fits cleanly into the BISON and MARMOT codes and provides a natural, multidimensional homogenization capability.

  5. Ultra-Precision Linear Actuator for optical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbandian, Ruben

    2000-10-01

    The Ultra-Precision Linear Actuator presented in this paper was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescopes' (NGST) primary mirror surface figure control. The development was a joint effort between Alson E. Hatheway, Inc (AEH) and Moog, Schaeffer Magnetics Division (SMD). The goal of this project was to demonstrate an extremely light weight, relatively high stiffness actuator capable of operating uniformly well over the range of 2- degree(s)K to 300 degree(s)K and achieving diffraction-limited performance (+/- 10 nm) in the optical band for weeks at a time, while consuming no electrical power and dissipating no heat. The essence of the design challenge was to develop a lightweight, high stiffness, low power, thermally stable linear positioning mechanism. Actuation systems with resolutions comparable to that of this design normally are operated in a closed-loop control system to compensate for any non-linearities and hysteresis inherent in their enabling technologies, such as piezoelectric and magnetostrictive transducers. These technologies require continuous application of power and therefore are not low power consumption devices. The development challenge was met through the use of Alson E. Hatheway's (AEH) patented Rubicontm elastic transducer which consists of two elastic elements; a soft spring and a stiff flexural member. Deflection of the soft spring applies a force input to the stiff flexure, which responds with a proportionally reduced output deflection. To maintain linearity, the displacements, and hence the stresses, developed in both elastic members are kept well below the elastic yield strength of the material. The AEH transducer is inherently linear and hysteresis free.

  6. [Algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of hereditary angioedema as a tool for management].

    PubMed

    Baeza, María Luisa; Caballero Molina, Teresa; Crespo Diz, Carlos; González-Quevedo; Guilarte Clavero, Mar; Hernández Fernández de Rojas, Dolores; Lobera Labairu, Teófilo; Marcos Bravo, Carmen; Navarro Ruiz, Andrés; Navarro Ruiz, A; Poveda Andrés, José Luis; Poveda Andrés, J L; Cebollero, María Antonia; Cebollero de Torre, A

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El angioedema hereditario es una enfermedad rara de baja prevalencia y gran heterogeneidad en la gravedad del cuadro clínico, lo que dificulta su diagnóstico, y establece la necesidad de iniciar un tratamiento precoz y específico con el fin de evitar complicaciones. Objetivo: Proponer un algoritmo de decisión en el angioedema hereditario (AEH), basado en la evidencia disponible, sobre el diagnóstico, valoración clínica y tratamiento. Se trata de presentar opciones terapéuticas disponibles, así como un algoritmo de decisión para seleccionar el tratamiento más eficiente en cada momento. Material y Métodos: Revisión bibliográfica mediante una búsqueda a través de PubMed y otras fuentes de interés. Resultados: Se han desarrollado cuatro algoritmos de decisión para el AEH; diagnóstico de angioedema mediado por bradicinina, tratamiento del ataque agudo y profilaxis a corto y largo plazo del AEH por déficit del inhibidor C1. Conclusiones: La aplicación de un algoritmo de decisión, en función de unas variables clínicas, ayuda a la selección de la opción terapéutica más eficiente en cada momento y puede ser un instrumento de utilidad en el abordaje terapéutico.

  7. Facile and selective synthesis of oligothiophene-based sensitizer isomers: an approach toward efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Feng, Quanyou; Zhang, Qian; Lu, Xuefeng; Wang, Hong; Zhou, Gang; Wang, Zhong-Sheng

    2013-09-25

    Two sets of isomeric organic dyes with n-hexyl (DH and AH) or 2-ethylhexyl (DEH and AEH) groups substituted at the spacer part have been designed and straightforwardly synthesized via a facile and selective synthetic route. The structure difference between the isomers stands at the position of the incorporated alkyl chains which are introduced into the terthiophene spacer close to the donor (D) or anchor (A) side. The relationship between the isomeric structures and the optoelectronic properties are systematically investigated. It is found that, in the D series dyes, the alkyl group is much closer to the aromatic donor moiety, which brings about strong steric hindrance and therefore causes a remarkable twist in the molecular skeleton. In contrast, a more planar chemical structure and more effective π-conjugation are realized in the A series dye isomers. Consequently, the A series isomeric dyes demonstrate bathochromically shifted absorption bands, resulting in the improved light-harvesting capability and enhanced photo-generated current. However, the D series isomeric dyes with more twisted molecular skeleton have suppressed the intermolecular interactions and retarded the charge recombination more efficiently, which induces higher open-circuit photovoltage. Combining the two effects on the performance of the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC), the influence from the short-circuit photocurrent plays a more significant role on the power conversion efficiency (η). As a result, isomer AEH-based DSSC with quasi-solid-state electrolyte displays the highest η of 7.10% which remained at 98% of the initial value after continuous light soaking for 1000 h. Promisingly, a η of 8.66% has been achieved for AEH-based DSSC with liquid electrolyte containing Co(II)/(III) redox couple. This work presents the crucial issue of molecular engineering and paves a way to design organic sensitizers for highly efficient and stable DSSCs.

  8. Automatic Fibrosis Quantification By Using a k-NN Classificator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Fluthrope, “Stages in fiber breakdown in duchenne muscular dystrophy ,” J. Neurol. Sci., vol. 24, pp. 179– 186, 1975. [6] F. Cornelio and I. Dones, “Muscle...pp. 694–701, 1984. [7] A.E.H. Emery, Duchenne muscular dystrophy , 2nd ed, Oxford University Press, 1993. [8] A.T.M. Hageman, F.J.M. Gabreels, and...an automatic algorithm to measure fibrosis in muscle sections of mdx mice, a mutant species used as a model of the Duchenne dystrophy . The al- gorithm

  9. Traveling Wave Modes of a Plane Layered Anelastic Earth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-20

    direction along the x axis, y positive into the paper, and z positive upward. As mentioned the P-SV (Rayleigh) motion decouples from the SH ( Love ) motion...motion for a perfectly elastic medium may be represented in first order form as ∂zbR,L = MR,L bR,L, (13) where the subscripts R (Rayleigh), L ( Love ...viscoelasticity, Handbuch der Physik, Vol. VIa/3 (ed. C. Truesdell), pp1-123, Springer-Verlag, New York. Love , A.E.H., 1944. A Treatise on the Mathematical Theory

  10. Measurement of Anisotropic Elastic Constitutive Properties at High Temperatures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    protection system on the leading edge of the left wing. The breach was initiated by a piece of insulating foam that separated from the left bipod...in iron were first measured up to 500°C by Leese and Lord (1968) using ultrasonic pulse methods. The explanation of these experiments was typ ically...Crystal Iron from Room Temperature to 500C. Journal of Applied Physics, 39 (No. 8, July): 3986-3988. Love, A.E.H., 1927. A Treatise on the

  11. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans.

    PubMed

    Polderman-Tijmes, Jolanda J; Jekel, Peter A; de Vries, Erik J; van Merode, Annet E J; Floris, René; van der Laan, Jan-Metske; Sonke, Theo; Janssen, Dick B

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans ATCC 9325 is capable of hydrolyzing and synthesizing beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin and ampicillin. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase allowed cloning and genetic characterization of the corresponding gene from an A. turbidans genomic library. The gene, designated aehA, encodes a polypeptide with a molecular weight of 72,000. Comparison of the determined N-terminal sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence indicated the presence of an N-terminal leader sequence of 40 amino acids. The aehA gene was subcloned in the pET9 expression plasmid and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified and found to be dimeric with subunits of 70 kDa. A sequence similarity search revealed 26% identity with a glutaryl 7-ACA acylase precursor from Bacillus laterosporus, but no homology was found with other known penicillin or cephalosporin acylases. There was some similarity to serine proteases, including the conservation of the active site motif, GXSYXG. Together with database searches, this suggested that the alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase is a beta-lactam antibiotic acylase that belongs to a class of hydrolases that is different from the Ntn hydrolase superfamily to which the well-characterized penicillin acylase from E. coli belongs. The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase of A. turbidans represents a subclass of this new class of beta-lactam antibiotic acylases.

  12. Menstrual cyclic change of metastin/GPR54 in endometrium.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tsukasa; Kang, Hyun Sook; Hosoe, Yuko; Kharma, Budiman; Abiko, Kaoru; Matsumura, Noriomi; Hamanishi, Junzo; Yamaguchi, Ken; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Mandai, Masaki; Murphy, Susan K; Konishi, Ikuo

    2015-06-01

    Metastin/kisspeptin is encoded by KISS1 and functions as an endogenous ligand of GPR54. Interaction of metastin with GPR54 suppresses metastasis and also regulates release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which promotes secretion of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4). We have previously demonstrated epigenetic regulation of GPR54 in endometrial cancer and the potent role of metastin peptides in inhibiting metastasis in endometrial cancer. However, little is known about how the metastin-GPR54 axis is regulated in the endometrium, the precursor tissue of endometrial cancer. Endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and endometrial glandular cells (EGCs) within the endometrium show morphological changes when exposed to E2 and P4. In this study, we show that metastin expression is induced in ESCs through decidualization, but is repressed in glandular components of atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrial cancer relative to EGCs. The promoter of GPR54 is unmethylated in normal endometrium and in AEH. These results indicate metastin may function in decidualized endometrium to prepare for adequate placentation but this autocrine secretion of metastin is deregulated during oncogenesis to enable tumor cells to spread.

  13. Risk Behavior and Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Transgender Women and Men Undergoing Community-Based Screening for Acute and Early HIV Infection in San Diego.

    PubMed

    Green, Nella; Hoenigl, Martin; Morris, Sheldon; Little, Susan J

    2015-10-01

    The transgender community represents an understudied population in the literature. The objective of this study was to compare risk behavior, and HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates between transgender women and transgender men undergoing community-based HIV testing.With this retrospective analysis of a cohort study, we characterize HIV infection rates as well as reported risk behaviors and reported STI in 151 individual transgender women and 30 individual transgender men undergoing community based, voluntary screening for acute and early HIV infection (AEH) in San Diego, California between April 2008 and July 2014.HIV positivity rate was low for both, transgender women and transgender men undergoing AEH screening (2% and 3%, respectively), and the self-reported STI rate for the prior 12 months was 13% for both. Although transgender women appeared to engage in higher rates of risk behavior overall, with 69% engaged in condomless receptive anal intercourse (CRAI) and 11% engaged in sex work, it is important to note that 91% of transgender women reported recent sexual intercourse, 73% had more than 1 sexual partner, 63% reported intercourse with males, 37% intercourse with males and females, and 30% had CRAI.Our results indicate that in some settings rates of HIV infection, as well as rates of reported STIs and sexual risk behavior in transgender men may resemble those found in transgender women. Our findings support the need for comprehensive HIV prevention in both, transgender women and men.

  14. J1 acylase, a glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid acylase from Bacillus laterosporus J1, is a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily.

    PubMed

    Yau, Ming-Hon; Wang, Jun; Tsang, Paul W K; Fong, Wing-Ping

    2006-02-20

    J1 acylase, a glutaryl-7-aminocephalosporanic acid acylase (GCA) isolated from Bacillus laterosporus J1, has been conventionally grouped as the only member of class V GCA, although its amino acid sequence shares less than 10% identity with members of other classes of GCA. Instead, it shows higher sequence similarities with Rhodococcus sp. strain MB1 cocaine esterase (RhCocE) and Acetobacter turbidans alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase (AtAEH), members of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily. Homology modeling and secondary structure prediction indicate that the N-terminal region of J1 acylase has an alpha/beta-hydrolase folding pattern. The catalytic triads in RhCocE and AtAEH were identified in J1 acylase as S125, D264 and H309. Mutations to alanine at these positions were found to completely inactivate the enzyme. These results suggest that J1 acylase is a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold superfamily with a serine-histidine-aspartate catalytic triad.

  15. ESP Toolbox: A Computational Framework for Precise, Scale-Independent Analysis of Bulk Elastic and Seismic Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. E.; Vel, S. S.; Cook, A. C.; Song, W. J.; Gerbi, C. C.; Okaya, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Owing to the abundance of highly anisotropic minerals in the crust, the Voigt and Reuss bounds on the seismic velocities can be separated by more than 1 km/s. These bounds are determined by modal mineralogy and crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) of the constituent minerals, but where the true velocities lie between these bounds is determined by other fabric parameters such as the shapes, shape-preferred orientations, and spatial arrangements of grains. Thus, the calculation of accurate bulk stiffness relies on explicitly treating the grain-scale heterogeneity, and the same principle applies at larger scales, for example calculating accurate bulk stiffness for a crustal volume with varying proportions and distributions of folds or shear zones. We have developed stand-alone GUI software - ESP Toolbox - for the calculation of 3D bulk elastic and seismic properties of heterogeneous and polycrystalline materials using image or EBSD data. The GUI includes a number of different homogenization techniques, including Voigt, Reuss, Hill, geometric mean, self-consistent and asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH) methods. The AEH method, which uses a finite element mesh, is most accurate since it explicitly accounts for elastic interactions of constituent minerals/phases. The user need only specify the microstructure and material properties of the minerals/phases. We use the Toolbox to explore changes in bulk elasticity and related seismic anisotropy caused by specific variables, including: (a) the quartz alpha-beta phase change in rocks with varying proportions of quartz, (b) changes in modal mineralogy and CPO fabric that occur during progressive deformation and metamorphism, and (c) shear zones of varying thickness, abundance and geometry in continental crust. The Toolbox allows rapid sensitivity analysis around these and other variables, and the resulting bulk stiffness matrices can be used to populate volumes for synthetic wave propagation experiments that

  16. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  17. Weaving Together Space Biology and the Human Research Program: Selecting Crops and Manipulating Plant Physiology to Produce High Quality Food for ISS Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Douglas, Grace; Wheeler, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Researchers from the Human Research Program (HRP) have teamed up with plant biologists at KSC to explore the potential for plant growth and food production on the international space station (ISS) and future exploration missions. KSC Space Biology (SB) brings a history of plant and plant-microbial interaction research for station and for future bioregenerative life support systems. JSC HRP brings expertise in Advanced Food Technology (AFT), Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), and Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP). The Veggie plant growth hardware on the ISS is the platform that first drove these interactions. As we prepared for the VEG-01 validation test of Veggie, we engaged with BHP to explore questions that could be asked of the crew that would contribute both to plant and to behavioral health research. AFT, AEH and BHP stakeholders were engaged immediately after the return of the Veggie flight samples of space-grown lettuce, and this team worked with the JSC human medical offices to gain approvals for crew consumption of the lettuce on ISS. As we progressed with Veggie testing we began performing crop selection studies for Veggie that were initiated through AFT. These studies consisted of testing and down selecting leafy greens, dwarf tomatoes, and dwarf pepper crops based on characteristics of plant growth and nutritional levels evaluated at KSC, and organoleptic quality evaluated at JSCs Sensory Analysis lab. This work has led to a successful collaborative proposal to the International Life Sciences Research Announcement for a jointly funded HRP-SB investigation of the impacts of light quality and fertilizer on salad crop productivity, nutrition, and flavor in Veggie on the ISS. With this work, and potentially with other pending joint projects, we will continue the synergistic research that will advance the space biology knowledge base, help close gaps in the human research roadmap, and enable humans to venture out to Mars and beyond.

  18. Measuring the biological effect of presurgical metformin treatment in endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sivalingam, V N; Kitson, S; McVey, R; Roberts, C; Pemberton, P; Gilmour, K; Ali, S; Renehan, A G; Kitchener, H C; Crosbie, E J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preclinical studies in endometrial cancer (EC) show that metformin reduces cellular proliferation by PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibition. We tested the hypothesis that short-term presurgical metformin reduces cellular proliferation in atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) and endometrioid EC, and assessed the feasibility of using phosphorylated PI3K-AKT-mTOR proteins as tissue end points. Methods: Women with AEH or EC received metformin 850 mg twice a day or no drug in the presurgical window between diagnosis and hysterectomy. Before and after the window, tissue samples were obtained; serum markers of insulin resistance (e.g. homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance index) were determined; and anthropometrics measured (e.g. BMI). Cell proliferation (Ki-67) and PI3K-AKT-mTOR phosphostatus were assessed by immunohistochemistry and scored blinded to treatment. Results: Twenty-eight metformin-treated and 12 untreated patients, well matched for age and BMI, completed the study. Metformin treatment (median 20 days, range 7–34) was associated with a 17.2% reduction in tumour Ki-67 (95% CI −27.4, −7.0, P=0.002), in a dose-dependent manner. Tumour PI3K-AKT-mTOR protein phosphostatus varied but the effects were not significant after adjusting for changes in controls. Conclusions: Short-term metformin was associated with reduced Ki-67 expression in EC. Changes in tumour PI3K-AKT-mTOR protein phosphostatus were seen in both groups. Future studies should address the variability attributed to different sampling techniques including devascularisation of the uterus at hysterectomy. PMID:26794276

  19. Spectral analysis of near-wall turbulence in channel flow at Reτ=4200 with emphasis on the attached-eddy hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Lionel; Leschziner, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation data for channel flow at a friction Reynolds number of 4200, generated by Lozano-Durán and Jiménez [J. Fluid Mech. 759, 432 (2014), 10.1017/jfm.2014.575], are used to examine the properties of near-wall turbulence within subranges of eddy-length scale. Attention is primarily focused on the intermediate layer (mesolayer) covering the logarithmic velocity region within the range of wall-scaled wall-normal distance of 80-1500. The examination is based on a number of statistical properties, including premultiplied and compensated spectra, the premultiplied derivative of the second-order structure function, and three scalar parameters that characterize the anisotropic or isotropic state of the various length-scale subranges. This analysis leads to the delineation of three regions within the map of wall-normal-wise premultiplied spectra, each characterized by distinct turbulence properties. A question of particular interest is whether the Townsend-Perry attached-eddy hypothesis (AEH) can be shown to be valid across the entire mesolayer, in contrast to the usual focus on the outer portion of the logarithmic-velocity layer at high Reynolds numbers, which is populated with very-large-scale motions. This question is addressed by reference to properties in the premultiplied scalewise derivative of the second-order structure function (PMDS2) and joint probability density functions of streamwise-velocity fluctuations and their streamwise and spanwise derivatives. This examination provides evidence, based primarily on the existence of a plateau region in the PMDS2, for the qualified validity of the AEH right down the lower limit of the logarithmic velocity range.

  20. Trait differences between naturalized and invasive plant species independent of residence time and phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, R V; Randall, R P; Leishman, M R

    2015-01-01

    inclusion of quantitative traits, in particular SLA, into the WRA schemes. Diferencia de Características entre Especies de Plantas Naturalizadas e Invasoras Independientes del Tiempo de Residencia y de la Filogenia Resumen La habilidad para predecir cuáles plantas exóticas harán la transición de naturalizadas a invasoras antes de su introducción a regiones nuevas es un objetivo clave para la conservación y tiene el potencial de incrementar la eficiencia de la evaluación de riesgo de hierbas (ERH). Sin embargo, múltiples factores contribuyen al éxito invasor de las plantas (p. ej.: características funcionales, características de cobertura, tiempo de residencia, filogenia) y todos deben considerarse simultáneamente para poder identificar correlaciones significativas del éxito invasor. Recopilamos en Australia 146 parejas de especies de plantas invasoras y naturalizadas emparejadas filogenéticamente (congéneres) y con tiempos de residencia mínima similares (es decir, el tiempo transcurrido desde su introducción en años). Estas parejas se usaron para probar diferencias en cinco características funcionales (duración de la floración, tamaño de la hoja, altura máxima, área específica de la hoja [AEH], masa de la semilla) y en tres características de cobertura nativa de las especies (ocupación de bioma, temperatura media anual y amplitud de pluviosidad) entre especies invasoras y naturalizadas. Las especies invasoras, en promedio, tuvieron una mayor AEH, periodos de floración más largos y fueron más altas que sus parientes congéneres naturalizadas. Las invasoras también exhibieron una mayor tolerancia a diferentes condiciones ambientales en su cobertura nativa, donde ocuparon más biomas y una mayor amplitud de pluviosidad y condiciones de temperatura que sus congéneres naturalizadas. Sin embargo, ni la masa de la semilla ni el tamaño de hoja difirieron entre las parejas de especies naturalizadas e invasoras. Un hallazgo relevante fue el papel de

  1. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  2. Acute exercise preferentially redeploys NK-cells with a highly-differentiated phenotype and augments cytotoxicity against lymphoma and multiple myeloma target cells. Part II: impact of latent cytomegalovirus infection and catecholamine sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Bigley, Austin B; Rezvani, Katayoun; Pistillo, Mira; Reed, Justin; Agha, Nadia; Kunz, Hawley; O'Connor, Daniel P; Sekine, Takuya; Bollard, Catherine M; Simpson, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    We showed previously that acute exercise is associated with a preferential redeployment of highly-differentiated NK-cells and increased cytotoxicity against HLA-expressing tumor cell lines during exercise recovery. In this part II study, we retrospectively analyzed these findings in the context of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and performed additional experiments to explore potential mechanisms underpinning the marked reduction in NK-cell redeployment with exercise in CMV-seropositive individuals. We show here that latent CMV infection impairs NK-cell mobilization with exercise, only when the intensity of the exercise bout exceeds the individual blood lactate threshold (BLT). This impaired mobilization is associated with increased proportions of poorly exercise-responsive NK-cell subsets (NKG2C+/KIR-, NKG2C+/NKG2A-, and NKG2C+/CD57+) and decreased NK-cell β(2)-adrenergic receptor (AR) expression in those with CMV. As a result, NK-cell production of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in response to in vitro isoproterenol (synthetic β-agonist) stimulation was drastically lower in those with CMV (6.0 vs. 20.3pmol/mL, p<0.001) and correlated highly with the proportion of NKG2C+/CD57+ NK-cells (R(2)=0.97). Moreover, NK-cell cytotoxic activity (NKCA) against the K562 (36.6% vs. 22.7%, p<0.05), U266 (23.6% vs. 15.9%, p<0.05), and 221.AEH (41.3% vs. 13.3%, p<0.001) cell lines was increased at baseline in those infected with CMV; however, latent CMV infection abated the post-exercise increase in NKCA as a result of decreased NK-cell mobilization. Additionally, NKCA per cell against the U266 (0.24 vs. 0.12, p<0.01), RPMI-8226 (0.17 vs. 0.11, p<0.05), and 221.AEH (0.18 vs. 0.11, p<0.05) cell lines was increased 1h post-exercise (relative to baseline) in CMV-seronegative subjects, but not in those infected with CMV. Collectively, these data indicate that latent CMV infection may compromise NK-cell mediated immunosurveillance after acute exercise due to an increased proportion of

  3. Fast computation of close-coupling exchange integrals using polynomials in a tree representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallerberger, Markus; Igenbergs, Katharina; Schweinzer, Josef; Aumayr, Friedrich

    2011-03-01

    The semi-classical atomic-orbital close-coupling method is a well-known approach for the calculation of cross sections in ion-atom collisions. It strongly relies on the fast and stable computation of exchange integrals. We present an upgrade to earlier implementations of the Fourier-transform method. For this purpose, we implement an extensive library for symbolic storage of polynomials, relying on sophisticated tree structures to allow fast manipulation and numerically stable evaluation. Using this library, we considerably speed up creation and computation of exchange integrals. This enables us to compute cross sections for more complex collision systems. Program summaryProgram title: TXINT Catalogue identifier: AEHS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 12 332 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 157 086 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 95 Computer: All with a Fortran 95 compiler Operating system: All with a Fortran 95 compiler RAM: Depends heavily on input, usually less than 100 MiB Classification: 16.10 Nature of problem: Analytical calculation of one- and two-center exchange matrix elements for the close-coupling method in the impact parameter model. Solution method: Similar to the code of Hansen and Dubois [1], we use the Fourier-transform method suggested by Shakeshaft [2] to compute the integrals. However, we heavily speed up the calculation using a library for symbolic manipulation of polynomials. Restrictions: We restrict ourselves to a defined collision system in the impact parameter model. Unusual features: A library for symbolic manipulation of polynomials, where polynomials are stored in a space-saving left-child right

  4. Forensic applications of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes in tracing nitrate sources in urban environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silva, S.R.; Ging, P.B.; Lee, R.W.; Ebbert, J.C.; Tesoriero, A.J.; Inkpen, E.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ground and surface waters in urban areas are susceptible to nitrate contamination from septic systems, leaking sewer lines, and fertilizer applications. Source identification is a primary step toward a successful remediation plan in affected areas. In this respect, nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate, in conjunction with hydrologic data and water chemistry, have proven valuable in urban studies from Austin, Texas, and Tacoma, Washington. In Austin, stream water was sampled during stremflow and baseflow conditions to assess surface and subsurface sources of nitrate, respectively. In Tacoma, well waters were sampled in adjacent sewered and un-sewered areas to determine if locally high nitrate concentrations were caused by septic systems in the un-sewered areas. In both studies, sewage was identified as a nitrate source and mixing between sewage and other sources of nitrate was apparent. In addition to source identification, combined nitrogen and oxygen isotopes were important in determining the significance of denitrification, which can complicate source assessment by reducing nitrate concentrations and increasing ??15N values. The two studies illustrate the value of nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate for forensic applications in urban areas. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  5. LC-MS/MS Identification of a Bromelain Peptide Biomarker from Ananas comosus Merr

    PubMed Central

    Secor, Eric R.; Szczepanek, Steven M.; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda; Natarajan, Prabitha; Rezaul, Karim; Han, David K.; Thrall, Roger S.; Silbart, Lawrence K.

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain (Br) is a cysteine peptidase (GenBank AEH26024.1) from pineapple, with over 40 years of clinical use. The constituents mediating its anti-inflammatory activity are not thoroughly characterized and no peptide biomarker exists. Our objective is to characterize Br raw material and identify peptides in the plasma of Br treated mice. After SDS-PAGE in-gel digestion, Br (VN#3507; Middletown, CT, USA) peptides were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using 95% protein probability, 95% peptide probability, and a minimum peptide number = 5. Br spiked mouse plasma (1 ug/ul) and plasma from i.p. treated mice (12 mg/kg) were assessed using SRM. In Br raw material, we identified seven proteins: four proteases, one jacalin-like lectin, and two protease inhibitors. In Br spiked mouse plasma, six proteins (ananain, bromelain inhibitor, cysteine proteinase AN11, FB1035 precursor, FBSB precursor, and jacalin-like lectin) were identified. Using LC/MS/MS, we identified the unique peptide, DYGAVNEVK, derived from FB1035, in the plasma of i.p. Br treated mice. The spectral count of this peptide peaked at 6 hrs and was undetectable by 24 hrs. In this study, a novel Br peptide was identified in the plasma of treated mice for the first time. This Br peptide could serve as a biomarker to standardize the therapeutic dose and maximize clinical utility. PMID:23082082

  6. 2013 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology Standing Review Panel Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology (AEH/AFT) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), and NASA Headquarters on November 22, 2013 (list of participants is in Section IX of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Alterations in Host-Microorganism Interactions (Host Microbe Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness Due to an Inadequate Food System (Food Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Health Effects of Exposure to Dust and Volatiles during Exploration of Celestial Bodies (Dust Risk). Overall, the SRP was impressed with the strong research plans presented by the scientists and staff associated with the SHFH Element. The SRP also thought that the updated research plans were thorough, well organized, and presented in a comprehensive manner. The SRP agrees with the changes made to the Host Microbe Risk and Food Risk portfolios and thinks that the targets for Gap closure are appropriate.

  7. LC-MS/MS Identification of a Bromelain Peptide Biomarker from Ananas comosus Merr.

    PubMed

    Secor, Eric R; Szczepanek, Steven M; Singh, Anurag; Guernsey, Linda; Natarajan, Prabitha; Rezaul, Karim; Han, David K; Thrall, Roger S; Silbart, Lawrence K

    2012-01-01

    Bromelain (Br) is a cysteine peptidase (GenBank AEH26024.1) from pineapple, with over 40 years of clinical use. The constituents mediating its anti-inflammatory activity are not thoroughly characterized and no peptide biomarker exists. Our objective is to characterize Br raw material and identify peptides in the plasma of Br treated mice. After SDS-PAGE in-gel digestion, Br (VN#3507; Middletown, CT, USA) peptides were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using 95% protein probability, 95% peptide probability, and a minimum peptide number = 5. Br spiked mouse plasma (1 ug/ul) and plasma from i.p. treated mice (12 mg/kg) were assessed using SRM. In Br raw material, we identified seven proteins: four proteases, one jacalin-like lectin, and two protease inhibitors. In Br spiked mouse plasma, six proteins (ananain, bromelain inhibitor, cysteine proteinase AN11, FB1035 precursor, FBSB precursor, and jacalin-like lectin) were identified. Using LC/MS/MS, we identified the unique peptide, DYGAVNEVK, derived from FB1035, in the plasma of i.p. Br treated mice. The spectral count of this peptide peaked at 6 hrs and was undetectable by 24 hrs. In this study, a novel Br peptide was identified in the plasma of treated mice for the first time. This Br peptide could serve as a biomarker to standardize the therapeutic dose and maximize clinical utility.

  8. A new Fortran 90 program to compute regular and irregular associated Legendre functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Barry I.; Segura, Javier; Gil, Amparo; Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus

    2010-12-01

    We present a modern Fortran 90 code to compute the regular Plm(x) and irregular Qlm(x) associated Legendre functions for all x∈(-1,+1) (on the cut) and |x|>1 and integer degree ( l) and order ( m). The code applies either forward or backward recursion in ( l) and ( m) in the stable direction, starting with analytically known values for forward recursion and considering both a Wronskian based and a modified Miller's method for backward recursion. While some Fortran 77 codes existed for computing the functions off the cut, no Fortran 90 code was available for accurately computing the functions for all real values of x different from x=±1 where the irregular functions are not defined. Program summaryProgram title: Associated Legendre Functions Catalogue identifier: AEHE_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHE_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6722 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 310 210 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Fortran 90 Computer: Linux systems Operating system: Linux RAM: bytes Classification: 4.7 Nature of problem: Compute the regular and irregular associated Legendre functions for integer values of the degree and order and for all real arguments. The computation of the interaction of two electrons, 1/|r-r|, in prolate spheroidal coordinates is used as one example where these functions are required for all values of the argument and we are able to easily compare the series expansion in associated Legendre functions and the exact value. Solution method: The code evaluates the regular and irregular associated Legendre functions using forward recursion when |x|<1 starting the recursion with the analytically known values of the first two members of the sequence. For values of

  9. Low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal: A possible source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in benthic sediment of the northern Gulf of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Kooten, G. K.; Short, J.W.; Kolak, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The successful application of forensic geology to contamination studies involving natural systems requires identification of appropriate endmembers and an understanding of the geologic setting and processes affecting the systems. Studies attempting to delineate the background, or natural, source for hydrocarbon contamination in Gulf of Alaska (GOA) benthic sediments have invoked a number of potential sources, including seep oils, source rocks, and coal. Oil seeps have subsequently been questioned as significant sources of hydrocarbons present in benthic sediments of the GOA in part because the pattern of relative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) abundance characteristic of benthic GOA sediments is inconsistent with patterns typical of weathered seep oils. Likewise, native coal has been dismissed in part because ratios of labile hydrocarbons to total organic carbon (e.g. PAH:TOC) for Bering River coal field (BRCF) sources are too low - i.e. the coals are over mature - to be consistent with GOA sediments. We present evidence here that native coal may have been prematurely dismissed, because BRCF coals do not adequately represent the geochemical signatures of coals elsewhere in the Kulthieth Formation. Contrary to previous thought, Kulthieth Formation coals east of the BRCF have much higher PAH: TOC ratios, and the patterns of labile hydrocarbons in these low thermal maturity coals suggest a possible genetic relationship between Kulthieth Formation coals and nearby oil seeps on the Sullivan anticline. Analyses of low-maturity Kulthieth Formation coal indicate the low maturity coal is a significant source of PAH. Source apportionment models that neglect this source will underestimate the contribution of native coals to the regional background hydrocarbon signature. ?? Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. on behalf of AEHS.

  10. 2015 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Advanced Environmental Health/Advanced Food Technology (AEH/AFT) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 14 - 15, 2015. The SRP met with representatives from the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element and members of the Human Research Program (HRP) to review the updated research plans for the Risk of Adverse Health Effects Due to Host-Microorganism Interactions (MicroHost Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrement and Crew Illness due to an Inadequate Food System (Food Risk). During the meeting, the SRP also met with the vehicle engineers to discuss possible food storage options. The SRP would like to commend Dr. Oubre and Dr. Douglas for their detailed presentations, as well the frank, refreshing, and comprehensive engineering presentation. This gave much needed perspective to the food storage issues and reassured the committee about NASA's approach to the problem. In terms of critiques, the SRP remains unconvinced about the rationale for probiotic use other than for specific applications supported by the literature. It is not clear what gap or problem is being addressed by the use of probiotics, and the rationale for their use needs to be clearly rooted in the available literature. The SRP thinks that if low-Earth orbit is associated with immune system impairment, then there may additional risks linked with the use of probiotics. It is not clear to the SRP how NASA will determine if probiotics are having their intended beneficial effect. A similar concern is raised as to what gaps or problems are being addressed by "functional foods". Mixed infections, rather than single species infections, which can augment severity of disease, also represent a significant concern. Overall, the SRP considers this to be a strong program that is well-organized, well-coordinated and generates valuable data.

  11. The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor constitutes an alternative activation pathway for a subset of CD8+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Gumá, Mónica; Busch, Lisa K; Salazar-Fontana, Laura I; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Morte, Carles; García, Pilar; López-Botet, Miguel

    2005-07-01

    The CD94/NKG2C killer lectin-like receptor (KLR) specific for HLA-E is coupled to the KARAP/DAP12 adapter in a subset of NK cells, triggering their effector functions. We have studied the distribution and function of this KLR in T lymphocytes. Like other NK cell receptors (NKR), CD94/NKG2C was predominantly expressed by a CD8(+) T cell subset, though TCRgammadelta(+) NKG2C(+) and rare CD4(+) NKG2C(+) cells were also detected in some individuals. Coculture with the 721.221 HLA class I-deficient lymphoma cell line transfected with HLA-E (.221-AEH) induced IL-2Ralpha expression in CD94/NKG2C+ NK cells and a minor subset of CD94/NKG2C(+) T cells, promoting their proliferation; moreover, a similar response was triggered upon selective engagement of CD94/NKG2C with a specific mAb. CD8(+) TCRalphabeta CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, that displayed different combinations of KIR and CD85j receptors, expressed KARAP/DAP12 which was co-precipitated by an anti-CD94 mAb. Specific engagement of the KLR triggered cytotoxicity and cytokine production in CD94/NKG2C(+) T cell clones, inducing as well IL-2Ralpha expression and a proliferative response. Altogether these results support that CD94/NKG2C may constitute an alternative T cell activation pathway capable of driving the expansion and triggering the effector functions of a CTL subset.

  12. Plasticity of the gene functions for DNA replication in the T4-like phages.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Vasiliy M; Nolan, James M; Bertrand, Claire; Levy, Dawn; Desplats, Carine; Krisch, H M; Karam, Jim D

    2006-08-04

    We have completely sequenced and annotated the genomes of several relatives of the bacteriophage T4, including three coliphages (RB43, RB49 and RB69), three Aeromonas salmonicida phages (44RR2.8t, 25 and 31) and one Aeromonas hydrophila phage (Aeh1). In addition, we have partially sequenced and annotated the T4-like genomes of coliphage RB16 (a close relative of RB43), A. salmonicida phage 65, Acinetobacter johnsonii phage 133 and Vibrio natriegens phage nt-1. Each of these phage genomes exhibited a unique sequence that distinguished it from its relatives, although there were examples of genomes that are very similar to each other. As a group the phages compared here diverge from one another by several criteria, including (a) host range, (b) genome size in the range between approximately 160 kb and approximately 250 kb, (c) content and genetic organization of their T4-like genes for DNA metabolism, (d) mutational drift of the predicted T4-like gene products and their regulatory sites and (e) content of open-reading frames that have no counterparts in T4 or other known organisms (novel ORFs). We have observed a number of DNA rearrangements of the T4 genome type, some exhibiting proximity to putative homing endonuclease genes. Also, we cite and discuss examples of sequence divergence in the predicted sites for protein-protein and protein-nucleic acid interactions of homologues of the T4 DNA replication proteins, with emphasis on the diversity in sequence, molecular form and regulation of the phage-encoded DNA polymerase, gp43. Five of the sequenced phage genomes are predicted to encode split forms of this polymerase. Our studies suggest that the modular construction and plasticity of the T4 genome type and several of its replication proteins may offer resilience to mutation, including DNA rearrangements, and facilitate the adaptation of T4-like phages to different bacterial hosts in nature.

  13. Resting cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ances, B M.; Sisti, D; Vaida, F; Liang, C L.; Leontiev, O; Perthen, J E.; Buxton, R B.; Benson, D; Smith, D M.; Little, S J.; Richman, D D.; Moore, D J.; Ellis, R J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: HIV enters the brain soon after infection causing neuronal damage and microglial/astrocyte dysfunction leading to neuropsychological impairment. We examined the impact of HIV on resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within the lenticular nuclei (LN) and visual cortex (VC). Methods: This cross-sectional study used arterial spin labeling MRI (ASL-MRI) to measure rCBF within 33 HIV+ and 26 HIV− subjects. Nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test assessed rCBF differences due to HIV serostatus. Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis determined optimal rCBF cutoffs for differentiating HIV serostatus. The effects of neuropsychological impairment and infection duration on rCBF were evaluated. Results: rCBF within the LN and VC were significantly reduced for HIV+ compared to HIV− subjects. A 2-tiered CART approach using either LN rCBF ≤50.09 mL/100 mL/min or LN rCBF >50.09 mL/100 mL/min but VC rCBF ≤37.05 mL/100 mL/min yielded an 88% (29/33) sensitivity and an 88% (23/26) specificity for differentiating by HIV serostatus. HIV+ subjects, including neuropsychologically unimpaired, had reduced rCBF within the LN (p = 0.02) and VC (p = 0.001) compared to HIV− controls. A temporal progression of brain involvement occurred with LN rCBF significantly reduced for both acute/early (<1 year of seroconversion) and chronic HIV-infected subjects, whereas rCBF in the VC was diminished for only chronic HIV-infected subjects. Conclusion: Resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using arterial spin labeling MRI has the potential to be a noninvasive neuroimaging biomarker for assessing HIV in the brain. rCBF reductions that occur soon after seroconversion possibly reflect neuronal or vascular injury among HIV+ individuals not yet expressing neuropsychological impairment. GLOSSARY AEH = acute/early HIV infection; ANOVA = analysis of variance; ASL-MRI = arterial spin labeling MRI; CART = classification and regression tree; CBF = cerebral blood flow; CH = chronic HIV

  14. Seismic anisotropy in the lower crust: The link between rock composition, microstructure, texture and seismic properties.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaplinska, Daria; Piazolo, Sandra; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    techniques, including Voigt, Reuss, Hill, geometric mean and self-consistent and Asymptotic Expansion Homogenization (AEH) methods. To test the advantages and disadvantages of the method, results are compared to measured geophysical properties of equivalent rocks. Such comparison, allows refinement of seismic data interpretation for mid to lower crustal rocks. References: Cook, A., Vel., S., Johnson, S.E., Gerbi, C., Song, W.J., 2013. Elastic and Seismic Properties (ESP) Toolbox (beta version); http://umaine.edu/mecheng/faculty-and-staff/senthil-vel/software/ESP_Toolbox/

  15. In silico characterization of the family of PARP-like poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Helge; Reche, Pedro A; Bazan, Fernando; Dittmar, Katharina; Haag, Friedrich; Koch-Nolte, Friedrich

    2005-01-01

    Background ADP-ribosylation is an enzyme-catalyzed posttranslational protein modification in which mono(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (mARTs) and poly(ADP-ribosyl)transferases (pARTs) transfer the ADP-ribose moiety from NAD onto specific amino acid side chains and/or ADP-ribose units on target proteins. Results Using a combination of database search tools we identified the genes encoding recognizable pART domains in the public genome databases. In humans, the pART family encompasses 17 members. For 16 of these genes, an orthologue exists also in the mouse, rat, and pufferfish. Based on the degree of amino acid sequence similarity in the catalytic domain, conserved intron positions, and fused protein domains, pARTs can be divided into five major subgroups. All six members of groups 1 and 2 contain the H-Y-E trias of amino acid residues found also in the active sites of Diphtheria toxin and Pseudomonas exotoxin A, while the eleven members of groups 3 – 5 carry variations of this motif. The pART catalytic domain is found associated in Lego-like fashion with a variety of domains, including nucleic acid-binding, protein-protein interaction, and ubiquitylation domains. Some of these domain associations appear to be very ancient since they are observed also in insects, fungi, amoebae, and plants. The recently completed genome of the pufferfish T. nigroviridis contains recognizable orthologues for all pARTs except for pART7. The nearly completed albeit still fragmentary chicken genome contains recognizable orthologues for twelve pARTs. Simpler eucaryotes generally contain fewer pARTs: two in the fly D. melanogaster, three each in the mosquito A. gambiae, the nematode C. elegans, and the ascomycete microfungus G. zeae, six in the amoeba E. histolytica, nine in the slime mold D. discoideum, and ten in the cress plant A. thaliana. GenBank contains two pART homologues from the large double stranded DNA viruses Chilo iridescent virus and Bacteriophage Aeh1 and only a single entry

  16. Genome-wide characterization of vibrio phage ϕpp2 with unique arrangements of the mob-like genes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is associated with gastroenteritis, wound infections, and septicemia in human and animals. Phages can control the population of the pathogen. So far, the only one reported genome among giant vibriophages is KVP40: 244,835 bp with 26% coding regions that have T4 homologs. Putative homing endonucleases (HE) were found in Vibrio phage KVP40 bearing one segD and Vibrio cholerae phage ICP1 carrying one mobC/E and one segG. Results A newly isolated Vibrio phage ϕpp2, which was specific to the hosts of V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus, featured a long nonenveloped head of ~90 × 150 nm and tail of ~110 nm. The phage can survive at 50°C for more than one hour. The genome of the phage ϕpp2 was sequenced to be 246,421 bp, which is 1587 bp larger than KVP40. 383 protein-encoding genes (PEGs) and 30 tRNAs were found in the phage ϕpp2. Between the genomes of ϕpp2 and KVP40, 254 genes including 29 PEGs for viral structure were of high similarity, whereas 17 PEGs of KVP40 and 21 PEGs of ϕpp2 were unmatched. In both genomes, the capsid and tail genes have been identified, as well as the extensive representation of the DNA replication, recombination, and repair enzymes. In addition to the three giant indels of 1098, 1143 and 3330 nt, ϕpp2 possessed unique proteins involved in potassium channel, gp2 (DNA end protector), tRNA nucleotidyltransferase, and mob-type HEs, which were not reported in KVP40. The ϕpp2 PEG274, with strong promoters and translational initiation, was identified to be a mobE type, flanked by NrdA and NrdB/C homologs. Coincidently, several pairs of HE-flanking homologs with empty center were found in the phages of Vibrio phages ϕpp2 and KVP40, as well as in Aeromonas phages (Aeh1 and Ae65), and cyanophage P-SSM2. Conclusions Vibrio phage ϕpp2 was characterized by morphology, growth, and genomics with three giant indels and different types of HEs. The gene analysis on the required elements for transcription

  17. The role of length scales in bridging the gap between rock CPO and seismic signals of crustal anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okaya, D.; Johnson, S. E.; Vel, S. S.; Song, W. J.; Christensen, N. I.

    2012-04-01

    to. We use tensor representation of anisotropic elasticity to formulate a way to separate structural effects from local rock CPO in order to calculate the effective media associated with a structure (see W.J. Song et al., this session). Frontier issues exist to improve the connection between rock CPO and seismic signals. For quantitative analyses of anisotropic elastic tensors: *Improved averaging methods of rock CPO tensors beyond modal or volume averaging, such as asymptotic expansion homogenization (AEH). *Updated series of single-crystal elasticity measurements using modern technologies. For structural geology/tectonics and geodynamics: *Catalogue mapping functions or impulse responses associated with 3D structure. *Identify geometries of anisotropy tensors associated with different tectonic regimes. *Geodynamical modeling of crustal tectonics in order to quantify patterns of metamorphic/deformational fabrics. For seismology: *Two-layer and multi-layer seismic anisotropy methods. *Robust anisotropy tomography methods with improved resolution. *Field experiment methods designed specifically for crustal anisotropy (multi-azimuth, multi-incidence, multi-wavelength using active/passive source types). We discuss the dimensional scales of common seismic waves and earth structures. We illustrate tensor structural operators, effective media, and resulting seismic signals using anisotropic synthetic wave propagation.

  18. A reward semi-Markov process with memory for wind speed modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.; Prattico, F.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. The primary goal of this analysis is the study of the time history of the wind in order to assess its reliability as a source of power and to determine the associated storage levels required. In order to assess this issue we use a probabilistic model based on indexed semi-Markov process [4] to which a reward structure is attached. Our model is used to calculate the expected energy produced by a given turbine and its variability expressed by the variance of the process. Our results can be used to compare different wind farms based on their reward and also on the risk of missed production due to the intrinsic variability of the wind speed process. The model is used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and backtesting procedure is used to compare results on first and second oder moments of rewards between real and synthetic data. [1] A. Shamshad, M.A. Bawadi, W.M.W. Wan Hussin, T.A. Majid, S.A.M. Sanusi, First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic gen- eration of wind speed time series, Energy 30 (2005) 693-708. [2] H. Nfaoui, H. Essiarab, A.A.M. Sayigh, A stochastic Markov chain model for simulating wind speed time series at Tangiers, Morocco, Re- newable Energy 29 (2004) 1407-1418. [3] F. Youcef Ettoumi, H. Sauvageot, A.-E.-H. Adane, Statistical bivariate modeling of wind using first-order Markov chain and Weibull distribu- tion, Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1787-1802. [4]F. Petroni, G. D'Amico, F. Prattico, Indexed semi-Markov process for wind speed modeling. To be submitted.

  19. Indexed semi-Markov process for wind speed modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.; Prattico, F.

    2012-04-01

    wind speed time series at Tangiers, Morocco, Renewable Energy 29 (2004) 1407-1418. [3] F. Youcef Ettoumi, H. Sauvageot, A.-E.-H. Adane, Statistical bivariate modeling of wind using first-order Markov chain and Weibull distribution, Renewable Energy 28 (2003) 1787-1802.

  20. Complex Hydride Compounds with Enhanced Hydrogen Storage Capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Daniel A.; Opalka, Susanne M.; Tang, Xia; Laube, Bruce L.; Brown, Ronald J.; Vanderspurt, Thomas H.; Arsenault, Sarah; Wu, Robert; Strickler, Jamie; Anton, Donald L.; Zidan, Ragaiy; Berseth, Polly

    2008-02-18

    between alkaline metal hydrides (AmH), Alkaline earth metal hydrides (AeH2), alane (AlH3), transition metal (Tm) hydrides (TmHz, where z=1-3) and molecular hydrogen (H2). The effort started first with variations of known alanates and subsequently extended the search to unknown compounds. In this stage, the FPM techniques were developed and validated on known alanate materials such as NaAlH4 and Na2LiAlH6. The coupled predictive methodologies were used to survey over 200 proposed phases in six quaternary spaces, formed from various combinations of Na, Li Mg and/or Ti with Al and H. A wide range of alanate compounds was examined using SSP having additions of Ti, Cr, Co, Ni and Fe. A number of compositions and reaction paths were identified having H weight fractions up to 5.6 wt %, but none meeting the 7.5 wt%H reversible goal. Similarly, MSP of alanates produced a number of interesting compounds and general conclusions regarding reaction behavior of mixtures during processing, but no alanate based candidates meeting the 7.5 wt% goal. A novel alanate, LiMg(AlH4)3, was synthesized using SBP that demonstrated a 7.0 wt% capacity with a desorption temperature of 150°C. The deuteride form was synthesized and characterized by the Institute for Energy (IFE) in Norway to determine its crystalline structure for related FPM studies. However, the reaction exhibited exothermicity and therefore was not reversible under acceptable hydrogen gas pressures for on-board recharging. After the extensive studies of alanates, the material class of emphasis was shifted to borohydrides. Through SBP, several ligand-stabilized Mg(BH4)2 complexes were synthesized. The Mg(BH4)2*2NH3 complex was found to change behavior with slightly different synthesis conditions and/or aging. One of the two mechanisms was an amine-borane (NH3BH3) like dissociation reaction which released up to 16 wt %H and more conservatively 9 wt%H when not including H2 released from the NH3. From FPM, the stability of the Mg(BH4

  1. First and second order semi-Markov chains for wind speed modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prattico, F.; Petroni, F.; D'Amico, G.

    2012-04-01

    -order Markov chain with different number of states, and Weibull distribution. All this model use Markov chains to generate synthetic wind speed time series but the search for a better model is still open. Approaching this issue, we applied new models which are generalization of Markov models. More precisely we applied semi-Markov models to generate synthetic wind speed time series. Semi-Markov processes (SMP) are a wide class of stochastic processes which generalize at the same time both Markov chains and renewal processes. Their main advantage is that of using whatever type of waiting time distribution for modeling the time to have a transition from one state to another one. This major flexibility has a price to pay: availability of data to estimate the parameters of the model which are more numerous. Data availability is not an issue in wind speed studies, therefore, semi-Markov models can be used in a statistical efficient way. In this work we present three different semi-Markov chain models: the first one is a first-order SMP where the transition probabilities from two speed states (at time Tn and Tn-1) depend on the initial state (the state at Tn-1), final state (the state at Tn) and on the waiting time (given by t=Tn-Tn-1), the second model is a second order SMP where we consider the transition probabilities as depending also on the state the wind speed was before the initial state (which is the state at Tn-2) and the last one is still a second order SMP where the transition probabilities depends on the three states at Tn-2,Tn-1 and Tn and on the waiting times t_1=Tn-1-Tn-2 and t_2=Tn-Tn-1. The three models are used to generate synthetic time series for wind speed by means of Monte Carlo simulations and the time lagged autocorrelation is used to compare statistical properties of the proposed models with those of real data and also with a time series generated though a simple Markov chain. [1] F. Youcef Ettoumi, H. Sauvageot, A.-E.-H. Adane, Statistical bivariate modeling