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Sample records for koon bunri gijutsu

  1. Willem de Kooning: "Marilyn Monroe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karen G.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which introduces students in grades 7-9 to Willem de Kooning and the qualities that make his oil painting "Marilyn Monroe," an example of abstract expressionist style. Includes background information on the artist and the painting as well as instructional strategies, studio activities, and evaluation procedures. (GEA)

  2. Memory and the creation of art: the syndrome, as in de Kooning, of 'creating in the midst of dementia'.

    PubMed

    Espinel, Carlos Hugo

    2007-01-01

    The creation of abstract art demands high intellectual capacities. Willem de Kooning, nonetheless, accomplished his last paintings while crippled by impairments diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease. Until my research neither art nor science offered an explanation, or a thinking method, for identifying this phenomenon, for solving a mystery that pertains to human discovery and creation. In this 'ArtScience' study of the de Kooning phenomenon I use 'Thinking Methods' which I devised by a systematic application of information on the workings of the brain, the 'Brain Methods'. With my 'Method of Observation' I examined de Kooning's paintings, created both before and during dementia, and found them comparable in technique and expression. This demonstrates the authenticity of art created in dementia. With my 'Cognitive Analysis' I identified in de Kooning the syndrome herein called 'Creating in the Midst of Dementia'. This Syndrome, unique in mechanisms and presentation, is characterized by (1) a specific combination of brain functions and malfunctions, in this case, preservation of three memory systems - working, procedural, and episodic - and deficit of the semantic memory system, and by (2) a response to precise stimuli, one that triggers brain reactivation, and as a consequence enables creating in the midst of dementia. My work offers: (1) The identification of the 'Syndrome of Creating in the Midst of Dementia'. It (a) presents its definition, the criteria of diagnosis, mechanism, rationale, and possibility of 'cognitive repair' and (b) solves the mystery of de Kooning creating art while crippled by dementia. (2) New Thinking Methods, the 'Brain Methods', that based on information on the workings of the brain, open a new path in the pursuit of truth. The 'Method of Observation' serves to define stimuli, and the 'Cognitive Analysis' to assess cognitive faculties. (3) The integration of art and science into a new discipline of study, 'ArtScience'.

  3. Meaning through Syntax is Insufficient to Explain Comprehension of Sentences with Reduced Relative Clauses: Comment on McKoon and Ratcliff (2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Ken; Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that the meaning through syntax (MTS) model proposed by G. McKoon and R. Ratcliff fails to account for the comprehension of sentences with reduced relative clauses. First, the theory's core assumptions regarding verb-based event representations and how they link to constructions are incompatible with well-established analyses…

  4. 76 FR 66995 - David T. Koon, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... practitioner whose state license has been suspended or revoked. David W. Wang, 72 FR 54297, 54298 (2007); Sheran Arden Yeates, 71 FR 39130, 39131 (2006); Dominick A. Ricci, 58 FR 51104, 51105 (1993); Bobby Watts, 53 FR 11919, 11920 (1988). See also 21 U.S.C. 824(a)(3) (authorizing the revocation of a...

  5. Rules of Engagement: Incomplete and Complete Pronoun Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In…

  6. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  7. Parameter Variability and Distributional Assumptions in the Diffusion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-01-01

    If the diffusion model (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) is to account for the relative speeds of correct responses and errors, it is necessary that the components of processing identified by the model vary across the trials of a task. In standard applications, the rate at which information is accumulated by the diffusion process is assumed to be normally…

  8. Putting It All Together: A Unified Account of Word Recognition and Reaction-Time Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    R. Ratcliff, P. Gomez, and G. McKoon (2004) suggested much of what goes on in lexical decision is attributable to decision processes and may not be particularly informative about word recognition. They proposed that lexical decision should be characterized by a decision process, taking the form of a drift-diffusion model (R. Ratcliff, 1978), that…

  9. [Development of analysis software package for the two kinds of Japanese fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography guideline].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Endo, Keigo

    2013-06-01

    Two kinds of Japanese guidelines for the data acquisition protocol of oncology fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans were created by the joint task force of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Technology (JSNMT) and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine (JSNM), and published in Kakuigaku-Gijutsu 27(5): 425-456, 2007 and 29(2): 195-235, 2009. These guidelines aim to standardize PET image quality among facilities and different PET/CT scanner models. The objective of this study was to develop a personal computer-based performance measurement and image quality processor for the two kinds of Japanese guidelines for oncology (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. We call this software package the "PET quality control tool" (PETquact). Microsoft Corporation's Windows(™) is used as the operating system for PETquact, which requires 1070×720 image resolution and includes 12 different applications. The accuracy was examined for numerous applications of PETquact. For example, in the sensitivity application, the system sensitivity measurement results were equivalent when comparing two PET sinograms obtained from the PETquact and the report. PETquact is suited for analysis of the two kinds of Japanese guideline, and it shows excellent spec to performance measurements and image quality analysis. PETquact can be used at any facility if the software package is installed on a laptop computer. PMID:23782777

  10. [Development of analysis software package for the two kinds of Japanese fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography guideline].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Endo, Keigo

    2013-06-01

    Two kinds of Japanese guidelines for the data acquisition protocol of oncology fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans were created by the joint task force of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Technology (JSNMT) and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine (JSNM), and published in Kakuigaku-Gijutsu 27(5): 425-456, 2007 and 29(2): 195-235, 2009. These guidelines aim to standardize PET image quality among facilities and different PET/CT scanner models. The objective of this study was to develop a personal computer-based performance measurement and image quality processor for the two kinds of Japanese guidelines for oncology (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. We call this software package the "PET quality control tool" (PETquact). Microsoft Corporation's Windows(™) is used as the operating system for PETquact, which requires 1070×720 image resolution and includes 12 different applications. The accuracy was examined for numerous applications of PETquact. For example, in the sensitivity application, the system sensitivity measurement results were equivalent when comparing two PET sinograms obtained from the PETquact and the report. PETquact is suited for analysis of the two kinds of Japanese guideline, and it shows excellent spec to performance measurements and image quality analysis. PETquact can be used at any facility if the software package is installed on a laptop computer.

  11. Understanding and producing the reduced relative construction: Evidence from ratings, editing and corpora

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; McRae, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Tworating studies demonstrate that English speakers willingly produce reduced relatives with internal cause verbs (e.g., Whisky fermented in oak barrels can have a woody taste), and judge their acceptability based on factors known to influence ambiguity resolution, rather than on the internal/external cause distinction. Regression analyses demonstrate that frequency of passive usage predicts reduced relative frequency in corpora, but internal/external cause status does not. The authors conclude that reduced relatives with internal cause verbs are rare because few of these verbs occur in the passive. This contrasts with the claim in McKoon and Ratcliff (McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2003). Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490–525) that reduced relatives like The horse raced past the barn fell are rare and, when they occur, incomprehensible, because the meaning of the reduced relative construction prohibits the use of a verb with an internal cause event template. PMID:22162904

  12. Understanding and producing the reduced relative construction: Evidence from ratings, editing and corpora.

    PubMed

    Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K; McRae, Ken

    2007-04-01

    Tworating studies demonstrate that English speakers willingly produce reduced relatives with internal cause verbs (e.g., Whisky fermented in oak barrels can have a woody taste), and judge their acceptability based on factors known to influence ambiguity resolution, rather than on the internal/external cause distinction. Regression analyses demonstrate that frequency of passive usage predicts reduced relative frequency in corpora, but internal/external cause status does not. The authors conclude that reduced relatives with internal cause verbs are rare because few of these verbs occur in the passive. This contrasts with the claim in McKoon and Ratcliff (McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2003). Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490-525) that reduced relatives like The horse raced past the barn fell are rare and, when they occur, incomprehensible, because the meaning of the reduced relative construction prohibits the use of a verb with an internal cause event template. PMID:22162904

  13. Item recognition memory and the receiver operating characteristic.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Andrew

    2003-11-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of study time, study repetition, semantic and orthographic similarity, and category length on item recognition memory receiver operating characteristics (ROCs). Analyses of ROC shape rejected A. P. Yonelinas's (1994) dual-process model. The normal unequal variance signal-detection model provided a better account of the data, except for a small but consistent excess of high-confidence errors. It was found that z-transformed ROC slope was increased by similarity, category length, and study item repetition, rejecting R. Ratcliff, G. McKoon, and M. Tindall's (1994) "constancy-of-slopes" generalization for these variables, but slope was relatively unaffected by massed study time.

  14. Unexpected development of artistic talents

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, N

    2005-01-01

    The development of exceptional and unexpected artistic skills at any age must be a matter of curiosity. This can occur among young children with severe learning difficulties, especially if they are autistic. Some examples of these so called idiot-savants are given, and the way in which their brains may function. It is also true that elderly people who suffer from frontotemporal dementia can find that they are able to express themselves in remarkable art forms. This can occur in other types of dementia, but then more often it is the changes that result in the paintings of established artists, for example in the paintings of de Kooning. Possible links between these two phenomenon are discussed, and it is suggested that in both instances it may be that if the brain is relieved of a number of functions it can concentrate on the remaining ones. Ways in which this may operate in both groups are reviewed. PMID:16344297

  15. Rules of engagement: incomplete and complete pronoun resolution.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-07-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In this paper we revisit those findings. In 11 recognition probe, priming, and self-report experiments, we manipulated Greene et al.'s stories to discover under what circumstances a pronoun's referent is automatically understood. We lengthened the stories from 4 to 8 lines. This simple manipulation led to automatic and correct resolution, which we attribute to readers' increased engagement with the stories. We found evidence of resolution even when the additional text did not mention the pronoun's referent. In addition, our results suggest that the pronoun temporarily boosts the referent's accessibility, an advantage that disappears by the end of the next sentence. Finally, we present evidence from memory experiments that supports complete pronoun resolution for the longer but not the shorter stories. PMID:21480757

  16. Analysis of radiation exposure for Naval personnel at Operation Castle. Technical report, 1 January 1983-31 January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Weitz, R.

    1984-02-28

    Film-badge doses are reconstructed for sixteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls resulting from the six nuclear detonations comprising Operation CASTLE (March-May 1954). Fallout from Shots BRAVO and ROMEO was the major source of contamination on most of the ships and islands. Varying amounts of fallout from Shots UNION, YANKEE, and NECTAR contributed somewhat to the total doses of the shipboard and island-based personnel; no fallout was experienced as a result of Shot KOON. Shipboard personnel received additional exposure from hulls and salt water piping systems that had become contaminated from operating in the radioactive waters of Bikini Lagoon. From the reconstructed radiation environments, both topside and below, an equivalent film badge dose is calculated and compared to actual dosimetry data. Agreement is very good during badged periods when the ships received significant fallout. When topside intensities were not documented, generally late in the operation when intensity levels were low, agreement is not as good. Calculated ship contamination doses of significance are in excellent agreement with limited available dosimetry data. Calculated average doses for shipboard personnel range from a low of 0.19 rem for the crew of the USS LST-825 to a high of 3.56 rem for the crew of the USS PHILIP. Average doses on the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls are 1.09 rem and 0.32 rem, respectively.

  17. Long-term transit timing monitoring and homogenous study of WASP-32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei-Lei; Gu, Sheng-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cao, Dong-Tao; Wang, Yi-Bo; Xiang, Yue; Hui, Ho-Keung; Kwok, Chi-Tai; Yeung, Bill; Leung, Kam-Cheung

    2015-01-01

    We report new photometric observations of the transiting exoplanetary system WASP-32 made by using CCD cameras at Yunnan Observatories and Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, China from 2010 to 2012. Following our usual procedure, the observed data are corrected for systematic errors according to the coarse decorrelation and SYSREM algorithms so as to enhance the signal of the transit events. Combined with radial velocity data presented in the literature, our newly observed data and earlier photometric data in the literature are simultaneously analyzed to derive the physical parameters describing the system by employing the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The derived parameters are consistent with the result published in the original paper about WASP-32b, but the uncertainties of the new parameters are smaller than those in the original paper. Moreover, our modeling result supports a circular orbit for WASP-32b. Through the analysis of all available mid-transit times, we have refined the orbital period of WASP-32b; no evident transit timing variation is found in these transit events.

  18. Off-easy-plane antiferromagnetic spin canting in coupled FePt/NiO bilayer structure with perpendicular exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tenghua; Itokawa, Nobuhide; Wang, Jian; Yu, Youxing; Harumoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji

    2016-08-01

    We report on the investigation of perpendicular exchange bias in FePt (001 ) /NiO (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) orthogonal exchange couple with FePt partially L 10 ordered. From initial magnetization curve measurement and magnetic domain imaging, we find that, for the as-grown bilayer structure, the FePt layer experiences a small-angle magnetization rotation when it is magnetized near to saturation in film normal direction. After field cooling, the bilayer structure shows a significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, indicating the field mediated coupling between the spins across the FePt/NiO interface. According to Koon's theoretical calculation on the basis of lowest energy ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling configuration for compensated spins at antiferromagnetic side, we consider slightly slanted Ni spins at the interface off the (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) easy plane can stabilize the spin coupling between FePt and NiO and result in the observed exchange bias in this paper. This consideration was further confirmed by stripe domain width calculation.

  19. DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992; Anderson and Koons, 1996; Anderson, 2012). These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka (1992). These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.

  20. Evidence accumulation in a complex task: Making choices about concurrent multiattribute stimuli under time pressure.

    PubMed

    Palada, Hector; Neal, Andrew; Vuckovic, Anita; Martin, Russell; Samuels, Kate; Heathcote, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Evidence accumulation models transform observed choices and associated response times into psychologically meaningful constructs such as the strength of evidence and the degree of caution. Standard versions of these models were developed for rapid (∼1 s) choices about simple stimuli, and have recently been elaborated to some degree to address more complex stimuli and response methods. However, these elaborations can be difficult to use with designs and measurements typically encountered in complex applied settings. We test the applicability of 2 standard accumulation models-the diffusion (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) and the linear ballistic accumulation (LBA) (Brown & Heathcote, 2008)-to data from a task representative of many applied situations: the detection of heterogeneous multiattribute targets in a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator task. Despite responses taking more than 2 s and complications added by realistic features, such as a complex target classification rule, interruptions from a simultaneous UAV navigation task, and time pressured choices about several concurrently present potential targets, these models performed well descriptively. They also provided a coherent psychological explanation of the effects of decision uncertainty and workload manipulations. Our results support the wider application of standard evidence accumulation models to applied decision-making settings. PMID:26844369

  1. Modeling confidence judgments, response times, and multiple choices in decision making: recognition memory and motion discrimination.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, Roger; Starns, Jeffrey J

    2013-07-01

    Confidence in judgments is a fundamental aspect of decision making, and tasks that collect confidence judgments are an instantiation of multiple-choice decision making. We present a model for confidence judgments in recognition memory tasks that uses a multiple-choice diffusion decision process with separate accumulators of evidence for the different confidence choices. The accumulator that first reaches its decision boundary determines which choice is made. Five algorithms for accumulating evidence were compared, and one of them produced proportions of responses for each of the choices and full response time distributions for each choice that closely matched empirical data. With this algorithm, an increase in the evidence in one accumulator is accompanied by a decrease in the others so that the total amount of evidence in the system is constant. Application of the model to the data from an earlier experiment (Ratcliff, McKoon, & Tindall, 1994) uncovered a relationship between the shapes of z-transformed receiver operating characteristics and the behavior of response time distributions. Both are explained in the model by the behavior of the decision boundaries. For generality, we also applied the decision model to a 3-choice motion discrimination task and found it accounted for data better than a competing class of models. The confidence model presents a coherent account of confidence judgments and response time that cannot be explained with currently popular signal detection theory analyses or dual-process models of recognition.

  2. Survey of DMSP Charging Events During the Period Preceding Cycle 23 Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that POLAR orbiting satellites can see mild to severe charging levels during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992, Anderson and Koons, 1996, Anderson, 2012). However, spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging. Recently, we have seen examples of high level charging during the recent approach to solar maximum. We present here a survey of charging events seen by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites (F16, F17) during the solstices of 2011 and 2012. In this survey, we summarize the condition necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal maximum conditions are conducive to the environment conditions necessary for charging in the POLAR orbit, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period. We also show examples of other interesting phenomenological events seen in the DMSP data, but which are not considered surface charging events, and discuss the differences.

  3. Survey of DMSP Charging During the Period Preceding Cycle 24 Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NeergaardParker, L.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can see mild to severe charging levels during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992, Anderson and Koons, 1996, Anderson, 2012). However, spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging. Recently, we have seen examples of high level charging during the recent approach to solar maximum. We present here a survey of charging events seen by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites (F16, F17) during the solstices of 2011 and 2012. In this survey, we summarize the condition necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal maximum conditions are conducive to the environment conditions necessary for charging in the polar orbit, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period. We also show examples of other interesting phenomenological events seen in the DMSP data, but which are not considered surface charging events, and discuss the differences.

  4. Aging and IQ effects on associative recognition and priming in item recognition

    PubMed Central

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Two ways to examine memory for associative relationships between pairs of words were tested: an explicit method, associative recognition, and an implicit method, priming in item recognition. In an experiment with both kinds of tests, participants were asked to learn pairs of words. For the explicit test, participants were asked to decide whether two words of a test pair had been studied in the same or different pairs. For the implicit test, participants were asked to decide whether single words had or had not been among the studied pairs. Some test words were immediately preceded in the test list by the other word of the same pair and some by a word from a different pair. Diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978; Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) analyses were carried out for both tasks for college-age participants, 60–74 year olds, and 75–90 year olds, and for higher- and lower-IQ participants, in order to compare the two measures of associative strength. Results showed parallel behavior of drift rates for associative recognition and priming across ages and across IQ, indicating that they are based, at least to some degree, on the same information in memory. PMID:24976676

  5. Evidence accumulation in a complex task: Making choices about concurrent multiattribute stimuli under time pressure.

    PubMed

    Palada, Hector; Neal, Andrew; Vuckovic, Anita; Martin, Russell; Samuels, Kate; Heathcote, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    Evidence accumulation models transform observed choices and associated response times into psychologically meaningful constructs such as the strength of evidence and the degree of caution. Standard versions of these models were developed for rapid (∼1 s) choices about simple stimuli, and have recently been elaborated to some degree to address more complex stimuli and response methods. However, these elaborations can be difficult to use with designs and measurements typically encountered in complex applied settings. We test the applicability of 2 standard accumulation models-the diffusion (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) and the linear ballistic accumulation (LBA) (Brown & Heathcote, 2008)-to data from a task representative of many applied situations: the detection of heterogeneous multiattribute targets in a simulated unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) operator task. Despite responses taking more than 2 s and complications added by realistic features, such as a complex target classification rule, interruptions from a simultaneous UAV navigation task, and time pressured choices about several concurrently present potential targets, these models performed well descriptively. They also provided a coherent psychological explanation of the effects of decision uncertainty and workload manipulations. Our results support the wider application of standard evidence accumulation models to applied decision-making settings.

  6. Rules of engagement: incomplete and complete pronoun resolution.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-07-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In this paper we revisit those findings. In 11 recognition probe, priming, and self-report experiments, we manipulated Greene et al.'s stories to discover under what circumstances a pronoun's referent is automatically understood. We lengthened the stories from 4 to 8 lines. This simple manipulation led to automatic and correct resolution, which we attribute to readers' increased engagement with the stories. We found evidence of resolution even when the additional text did not mention the pronoun's referent. In addition, our results suggest that the pronoun temporarily boosts the referent's accessibility, an advantage that disappears by the end of the next sentence. Finally, we present evidence from memory experiments that supports complete pronoun resolution for the longer but not the shorter stories.

  7. Epilepsy: creative sparks.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rhys H; Mullins, Jane M; Waddington, Tracey; Nugent, Kane; Smith, Phil E M

    2010-08-01

    An epilepsy diagnosis is very verbal, relying on witness history, personal narrative and analysis of how people describe the experience. Occasionally however, non-verbal descriptions of seizures allow us to gain a fuller understanding of this complex disorder. Artists are often inspired by personal experience, so it should be no surprise to find people depicting images of ill health, both their own and people they have observed. Furthermore, an ailment or affliction may influence an artist's portfolio over their lifetime, such as de Kooning's Alzheimer's disease and Monet's glaucoma. Epilepsy (in contrast with cerebrovascular or neurodegenerative disease) may present not just with a loss of function but with unusual super-added experiences such as déjà vu, ecstatic auras or hallucinations. Here we describe some artists who were thought to have had epilepsy, and the way in which their seizures influenced their art. It appears that for some, they have succeeded despite, rather than because of, their epilepsy and that rather than be inspired by their symptoms they were ashamed of them. If there is a common theme, it is in the unwanted psychological harm of some seizures provoking dark, frustrated imagery.

  8. Individual differences in visual word recognition: insights from the English Lexicon Project.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvin J; Balota, David A; Sibley, Daragh E; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-02-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences among individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly 4 million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

  9. Deep subduction of hot young oceanic slab required by the Syros eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemetakis, Stamatis; Moulas, Evangelos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias

    2014-05-01

    The Cycladic islands of Syros and Siphnos, Aegean Sea, Greece, represent subducted IAT and BABB remnants of the Neotethyan Pindos Ocean. Garnet porphyroblasts (Ø=1mm) in a glaucophane-zoisite eclogite from Kini locality on Syros are compositionally zoned and display a unique prograde heating path from a high-pressure greenschist-facies core with high XSps and low Mg# via a blueschist-facies mantle with moderate XSps and Mg# to an eclogite-facies rim with low XSps and high Mg#. The outermost 35 μm of the garnet rims show flat XSps with rapidly increasing outwards Mg#. Na-Act-Chl-Ph rimmed by Gln mark the greenschist-blueschist facies transition, whereas Pg rimmed by Omp and the incoming of Rt at the expense of Ttn signify the blueschist-eclogite facies transition. Raman barometry of quartz inclusions in the eclogitic garnet rims coupled with elastic modelling of the garnet host [1], and Zr-in-Rt and Grt-Cpx-Ph thermobarometry revealed near-UHP P-T conditions of the order of 2.6 GPa/660°C (maximum residual pressure was 0.8-0.9GPa). By contrast, the greenschist-blueschist transition lies at ~0.75 GPa/355°C. This pressure is in excellent agreement with the position of the albite = jadeite + quartz boundary calculated at 350°C using the observed omphacite composition corrected for jadeite activity (Koons & Thompson, 1985) [2]. As a result, Cpx inclusions in garnet core signify the early entrance of garnet in the subduction zone history of the slab. Furthermore, the early growth of garnet (in lower pressures) observed in eclogites from Syros lies in great agreement with published slab-geotherms that indicate hot subduction and show a precocious garnet growth (Baxter and Caddick, 2013) [3]. The complete absence of lawsonite and the great abundance of zoisite crystals, based on the stability fields of both minerals (Poli et al., 2009) [4], further constrain the P-T trajectory of the slab. Our new P-T estimates match published T distributions on the slab surface

  10. Late-Quaternary Exhumation of Namche Barwa Constrained Using Low-temperature Multi-OSL-thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, G. E.; Herman, F.

    2015-12-01

    Exhumation rates >5 mm a-1 have been reported for Namche Barwa, making it one of the most rapidly exhuming places on earth. The driver of such high exhumation rates has been highly debated, and two principle hypotheses have evolved: first the aneurysm model (Zeitler et al., 2001) which proposes that a weakening of the crust coupled with extremely active surface processes causes a spatially stationary locus of exhumation. Secondly a northward plunging antiform that is progressively migrating north-eastward (Seward and Burg, 2008) may instead explain the concentration of extremely low cooling ages and rapid exhumation. Distinguishing the effects of tectonic and surface processes, as well as climate is complex, especially given that most existing thermochronometric systems are unable to resolve late-stage cooling histories. Here we present multi-OSL-thermochronometry which comprises a series of different systems with closure temperature ranging from 30 to 70 oC. We have applied this new technique to a suite of samples from the Namche Barwa massif and are able to resolve cooling histories over 0.1 Ma timescales. Our data indicate propagation of a knick-point along the Parlung river, which can be explained by progressive north-eastward migration of a northward plunging antiform. We suggest therefore that river incision does not feedback onto tectonics, as proposed by the aneurysm model. References Seward, D., Burg, J-P., 2008. Growth of the Namche Barwa Syntaxis and associated evolution of the Tsangpo Gorge: Constraints from structural and thermochronological data. Tectonophysics 451, 282-289. Zeitler, P.K., Meltzer, A.S., Koons, P.O., et al., 2001. Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism. GSA Today 11, 4-9.

  11. Aging and the rate of visual information processing.

    PubMed

    Guest, Duncan; Howard, Christina J; Brown, Louise A; Gleeson, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Multiple methods exist for measuring how age influences the rate of visual information processing. The most advanced methods model the processing dynamics in a task in order to estimate processing rates independently of other factors that might be influenced by age, such as overall performance level and the time at which processing onsets. However, such modeling techniques have produced mixed evidence for age effects. Using a time-accuracy function (TAF) analysis, Kliegl, Mayr, and Krampe (1994) showed clear evidence for age effects on processing rate. In contrast, using the diffusion model to examine the dynamics of decision processes, Ratcliff and colleagues (e.g., Ratcliff, Thapar, & McKoon, 2006) found no evidence for age effects on processing rate across a range of tasks. Examination of these studies suggests that the number of display stimuli might account for the different findings. In three experiments we measured the precision of younger and older adults' representations of target stimuli after different amounts of stimulus exposure. A TAF analysis found little evidence for age differences in processing rate when a single stimulus was presented (Experiment 1). However, adding three nontargets to the display resulted in age-related slowing of processing (Experiment 2). Similar slowing was observed when simply presenting two stimuli and using a post-cue to indicate the target (Experiment 3). Although there was some interference from distracting objects and from previous responses, these age-related effects on processing rate seem to reflect an age-related difficulty in processing multiple objects, particularly when encoding them into visual working memory. PMID:26473319

  12. Late-Quaternary exhumation of Namche Barwa constrained using low-temperature multi-OSL-thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Georgina; Herman, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The influence of climate on tectonic processes remains a controversial concept. Exhumation rates of >5 mm/yr make Namche Barwa, Tibet, one of the most rapidly exhuming places on earth, and two main hypotheses have developed to explain the very high rates of exhumation there. The tectonic aneurysm model (Zeitler et al., 2001) proposes that crustal weakening coupled with extremely active surface processes causes a spatial stationarity of exhumation. Alternatively, a northward plunging antiform that is progressively migrating north-eastward (Seward and Burg, 2008) may explain the concentration of extremely low cooling ages and rapid exhumation that characterise the Namche Barwa massif. Here we use multi-OSL-thermochronometry of feldspar, which comprises a series of different systems with closure temperatures ranging from 30 to 70 C, to quantify spatial and temporal changes in exhumation rates. We have applied this new technique to a suite of samples from the Namche Barwa massif and inverting our data enables us to precisely resolve cooling histories over 0.1 Ma timescales. Our data indicate propagation of a knick-point along the Parlung river, which can be explained by progressive north-eastward migration of a northward plunging antiform. We suggest that river incision does not therefore feedback onto tectonics, as proposed by the aneurysm model. Zeitler, P.K., Meltzer, A.S., Koons, P.O., et al., 2001. Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism. GSA Today 11, 4-9 Seward, D., Burg, J-P., 2008. Growth of the Namche Barwa Syntaxis and associated evolution of the Tsangpo Gorge: Constraints from structural and thermochronological data. Tectonophysics 451, 282-289.

  13. Along-Strike Variation in Dip-Slip Rate on the Alpine Fault is a Consequence of Lithologic Variation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, V. G.; Reid Lindroos, Z.; Norris, R. J.; Cooper, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    microstructural and textural variations. These variations are broadly a function of the volumetric proportion of amphibolite in the mylonite zone on the map scale. We propose that most of the difference in measured dip-slip rates and differential rock uplift along strike of the fault can be attributed to basic along-strike variation in shear strength resulting from variation in lithology. Other theories, such as that the Alpine Fault contains a lateral ramp near the Karangarua River (Little et al. 2005), or that a weaker crust beneath Otago allows the convergent component of plate boundary deformation to be distributed over a broader orogen (Upton et al. 2009) are not required, although they may operate in concert. Little, T.A, Cox, S., Vry, J.K., Batt, G.E., 2005. Variations in exhumation level and uplift rate along the oblique-slip Alpine fault, central Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geological Society of America Bulletin 117 (5), 707 Upton, P., Koons, P.O., Craw D., Henderson, C.M., Enlow, R. 2009. Along-strike differences in the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Consequences of inherited variation in rheology. Tectonics 28. 10.1029/2008TC002353

  14. Obituary: Kevin H. Prendergast, 1929-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Edward A.

    2005-12-01

    shown quite widely in colloquia and symposia. The films revealed phenomena of qualitative interest such as mergers, bridges, and tails, and the formation of bars. Similar results were also being obtained by Hohl around that time and both pieces of work were no doubt influential in shaping the thinking of people working in this field. One striking feature of the calculations was that spiral arms formed initially but were transient. To keep the spiral patterns from collapsing it seemed necessary to artificially heat the disks. Only later, when the existence of massive halos was recognized (by Ostriker and Peebles), could the true cause of stability be surmised. From the mid-seventies on, Kevin worked on topics in astrophysical fluid dynamics and applied mathematics, largely with students. Some of this work was published, but it has to be said that much of his best work was not. A good example of the latter is his three-part handwritten manuscript on the dynamics of barred spirals that he distributed to several people over thirty years ago. Many of his other unpublished calculations have been deposited in the Columbia Library, and there are no doubt several things of interest to be found among his papers. While one can only speculate on why so much of his work went unpublished, I find a remark by de Kooning quite helpful in thinking about it. In a review of book about the painter, Peter Schjeldahl reported that "He [de Kooning] made ...paintings...and destroyed nearly all of them, to his subsequent regret....He explained `I was so modest then that I was vain.'" When I accused Kevin of a similar mindset, he chuckled and said "You are right, but don't tell anyone." Kevin was widely read and he had a remarkable awareness ofliterature. He was especially devoted to the work of P.G. Wodehouse. He also loved the Marx Brothers and late in life discovered Zero Mostel of whom he became an instant fan. He was a sailor and a snorkler, and enjoyed trading quips with anyone who was

  15. Intermediate-depth earthquake generation: what hydrous minerals can tell us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L.; Andersen, T. B.

    2012-04-01

    .8 to 14 wt %) but the gabbro is not (H2O content from 0 to 2.6 wt%). The hydrous nature of the PST is due to the preferential melting of hydrous minerals (chlorite and serpentine - peridotite, glaucophane, epidote, Mg-hornblende - gabbro) in the host rock, rather than later hydration associated with exhumation (greenschist facies metamorphism and later alteration). However, in the case of the gabbro, the melt can be hydrous, but is not always. Anhydrous, glassy PST is formed in association with hydrous PST in the gabbro host rock. The gabbroic PST nucleate at the boundary between a coarse-grained pegmatoidal gabbro and a fine-grained gabbro, whereas the exclusively hydrous peridotite-hosted PST only nucleate along pre-existing hydrated fractures. These facts are significant when considering the mechanism of formation of the pseudotachylyte; which is commonly thought to be associated with the preferential melting of hydrous minerals. An anhydrous melt in proximity to other hydrous melts formed contemporaneously must have formed by the same mechanism; one which can exploit more than just one rheological characteristic in the rock vis. hydrous mineralogy AND grain size changes. Furthermore the presence of anhydrous PST suggests that little or no fluid ingress occurred prior to or during PST generation. Hydrous crystallisation products in the gabbro such as glaucophane and edenite indicate that whole-sale melting of the wallrock amphiboles (glaucophane, edenite, actinolite) took place to produce a melt with dissolved H2O, out of which such blue amphiboles were able to crystallise. It is important to note that in order for amphiboles to crystallise out of a melt, H2O is required but necessarily to an under-saturated degree. i.e. it cannot be 'free' water occurring as a separate phase in the melt (Carmen and Gilbert, 1983 and Koons, 1982). It is unlikely therefore that the water in the gabbro-derived fusion melt was the result of solid-state dehydration of the wallrock

  16. Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) Cost-Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) are designed to prevent space launch vehicles from flight through environments conducive to natural or triggered lightning and are used for all U.S. government and commercial launches at government and civilian ranges. They are maintained by a committee known as the NASA/USAF Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP). The previous LLCC for anvil cloud, meant to avoid triggered lightning, have been shown to be overly restrictive. Some of these rules have had such high safety margins that they prohibited flight under conditions that are now thought to be safe 90% of the time, leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. The LLCC for anvil clouds was upgraded in the summer of 2005 to incorporate results from the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) experiment at the Eastern Range (ER). Numerous combinations of parameters were considered to develop the best correlation of operational weather observations to in-cloud electric fields capable of rocket triggered lightning in anvil clouds. The Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) was the best metric found. Dr. Harry Koons of Aerospace Corporation conducted a risk analysis of the VAHIRR product. The results indicated that the LLCC based on the VAHIRR product would pose a negligible risk of flying through hazardous electric fields. Based on these findings, the Kennedy Space Center Weather Office is considering seeking funding for development of an automated VAHIRR algorithm for the new ER 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) RadTec 431250 weather radar and Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars. Before developing an automated algorithm, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to determine the frequency with which VAHIRR would have allowed a launch to safely proceed during weather conditions otherwise deemed "red" by the Launch Weather Officer. To do this, the AMU manually calculated VAHIRR values based on candidate cases from past launches with known anvil cloud