Science.gov

Sample records for koon bunri gijutsu

  1. Willem de Kooning: "Marilyn Monroe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karen G.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which introduces students in grades 7-9 to Willem de Kooning and the qualities that make his oil painting "Marilyn Monroe," an example of abstract expressionist style. Includes background information on the artist and the painting as well as instructional strategies, studio activities, and evaluation procedures.…

  2. Willem de Kooning: "Marilyn Monroe."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Karen G.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which introduces students in grades 7-9 to Willem de Kooning and the qualities that make his oil painting "Marilyn Monroe," an example of abstract expressionist style. Includes background information on the artist and the painting as well as instructional strategies, studio activities, and evaluation procedures.…

  3. 76 FR 44977 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “De Kooning: A Retrospective”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Exhibition Determinations: ``De Kooning: A Retrospective'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... exhibition ``De Kooning: A Retrospective,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  4. Memory and the creation of art: the syndrome, as in de Kooning, of 'creating in the midst of dementia'.

    PubMed

    Espinel, Carlos Hugo

    2007-01-01

    The creation of abstract art demands high intellectual capacities. Willem de Kooning, nonetheless, accomplished his last paintings while crippled by impairments diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease. Until my research neither art nor science offered an explanation, or a thinking method, for identifying this phenomenon, for solving a mystery that pertains to human discovery and creation. In this 'ArtScience' study of the de Kooning phenomenon I use 'Thinking Methods' which I devised by a systematic application of information on the workings of the brain, the 'Brain Methods'. With my 'Method of Observation' I examined de Kooning's paintings, created both before and during dementia, and found them comparable in technique and expression. This demonstrates the authenticity of art created in dementia. With my 'Cognitive Analysis' I identified in de Kooning the syndrome herein called 'Creating in the Midst of Dementia'. This Syndrome, unique in mechanisms and presentation, is characterized by (1) a specific combination of brain functions and malfunctions, in this case, preservation of three memory systems - working, procedural, and episodic - and deficit of the semantic memory system, and by (2) a response to precise stimuli, one that triggers brain reactivation, and as a consequence enables creating in the midst of dementia. My work offers: (1) The identification of the 'Syndrome of Creating in the Midst of Dementia'. It (a) presents its definition, the criteria of diagnosis, mechanism, rationale, and possibility of 'cognitive repair' and (b) solves the mystery of de Kooning creating art while crippled by dementia. (2) New Thinking Methods, the 'Brain Methods', that based on information on the workings of the brain, open a new path in the pursuit of truth. The 'Method of Observation' serves to define stimuli, and the 'Cognitive Analysis' to assess cognitive faculties. (3) The integration of art and science into a new discipline of study, 'ArtScience'.

  5. 76 FR 66995 - David T. Koon, M.D.; Revocation of Registration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ...); Sheran Arden Yeates, 71 FR 39130, 39131 (2006); Dominick A. Ricci, 58 FR 51104, 51105 (1993); Bobby Watts... registration (when required), the Agency has revoked the practitioner's registration. James Stephen...

  6. Generalizing PFD formulas of IEC 61508 for KooN configurations.

    PubMed

    Jahanian, Hamid

    2015-03-01

    Detailed formulas are given in IEC 61508 for calculating Probability of Failure on Demand for 1oo1, 1oo2, 2oo2, 2oo3 and 1oo3 systems. Simplified PFD formulas are also derived for general k-out-of-n combinations, without incorporating all the elements utilized in IEC 61508 formulas. While there have been other studies on IEC 61508 formulas and the simplified k-out-of-n equations, none have proposed an inclusive generalized form of IEC 61508 formulas to replicate all the specific combinations covered by the standard. This paper uses a detailed analysis to derive a generalized PFD formula based on IEC 61508.6-2011 that can be applied to all k-out-of-n combinations. The proposed formula is verified against both IEC 61508 and the simplified formulas, and its application is demonstrated by a real life example. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational and Employment Characteristics of Post-War Japanese Immigrants in Metropolitan Vancouver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ujimoto, K. Victor

    The universe of Japanese immigrants selected for this study consisted of a diverse group such as the kika nisei (returned second generation), the yobiyose (sponsored immigrant), and the gijutsu imin (technical immigrant). Each group possessed different characteristics. This present paper is limited in scope to the yobiyose and gijutsu imin because…

  8. Koon-Ni Range, Osan, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-24

    thunderstorm, tornado , and waterspout. Rain and/or drizzle - All liquid precipitation, falling to the ground, not freezing. Freezing rain and/or freezi...4 We, B.Ib 2102771 29,441 71 4 4.58 412- 7 :. 91 43t, .91 1 - - - - ., ,- - - rL J AAL CLIMA TOLO ,y 3PANCH Us-- Vv!h C’,%" e , u"A TAC s FAC F

  9. Koon-ni Range, Osan, Korea. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations (RUSSWO). Parts A-F.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-10-24

    82 , 8 2.8 82s 82.8 .2,* 6. o 82.8 82.0 62_ ±a4 82 82 .F1 83 .a 83 a 443.4 81 ’ 3 l 8. 3 U 3I_ b4 .3 41ami 85. 85d 8! 1.7 P5 85,1...79 79,7 79. 7911 79*78oc 61W . Z 8 10I 8 1 .10 8 1 .... .. 7.1 82 . 81 . 9 8. 83 . 8563 86,0 86, 84a1 84, . 1.C; 84.3 68,9 779 ~ 4 ~ 84. 5,j 8, 8 6 AJ...62,40 82 . 7 83 .l1 8364 63, 83.1 83 * 81 83 63,91 83 %3. 83,9 6 8.33 6. 86 86,5 7l, 81 ,L 84d as es 9 7, 94

  10. Correction: A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chee Koon; Wu, Jie; Hor, T S Andy; Luo, He-Kuan

    2016-12-22

    Correction for 'A binary catalyst system of a cationic Ru-CNC pincer complex with an alkali metal salt for selective hydroboration of carbon dioxide' by Chee Koon Ng et al., Chem. Commun., 2016, 52, 11842-11845.

  11. Sentential context effects on lexical decisions with a cross-modal instead of an all-visual procedure.

    PubMed

    McKoon, G; Allbritton, D; Ratcliff, R

    1996-11-01

    J. L. Nicol and D. Swinney (1989) reported facilitation in a cross-modal lexical-decision task as evidence that implicit objects of verbs (WH-traces) are reinstated during comprehension. G. McKoon and R. Ratcliff (1994) found the same priming effects in the absence of implicit objects, suggesting that the effects are attributable to some factor other than a syntactic process that would fill in implicit objects. J. L. Nicol, J. D. Fodor, and D. Swinney (1994) questioned the relevance of McKoon and Ratcliff's findings because they were obtained with all-visual rather than cross-modal presentation. In 2 experiments, the authors replicated McKoon and Ratcliff's results using cross-modal lexical decision.

  12. Parameter Variability and Distributional Assumptions in the Diffusion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-01-01

    If the diffusion model (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) is to account for the relative speeds of correct responses and errors, it is necessary that the components of processing identified by the model vary across the trials of a task. In standard applications, the rate at which information is accumulated by the diffusion process is assumed to be normally…

  13. Meaningful Measurement in the Classroom Using the Rasch Model: Some Exemplars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, K. C.; And Others

    This collection of research papers considers extensions of the Rasch model. In Chapter 1, K. C. Cheung explains how measurement and testing in the classroom can be made more meaningful, particularly through the use of Rasch family item response models. In Chapter 2, K. W. Koon and K. C. Cheung apply the Rasch model in constructing a part-whole…

  14. The Sylvia Beach Language Comprehension Conference, 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-07

    language acquisition and the development of language comprehension. Dr. MacWhinney is one of the few researchers who studies language comprehension cross...linguistically. Dr. MacWhinney is the editor of the recent book, Mechanisms of Language Acquisition . Gail McKoon Don Mitchell (University of Exeter

  15. Rules of Engagement: Incomplete and Complete Pronoun Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In…

  16. Rules of Engagement: Incomplete and Complete Pronoun Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In…

  17. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  18. Searching for Judy: How Small Mysteries Affect Narrative Processes and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how authors' narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers' narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that 1 type of small mystery--a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story--affects readers'…

  19. Parameter Variability and Distributional Assumptions in the Diffusion Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliff, Roger

    2013-01-01

    If the diffusion model (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) is to account for the relative speeds of correct responses and errors, it is necessary that the components of processing identified by the model vary across the trials of a task. In standard applications, the rate at which information is accumulated by the diffusion process is assumed to be normally…

  20. Japanese guideline for the oncology FDG-PET/CT data acquisition protocol: synopsis of Version 1.0.

    PubMed

    Fukukita, Hiroyoshi; Senda, Michio; Terauchi, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Masuo

    2010-05-01

    This synopsis outlines the Japanese guideline Version 1.0 for the data acquisition protocol of oncology FDG-PET/CT scans that was created by a joint task force of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Technology (JSNMT) and the Japanese Council of PET Imaging, and published in Kakuigaku-Gijutsu 29(2):195-235, 2009, in Japanese. The guideline aims at standardizing the PET image quality among facilities and different PET/CT scanner models by determining and/or evaluating the data acquisition condition in experiments using an IEC body phantom, as well as by proposing the criteria for human image quality evaluation using patient noise equivalent count (NEC), NEC density, and liver signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Reading: Interactions with Memory.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-07-23

    cue, than all other discourse entities. Following current global memory models ( Gillund & Shiffrin , 1984; Hintzman, 1988; Murdock, 1982; Ratcliff, 1978...global parallel retrieval models (e.g., Gillund & Shiffrin , 194; Hintzman, 1988; Murdock, 1982; Ratcliff, 1978). McKoon Page 21 Hence, we replace the...described in section I ( Gillund & Shiffrin , 1984; Hintzman, 1988; Murdock, 1982; Ratcliff, 1978; see also Gernsbacher, 1989). In the proposed process, the

  2. Scientific Articles on Magnetic Materials and Applications Research from 2006 - 2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    anneal times ...............................................18 Figure 20. Vibrational Density of States for FeCoCrNi from Inelastic Scattering of... Inelastic Scattering of Neutrons and X-rays Binary alloys such as Fe-Co, Ni-Fe and Fe-V were also studied [23] [24] [25] [26]. The Fe-Co system is...B. D. Cullity, Introduction to Magnetic Materials, Reading: Addison-Wesley publishing company , 1972. [2] N. C. Koon and B. N. Das, "Magnetic

  3. Spacecraft Charging: Observations and Relationship to Satellite Anomalies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Spacecraft charging at high altitudes: the SCATHA satellite program," in Spacecraft Charging by Magnetospheric Plasmas , A. Rosen Ed., Pro- gress in... magnetospheric plasma is very dense, it is usually "cold" and doesn’t cause significant charging . The equatorial ionosphere and the plasmasphere are such... Astronautics and Aeronautics, 47, p. 15, 1975. 3. Anderson, P. C., and H. C. Koons, " Spacecraft charging anomaly on a low-altitude

  4. NO2 Photodissociation Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    Koons discussed electric field and plasma wave measurements on satellite and rocket flights. Many of these studies were made with a Langmuir probe , and...is an effective probe for studying predissociative effects and identifying exit channels for Rydberg state deconposition. (4) the radiative lifetimes...being similar to the so-called air afterglow , although shifted towards longer wavelengths. With the implication that nitrogen and oxygen hitting the

  5. Traumatic aortic incompetence following road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    Irving, J. B.

    1974-01-01

    This case report describes the presentation and treatment of a case of aortic incompetence, resulting from a road traffic accident. The relevant literature is briefly reviewed. Aortic incompetence due to trauma has been described following non-penetrating chest injuries, such as kicks from horses (Barie, 1881), falls from heights and crushing accidents (Kissane, Koons and Clark, 1948; Levine, Roberts and Morrow, 1962). Despite the frequency of road traffic accidents, there have been no recent reports of traumatic aortic valve damage. PMID:4467876

  6. A Plasma Wave Instrument on the AMPTE/IRM (Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracing Explorers/Ion Release Module) Spacecraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-30

    descriptions of the thr e spacecraft involved in the AMPTE 0 program, the Charge Composition xplorer (CCE), the Ion Release Module (IRM), and the United...Kingdom Su satellite (UKS) and the experiments on(V) the spacecraft were included in :he May 1985 issue of IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote...R. R. ANDERSON, D. A. GURNETT, H. C. KOONS, R. H. HOLZWORTH, 0. H. BAUER, R. A. TREUMANN, K. GNAIGER, D. ODEM, W. B. HARBRIDGE, AND F. EBERL IEEE

  7. Plasma Wave Observations during Ion Gun Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-20

    Spacecraft Charging by Magnetospheric Plasma , Progress in Aeronautics and Astronautics , Vol. 47, ed. A. Rosen, IAA, pp. 15-30 (1976). 3. H. C. Koons, P. F...AIAA 75-92 (January 20-22, 1975). 2. D. A. McPherson and W. R. Schober, " Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes: The SCATHA Satellite Program," in...on the AF/NASI P78-2 (SCATHA) satellite were conducted with a plasma /ion source in the inner magnetosphere . These experiments were monitored with

  8. Investigation of Crystalline Iron-Platinum Nickel and Amorphous Rare Earth-Iron Alloys for Permanent Magnets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    AppI . Phys. 52, 2549 (1981). 3. S. G. Cornelison, D. J. Sellmyer and G. Hadjipanayis, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 1823 (1981). li * . 4. G. Hadjipanayis, M. Sc...23, 3349 (1981). 9. A. E. Clark, AppI . Phys. Lett. 23, 642 (1973). 10. H. T. Savage, A. E. Clark, S. J. Pickart, J. J. Rhyne and H. A. Alperin, IEEE...Trans. Magn. MAG-lO, 807 (1974). S 11. J.J. Croat, IEEE Trans. Magn. MAG-18, 1442 (1982). 12. N. C. Koon and B. N. Das, Appi . Phys. Lett. 39, 840 (1981

  9. [Development of analysis software package for the two kinds of Japanese fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography guideline].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Endo, Keigo

    2013-06-01

    Two kinds of Japanese guidelines for the data acquisition protocol of oncology fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans were created by the joint task force of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Technology (JSNMT) and the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine (JSNM), and published in Kakuigaku-Gijutsu 27(5): 425-456, 2007 and 29(2): 195-235, 2009. These guidelines aim to standardize PET image quality among facilities and different PET/CT scanner models. The objective of this study was to develop a personal computer-based performance measurement and image quality processor for the two kinds of Japanese guidelines for oncology (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans. We call this software package the "PET quality control tool" (PETquact). Microsoft Corporation's Windows(™) is used as the operating system for PETquact, which requires 1070×720 image resolution and includes 12 different applications. The accuracy was examined for numerous applications of PETquact. For example, in the sensitivity application, the system sensitivity measurement results were equivalent when comparing two PET sinograms obtained from the PETquact and the report. PETquact is suited for analysis of the two kinds of Japanese guideline, and it shows excellent spec to performance measurements and image quality analysis. PETquact can be used at any facility if the software package is installed on a laptop computer.

  10. Japanese guideline for the oncology FDG-PET/CT data acquisition protocol: synopsis of Version 2.0.

    PubMed

    Fukukita, Hiroyoshi; Suzuki, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Keiichi; Terauchi, Takashi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Ikari, Yasuhiko; Shimada, Naoki; Senda, Michio

    2014-08-01

    This synopsis outlines the Japanese guideline Version 2.0 for the data acquisition protocol of oncology FDG-PET/CT scans that was created by a joint task force of the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine Technology, the Japanese Society of Nuclear Medicine and the Japanese Council of PET Imaging, and was published in Kakuigaku-Gijutsu 2013; 33:377-420 in Japanese. The guideline aims at standardizing the PET image quality among PET centers and different PET camera models by providing criteria for the IEC body phantom image quality as well as for the patient PET image quality based on the noise equivalent count (NEC), NEC density and liver signal-to-noise ratio, so that the appropriate scanning parameters can be determined for each PET camera. This Version 2.0 covers issues that were not focused on in Version 1.0, including the accuracy of the standardized uptake value (SUV), effect of body size together with adjustment of scanning duration, and time-of-flight (TOF) reconstruction technique. Version 2.0 also presents data acquired with new PET camera models that were not tested in Version 1.0. Reference values for physical indicators of phantom image quality have been updated as well.

  11. Understanding and producing the reduced relative construction: Evidence from ratings, editing and corpora

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Mary; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; McRae, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Tworating studies demonstrate that English speakers willingly produce reduced relatives with internal cause verbs (e.g., Whisky fermented in oak barrels can have a woody taste), and judge their acceptability based on factors known to influence ambiguity resolution, rather than on the internal/external cause distinction. Regression analyses demonstrate that frequency of passive usage predicts reduced relative frequency in corpora, but internal/external cause status does not. The authors conclude that reduced relatives with internal cause verbs are rare because few of these verbs occur in the passive. This contrasts with the claim in McKoon and Ratcliff (McKoon, G., & Ratcliff, R. (2003). Meaning through syntax: Language comprehension and the reduced relative clause construction. Psychological Review, 110, 490–525) that reduced relatives like The horse raced past the barn fell are rare and, when they occur, incomprehensible, because the meaning of the reduced relative construction prohibits the use of a verb with an internal cause event template. PMID:22162904

  12. [Creative work of painters with Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Marcus, Esther-Lee; Kaufman, Yakir; Cohen-Shalev, Amir

    2009-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by progressive cognitive and functional decline. Recently, there have been reports in the medical literature on artists who continued to paint while suffering from Alzheimer's. This article describes the changes that occurred in the work of three artists who suffered from Alzheimer's: William Utermohlen, Carolus Horn and Willem de Kooning. In the case of William Utermohlen (1935-2007), Alzheimer's disease was diagnosed at the age of 61. A series of 15 self-portraits that he painted during the years he suffered from Alzheimer's disease provide a rare opportunity to look into the world of an Alzheimer's patient, and testifies to sustained motivation to create, despite severe cognitive impairment. Although Utermohlen's portraits show distortions in proportion and defects in spatial organization that became more evident as the disease progressed, the portraits are characterized by an extraordinary ability to express emotion, as well as by originality: each is a new piece of work, not an attempt to copy a previous painting. Carolus Horn (1921-1992) was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at the age of 58. In Horn's paintings, from the time he was diagnosed, there is evidence of distortion in perspective, "primitive" style, lack of individual characteristics in depicting his subjects, more schematic drawing, and a preference for using reds and yellows. In the most advanced stage of the disease Horn was only able to scribble. Despite his cognitive and functional limitations, Horn continued to draw daily, even in the advanced stages of his illness, until shortly before his death. Willem de Kooning's (1904-1997) Alzheimer's was diagnosed in his late eighties. During the following years, he painted more than 300 abstract paintings, which art critics assess as among the finest and most sensitive artistic achievements in contemporary painting. Despite cognitive limitations, de Kooning was able to muster the concentration to continue painting

  13. A Diffusion Model Account of Criterion Shifts in the Lexical Decision Task

    PubMed Central

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Ratcliff, Roger; Gomez, Pablo; McKoon, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Performance in the lexical decision task is highly dependent on decision criteria. These criteria can be influenced by speed versus accuracy instructions and word/nonword proportions. Experiment 1 showed that error responses speed up relative to correct responses under instructions to respond quickly. Experiment 2 showed that that responses to less probable stimuli are slower and less accurate than responses to more probable stimuli. The data from both experiments support the diffusion model for lexical decision (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004). At the same time, the data provide evidence against the popular deadline model for lexical decision. The deadline model assumes that “nonword” responses are given only after the “word” response has timed out – consequently, the deadline model cannot account for the data from experimental conditions in which “nonword” responses are systematically faster than “word” responses. PMID:19122740

  14. Unexpected development of artistic talents

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, N

    2005-01-01

    The development of exceptional and unexpected artistic skills at any age must be a matter of curiosity. This can occur among young children with severe learning difficulties, especially if they are autistic. Some examples of these so called idiot-savants are given, and the way in which their brains may function. It is also true that elderly people who suffer from frontotemporal dementia can find that they are able to express themselves in remarkable art forms. This can occur in other types of dementia, but then more often it is the changes that result in the paintings of established artists, for example in the paintings of de Kooning. Possible links between these two phenomenon are discussed, and it is suggested that in both instances it may be that if the brain is relieved of a number of functions it can concentrate on the remaining ones. Ways in which this may operate in both groups are reviewed. PMID:16344297

  15. Modeling Extraction of VLF Energy from Localized Ion Ring Beams for Space Based Active Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Wayne; Ganguli, Gurudas; Crabtree, Chris; Rudakov, Leonid; Mithaiwala, Manish

    2012-07-01

    Waves in the VLF range are of considerable interest in the magnetosphere since they are responsible for transporting energy and momentum and therefore impacting space weather. Ion ring beams can efficiently generate waves in the VLF frequency range between the electron and ion gyro-frequency (Mithaiwala et al., 2010). Generation of VLF waves by infinite extent ion ring beams have been extensively treated for a broad range of space plasma applications. However, ion ring distributions created by chemical release experiments in the ionosphere (Koons and Pongratz, 1981) and those that occur naturally during storms/substorms or solar-wind comet interactions are localized over a spatial extent. This presentation will consider a new computational model for the nonlinear evolution of VLF waves generated by a spatially localized ion ring beam. The model, though quite general, will have application to generation of VLF waves in the radiation belts by localized creation of an ion ring beam. The model includes the convective loss of energy through phenomenological electron-ion collisions, which models nonlinear scattering of electrostatic lower hybrid waves into large group velocity electromagnetic whistler/magnetosonic waves (Ganguli et al., 2010). Therefore the model, though electrostatic, includes critical electromagnetic effects in a computationally efficient fashion. An emphasis is placed on the determining the efficiency of extraction of VLF energy from the ion ring beam due to the spatial localization of the ion ring beam. It is shown that due to the convection of the VLF waves out of the source region, the efficiency of wave energy extraction is greatly enhanced. This is accompanied by a reduction in background and ion ring beam heating. The results will be used to highlight the importance of non-linear scattering to future active experiments in space. Mithaiwala et al. Phys. Plasma, doi.org/10.1063/1.3372842, 2010 Koons and Pongratz, JGR, 1981. Ganguli et al., Phys

  16. Off-easy-plane antiferromagnetic spin canting in coupled FePt/NiO bilayer structure with perpendicular exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tenghua; Itokawa, Nobuhide; Wang, Jian; Yu, Youxing; Harumoto, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji

    2016-08-01

    We report on the investigation of perpendicular exchange bias in FePt (001 ) /NiO (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) orthogonal exchange couple with FePt partially L 10 ordered. From initial magnetization curve measurement and magnetic domain imaging, we find that, for the as-grown bilayer structure, the FePt layer experiences a small-angle magnetization rotation when it is magnetized near to saturation in film normal direction. After field cooling, the bilayer structure shows a significant enhancement of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, indicating the field mediated coupling between the spins across the FePt/NiO interface. According to Koon's theoretical calculation on the basis of lowest energy ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic coupling configuration for compensated spins at antiferromagnetic side, we consider slightly slanted Ni spins at the interface off the (1 ¯1 ¯1 ) easy plane can stabilize the spin coupling between FePt and NiO and result in the observed exchange bias in this paper. This consideration was further confirmed by stripe domain width calculation.

  17. Modeling Confidence Judgments, Response Times, and Multiple Choices in Decision Making: Recognition Memory and Motion Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Ratcliff, Roger; Starns, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    Confidence in judgments is a fundamental aspect of decision making, and tasks that collect confidence judgments are an instantiation of multiple-choice decision making. We present a model for confidence judgments in recognition memory tasks that uses a multiple-choice diffusion decision process with separate accumulators of evidence for the different confidence choices. The accumulator that first reaches its decision boundary determines which choice is made. Five algorithms for accumulating evidence were compared, and one of them produced proportions of responses for each of the choices and full response time distributions for each choice that closely matched empirical data. With this algorithm, an increase in the evidence in one accumulator is accompanied by a decrease in the others so that the total amount of evidence in the system is constant. Application of the model to the data from an earlier experiment (Ratcliff, McKoon, & Tindall, 1994) uncovered a relationship between the shapes of z-transformed receiver operating characteristics and the behavior of response time distributions. Both are explained in the model by the behavior of the decision boundaries. For generality, we also applied the decision model to a 3-choice motion discrimination task and found it accounted for data better than a competing class of models. The confidence model presents a coherent account of confidence judgments and response time that cannot be explained with currently popular signal detection theory analyses or dual-process models of recognition. PMID:23915088

  18. The priming of priming: Evidence that the N400 reflects context-dependent post-retrieval word integration in working memory.

    PubMed

    Steinhauer, Karsten; Royle, Phaedra; Drury, John E; Fromont, Lauren A

    2017-06-09

    Which cognitive processes are reflected by the N400 in ERPs is still controversial. Various recent articles (Lau et al., 2008; Brouwer et al., 2012) have revived the idea that only lexical pre-activation processes (such as automatic spreading activation, ASA) are strongly supported, while post-lexical integrative processes are not. Challenging this view, the present ERP study replicates a behavioral study by McKoon and Ratcliff (1995) who demonstrated that a prime-target pair such as finger - hand shows stronger priming when a majority of other pairs in the list share the analogous semantic relationship (here: part-whole), even at short stimulus onset asynchronies (250ms). We created lists with four different types of semantic relationship (synonyms, part-whole, category-member, and opposites) and compared priming for pairs in a consistent list with those in an inconsistent list as well as unrelated items. Highly significant N400 reductions were found for both relatedness priming (unrelated vs. inconsistent) and relational priming (inconsistent vs. consistent). These data are taken as strong evidence that N400 priming effects are not exclusively carried by ASA-like mechanisms during lexical retrieval but also include post-lexical integration in working memory. We link the present findings to a neurocomputational model for relational reasoning (Knowlton et al., 2012) and to recent discussions of context-dependent conceptual activations (Yee and Thompson-Schill, 2016). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Survey of DMSP Charging Events During the Period Preceding Cycle 23 Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that POLAR orbiting satellites can see mild to severe charging levels during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992, Anderson and Koons, 1996, Anderson, 2012). However, spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging. Recently, we have seen examples of high level charging during the recent approach to solar maximum. We present here a survey of charging events seen by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites (F16, F17) during the solstices of 2011 and 2012. In this survey, we summarize the condition necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal maximum conditions are conducive to the environment conditions necessary for charging in the POLAR orbit, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period. We also show examples of other interesting phenomenological events seen in the DMSP data, but which are not considered surface charging events, and discuss the differences.

  20. Survey of DMSP Charging During the Period Preceding Cycle 24 Solar Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    NeergaardParker, L.; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can see mild to severe charging levels during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992, Anderson and Koons, 1996, Anderson, 2012). However, spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging. Recently, we have seen examples of high level charging during the recent approach to solar maximum. We present here a survey of charging events seen by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites (F16, F17) during the solstices of 2011 and 2012. In this survey, we summarize the condition necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal maximum conditions are conducive to the environment conditions necessary for charging in the polar orbit, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period. We also show examples of other interesting phenomenological events seen in the DMSP data, but which are not considered surface charging events, and discuss the differences.

  1. Searching for Judy: How small mysteries affect narrative processes and memory

    PubMed Central

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Current theories of text processing say little about how author’s narrative choices, including the introduction of small mysteries, can affect readers’ narrative experiences. Gerrig, Love, and McKoon (2009) provided evidence that one type of small mystery—a character introduced without information linking him or her to the story—affects readers’ moment-by-moment processing. For that project, participants read stories that introduced characters by proper name alone (e.g., Judy) or with information connecting the character to the rest of the story (e.g., our principal Judy). In an on-line recognition probe task, responses to the character’s name three lines after his or her introduction were faster when the character had not been introduced with connecting information, suggesting that the character remained accessible awaiting resolution. In the four experiments in this paper, we extended our theoretical analysis of small mysteries. In Experiments 1 and 2, we found evidence that trait information (e.g., daredevil Judy) is not sufficient to connect a character to a text. In Experiments 3 and 4, we provide evidence that the moment-by-moment processing effects of such small mysteries also affect readers’ memory for the stories. We interpret the results in terms of Kintsch’s Construction-Integration model (1988) of discourse processing. PMID:20438273

  2. DMSP Auroral Charging at Solar Cycle 24 Maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Michael; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Minow, Joseph I.

    2013-01-01

    It has been well established that polar orbiting satellites can experience mild to severe auroral charging levels (on the order of a few hundred volts to few kilovolts negative frame potentials) during solar minimum conditions (Frooninckx and Sojka, 1992; Anderson and Koons, 1996; Anderson, 2012). These same studies have shown a strong reduction in charging during the rising and declining phases of the past few solar cycles with a nearly complete suppression of auroral charging at solar maximum. Recently, we have observed examples of high level charging during the recent approach to Solar Cycle 24 solar maximum conditions not unlike those reported by Frooninckx and Sojka (1992). These observations demonstrate that spacecraft operations during solar maximum cannot be considered safe from auroral charging when solar activity is low. We present a survey of auroral charging events experienced by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) F16 satellite during Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions. We summarize the auroral energetic particle environment and the conditions necessary for charging to occur in this environment, we describe how the lower than normal solar activity levels for Solar Cycle 24 maximum conditions are conducive to charging in polar orbits, and we show examples of the more extreme charging events, sometimes exceeding 1 kV, during this time period.

  3. Analysis of radiation exposure for Naval personnel at Operation Castle. Technical report, 1 January 1983-31 January 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.; Goetz, J.; Klemm, J.; Weitz, R.

    1984-02-28

    Film-badge doses are reconstructed for sixteen ships and the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls resulting from the six nuclear detonations comprising Operation CASTLE (March-May 1954). Fallout from Shots BRAVO and ROMEO was the major source of contamination on most of the ships and islands. Varying amounts of fallout from Shots UNION, YANKEE, and NECTAR contributed somewhat to the total doses of the shipboard and island-based personnel; no fallout was experienced as a result of Shot KOON. Shipboard personnel received additional exposure from hulls and salt water piping systems that had become contaminated from operating in the radioactive waters of Bikini Lagoon. From the reconstructed radiation environments, both topside and below, an equivalent film badge dose is calculated and compared to actual dosimetry data. Agreement is very good during badged periods when the ships received significant fallout. When topside intensities were not documented, generally late in the operation when intensity levels were low, agreement is not as good. Calculated ship contamination doses of significance are in excellent agreement with limited available dosimetry data. Calculated average doses for shipboard personnel range from a low of 0.19 rem for the crew of the USS LST-825 to a high of 3.56 rem for the crew of the USS PHILIP. Average doses on the residence islands of Enewetak and Kwajalein Atolls are 1.09 rem and 0.32 rem, respectively.

  4. Resistive sensitivity functions for van der Pauw astroid and rounded crosses and cloverleafs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koon, Daniel; Hansen, Ole

    2014-03-01

    We have calculated the sensitivity of van der Pauw resistances to local resistive variations for circular, square and astroid discs of infinitesimal thickness, as well as for the families of rounded crosses and cloverleafs, as a function of specimen parameters, using the direct formulas of our recent paper (Koon et al. 2013 J. Appl. Phys.114 163710) applied to ``reciprocally dual geometries'' (swapped Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions) described by Mareš et al.(2012 Meas. Sci. Technol. 23 045004). These results show that (a) the product of any such sensitivity function times differential area, and thus (b) the ratio of any two sensitivities, is invariant under conformal mapping, allowing for the pointwise determination of the conformal mapping function. The family of rounded crosses, which is bounded in parameter space by the square, the astroid and an ``infinitesimally thin'' cross, seems to represent the best geometry for focusing transport measurements on the center of the specimen while minimizing errors due to edge- or contact-effects. Made possible by an SLU Faculty research grant.

  5. Long-term transit timing monitoring and homogenous study of WASP-32

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Lei-Lei; Gu, Sheng-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Bin; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cao, Dong-Tao; Wang, Yi-Bo; Xiang, Yue; Hui, Ho-Keung; Kwok, Chi-Tai; Yeung, Bill; Leung, Kam-Cheung

    2015-01-01

    We report new photometric observations of the transiting exoplanetary system WASP-32 made by using CCD cameras at Yunnan Observatories and Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, China from 2010 to 2012. Following our usual procedure, the observed data are corrected for systematic errors according to the coarse decorrelation and SYSREM algorithms so as to enhance the signal of the transit events. Combined with radial velocity data presented in the literature, our newly observed data and earlier photometric data in the literature are simultaneously analyzed to derive the physical parameters describing the system by employing the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. The derived parameters are consistent with the result published in the original paper about WASP-32b, but the uncertainties of the new parameters are smaller than those in the original paper. Moreover, our modeling result supports a circular orbit for WASP-32b. Through the analysis of all available mid-transit times, we have refined the orbital period of WASP-32b; no evident transit timing variation is found in these transit events.

  6. Individual Differences in Visual Word Recognition: Insights from the English Lexicon Project

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvin J.; Balota, David A.; Sibley, Daragh E.; Ratcliff, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Empirical work and models of visual word recognition have traditionally focused on group-level performance. Despite the emphasis on the prototypical reader, there is clear evidence that variation in reading skill modulates word recognition performance. In the present study, we examined differences between individuals who contributed to the English Lexicon Project (http://elexicon.wustl.edu), an online behavioral database containing nearly four million word recognition (speeded pronunciation and lexical decision) trials from over 1,200 participants. We observed considerable within- and between-session reliability across distinct sets of items, in terms of overall mean response time (RT), RT distributional characteristics, diffusion model parameters (Ratcliff, Gomez, & McKoon, 2004), and sensitivity to underlying lexical dimensions. This indicates reliably detectable individual differences in word recognition performance. In addition, higher vocabulary knowledge was associated with faster, more accurate word recognition performance, attenuated sensitivity to stimuli characteristics, and more efficient accumulation of information. Finally, in contrast to suggestions in the literature, we did not find evidence that individuals were trading-off in their utilization of lexical and nonlexical information. PMID:21728459

  7. Analysis of group differences in processing speed: Brinley plots, Q-Q plots, and other conspiracies.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Joel; Adams, David R; Hale, Sandra; Jenkins, Lisa

    2003-03-01

    Researchers in a growing number of areas (including cognitive development, aging, and neuropsychology) use Brinley plots to compare the processing speed of different groups. Ratcliff, Spieler, and McKoon (2000) argued that a Brinley plot is a quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot and that therefore Brinley plot regression slopes measure standard deviation ratios rather than relative speed of processing. We show that this argument is incorrect. Brinley plots, by definition, are not Q-Q plots; the former are based on unranked data and the latter are based on ranked data. Furthermore, the relationship between standard deviation ratios and slopes is a general property of regression lines and has no implications for the use of Brinley plot regression slopes as processing speed measures. We also show that the relative speed interpretation of Brinley plot slopes is strongly supported by converging evidence from a metaanalysis of visual search, mental rotation, and memory scanning in young and older adults. As to Ratcliff et al.'s hypothesis that age differences in response time are attributable to greater cautiousness on the part of the elderly, rather than true processing speed differences, this hypothesis has been extensively tested in previous studies and found wanting.

  8. Rules of engagement: incomplete and complete pronoun resolution.

    PubMed

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-07-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text and fail to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon, and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when these are unambiguous. In this paper we revisit those findings. In 11 recognition probe, priming, and self-report experiments, we manipulated Greene et al.'s stories to discover under what circumstances a pronoun's referent is automatically understood. We lengthened the stories from 4 to 8 lines. This simple manipulation led to automatic and correct resolution, which we attribute to readers' increased engagement with the stories. We found evidence of resolution even when the additional text did not mention the pronoun's referent. In addition, our results suggest that the pronoun temporarily boosts the referent's accessibility, an advantage that disappears by the end of the next sentence. Finally, we present evidence from memory experiments that supports complete pronoun resolution for the longer but not the shorter stories.

  9. Rules of Engagement: Incomplete and Complete Pronoun Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Love, Jessica; McKoon, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Research on shallow processing suggests that readers sometimes encode only a superficial representation of a text, failing to make use of all available information. Greene, McKoon and Ratcliff (1992) extended this work to pronouns, finding evidence that readers sometimes fail to automatically identify referents even when they are unambiguous. In this paper we revisit those findings. In 11 recognition probe, priming, and self-report experiments, we manipulated Greene et al.’s stories to discover under what circumstances a pronoun’s referent is automatically understood. We lengthened the stories from four to eight lines, a simple manipulation that led to automatic and correct resolution, which we attribute to readers’ increased engagement with the stories. We found evidence of resolution even when the additional text did not mention the pronoun’s referent. In addition, our results suggest that the pronoun temporarily boosts the referent’s accessibility, an advantage that disappears by the end of the next sentence. Finally, we present evidence from memory experiments that support complete pronoun resolution for the longer, but not the shorter, stories. PMID:21480757

  10. Aging and IQ effects on associative recognition and priming in item recognition

    PubMed Central

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Two ways to examine memory for associative relationships between pairs of words were tested: an explicit method, associative recognition, and an implicit method, priming in item recognition. In an experiment with both kinds of tests, participants were asked to learn pairs of words. For the explicit test, participants were asked to decide whether two words of a test pair had been studied in the same or different pairs. For the implicit test, participants were asked to decide whether single words had or had not been among the studied pairs. Some test words were immediately preceded in the test list by the other word of the same pair and some by a word from a different pair. Diffusion model (Ratcliff, 1978; Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) analyses were carried out for both tasks for college-age participants, 60–74 year olds, and 75–90 year olds, and for higher- and lower-IQ participants, in order to compare the two measures of associative strength. Results showed parallel behavior of drift rates for associative recognition and priming across ages and across IQ, indicating that they are based, at least to some degree, on the same information in memory. PMID:24976676

  11. Deep subduction of hot young oceanic slab required by the Syros eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flemetakis, Stamatis; Moulas, Evangelos; Kostopoulos, Dimitrios; Chatzitheodoridis, Elias

    2014-05-01

    The Cycladic islands of Syros and Siphnos, Aegean Sea, Greece, represent subducted IAT and BABB remnants of the Neotethyan Pindos Ocean. Garnet porphyroblasts (Ø=1mm) in a glaucophane-zoisite eclogite from Kini locality on Syros are compositionally zoned and display a unique prograde heating path from a high-pressure greenschist-facies core with high XSps and low Mg# via a blueschist-facies mantle with moderate XSps and Mg# to an eclogite-facies rim with low XSps and high Mg#. The outermost 35 μm of the garnet rims show flat XSps with rapidly increasing outwards Mg#. Na-Act-Chl-Ph rimmed by Gln mark the greenschist-blueschist facies transition, whereas Pg rimmed by Omp and the incoming of Rt at the expense of Ttn signify the blueschist-eclogite facies transition. Raman barometry of quartz inclusions in the eclogitic garnet rims coupled with elastic modelling of the garnet host [1], and Zr-in-Rt and Grt-Cpx-Ph thermobarometry revealed near-UHP P-T conditions of the order of 2.6 GPa/660°C (maximum residual pressure was 0.8-0.9GPa). By contrast, the greenschist-blueschist transition lies at ~0.75 GPa/355°C. This pressure is in excellent agreement with the position of the albite = jadeite + quartz boundary calculated at 350°C using the observed omphacite composition corrected for jadeite activity (Koons & Thompson, 1985) [2]. As a result, Cpx inclusions in garnet core signify the early entrance of garnet in the subduction zone history of the slab. Furthermore, the early growth of garnet (in lower pressures) observed in eclogites from Syros lies in great agreement with published slab-geotherms that indicate hot subduction and show a precocious garnet growth (Baxter and Caddick, 2013) [3]. The complete absence of lawsonite and the great abundance of zoisite crystals, based on the stability fields of both minerals (Poli et al., 2009) [4], further constrain the P-T trajectory of the slab. Our new P-T estimates match published T distributions on the slab surface

  12. Invariant Manifolds and the Transport and Capture of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, Travis; Lo, Martin W.

    2017-06-01

    Poincaré stated that “periodic orbits” are the only means by which we can understand the dynamics of differential equations. The objects he really meant are the “invariant manifolds of periodic orbits” which he discovered. It was the intersection of invariant manifolds that led to his discovery of homoclinic orbits and deterministic chaos in his celebrated work on the 3 body problem. Koon, Lo, Marsden, Ross 2000 explained the theory of how invariant manifolds of periodic orbits around the L1 and L2 Lagrange points control the transport of small bodies between the 2:3 resonance outside of Jupiter’s orbit to the 3:2 resonance inside of Jupiter’s orbit. This resonance transition is exhibited by many members of the Jupiter Family of comets as shown by Howell, Marchand, and Lo 2001 computed in the JPL ephemeris model. These comets include Gehrels 3, Helin-Roman-Crockett, Oterma, and others. We present some recent work on the role of invariant manifolds for the capture and impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy9 (SL9). The comet underwent resonance transition in the Sun-Saturn three-body problem until it was captured by invariant manifolds of the Sun-Jupiter three-body problem. We show how these manifolds guided SL9 towards Jupiter and through the periodic orbits which act as gateways to Jupiter and the inner solar system. We demonstrate that invariant manifolds controlled the dynamics of capture, ultimately leading to the impact of SL9 in 1994.

  13. Refined System Parameters and TTV Study of Transiting Exoplanetary System HAT-P-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Leilei; Gu, Shenghong; Wang, Xiaobin; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cao, Dongtao; Wang, Yibo; Xiang, Yue; Hui, Ho-Keung; Kwok, Chi-Tai; Yeung, Bill; Ng, Eric; Grau Horta, Ferran

    2017-01-01

    We report new photometric observations of the transiting exoplanetary system HAT-P-20, obtained using CCD cameras at Yunnan Observatories and Ho Koon Nature Education cum Astronomical Centre, China, from 2010 to 2013, and Observatori Ca l’Ou, Sant Marti Sesgueioles, Spain, from 2013 to 2015. The observed data are corrected for systematic errors according to the coarse de-correlation and SYSREM algorithms, so as to enhance the signal of the transit events. In order to consistently model the star spots and transits of this exoplanetary system, we develop a highly efficient tool STMT based on the analytic models of Mandel & Agol and Montalto et al. The physical parameters of HAT-P-20 are refined by homogeneously analyzing our new data, the radial velocity data, and the earlier photometric data in the literature with the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. New radii and masses of both host star and planet are larger than those in the discovery paper due to the discrepancy of the radius among K-dwarfs between predicted values by standard stellar models and empirical calibration from observations. Through the analysis of all available mid-transit times calculated with the normal model and spotted model, we conclude that the periodic transit timing variations in these transit events revealed by employing the normal model are probably induced by spot crossing events. From the analysis of the distribution of occulted spots by HAT-P-20b, we constrain the misaligned architecture between the planetary orbit and the spin of the host star.

  14. Late-Quaternary exhumation of Namche Barwa constrained using low-temperature multi-OSL-thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Georgina; Herman, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    The influence of climate on tectonic processes remains a controversial concept. Exhumation rates of >5 mm/yr make Namche Barwa, Tibet, one of the most rapidly exhuming places on earth, and two main hypotheses have developed to explain the very high rates of exhumation there. The tectonic aneurysm model (Zeitler et al., 2001) proposes that crustal weakening coupled with extremely active surface processes causes a spatial stationarity of exhumation. Alternatively, a northward plunging antiform that is progressively migrating north-eastward (Seward and Burg, 2008) may explain the concentration of extremely low cooling ages and rapid exhumation that characterise the Namche Barwa massif. Here we use multi-OSL-thermochronometry of feldspar, which comprises a series of different systems with closure temperatures ranging from 30 to 70 C, to quantify spatial and temporal changes in exhumation rates. We have applied this new technique to a suite of samples from the Namche Barwa massif and inverting our data enables us to precisely resolve cooling histories over 0.1 Ma timescales. Our data indicate propagation of a knick-point along the Parlung river, which can be explained by progressive north-eastward migration of a northward plunging antiform. We suggest that river incision does not therefore feedback onto tectonics, as proposed by the aneurysm model. Zeitler, P.K., Meltzer, A.S., Koons, P.O., et al., 2001. Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism. GSA Today 11, 4-9 Seward, D., Burg, J-P., 2008. Growth of the Namche Barwa Syntaxis and associated evolution of the Tsangpo Gorge: Constraints from structural and thermochronological data. Tectonophysics 451, 282-289.

  15. Late-Quaternary Exhumation of Namche Barwa Constrained Using Low-temperature Multi-OSL-thermochronometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, G. E.; Herman, F.

    2015-12-01

    Exhumation rates >5 mm a-1 have been reported for Namche Barwa, making it one of the most rapidly exhuming places on earth. The driver of such high exhumation rates has been highly debated, and two principle hypotheses have evolved: first the aneurysm model (Zeitler et al., 2001) which proposes that a weakening of the crust coupled with extremely active surface processes causes a spatially stationary locus of exhumation. Secondly a northward plunging antiform that is progressively migrating north-eastward (Seward and Burg, 2008) may instead explain the concentration of extremely low cooling ages and rapid exhumation. Distinguishing the effects of tectonic and surface processes, as well as climate is complex, especially given that most existing thermochronometric systems are unable to resolve late-stage cooling histories. Here we present multi-OSL-thermochronometry which comprises a series of different systems with closure temperature ranging from 30 to 70 oC. We have applied this new technique to a suite of samples from the Namche Barwa massif and are able to resolve cooling histories over 0.1 Ma timescales. Our data indicate propagation of a knick-point along the Parlung river, which can be explained by progressive north-eastward migration of a northward plunging antiform. We suggest therefore that river incision does not feedback onto tectonics, as proposed by the aneurysm model. References Seward, D., Burg, J-P., 2008. Growth of the Namche Barwa Syntaxis and associated evolution of the Tsangpo Gorge: Constraints from structural and thermochronological data. Tectonophysics 451, 282-289. Zeitler, P.K., Meltzer, A.S., Koons, P.O., et al., 2001. Erosion, Himalayan Geodynamics, and the Geomorphology of Metamorphism. GSA Today 11, 4-9.

  16. Identification of human herpesvirus 6 variants A and B by primer-specific real-time PCR may help to revisit their respective role in pathology.

    PubMed

    Boutolleau, David; Duros, Caroline; Bonnafous, Pascale; Caïola, Delphine; Karras, Alexandre; Castro, Nathalie De; Ouachée, Marie; Narcy, Philippe; Gueudin, Marie; Agut, Henri; Gautheret-Dejean, Agnès

    2006-03-01

    Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) isolates are classified into two variants, termed HHV-6A and HHV-6B, on the basis of distinct genetic, antigenic and biological characteristics, but the specific pathogenicity of each variant remains poorly understood. To design a rapid, sensitive and specific real-time variant-specific PCR (VS-PCR) method to differentiate both variants in biological specimens. The VS-PCR was adapted from a real-time PCR assay, based on TaqMan technology, previously developed for the genome quantitation of both HHV-6 variants [Gautheret-Dejean A, Manichanh C, Thien-Ah-Koon F, Fillet AM, Mangeney N, Vidaud M, et al. Development of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the diagnosis of human herpesvirus-6 infection and application to bone marrow transplant patients. J Virol Meth 2002;100:27-35], a consensual reverse primer (Taq2) being changed into two variant-specific primers named H6A and H6B. This method was applied to a large set of biological specimens obtained in different pathological contexts. The sensitivity threshold was about 10 copies/well for HHV-6A-specific PCR (PCR-A) and 1 copy/well for HHV-6B-specific PCR (PCR-B). Both assays showed a linear dynamic range from 10 to 100,000 copies of HHV-6 DNA. Regarding the specificity and the capacity of discrimination of each assay, one variant could be detected and identified in the presence of more than 1000 times higher concentrations of the other variant in virus mixtures. The comparison of the results obtained with this VS-PCR with those previously obtained with a classic PCR method allowed us to validate our new technique on a wide panel of biological samples, including numerous patients with severe HHV-6-related symptoms. The high prevalence of HHV-6B was confirmed in healthy individuals and immunocompromised patients. HHV-6A was identified in distinct samples from several patients exhibiting neurological disorders. We developed a new VS-PCR assay, able to differentiate HHV-6A and HHV-6

  17. On the existence of J 2 invariant relative orbits from the dynamical system point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2012-04-01

    The present paper addresses the existence of J 2 invariant relative orbits with arbitrary relative magnitude over the infinite time using the Routh reduction and Poincaré techniques in the J 2 Hamiltonian problem. The current research also proposes a novel numerical searching approach for J 2 invariant relative orbits from the dynamical system point of view. A new type of Poincaré mapping is defined from different central manifolds of the pseudo-circular orbits (parameterized by the Jacobi energy E, the polar component of momentum H z and the measure of distance Δ r between the fixed point and its central manifolds) to the nodal periods T d and the drifts of longitude of the ascending node during one period (ΔΩ), which differs from Koon et al.'s (AIAA 2001) definition on central manifolds parameterized by the same fixed point. The Poincaré mapping is surjective because it compresses the three-dimensional variables into two-dimensional images, and the mapping degenerates into a bijective mapping in consideration of the fixed points. An iteration algorithm to the degenerated bijective mapping is proposed from the continuation procedure to perform the ergodic representation of E- and H z -contour maps on the space of T d -ΔΩ. For the surjective mapping with Δ r ≠ 0, different pseudo-circular or elliptical orbits may share the same images. Hence, the inverse surjective mapping may achieve non-unique variables from a single image, which makes the generation of J 2 invariant relative orbits possible. The pseudo-circular or elliptical orbits generated from the surjective mapping will be defined in different meridian planes. Hence, the critical contribution of the present paper is the assignment of J 2 invariant relative orbits to different invariant parameters E and H z depending on the E- and H z -contour map, which will hold J 2 invariant relative orbits for extended durations. To investigate the high-order nonlinearity neglected by previous studies, a

  18. Along-Strike Variation in Dip-Slip Rate on the Alpine Fault is a Consequence of Lithologic Variation?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toy, V. G.; Reid Lindroos, Z.; Norris, R. J.; Cooper, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    microstructural and textural variations. These variations are broadly a function of the volumetric proportion of amphibolite in the mylonite zone on the map scale. We propose that most of the difference in measured dip-slip rates and differential rock uplift along strike of the fault can be attributed to basic along-strike variation in shear strength resulting from variation in lithology. Other theories, such as that the Alpine Fault contains a lateral ramp near the Karangarua River (Little et al. 2005), or that a weaker crust beneath Otago allows the convergent component of plate boundary deformation to be distributed over a broader orogen (Upton et al. 2009) are not required, although they may operate in concert. Little, T.A, Cox, S., Vry, J.K., Batt, G.E., 2005. Variations in exhumation level and uplift rate along the oblique-slip Alpine fault, central Southern Alps, New Zealand. Geological Society of America Bulletin 117 (5), 707 Upton, P., Koons, P.O., Craw D., Henderson, C.M., Enlow, R. 2009. Along-strike differences in the Southern Alps of New Zealand: Consequences of inherited variation in rheology. Tectonics 28. 10.1029/2008TC002353

  19. Predicting km-scale shear zone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Culshaw, Nicholas; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Marsh, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Because km-scale shear zones play a first-order role in lithospheric kinematics, accurate conceptual and numerical models of orogenic development require predicting when and where they form. Although a strain-based algorithm in the upper crust for weakening due to faulting appears to succeed (e.g., Koons et al., 2010, doi:10.1029/2009TC002463), a comparable general rule for the viscous crust remains unestablished. Here we consider two aspects of the geological argument for a similar algorithm in the viscous regime, namely (1) whether predicting km-scale shear zone development based on a single parameter (such as strain or shear heating) is reasonable; and (2) whether lithologic variability inherent in most orogenic systems precludes a simple predictive rule. A review of tectonically significant shear zones worldwide and more detailed investigations in the Central Gneiss belt of the Ontario segment of the Grenville Province reveals that most km-scale shear zones occur at lithological boundaries and involve mass transfer, but have fairly little else in common. As examples, the relatively flat-lying Twelve Mile Bay shear zone in the western Central Gneiss belt bounds the Parry Sound domain and is likely the product of both localized anatexis and later retrograde hydration with attendant metamorphism. Moderately dipping shear zones in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone apparently resulted from cooperation among several complementary microstructural processes, such as grain size reduction, enhanced diffusion, and a small degree of metamorphic reaction. Localization into shear zones requires the operation of some spatially restricted processes such as stress concentration, metamorphism/fluid access, textural evolution, and thermal perturbation. All of these could be due in part to strain, but not necessarily linearly related to strain. Stress concentrations, such as those that form at rheological boundaries, may be sufficient to nucleate high strain

  20. Obituary: Kevin H. Prendergast, 1929-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiegel, Edward A.

    2005-12-01

    shown quite widely in colloquia and symposia. The films revealed phenomena of qualitative interest such as mergers, bridges, and tails, and the formation of bars. Similar results were also being obtained by Hohl around that time and both pieces of work were no doubt influential in shaping the thinking of people working in this field. One striking feature of the calculations was that spiral arms formed initially but were transient. To keep the spiral patterns from collapsing it seemed necessary to artificially heat the disks. Only later, when the existence of massive halos was recognized (by Ostriker and Peebles), could the true cause of stability be surmised. From the mid-seventies on, Kevin worked on topics in astrophysical fluid dynamics and applied mathematics, largely with students. Some of this work was published, but it has to be said that much of his best work was not. A good example of the latter is his three-part handwritten manuscript on the dynamics of barred spirals that he distributed to several people over thirty years ago. Many of his other unpublished calculations have been deposited in the Columbia Library, and there are no doubt several things of interest to be found among his papers. While one can only speculate on why so much of his work went unpublished, I find a remark by de Kooning quite helpful in thinking about it. In a review of book about the painter, Peter Schjeldahl reported that "He [de Kooning] made ...paintings...and destroyed nearly all of them, to his subsequent regret....He explained `I was so modest then that I was vain.'" When I accused Kevin of a similar mindset, he chuckled and said "You are right, but don't tell anyone." Kevin was widely read and he had a remarkable awareness ofliterature. He was especially devoted to the work of P.G. Wodehouse. He also loved the Marx Brothers and late in life discovered Zero Mostel of whom he became an instant fan. He was a sailor and a snorkler, and enjoyed trading quips with anyone who was

  1. Intermediate-depth earthquake generation: what hydrous minerals can tell us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L.; Andersen, T. B.

    2012-04-01

    .8 to 14 wt %) but the gabbro is not (H2O content from 0 to 2.6 wt%). The hydrous nature of the PST is due to the preferential melting of hydrous minerals (chlorite and serpentine - peridotite, glaucophane, epidote, Mg-hornblende - gabbro) in the host rock, rather than later hydration associated with exhumation (greenschist facies metamorphism and later alteration). However, in the case of the gabbro, the melt can be hydrous, but is not always. Anhydrous, glassy PST is formed in association with hydrous PST in the gabbro host rock. The gabbroic PST nucleate at the boundary between a coarse-grained pegmatoidal gabbro and a fine-grained gabbro, whereas the exclusively hydrous peridotite-hosted PST only nucleate along pre-existing hydrated fractures. These facts are significant when considering the mechanism of formation of the pseudotachylyte; which is commonly thought to be associated with the preferential melting of hydrous minerals. An anhydrous melt in proximity to other hydrous melts formed contemporaneously must have formed by the same mechanism; one which can exploit more than just one rheological characteristic in the rock vis. hydrous mineralogy AND grain size changes. Furthermore the presence of anhydrous PST suggests that little or no fluid ingress occurred prior to or during PST generation. Hydrous crystallisation products in the gabbro such as glaucophane and edenite indicate that whole-sale melting of the wallrock amphiboles (glaucophane, edenite, actinolite) took place to produce a melt with dissolved H2O, out of which such blue amphiboles were able to crystallise. It is important to note that in order for amphiboles to crystallise out of a melt, H2O is required but necessarily to an under-saturated degree. i.e. it cannot be 'free' water occurring as a separate phase in the melt (Carmen and Gilbert, 1983 and Koons, 1982). It is unlikely therefore that the water in the gabbro-derived fusion melt was the result of solid-state dehydration of the wallrock

  2. Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) Cost-Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2008-01-01

    Lightning Launch Commit Criteria (LLCC) are designed to prevent space launch vehicles from flight through environments conducive to natural or triggered lightning and are used for all U.S. government and commercial launches at government and civilian ranges. They are maintained by a committee known as the NASA/USAF Lightning Advisory Panel (LAP). The previous LLCC for anvil cloud, meant to avoid triggered lightning, have been shown to be overly restrictive. Some of these rules have had such high safety margins that they prohibited flight under conditions that are now thought to be safe 90% of the time, leading to costly launch delays and scrubs. The LLCC for anvil clouds was upgraded in the summer of 2005 to incorporate results from the Airborne Field Mill (ABFM) experiment at the Eastern Range (ER). Numerous combinations of parameters were considered to develop the best correlation of operational weather observations to in-cloud electric fields capable of rocket triggered lightning in anvil clouds. The Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR) was the best metric found. Dr. Harry Koons of Aerospace Corporation conducted a risk analysis of the VAHIRR product. The results indicated that the LLCC based on the VAHIRR product would pose a negligible risk of flying through hazardous electric fields. Based on these findings, the Kennedy Space Center Weather Office is considering seeking funding for development of an automated VAHIRR algorithm for the new ER 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) RadTec 431250 weather radar and Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) radars. Before developing an automated algorithm, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to determine the frequency with which VAHIRR would have allowed a launch to safely proceed during weather conditions otherwise deemed "red" by the Launch Weather Officer. To do this, the AMU manually calculated VAHIRR values based on candidate cases from past launches with known anvil cloud