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Sample records for kootenai river instream

  1. Kootenai River Instream Flow Analysis, 2004 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks Staff

    2004-10-01

    A modified Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) approach was used on the mainstem Kootenai River from Libby Dam downstream to Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in habitat for the target fish species, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a function of discharge in the river. This study used physical data and habitat use information from previous studies in the 1990s. The present study adapted the one-dimensional physical data into a georeferenced data set for each study site. The hydraulic simulations were combined with habitat suitability criteria in a GIS analysis format to determine habitat area as a function of discharge. Results of the analysis showed that the quantity of suitable habitat is greater at lower discharges than higher discharges and that the more stable flow regime from 1993 through 2002 provided more stable habitat conditions when compared to the highly variable flow regime from 1983 through 1992. The daily and weekly variability under 1983-1992 conditions forces subadult bull trout to use less productive habitat during the night by repetitively wetting and drying stream channel margin area. Subadult bull trout exhibit a distinct difference between daytime and nighttime habitat use (Muhlfeld 2002). These fish utilize deeper main channel habitats during the day and move to shallow channel margin areas at night. The productivity of lower trophic levels is low within the consistently watered and dewatered marginal areas and thus these areas provide little foraging value to subadult bull trout that utilize those areas as flows increase. The more stable flow regime (for weekly or daily timesteps) from 1993-2002 should be more productive than flow regimes with high weekly or daily variability. The highly variable flows likely stress subadult bull trout and rainbow trout due to the additional movement required to find suitable habitat or through the utilization of

  2. Instream Flows Incremental Methodology :Kootenai River, Montana : Final Report 1990-2000.

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, Greg; Skaar, Don; Dalbey, Steve

    2002-11-01

    Regulated rivers such as the Kootenai River below Libby Dam often exhibit hydrographs and water fluctuation levels that are atypical when compared to non-regulated rivers. These flow regimes are often different conditions than those which native fish species evolved with, and can be important limiting factors in some systems. Fluctuating discharge levels can change the quantity and quality of aquatic habitat for fish. The instream flow incremental methodology (IFIM) is a tool that can help water managers evaluate different discharges in terms of their effects on available habitat for a particular fish species. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service developed the IFIM (Bovee 1982) to quantify changes in aquatic habitat with changes in instream flow (Waite and Barnhart 1992; Baldridge and Amos 1981; Gore and Judy 1981; Irvine et al. 1987). IFIM modeling uses hydraulic computer models to relate changes in discharge to changes in the physical parameters such as water depth, current velocity and substrate particle size, within the aquatic environment. Habitat utilization curves are developed to describe the physical habitat most needed, preferred or tolerated for a selected species at various life stages (Bovee and Cochnauer 1977; Raleigh et al. 1984). Through the use of physical habitat simulation computer models, hydraulic and physical variables are simulated for differing flows, and the amount of usable habitat is predicted for the selected species and life stages. The Kootenai River IFIM project was first initiated in 1990, with the collection of habitat utilization and physical hydraulic data through 1996. The physical habitat simulation computer modeling was completed from 1996 through 2000 with the assistance from Thomas Payne and Associates. This report summarizes the results of these efforts.

  3. Instream Flows Needed for Successful Migration Spawning and Rearing of Rainbow and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Selected Tributaries of the Kootenai River: Final Report 1986.

    SciTech Connect

    Marotz, Brian

    1986-12-01

    This study was conducted by Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in contractual agreement with Bonneville Power Administration and addresses measure 804(a)(9) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Objectives were to determine instream flow needs in Kootenai River tributaries to maintain successful fish migration, spawning and rearing habitat of game fish, evaluate existing resident and rearing fish populations, and compile hydrologic and fishery information required to secure legal reservation of water for the fishery resource.

  4. Instream Flows Needed for Successful Migration and Rearing of Rainbow and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Selected Tributaries of the Kootenai River: Final Report FY 1988.

    SciTech Connect

    Marotz, Brian

    1988-06-01

    This is the second phase of a two-part study that was conducted by Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks in contractual agreement with Bonneville Power Administration to address measures of the Northwest Power Planning Council's River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. Objectives were to determine instream flow needs in Kootenai River tributaries to maintain successful fish migration, spawning and rearing habitat of game fish, evaluate existing resident and rearing fish populations, and compile hydrologic and fishery information required to secure legal reservation of water for the fishery source. The Kootenai River fishery is threatened by microhydro and other water use development which reduce tributary habitat critical for maintaining a healthy spawning and rearing environment. The wetted perimeter method was used to estimate flows required to maintain existing resident and migratory fish populations in 28 tributaries to the Kootenai River. Migrant passage flows were determined using the discharge-average depth relationship at four (usually five) riffle transects. This information will provide the basis to reserve water through application to the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation. 45 figs., 56 tabs.

  5. Kootenai River Resident Fish Assessment, FY2008 KTOI Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-06-26

    The overarching goal of project 1994-049-00 is to recover a productive, healthy and biologically diverse Kootenai River ecosystem, with emphasis on native fish species rehabilitation. It is especially designed to aid the recovery of important fish stocks, i.e. white sturgeon, burbot, bull trout, kokanee and several other salmonids important to the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho and regional sport-fisheries. The objectives of the project have been to address factors limiting key fish species within an ecosystem perspective. Major objectives include: establishment of a comprehensive and thorough biomonitoring program, investigate ecosystem--level in-river productivity, test the feasibility of a large-scale Kootenai River nutrient addition experiment (completed), to evaluate and rehabilitate key Kootenai River tributaries important to the health of the lower Kootenai River ecosystem, to provide funding for Canadian implementation of nutrient addition and monitoring in the Kootenai River ecosystem (Kootenay Lake) due to lost system productivity created by construction and operation of Libby Dam, mitigate the cost of monitoring nutrient additions in Arrow Lakes due to lost system productivity created by the Libby-Arrow water swap, provide written summaries of all research and activities of the project, and, hold a yearly workshop to convene with other agencies and institutions to discuss management, research, and monitoring strategies for this project and to provide a forum to coordinate and disseminate data with other projects involved in the Kootenai River basin.

  6. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  7. Electrofishing effort requirements for estimating species richness in the Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Quist, Michael; Shepard, Bradley B.; Ireland, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted on the Kootenai River, Idaho to provide insight on sampling requirements to optimize future monitoring effort associated with the response of fish assemblages to habitat rehabilitation. Our objective was to define the electrofishing effort (m) needed to have a 95% probability of sampling 50, 75, and 100% of the observed species richness and to evaluate the relative influence of depth, velocity, and instream woody cover on sample size requirements. Sidechannel habitats required more sampling effort to achieve 75 and 100% of the total species richness than main-channel habitats. The sampling effort required to have a 95% probability of sampling 100% of the species richness was 1100 m for main-channel sites and 1400 m for side-channel sites. We hypothesized that the difference in sampling requirements between main- and side-channel habitats was largely due to differences in habitat characteristics and species richness between main- and side-channel habitats. In general, main-channel habitats had lower species richness than side-channel habitats. Habitat characteristics (i.e., depth, current velocity, and woody instream cover) were not related to sample size requirements. Our guidelines will improve sampling efficiency during monitoring effort in the Kootenai River and provide insight on sampling designs for other large western river systems where electrofishing is used to assess fish assemblages.

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Studies, Annual Report FY 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul J.; Siple, John T.

    1993-12-01

    This report evaluates natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River before, during and after the 1993 augmented discharge period. To determine how altering the operation of Libby Dam may improve conditions for natural spawning of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River, discharge from Libby Dam (with no power peaking or load following) was increased to produce 20 kcfs ([plus minus] 2 kcfs) discharge at Bonners Ferry, Idaho, for a 14 day period June 2--16. Objectives of this research were to determine if white sturgeon spawned in the Kootenai River during 1993; and collect baseline biological data including timing, location, and habitat requirements of white sturgeon spawning in the Kootenai River in order to formulate and implement future flow regimes as effective recovery measures for white sturgeon. While sampling is not expected to collect a majority of white sturgeon eggs or larvae produced in a river, the fact that over 41,000 hours of sampling (combined gear) collected only 3 white sturgeon eggs and no larvae suggests that spawning conditions during 1993 were inadequate to benefit this population.

  9. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Conservation Aquaculture Project : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    US Bonneville Power Administration; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho

    1997-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is responding to the need to prevent the extinction of the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) between Libby Dam in Montana and Corra Linn Dam in British Columbia. Construction and operation of Libby Dam altered the natural flow of the Kootenai River, especially the normal May-to-July flows needed for natural reproduction and recruitment. It also affected the river`s biological productivity and the quality of spawning and rearing habitat. As part of its responsibilities under the Northwest Power Act (Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980), BPA must mitigate for losses of fish and wildlife (including related spawning grounds and habitat) that are attributable to power production at federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries.

  10. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2006-02-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2004 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN is coordinating activities and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. To this end, the KRN primarily focuses on maintaining communication networks among private and public watershed improvement groups in the Columbia River Basin. The KRN willing shares its resources with these groups. The 2003-2004 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out through Watershed Coordinator position. The highly successful Kootenai River Network Annual General Meeting in Bonners Ferry in May 2003 demonstrated the tremendous gains that the Kootenai River Network has made in trans-boundary networking of watershed issues and accomplishments. The Annual General Meeting included seventy five participants representing more than forty US and Canadian citizen groups, tribes, first nations, agencies, ministries, businesses and private land owners from Montana, British Columbia, Idaho and Alberta. The International Restoration Tour in July 2004 featured the Grave Creek and Therriault Wetlands restoration projects in Montana and the Sand Creek and Wolf Creek restoration projects in British Columbia. The tour was attended by more than thirty people representing US and Canadian Federal and State/Provincial agencies, schools, colleges, conservation groups, private land owners, consultants, tribes, first nations, and politicians. These exciting trans-boundary successes encouraged the KRN to establish half-time Watershed Coordinator positions in both the United

  11. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, Bob; Munson, Vicki; Rogers, Rox

    2003-10-01

    The Kootenai River Network Inc. (KRN) was incorporated in Montana in early 1995 with a mission ''to involve stakeholders in the protection and restoration of the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the Kootenai River Basin waters''. The KRN operates with funding from donations, membership dues, private, state and federal grants, and with funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) for a Focus Watershed Coordinator Program. The Focus Watershed Program is administered to KRN as of October 2001, through a Memorandum of Understanding. Katie Randall resigned her position as Watershed Coordinator in late January 2003 and Munson Consulting was contracted to fill that position through the BPA contract period ending May 30, 2003. To improve communications with in the Kootenai River watershed, the board and staff engaged watershed stakeholders in a full day KRN watershed conference on May 15 and 16 in Bonners Ferry, Idaho. This Annual General Meeting was a tremendous success with over 75 participants representing over 40 citizen groups, tribes and state/provincial/federal agencies from throughout northern Montana and Idaho as well as British Columbia and Alberta. Membership in the KRN increased during the course of the BPA 02/03 grant period. The board of directors grew in numbers during this same time frame and an Advisory Council was formed to assist in transboundary efforts while developing two reorganized KRN committees (Habitat/Restoration/Monitoring (HRM) and Communication/Education/Outreach (CEO)). These committees will serve pivotal roles in communications, outreach, and education about watershed issues, as well as habitat restoration work being accomplished throughout the entire watershed. During this BPA grant period, the KRN has capitalized on the transboundary interest in the Kootenai River watershed. Jim and Laura Duncan of Kimberley, British Columbia, have been instrumental volunteers who have acted as Canadian liaisons to the KRN. As a

  12. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2005-07-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2005 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN Watershed Coordination Program is coordinating projects and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. The KRN willingly shares its resources with these groups. The 2004-2005 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out by one half-time Watershed Coordinator position in Montana-Idaho (Nancy Zapotocki) and one half-time Watershed Coordination team in British Columbia (Laura and Jim Duncan). Nancy Zapotocki was hired as the KRN US Watershed Coordinator in July 2004. Her extensive work experience in outreach and education and watershed planning complements the Duncans in British Columbia. To continue rejuvenating and revitalizing the KRN, the Board conducted a second retreat in November 2004. The first retreat took place in November 2003. Board and staff members combined efforts to define KRN goals and ways of achieving them. An Education and Outreach Plan formulated by the Watershed Coordinators was used to guide much of the discussions. The conclusions reached during the retreat specified four ''flagship'' projects for 2005-2006, to: (1) Provide leadership and facilitation, and build on current work related to the TMDL plans and planning efforts on the United States side of the border. (2) Continue facilitating trans-boundary British Columbia projects building on established work and applying the KRN model of project facilitation to other areas of the Kootenai basin. (3) Finalize and implement the KRN Education and Outreach plan

  13. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.

    1994-05-01

    U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 324.3 m{sup 3}/s (400,000 acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 2 to June 16, 1993. This release of water provided approximately 566.4 m{sup 3}/s (20,000 cfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Nineteen adult white sturgeon equipped with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters were monitored from mid-April to mid-July, 1993. Nine females and one male remained in the Kootenai River near the British Columbia/Idaho border and/or Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. One female was captured by the crew from the Kootenai Hatchery, operated by the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, delivered to the hatchery, tagged, and released seven days later. She retreated to Kootenay Lake immediately after release. Eight sturgeon with transmitters formed the aggregate of unknown numbers of fish in the staging area. The monitored fish were all judged late vitellogenic and were used to characterize what was assumed reproductive behavior of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River. Four late vitellogenic females moved upriver with the lowland spring runoff (May 11), lingered around the ''staging area'' May 11-24, then retreated downriver May 21-24. Two fish retreated all the way to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia; the other two re-advanced upriver May 27-30 concurrent with the initiation of the augmented discharge on May 28. None of the monitored fish were detected beyond the U.S. Highway 95 bridge. By June 4, the remaining females began moving downriver. Male sturgeon tended to move upriver seven days earlier than the females. They arrived in staging waters about May 11. On May 21, three male sturgeon demonstrated a slight downriver run the same time as did the females. The maximum downriver travel was 14.2 km. All four of the monitored males returned upriver just prior to and during the augmented flow period. Crews fished a combined 14

  14. Kootenai River Biological Baseline Status Report : Annual Report, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Diana

    1997-02-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem in Idaho, Montana and British Columbia (B.C.) Canada has been severely degraded during the past 50 years. This aquatic ecosystem has changed from one that was culturally eutrophic, to one that is oligotrophic due to channelization, diking, impoundment (construction and operation of Libby Dam), and pollution abatement measures in the watershed. As a result of these influences, flow regimes, temperature patterns, and water quality were altered, resulting in changes in primary production and aquatic insect and fish populations. Construction of Libby Dam (creation of Lake Koocanusa) and closure of Cominco`s fertilizer plant resulted in decreased phosphorus load to the Kootenai River to below historical levels. Dissolved orthophosphorus concentrations averaged 0.383 mg/L in 1970 as compared to 0.039 mg/L in 1979. Total phosphorus concentrations followed a similar pattern. Both total phosphorus and soluble reactive phosphorus concentrations remained below 0.05 mg/L from 1976 to 1994, characterizing the river as oligotrophic. Post Libby Dam primary productivity levels in the river represent an ultra-oligotrophic to mesotrophic system. Since the construction and operation of Libby Dam, invertebrate densities immediately downstream from the dam increased, but species diversity decreased. Insect diversity increased with increasing distance from the dam, but overall species diversity was lower than would be expected in a free-flowing river. Fish species composition and abundance has also changed as a result of the changes in the river and its watershed.

  15. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Gretchen

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and stream

  16. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigation, 1994 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuson, Patrick E.; Wakkinen, Virginia; Kruse-Malle, Gretchen

    1995-07-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in concordance with Bonneville Power Administration provided a release of 1.48 billion cubic meters (1.2 MAF, million acre feet) of impounded water from Lake Koocanusa, Montana from June 1 to June 28, 1994. This release of water provided approximately 566 To/s (20 thousand cubic feet per second, kcfs) discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Between February and early April 1994, 15 adult sturgeon (10 females, 5 males) in late vitellogenic stage were captured and fitted with combinations of radio and sonic transmitters. A total of 31 sturgeon were monitored. Ten hatchery reared juvenile white sturgeon equipped with radio and sonic tags were released in pools down river of Kootenai Falls, Montana. All ten sturgeon had moved between 60 and 97 km (37.3 and 60.3 mi) down river of release sites within one month. Movements coincided with major flow peaking associated with hydropower production at Libby Dam, located upriver of the release site

  17. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations : Rainbow Trout Recruitment : Period Covered: 1997.

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, Chris

    1999-02-02

    The objective of this study was to determine if juvenile production is limiting the population of rainbow trout Oncorbynchus mykiss in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used snorkeling and electrofishing techniques to estimate juvenile rainbow trout abundance in, and outmigration from, the Deep, Boulder, and Myrtle creek drainages in Idaho. The total population estimates for the three drainages estimated in 1997 were 30,023; 763; and 235; respectively. A rotary-screw trap was utilized to capture juvenile outmigrants for quantification of age at outmigration and total outmigration from the Deep Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The total outmigrant estimate for 1997 from the Deep Creek drainage was 38,206 juvenile rainbow trout. Age determination based largely on scales suggests that most juvenile rainbow trout outmigration from the Deep Creek drainage occurs at age-l, during the spring runoff period. Forty-three adult rainbow trout captured in the Deep Creek drainage were tagged with $10.00 reward T-bar anchor tags in 1997. A total of three of these fish were harvested, all in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. This suggests the possibility of an adfluvial component in the spawning population of the Deep Creek drainage.

  18. Bathymetric surveys of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, water year 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho released and implemented the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Master Plan. This plan aimed to restore, enhance, and maintain the Kootenai River habitat and landscape to support and sustain habitat conditions for aquatic species and animal populations. In support of these restoration efforts, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, conducted high-resolution multibeam echosounder bathymetric surveys in May, June, and July 2011, as a baseline bathymetric monitoring survey on the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Three channel patterns or reaches exist in the study area—braided, meander, and a transitional zone connecting the braided and meander reaches. Bathymetric data were collected at three study areas in 2011 to provide: (1) surveys in unmapped portions of the meander reach; (2) monitoring of the presence and extent of sand along planned lines within a section of the meander reach; and (3) monitoring aggradation and degradation of the channel bed at specific cross sections within the braided reach and transitional zone. The bathymetric data will be used to update and verify flow models, calibrate and verify sediment transport modeling efforts, and aid in the biological assessment in support of the Kootenai River Habitat Restoration Master Plan. The data and planned lines for each study reach were produced in ASCII XYZ format supported by most geospatial software.

  19. Dynamic floodplain vegetation model development for the Kootenai River, USA.

    PubMed

    Benjankar, Rohan; Egger, Gregory; Jorde, Klaus; Goodwin, Peter; Glenn, Nancy F

    2011-12-01

    The Kootenai River floodplain in Idaho, USA, is nearly disconnected from its main channel due to levee construction and the operation of Libby Dam since 1972. The decreases in flood frequency and magnitude combined with the river modification have changed the physical processes and the dynamics of floodplain vegetation. This research describes the concept, methodologies and simulated results of the rule-based dynamic floodplain vegetation model "CASiMiR-vegetation" that is used to simulate the effect of hydrological alteration on vegetation dynamics. The vegetation dynamics are simulated based on existing theory but adapted to observed field data on the Kootenai River. The model simulates the changing vegetation patterns on an annual basis from an initial condition based on spatially distributed physical parameters such as shear stress, flood duration and height-over-base flow level. The model was calibrated and the robustness of the model was analyzed. The hydrodynamic (HD) models were used to simulate relevant physical processes representing historic, pre-dam, and post-dam conditions from different representative hydrographs. The general concept of the vegetation model is that a vegetation community will be recycled if the magnitude of a relevant physical parameter is greater than the threshold value for specific vegetation; otherwise, succession will take place toward maturation stage. The overall accuracy and agreement Kappa between simulated and field observed maps were low considering individual vegetation types in both calibration and validation areas. Overall accuracy (42% and 58%) and agreement between maps (0.18 and 0.27) increased notably when individual vegetation types were merged into vegetation phases in both calibration and validation areas, respectively. The area balance approach was used to analyze the proportion of area occupied by different vegetation phases in the simulated and observed map. The result showed the impact of the river

  20. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    2004-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: increase rainbow trout recruitment, identify rainbow and bull trout spawning tributaries and migration timing, establish baseline data on bull trout redd numbers in tributaries, and improve the rainbow trout population size structure. Six adult rainbow trout were moved to spawning habitat upstream of a potential migration barrier on Caboose Creek, but numbers of redds and age-0 out-migrants did not appear to increase relative to a reference stream. Measurements taken on the Moyie River indicated the gradient is inadequate to deliver suitable flows to a proposed rainbow trout spawning channel. Summer water temperatures measured in the Deep Creek drainage sometimes exceeded 24 C, higher than those reported as suitable for rainbow trout. Radio-tagged rainbow trout were located in Boulder Creek during the spring spawning season, and bull trout were located in the Moyie River and O'Brien Creek, Montana in the fall. Bull trout spawning migration timing was related to increases in Kootenai River flows. Bull trout redd surveys documented 19 redds on Boulder Creek and North and South Callahan creeks. Fall 2002 electrofishing showed that the Kootenai River rainbow trout proportional stock density was 54, higher than prior years when more liberal fishing regulations were in effect. Boulder Creek produces the highest number of age-0 rainbow trout out-migrants upstream of Bonners Ferry, but the survival rate of these out-migrants upon reaching the Kootenai River is unknown. Determining juvenile survival rates and sources of mortality could aid management efforts

  1. Holocene vegetational history of the Kootenai River Valley, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Richard N.; Rutter, N. W.; Valastro, S.

    1983-09-01

    Pollen records in the Kootenai and Fisher River drainages in western Montana reveal a fivezone sequence of Holocene vegetation change. Deposition of Glacier Peak Ash-Layer G (ca. 10,540 ± 660 yr B.P.) in the lowermost sediments (clay intermixed with pebbles) at Tepee Lake gives a minimum date for the initiation of sedimentation. Initial vegetation on the newly deglaciated terrain was dominated by Pinus (probably white bark pine) with small amounts of Gramineae, Picea and Abies, reflecting a relatively cool, moist macroclimate. Two vegetation units appear to contribute to Pollen Zone II (ca. 11,000-7100 yr B.P.): arboreal communities with pines, along with Pseudotsuga or Larix, or both, and treeless vegetation dominated by Artemisia. Pollen Zone II represents an overall warmer macroclimate than occurred upon ice withdrawal. After ca. 7100 yr B.P. (Pollen Zone III) diploxylon pines became a major pollen contributor near both Tepee Lake and McKillop Creek Pond, indicating an expansion of xerophytic forest ( P. contorta and P. ponderosa) along with an increase in the prominence of Pseudotsuga menziesii or Larix occidentalis, or both. Artemisia briefly expanded coverage near Tepee Lake concomitant with the Mazama ashfall ca. 6700 yr B.P. A short-term climatic trend with more available water began after ca. 4000 yr B.P. as Abies (probably A. grandis) along with Picea engelmannii became a more regular component of the forest surrounding both sites. Emergence of the modern macroclimate is indicated primarily with the first regular appearance of Tsuga heterophylla in the pollen record by ca. 2700 yr B.P., synchronous with the development of western hemlock forest within the same latitudes in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington.

  2. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations: Salmonid Studies Project Progress Report, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Walters, Jody; Maiolie, Melo

    2009-04-09

    This research report addresses bull trout Salvelinus confluentus and Redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss redd surveys, population monitoring, trout distribution, and abundance surveys in the Kootenai River drainage of Idaho. The bull trout is one of several sport fish native to the Kootenai River, Idaho that no longer supports a fishery. Because bull trout are listed under the Endangered Species Act, population data will be vital to monitoring status relative to recovery goals. Thirty-three bull trout redds were found in North and South Callahan creeks and Boulder Creek in 2007. This is a decrease from 2006 and 2005 and less than the high count in 2003. However, because redd numbers have only been monitored since 2002, the data series is too short to determine bull trout population trends based on redd counts. Redband trout still provide an important Kootenai River sport fishery, but densities are low, at least partly due to limited recruitment. The redband trout proportional stock density (PSD) in 2007 increased from 2006 for a second year after a two-year decline in 2004 and 2005. This may indicate increased recruitment to or survival in the 201-305 mm length group due to the minimum 406 mm (16 inches) length limit initiated in 2002. We conducted 13 redd surveys and counted 44 redband trout redds from May 7 to June 3, 2007 in a 3.8 km survey reach on Twentymile Creek. We surveyed streams in the Kootenai River valley to look for barriers to trout migration. Man-made barriers, for at least part of the year, were found on Caboose, Debt, Fisher, and Twenty Mile creeks. Removing these barriers would increase spawning and rearing habitat for trout and help to restore trout fisheries in the Kootenai River.

  3. Kootenai river velocities, depth, and white sturgeon spawning site selection - A mystery unraveled?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paragamian, V.L.; McDonald, R.; Nelson, G.J.; Barton, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population in Idaho, US and British Columbia (BC), Canada became recruitment limited shortly after Libby Dam became fully operational on the Kootenai River, Montana, USA in 1974. In the USA the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act in September of 1994. Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn within an 18-km reach in Idaho, river kilometer (rkm) 228.0-246.0. Each autumn and spring Kootenai River white sturgeon follow a 'short two-step' migration from the lower river and Kootenay Lake, BC, to staging reaches downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho. Initially, augmented spring flows for white sturgeon spawning were thought to be sufficient to recover the population. Spring discharge mitigation enhanced white sturgeon spawning but a series of research investigations determined that the white sturgeon were spawning over unsuitable incubation and rearing habitat (sand) and that survival of eggs and larvae was negligible. It was not known whether post-Libby Dam management had changed the habitat or if the white sturgeon were not returning to more suitable spawning substrates farther upstream. Fisheries and hydrology researchers made a team effort to determine if the spawning habitat had been changed by Libby Dam operations. Researchers modeled and compared velocities, sediment transport, and bathymetry with post-Libby Dam white sturgeon egg collection locations. Substrate coring studies confirmed cobbles and gravel substrates in most of the spawning locations but that they were buried under a meter or more of post-Libby Dam sediment. Analysis suggested that Kootenai River white sturgeon spawn in areas of highest available velocity and depths over a range of flows. Regardless of the discharge, the locations of accelerating velocities and maximum depth do not change and spawning locations remain consistent. Kootenai River white sturgeon are likely spawning in the same locations as pre-dam, but post-Libby Dam

  4. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: identify sources of rainbow and bull trout recruitment, monitor the rainbow trout population size structure to evaluate regulation changes initiated in 2002, and identify factors potentially limiting rainbow trout recruitment. A screw trap was used to estimate juvenile redband and bull trout out-migration from the Callahan Creek drainage, and electrofishing was conducted to estimate summer densities of bull trout rearing in the Idaho portion of the drainage. An estimated 1,132 juvenile redband trout and 68 juvenile bull trout out-migrated from Callahan Creek to the Kootenai River from April 7 through July 15, 2003. Densities of bull trout {ge} age-1 in North and South Callahan creeks ranged from 1.6 to 7.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in August. Bull trout redd surveys were conducted in North and South Callahan creeks, Boulder Creek, and Myrtle Creek. Thirty-two bull trout redds were located in North Callahan Creek, while 10 redds were found in South Callahan Creek. No redds were found in the other two streams. Modeling of culverts in the Deep Creek drainage identified two as upstream migration barriers, preventing rainbow trout from reaching spawning and rearing habitat. Water temperature monitoring in Deep Creek identified two sites where maximum temperatures exceeded those suitable for rainbow trout. Boulder Creek produces the most rainbow trout recruits to the Kootenai River in Idaho upstream of Deep Creek, but may be below carrying capacity for rearing rainbow trout due to nutrient limitations. Monthly water samples indicate Boulder Creek is nutrient limited

  5. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.; Downs, Christopher C.

    2001-08-01

    Our 1999 objectives were to determine sources of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and bull trout Salvelinus confluentus spawning and recruitment in the Idaho reach of the Kootenai River. We used a rotary-screw trap to capture juvenile trout to determine age at out-migration and to estimate total out-migration from the Boundary Creek drainage to the Kootenai River. The out-migrant estimate for March through August 1999 was 1,574 (95% C. I. = 825-3,283) juvenile rainbow trout. Most juveniles out-migrated at age-2 and age-3. No out-migrating bull trout were caught. Five of 17 rainbow trout radio-tagged in Idaho migrated upstream into Montana waters during the spawning season. Five bull trout originally radio-tagged in O'Brien Creek, Montana in early October moved downstream into Idaho and British Columbia by mid-October. Annual angler exploitation for the rainbow trout population upstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was estimated to be 58%. Multi-pass depletion estimates for index reaches of Caboose, Curley, and Debt creeks showed 0.20, 0.01, and 0.13 rainbow trout juveniles/m{sup 2}, respectively. We estimated rainbow trout (180-415 mm TL) standing stock of 1.6 kg/ha for the Hemlock Bar reach (29.4 ha) of the Kootenai River, similar to the 1998 estimate. Recruitment of juvenile rainbow and bull trout from Idaho tributaries is not sufficient to be the sole source of subsequent older fish in the mainstem Kootenai River. These populations are at least partly dependent on recruitment from Montana waters. The low recruitment and high exploitation rate may be indicators of a rainbow trout population in danger of further decline.

  6. Transmission of white sturgeon iridovirus in Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus.

    PubMed

    Drennan, John D; LaPatra, Scott E; Siple, Jack T; Ireland, Sue; Cain, Kenneth D

    2006-06-12

    It is thought that white sturgeon iridovirus (WSIV) is transmitted vertically from adult white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus to progeny, and that wild adults are carriers of this virus. Based on this assumption, egg disinfection trials were initiated using wild Kootenai River white sturgeon. Over 2 consecutive years, post-fertilized eggs were disinfected with iodine at concentrations ranging from 0 to 400 ppm. Eggs were incubated and progeny were reared on either de-chlorinated municipal or Kootenai River water. Juvenile sturgeon (mean weight 3.0 g) from these treatment groups were then subjected to a density stress (15 or 20 g(-1)) to manifest WSIV disease in individuals harboring the virus. In Year 1, mortality in all groups ranged from 6 to 37% and the use of municipal water was shown to significantly improve survival. However, WSIV infection was not detected in fish from any of the treatment groups or controls, and therefore did not contribute to the observed mortality. In Year 2, all treatment and control groups reared on Kootenai River water tested positive for WSIV infection and exhibited mortality ranging from 59 to 94%, but fish from groups reared on municipal water did not test positive for WSIV infection. This shows that that vertical transmission did not occur in this study. Horizontal transmission played a significant role in WSIV infection, but the lack of infection in Year 1 suggests a cyclic occurrence of the virus in the Kootenai River system. Although survival tended to be better in iodine-treated groups, the effects of iodine treatment in relation to WSIV transmission remain unknown. An important finding is that not all wild white sturgeon broodstock yield WSIV-positive progeny.

  7. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Stock Status of Burbot, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kozfkay, Joseph R.; Whitman, Vint

    2001-10-01

    In Idaho, the burbot Lota lota are native only to the Kootenai River and are genetically distinct from burbot in the Montana reach of the river. Burbot once provided a substantial fishery with tens of thousands of burbot harvested annually. Burbot now number fewer than 1000 in the Kootenai River and Kootenay Lake and may be nearing demographic extinction. Studies completed in the winter of 1997-1998 indicated flow management at Libby Dam likely affected burbot spawning migration during winter. The objective of our study was to monitor the movement of burbot during a period of normal winter operation and a low flow period to test the null hypothesis (H{sub o}) that winter operation of Libby Dam does not affect burbot migration distance or travel rate. In addition, we monitored the stock status of burbot. We captured 36 burbot in Idaho and British Columbia with baited hoop nets. Twenty-three burbot were caught in Idaho, including 12 at Ambush Rock. The remaining 13 burbot were caught in British Columbia, including eight in the Kootenai River and five in the Goat River. One burbot escaped and was not measured, and one recaptured burbot was not measured. Burbot ranged from 332 mm to 705 mm total length (TL) (mean = 541 mm, SE = 14.02) and weighed from 350 g to 2,850 g (mean = 1,059 g, SE = 90.51). Relative weight (W{sub r}) ranged from 40.5 to 127.6 and averaged 88.6 (SE = 2.44). Population estimates for 1996, 1997, and 1998 were made for the Kootenai River from Bonners Ferry to Kootenay Lake; they were 738, 540, and 43 fish respectively. These estimates were not considered valid because we had so few recaptures, and confidence intervals could not be provided. Four burbot were implanted with sonic transmitters and their movement was monitored. We requested a low flow test (170 m{sup 3}/s) period of five weeks from the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to study burbot migration distance or travel rate. The USACE could not provide an adequate low flow test period

  8. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  9. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1992 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Wakkinen, Virginia (

    1993-11-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 64 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1992. Of those sampled, 15 were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 429 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through September 1992. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the total sample ranged from 88 to 274 cm. The data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population which was estimated in 1990 at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon from 1982 to 1991 was 0.0374. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. An ongoing sonic telemetry study revealed long distance movements among adults. Sturgeon regularly moved across the British Columbia-Idaho border. Sturgeon used deep holes in the river or migrated to Kootenai Lake during late fall. During spring and early summer, reproductively mature sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 kilometers upriver and congregated within 15 kilometers downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. The authors monitored movements of five reproductively mature female white sturgeon. The fish responded to increasing then decreasing flows by moving upriver then downriver, respectively. All five fish quickly moved to Kootenai Lake when flows dropped suddenly from higher than 20 kcfs to less than 10 kcfs. One fish was recaptured and was reabsorbing eggs. Trawling and sampling with mats of artificial substrate failed to capture white sturgeon eggs or larvae in 1992. One hundred and four age 1 and 14 age 2 hatchery-reared Kootenai white sturgeon were released into the Idaho section of the river in 1992. Telemetry of six of the larger juveniles showed general downriver movement from September into November.

  10. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1990-06-01

    The population of white sturgeon in the Kootenai River has continued to decline since 1983, in spite of a closure to harvest in the U.S. section of the river. Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 228 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 850 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 574 to 1,463. At present, we do not understand what mechanisms are limiting recruitment. Over the past 70 years, the lower Kootenai River has been extensively diked for flood control, effectively eliminating backwater and slough areas that may have provided juvenile rearing habitat: Contaminants have entered the river system via mining operations and agricultural practices. In 1972, Libby Dam began operation, reversing the natural flow regime of the river, and releasing frequent power peaking flows. Of 179 fish that were surgically sexed, 37% were female and 35% were male. Thirty-four percent of the females held developing oocytes. All oocyte samples from nine females contained copper (1.18 to 2.50 {micro}g/g) and zinc (15.6 to 32.8 {micro}g/g). Most samples also contained organochloride residues such as DDT, DDD, DDE, and PCBs (0.215 to 1.080 {micro}g/g, combined). River sediment samples contained 1.62 to 12.8 {micro}g/g copper and 22.4 to 70.6 {micro}g/g zinc, but no organochloride residues. Electrophoretic analysis of muscle samples indicated reduced heterogeneity compared with lower basin white sturgeon and showed a significantly different degree of variation between the two stocks in seven enzyme systems. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements in response to water flow

  11. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1992-07-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 56 white sturgeon Acioenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1991. Of those sampled, nine were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 382 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through October 1991. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the sample ranged from 88-274 cm. Our data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class. The population was estimated at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon since 1982 is 3.74%. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. Surgical examination of 309 white sturgeon since 1989 indicated that approximately 7% of the female white sturgeon and 30% of the male white sturgeon are reproductive each year. The ratio of males to females was estimated at 1:l. White sturgeon sampled and released with and without surgical examination were recaptured at equal rates. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has documented long distance movements by adults. White sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia - Idaho border. White sturgeon seek out deep holes in the river or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall, During spring and early summer of both 1990 and 1991 reproductively mature white sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 km upriver and congregated within 10 km downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. Developing white sturgeon eggs were recovered from the river near Bonners Ferry on July 3, 1991. Contamination of eggs by organochloride compounds were less in recent samples from the Kootenai River than in a single sample collected in 1982. White sturgeon eggs from the Kootenai River fish contained approximately one tenth the organochloride compounds of white sturgeon eggs

  12. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Stock Status of Burbot, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L,; Whitman, Vint

    1997-11-01

    The main theme of the 1996 burbot Lota lota study was to test the hypothesis that winter discharge for power production/flood control inhibits burbot migration to spawning tributaries. There were to be two to three minimum discharge (113 m{sup 3}/s) periods from Libby Dam of approximately five days duration during December 1995 and January 1996. However, exceptionally heavy precipitation and an excessive amount of water stored in Lake Koocanusa created near flood conditions in the Kootenai River. These high flows prevented a controlled test. But the authors captured 27 burbot in the Kootenai River, Idaho and the Goat River, British Columbia, Canada. Burbot catch from November 1995 through March 1996 averaged 0.055 fish/net-day. Captured burbot ranged from 396 to 830 mm total length and weighed from 400 to 2,800 g (mean = 1,376 g). One burbot was captured at rkm 170 (the Idaho-Canada border) in mid-March after the spawning season. Nine burbot were implanted with sonic transmitters and released at the Goat River capture location. Two additional burbot had active transmitters from the previous season. Telemetry of burbot during the pre-spawn, spawning, and post-spawning periods was conducted. Burbot were located a total of 161 times from September 1, 1995 through August 31, 1996. Ripe burbot were captured at the mouth of the Goat River during February.

  13. Use of multidimensional modeling to evaluate a channel restoration design for the Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logan, B.L.; McDonald, R.R.; Nelson, J.M.; Kinzel, P.J.; Barton, G.J.

    2011-01-01

    River channel construction projects aimed at restoring or improving degraded waterways have become common but have been variously successful. In this report a methodology is proposed to evaluate channel designs before channels are built by using multidimensional modeling and analysis. This approach allows detailed analysis of water-surface profiles, sediment transport, and aquatic habitat that may result if the design is implemented. The method presented here addresses the need to model a range of potential stream-discharge and channel-roughness conditions to best assess the function of the design channel for a suite of possible conditions. This methodology is demonstrated by using a preliminary channel-restoration design proposed for a part of the Kootenai River in northern Idaho designated as critical habitat for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and evaluating the design on the basis of simulations with the Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphologic Evolution of Channels (FaSTMECH) model. This evaluation indicated substantial problems with the preliminary design because boundary conditions used in the design were inconsistent with best estimates of future conditions. As a result, simulated water-surface levels did not meet target levels that corresponded to the designed bankfull surfaces; therefore, the flood plain would not function as intended. Sediment-transport analyses indicated that both the current channel of the Kootenai River and the design channel are largely unable to move the bed material through the reach at bankfull discharge. Therefore, sediment delivered to the design channel would likely be deposited within the reach instead of passing through it as planned. Consequently, the design channel geometry would adjust through time. Despite these issues, the design channel would provide more aquatic habitat suitable for spawning white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) at lower discharges than is currently available in the

  14. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  15. Summer habitat use by Columbia River redband trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Bennett, David H.

    2001-01-01

    The reported decline in the abundance, distribution, and genetic diversity of Columbia River redband trout Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri (a rainbow trout subspecies) has prompted fisheries managers to investigate their habitat requirements, identify critical habitat, and develop effective conservation and recovery programs. We analyzed the microhabitat, mesohabitat, and macrohabitat use and distribution of Columbia River redband trout by means of snorkel surveys in two watersheds in the Kootenai River drainage, Montana and Idaho, during the summers of 1997 and 1998. Juvenile (36–125 mm total length, TL) and adult (>=126 mm TL) fish preferred deep microhabitats (>=0.4 m) with low to moderate velocities (<=0.5 m/s) adjacent to the thalweg. Conversely, age-0 (<=35 mm) fish selected slow water (<=0.1 m/s) and shallow depths (<=0.2 m) located in lateral areas of the channel. Age-0, juvenile, and adult fish strongly selected pool mesohabitats and avoided riffles; juveniles and adults generally used runs in proportion to their availability. At the macrohabitat scale, density of Columbia River redband trout (35 mm) was positively related to the abundance of pools and negatively related to stream gradient. The pool: riffle ratio, gradient, and stream size combined accounted for 80% of the variation in density among 23 stream reaches in five streams. Our results demonstrate that low-gradient, medium-elevation reaches with an abundance of complex pools are critical areas for the production of Columbia River redband trout. These data will be useful in assessing the impacts of land-use practices on the remaining populations and may assist with habitat restoration or enhancement efforts.

  16. Characterization of the Kootenai River Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Community before and after Experimental Nutrient Addition, 2003-2006. [Chapter 3

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charlie

    2009-02-19

    The Kootenai River ecosystem has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam, completed in 1972 on the river near Libby Montana. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel, eliminating nutrient production and habitat diversity crucial to the functioning of a large river-floodplain ecosystem. Libby Dam continues to create large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows, and greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches. These changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to this artificial loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the Kootenay Lake's North Arm in 1992, the South Arm in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes the macroinvertebrate community in the Kootenai River and its response to experimental nutrient addition during 2005 and 2006. This report also provides an initial evaluation of cascading trophic interactions in response to nutrient addition. Macroinvertebrates were sampled at 12 sites along a 325 km section of the Kootenai River, representing an upriver unimpounded reference reach, treatment and control canyon reach sites, and braided and meandering reach sites, all downstream from Libby Dam. Principle component analysis revealed that richness explained the greatest amount of variability in response to nutrient addition as did taxa from Acari, Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera. Analysis of variance revealed that nutrient addition had a significant

  17. Surveying Cross Sections of the Kootenai River Between Libby Dam, Montana, and Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; Moran, Edward H.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2004-01-01

    The declining population of Kootenai River white sturgeon, which was listed as an Endangered Species in 1994, has prompted a recovery team to assess the feasibility of various habitat enhancement scenarios to reestablish white sturgeon populations. As the first phase in this assessment, the U.S. Geological Survey collected stream channel cross-section and longitudinal data during 2002—03 at about 400 locations along the Kootenai River from Libby Dam near Libby, Montana, to where the river empties into Kootenay Lake near Creston, British Columbia, Canada. Survey control stations with a horizontal and vertical accuracy of less than 0.1 foot were established using a global positioning system (GPS) prior to collection of stream channel cross-section data along the Kootenai River. A total of 245 cross sections were surveyed. Six cross sections upstream from Kootenai Falls were surveyed using a total station where the river was too shallow or dangerous to navigate by vessel. The remaining 239 cross sections were surveyed by interfacing real-time GPS equipment with an echo sounder to obtain bathymetric data and with a laser range- finder to obtain streambank data. These data were merged, straightened, ordered, and reduced in size to be useful. Spacing between these cross sections ranged from about 600 feet in the valley flat near Deep Creek and Shorty Island and near bridges to as much as several miles in other areas. These stream channel cross sections will provide information that can be used to develop hydraulic flow models of the Kootenai River from Libby Dam, Montana, to Queens Bay on Kootenay Lake in British Columbia, Canada.

  18. QUANTIFICATION OF INSTREAM FLOW NEEDS OF A WILD AND SCENIC RIVER FOR WATER RIGHTS LITIGATION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, Herbert S.

    1986-01-01

    The lower 4 miles of the Red River, a tributary of the Rio Grande in northern New Mexico, was designated as one of the 'instant' components of the National Wild and Scenic River System in 1968. Instream flow requirements were determined by several methods to quantify the claims made by the United States for a federal reserved water right under the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act. The scenic (aesthetic), recreational, and fish and wildlife values are the purposes for which instream flow requirements were claimed. Since water quality is related to these values, instream flows for waste transport and protection of water quality were also included in the claim. The U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology was used to quantify the relationship between various flow regimes and fish habitat. Study results are discussed.

  19. Sediment Characteristics and Transport in the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Critical Habitat near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery efforts for the endangered Kootenai River population of white sturgeon require an understanding of the characteristics and transport of suspended and bedload sediment in the critical habitat reach of the river. In 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, conducted suspended- and bedload-sediment sampling in the federally designated critical habitat of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon population. Three sediment-sampling sites were selected that represent the hydraulic differences in the critical habitat. Suspended- and bedload-sediment samples along with acoustic Doppler current profiles were collected at these sites during specific river discharges. Samples were analyzed to determine suspended- and bedload-sediment characteristics and transport rates. Sediment transport data were analyzed to provide total loading estimates for suspended and bedload sediment in the critical habitat reach. Total suspended-sediment discharge primarily occurred as fine material that moved through the system in suspension. Total suspended-sediment discharge ranged from about 300 metric tons per day to more than 23,000 metric tons per day. Total suspended sediment remained nearly equal throughout the critical habitat, with the exception of a few cases where mass wasting of the banks may have caused sporadic spikes in total suspended sediment. Bedload-sediment discharge averaged 0-3 percent of the total loading. These bedload discharges ranged from 0 to 271 tons per day. The bedload discharge in the upper part of the critical habitat primarily consisted of fine to coarse gravel. A decrease in river competence in addition to an armored channel may be the cause of this limited bedload discharge. The bedload discharge in the middle part of the white sturgeon critical habitat varied greatly, depending on the extent of the backwater from Kootenay Lake. A large quantity of fine-to-coarse gravel is present in the braided

  20. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1991-10-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 332 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989 and 1990. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 880 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 638 to 1,211. Culture of one pair of sturgeon in 1990 was of limited success. Less than 5% of eggs hatched with 50% initial mortality of fry. The contribution of contaminants found in eggs (aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, and organochlorides) toward this poor survival is unknown. Handling problems with the eggs at the time of spawning complicated our results. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements. Sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia-Idaho border and seek out deep holes or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall. Seasonal differences in use of depth and velocity parameters were found between sexes and among seasons. No relationships were found between sturgeon movement and month, water temperature, flow, and flow change. However, multiple regression analysis indicated that up to 30% of the variance in individual sturgeon movement was explained by the combination of the four variables.

  1. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999 were very

  2. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1997-09-01

    Test flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning, scheduled for June 1996, were postponed until July. However, an estimated 126% snow pack and unusually heavy precipitation created conditions for sturgeon spawning that were similar to those occurring before construction of Libby Dam. Discharge in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry rose to nearly 1,204 m{sup 3}/s (42,500 cfs) during May and water temperature ranged from 5.8 C to 8.4 C (42 F to 47 F). Migration of adult white sturgeon into spawning areas occurred in late May during a rising hydrograph. Discharge and water temperature were rising and had reached approximately 1,077 m{sup 3}/s (38,000 cfs) and 8 C (46 F). Discharge at Bonners Ferry peaked at about 1,397 m{sup 3}/s (49,300 cfs) on June 5. A total of 348 eggs (and one egg shell) were collected with 106,787 h of mat effort during the flow events. The first white sturgeon eggs were collected on June 8 and continued through June 30. Staging of eggs and back-calculating to spawning dates indicated there were at least 18 spawning episodes between June 6 and June 25. Discharge on June 6 was 1,196 m{sup 3}/s (42,200 cfs) and decreased steadily to 850 m{sup 3}/s (30,000 cfs) by June 26. Although sturgeon spawned in the same reach of river that they had during 1994 and 1995, the majority of eggs were found significantly (P = 0.0001) farther upstream than 1994 and 1995 and this in turn may be related to elevation of Kootenay Lake.

  3. SETTING EXPECTATIONS FOR THE OHIO RIVER FISH INDEX BASED ON IN-STREAM HABITAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of habitat criteria for setting fish community assessment expectations is common for streams, but a standard approach for great rivers remains largely undeveloped. We developed assessment expectations for the Ohio River Fish Index (ORFIN) based on measures of in-stream h...

  4. Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Norm

    2009-02-18

    The overarching goals of the 'Kootenai River Floodplain Ecosystem Operational Loss Assessment, Protection, Mitigation and Rehabilitation' Project (BPA Project No.2002-011-00) are to: (1) assess abiotic and biotic factors (i.e., geomorphologic, hydrological, aquatic and riparian/floodplain communities) in determining a definitive composition of ecological integrity, (2) develop strategies to assess and mitigate losses of ecosystem functions, and (3) produce a regional operational loss assessment framework. To produce a scientifically defensible, repeatable, and complete assessment tool, KTOI assembled a team of top scientists in the fields of hydrology, hydraulics, ornithology, entomology, statistics, and river ecology, among other expertise. This advisory team is known as the Research Design and Review Team (RDRT). The RDRT scientists drive the review, selection, and adaptive management of the research designs to evaluate the ecologic functions lost due to the operation of federal hydropower facilities. The unique nature of this project (scientific team, newest/best science, adaptive management, assessment of ecological functions, etc.) has been to work in a dynamic RDRT process. In addition to being multidisciplinary, this model KTOI project provides a stark contrast to the sometimes inflexible process (review, re-review, budgets, etc.) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The project RDRT is assembled annually, with subgroups meeting as needed throughout the year to address project issues, analyses, review, and interpretation. Activities of RDRT coordinated and directed the selection of research and assessment methodologies appropriate for the Kootenai River Watershed and potential for regional application in the Columbia River Basin. The entire RDRT continues to meet annually to update and discuss project progress. RDRT Subcontractors work in smaller groups throughout the year to meet project objectives. Determining the extent to which

  5. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2012-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO2, and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC50) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC50 values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC50 value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  6. Toxicity of copper to early-life stage Kootenai River white sturgeon, Columbia River white sturgeon, and rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Little, E E; Calfee, R D; Linder, G

    2012-10-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) populations throughout western North America are in decline, likely as a result of overharvest, operation of dams, and agricultural and mineral extraction activities in their watersheds. Recruitment failure may reflect the loss of early-life stage fish in spawning areas of the upper Columbia River, which are contaminated with metals from effluents associated with mineral-extraction activities. Early-life stage white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) from the Columbia River and Kootenai River populations were exposed to copper during 96-h flow-through toxicity tests to determine their sensitivity to the metal. Similar tests were conducted with rainbow trout (RBT [Oncorhynchus mykiss]) to assess the comparative sensitivity of this species as a surrogate for white sturgeon. Exposures were conducted with a water quality pH 8.1-8.3, hardness 81-119 mg/L as CaCO(2), and dissolved organic carbon 0.2-0.4 mg/L. At approximately 30 days posthatch (dph), sturgeon were highly sensitive to copper with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values ranging from 4.1 to 6.8 μg/L compared with 36.5 μg/L for 30 dph RBT. White sturgeon at 123-167 dph were less sensitive to copper with LC(50) values ranging from 103.7 to 268.9 μg/L. RBT trout, however, remained more sensitive to copper at 160 dph with an LC(50) value of 30.9 μg/L. The results indicate that high sensitivity to copper in early-life stage white sturgeon may be a factor in recruitment failure occurring in the upper Columbia and Kootenai rivers. When site-specific water-quality criteria were estimated using the biotic ligand model (BLM), derived values were not protective of early-life stage fish, nor were estimates derived by water-hardness adjustment.

  7. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation : Stock Status of Burbot : Project Progress Report 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Valughn L.; Laude Dorothy C.

    2008-12-26

    Objectives of this investigation were to (1) monitor the population status and recruitment of burbot Lota lota in the Kootenai River, Idaho and British Columbia, Canada during the winter of 2006-2007; (2) evaluate the selective withdrawal system in place at Libby Dam to maintain the river temperature near Bonners Ferry between 1-4 C (November-December) to improve burbot migration and spawning activity; and (3) determine if a hatching success of 10% of eyed burbot embryos could be achieved through extensive rearing and produce fingerlings averaging 9.8 cm in six months. Water temperature did not fall below the upper limit (4 C) until mid-January but was usually maintained between 1-4 C January through February and was acceptable. Snowpack was characterized by a 101% of normal January runoff forecast. Adult burbot were sampled with hoop nets and slat traps. Only three burbot were captured in hoop nets, all at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.5). No burbot were caught in either slat traps or juvenile sampling gear, indicating the population is nearly extirpated. Burbot catch per unit effort in hoop nets was 0.003 fish/net d. Extensive rearing was moved to a smaller private pond and will be reported in the 2008-2009 annual report.

  8. Instream biological assessment of NPDES point source discharges at the Savannah River Site, 1997-1998

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-02-28

    The Savannah River Site currently has 33 permitted NPDES outfalls that have been permitted by the South Carolina Department of Health an Environmental Control to discharge to SRS streams and the Savannah River. In order to determine the cumulative impacts of these discharges to the receiving streams, a study plan was developed to perform in-stream assessments of the fish assemblages, macroinvertebrate assemblages, and habitats of the receiving streams.

  9. Velocity estimation using a Bayesian network in a critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Todd Holland, K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.

    2013-09-01

    Numerous numerical modeling studies have been completed in support of an extensive recovery program for the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) on the Kootenai River near Bonner's Ferry, ID. A technical hurdle in the interpretation of these model results is the transfer of information from the specialist to nonspecialist such that practical decisions utilizing the numerical simulations can be made. To address this, we designed and trained a Bayesian network to provide probabilistic prediction of depth-averaged velocity. Prediction of this critical parameter governing suitable spawning habitat was obtained by exploiting the dynamic relationships between variables derived from model simulations with associated parameter uncertainties. Postdesign assessment indicates that the most influential environmental variables in order of importance are river discharge, depth, and width, and water surface slope. We demonstrate that the probabilistic network not only reproduces the training data with accuracy similar to the accuracy of a numerical model (root-mean-squared error of 0.10 m/s), but that it makes reliable predictions on the same river at times and locations other than where the network was trained (root mean squared error of 0.09 m/s). Additionally, the network showed similar skill (root mean square error of 0.04 m/s) when predicting velocity on the Apalachicola River, FL, a river of similar shape and size to the Kootenai River where a related sturgeon population is also threatened.

  10. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation; Stock Status of Burbot, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Laude, Dorothy C.

    2006-03-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to monitor movement and spawning activity of burbot Lota lota in the Kootenai River, Idaho and British Columbia, Canada during the winter of 2004-2005. As a secondary objective, we examined the literature to obtain inferential information on how changes in historic water temperature may affect burbot movement and spawning. Discharge from Libby Dam for October 2004 ranged from 133 to 272 m{sup 3}/s, was ramped up to 532 m{sup 3}/s early in November, then was brought down to about 283 m{sup 3}/s through the last 10 days of the month. In early December 2004, discharge was brought up to full powerhouse of about 762 m{sup 3}/s several times but remained above 436 m{sup 3}/s for most of the month. However, with the prospect of a below normal snowpack and a mild winter, discharge was brought down to 113 m{sup 3}/s, minimum flow, for the remainder of January through March 2005. Discharge did not meet the systems operation request as a burbot rehabilitation measure. Mean water temperature of the Kootenai River at Libby Dam from November 1, 2004 through April 5, 2005 was 5.3 C, ranging from 10.45 C on November 1, 2004 to 3.2 C on March 2, 2005. Tributary water temperatures were monitored in Deep, Smith, and Boundary creeks in Idaho and in the Goat River, Corn, and Summit creeks, British Columbia, Canada from November 1, 2004 to about April 18, 2005. Baited hoop nets of 25 and 19 mm bar mesh were fished from November 5, 2004 through April 4, 2005 for 2,046 net d (one net day is a single 24 h set). One hundred twenty-two fish were caught encompassing ten different species of fish. Eighteen burbot (14 different fish) were captured. Sixteen of the captures were at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.5), one was near Nicks Island (rkm 144.5), British Columbia, and the other was downstream of the Goat River (rkm 152.7). Of the 18 burbot captured, one fish escaped from the net overnight, four were recaptures from this year's study, six were recaptures

  11. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Chapter 3 : Mainstem Habitat Use and Recruitment Estimates of Rainbow Trout, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Fredericks, James P.; Hendricks, Steve

    1997-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if recruitment is limiting the population of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the mainstem Kootenai River. The authors used snorkeling and electrofishing techniques to estimate juvenile rainbow trout density and total numbers in Idaho tributaries, and they trapped juvenile outmigrants to identify the age at which juvenile trout migrate from tributaries to the Kootenai River. The authors radio and reward-tagged post-spawn adult rainbow trout captured in Deep Creek to identify river reach and habitat used by those fish spawning and rearing in the Deep Creek drainage. They also conducted redd surveys in the Kootenai River to determine the extent of mainstem spawning. Based on the amount of available habitat and juvenile rainbow trout densities, the Deep Creek drainage was the most important area for juvenile production. Population estimates of age 0, age 1+, and age 2+ rainbow trout indicated moderate to high densities in several streams in the Deep Creek drainage whereas other streams, such as Deep Creek, had very low densities of juvenile trout. The total number of age 0, age 1+, and age 2+ rainbow trout in Deep Creek drainage in 1996 was estimated to be 63,743, 12,095, and 3,095, respectively. Radio telemetry efforts were hindered by the limited range of the transmitters, but movements of a radio-tagged trout and a returned reward tag indicated that at least a portion of the trout utilizing the Deep Creek drainage migrated downriver from the mouth of Deep Creek to the meandering section of river. They found no evidence of mainstem spawning by rainbow trout, but redd counting efforts were hindered by high flows from mid-April through June.

  12. A demonstration of the instream flow incremental methodology, Shenandoah River, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zappia, Humbert; Hayes, D.C.

    1998-01-01

    Current and projected demands on the water resources of the Shenandoah River have increased concerns for the potential effect of these demands on the natural integrity of the Shenandoah River system. The Instream Flow Incremental Method (IFIM) process attempts to integrate concepts of water-supply planning, analytical hydraulic engineering models, and empirically derived habitat versus flow functions to address water-use and instream-flow issues and questions concerning life-stage specific effects on selected species and the general well being of aquatic biological populations. The demonstration project also sets the stage for the identification and compilation of the major instream-flow issues in the Shenandoah River Basin, development of the required multidisciplinary technical team to conduct more detailed studies, and development of basin specific habitat and flow requirements for fish species, species assemblages, and various water uses in the Shenandoah River Basin.This report presents the results of an IFIM demonstration project, conducted on the main stem Shenandoah River in Virginia, during 1996 and 1997, using the Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) model. Output from PHABSIM is used to address the general flow requirements for water supply and recreation and habitat for selected life stages of several fish species.The model output is only a small part of the information necessary for effective decision making and management of river resources. The information by itself is usually insufficient for formulation of recommendations regarding instream-flow requirements. Additional information, for example, can be obtained by analysis of habitat time-series data, habitat duration data, and habitat bottlenecks. Alternative-flow analysis and habitat-duration curves are presented.

  13. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Stock Status of Burbot and Rainbow Trout and Fisheries Inventory, 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughin L.

    1994-03-01

    Seventeen burbot Lota lota were caught in the Kootenai River with two sizes of hoop nets baited with fish. One burbot was a recapture. Burbot catch from March 19 through May 10, 1993 averaged 0.03 fish/net/day. Total length ranged from 367 to 701 mm and weight from 369 to 2,610 g (mean = 916 g). Nearly all burbot were caught at Ambush Rock. Preliminary findings are that burbot abundance in the Kootenai River is substantially less than it was in the late 1970s. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and seven other species of fish were sampled in tributary streams of the Kootenai River. A single pass was made with a backpack electroshocker. Species diversity ranged from two found in Cascade Creek to eight each in Snow and Caribou creeks. Most streams were partially channelized in their lower reaches, and these segments were lower in species richness. Sculpins Cottus sp. were often the only species found in channelized segments. Trout were caught in all streams. Rainbow trout were the most abundant salmonid. Cutthroat trout 0. clarki numbers were highest in Cascade Creek. I estimated a total of 5,268 anglers fished 13,698 h ({+-} 3,913), for 129 h/km (n{+-} 36), from March through August 1993. Fisherman averaged 2.6 h/trip based on completed trip information. The estimated total angler catch was 5,937 fish ({+-} 3,395), of which 3,676 ({+-} 3,246) were kept. Angler effort for 1993 was similar to that of 1982. Angler harvest of rainbow trout was estimated at 700 fish ({+-} 873) and they averaged 276 mm total length. Mean catch rate for anglers fishing for rainbow trout was about 0.02 fish/h. Rainbow trout comprised 17% of the catch. Angler harvest of cutthroat trout was 105 fish ({+-} 118) at less than 0.01 fish/h and averaged 356 mm total length.

  14. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation; Stock Status of Burbot, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Pyper, Brian J.; Ireland, Susan C.

    2004-12-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to monitor movement and spawning activity of burbot Lota lota in the Kootenai River, Idaho and British Columbia, Canada during the winter of 2003-2004. Due to low precipitation and snow pack, as well as low levels of Lake Koocanusa, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers refrained from releasing discharges >113 m{sup 3}/s from Libby Dam for most of the winter. This situation provided suitable conditions for burbot migration and spawning in the mainstem river. Hoop nets captured 19 burbot, which ranged from 447 mm to 760 mm TL (mean = 630 mm) and weighed from 420 g to 4,032 g (mean = 1,937 g) with a mean W{sub r} of 99. One burbot (burbot 214) was captured for the fifth time since its first capture in 2000, and each capture was near Ambush Rock (rkm 244.4-244.8). Eleven burbot were tagged with five-month duration external sonic transmitters, and a 12th burbot, tagged with a 14-month transmitter, has been monitored since 2001. During the post-spawn period, three sonic-tagged burbot exhibited downstream and sedentary movement patterns, while five remained at Ambush Rock. Concentrations of tagged burbot near Ambush Rock (rkm 244.5) during January and February 2004 (eight tagged fish) may suggest that this area is critical spawning habitat. The appearance of burbot at Ambush Rock during the spawning period and upstream movements of tagged fish (PIT and sonic tagged) in previous years during the low discharges help validate results suggesting that discharges <113 m{sup 3}/s will permit burbot migration and may increase spawning habitat. Though it seems apparent that the Ambush Rock area is an important burbot spawning ground, no adult burbot were recaptured after the spawning period and no burbot larva were caught, despite considerable sampling efforts during the winter of 2003-2004.

  15. Trends in Streamflow and Comparisons With Instream Flows in the Lower Puyallup River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumioka, Steve S.

    2004-01-01

    The Puyallup Tribe of Indians is interested in better understanding the water resources of the lower Puyallup River Basin in order to ensure sufficient water to meet Tribal and hatchery needs and make future water-resource decisions. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Puyallup Tribe, conducted a study to identify trends in streamflow in the lower Puyallup River Basin and to compare streamflows in the Puyallup River with regulatory minimum instream flows. Daily mean streamflow, monthly mean streamflow for October, and annual mean streamflow records from 1980 through 2001 for two gaging stations on the lower Puyallup River and one each on Clarks Creek and Swan Creek in the lower Puyallup River Basin were analyzed for temporal trends. Daily mean streamflow records were divided into data sets for the wet period (November through June) and the dry period (July through October) for analysis. Annual precipitation records from three National Weather Service stations and ground-water-level records from five wells in the lower Puyallup River Basin were analyzed to determine possible relations with streamflow. Daily mean streamflow, daily minimum streamflow, and unit-streamflow records for the Puyallup River for 1991 and 1992 were evaluated for the instream-flow analysis. Significant temporal trends were not identified in daily mean streamflow records from the Puyallup River, Clarks Creek, or Swan Creek for the period of analysis. Trend analysis of monthly mean streamflow records for October at two gaging stations on the Puyallup River also indicated no significant trends for the period of analysis. Temporal trends were not evident in precipitation data from weather stations in the basin. A trend of decreasing depth to ground water with time (1995 through 1997) was identified in one well (20N/04E-34G01). This well is drilled to about 550 feet below land surface, and variations in water levels at this depth likely do not affect streamflow in the Puyallup River

  16. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Implementation Plan and Schedule; 2005-2010, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Kootenai River white sturgeon have been declining for at least 50 years and extinction of the wild population is now imminent (Paragamian et al. 2005). Only 630 adults were estimated to remain in 2002 from a population ten times that size just 20 years ago. Significant recruitment of young sturgeon has not been observed since the early 1970s and consistent annual recruitment has not been seen since the 1950s. The remaining wild population consists of a cohort of large, old fish that is declining by about 9% per year as fish die naturally and are not replaced. At this rate, the wild population will disappear around the year 2040. Numbers have already reached critical low levels where genetic and demographic risks are acute. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was convened in 1994, provided a draft Recovery Plan in 1996 and the first complete Recovery Plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon in 1999 (USFWS 1996, 1999). The Plan outlined a four part strategy for recovery, including: (1) measures to restore natural recruitment, (2) use of conservation aquaculture to prevent extinction, (3) monitoring survival and recovery, and (4) updating and revising recovery plan criteria and objectives as new information becomes available. Sturgeon recovery efforts are occurring against a backdrop of a broader ecosystem protection and restoration program for the Kootenai River ecosystem. With abundance halving time of approximately 8 years, the Kootenai River white sturgeon population is rapidly dwindling, leaving managers little time to act. Decades of study consistently indicate that recruitment failure occurs between embryo and larval stages. This assertion is based on four key observations. First, almost no recruitment has occurred during the last 30 years. Second, thousands of naturally produced white sturgeon embryos, most viable, have been collected over the past decade, resulting from an estimated 9 to 20 spawning events each year. Third, Kootenai River white

  17. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations : White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    Flows in the Kootenai River for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning in 1998 were expected to be at a minimum because the snow pack in the basin was only about 79% normal, and local inflow was expected to be very low, <142 m{sup 3}/s (5,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry from late April through early May were at about 425 m{sup 3}/s (15,000 cfs) while water temperature ranged from about 8 to 10 C (45 to 50 F). Spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began on May 18 when flow at the dam was brought up to 765 m{sup 3}/s (27,000 cfs). Unusually frequent rains and several enormous storms brought peak flows at Bonners Ferry to over 1,175 m{sup 3}/s (41,500 cfs) on May 27, temperature ranged between 8 and 10.6 C (45 to 51 F). Flow gradually subsided at Bonners Ferry during June and was steady at 708 to 765 m{sup 3}/s (25,000 to 27,000 cfs) while temperature gradually rose to 14.4 C (58 F). Forty-seven adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,220 hours of angling and setlining effort between March 1 and April 15, 1998 by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Sonic and radio tags were attached to four female and five male sturgeon during this effort. From April 1 through July 31, 1998, a total of 17 fish were monitored specifically for pre-spawn and spawning activities. White sturgeon spawning location, timing, frequency, and habitat were evaluated by sampling for eggs with artificial substrate mats. Four hundred and eighty-four eggs were collected, 393 eggs (81%) were collected on 60 standard mats, and 91 eggs (19%) were collected on seven experimental mats with drift nets. Ten eggs collected with experimental mats were found mixed with sand, suggesting eggs are moving in the lower water column with sand. The middle Shorty's Island reach (rkm 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (173) while the Deep Creek section (rkm 237.6-240.5) produced 112 eggs. No eggs were collected above the Deep Creek section (>rkm 240.5). Four hundred

  18. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation[s]; Stock Status of Burbot, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Hoyle, Genevieve

    2005-09-01

    The Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation Project planned to monitor burbot Lota lota movement in the winter of 2002-2003 and test a hypothesis regarding the relationship of winter flow to upstream spawning migration success. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bonneville Power Administration were unable to provide the consistent low winter flows needed to meet the experimental design criteria in that monitoring and evaluation plan (approximately 170 m{sup 3}/s from Libby Dam). Although conditions consistent with management for sustained minimum flows persisted throughout the winter, and stable low flows were maintained below Libby Dam from September 1 through November 24, 2002 (158 m{sup 3}/s average) and from January 1, 2003 until May 1 (144 m{sup 3}/s average), flows in the intervening 37 d period from November 25 to December 31 were increased significantly by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. During that important December spawning migration period for burbot, flows were well above those proposed in the monitoring and evaluation plan and peaked at 741 m{sup 3}/s on December 21, 2002. Furthermore, despite the low flow conditions for much of the winter, our capture of 10 burbot was the lowest since this investigation began in 1993, evidence that the stock is extremely depressed and the numbers of burbot are declining. We captured a single burbot in 2002-2003 that provided circumstantial evidence reproduction occurred during the winter of 2000-2001. This burbot of 352 mm TL was among the smallest captured since sampling began in 1993. Seven burbot were monitored with sonic telemetry; two of those were tagged the previous winter. The capture of a female burbot at Ambush Rock during the spawning period supports results of previous findings that low flows during winter enhances burbot migration and spawning. Sampling for larval burbot was conducted, but no larval burbot were captured.

  19. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  20. Flow and sediment-transport modeling of Kootenai River White Sturgeon Spawning Habitat.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, R. R.; Nelson, J.; Barton, G.; Paragamian, V.

    2004-12-01

    The population of White Sturgeon in the Kootenai River downstream of Libby Dam in Montana and Idaho has declined since the construction of the dam in 1972. The White Sturgeon was listed as endangered in 1994 and an 11.2 mile reach of the river, downstream of Bonners Ferry, Idaho was designated as Critical Habitat in 2001. It is hypothesized that hydro-electric and flood control operations have contributed to poor spawning habitat and recruitment of juvenile fish. The successful incubation of eggs requires a stable and coarse bed material. Currently the sturgeon are spawning in a reach of poor substrate consisting of dunes up to 2 meters in amplitude and composed of fine sand while a short distance upstream there is suitable substrate of coarse gravel. We present here the preliminary results of a flow and sediment-transport modeling effort to aid in an understanding of both the current spawning habitat of the White Sturgeon and the potential to artificially enhance the current spawning habitat or to influence the sturgeon to move upstream to more suitable habitat. A 2.5 dimensional flow model was constructed for an 8-kilometer reach of the designated Critical Habitat. The modeled reach consists of several broad meanders and a mid channel island. The substrate is composed of fine sand with a median grain size of 0.22mm and has large dunes up to 2m in amplitude at relatively lows flows of 200 cms that wash out to a plane bed at around 600 cms. The model has been calibrated to a range of historical flow conditions from 170 cms to 1709 cms and verified against 16 ADCP velocity cross-section profiles collected during a period of steady flow at 554 cms. The model predicts well most of the salient features of the velocity field including the magnitude and location of the secondary flow, using a simple constant value for roughness. However for a few reaches of the river the bed forms and their spatial variability in size are shown to significantly affect the flow and the

  1. Simulation of hydraulic characteristics in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic characterization of the Kootenai River, especially in the white sturgeon spawning habitat reach, is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to promote hydraulic conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River. The decreasing population and spawning failure of white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeons are found in the river today. Determining the location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water in the Kootenai River is a primary focus for biologists who believe that hydraulic changes at the transition affect the location where the sturgeon choose to spawn. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. The 65.6-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied. The study area encompasses the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to develop relations between hydraulic characteristics and water-surface elevation, discharge, velocity, and backwater extent. The model used 164 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. The model was calibrated to water-surface elevations at specific discharges at five gaging stations. Calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,743 to about 1,759 feet, and discharges used in calibration ranged from 5,000 to 47,500 cubic feet per second. Model calibration was considered acceptable when the difference between measured and simulated water-surface elevations was ?0.15 foot or less. Measured and simulated average velocities also were compared. These comparisons indicated agreement between measured and simulated values. The location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water was determined using the calibrated model. The model

  2. Economics of Water Allocation to Instream Uses in a Fully Appropriated River Basin: Evidence From a New Mexico Wild River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Frank A.

    1987-03-01

    In fully appropriated multiple-use river basins, a major potential competitor for a share of water may be publicly sponsored appropriations to supplement low streamflows for fish, wildlife, and recreation, which generates economic values not revealed in the marketplace. Based on a survey of instream recreationists on New Mexico's Rio Chama a travel cost model is developed to identify the potential recreation demand for instream flows. A discrete optimal control model is formulated that solves for the intraseasonal allocation of reservoir releases which maximizes the yearly value of instream recreation benefits, net of values of competing uses in the basin. Results indicate that in New Mexico, reservoir releases which augment low streamflows can return gross recreation benefits in the range of 900 to 1100 per acre-foot (ac ft) of water consumed (1 ac ft = 1.233 × 10 3 m3). This compares to a $40/ac ft cost of using the water. Consequently, results strongly support the hypothesis of potential economic payoff from public investments in and management of instream flow reservations.

  3. Characterization of the Kootenai River Algae Community and Primary Productivity Before and After Experimental Nutrient Addition, 2004–2007 [Chapter 2, Kootenai River Algal Community Characterization, 2009 KTOI REPORT].

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charlie; Anders, Paul; Shafii, Bahman

    2009-07-01

    The Kootenai River ecosystem (spelled Kootenay in Canada) has experienced numerous ecological changes since the early 1900s. Some of the largest impacts to habitat, biological communities, and ecological function resulted from levee construction along the 120 km of river upstream from Kootenay Lake, completed by the 1950s, and the construction and operation of Libby Dam on the river near Libby Montana, completed in 1972. Levee construction isolated tens of thousands of hectares of historic functioning floodplain habitat from the river channel downstream in Idaho and British Columbia (B.C.) severely reducing natural biological productivity and habitat diversity crucial to large river-floodplain ecosystem function. Libby Dam greatly reduces sediment and nutrient transport to downstream river reaches, and dam operations cause large changes in the timing, duration, and magnitude of river flows. These and other changes have contributed to the ecological collapse of the post-development Kootenai River ecosystem and its native biological communities. In response to large scale loss of nutrients, experimental nutrient addition was initiated in the North Arm of Kootenay Lake in 1992, in the South Arm of Kootenay Lake in 2004, and in the Kootenai River at the Idaho-Montana border during 2005. This report characterizes baseline chlorophyll concentration and accrual (primary productivity) rates and diatom and algal community composition and ecological metrics in the Kootenai River for four years, one (2004) before, and three (2005 through 2007) after nutrient addition. The study area encompassed a 325 km river reach from the upper Kootenay River at Wardner, B.C. (river kilometer (rkm) 445) downstream through Montana and Idaho to Kootenay Lake in B.C. (rkm 120). Sampling reaches included an unimpounded reach furthest upstream and four reaches downstream from Libby Dam affected by impoundment: two in the canyon reach (one with and one without nutrient addition), a braided reach

  4. Patterns of fish assemblage structure and habitat use among main- and side-channel environments in the lower Kootenai River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watkins, Carson J.; Stevens, Bryan S.; Quist, Michael; Shepard, Bradley B.; Ireland, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    The lower Kootenai River, Idaho, was sampled during the summers of 2012 and 2013 to evaluate its fish assemblage structure at seven sites within main- and side-channel habitats where large-scale habitat rehabilitation was undertaken. Understanding the current patterns of fish assemblage structure and their relationships with habitat is important for evaluating the effects of past and future rehabilitation projects on the river. Species-specific habitat associations were modeled, and the variables that best explained the occurrence and relative abundance of fish were identified in order to guide future habitat rehabilitation so that it benefits native species. The results indicated that the side-channel habitats supported higher species richness than the main-channel habitats and that nonnative fishes were closely associated with newly rehabilitated habitats. This research provides valuable insight on the current fish assemblages in the Kootenai River and the assemblage-level responses that may occur as a result of future rehabilitation activities.

  5. Simulation of flow and sediment transport in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Bennett, James P.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of sediment transport of the Kootenai River in the white sturgeon spawning reach is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to predict sediment-transport conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The decreasing population and spawning failure of the white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeon are found in the river today. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. A 15-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied, including the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, and a 1-mile long side channel around the western side of Shorty Island. A one-dimensional sediment-transport model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to simulate the response of the hydraulic and sediment system to varying discharges and water-surface elevations. The model comprises 79 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. Bed-sediment samples collected in 2002 and additional samples collected for this study in 2004 were used in the model. The model was calibrated to discharge and water-surface elevations at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations. The model also was calibrated to suspended-sediment discharge at several sites in the study reach. The calibrated model was used to simulate six different management alternatives to assess erosion and deposition under varying hydraulic conditions at the end of 21 days of simulation. Alternative 1 was simulated with a discharge of 6,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), alternative 2 with 20,000 ft3/s, alternative 3 with 40,000 ft3/s, and alternatives 4 through 6 with 60,000 ft3/s and represents low to high discharges in the river since the construction of Libby Dam. Sediment deposition

  6. Breeding Plan to Preserve the Genetic Variability of the Kootenai River White Sturgeon, Final Report, December 1993.

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, Harold L.

    1993-11-01

    Natural reproduction in the Kootenai River white sturgeon population has not produced a successful year class since 1974, resulting in a declining broodstock and 20 consecutive year classes missing from the age-class structure. This report describes a captive breeding plan designed to preserve the remaining genetic variability and to begin rebuilding the natural age class structure. The captive breeding program will use 3--9 females and an equal number of males captured from the Kootenai River each spring. Fish will be spawned in pairs or in diallel mating designs to produce individual families that will be reared separately to maintain family identity. Fish will be marked to identify family and year class before return to the river. Fish should be returned to the river as fall fingerlings to minimize potential adaptation to the hatchery environment Initially, while tagging methods are tested to ensure positive identification after return to the river, it may be necessary to plant fish as spring yearlings. Number of fish planted will be equalized at 5,000 per family if fall fingerlings or 1,000 per family if spring yearlings. Assuming annual survival rates of 20% during the first winter for fall fingerling plants and 50% for years 1--3, and 85% for years 4--20 of all fish planted, the target numbers would yield 7.9 progeny per family or about 4 breeding pairs at age 20. Natural survival in the river environment during the 19+ years from planting to maturity would result in variability in genetic contribution of families to the next broodstock generation. Fish planted per family would be adjusted in future years when actual survival rate information is known. Broodfish will be tagged when captured to minimize multiple spawning of the same fish. implementation of this breeding plan each year for the 20-year generation interval, using 5 different mating pairs each year, will yield an effective population size of 200, or 22.5% of the estimated 1990 population.

  7. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Stock Status of Burbot and Rainbow Trout and Fisheries Inventory, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.

    1995-11-01

    The author sampled 33 burbot Lota lota in the Kootenay River in British Columbia, Canada. Burbot catch from November 1994 to February 1995 averaged 0.047 fish/net-day. Total length ranged from 3854 mm to 958 mm and weighed from 272 g to 4,086 g (mean = 982 g). Twelve burbot were implanted with sonic transmitters and released at capture sites. Two additional burbot had active transmitters from the previous season. Telemetry of burbot during the pre-spawn, spawning, and post-spawning periods was conducted. Burbot were located a total of 203 times from November 1994 through August 8, 1995. Ripe burbot were captured and they appeared to have an affinity to water <2C. The author believes burbot spawned in the Goat River, British Columbia. Burbot with sonic transmitters did not reach Idaho until after the spawning period. Statistical analysis of burbot movement and discharge from Libby Dam indicated there was a significant relation between winter power production and spawning migration of burbot. A controlled test is needed to verify this relation. Zooplankton samples from the Kootenai River were substantially lower than the delta of Kootenay Lake, British Columbia, Canada.

  8. Defining interactions of in-stream hydrokinetic devices in the Tanana River, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J.; Toniolo, H.; Seitz, A. C.; Schmid, J.; Duvoy, P.

    2012-12-01

    The acceptance, performance, and sustainability of operating in-stream hydrokinetic power generating devices in rivers depends on the impact of the river environment on hydrokinetic infrastructure as well as its impact on the river environment. The Alaska Hydrokinetic Energy Research Center (AHERC) conducts hydrokinetic "impact" and technology studies needed to support a sustainable hydrokinetic industry in Alaska. These include completed and ongoing baseline studies of river hydrodynamic conditions (river stage, discharge, current velocity, power, and turbulence; suspended and bed load sediment transport), ice, fish populations and behavior, surface and subsurface debris flows, and riverbed conditions. Technology and methods studies to minimize the effect of debris flows on deployed turbine system are in-progress to determine their effectiveness at reducing the probability of debris impact, diverting debris and their affect on available river power for conversion to electricity. An anchor point has been placed in the main flow just upstream of Main (Figure 1) to support projects and in preparation for future projects that are being planned to examine hydrokinetic turbine performance including power conversion efficiency, turbine drag and anchor chain loads, wake generation and effects on fish. Baseline fish studies indicate that hydrokinetic devices at the test site will have the most potential interactions with Pacific salmon smolts during their down-migration to the ocean in May and June. At the AHERC test site, the maximum turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) occurs just down stream from the major river bends (e.g., 000 and near the railroad bridge [upper center of the figure]) and over a deep hole at 440 (Figure 1), Minimum TKE occurs between main and 800. River current velocity measurements and simulations of river flow from 000 downstream past the railroad bridge indicate that the most stable current in the river reach is between Main and 800. The stable current

  9. Updated one-dimensional hydraulic model of the Kootenai River, Idaho-A supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5110

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Barton, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. The restoration project is focused on recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river and floodplain landscape prior to restoration efforts. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey developed an updated one-dimensional hydraulic model of the Kootenai River in Idaho between river miles (RMs) 105.6 and 171.9 to characterize the current hydraulic conditions. A previously calibrated model of the study area, based on channel geometry data collected during 2002 and 2003, was the basis for this updated model. New high-resolution bathymetric surveys conducted in the study reach between RMs 138 and 161.4 provided additional detail of channel morphology. A light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey was flown in the Kootenai River valley in 2005 between RMs 105.6 and 159.5 to characterize the floodplain topography. Six temporary gaging stations installed in 2006-08 between RMs 154.1 and 161.2, combined with five permanent gaging stations in the study reach, provided discharge and water-surface elevations for model calibration and verification. Measured discharges ranging from about 4,800 to 63,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were simulated for calibration events, and calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,745 to 1,820 feet (ft) throughout the extent of the model. Calibration was considered acceptable when the simulated and measured water-surface elevations at gaging stations differed by less than (+/-)0.15 ft. Model verification consisted of simulating 10 additional events with

  10. A computer program for estimating instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is very important in a variety of ways to the residents of southeastern Montana; however, it is especially vulnerable to spilled contaminants. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a study to develop a computer program to rapidly estimate instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant in the Yellowstone River using regression equations developed in 1999 by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to describe these equations and their limitations, describe the development of a computer program to apply the equations to the Yellowstone River, and provide detailed instructions on how to use the program. This program is available online at [http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2006-5057/includes/ytot.xls]. The regression equations provide estimates of instream travel times and concentrations in rivers where little or no contaminant-transport data are available. Equations were developed and presented for the most probable flow velocity and the maximum probable flow velocity. These velocity estimates can then be used to calculate instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant. The computer program was developed so estimation equations for instream travel times and concentrations can be solved quickly for sites along the Yellowstone River between Corwin Springs and Sidney, Montana. The basic types of data needed to run the program are spill data, streamflow data, and data for locations of interest along the Yellowstone River. Data output from the program includes spill location, river mileage at specified locations, instantaneous discharge, mean-annual discharge, drainage area, and channel slope. Travel times and concentrations are provided for estimates of the most probable velocity of the peak concentration and the maximum probable velocity of the peak concentration. Verification of estimates of instream travel times and

  11. Effects of Stream Channel Characteristics on Nitrate Delivery to Streams and In-Stream Denitrification Rates, Raccoon River, Iowa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestegaard, K. L.; O'Connell, M.

    2004-05-01

    Streams in agricultural areas often exhibit significant channel and sediment modifications; they are often incised and transport more fine sediment than non-agricultural streams. These channel characteristics can influence stream water quality by modifying surface-groundwater interactions. In the Raccoon River basin, channel incision increases the delivery of nitrate from the groundwater to the streams. The sandy in-stream sediments, however, serve as very effective sites for in-stream denitrification. Nitrate delivery and in-stream denitrification was examined in 3 subwatersheds of the Raccoon River. Stream morphology, water quality, and sediment characteristics were measured at 35 sites with varying land uses. Headwater stream nitrate concentration increased with percent row crops and the amount of channel incision. Downstream sites showed a wide variation in nitrate concentration with land use. Stream nitrate concentrations were measured at 6 sites in each of 3 streams with high percentages of row crop land uses during high summer baseflow following the 1993 floods and during average summer baseflow in 1995. Nitrate concentrations were systematically higher for the high baseflow conditions of 1993 than the average year (1995). This change in nitrate concentration is interpreted as the increased effectiveness of nitrate delivery to the stream during periods of high water tables. The effect was most pronounced in incised reaches. All 3 streams show downstream decreases in nitrate concentration. Water samples for all the sites in the watersheds were analyzed for nitrogen isotopic composition. The nitrogen isotopic composition shifts with towards higher d 15N values with decreasing nitrate concentration. This is consistent with denitrification reactions that selectively remove the 14N leaving a higher proportion of 15N in the nitrate. This suggests that most of the downstream decrease in nitrate concentrations is a result of in-stream denitrification. The high rates

  12. Instream flow characterization of upper Salmon River Basin streams, Central Idaho, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2004-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream from the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the federally listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications, as a result of irrigation practices, have directly affected the quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include the collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts in the evaluation of potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing streamflow. Instream flow characterization studies were completed on Pole, Fourth of July, Elk, and Valley Creeks during 2003. Continuous streamflow data were collected upstream from all diversions on each stream. In addition, natural summer streamflows were estimated for each study site using regression

  13. Stream-aquifer and in-stream processes affecting nitrogen along a major river and contributing tributary.

    PubMed

    Huizenga, Alexander; Bailey, Ryan T; Gates, Timothy K

    2017-04-01

    This study assesses the spatio-temporal patterns of water and nutrient mass exchange in a stream-riparian system of a major river and a contributing tributary in an irrigated semi-arid region. Field monitoring is performed along reaches of the Arkansas River (4.7km) and Timpas Creek (2.0km) in southeastern Colorado during the 2014 growing season, with water quantity and water quality data collected using a network of in-stream sampling sites and groundwater monitoring wells. Mass balance approaches were used to identify temporal and spatial trends in flow, nitrogen (N), and salinity in stream-aquifer exchange. In the Arkansas River, percent decrease of N concentration along the study reach averaged 36% over the period, with results from a stochastic mass balance simulation indicating a 90% probability that 44% to 50% of NO3-N mass in the study reach (109-124kg/day/km) was removed by in-stream processes between 1 September and 8 November. Results suggest that contact with organic-rich river bed sediments has a strong impact on N removal. A greater decrease in concentrations of NO3-N along the reach during the low flow period suggests the effect of both in-stream processes and dilution by inflowing groundwater that undergoes denitrification as it flows through the riparian and hyporheic zones into the river. In contrast, N concentration decreases in the smaller Timpas Creek were negligible. Results for the Arkansas River also are in contrast with other large agriculturally-influenced rivers, which have not exhibited capacity to remove N at significant rates. Results provide important insights across spatial and temporal scales and point to the need for investigating nutrient dynamics in large streams draining agriculturally-dominated watersheds.

  14. Simulation of flow and sediment mobility using a multidimensional flow model for the White Sturgeon critical-habitat reach, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Dinehart, Randal L.

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as an Endangered Species as a direct result of two related observations. First, biologists observed that the white sturgeon population in the Kootenai River was declining. Second, they observed a decline in recruitment of juvenile sturgeon beginning in the 1950s with an almost total absence of recruitment since 1974, following the closure of Libby Dam in 1972. This second observation was attributed to changes in spawning and (or) rearing habitat resulting from alterations in the physical habitat, including flow regime, sediment-transport regime, and bed morphology of the river. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was established to find and implement ways to improve spawning and rearing habitat used by white sturgeon. They identified the need to develop and apply a multidimensional flow model to certain reaches of the river to quantify physical habitat in a spatially distributed manner. The U.S. Geological Survey has addressed these needs by developing, calibrating, and validating a multidimensional flow model used to simulate streamflow and sediment mobility in the white sturgeon critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River. This report describes the model and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to biological or other habitat data. This study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 23-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River, including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho that is about 108 to 131 kilometers below Libby Dam. U.S. Geological Survey's MultiDimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to construct a flow model for the critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River white sturgeon, between river kilometers 228.4 and 245.9. Given streamflow, bed roughness, and downstream water-surface elevation

  15. In-stream production of methylmercury in a northern California river during summer baseflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, M. T.; Finlay, J. C.; Nollet, Y. H.; Balogh, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    In stream ecosystems, it is well established that terrestrial landscape features such as wetlands are important in determining the aqueous concentration and flux of methylmercury. In contrast, our understanding of in-stream production of methylmercury is inadequate, especially on an ecosystem scale. In this study, we examined the relationship between the net production of dissolved methylmercury and algal metabolism in an 8-km reach of a third order stream (South Fork Eel River) in northern California. The stream has a forested watershed with no wetlands and has a long period of baseflow that typically extends from late May to early October. There was an intense rainfall in early May, 2009, but no major precipitation was recorded afterward, as is typical of Mediterranean climate of the study site. We collected surface water samples along the main channel and four major tributaries to the study stream reach. Temporal patterns of algal metabolism were inferred from net changes in total dissolved phosphorus and silica uptake and algal abundance. There was essentially no net production of methylmercury within the study reach (~ 0 µg Hg/km/d) in mid-May but net production of methylmercury occurred afterward when discharge declined exponentially, water temperature increased and algal metabolism increased (i.e. phosphorus and silica were taken up biologically). Net production of dissolved methylmercury peaked in mid-June (100 µg Hg/km/d) and then declined in mid-July (58 µg Hg/km/d) and mid-August (45 µg Hg/km/d) within the 8-km reach. The absence of surface runoff during the summer (e.g. June through September) indicates that the observed net production of methylmercury occurred within the channel and algal metabolism is coupled to the mercury methylation process. In summary, our study suggests that, in addition to watershed features, in-stream production of methylmercury should be considered as an important factor mediating mercury bioavailability in flowing waters

  16. Flathead River Instream Flow Investigation Project : Final Report 1996-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William J.; Ptacek, Jonathan A.

    2003-09-01

    A modified Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) approach was used on the mainstem Flathead River from the South Fork Flathead River downstream to Flathead Lake. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in habitat for the target fish species, bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and west slope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), as a function of discharge in the river. This approach used a combination of georeferenced field data for each study site combined with a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation of river hydraulic characteristics. The hydraulic simulations were combined with habitat suitability criteria in a GIS analysis format to determine habitat area as a function of discharge. Results of the analysis showed that habitat area is more available at lower discharges than higher discharges and that in comparison of the pre-dam hydrology with post-dam hydrology, the stable pre-dam baseflows provided more stable habitat than the highly variable flow regime during both summer and winter baseflow post-dam periods. The variability week to week and day to day under post-dam conditions waters and dewaters stream margins. This forces sub-adult fish, in particular bull trout, to use less productive habitat during the night. There is a distinct difference between daytime and nighttime habitat use for bull trout sub-adults. The marginal areas that are constantly wet and then dried provide little in productivity for lower trophic levels and consequently become unproductive for higher trophic levels, especially bull trout sub-adults that use those areas as flows increase. A stable flow regime would be more productive than flow regimes with high variability week to week. The highly variable flows likely put stress on a bull trout subadult and west slope cutthroat trout, due to the additional movement required to find suitable habitat. The GIS approach presented here provides both a visual characterization of habitat as well as Arcview project data

  17. Significance of instream autotrophs in trophic dynamics of the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Delong, Michael D; Thorp, James H

    2006-02-01

    consumers. Application of the mixing model to compare basal source isotopic ratios to secondary consumers revealed that most organic matter moving from primary to secondary consumers originated from algal TOM. Our findings indicate that autochthonous organic matter is the major energy source supporting metazoan production in the main channel of this large river, at least during the summer. This study joins a number of other investigations performed globally that indicate organic matter originating from instream production of sestonic and benthic microalgae is a major driver in the trophic dynamics of large river ecosystems.

  18. Instream flow characterization of upper Salmon River basin streams, central Idaho, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2005-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream of the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the ESA-listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications resulting from irrigation practices, have directly affected quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation System model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts by evaluating potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing streamflow. In 2004, instream flow characterization studies were completed on Salmon River and Beaver, Pole, Champion, Iron, Thompson, and Squaw Creeks. Continuous streamflow data were recorded upstream of all diversions on Salmon River and Pole, Iron, Thompson, and Squaw Creeks. In addition, natural summer streamflows were

  19. Instream flow characterization of Upper Salmon River basin streams, central Idaho, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maret, Terry R.; Hortness, Jon E.; Ott, Douglas S.

    2006-01-01

    Anadromous fish populations in the Columbia River Basin have plummeted in the last 100 years. This severe decline led to Federal listing of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) stocks as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in the 1990s. Historically, the upper Salmon River Basin (upstream of the confluence with the Pahsimeroi River) in Idaho provided migration corridors and significant habitat for these ESA-listed species, in addition to the ESA-listed bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Human development has modified the original streamflow conditions in many streams in the upper Salmon River Basin. Summer streamflow modifications resulting from irrigation practices, have directly affected quantity and quality of fish habitat and also have affected migration and (or) access to suitable spawning and rearing habitat for these fish. As a result of these ESA listings and Action 149 of the Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation was tasked to conduct streamflow characterization studies in the upper Salmon River Basin to clearly define habitat requirements for effective species management and habitat restoration. These studies include collection of habitat and streamflow information for the Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) model, a widely applied method to determine relations between habitat and discharge requirements for various fish species and life stages. Model simulation results can be used by resource managers to guide habitat restoration efforts by evaluating potential fish habitat and passage improvements by increasing or decreasing streamflow. In 2005, instream flow characterization studies were completed on Big Boulder, Challis, Bear, Mill, and Morgan Creeks. Continuous streamflow data were recorded upstream of all diversions on Big Boulder. Instantaneous measurements of discharge were also made at selected sites. In

  20. Dendritic network models: Improving isoscapes and quantifying influence of landscape and in-stream processes on strontium isotopes in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, Sean R.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Jensen, Carrie K.; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2016-05-01

    A critical challenge for the Earth sciences is to trace the transport and flux of matter within and among aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric systems. Robust descriptions of isotopic patterns across space and time, called "isoscapes," form the basis of a rapidly growing and wide-ranging body of research aimed at quantifying connectivity within and among Earth's systems. However, isoscapes of rivers have been limited by conventional Euclidean approaches in geostatistics and the lack of a quantitative framework to apportion the influence of processes driven by landscape features versus in-stream phenomena. Here we demonstrate how dendritic network models substantially improve the accuracy of isoscapes of strontium isotopes and partition the influence of hydrologic transport versus local geologic features on strontium isotope ratios in a large Alaska river. This work illustrates the analytical power of dendritic network models for the field of isotope biogeochemistry, particularly for provenance studies of modern and ancient animals.

  1. Dendritic network models: Improving isoscapes and quantifying influence of landscape and in-stream processes on strontium isotopes in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brennan, Sean R.; Torgersen, Christian; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Jensen, Carrie K; Schindler, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    A critical challenge for the Earth sciences is to trace the transport and flux of matter within and among aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric systems. Robust descriptions of isotopic patterns across space and time, called “isoscapes,” form the basis of a rapidly growing and wide-ranging body of research aimed at quantifying connectivity within and among Earth's systems. However, isoscapes of rivers have been limited by conventional Euclidean approaches in geostatistics and the lack of a quantitative framework to apportion the influence of processes driven by landscape features versus in-stream phenomena. Here we demonstrate how dendritic network models substantially improve the accuracy of isoscapes of strontium isotopes and partition the influence of hydrologic transport versus local geologic features on strontium isotope ratios in a large Alaska river. This work illustrates the analytical power of dendritic network models for the field of isotope biogeochemistry, particularly for provenance studies of modern and ancient animals.

  2. Kootenai River Nutrient Dosing System and N-P Consumption: Year 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Holderman, Charles

    2009-02-19

    In early 2006 we designed and built low energy consumption, pump-operated system, for dosing of the liquid nutrient in the summer 2006 season. This operated successfully, and the system was used again during the 2007 and 2008 seasons for dosing. During the early winter period, 2008, laboratory tests were made of the liquid nutrient pump system, and it was noted that small amounts of air were being entrained on the suction side of the pump, during conditions when the inlet pressure was low. It was believed that this was the cause of diurnal fluctuations in the flow supplied, characteristic of the 2007 year flow data. Replacement of '0' rings on the inlet side of the pumps was the solution to this problem, and when tested in the field during the summer season, the flow supplied was found to be stable. A decision was made by the IKERT committee at the meeting of 20th to 21st May 2008 (held in Coeur d'Alene, Idaho) to use an injection flow rate of liquid fertilizer (polyammonium phosphate 10-34-0) to achieve a target phosphorus concentration of 3.0 {micro}g/L, after complete mixing in the river. This target concentration was the same as that used in 2006 and 2007. The proposed starting date was as early as possible in June 2008. Plans were made to measure the dosing flow in three ways. Two of the three methods of flow measurement (1 and 2 below) are inter-dependent. These were: (1) Direct measurement of flow rate by diverting dosing flow into a 1000 mL volume standard flask. The flow rate was computed by dividing the flask volume by the time required to fill the flask. This was done a few times only during the summer period. (2) Adjusting the flow rate reading of the Gamma dosing pump using the 'calibration' function to achieve agreement with the flow rate computed by method 1 above. (3) Direct measurement by electrical signal from conductive fluid passing through a magnetic field (Seametrics meter, as used in previous years). Values were recorded every 4 minutes by a

  3. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume I Kootenai River (Overview, Report and Appendices).

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  4. Simulation of Streamflow Using a Multidimensional Flow Model for White Sturgeon Habitat, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho - Supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5230

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) developed, calibrated, and validated a multidimensional flow model for simulating streamflow in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River in Idaho. The model was developed as a tool to aid understanding of the physical factors affecting quality and quantity of spawning and rearing habitat used by the endangered white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and for assessing the feasibility of various habitat-enhancement scenarios to re-establish recruitment of white sturgeon. At the request of the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, the USGS extended the two-dimensional flow model developed in 2005 into a braided reach upstream of the current white sturgeon spawning reach. Many scientists consider the braided reach a suitable substrate with adequate streamflow velocities for re-establishing recruitment of white sturgeon. The 2005 model was extended upstream to help assess the feasibility of various strategies to encourage white sturgeon to spawn in the reach. At the request of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, the USGS also extended the two-dimensional flow model several kilometers downstream of the white sturgeon spawning reach. This modified model can quantify the physical characteristics of a reach that white sturgeon pass through as they swim upstream from Kootenay Lake to the spawning reach. The USGS Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used for the 2005 modeling effort and for this subsequent modeling effort. This report describes the model applications and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to the location of white sturgeon spawning events during 1994-2001. Model simulations also were used to report on the length and percentage of longitudinal profiles that met the minimum criteria during May and June 2006 and 2007 as stipulated in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Biological Opinion.

  5. Sources, instream transport, and trends of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment in the lower Tennessee River basin, 1980-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, Anne B.; Robinson, J.A.; Aycock, R.A.; Knight, R.R.; Woodside, M.D.

    2000-01-01

    the Duck and Elk Rivers affect nutrient transport because hydrodynamic conditions in the reservoirs promote assimilation by aquatic plants and deposition of particulate matter. Observed decreases in total nitrite plus nitrate and dissolved-orthophosphorus concentrations in reservoirs or at sites downstream of reservoirs during summer months were probably related to seasonality of plant growth.Nutrient and sediment data used to estimate annual instream loads and yields were compiled from various water-quality monitoring programs and represent the best available data in the LTEN River Basin, but these data have several characteristics that limit accuracy of load estimates. Many of the monitoring programs were not designed with the objective of annual load estimation, and data representing storm transport are, therefore, sparse; sampling and analytical methods varied through time and among the monitoring programs, hampering spatial and temporal comparisons. The load estimates computed from these data are useful for evaluating broad spatial patterns of instream load, and comparisons of instream load to inputs, but may not be sufficiently accurate for local-scale evaluations of water quality. Estimates of the mean annual instream load of total nitrogen entering (Chattanooga, Tenn.) and leaving (Paducah, Ky.) the LTEN River Basin were 29,000 and 60,000 tons per year (tons/yr), respectively. These estimates represent a gain of 31,000 tons/yr, on average, across the area (18,930 mi2) between these inlet and outlet sites. The sum of the mean annual instream load from gaged tributaries to the main stem within the study unit was 14,000 tons/yr; however, this number cannot be directly compared with the gain between the inlet and outlet sites because (1) the gaged area represents only 30 percent of the total area and (2) the period of record at many tributary sites did not correspond with the period of record at the inlet or outlet sites.Estimates of mean annual instream load of

  6. A comparison of drainage basin nutrient inputs with instream nutrient loads for seven rivers in Georgia and Florida, 1986-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asbury, C.E.; Oaksford, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    Instream nutrient loads of the Altamaha, Suwannee, St. Johns, Satilla, Ogeechee, Withlacoochee, and Ochlockonee River Basins were computed and compared with nutrient inputs for each basin for the period 1986-90. Nutrient constituents that were considered included nitrate, ammonia, organic nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Sources of nutrients considered for this analysis included atmospheric deposition, fertilizer, animal waste, wastewater-treatment plant discharge, and septic discharge. The mean nitrogen input ranged from 2,400 kilograms per year per square kilometer (kg/yr)km2 in the Withlacoochee River Basin to 5,470 (kg/yr)km2 in the Altamaha River Basin. The Satilla and Ochlockonee River Basins also had large amounts of nitrogen input per unit area, totaling 5,430 and 4,920 (kg/yr)km2, respectively.Fertilizer or animal waste, as sources of nitrogen, predominated in all basins. Atmospheric deposition contributed less than one-fourth of the mean total nitrogen input to all basins and was consistently the third largest input in all but the Ogeechee River Basin, where it was the second largest.The mean total phosphorus input ranged from 331 (kg/yr)km2 in the Withlacoochee River Basin to 1,380 (kg/yr)km2 in both the Altamaha and Satilla River Basins. The Ochlockonee River Basin had a phosphorus input of 1,140 (kg/yr)km2.Per unit area, the Suwannee River discharged the highest instream mean total nitrogen and phosphorus loads and also discharged higher instream nitrate loads per unit area than the other six rivers. Phosphorus loads in stream discharge were highest in the Suwannee and Ochlockonee Rivers.The ratio of nutrient outputs to inputs for the seven studied rivers ranged from 4.2 to 14.9 percent, with the St. Johns (14.9 percent) and Suwannee (12.1 percent) Rivers having significantly higher percentages than those from the other basins. The output/input percentages for mean total phosphorus ranged from 1.0 to 7.0 percent, with the St. Johns (6.2 percent) and

  7. Modeling the effects of climate and land use change on instream temperature in the Upper Tar River, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daraio, J. A.; Bales, J. D.

    2011-12-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most imperiled groups of organisms in the world. Declines in abundance and diversity in North America have been attributed to a wide range of human activities, and many species occur in habitats close to their upper thermal tolerance. We are modeling instream temperature (T) as part of an effort to understand the response of imperiled freshwater mussels to anthropogenically induced changes in water T, habitat, and flow. We used the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to model projected changes in stream discharge, and the Stream Network Temperature Model (SNTEMP) to model changes in instream T due to climate and land-use change in the Upper Tar River, North Carolina, which has a drainage area of 2200 mi^2. Down-scaled gridded 12km Global Circulation Models were used for precipitation and T inputs to PRMS simulations from the present through 2060. Land-use change through 2060 in the Upper Tar basin was estimated from SLEUTH, a model that estimates land-use change using the probability of urbanization, (results available from NC State University) and incorporated into PRMS for long term simulations. Stream segment discharge and lateral and groundwater flow into each stream segment from PRMS were used as input for SNTEMP. Groundwater T was assumed equal to the average annual air T for the basin. Lateral inflow T was estimated from physical characteristics of the basin (e.g. impervious area, cover density, cover type, solar radiation, air T) when possible, or from a regression with air T based on empirical field data at 20 sites throughout the basin. In addition to T, data on mussel and fish populations (e.g., density and species composition?) and microhabitat have been collected at these sites. The SNTEMP model was calibrated using the mean daily T at each site. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency values ranged from 0.86 to 0.94 for mean daily T, and from 0.80 to 0.93 for maximum daily T. Ensemble simulations were run for a range of

  8. Effects of alternative instream-flow criteria and water-supply demands on ground-water development options in the Big River Area, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Barlow, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Transient numerical ground-water-flow simulation and optimization techniques were used to evaluate potential effects of instream-flow criteria and water-supply demands on ground-water development options and resultant streamflow depletions in the Big River Area, Rhode Island. The 35.7 square-mile (mi2) study area includes three river basins, the Big River Basin (30.9 mi2), the Carr River Basin (which drains to the Big River Basin and is 7.33 mi2 in area), the Mishnock River Basin (3.32 mi2), and a small area that drains directly to the Flat River Reservoir. The overall objective of the simulations was to determine the amount of ground water that could be withdrawn from the three basins when constrained by streamflow requirements at four locations in the study area and by maximum rates of withdrawal at 13 existing and hypothetical well sites. The instream-flow requirement for the outlet of each basin and the outfall of Lake Mishnock were the primary variables that limited the amount of ground water that could be withdrawn. A requirement to meet seasonal ground-water-demand patterns also limits the amount of ground water that could be withdrawn by up to about 50 percent of the total withdrawals without the demand-pattern constraint. Minimum water-supply demands from a public water supplier in the Mishnock River Basin, however, did not have a substantial effect on withdrawals in the Big River Basin. Hypothetical dry-period instream-flow requirements and the effects of artificial recharge also affected the amount of ground water that could be withdrawn. Results of simulations indicate that annual average ground-water withdrawal rates that range up to 16 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) can be withdrawn from the study area under simulated average hydrologic conditions depending on instream-flow criteria and water-supply demand patterns. Annual average withdrawals of 10 to 12 Mgal/d are possible for proposed demands of 3.4 Mgal/d in the Mishnock Basin, and for a constant

  9. Sediment transport and evaluation of sediment surrogate ratings in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, Water Years 2011–14

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Molly S.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-14

    Acoustic surrogate ratings were developed between backscatter data collected using acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) and results of suspended-sediment samples. Ratings were successfully fit to various sediment size classes (total, fines, and sands) using ADVMs of different frequencies (1.5 and 3 megahertz). Surrogate ratings also were developed using variations of streamflow and seasonal explanatory variables. The streamflow surrogate ratings produced average annual sediment load estimates that were 8–32 percent higher, depending on site and sediment type, than estimates produced using the acoustic surrogate ratings. The streamflow surrogate ratings tended to overestimate suspended-sediment concentrations and loads during periods of elevated releases from Libby Dam as well as on the falling limb of the streamflow hydrograph. Estimates from the acoustic surrogate ratings more closely matched suspended-sediment sample results than did estimates from the streamflow surrogate ratings during these periods as well as for rating validation samples collected in water year 2014. Acoustic surrogate technologies are an effective means to obtain continuous, accurate estimates of suspended-sediment concentrations and loads for general monitoring and sediment-transport modeling. In the Kootenai River, continued operation of the acoustic surrogate sites and use of the acoustic surrogate ratings to calculate continuous suspended-sediment concentrations and loads will allow for tracking changes in sediment transport over time.

  10. Characterization of water quality in selected tributaries of the Alamosa River, southwestern Colorado, including comparisons to instream water-quality standards and toxicological reference values, 1995-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ortiz, Roderick F.; Ferguson, Sheryl A.

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive water-quality sampling network was implemented by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1997 at 12 tributary sites to the Alamosa River. The network was designed to address data gaps identified in the initial ecological risk assessment of the Summitville Superfund site. Tributaries draining hydrothermally altered areas had higher median values for nearly all measured properties and constituents than tributaries draining unaltered areas. Colorado instream standards for pH, copper, iron, and zinc were in attainment at most tributary sites. Instream standards for pH and chronic aquatic-life standards for iron were not attained in Jasper Creek. Toxicological reference values were most often exceeded at Iron Creek, Alum Creek, Bitter Creek, Wightman Fork, and Burnt Creek. These tributaries all drain hydrothermally altered areas.

  11. Characterization of instream hydraulic and riparian habitat conditions and stream temperatures of the Upper White River Basin, Washington, using multispectral imaging systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, Robert W.; Haggland, Alan; Crosby, Greg

    2003-01-01

    Instream hydraulic and riparian habitat conditions and stream temperatures were characterized for selected stream segments in the Upper White River Basin, Washington. An aerial multispectral imaging system used digital cameras to photograph the stream segments across multiple wavelengths to characterize fish habitat and temperature conditions. All imageries were georeferenced. Fish habitat features were photographed at a resolution of 0.5 meter and temperature imageries were photographed at a 1.0-meter resolution. The digital multispectral imageries were classified using commercially available software. Aerial photographs were taken on September 21, 1999. Field habitat data were collected from August 23 to October 12, 1999, to evaluate the measurement accuracy and effectiveness of the multispectral imaging in determining the extent of the instream habitat variables. Fish habitat types assessed by this method were the abundance of instream hydraulic features such as pool and riffle habitats, turbulent and non-turbulent habitats, riparian composition, the abundance of large woody debris in the stream and riparian zone, and stream temperatures. Factors such as the abundance of instream woody debris, the location and frequency of pools, and stream temperatures generally are known to have a significant impact on salmon. Instream woody debris creates the habitat complexity necessary to maintain a diverse and healthy salmon population. The abundance of pools is indicative of a stream's ability to support fish and other aquatic organisms. Changes in water temperature can affect aquatic organisms by altering metabolic rates and oxygen requirements, altering their sensitivity to toxic materials and affecting their ability to avoid predators. The specific objectives of this project were to evaluate the use of an aerial multispectral imaging system to accurately identify instream hydraulic features and surface-water temperatures in the Upper White River Basin, to use the

  12. Effects of Harvest and Roads on In-stream Woody Material in Blue River Basin, Cascade Range, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnomski, N. M.; Dreher, D. M.; Jones, J. A.; Swanson, F. J.

    2003-12-01

    Despite many studies of large wood in streams, few landscape-scale studies have been conducted, and yet the history of forest harvest and road building might be expected to have left a signal on wood patterns in streams. This study examined this question at large (>50 km2) spatial and long (>25 year) temporal scales, based on longitudinal surveys of 25.2 km of stream length in five sub-basins of the Blue River Basin, Cascade Range, Oregon. Six sites, ranging from 1.6 km to 14.1 km in length, were surveyed along 2nd to 5th-order channels on public forest land. Wood volumes, numbers of pieces of large wood, numbers of accumulations and timing of emplacement were determined in the surveys. Survey data were matched with spatial data on harvest and road building practices using GIS. Study streams have undergone distributed patch clearcutting and road construction concentrated during the 1950s and 1960s. The proportions of surveyed stream lengths with harvest and road activities within 40 m was 66% (Cook Creek), 55% (Mack Creek), 53% (Lower Lookout), 37% (McRae Creek and Upper Lookout), and 7% (Quentin Creek). For all study locations combined, 50-m channel segments when there is no harvest or road influence had an average of 356 m3/ha, whereas harvested and roaded areas had from 80 to 157 m3/ha (Bonferroni adjusted p<0.03). Approximately 80% of the wood volume occurred in accumulations. The 5th-order channel (Lower Lookout) had significantly lower wood volumes (109 m3/ha) than all other locations (200-378 m3/ha, Bonferroni adjusted p < 0.05) and significantly lower numbers of large pieces (23 large pieces/ha) compared to all other locations (39 vs. 64 large pieces/ha) (Bonferroni adjusted p<0.008). Thus, the legacy of harvest and road activities conducted in the 1950s and 1960s was still apparent in in-stream wood patterns nearly 40 years later.

  13. The effect of in-stream activities on the Njoro River, Kenya. Part I: Stream flow and chemical water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yillia, Paul T.; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Mathooko, Jude M.

    For shallow streams in sub-Saharan Africa, in-stream activities could be described as the actions by people and livestock, which take place within or besides stream channels. This study examined the nature of in-stream activities along a rural stream in Kenya and established the inequality in water allocation for various livelihood needs, as well as the negative impact they have on dry weather stream flow and chemical water quality. Seven locations along the stream were studied in wet and dry weather of 2006. Enumeration consisted of making head counts of people and livestock and tallying visitors at hourly intervals from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. To estimate water abstraction, filled containers of known volume were counted and the stream was sampled to examine the impact on water quality. Water samples were obtained upstream and downstream of in-stream activities before (6 a.m.) and during (11 a.m., 6 p.m.) activities. Samples were analyzed for suspended solids, turbidity, BOD 5, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The daily total abstraction at the middle reaches during dry weather was 120-150 m 3 day -1. More than 60% of abstraction was done by water vendors. Vended water from the stream was sold at US 3.5-7.5 per m 3 and vendors earned between US 3-6 a day. Abstracted water contributed approximately 40-60% of the total daily consumptive water use in the riparian area during dry weather but >30% of the morning stream flow was abstracted thereby upsetting stream flow in the lower reaches. The daily total water abstraction correlated positively ( R2, 0.98) and significantly ( p < 0.05) with the daily total human visit, which was diurnally periodic with two peaks, occurring between 9 a.m. and 10 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. This diurnal pattern of visits and the corresponding in-stream activities affected water quality. In particular, suspended solids, turbidity and BOD 5 levels increased significantly ( p < 0.05) downstream during in-stream activities. It was concluded

  14. Characterization of channel substrate, and changes in suspended-sediment transport and channel geometry in white sturgeon spawning habitat in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, following the closure of Libby Dam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    Many local, State, and Federal agencies have concerns over the declining population of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River and the possible effects of the closure and subsequent operation of Libby Dam in 1972. In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon was listed as an Endangered Species. A year-long field study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 21.7-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, approximately 111 to 129 kilometers below Libby Dam. During the field study, data were collected in order to map the channel substrate in the white sturgeon spawning reach. These data include seismic subbottom profiles at 18 cross sections of the river and sediment cores taken at or near the seismic cross sections. The effect that Libby Dam has on the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning substrate was analyzed in terms of changes in suspended-sediment transport, aggradation and degradation of channel bed, and changes in the particle size of bed material with depth below the riverbed. The annual suspended-sediment load leaving the Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning reach decreased dramatically after the closure of Libby Dam in 1972: mean annual pre-Libby Dam load during 1966–71 was 1,743,900 metric tons, and the dam-era load during 1973–83 was 287,500 metric tons. The amount of sand-size particles in three suspended-sediment samples collected at Copeland, Idaho, 159 kilometers below Libby Dam, during spring and early summer high flows after the closure of Libby Dam is less than in four samples collected during the pre-Libby Dam era. The supply of sand to the spawning reach is currently less due to the reduction of high flows and a loss of 70 percent of the basin after the closure of Libby Dam. The river's reduced capacity to transport sand out of the spawning reach is compensated to an unknown extent by a reduced load of sand entering the

  15. Field testing and adaptation of a methodology to measure "in-stream" values in the Tongue River, northern Great Plains (NGP) region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Gore, James A.; Silverman, Arnold J.

    1978-01-01

    A comprehensive, multi-component in-stream flow methodology was developed and field tested in the Tongue River in southeastern Montana. The methodology incorporates a sensitivity for the flow requirements of a wide variety of in-stream uses, and the flexibility to adjust flows to accommodate seasonal and sub-seasonal changes in the flow requirements for different areas. In addition, the methodology provides the means to accurately determine the magnitude of the water requirement for each in-stream use. The methodology can be a powerful water management tool in that it provides the flexibility and accuracy necessary in water use negotiations and evaluation of trade-offs. In contrast to most traditional methodologies, in-stream flow requirements were determined by additive independent methodologies developed for: 1) fisheries, including spawning, rearing, and food production; 2) sediment transport; 3) the mitigation of adverse impacts of ice; and 4) evapotranspiration losses. Since each flow requirement varied in important throughout the year, the consideration of a single in-stream use as a basis for a flow recommendation is inadequate. The study shows that the base flow requirement for spawning shovelnose sturgeon was 13.0 m3/sec. During the same period of the year, the flow required to initiate the scour of sediment from pools is 18.0 m3/sec, with increased scour efficiency occurring at flows between 20.0 and 25.0 m3/sec. An over-winter flow of 2.83 m3/sec. would result in the loss of approximately 80% of the riffle areas to encroachment by surface ice. At the base flow for insect production, approximately 60% of the riffle area is lost to ice. Serious damage to the channel could be incurred from ice jams during the spring break-up period. A flow of 12.0 m3/sec. is recommended to alleviate this problem. Extensive ice jams would be expected at the base rearing and food production levels. The base rearing flow may be profoundly influenced by the loss of streamflow

  16. Trends in Streamflow Characteristics of Selected Sites in the Elkhorn River, Salt Creek, and Lower Platte River Basins, Eastern Nebraska, 1928-2004, and Evaluation of Streamflows in Relation to Instream-Flow Criteria, 1953-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Godberson, Julie A.; Steele, Gregory V.

    2009-01-01

    The Nebraska Department of Natural Resources approved instream-flow appropriations on the Platte River to maintain fish communities, whooping crane roost habitat, and wet meadows used by several wild bird species. In the lower Platte River region, the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission owns an appropriation filed to maintain streamflow for fish communities between the Platte River confluence with the Elkhorn River and the mouth of the Platte River. Because Elkhorn River flow is an integral part of the flow in the reach addressed by this appropriation, the Upper Elkhorn and Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources Districts are involved in overall management of anthropogenic effects on the availability of surface water for instream requirements. The Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM) and other estimation methodologies were used previously to determine instream requirements for Platte River biota, which led to the filing of five water appropriations applications with the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources in 1993 by the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission. One of these requested instream-flow appropriations of 3,700 cubic feet per second was for the reach from the Elkhorn River to the mouth of the Platte River. Four appropriations were granted with modifications in 1998, by the Nebraska Department of Natural Resources. Daily streamflow data for the periods of record were summarized for 17 streamflow-gaging stations in Nebraska to evaluate streamflow characteristics, including low-flow intervals for consecutive durations of 1, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 183 days. Temporal trends in selected streamflow statistics were not adjusted for variability in precipitation. Results indicated significant positive temporal trends in annual flow for the period of record at eight streamflow-gaging stations - Platte River near Duncan (06774000), Platte River at North Bend (06796000), Elkhorn River at Neligh (06798500), Logan Creek near Uehling (06799500), Maple Creek near Nickerson

  17. Monitoring instream turbidity to estimate continuous suspended-sediment loads and yields and clay-water volumes in the upper North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2003-01-01

    Three real-time, instream water-quality and turbidity-monitoring sites were established in October 1998 in the upper North Santiam River Basin on the North Santiam River, the Breitenbush River, and Blowout Creek, the main tributary inputs to Detroit Lake, a large, controlled reservoir that extends from river mile 61 to 70. Suspended-sediment samples were collected biweekly to monthly at each station. Rating curves provided estimated suspended-sediment concentration in 30-minute increments from log transformations of the instream turbidity monitoring data. Turbidity was found to be a better surrogate than discharge for estimating suspended-sediment concentration. Daily and annual mean suspended-sediment loads were estimated using the estimated suspended-sediment concentrations and corresponding streamflow data. A laboratory method for estimating persistent (residual) turbidity from separate turbidity samples was developed. Turbidity was measured over time for each sample. Turbidity decay curves were derived as the suspended sediment settled. Each curve was used to estimate a turbidity value for a given settling time. Medium to fine clay particle (< 0.002 mm [millimeter] diameter) settling times of 8.5 hours were computed using Stokes Law. An average of 30 persistent turbidity samples was collected from each of the 3 sites. These samples were used to estimate the 0.002-mm-size clay particle persistent turbidity for each site. The monitored instream 30-minute turbidity values were converted to a calculated persistent turbidity value that would have resulted after 8.5 hours of settling in the laboratory. Persistent turbidities of 10 NTU and above were tabulated for each site. (Water of 10 NTU and above can interfere with or damage treatment filters and result in intake closures at drinking-water facilities.) A method was developed that used the persistent turbidity experiments, turbidity decay curves, and stream discharge to estimate the volume of water containing

  18. Nutrient enrichment, phytoplankton algal growth, and estimated rates of instream metabolic processes in the Quinebaug River Basin, Connecticut, 2000-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colombo, Michael J.; Grady, Stephen J.; Todd Trench, Elaine C.

    2004-01-01

    productivity and respiration obtained from diel dissolved oxygen monitoring and from light- and dark-bottle dissolved oxygen measurements demonstrated that instream metabolic processes are consistent with a seston-algae dominant system. The highest estimated maximum primary productivity rate was 1.72 grams of oxygen per cubic meter per hour at the Quinebaug River at Jewett City during September 2001. The observed extremes in diel dissolved oxygen concentrations (less than 5 milligrams per liter) and pH (greater than 9) may periodically stress aquatic organisms in the Quinebaug River Basin.

  19. Estimating shallow groundwater availability in small catchments using streamflow recession and instream flow requirements of rivers in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Girma Y.; Villholth, Karen G.

    2016-10-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for multiple uses in South Africa. Hence, setting limits to its sustainable abstraction while assuring basic human needs is required. Due to prevalent data scarcity related to groundwater replenishment, which is the traditional basis for estimating groundwater availability, the present article presents a novel method for determining allocatable groundwater in quaternary (fourth-order) catchments through information on streamflow. Using established methodologies for assessing baseflow, recession flow, and instream ecological flow requirement, the methodology develops a combined stepwise methodology to determine annual available groundwater storage volume using linear reservoir theory, essentially linking low flows proportionally to upstream groundwater storages. The approach was trialled for twenty-one perennial and relatively undisturbed catchments with long-term and reliable streamflow records. Using the Desktop Reserve Model, instream flow requirements necessary to meet the present ecological state of the streams were determined, and baseflows in excess of these flows were converted into a conservative estimates of allocatable groundwater storages on an annual basis. Results show that groundwater development potential exists in fourteen of the catchments, with upper limits to allocatable groundwater volumes (including present uses) ranging from 0.02 to 3.54 × 106 m3 a-1 (0.10-11.83 mm a-1) per catchment. With a secured availability of these volume 75% of the years, variability between years is assumed to be manageable. A significant (R2 = 0.88) correlation between baseflow index and the drainage time scale for the catchments underscores the physical basis of the methodology and also enables the reduction of the procedure by one step, omitting recession flow analysis. The method serves as an important complementary tool for the assessment of the groundwater part of the Reserve and the Groundwater Resource Directed Measures in

  20. Relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate community structure and geospatial habitat, in-stream water chemistry, and surfactants in the effluent-dominated Trinity River, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Slye, Jaime L; Kennedy, James H; Johnson, David R; Atkinson, Sam F; Dyer, Scott D; Ciarlo, Michael; Stanton, Kathleen; Sanderson, Hans; Nielsen, Allen M; Price, Bradford B

    2011-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, benthic macroinvertebrate community structure studies have been conducted on the upper Trinity River, Texas, USA, which is dominated by municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and industrial effluents. The Trinity River is located in the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area, and is the most highly populated and industrialized watershed in Texas. As such, the Trinity River represents a near-worst-case scenario to examine the environmental effects of domestic-municipal and industrial effluents on aquatic life. A 1987 to 1988 study concluded that many stretches of the river supported a diverse benthic community structure; however, a decline in taxa richness occurred immediately downstream of WWTPs. A 2005 study designed to parallel the 1987 to 1988 efforts evaluated how changes in water quality, habitat, and increased urbanization impacted benthic community structure. Physicochemical measurements, habitat quality, geospatial variables, and benthic macroinvertebrates were collected from 10 sites. Surfactants were measured and toxic units (TUs) were calculated for surface water and pore water as indicators of domestic/household use of cleaning products. Total TUs indicated a low potential for biological impacts. Toxic unit distribution was not dependent on WWTP location and did not correlate with any benthic variable. Eight environmental parameters were determined to be useful for predicting changes in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure: surfactant surface water TUs (SWTU), in-stream habitat cover, and surface water total organic carbon were the top three parameters. Abundance, taxa richness, and taxa similarity in 2005 had increased since the earlier study throughout the immediate vicinity of the metropolitan area.

  1. Detection probability of an in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag detection system for juvenile salmonids in the Klamath River, northern California, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John W.; Hayes, Brian; Wright, Katrina

    2012-01-01

    A series of in-stream passive integrated transponder (PIT) detection antennas installed across the Klamath River in August 2010 were tested using tagged fish in the summer of 2011. Six pass-by antennas were constructed and anchored to the bottom of the Klamath River at a site between the Shasta and Scott Rivers. Two of the six antennas malfunctioned during the spring of 2011 and two pass-through antennas were installed near the opposite shoreline prior to system testing. The detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was evaluated using yearling coho salmon implanted with a PIT tag and a radio transmitter and then released into the Klamath River slightly downstream of Iron Gate Dam. Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture methods were used to estimate the detection probability of the PIT tag detection system based on detections of PIT tags there and detections of radio transmitters at radio-telemetry detection systems downstream. One of the 43 PIT- and radio-tagged fish released was detected by the PIT tag detection system and 23 were detected by the radio-telemetry detection systems. The estimated detection probability of the PIT tag detection system was 0.043 (standard error 0.042). Eight PIT-tagged fish from other studies also were detected. Detections at the PIT tag detection system were at the two pass-through antennas and the pass-by antenna adjacent to them. Above average river discharge likely was a factor in the low detection probability of the PIT tag detection system. High discharges dislodged two power cables leaving 12 meters of the river width unsampled for PIT detections and resulted in water depths greater than the read distance of the antennas, which allowed fish to pass over much of the system with little chance of being detected. Improvements in detection probability may be expected under river discharge conditions where water depth over the antennas is within maximum read distance of the antennas. Improvements also may be expected if

  2. IN-STREAM AND WATERSHED PREDICTORS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY, EFFECTIVE POPULATION SIZE AND IMMIGRATION ACROSS RIVER-STREAM NETWORKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of spatial processes on population dynamics within river-stream networks is poorly understood. Utilizing spatially explicit analyses of temporal genetic variance, we examined whether persistence of Central Stonerollers (Campostoma anomalum) reflects differences in h...

  3. Long-term effect of instream habitat-improvement structures on channel morphology along the Blackledge and Salmon rivers, Connecticut, USA.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Douglas M

    2002-02-01

    Habitat-improvement structures on the Blackledge and Salmon rivers date back to the 1930s and 1950s. Forty of these structures were investigated to determine their long-term impact on channel morphology. These structures include designs that continue to be used in modern restoration efforts. During the intervening period since these structures were introduced, several major floods have affected the two channels. The floods include three flows in excess of the 50-year event, including the flood of record, which has an estimated recurrence interval of almost 300 years. Despite the extreme flooding, many structures were discovered in varying conditions of operation. Grade-control structures and low-flow deflectors generally create some low-flow habitat (P = 0.815) but do not produce the depth of water predicted by design manuals (P < 0.0001). Unintended erosion has developed in response to many of the channel modifications especially along the outside of meanders. In addition, the mode of failure of grade-control structures has created localized channel widening with associated bank erosion. Meanwhile, cover structures have produced a 30% reduction in streamside vegetation with over 75% less overhead cover than unaltered reaches. Based on these results, it is important for prospective designers to carefully consider the long-term impacts of instream structures when developing future channel-restoration projects.

  4. Physical habitat classification and instream flow modeling to determine habitat availability during low-flow periods, North Fork Shenandoah River, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krstolic, Jennifer L.; Hayes, Donald C.; Ruhl, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing development and increasing water withdrawals for public, industrial, and agricultural water supply threaten to reduce streamflows in the Shenandoah River basin in Virginia. Water managers need more information to balance human water-supply needs with the daily streamflows necessary for maintaining the aquatic ecosystems. To meet the need for comprehensive information on hydrology, water supply, and instream-flow requirements of the Shenandoah River basin, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Northern Shenandoah Valley Regional Commission conducted a cooperative investigation of habitat availability during low-flow periods on the North Fork Shenandoah River. Historic streamflow data and empirical data on physical habitat, river hydraulics, fish community structure, and recreation were used to develop a physical habitat simulation model. Hydraulic measurements were made during low, medium, and high flows in six reaches at a total of 36 transects that included riffles, runs, and pools, and that had a variety of substrates and cover types. Habitat suitability criteria for fish were developed from detailed fish-community sampling and microhabitat observations. Fish were grouped into four guilds of species and life stages with similar habitat requirements. Simulated habitat was considered in the context of seasonal flow regimes to show the availability of flows that sustain suitable habitat during months when precipitation and streamflow are scarce. The North Fork Shenandoah River basin was divided into three management sections for analysis purposes: the upper section, middle section, and lower section. The months of July, August, and September were chosen to represent a low-flow period in the basin with low mean monthly flows, low precipitation, high temperatures, and high water withdrawals. Exceedance flows calculated from the combined data from these three months describe low-flow periods on the North Fork Shenandoah River. Long-term records from three

  5. FUTURE WATER ALLOCATION AND IN-STREAM VALUES IN THE WILLAMETTE RIVER BASIN: A BASIN-WIDE ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our research investigated the impact on surface water resources of three different scenarios for the future development of the Willamette River Basin in Oregon (USA). Water rights in the basin, and in the western United States in general, are based on a system of law that binds ...

  6. Implication of two in-stream processes in the fate of nutrients discharged by sewage system into a temporary river.

    PubMed

    David, Arthur; Perrin, Jean-Louis; Rosain, David; Rodier, Claire; Picot, Bernadette; Tournoud, Marie-George

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to better understand the fate of nutrients discharged by sewage treatment plants into an intermittent Mediterranean river, during a low-flow period. Many pollutants stored in the riverbed during the low-flow period can be transferred to the downstream environments during flood events. The study focused on two processes that affect the fate and the transport of nutrients, a physical process (retention in the riverbed sediments) and a biological process (denitrification). A spatial campaign was carried out during a low-flow period to characterize the nutrient contents of both water and sediments in the Vène River. The results showed high nutrient concentrations in the water column downstream of the treated wastewater disposal (up to 13,315 μg N/L for ammonium and 2,901 μg P/L for total phosphorus). Nutrient concentrations decreased rapidly downstream of the disposal whereas nutrient contents in the sediments increased (up to 1,898 and 784 μg/g for total phosphorus and Kjeldahl nitrogen, respectively). According to an in situ experiment using sediment boxes placed in the riverbed for 85 days, we estimated that the proportion of nutrients trapped in the sediments represents 25% (respectively 10%) of phosphorus (respectively nitrogen) loads lost from the water column. In parallel, laboratory tests indicated that denitrification occurred in the Vène River, and we estimated that denitrification likely coupled to nitrification processes during the 85 days of the experiment was significantly involved in the removal of nitrogen loads (up to 38%) from the water column and was greater than accumulation processes.

  7. Uncertainty and instream flow standards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castleberry, D.; Cech, J.; Erman, D.; Hankin, D.; Healey, M.; Kondolf, M.; Mengel, M.; Mohr, M.; Moyle, P.; Nielsen, Jennifer; Speed, T.; Williams, J.

    1996-01-01

    Several years ago, Science published an important essay (Ludwig et al. 1993) on the need to confront the scientific uncertainty associated with managing natural resources. The essay did not discuss instream flow standards explicitly, but its arguments apply. At an April 1995 workshop in Davis, California, all 12 participants agreed that currently no scientifically defensible method exists for defining the instream flows needed to protect particular species of fish or aquatic ecosystems (Williams, in press). We also agreed that acknowledging this fact is an essential step in dealing rationally and effectively with the problem.Practical necessity and the protection of fishery resources require that new instream flow standards be established and that existing standards be revised. However, if standards cannot be defined scientifically, how can this be done? We join others in recommending the approach of adaptive management. Applied to instream flow standards, this approach involves at least three elements.

  8. Effects of land-use patterns on in-stream nitrogen in a highly-polluted river basin in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Bu, Hongmei; Zhang, Yuan; Meng, Wei; Song, Xianfang

    2016-05-15

    This study investigated the effects of land-use patterns on nitrogen pollution in the Haicheng River basin in Northeast China during 2010 by conducting statistical and spatial analyses and by analyzing the isotopic composition of nitrate. Correlation and stepwise regressions indicated that land-use types and landscape metrics were correlated well with most river nitrogen variables and significantly predicted them during different sampling seasons. Built-up land use and shape metrics dominated in predicting nitrogen variables over seasons. According to the isotopic compositions of river nitrate in different zones, the nitrogen sources of the river principally originated from synthetic fertilizer, domestic sewage/manure, soil organic matter, and atmospheric deposition. Isotope mixing models indicated that source contributions of river nitrogen significantly varied from forested headwaters to densely populated towns of the river basin. Domestic sewage/manure was a major contributor to river nitrogen with the proportions of 76.4 ± 6.0% and 62.8 ± 2.1% in residence and farmland-residence zones, respectively. This research suggested that regulating built-up land uses and reducing discharges of domestic sewage and industrial wastewater would be effective methods for river nitrogen control.

  9. What makes an instream organism (hydrologically) happy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, S. N.

    2009-04-01

    The last decade has demonstrated the importance of landscape-scale appreciation of hydrological processes for the structure and function of instream aquatic communities. Demonstration of the critical ways in which water connects processes operating in the wider landscape, through both river floodplains and the hyporheic zone, to the stream; as well as interactions within the stream between physical, chemical and biological processes; all emphasise the importance of hydrological investigation for instream ecology. However, here I will argue that whilst this opens up a range of new opportunities for hydrological investigation, I will argue that the classical approach pursued by hydrologists to this problem needs a radical reformulation. All too often, the hydrologist, informed by an army of laboratory- and field-based studies, grounds their analysis in a process cascade where the starting point is a series of physical processes associated with the water environment and the end point is some sort of assumed ecological impact, possibly involving some kind of analysis of feedbacks and interactions. The system can be broken down into its constituent parts and then rebuilt, either through careful field/laboratory experimental design, or through assembling process relationships, to create a mathematical model. The holistic response of the system is understood through an implicitly reductionist analysis. In research terms, the approach becomes self-sustaining: the exposure of conceptual/mathematical models to scrutiny by field data encourages us to look for more complex model formulations; these more complex formulations require new forms of field data and their assimilation into our models. Using a series of projects concerned with aiming to improve and to restore aquatic communities, I will argue that this way of working has more to do with what hydrologists perceive matters to hydrology than it does the hydrological needs of instream communities. The implication is that

  10. Relations among floodplain water levels, instream dissolved-oxygen conditions, and streamflow in the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, Jerad D.; Walters, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    The lower Roanoke River corridor in North Carolina contains a floodplain of national significance. Data from a network of 1 streamflow-measurement site, 13 river-stage sites, 13 floodplain water-level sites located along 4 transects, and 5 in situ water-quality monitoring sites were used to characterize temporal and spatial variations of floodplain and river water levels during 1997-2000 and to describe dissolved-oxygen conditions in the lower Roanoke River for the period 1998-2001. Major differences in the relation of floodplain inundation to flow occurred both among sites at a given transect and among transects. Several floodplain sites were inundated for the full range of flow conditions measured during the study. These included one site on the Big Swash transect (at about river kilometer 119); one site on the Broadneck Swamp transect (river kilometer 97), which was inundated 91 percent of the time during the study; one site on the Devils Gut transect (river kilometer 44), which was inundated throughout the study; and three sites on the Cow Swamp transect (near river kilometer 10). The relation of floodplain inundation depth to Roanoke River flow was highly variable among sites. There was no relation between flow and inundation depth at one of the Big Swash sites or at any of the four Cow Swamp sites. At two of the Big Swash transect sites, there was some relation between inundation depth and 10-day mean flow for flows greater than 700 cubic meters per second. A relatively strong relation between inundation depth and 10-day mean flow occurred at two of the Broadneck Swamp sites and, to a lesser degree, at two of the Devils Gut transect sites. There was much greater interannual variability in floodplain water levels, as represented by the difference between the maximum and minimum daily water level for a given calendar date during January-May and September-October than during the summer and late fall months. If data from this study are representative of long

  11. Instream wood as a driver of nutrient attenuation in a lowland sandy stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaar, Megan; Shelley, Felicity; Blaen, Phil; Dapelo, Davide; Trimmer, Mark; Bridgeman, John; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Our poster outlines our research to assess the potential of instream wood to enhance nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) attenuating potential in UK lowland rivers. Using cutting-edge distributed temperature sensing, geophysical technologies, novel microbial metabolic activity tracers and 15N isotope tracer applications, we are able to identify how instream wood alters hyporheic exchange fluxes and residence times which control the development and occurrence of biogeochemical hotspots, which facilitate nitrogen removal. Initial results show that instream wood increases surface water downwelling into the hyporheic, creating increased hyporheic mixing. Metabolic tracer, nutrient and modelling data reveal a correlation between these hyporheic exchange flow locations and increased denitrification hotspots. This data in conjunction with ongoing experimentation suggests that instream wood could be used in river basin management and river restoration efforts to improve water quality and hydromorphic integrity within lowland sandy streams. Ongoing work seeks to quantify the efficiency of alternative (stationary and transient) wood designs for controlled alteration and management of hyporheic exchange fluxes and residence times and nutrient turnover in the streambed. Outputs from this project will provide a quantitative understanding of the optimal design and efficiency of instream wood structures for removing excess nitrate from streambed sediments of nutrient impacted lowland rivers. This information will directly impact UK and European river restoration policies and inform decisions of whether wood restoration in UK lowland rivers should be promoted on a national level and how the most efficient strategies should be designed.

  12. Modelling in-stream temperature and dissolved oxygen at sub-daily time steps: an application to the River Kennet, UK.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard J; Boorman, David B

    2012-04-15

    The River Kennet in southern England shows a clear diurnal signal in both water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations through the summer months. The water quality model QUESTOR was applied in a stepwise manner (adding modelled processes or additional data) to simulate the flow, water temperature and dissolved oxygen concentrations along a 14 km reach. The aim of the stepwise model building was to find the simplest process-based model which simulated the observed behaviour accurately. The upstream boundary used was a diurnal signal of hourly measurements of water temperature and dissolved oxygen. In the initial simulations, the amplitude of the signal quickly reduced to zero as it was routed through the model; a behaviour not seen in the observed data. In order to keep the correct timing and amplitude of water temperature a heating term had to be introduced into the model. For dissolved oxygen, primary production from macrophytes was introduced to better simulate the oxygen pattern. Following the modifications an excellent simulation of both water temperature and dissolved oxygen was possible at an hourly resolution. It is interesting to note that it was not necessary to include nutrient limitation to the primary production model. The resulting model is not sufficiently proven to support river management but suggests that the approach has some validity and merits further development.

  13. Assessment of Instream Restoration in the Cache River, Illinois: Macroinvertebrate Community Structure on Rock Weirs Compared to Snag and Streambed Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, D. A.; Whiles, M. R.

    2005-05-01

    Rock weirs were constructed in a degraded section of the Cache River in southern Illinois in 2001 and 2003 to prevent channel incision and protect riparian wetlands. We sampled macroinvertebrates in two older weirs and in two sites downstream of the restored section in April 2003, October 2003, and April 2004 to evaluate differences in community structure between weir, snag, and streambed (scoured clay) habitats. Three recently constructed weirs were also sampled in April 2004. Functional composition differed among sample dates and habitats. Although collector-gatherers consistently dominated streambed habitats, functional composition on weirs and snags was more variable. Filterer and predator biomass was generally higher on weirs, and snags harbored the only shredders collected in the system (Pycnopsyche spp.). Weirs generally supported higher biomass of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera than other habitats. For example, mean EPT biomass on weirs in 2003 (April=187 mgAFDM/m2; October=899 mgAFDM/m2) was 4 to 10-fold higher than EPT biomass in snag or streambed habitats. Late instar Pycnopsyche contributed 41% of snag biomass in April 2004, resulting in EPT biomass similar to rock weirs. Results indicate rock weirs provide suitable stable substrate for macroinvertebrates and may enhance populations of sensitive EPT taxa in degraded systems.

  14. Development and use of in-stream PIT-tag detection systems to assess movement behavior of fish in tributaries of the Columbia River Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connolly, P.J.; Jezorek, I.G.; Prentice, E.F.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed detector systems for fish implanted with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags to assess their movement behavior and habitat use within fast flowing streams. Fish tested have primarily been wild anadromous and resident forms of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and cutthroat trout O. clarki. Longitudinal arrangements of two- and six-antennas allow determination of direction of movement and efficiency of detection. Our first detector system became operational in August 2001, with subsequent improvements over time. In tests with a two-antenna system, detection efficiency of tagged, downstreammoving fish was high (96%) during low flows, but less (69%) during high flows. With an increase in the number of antennas to six, arranged in a 2x3 array, the detection efficiency of downstream-moving fish was increased to 95-100% at all flows. Detection efficiency of upstream-moving fish was high (95-100%) in both the two-and six-antenna system during all flows. Antennas were anchored to the substrate and largely spanned the bank-full width. Modifications to the methods used to anchor antennas have increased the likelihood of the system remaining intact and running at full detection capability during challenging flow and debris conditions, largely achieving our goal to have continuous monitoring of fish movement throughout an annual cycle. In August 2004, we placed a similar detector system in another watershed. Success has much relied on the quality of transceivers and electrical power. Detection of tagged fish passing our static PIT-tag detectors has produced valuable information on how selected fish species use the network of streams in a watershed. Integrating information from our detectors in tributary streams with that from detectors downstream at dams in the Columbia River has promise to be a powerful tool for monitoring movement patterns of anadromous fish species and to understanding full lifecycle fish behavior and habitat use.

  15. In-stream hydrokinetic power: Review and appraisal

    DOE PAGES

    Van Zwieten, J.; McAnally, William; Ahmad, Jameel; ...

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a review of in-stream hydrokinetic power, which is defined as electric power generated by devices capturing the energy of naturally flowing water-stream, tidal, or open ocean flows-without impounding the water. North America has significant in-stream energy resources, and hydrokinetic electric power technologies to harness those resources have the potential to make a significant contribution to U.S. electricity needs by adding as much as 120 TWh/year from rivers alone to the present hydroelectric power generation capacity. Additionally, tidal and ocean current resources in the U.S. respectively contain 438 TWh/year and 163 TWh/year ofmore » extractable power. Among their attractive features, in-stream hydrokinetic operations do not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions or other air pollution and have less visual impact than wind turbines. Since these systems do no utilize dams the way traditional hydropower systems typically do, their impact on the environment will differ, and a small but growing number of studies support conclusions regarding those impacts. Furthermore, potential environmental impacts include altered water quality, altered sediment deposition, altered habitats, direct impact on biota, and navigability of waterways.« less

  16. In-stream hydrokinetic power: Review and appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Van Zwieten, J.; McAnally, William; Ahmad, Jameel; Davis, Trey; Martin, James; Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Cribbs, Allison; Lippert, Renee; Hudon, Thomas; Trudeau, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a review of in-stream hydrokinetic power, which is defined as electric power generated by devices capturing the energy of naturally flowing water-stream, tidal, or open ocean flows-without impounding the water. North America has significant in-stream energy resources, and hydrokinetic electric power technologies to harness those resources have the potential to make a significant contribution to U.S. electricity needs by adding as much as 120 TWh/year from rivers alone to the present hydroelectric power generation capacity. Additionally, tidal and ocean current resources in the U.S. respectively contain 438 TWh/year and 163 TWh/year of extractable power. Among their attractive features, in-stream hydrokinetic operations do not contribute to greenhouse gas emissions or other air pollution and have less visual impact than wind turbines. Since these systems do no utilize dams the way traditional hydropower systems typically do, their impact on the environment will differ, and a small but growing number of studies support conclusions regarding those impacts. Furthermore, potential environmental impacts include altered water quality, altered sediment deposition, altered habitats, direct impact on biota, and navigability of waterways.

  17. Plankton and benthic instream-flow criteria, strategy, and habitat delination in acid-containing waters. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, E.C. Jr.; Werner, D.K.; Gerber, R.B.; Becker, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    Eight homogenous river segments were identified, through cluster analysis, in the upper Monongahela River Basin viz, Cheat Lake, Tygart Lake, an acid drainage segment of the middle Cheat, the lower Monongahela (to Pt. Marion, Pa), the upper Monongahela, the upper Cheat, the lower Blackwater River, and the Westfork River (south to Clarksburg, WV). Regression analyses of data from within these segments indicated that instream flow was highly associated with Total Algal Biomass in several of the segments. Regression analyses also showed that instream flow had very little association with the Algal General Distribution.

  18. Valuing instream-related services of wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the southwestern US water resources are increasingly scarce, leaving perennial habitats and associated environmental amenities vulnerable to off-channel water demands. To provide management insight, the value of two instream flow related ecosystem services are estimated for tw...

  19. Instream flow assessment and economic valuation: a survey of nonmarket benefits research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Instream flow benefits for United States streams and rivers have recently been investigated by a number of resource economists. These valuation efforts differ in scope, method, and quantitative results. An assessment and review of these valuation efforts is presented. The various sources of differences in non‐market values produced by these studies are explored in some detail. The considerable difficulty of producing estimates of instream flow benefits values that consider all of the pertinent policy and technical issues is delineated in various policy contexts. Evidence is presented that indicates that the considerable policy impact of recent research on this topic is justified despite considerable variation in the magnitude of the estimates.

  20. Instream Flow Incremental Methodology: A Synopsis with Recommendations for Use and Suggestions for Future Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Thompson, K. E. 1972. Determining streamflows for fish life, in Proceedings Instream Flow Requirement Workshop, Pacific N.W. River Basins Comm., Portland...38 2 LIST OF TABLES fo... 1 Hydrologic Summaries for Select Streams Presented in Figures i and 2 Ordered by Basin Size...control, navigation, and other benefits. Streams and rivers of many regions of the United S-ates are viewed as a preferred source of water supply to

  1. In-stream Escherichia coli Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Soupir, M.

    2013-12-01

    Elevated levels of pathogenic bacteria indicators such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) in streams are a serious concern. Controlling E. coli levels in streams requires improving our existing understanding of fate and transport of E. coli at watershed scale. In-stream E. coli concentrations are potentially linked to non-point pollution sources (i.e., agricultural land). Water of a natural stream can receive E. coli by either through overland flow (via runoff from cropland) or resuspension from the streambed to the water column. Calculating in-stream total E. coli loads requires estimation of particle attached bacteria as well free floating E. coli transport. Currently water quality models commonly used for predicting E. coli levels in stream water have limited capability for predicting E. coli levels in the water column as well as in the streambed sediment. The challenges in calculating in-stream E. coli levels include difficulties in modeling the complex interactions between sediment particles and E. coli. Here we have developed a watershed scale model (integrated with Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)), which involves calculation of particle attached E. coli, to predict in-stream E. coli concentrations. The proposed model predicts E. coli levels in streambed bed sediment as well as in the water column. An extensive in-stream E. coli monitoring was carried out to verify the model predictions, and results indicate that the model performed well. The study proposed here will improve understanding on in-stream bacterial contamination, and help improving existing water quality models for predicting pathogenic bacteria levels in ambient water bodies.

  2. Lower Three Runs Instream Flow Study

    SciTech Connect

    del Carmen, B.R.; Paller, M.H.

    1993-12-31

    An Instream Flow Study was conducted to identify the minimum discharge from PAR Pond that will support a balanced biological fish community in Lower Three Runs. Hydraulic and habitat models of the Physical Habitat simulation System (PHABSIM), the major component of the US Fish and Wildlife Service`s Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) were applied. Following calibration of the Water Surface Profile (WSP)Model for three study reaches, hydraulic data was input to the AVDEPTH habitat model to develop relationships between discharge and reaches, hydraulic data was input to the AVDEPTH habitat model to development relationship between discharge and available habitat.

  3. Quantifying in-stream retention of nitrate at catchment scales using a practical mass balance approach.

    PubMed

    Schwientek, Marc; Selle, Benny

    2016-02-01

    As field data on in-stream nitrate retention is scarce at catchment scales, this study aimed at quantifying net retention of nitrate within the entire river network of a fourth-order stream. For this purpose, a practical mass balance approach combined with a Lagrangian sampling scheme was applied and seasonally repeated to estimate daily in-stream net retention of nitrate for a 17.4 km long, agriculturally influenced, segment of the Steinlach River in southwestern Germany. This river segment represents approximately 70% of the length of the main stem and about 32% of the streambed area of the entire river network. Sampling days in spring and summer were biogeochemically more active than in autumn and winter. Results obtained for the main stem of Steinlach River were subsequently extrapolated to the stream network in the catchment. It was demonstrated that, for baseflow conditions in spring and summer, in-stream nitrate retention could sum up to a relevant term of the catchment's nitrogen balance if the entire stream network was considered.

  4. Development of a spatially-distributed hydroecological model to simulate cottonwood seedling recruitment along rivers.

    PubMed

    Benjankar, Rohan; Burke, Michael; Yager, Elowyn; Tonina, Daniele; Egger, Gregory; Rood, Stewart B; Merz, Norm

    2014-12-01

    Dam operations have altered flood and flow patterns and prevented successful cottonwood seedling recruitment along many rivers. To guide reservoir flow releases to meet cottonwood recruitment needs, we developed a spatially-distributed, GIS-based model that analyzes the hydrophysical requirements for cottonwood recruitment. These requirements are indicated by five physical parameters: (1) annual peak flow timing relative to the interval of seed dispersal, (2) shear stress, which characterizes disturbance, (3) local stage recession after seedling recruitment, (4) recruitment elevation above base flow stage, and (5) duration of winter flooding, which may contribute to seedling mortality. The model categorizes the potential for cottonwood recruitment in four classes and attributes a suitability value at each individual spatial location. The model accuracy was estimated with an error matrix analysis by comparing simulated and field-observed recruitment success. The overall accuracies of this Spatially-Distributed Cottonwood Recruitment model were 47% for a braided reach and 68% for a meander reach along the Kootenai River in Idaho, USA. Model accuracies increased to 64% and 72%, respectively, when fewer favorability classes were considered. The model predicted areas of similarly favorable recruitment potential for 1997 and 2006, two recent years with successful cottonwood recruitment. This model should provide a useful tool to quantify impacts of human activities and climatic variability on cottonwood recruitment, and to prescribe instream flow regimes for the conservation and restoration of riparian woodlands.

  5. Assessing Success of Instream Structures for Salmonid Stream Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteway, S.; Biron, P.

    2009-05-01

    Stream restoration is a billion dollar industry in North America; despite this expenditure there remain questions regarding the effectiveness of current techniques such as the installation of instream structures. Assessing the effect that such structures have on physical habitat and on salmonid density are key ways of determining project success. The objectives of this research were to assess the impact of instream structures on physical habitat in the Nicolet River (Quebec) and to analyze physical habitat and fish density data from many stream restoration projects in North America. Results of intensive surveys of the Nicolet River show that the installation of weirs and deflectors results in a greater frequency of pools. These pools have significantly greater depths, lower velocities, larger sediment size and higher percent cover than those without structures. Meta analysis of data from 187 stream restoration projects in North America also show significant increases in percent pool area, average depth, and percent cover as well as decreases in channel width following the installation of structures. The physical changes observed in the Nicolet River resulted in improved trout habitat, as measured by applying habitat preference curves, but uneven stocking practices and fishing pressure confounded attempts to verify differences in trout density based on presence or absence of structures. The meta analysis, however, shows significant increases in salmonid density, measured as fish/m2, following the installation of structures. On average, density increased by 161%. Different structure types result in significantly different changes in physical habitat, with weir structures providing the largest density increase. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the combination of change in relative pool area and in width is the best predictor of change in salmonid density (r2=0.511). Instream structures are significantly more successful at increasing brook trout density

  6. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects: 1998 Habitat Evaluation Surveys.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    1999-03-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from the various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories, (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were, (a) create more pools, (b) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (c) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (d) increase fencing to limit livestock access; additionally, the actions are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, and protect private property. Fish species of main concern in Asotin Creek are summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), spring chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). Spring chinook in Asotin Creek are considered extinct (Bumgarner et al. 1998); bull trout and summer steelhead are below historical levels and are currently as ''threatened'' under the ESA. In 1998, 16 instream habitat projects were planned by ACCD along with local landowners. The ACCD identified the need for a more detailed analysis of these instream projects to fully evaluate their effectiveness at improving fish habitat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife's (WDFW) Snake River Lab (SRL) was contracted by the ACCD to take pre-construction measurements of the existing habitat (pools, LOD, width, depth, etc.) within each identified site, and to eventually evaluate fish use within these sites. All pre-construction habitat measurements were completed between 6 and 14 July, 1998. 1998 was the first year that this sort of evaluation has occurred. Post construction measurements of habitat structures installed in 1998, and fish usage evaluation, will be

  7. Development and testing of an in-stream phosphorus cycling model for the Soil and Water Assessment Tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is widely used to predict the fate and transport of phosphorus (P) from the landscape through streams and rivers. However, the current instream P model may not be suitable for many stream systems, particularly those dominated by attached algae and impacted ...

  8. The role of sediment-transport evaluations for development of modeled instream flows: policy and approach in Texas.

    PubMed

    Heitmuller, Franklin T; Raphelt, Nolan

    2012-07-15

    Instream-flow scientists embrace streamflow as the master variable driving aquatic and riparian ecosystems, and that natural flow variability is imperative for river conservation and restoration efforts. Sediment transport, which is critical for maintenance of physical habitats in rivers and floodplains, has received less direct attention from instream-flow practitioners. This article serves to highlight the roles of sediment-transport evaluations in modifying or verifying instream-flow prescriptions based on hydrology alone. Two examples of sediment-transport evaluations are discussed in relation to the Texas Senate Bill 3 Environmental Flows allocation process, a mandate to "develop environmental flow analyses and a recommended flow regime" that "maintain(s) the viability of the state's streams, rivers, and bay and estuary systems" using "reasonably available science". The first example provides an evaluation of effective discharge of suspended-sediment load of the lower Brazos River. The magnitude and frequency of effective discharge occurs between typical high-flow pulses and overbank flows, indicating that hydrologic and physical processes are not optimally coupled in some flow-regime models. The second example utilizes the Hydrology-Based Environmental Flow Regime (HEFR) model to prescribe instream flows for the lower Sabine River, and compares modeled bed-material loads for observed and HEFR-prescribed flow regimes. Results indicate that annual water and sediment yields are greatly reduced for the modeled flow regime. It should be noted, however, that different input variables to the HEFR model would have resulted in different computations of water and sediment yields, reinforcing that instream-flow practitioners should exercise great caution when applying rule-of-thumb procedures to generate flow prescriptions.

  9. In-stream bioreactor for agricultural nitrate treatment.

    PubMed

    Robertson, W D; Merkley, L C

    2009-01-01

    Nitrate from agricultural activity contributes to nutrient loading in surface water bodies such as the Mississippi River. This study demonstrates a novel in-stream bioreactor that uses carbonaceous solids (woodchips) to promote denitrification of agricultural drainage. The reactor (40 m3) was trenched into the bottom of an existing agricultural drainage ditch in southern Ontario (Avon site), and flow was induced through the reactor by construction of a gravel riffle in the streambed. Over the first 1.5 yr of operation, mean influent NO3-N of 4.8 mg L(-1) was attenuated to 1.04 mg L(-1) at a mean reactor flow rate of 24 L min(-1). A series of flow-step tests, facilitated by an adjustable height outlet pipe, demonstrated that nitrate mass removal generally increased with increasing flow rate. When removal rates were not nitrate-limited, areal mass removal ranged from 11 mg N m(-2) h(-1) at 3 degrees C to 220 mg N m(-2) h(-1) at 14 degrees C (n = 27), exceeding rates reported for some surface-flow constructed wetlands in this climatic region by a factor of about 40. Over the course of the field trial, reactor flow rates decreased as a result of silt accumulation on top of the gravel infiltration gallery. Design modifications are currently being implemented to mitigate the effects of siltation. In-stream reactors have the potential to be scaled larger and could be more manageable than attempting to address nitrate loading from individual tile drains. They could also work well in combination with other nitrate control techniques.

  10. Improving the assessment of instream flow needs for fish populations

    SciTech Connect

    Sale, M.J. ); Otto, R.G. and Associates, Arlington, VA )

    1991-01-01

    Instream flow requirements are one of the most frequent and most costly environmental issues that must be addressed in developing hydroelectric projects. Existing assessment methods for determining instream flow requirements have been criticized for not including all the biological response mechanisms that regulate fishery resources. A new project has been initiated to study the biological responses of fish populations to altered stream flows and to develop improved ways of managing instream flows. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Irrigation-dependent wetlands versus instream flow enhancement: economics of water transfers from agriculture to wildlife uses.

    PubMed

    Peck, Dannele E; McLeod, Doanald M; Hewlett, John P; Lovvorn, James R

    2004-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture throughout western North America faces increasing pressure to transfer water to nonagricultural uses, including instream flows for fish and wildlife management. In an important case, increased instream flows are needed in Nebraska's Platte River for recovery of threatened and endangered fish and wildlife species. Irrigated agriculture in the Laramie Basin of southeast Wyoming is a potential water source for the effort to enhance instream flow. However, flood irrigation of hayfields in the Laramie Basin has created many wetlands, both ephemeral and permanent, over the last century. Attempting to increase Platte River instream flows by purchasing water rights or improving irrigation efficiency in the Laramie Basin would transform irrigated agriculture, causing a substantial fraction of the Laramie Basin's wetlands to be lost. A creative solution is needed to prevent the sacrifice of one ecosystem on behalf of another. A rotating short-term water-leasing program is proposed. The program allows Laramie Basin producers to contribute to instream flows while continuing to support local wetlands. Permanent wetland desiccation is prevented and regional environmental water needs are met without impairing local ecological resources. Budget analysis is used to provide an initial cost estimate for acquiring water from agriculture through the short-term leasing program. The proposed approach is more expensive than traditional programs but allows contribution to instream flows without major wetland loss. Short-term leasing is a more efficient approach if benefits from wetlands exceed the difference in cost between the short-term lease program and programs that do not conserve wetlands.

  12. In-stream metabolism and atmospheric carbon sequestration in a groundwater-fed karst stream.

    PubMed

    Pu, Junbing; Li, Jianhong; Khadka, Mitra B; Martin, Jonathan B; Zhang, Tao; Yu, Shi; Yuan, Daoxian

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric carbon sequestered in karst systems through dissolution of carbonate minerals is considered to have no net effect on long-term regional and global carbon budgets because precipitation of dissolved carbonate minerals emits CO2 back to the atmosphere. Even though recent studies have implied that rapid kinetics of carbonate dissolution coupled with the aquatic photosynthetic uptake of dissolve inorganic carbon (DIC) could facilitate a stable atmospheric C sink in karst rivers and streams, little is known about the magnitudes and long-term stability of this C sink. To assess in-stream biogeochemical processes and their role on stream C cycling, we measured diel cycles of water characteristics and chemical composition (temperature, pH, DO, SpC, DIC, Ca(2+), δ(13)CDIC) in a groundwater-fed karst stream in southwest China. Our results show no diel variations at the groundwater discharge point (CK site) due to the absence of a sub-aquatic community (SAC). However, all hydrochemical parameters show significant diel cycle 1.3km downstream (LY site). Diel variations in pH, DO, and δ(13)CDIC were inversely related to diel changes in SpC, DIC, Ca(2+) and pCO2. This result indicates that in-stream metabolism (photosynthesis and respiration) of SAC controls diel variations in stream water chemistry. Significant diel cycles of net ecosystem production (NEP) influences in-stream diel fluctuation of pH, DO, SIc, DIC, pCO2, Ca(2+) and δ(13)CDIC, with gross primary production (GPP) dominating in day and ecosystem respiration (ER) dominating at the night. Absence of in-stream metabolism at CK enhances CO2 degassing from stream to the atmosphere, which is estimated to be 3-5 times higher than at LY. We estimate the carbon sink through in-stream metabolism of SAC to be 73tCkm(-2)a(-1), which is around half the rate of the oceanic biological pump. These results imply in-stream photosynthesis sequesters DIC originating from karst weathering and controls CO2 evasion.

  13. Spatial Dynamic Optimization of Groundwater Use with Ecological Standards for Instream Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozovic, N.; Han, J.; Speir, C.

    2011-12-01

    Instream flow requirements for protected species in arid and semi-arid regions have created the need to reduce groundwater use adjacent to streams. We present an integrated hydrologic-economic model that optimizes agricultural groundwater use next to streams with flow standards. Policies to meet instream flow standards should aim to minimize the welfare losses to irrigated agriculture due to reduced pumping. Previous economic studies have proposed spatially targeted water allocations between groundwater irrigators and instream demands. However, these studies focused on meeting aggregate instream flow goals on a seasonal or yearly basis rather than meeting them on a continuous basis. Temporally aggregated goals ignore important intra-seasonal hydrologic effects and may not provide sufficient habitat quality for species of concern. We present an optimization model that solves for groundwater pumping allocations across space in a stream-aquifer system with instream flow goals that must be met on a daily basis. We combine an analytical model of stream depletion with a farm profit maximization model that includes cumulative crop yield damages from water stress. The objective is the minimization of agricultural losses from reduced groundwater use while minimum instream flow requirements for ecological needs are met on a daily basis. As a case study, we apply our model to the Scott River Basin in northern California. This is a region where stream depletion resulting from extensive irrigation has degraded habitat for Coho salmon, a species protected under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Our results indicate the importance of considering the lag between the time at which pumping occurs and the time at which stream depletion related to that pumping occurs. In general, we find that wells located farther from the stream should be allocated more water in most hydrologic scenarios. However, we also find that the spatial and temporal distribution of optimal groundwater pumping

  14. Determining the minimum instream flow for hydro peaking projects

    SciTech Connect

    Milhous, R.T. )

    1992-10-01

    A new analytical technique is available for quantifying and predicting the effect that a proposed hydro peaking operation, or a change in an existing project's operation, will have on physical habitat for aquatic populations downstream of the project. The technique, known as the dual flow analysis, is based on elements of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM). PHABSIM is used to calculate the physical habitat for aquatic organisms in a stream. The assumption behind the development of this technique is that if the effects of a proposed project on physical habitat are known, one can better understand the effects on aquatic organisms. Thus, a defensible selection of an instream flow requirement can be made. The technique was developed as a result of a joint study by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. at the 26.4-MW Bennetts Bridge and the 7.8-MW Lighthouse Hill developments on the Salmon river in upstate New York.

  15. Towards benchmarking an in-stream water quality model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boorman, D. B.

    2007-01-01

    A method of model evaluation is presented which utilises a comparison with a benchmark model. The proposed benchmarking concept is one that can be applied to many hydrological models but, in this instance, is implemented in the context of an in-stream water quality model. The benchmark model is defined in such a way that it is easily implemented within the framework of the test model, i.e. the approach relies on two applications of the same model code rather than the application of two separate model codes. This is illustrated using two case studies from the UK, the Rivers Aire and Ouse, with the objective of simulating a water quality classification, general quality assessment (GQA), which is based on dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Comparisons between the benchmark and test models are made based on GQA, as well as a step-wise assessment against the components required in its derivation. The benchmarking process yields a great deal of important information about the performance of the test model and raises issues about a priori definition of the assessment criteria.

  16. Determining the minimum instream flow for hydro peaking projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, Robert T.

    1992-01-01

    A new analytical technique is available for quantifying and predicting the effect that a proposed hydro peaking operation, or a change in an existing project's operation, will have on physical habitat for aquatic populations downstream of the project. The technique, known as the dual flow analysis, is based on elements of the US Fish and Wildlife Service's Physical Habitat Simulation System (PHABSIM). PHABSIM is used to calculate the physical habitat for aquatic organisms in a stream. The assumption behind the development of this technique is that if the effects of a proposed project on physical habitat are known, one can better understand the effects on aquatic organisms. Thus, a defensible selection of an instream flow requirement can be made. The technique was developed as a result of a joint study by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. at the 26.4-MW Bennetts Bridge and the 7.8-MW Lighthouse Hill developments on the Salmon river in upstate New York.

  17. BPA Instream Habitat Projects Completed within Asotin Creek Watershed, 1999-2001 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Bradley J.

    2002-10-23

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on both private and public lands within the Asotin Creek watershed. The watershed covers approximately 325 square miles in the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington in WRIA 35. According to WDFW's Priority WRIA's by At-Risk Stock Significance Map, it is the highest priority WRIA in southeastern WA. Summer steelhead, bull trout, and Snake River spring chinook salmon which are listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), are present in the watershed. WDFW manages it as a Wild Steelhead Reserve, because no hatchery fish have been released here since 1997. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. Local students, volunteers and Salmon Corps Members have been instrumental in the success of the Model Watershed Program on Asotin Creek. ACCD began coordinating habitat projects in 1995 with the help of BPA funding. Approximately two hundred seventy-six projects have been implemented as of 1999. The Washington State Legislature was successful in securing funding for endangered salmon and steelhead recovery throughout the State in 1998. While these issues were new to most of the State, southeastern Washington had been dealing with endangered fall and spring chinook salmon since 1994. The Asotin Creek In-Stream Habitat Project teamed BPA and Governor's Salmon Recovery Funding on four instream habitat projects in the Asotin Creek Watershed. These projects provide complex instream habitat for steelhead, bull trout and spring chinook in the stream. 38 pools were

  18. Western state instream flow programs: a comparative assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Matthew J.; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1988-01-01

    During their early history, Western States water rights laws were primarily means for facilitating and regulating water diversions for offstream, consumptive use. More recently, a countervailing concern for instream values such as fish and wildlife habitat, recreation, aesthetic values, and water quality has emerged in the legislative and administrative handling of water rights. As of 1988, the Western United States show a variety of approaches to balancing instream and diversion water rights, from zero control through administrative actions to legislatively established rights for guaranteed instream flows. The nine Western States that have adopted statutory instream flow protection programs include Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming. Arizona, California, and Nevada have relied, to date, on administrative and judicial decisions, while New Mexico has established no mechanism for protecting instream water uses. In the States with statutory protection, instream water uses are granted the same legal status as any other water uses under the prior appropriation doctrine. The success of instream flow protection has been remarkable, given the controversial nature of the issue, with nearly 2,000 stream reaches protected.

  19. Modelling of instream flow needs: The link between sediment and aquatic habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milhous, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    Instream flows are needed to remove undesirable accumulations of sediment. Fines and sand accumulate on and in gravels during periods of low flow and must be removed (flushed) periodically in order for the gravel to continue as suitable habitat for aquatic animals. Sediment of all sizes can also fill pools in the river and must be removed in order to maintain pool habitat. A new technique relates the sizes of sediment important in the biological process to the size transported as wash, suspended and bed loads. The technique has a biological component, a hydraulic component and a selection component that links the two. The technique was used to determine the instream flows needed to maintain habitat for Colorado squawfish in the Gunnison River in western Colorado. Flows included a flushing flow to remove course sand form the riffles where Colorado squawfish spawn, to remove fines and sand from the river in general, to remove gravel from pools, and to scour side channels. The Gunnison River has a mean discharge of 73 m3/s and the flows of both sediment and water in the river have been modified by the construction of reservoirs and by major diversions for irrigation. The flows needed to maintain the spawning habitat for the Colorado squawfish by removing fines and sand from the riffles is 355 m3/s, to remove sand and fines from the river is 354 m3/s, to remove gravel from pools is 484 m3/s and to scour side channels is 210 m3/s. The flow required to maintain the riffles during spawning is 210 m3/s. These flushing flows are not required each year but they are required periodically (usually not less than once in every 3 years); and the maintenance flow is needed every year. ??1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Reliability of in-stream retention metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savickis, Jevgenijs; Zaramella, Mattia; Marion, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The temporary solute retention within transient storage zones (TSZs) has been shown to have a large effect on the transport of solute. This retention can significantly increase the overall in-stream residence time and as consequence increase the contact time of solute with aquatic interfaces (biota, sediment) and living species. An important question that arises is whether the currently available metrics adequately represent retention mechanism. This work attempts to investigate the reliability of two existing measures, the hydrological retention factor (Rh) and the fraction of median travel time due to transient storage zone (Fmed200). For this purpose, five conservative tracer tests were conducted in four European streams with distinct morphological, sediment composition, vegetation and hydraulic characteristics. The obtained breakthrough curves (BTCs) were used to derive storage zone parameters (storage zone area, storage zone exchange coefficient and mean residence time), which then were used for comparison and in the metric expressions. The storage zone parameters were computed using a single TSZ model OTIS-P and a multiple TSZ model STIR. The STIR model was applied to BTCs as an additional tool to separate TSZs into short timescale (ST) and long timescale (LT). The study results reveal correlation between Fmed200 and LT residence time T2 values, where the streams with the lowest Fmed200 (0.01-0.96) have the smallest long timescale storage zones T2 values, ranging from 912 s to 1402 s. The findings also demonstrate an influence of discharge rate on both retention metrics. The greatest Fmed200 (6.19) and Rh (0.938) values are calculated for the streams with low discharge rates (0.08-0.10 m3s-1) and a relatively high ST storage zone residence times T1 (159 s to 351 s). Results show that the Fmed200 and Rh metrics are strongly affected by the short timescale transient storage zones, whereas the LT storage zones (hyporheic) effects are not taken into account.

  1. Links between riparian landcover, instream environment and fish assemblages in headwater streams of south-eastern Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cruz, Bruna B.; Miranda, Leandro E.; Cetra, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesised and tested a hierarchical organisation model where riparian landcover would influence bank composition and light availability, which in turn would influence instream environments and control fish assemblages. The study was conducted during the dry season in 11 headwater tributaries of the Sorocaba River in the upper Paraná River Basin, south-eastern Brazil. We focused on seven environmental factors each represented by one or multiple environmental variables and seven fish functional traits each represented by two or more classes. Multivariate direct gradient analyses suggested that riparian zone landcover can be considered a higher level causal factor in a network of relations that control instream characteristics and fish assemblages. Our results provide a framework for a hierarchical conceptual model that identifies singular and collective influences of variables from different scales on each other and ultimately on different aspects related to stream fish functional composition. This conceptual model is focused on the relationships between riparian landcover and instream variables as causal factors on the organisation of stream fish assemblages. Our results can also be viewed as a model for headwater stream management in that landcover can be manipulated to influence factors such as bank composition, substrates and water quality, whereas fish assemblage composition can be used as indicators to monitor the success of such efforts.

  2. Boosting Underprepared Students: Salish Kootenai College Uses Research to Build Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwin, Stacey

    2011-01-01

    As an open-access institution and a tribal college, Salish Kootenai College (SKC, Pablo, Montana) accepts all students who walk through the doors. Part of SKC's mission is to provide educational opportunities and access for students who are historically underrepresented in higher education. In recent years, national attention has focused on the…

  3. 75 FR 69619 - East Reservoir Project; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ... Forest Service East Reservoir Project; Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, MT AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. SUMMARY: The Forest... prescribed fire, trail access management changes, and treatment of fuel adjacent to private property....

  4. 76 FR 56394 - Kootenai National Forest, Sanders, County, MT; Rock Creek Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ..., USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare a supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Kootenai National Forest will prepare a Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) for the Rock... action or its impacts in order ensure appropriate analysis of the proposed mining project. DATES:...

  5. 76 FR 48877 - Kootenai National Wildlife Refuge, Boundary County, ID; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    .../kootenai/refuge_planning.html ; select ``Contact Us.'' In-Person Drop-off, Viewing, or Pickup: Call (208... sanctuary, or for any other management purpose, for migratory birds.'' The refuge provides important habitat... walking (on leash only), cross-country skiing, and snowshoeing as weather and road conditions...

  6. Opportunities to protect instream flows in Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trembly, Terrence L.

    1987-01-01

    This document combines the efforts of several individuals, agencies, and organizations toward a common objective: the identification, description, and preliminary evaluation of promising opportunities for protecting instream uses of water under existing laws in Colorado and Wyoming. This report is intended for the use of State and Federal planning and management personnel who need an overview of potential opportunities for preserving instream flows. It is not intended to replace or challenge the advice of agency counsel, nor it is written to provide legal advice. Instead, it is designed as a guide for the person trying to find his or her way among sometimes bewildering State statues and administrative practices. This report is not, and should not be taken as, official policy or prediction of future actions by any agency. It is simply a summary of some potential opportunities for protecting instream uses. Toward these objectives, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through its Water Resources Analysis Project, contracted in 1977 with Richard Dewsnup and Dallin Jensen to identify available strategies under State and Federal laws, interstate compacts, and water quality laws. A second firm, Enviro Control, Inc., was contracted to evaluate the most promising strategies. Two of the resulting documents were Instream Flow Strategies for Colorado and Instream Flow Strategies for Wyoming, which have been revised, updated, and combined in this report. Discussion of instream flow programs ad opportunities for each State--Colorado and Wyoming-- are written so that each report can be read independently, with minimal cross referencing from one State report to another.

  7. Differences in instream wood characteristics between channelized and unchannelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Instream wood is an important resource for stream biota because it provides cover for fishes, substrate for macroinvertebrates, and increases habitat diversity. However, current management of instream wood within channelized agricultural headwater streams (drainage ditches) involves removing instrea...

  8. Modelling catchment management impact on in-stream phosphorus loads in northern Victoria.

    PubMed

    Vigiak, O; Rattray, D; McInnes, J; Newham, L T H; Roberts, A M

    2012-11-15

    Phosphorus pollution severely impairs the water quality of rivers in Australia and worldwide. Conceptual models have proved useful to assess management impact on phosphorus loads, particularly in data-sparse environments. This paper develops and evaluates the coupling of a point-scale model (HowLeaky2008) to a catchment scale model (CatchMODS) to enhance modelling of farm management impacts on in-stream phosphorus loads. The model was tested in two adjacent catchments in northern Victoria (Avon-Richardson and Avoca), Australia. After calibration of the in-stream attenuation parameter against measurements at gauging stations, the model simulated specific annual phosphorus loads across the catchments well (Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency of 0.52 in the Avon-Richardson and 0.83 for the Avoca catchment). Phosphorus loads at both catchment outlets under current conditions were estimated at 7 t y(-1) and were dominated by field exports. Changes to farm management practices, i.e. the use of perennial pastures in grazing systems and zero-tillage in cropping systems were estimated to reduce phosphorus load by 31% in the Avon-Richardson catchment and 19% in the Avoca catchment, relative to current practices (annual pasture and minimum tillage). The model afforded a major improvement in conceptual modelling by explicit simulation of the impacts of soil and climatic conditions on field-scale exports and by placing them in the context of landscape processes.

  9. Economic value of instream flow for non-commercial whitewater boating using recreation demand and contingent valuation methods.

    PubMed

    Loomis, John; McTernan, James

    2014-03-01

    Whitewater river kayaking and river rafting require adequate instream flows that are often adversely affected by upstream water diversions. However, there are very few studies in the USA of the economic value of instream flow to inform environmental managers. This study estimates the economic value of instream flow to non-commercial kayakers derived using a Travel Cost Method recreation demand model and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a type of Contingent Behavior Method (CBM). Data were obtained from a visitor survey administered along the Poudre River in Colorado. In the dichotomous choice CVM willingness to pay (WTP) question, visitors were asked if they would still visit the river if the cost of their trip was $Y higher, and the level of $Y was varied across the sample. The CVM yielded an estimate of WTP that was sensitive to flows ranging from $55 per person per day at 300 Cubic Feet per Second (CFS) to a maximum $97 per person per day at flows of 1900 CFS. The recreation demand model estimated a boater's number of trips per season. We found the number of trips taken was also sensitive to flow, ranging from as little as 1.63 trips at 300 CFS to a maximum number of 14 trips over the season at 1900 CFS. Thus, there is consistency between peak benefits per trip and number of trips, respectively. With an average of about 100 non-commercial boaters per day, the maximum marginal values per acre foot averages about $220. This value exceeds irrigation water values in this area of Colorado.

  10. Economic Value of Instream Flow for Non-Commercial Whitewater Boating Using Recreation Demand and Contingent Valuation Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loomis, John; McTernan, James

    2014-03-01

    Whitewater river kayaking and river rafting require adequate instream flows that are often adversely affected by upstream water diversions. However, there are very few studies in the USA of the economic value of instream flow to inform environmental managers. This study estimates the economic value of instream flow to non-commercial kayakers derived using a Travel Cost Method recreation demand model and Contingent Valuation Method (CVM), a type of Contingent Behavior Method (CBM). Data were obtained from a visitor survey administered along the Poudre River in Colorado. In the dichotomous choice CVM willingness to pay (WTP) question, visitors were asked if they would still visit the river if the cost of their trip was Y higher, and the level of Y was varied across the sample. The CVM yielded an estimate of WTP that was sensitive to flows ranging from 55 per person per day at 300 Cubic Feet per Second (CFS) to a maximum 97 per person per day at flows of 1900 CFS. The recreation demand model estimated a boater's number of trips per season. We found the number of trips taken was also sensitive to flow, ranging from as little as 1.63 trips at 300 CFS to a maximum number of 14 trips over the season at 1900 CFS. Thus, there is consistency between peak benefits per trip and number of trips, respectively. With an average of about 100 non-commercial boaters per day, the maximum marginal values per acre foot averages about 220. This value exceeds irrigation water values in this area of Colorado.

  11. Experimental investigation of the modification of the flow field, past instream vegetation elements, for distinct bedsurface roughness.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Yagci, Oral; Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Koursari, Eftychia

    2015-04-01

    The presence of vegetation in rivers and estuaries has important implications for the modification of the flow field and sediment transport. In-stream vegetation has the potential to regulate the morphology and ecological health of a surface water body, and as such it finds a wide range of applications. Even though a number of controls influencing the local flow field past aquatic vegetation elements or patches of instream vegetation have been identified (such as shape, areal density, size and flexibility), conclusive evidence is lacking, particularly on how sediment transport processes are affected. Here, an experimental study is designed to identify how the flow field past different types of elements simulating in-stream emergent vegetation is modified. Two sets of experiments are conducted, each with a distinct value of high and low hydraulic roughness for the bed surface. In both experiments a rigid cylindrical element, a patch of rigid tubes and a plant shaped element (Cupressus Macrocarpa), simulating instream emergent vegetation are utilized. The flow field is measured at various locations downstream the element and average and turbulent flow statistics are obtained at near bed, mid-flow depth and near the water surface regions. It is found that different structural aspects of the elements, particularly the geometry, can significantly affect the flow field downstream the elements. Specifically, the average flow profiles are practically restored to near ambient flow conditions at about 5 diameters downstream the rigid element, while this happens at longer distances for the other elements. The flow structures shed past the elements are also very distinct, as confirmed via appropriately designed fluorescent dye flow visualizations. Potential ecosystem feedbacks and implications for formation of geospatial patterns are also discussed.

  12. Comparison of effects of inset floodplains and hyporheic exchange induced by in-stream structures on solute retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azinheira, David L.; Scott, Durelle T.; Hession, W.; Hester, Erich T.

    2014-07-01

    The pollution of streams and rivers is a growing concern, and environmental guidance increasingly suggests stream restoration to improve water quality. Solute retention in off-channel storage zones, such as hyporheic zones and floodplains, is typically necessary for significant reaction to occur. Yet, the effects of two common restoration techniques, in-stream structures and inset floodplains, on solute retention have not been rigorously compared. We used MIKE SHE to model hydraulics and solute transport in the channel, on inset floodplains, and in structure-induced hyporheic zones of a third-order stream. We varied hydraulic conditions (winter base flow, summer base flow, and stormflow), geology (hydraulic conductivity), and stream restoration design parameters (inset floodplain length and presence of in-stream structures). The in-stream structures induced hyporheic exchange for approximately 20% of the year (during summer base flow) while inset floodplains were active for approximately 1% of the year (during stormflow). Flow onto inset floodplains and residence times in both the channel and on the floodplains increased nonlinearly with the fraction of bank with floodplains installed. The fraction of streamflow that flowed onto the inset floodplains was 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than that which flowed through the structure-induced hyporheic zone. Yet, residence times and mass storage in the hyporheic zone were 1-5 orders of magnitude larger than that on individual inset floodplains. In our modeling, neither in-stream structures nor inset floodplains had sufficient percent flow and residence times simultaneously to have a substantial impact on dissolved contaminants flowing downstream.

  13. Estimation of stream-aquifer exchanges at regional scale using a distributed model: Sensitivity to in-stream water level fluctuations, riverbed elevation and roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baratelli, Fulvia; Flipo, Nicolas; Moatar, Florentina

    2016-11-01

    Several studies on stream-aquifer interactions focus on the local scale. However, the estimation of stream-aquifer exchanges for a regional river network remains challenging. This study aims at assessing the sensitivity of distributed stream-aquifer exchanges to in-stream water level fluctuations, riverbed elevation and Manning roughness coefficient. An integrated distributed surface-subsurface model is applied to the Loire river basin (117,480 km2, France), where in-stream water level fluctuations are taken into account with a simplified Manning-Strickler approach. The stream-aquifer exchanges are analyzed at pluri-annual and annual scales, as well as during short-term hydrological events. The model simulates the spatio-temporal variability of in-stream water levels accurately, with Nash coefficients up to 0.96 for the Loire river. The river network mainly drains the aquifer system. The average net exchanged flow is 2 ·10-2 m3 s-1 km-1, which corresponds to 12% of the averaged discharge at the outlet of the basin. The assumption of constant river stages significantly impacts the total infiltration (-70%) and exfiltration (-10%) in the basin, whereas it has a negligible influence on the average net flux. The river fluctuations increase the time variability of the stream-aquifer exchanges and may determine flow reversals during flood events and also more frequently for river stretches at equilibrium with its nearby aquifer. This study highlights the importance of accounting for river stage fluctuations in the modeling of regional hydrosystems. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis indicates that it is mandatory to develop new methodologies to better estimate the riverbed elevation at high resolution for a river network at regional scale. In a lesser extent, errors on Manning coefficient affect the timing of infiltration and exfiltration, leading to temporally localized discrepancies. However it does not affect the estimates of the global net exchanges significantly.

  14. Water Quality Interpolation Using Various In-Stream Distance Weighting Metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Walter, T.; Sullivan, P.; Christie, R.

    2012-12-01

    Interpolation of water quality samples along the reach of a stream can be used to (1) extend point data to un-sampled locations along the stream network, (2) identify spatial patterns in water quality, and (3) understand how natural and human factors shape these patterns. Kriging, one of the most commonly used geospatial interpolation methods, assumes that nearby sites are spatially auto-correlated; sites closer together have more in common than sites further away. Studies have introduced kriging methods that weight in-stream distance metrics with either landscape attributes (i.e. topography, land use, temperature, and various soil properties) or stream order. Here we present a weighting scheme that combines both surrounding landscape attributes with stream order. We use R, an open-source programming language, to interpolate water quality data collected from the Mianus River in Westchester County, New York. As the major drinking water supply for approximately 100,000 people in Connecticut and New York, the Mianus River watershed community values the cleanliness of its water for recreational activities as well as the sustenance of terrestrial and aquatic wildlife. With the in-stream interpolation results, we can gain a better understanding of factors contributing to water quality issues and observed biogeochemical patterns within the watershed. For example, we can help answer questions such as: How can we target landscape stabilization projects to reduce turbidity? If we find that the most powerful weighting is associated with first order streams and cropland, we know conservation efforts should be focused on agricultural head waters.

  15. Direct measurements of in-stream nitrate uptake with automated high frequency sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz, Julia Vanessa; Hensley, Robert; Brase, Lisa; Borchardt, Dietrich; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Decades of nutrient studies have unveiled the importance of river networks in nutrient cycling. Still, direct methods to quantify instream removal in defined reaches have so far been limited to small streams. In rivers, where isotope tracer additions have been impracticable, uptake rates could only very rarely be measured and therefore have been mostly modelled by upscaling. Recently, the expanding availability of high resolution stream solute signals from automated sensors offers new possibilities for uptake kinetic studies. Cohen et al (2012) assessed assimilation and denitrification rates based on daily nitrate amplitudes and longitudinal concentration gradients in spring- fed chemostatic rivers. In higher order streams, overlapping of network, onsite and upstream signals require additional conceptual and methodological adaptation. Here we present a new combined longitudinal lagrangian and mass balance approach with continuous measurements of nitrate uptake rates in the German lowland river Weiße Elster, to our knowledge the first direct measurement of nitrate kinetics with continues high frequency sensors. We used 10 minutes time step NO3-N, pH, specific conductivity, dissolved oxygen, temperature and chlorophyl-a measurements and supplementing low frequency 15N isotope manual sampling. Longitudinal lagrangian measurements were conducted during day and night. Our data from two morphologically highly contrasting reaches indicate that local, seasonal or even day to day changes in uptake kinetics can be of several orders of magnitude and that the disregard of intermediate storage and dispersion can lead to high errors. The natural river reach revealed considerably higher N uptake than the channelized river reach. Furthermore, river bottom related N-uptake rates were in the same order than those found in agricultural head water streams. Besides depicting prospects and limits, we also provide important considerations for the set-up of measurement stations and for

  16. HOME ON THE BIG RIVER: ASSESSING HABITAT CONDITION IN THE GREAT RIVERS OF THE CENTRAL UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Rivers of the mid-North American continent are important human recreational destinations and transportation corridors, and represent significant habitat. Riparian and instream habitat measures are needed to fully characterize these waterbodies and diagnose causes of de...

  17. Riparian Vegetation Control of In-Stream Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. M.

    2005-05-01

    Stream temperature is an important physical characteristic that can control the structure of aquatic fauna and influence key ecological processes. The response of in-stream temperature to topographic and vegetative shade can be predicted with reasonable accuracy at the sub-catchment scale. A more difficult task is to determine the biotic response to thermal stress and therefore set guideline values. A series of LD50 experiments supported extensive worldwide literature on temperature tolerances of aquatic fauna. Temperature modelling was applied at different biogeographic zones of Australia. In Mediterranean climates where low flow corresponded with high summer air temperatures, in-stream thermal stress was highly seasonal. In the tropics the situation was reversed such that high air temperatures, during summer, corresponded with high stream flows that moderated the magnitude of seasonal variation. When combined with the estimated thermal tolerance of selected taxa, model analyses identified critical bottlenecks, in space and time, and enabled prioritisation of riparian restoration efforts.

  18. Establishing standards and assessment criteria for ecological instream flow needs in agricultural regions of Canada.

    PubMed

    Peters, Daniel L; Baird, Donald J; Monk, Wendy A; Armanini, David G

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural land use can place heavy demands on regional water resources, strongly influencing the quantity and timing of water flows needed to sustain natural ecosystems. The effects of agricultural practices on streamflow conditions are multifaceted, as they also contribute to the severity of impacts arising from other stressors within the river ecosystem. Thus, river scientists need to determine the quantity of water required to sustain important aquatic ecosystem components and ecological services, to support wise apportionment of water for agricultural use. It is now apparent that arbitrarily defined minimum flows are inadequate for this task because the complex habitat requirements of the biota, which underpin the structure and function of a river ecosystem, are strongly influenced by predictable temporal variations in flow. We present an alternative framework for establishing a first-level, regional ecological instream flow needs standard based on adoption of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration/Range of Variability Approach as a broadly applicable hydrological assessment tool, coupling this to the Canadian Ecological Flow Index which assesses ecological responses to hydrological alteration. By explicitly incorporating a new field-based ecological assessment tool for small agricultural streams, we provide a necessary verification of altered hydrology that is broadly applicable within Canada and essential to ensure the continuous feedback between the application of flow management criteria and ecological condition.

  19. Increasing in-stream nitrogen concentrations under different bioenergy crop management practices in central Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Thraen, Daniela; Rode, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in land use and agriculture practices is crucial for improving instream water quality prediction. In central Germany, expansion of bioenergy crops such as maize and rape for ethanol production during the last decade led to increasing of fertilizer application rates. To examine the effect of these changes, surface water quality of a drinking water reservoir catchment was investigated for more than 30 years. The Weida catchment (99.5 km2) is part of the Elbe river basin and has a share of 67% agricultural land use with significant changes in agricultural practices within the investigation period. For the period 2004-2012, the share of maize and rape has been increased by 52% and 20%, respectively, for enhancing bioenergy production. To achieve our gaols, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was calibrated for discharge and inorganic nitrogen concentrations (IN) during the period 1997-2000.The model was validated successfully (with lowest performance of NSE = 0.78 and PBIAS = 3.74% for discharge) for three different periods 1983-1987, 1989-1996 and 2000-2003, which are charaterized by different fertilizer application rates. Results showed that the HYPE model reproduced reasonably well discharge and IN daily loads (with lowest NSE = 0.64 for IN-load). In addition, the HYPE model was evaluated successfully to predict the discharge and IN concentrations for the period 2004-2012, where detailed input data in terms of crops management (field-specific survey) have been considered. Land use and crop rotations scenarios, with high hypothetical percentage of acceptance by the farmers, revealed that continuous conversion of agricultural land into bioenergy crops, will most likely, lead to an enrichment of in-stream nitrogen, especially after spring storms.

  20. Standardizing instream flow requirements at hydropower projects in the Cascade Mountains, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.M.; Sale, M.J.

    1993-06-01

    Instream flow requirements are common mitigation measures instituted in the bypassed reaches of hydroelectric diversion projects. Currently, there are two extremes among the ways to determine instream flow requirements: generic standard-setting methods and detailed, habitat-based, impact assessment methods such as the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Data from streams in Washington state show a consistent pattern in the instream flow requirements resulting from the IFIM. This pattern can be used to refine the simpler standard-setting approaches and thereby provide better estimates of flow needs during early stages of project design.

  1. Fish assemblage structure and habitat associations in a large western river system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, C.D.; Quist, Michael; Hardy, R. S.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal gradients of fish assemblage and habitat structure were investigated in the Kootenai River of northern Idaho. A total of 43 500-m river reaches was sampled repeatedly with several techniques (boat-mounted electrofishing, hoop nets and benthic trawls) in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Differences in habitat and fish assemblage structure were apparent along the longitudinal gradient of the Kootenai River. Habitat characteristics (e.g. depth, substrate composition and water velocity) were related to fish assemblage structure in three different geomorphic river sections. Upper river sections were characterized by native salmonids (e.g. mountain whitefish Prosopium williamsoni), whereas native cyprinids (peamouth Mylocheilus caurinus, northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis) and non-native fishes (pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus, yellow perch Perca flavescens) were common in the downstream section. Overall, a general pattern of species addition from upstream to downstream sections was discovered and is likely related to increased habitat complexity and additions of non-native species in downstream sections. Assemblage structure of the upper sections were similar, but were both dissimilar to the lower section of the Kootenai River. Species-specific hurdle regressions indicated the relationships among habitat characteristics and the predicted probability of occurrence and relative abundance varied by species. Understanding fish assemblage structure in relation to habitat could improve conservation efforts of rare fishes and improve management of coldwater river systems.

  2. Using small unmanned aerial vehicle for instream habitat evaluation and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegiano, Luca; Vezza, Paolo; Comoglio, Claudio; Lingua, Andrea; Spairani, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Recent advances in digital image collection and processing have led to the increased use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for river research and management. In this paper, we assess the capabilities of a small UAV to characterize physical habitat for fish in three river stretches of North-Western Italy. The main aim of the study was identifying the advantages and challenges of this technology for environmental river management, in the context of the increasing river exploitation for hydropower production. The UAV used to acquire overlapping images was a small quadcopter with a two different high-resolution (non-metric) cameras (Nikon J1™ and Go-Pro Hero 3 Black Edition™). The quadcopter was preprogrammed to fly set waypoints using a small tablet PC. With the acquired imagery, we constructed a 5-cm resolution orthomosaic image and a digital surface model (DSM). The two products were used to map the distribution of aquatic and riparian habitat features, i.e., wetted area, morphological unit distributions, bathymetry, water surface gradient, substrates and grain sizes, shelters and cover for fish. The study assessed the quality of collected data and used such information to identify key reach-scale metrics and important aspects of fluvial morphology and aquatic habitat. The potential and limitations of using UAV for physical habitat survey were evaluated and the collected data were used to initialize and run common habitat simulation tools (MesoHABSIM). Several advantages of using UAV-based imagery were found, including low cost procedures, high resolution and efficiency in data collection. However, some challenges were identified for bathymetry extraction (vegetation obstructions, white waters, turbidity) and grain size assessment (preprocessing of data and automatic object detection). The application domain and possible limitation for instream habitat mapping were defined and will be used as a reference for future studies. Ongoing activities include the

  3. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  4. Instream large wood: Denitrification hotspots with low N2O production

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the effect of instream large wood on denitrification capacity in two contrasting, lower order streams — one that drains an agricultural watershed with no riparian forest and minimal stores of instream large wood and another that drains a forested watershed with an ext...

  5. Growing Up Indian: Stories from the Life of Louie Gingras, an 82 Year Old Kootenai Indian. Indian Culture Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gingras, Louie

    Eleven short stories from the life of Louie Gingras, an 82-year-old Kootenai Indian, illustrate many aspects of Indian culture. Accompanied by black and white drawings, ths stories describe daily life, mission schools, the Carlisle Indian School, Indian medicine, discipline for children, spiritual powers, beliefs, and several ceremonies. The book…

  6. "This Is My Reservation; I Belong Here": Salish and Kootenai Battle Termination with Self-Determination, 1953-1999

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puisto, Jaakko

    2004-01-01

    The tribal reactions to and struggle over the issues of Indian-white conflict, factionalism, and liquidation of tribal assets are discussed. The termination efforts of the 1950s, 1960s and early 1970s provide a crucible through which the Salish and Kootenai realized that only with a strong, determined, and unified tribe led by capable officials,…

  7. DOM as a potential tracer for in-stream processes in small mountain catchments (JRB-SCM Critical Zone Observatory)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdrial, J. N.; McIntosh, J. C.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.

    2010-12-01

    The critical zone comprises the globally important terrestrial carbon (C) pool where organic carbon in cycled, stabilized in the soil or mobilized and transported in stream waters. Whereas the assessment of in-stream dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC) concentrations is important to assess its contribution to catchments C losses, it is equally important to assess the contribution of in-stream processes impacting C cycling. In this study we compare stream waters at the outlet of two headwater catchments in the Jemez River Basin (JRB), NM as part of the JRB-SCM Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) in order to test the potential to employ combined measures of C quantity and DOM quality to assess in-stream C cycling. One relatively small (3.7 km2), steep forested catchment containing small dispersed wetland areas is drained by LaJara creek that, due to shorter residence time, can be assumed to be less impacted by in-stream C-cycling. In contrast, Jaramillo creek drains a large (11.7 km2) catchment and meanders through large wetland areas at the catchment outlet promoting in stream C-cycling. At both catchment outlets, grab samples and flume discharge data were collected before snowmelt and six times during the falling snowmelt hydrograph from March to July 2010, and analyzed for DOC and DIC concentrations and DOM quality (fluorescence spectroscopy). Stream waters from both catchments contain the highest DOC concentrations at the onset of snowmelt, but peak DOC concentrations in Jaramillo creek were twice as high (10.5 mg/L compared to 5.2 mg/L for LaJara). DIC/DOC ratios of both catchments are negatively correlated with discharge and can be used as an indicator for hydrologic transit times where increasing DIC/DOC ratios point to longer transit times. In the case of LaJara creek the correlation is linear (r2= 0.90) suggesting a simple discharge related flushing of shallow soil C and thus an increase of DOC. For Jaramillo creek in contrast, DIC/DOC ratios

  8. In-stream nitrate responses integrate human and climate systems in an intensively managed landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, A. S.; Davis, C. A.; Burgin, A. J.; Loecke, T.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Schnoebelen, D. J.; Just, C. L.; Thomas, S. A.; Weber, L. J.; St Clair, M. A.; Spak, S.; Dalrymple, K. E.; Li, Y.; Prior, K.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is a cornerstone of modern agriculture, but the practice also leads to eutrophication, hypoxia, and harmful algal blooms in both inland and coastal waters. Several studies identify Iowa, Illinois and Indiana as major source areas of N discharged by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico where large-scale hypoxia develops annually. Continental-scale management of nitrogen requires a comprehensive understanding of watershed-specific hydrologic dynamics and their consequences for nitrate flushing from agricultural landscapes. Spatiotemporal variation in nitrate fluxes is inherently complex due to the broad range of physicochemical and hydraulic properties that influence N movement through soils, groundwater, and rivers. In-stream N fluxes respond to both short- and long-term climactic forcing interacting with the cumulative human modification to both physical and biogeochemical systems in agricultural catchments. Here, we synthesize results from three individual studies in the Iowa River watershed. First, we demonstrate significant inter- and intra-annual variability in stream responses to rainfall events as a function of antecedent moisture conditions in three nested catchments (first through third-order). This study highlights the use of in-situ, high temporal resolution sensor networks as an emerging tool. Next, we leverage a catchment-wide synoptic study repeated in 2013 to demonstrate the landscape-scale impact of climate dynamics interacting with management decisions on the landscape. This study highlights the role of changes in extreme event frequency on water quality in agricultural landscapes. Finally, we extend results onto the landscape, using a numerical model to quantify heterogeneity of key controlling variables within the landscape (e.g., soil texture) and N retention or mobilization. We compare variability in key controls with variability driven by climate over a 60-yr period of record.

  9. In-Stream Sediment Dynamics for predicted environmental concentration calculations of plant protection products in the FOCUSSW Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Erzgräber, Beate; Gottesbüren, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    The exposure assessment for the EU registration procedure of plant protection products (PPP), which is based on the 'Forum for the co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their use' (FOCUS), currently considers only periods of 12-16 months for the exposure assessment in surface water bodies. However, in a recent scientific opinion of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) it is argued that in a multi-year exposure assessment, the accumulation of PPP substances in river sediment may be a relevant process. Therefore, the EFSA proposed to introduce a sediment accumulation factor in order to account for enrichment of PPP substances over several years in the sediment. The calculation of this accumulation factor, however, would consider degradation in sediment as the only dissipation path, and does not take into account riverine sediment dynamics. In order to assess the influence of deposition and the possible extent of substance accumulation in the sediment phase, the hydraulic model HEC-RAS was employed for an assessment of in-stream sediment dynamics of the FOCUS stream scenarios. The model was parameterized according to the stream characteristics of the FOCUS scenarios and was run over a period of 20 years. The results show that with the distribution of grain sizes and the ranges of flow velocity in the FOCUS streams the main sediment process in the streams is transport. First modeling results suggest that about 80% of the eroded sediment mass from the adjacent field are transported to the downstream end of the stream and out of the system, while only about 20% are deposited in the river bed. At the same time, only about 30% of in-stream sediment mass stems from the adjacent field and is associated with PPP substance, while the remaining sediment consists of the substance-free base sediment concentration regarded in the scenarios. With this, the hydraulic modelling approach is able to support the development of a meaningful sediment accumulation factor by

  10. Enhancements to the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System for simulating in-stream water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markstrom, S. L.; Hay, L.

    2010-12-01

    A stream temperature module has been developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) for simulating maximum- and mean-daily stream temperature. This module provides additional simulation capabilities by coupling PRMS with the U.S. Geological Survey Stream Network Temperature (SNTEMP) model. PRMS is a modular, deterministic, distributed-parameter, physical-process watershed model that simulates watershed response to various combinations of climate and land use. Normal and extreme rainfall and snowmelt can be simulated to evaluate changes in water-balance relations, streamflow regimes, soil-water relations, and ground-water recharge. SNTEMP was developed to help aquatic biologists and engineers predict the effects of flow regime changes on water temperatures. This coupling of PRMS with SNTEMP will allow scientists and watershed managers to evaluate the effects of historical climate and projected climate change, landscape evolution, and resource management scenarios on watershed hydrology and in-stream water temperature. The prototype of this coupled model was developed for the U.S. Geological Survey Southeast Regional Assessment Project (SERAP) and tested in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin in the southeastern United States. Preliminary results from the prototype are presented.

  11. High concentration suspended sediment measurments using acontinuous fiber optic in-stream transmissometer

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Chris G.; Laycak, Danny T.; Hoppes, William; Tran,Nguyen T.; Shi, Frank G.

    2004-05-26

    Suspended sediment loads mobilized during high flow periods in rivers and streams are largely uncharacterized. In smaller and intermittent streams, a large storm may transport a majority of the annual sediment budget. Therefore monitoring techniques that can measure high suspended sediment concentrations at semi-continuous time intervals are needed. A Fiber optic In-stream Transmissometer (FIT) is presented for continuous measurement of high concentration suspended sediment in storm runoff. FIT performance and precision were demonstrated to be reasonably good for suspended sediment concentrations up to 10g/L. The FIT was compared to two commercially available turbidity devices and provided better precision and accuracy at both high and low concentrations. Both turbidity devices were unable to collect measurements at concentrations greater than 4 g/L. The FIT and turbidity measurements were sensitive to sediment particle size. Particle size dependence of transmittance and turbidity measurement poses the greatest problem for calibration to suspended sediment concentration. While the FIT was demonstrated to provide acceptable measurements of high suspended sediment concentrations, approaches to real-time suspended sediment detection need to address the particle size dependence in concentration measurements.

  12. Analysis of riverbed temperatures to determine the geometry of subsurface water flow around in-stream geomorphological structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, Matthias; Oswald, Sascha E.; Schmidt, Christian

    2016-08-01

    The analytical evaluation of diurnal temperature variation in riverbed sediments provides detailed information on exchange fluxes between rivers and groundwater. The underlying assumption of the stationary, one-dimensional vertical flow field is frequently violated in natural systems where subsurface water flow often has a significant horizontal component. In this paper, we present a new methodology for identifying the geometry of the subsurface flow field using vertical temperature profiles. The statistical analyses are based on model optimisation and selection and are used to evaluate the shape of vertical amplitude ratio profiles. The method was applied to multiple profiles measured around in-stream geomorphological structures in a losing reach of a gravel bed river. The predominant subsurface flow field was systematically categorised in purely vertical and horizontal (hyporheic, parafluvial) components. The results highlight that river groundwater exchange flux at the head, crest and tail of geomorphological structures significantly deviated from the one-dimensional vertical flow, due to a significant horizontal component. The geometry of the subsurface water flow depended on the position around the geomorphological structures and on the river level. The methodology presented in this paper features great potential for characterising the spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of complex subsurface flow geometries by using measured temperature time series in vertical profiles.

  13. Quantifying watershed-scale groundwater loading and in-stream fate of nitrate using high-frequency water quality data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Capel, Paul D.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new approach that couples hydrograph separation with high-frequency nitrate data to quantify time-variable groundwater and runoff loading of nitrate to streams, and the net in-stream fate of nitrate at the watershed scale. The approach was applied at three sites spanning gradients in watershed size and land use in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Results indicate that 58-73% of the annual nitrate load to the streams was groundwater-discharged nitrate. Average annual first-order nitrate loss rate constants (k) were similar to those reported in both modeling and in-stream process-based studies, and were greater at the small streams (0.06 and 0.22 day-1) than at the large river (0.05 day-1), but 11% of the annual loads were retained/lost in the small streams, compared with 23% in the large river. Larger streambed area to water volume ratios in small streams results in greater loss rates, but shorter residence times in small streams result in a smaller fraction of nitrate loads being removed than in larger streams. A seasonal evaluation of k values suggests that nitrate was retained/lost at varying rates during the growing season. Consistent with previous studies, streamflow and nitrate concentrations were inversely related to k. This new approach for interpreting high-frequency nitrate data and the associated findings furthers our ability to understand, predict, and mitigate nitrate impacts on streams and receiving waters by providing insights into temporal nitrate dynamics that would be difficult to obtain using traditional field-based studies.

  14. Quantifying watershed-scale groundwater loading and in-stream fate of nitrate using high-frequency water quality data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Matthew P.; Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Capel, Paul D.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Hyer, Kenneth E.; Burns, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new approach that couples hydrograph separation with high-frequency nitrate data to quantify time-variable groundwater and runoff loading of nitrate to streams, and the net in-stream fate of nitrate at the watershed-scale. The approach was applied at three sites spanning gradients in watershed size and land use in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Results indicate that 58-73% of the annual nitrate load to the streams was groundwater-discharged nitrate. Average annual first order nitrate loss rate constants (k) were similar to those reported in both modelling and in-stream process-based studies, and were greater at the small streams (0.06 and 0.22 d-1) than at the large river (0.05 d-1), but 11% of the annual loads were retained/lost in the small streams, compared with 23% in the large river. Larger streambed area to water volume ratios in small streams result in greater loss rates, but shorter residence times in small streams result in a smaller fraction of nitrate loads being removed than in larger streams. A seasonal evaluation of k values suggests that nitrate was retained/lost at varying rates during the growing season. Consistent with previous studies, streamflow and nitrate concentration were inversely related to k. This new approach for interpreting high-frequency nitrate data and the associated findings furthers our ability to understand, predict, and mitigate nitrate impacts on streams and receiving waters by providing insights into temporal nitrate dynamics that would be difficult to obtain using traditional field-based studies.

  15. The economic value of Trinity River water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Trinity River, largest tributary of the Klamath River, has its head-waters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel, a manmade conduit. Hydropower is produced at four installations along the route of Trinity River water that is diverted to the Sacramento River, and power production at three of these installations would diminish if no Trinity River water were diverted to the Sacramento River. After Trinity River water reaches the Sacramento River, it flows toward the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay. Trinity River water is pumped via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The social cost of putting more water down the Trinity River is the sum of the value of the foregone consumer surplus from hydropower production as well as the value of the foregone irrigation water. Sharply diminished instream flows have also severely affected the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad and sturgeon runs. Survey data were used to estimate the non-market benefits of augmenting Trinity River instream flows by letting more water flow down the Trinity and moving less water to the Sacramento River. Preservation benefits for Trinity River instream flows and fish runs are $803 million per annum for the scenario that returns the most water down the Trinity River, a value that greatly exceeds the social cost estimate.The Trinity River, largest tributary of the Klamath River, has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel, a manmade conduit. Hydropower is produced at four installations along the route of Trinity River water that is diverted to the

  16. Prototype Evaluation of Sluiceway Aeration System Libby Dam, Kootenai River, Montana.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    during an emergency gate lowering operation.- Results of the data reduction indicated a virtual elimination of the cavitation-inducing negative... virtually been eliminated. the following tabulation lists The comparative data given in Plates 17 (without aerator) and 18 (with aerator, Series A). Sluice...pressures on the center sluice invert have been virtually eliminated with the introduction of the aerator. All calculated cavitation indices are

  17. Hydraulic Model Investigation. Libby Dam, Kootenai River, Montana. Hydraulic Model Investigations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    face of the dam and skewed to eliminate the need for corbels on the dam face. The Libby study was made to develop a similar design that also would be... corbels on the face of the dam that would contain intakes perpendicular to the sluice alignments. The intake design was similar to Plan D selected for

  18. Rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    Rivers are both the means and the routes by which the products of continental weathering are carried to the oceans of the world. Except in the most arid areas more water falls as precipitation than is lost by evaporation and transpiration from the land surface to the atmosphere. Thus there is an excess of water, which must flow to the ocean. Rivers, then, are the routes by which this excess water flows to the ultimate base level. The excess of precipitation over evaporation and transpiration provides the flow of rivers and springs, recharges ground-water storage, and is the supply from which man draws water for his needs.

  19. What is the relationship between whole effluent toxicity and instream biological condition?

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, J.; Daley, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compiled a database of 250 dischargers across the US and examined relationships between standardized Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnows), whole effluent toxicity (WET) test endpoints, and instream biological condition as measured by benthic macroinvertebrate assessments. Sites were included in the analysis if the effluents were not manipulated before testing (e.g., dechlorination), and standardized biological and physical habitat assessment methods were used upstream and directly downstream of the discharge. Several analyses indicated that fish endpoints were more related to instream biological condition than Ceriodaphnia WET endpoints. Dischargers that failed <25% of their tests had {le}15% chance of exhibiting instream impairment. Effluent dilution was the strongest factor affecting relationships between WET and observed biological conditions. Effluents that comprised >80% of the stream under low-flow conditions exhibited better relationships between WET and instream condition than effluents with greater dilution. Effluents that comprised <20% of the stream had a low probability of exhibiting impairment, even if several WET test failures were observed over a 1-year period. Fish acute and chronic WET information could predict instream biological conditions; however, WET compliance, based on 7Q10 stream flow, was consistently conservative. Their results indicate that WET was more predictive of instream biological condition if several tests were conducted, more than one type of test was conducted, and endpoints within a test were relatively consistent over time.

  20. Physical-scale models of engineered log jams in rivers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stream restoration and river engineering projects are employing engineered log jams increasingly for stabilization and in-stream improvements. To further advance the design of these structures and their morphodynamic effects on corridors, the basis for physical-scale models of rivers with engineere...

  1. Flow dynamics of bank-attached instream structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seokkoo

    2016-04-01

    Numerical simulations and experiments for flow past a bank-attached vane, a widely-used instream structure for stream restoration, are carried out to study the turbulent flow dynamics occurring around the structure. In the numerical simulation, the details of the natural rocks that constitute the vane are directly resolved by employing the recently developed computational fluid dynamics model of Kang et al. (2011). The time-averaged flowfield is shown to be in good agreement with the results of laboratory measurements. Analysis of the simulated flow shows that there exist two counter-rotating secondary flows cells downstream of the vane, one of which is located near the center of the channel and the other is located near the corner between the channel bed and the sidewall to which the vane is attached. The formation of the two counter-rotating secondary flow cells is shown to be linked to the plunging of the mean three-dimensional streamlines originating upstream of the vane onto a point downstream of the vane positioned on the lower part of the sidewall. The laboratory experiment also reveals the existence of such flow structures.

  2. Stream habitat analysis using the instream flow incremental methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.; Lamb, Berton L.; Bartholow, John M.; Stalnaker, Clair B.; Taylor, Jonathan; Henriksen, Jim

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the Instream Flow Methodology in its entirety. This also is to serve as a comprehensive introductory textbook on IFIM for training courses as it contains the most complete and comprehensive description of IFIM in existence today. This should also serve as an official guide to IFIM in publication to counteract the misconceptions about the methodology that have pervaded the professional literature since the mid-1980's as this describes IFIM as it is envisioned by its developers. The document is aimed at the decisionmakers of management and allocation of natural resources in providing them an overview; and to those who design and implement studies to inform the decisionmakers. There should be enough background on model concepts, data requirements, calibration techniques, and quality assurance to help the technical user design and implement a cost-effective application of IFIM that will provide policy-relevant information. Some of the chapters deal with basic organization of IFIM, procedural sequence of applying IFIM starting with problem identification, study planning and implementation, and problem resolution.

  3. Toxicity testing and instream biological monitoring in evaluating municipal effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Krier, K.; Pontasch, K.

    1995-12-31

    Twelve streams receiving municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents were evaluated in riffle areas above and below the outfall using the Environmental Protection Agency`s Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBPs) for benthic macroinvertebrates. Eight of the sites evaluated using RBP 1 exhibited stream health in the downstream riffles equaling or exceeding the upstream riffles. RBP 1 results suggested possible impacts at the remaining four sites, and these sites were more intensely evaluated using RBPs 2 and 3, acute effluent toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, and quantification of periphytic chlorophyll a and ash free dry weight (AFDW). Results from RBP 2 indicated three of the four sites evaluated have similar taxonomic richness above and below the outfall, while one site is heavily impacted by organic pollutants. Toxicity tests with 100% effluent resulted in no mortality with any of the four effluents tested. Relative to the respective upstream sites, chlorophyll a was significantly increased at one downstream site and significantly reduced at another. AFDW was similar above and below the outfalls in all streams. These results suggest that laboratory toxicity tests may not always be adequate predictors of instream biological effects.

  4. Potlatch River Watershed Restoration, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Stinson, Kenneth

    2003-09-01

    The project's goal is to improve instream fish habitat in the Potlatch River and the lower Clearwater River through comprehensive watershed planning, implementation of best management practices and expanded water quality and fish habitat monitoring. This proposal has two primary objectives: (1) complete the Potlatch River watershed implementation plan; and, (2) augment existing monitoring efforts in the Potlatch River to broaden the water quality and fish resource data baseline.

  5. Regulation of surface water quality in a Cretaceous Chalk catchment, UK: an assessment of the relative importance of instream and wetland processes.

    PubMed

    Prior, H; Johnes, P J

    2002-01-23

    To investigate the relative importance of instream nutrient spiralling and wetland transformation processes on surface water quality, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in a 200-m reach of the River Lambourn in the south-east of England were monitored over a 2-year period. In addition, the soil pore water nutrient dynamics in a riparian ecosystem adjacent to the river were investigated. Analysis of variance indicated that TN, TP and suspended sediment concentrations recorded upstream of the wetland were statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those downstream of the site. Such results suggest that the wetland was performing a nutrient retention function. Indeed, analysis of soil pore waters within the site show that up to 85% of TN and 70% of TP was removed from water flowing through the wetland during baseflow conditions, thus supporting the theory that the wetland played an important role in the regulation of surface water quality at the site. However, the small variations observed (0.034 mg TN l(-1) and 0.031 mg P l(-1)) are consistent with the theory of nutrient spiralling suggesting that both instream and wetland retention processes have a causal effect on surface water quality.

  6. The chemistry of iron, aluminum, and dissolved organic material in three acidic, metal-enriched, mountain streams, as controlled by watershed and in-stream processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Bencala, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    Several studies were conducted in three acidic, metal-enriched, mountain streams, and the results are discussed together in this paper to provide a synthesis of watershed and in-stream processes controlling Fe, Al, and DOC (dissolved organic carbon) concentrations. One of the streams, the Snake River, is naturally acidic; the other two, Peru Creek and St. Kevin Gulch, receive acid mine drainage. Analysis of stream water chemistry data for the acidic headwaters of the Snake River shows that some trace metal solutes (Al, Mn, Zn) are correlated with major ions, indicating that watershed processes control their concentrations. Once in the stream, biogeochemical processes can control transport if they occur over time scales comparable to those for hydrologic transport. Examples of the following in-stream reactions are presented: (1) photoreduction and dissolution of hydrous iron oxides in response to an experimental decrease in stream pH, (2) precipitation of Al at three stream confluences, and (3) sorption of dissolved organic material by hydrous iron and aluminum oxides in a stream confluence. The extent of these reactions is evaluated using conservative tracers and a transport model that includes storage in the substream zone.

  7. In-Stream Microbial Denitrification Potential at Wastewater Treatment Plant Discharge Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, N. B.; Rahm, B. G.; Shaw, S. B.; Riha, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Reactive nitrogen loading from municipal sewage discharge provides point sources of nitrate (NO3-) to rivers and streams. Through microbially-mediated denitrification, NO3- can be converted to dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) gases, which are released to the atmosphere. Preliminary observations made throughout summer 2011 near a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outfall in the Finger Lakes region of New York indicated that NO3- concentrations downstream of the discharge pipe were lower relative to upstream concentrations. This suggested that nitrate processing was occurring more rapidly and completely than predicted by current models and that point "sources" can in some cases be point "sinks". Molecular assays and stable isotope analyses were combined with laboratory microcosm experiments and water chemistry analyses to better understand the mechanism of nitrate transformation. Nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes were detected in water and sediment samples using qPCR. Denitrifcation genes were present attached to stream sediment, in pipe biofilm, and in WWTP discharge water. A comparison of δ18-O and δ15-N signatures also supported the hypothesis that stream NO3- had been processed biotically. Results from microcosm experiments indicated that the NO3- transformations occur at the sediment-water interface rather than in the water column. In some instances, quantities of denitrification genes were at higher concentrations attached to sediment downstream of the discharge pipe than upstream of the pipe suggesting that the wastewater discharge may be enriching the downstream sediment and could promote in-stream denitrification.

  8. Instream wood loads in montane forest streams of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Karen J.; Wohl, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Although several studies examine instream wood loads and associated geomorphic effects in streams of subalpine forests in the U.S. Southern Rocky Mountains, little is known of instream wood loads in lower elevation, montane forests of the region. We compare instream wood loads and geomorphic effects between streams draining montane forest stands of differing age (old growth versus younger) and disturbance history (healthy versus infested by mountain pine beetles). We examined forest stand characteristics, instream wood load, channel geometry, pool volume, and sediment storage in 33 pool-riffle or plane-bed stream reaches with objectives of determining whether (i) instream wood and geomorphic effects differed significantly among old-growth, younger, healthy, and beetle-infested forest stands and (ii) wood loads correlated with valley and channel characteristics. Wood loads were standardized to drainage area, stream gradient, reach length, bankfull width, and floodplain area. Streams flowing through old-growth forests had significantly larger wood loads and logjam volumes (pairwise t-tests), as well as logjam frequencies (Kruskal-Wallis test), residual pool volume, and fine sediment storage around wood than streams flowing through younger forests. Wood loads in streams draining beetle-infested forest did not differ significantly from those in healthy forest stands, but best subset regression models indicated that elevation, stand age, and beetle infestation were the best predictors of wood loads in channels and on floodplains, suggesting that beetle infestation is affecting instream wood characteristics. Wood loads are larger than values from subalpine streams in the same region and jams are larger and more closely spaced. We interpret these differences to reflect greater wood piece mobility in subalpine zone streams. Stand age appears to exert the dominant influence on instream wood characteristics within pool-riffle streams in the study area rather than beetle

  9. Data to support statistical modeling of instream nutrient load based on watershed attributes, southeastern United States, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoos, Anne B.; Terziotti, Silvia; McMahon, Gerard; Savvas, Katerina; Tighe, Kirsten C.; Alkons-Wolinsky, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This report presents and describes the digital datasets that characterize nutrient source inputs, environmental characteristics, and instream nutrient loads for the purpose of calibrating and applying a nutrient water-quality model for the southeastern United States for 2002. The model area includes all of the river basins draining to the south Atlantic and the eastern Gulf of Mexico, as well as the Tennessee River basin (referred to collectively as the SAGT area). The water-quality model SPARROW (SPAtially-Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, uses a regression equation to describe the relation between watershed attributes (predictors) and measured instream loads (response). Watershed attributes that are considered to describe nutrient input conditions and are tested in the SPARROW model for the SAGT area as source variables include atmospheric deposition, fertilizer application to farmland, manure from livestock production, permitted wastewater discharge, and land cover. Watershed and channel attributes that are considered to affect rates of nutrient transport from land to water and are tested in the SAGT SPARROW model as nutrient-transport variables include characteristics of soil, landform, climate, reach time of travel, and reservoir hydraulic loading. Datasets with estimates of each of these attributes for each individual reach or catchment in the reach-catchment network are presented in this report, along with descriptions of methods used to produce them. Measurements of nutrient water quality at stream monitoring sites from a combination of monitoring programs were used to develop observations of the response variable - mean annual nitrogen or phosphorus load - in the SPARROW regression equation. Instream load of nitrogen and phosphorus was estimated using bias-corrected log-linear regression models using the program Fluxmaster, which provides temporally detrended estimates of long-term mean load well

  10. Large-Scale Coherent Flow Structures in a Natural Braided Reach Section of a Gravel-Bed River

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    ADCP deployed in the Kootenai River, ID.................................................................................31  Figure 4.  ADCP velocity...31  Figure 5.  Spectra of Zone 2 (Figure 2) ADCP velocities computed up to the noise frequency limit (0.2 Hz) using varying window lengths...determined between the velocity measurement at the first bin and the velocity measurement at various lags up to the maximum ADCP beam length for

  11. Comparison of Instream and Laboratory Methods of Measuring Sediment Oxygen Demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Dennis C.; Berkas, Wayne R.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was determined at three sites in a gravel-bottomed central Missouri stream by: (1) two variations of an instream method, and (2) a laboratory method. SOD generally was greatest by the instream methods, which are considered more accurate, and least by the laboratory method. Disturbing stream sediment did not significantly decrease SOD by the instream method. Temperature ranges of up to 12 degree Celsius had no significant effect on the SOD. In the gravel-bottomed stream, the placement of chambers was critical to obtain reliable measurements. SOD rates were dependent on the method; therefore, care should be taken in comparing SOD data obtained by different methods. There is a need for a carefully researched standardized method for SOD determinations.

  12. Use of the instream flow incremental methodology: a tool for negotiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavendish, Mary G.; Duncan, Margaret I.

    1986-01-01

    The resolution of conflicts arising from differing values and water uses requires technical information and negotiating skills. This article outlines the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM), developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service, and demonstrates that its use to quantify flows necessary to protect desired instream values aids negotiation by illustrating areas of agreement and possible compromises between conflicting water interests. Pursuant to a Section 404 permit application to the US Army Corps of Engineers made by City Utilities of Springfield, Missouri, in 1978, IFIM provided the means by which City Utilities, concerned with a secure water supply for a growing population, and those advocating instream values were satisfied that their requirements were met. In tracing the 15-month process, the authors conclude that the application of IFIM, as well as the cooperative stance adopted by the parties involved, were the key ingredients of the successful permit application.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Paddlefish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubert, Wayne A.; Anderson, Stanley H.; Southall, Peter D.; Crance, Johnie H.

    1984-01-01

    The original range of the paddlefish was the Mississippi River drainage and adjacent Gul f Coast dra i nage. It was once found in some of the Great Lakes (Carlson and Bonislawsky 1981). The paddlefish is generally an inhabitant of large rivers, but it occurs in reservoirs and natural lakes connected to large rivers. Much of the original range has been reduced due to habitat alterations: (1) destruction of spawning areas; (2) blockage of movements by dams; (3) channelization and elimination of backwater areas; (4) dewatering of streams; and (5) pollution (Carlson and Bonislawsky 1981). Several States officially consider the paddlefish as rare or endangered (Miller 1972). An indexed bibliography of all known paddlefish work was prepared by Graham and Bonislawsky (1978) and recently updated to include more than 480 citations (Graham and Bonislawsky, in press).

  14. Influence of adding small instream wood on fishes and hydrology within channelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large instream wood is well known for its importance in headwater streams because it promotes the development of pool habitat for fishes and provides them with cover from predators during the summer. However, little is known about the influence of small instream wood (diameter < 10 cm, length < 1 m...

  15. IN-STREAM CONTINUOUS SOURCE WATER QUALITY MONITORING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) provided the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO) with a grant as part of the Advanced Measurement Initiative (AMI). The objective of AMI is to provide an ...

  16. Understanding the diurnal cycle in fluvial dissolved organic carbon - The interplay of in-stream residence time, day length and organic matter turnover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.; Howden, N. J. K.; Burt, T. P.

    2015-04-01

    There is increasing interest in characterising the diurnal fluctuation of stream solute concentrations because observed data series derived from spot samples may be highly subjective if such diurnal fluctuations are large. This can therefore lead to large uncertainties, bias or systematic errors in calculation of fluvial solute fluxes, depending upon the particular sampling regime. A simplistic approach would be to assume diurnal fluctuations are constant throughout the water year, but this study proposes diurnal cycles in stream water quality can only be interpreted in the context of stream residence time and changing day length. Three years of hourly dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and flow data from the River Dee catchment (1674 km2) were analysed, and statistical analysis of the entire record shows there is no consistent diurnal cycle in the record. From the 3-year record (1095 days) there were only 96 diurnal cycles could be analysed. Cycles were quantified in terms of their: relative and absolute amplitude; duration; time to maximum concentration; asymmetry; percentile flow and in-stream residence time. The median diurnal cycle showed an amplitude that was 9.2% of the starting concentration; it was not significantly asymmetric; and occurred at the 19th percentile flow. The median DOC removal rate was 0.07 mg C/l/hr with an inter-quartile range of 0.052-0.100 mg C/l/hr. Results were interpreted as controlled by two, separate, zero-order kinetic rate laws, one for the day and one for the night. There was no single diurnal cycle present across the record, rather a number of different cycles controlled by the combination of in-stream residence time and exposure to contrasting light conditions. Over the 3-year period the average in-stream loss of DOC was 32%. The diurnal cycles evident in high resolution DOC data are interpretable, but require contextual information for their influence on in-stream processes to be understood or for them to be utilised.

  17. Science, Uncertainty, and Adaptive Management in Large River Restoration Programs: Trinity River example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBain, S.

    2002-12-01

    Following construction of Trinity and Lewiston dams on the upper Trinity River in 1964, dam induced changes to streamflows and sediment regime had severely simplified channel morphology and aquatic habitat downstream of the dams. This habitat change, combined with blocked access to over 100 miles of salmon and steelhead habitat upstream of the dams, caused salmon and steelhead populations to quickly plummet. An instream flow study was initiated in 1984 to address the flow needs to restore the fishery, and this study relied on the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) Model to quantify instream flow needs. In 1992, geomorphic and riparian studies were integrated into the instream flow study, with the overall study completed in 1999 (USFWS 1999). This 13-year process continued through three presidential administrations, several agency managers, and many turnovers of the agency technical staff responsible for conducting the study. This process culminated in 1996-1998 when a group of scientists were convened to integrate all the studies and data to produce the final instream flow study document. This 13-year, non-linear process, resulted in many uncertainties that could not be resolved in the short amount of time allowed for completing the instream flow study document. Shortly after completion of the instream flow study document, the Secretary of Interior issued a Record of Decision to implement the recommendations contained in the instream flow study document. The uncertainties encountered as the instream flow study report was prepared were highlighted in the report, and the Record of Decision initiated an Adaptive Environmental Assessment and Management program to address these existing uncertainties and improve future river management. There have been many lessons learned going through this process, and the presentation will summarize: 1)The progression of science used to develop the instream flow study report; 2)How the scientists preparing the report addressed

  18. Simulation of groundwater flow and streamflow depletion in the Branch Brook, Merriland River, and parts of the Mousam River watersheds in southern Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Locke, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    The study evaluated two different methods of calculating in-stream flow requirements for Branch Brook and the Merriland River—a set of statewide equations used to calculate monthly median flows and the MOVE.1 record-extension technique used on site-specific streamflow measurements. The August median in-stream flow requirement in the Merriland River was calculated as 7.18 ft3/s using the statewide equations but was 3.07 ft3/s using the MOVE.1 analysis. In Branch Brook, the August median in-stream flow requirements were calculated as 20.3 ft3/s using the statewide equations and 11.8 ft3/s using the MOVE.1 analysis. In each case, using site-specific data yields an estimate of in-stream flow that is much lower than an estimate the statewide equations provide.

  19. In-stream sorption of fulvic acid in an acidic stream: A stream-scale transport experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Hornberger, G.M.; Bencala, K.E.; Boyer, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    The variation of concentration and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in stream waters cannot be explained solely on the basis of soil processes in contributing subcatchments. To investigate in-stream processes that control DOC, we injected DOC-enriched water into a reach of the Snake River (Summit County, Colorado) that has abundant iron oxyhydroxides coating the streambed. The injected water was obtained from the Suwannee River (Georgia), which is highly enriched in fulvic acid. The fulvic acid from this water is the standard reference for aquatic fulvic acid for the International Humic Substances Society and has been well characterized. During the experimental injection, significant removal of sorbable fulvic acid occurred within the first 141 m of stream reach. We coinjected a conservative tracer (lithium chloride) and analyzed the results with the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage (OTIS) stream solute transport model to quantify the physical transport mechanisms. The downstream transport of fulvic acid as indicated by absorbance was then simulated using OTIS with a first-order kinetic sorption rate constant applied to the sorbable fulvic acid. The "sorbable" fraction of injected fulvic acid was irreversibly sorbed by streambed sediments at rates (kinetic rate constants) of the order of 10-4-10-3 S-1. In the injected Suwannee River water, sorbable and nonsorbable fulvic acid had distinct chemical characteristics identified in 13C-NMR spectra. The 13C-NMR spectra indicate that during the experiment, the sorbable "signal" of greater aromaticity and carboxyl content decreased downstream; that is, these components were preferentially removed. This study illustrates that interactions between the water and the reactive surfaces will modify significantly the concentration and composition of DOC observed in streams with abundant chemically reactive surfaces on the streambed and in the hyporheic zone.

  20. Influence of instream habitat and water quality on aggressive behavior in crayfish of channelized headwater streams

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many agricultural drainage ditches that border farm fields of the Midwestern United States are degraded headwater streams that possess communities of crayfish. We hypothesized that crayfish communities at sites with low instream habitat diversity and poor water quality would show greater evidence of...

  1. Dissolved phosphorus retention and release from southeastern USA Coastal Plain in-stream wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the southeastern USA Coastal Plain region, many inland surface water systems will meander through flat or depressional landscape areas prior to discharge into coastal estuaries. Slow water flow through these areas often causes flooding that promotes formation of in-stream wetlands with dense vege...

  2. Storm and hurricane disturbances on phosphorus storage within an in-stream wetland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of wetlands to hold phosphorus (P) makes them and important landscape feature that help to protect water quality. However, their ability to retain P can be affected through hydrologic disturbances caused by both storms and flooding. An animal waste impacted in-stream wetland (ISW) locate...

  3. Instream Large Wood: Dentrification Hotspots With Low N2O Production

    EPA Science Inventory

    The maintenance and restoration of forested riparian cover is important for watershed nitrogen (N) cycling. Forested riparian zones provide woody debris to streams that may stimulate in-stream denitrification and nitrous oxide (N2O) production. We examined the effects of woody an...

  4. Winter ice processes and pool habitat associated with two types of constructed instream structures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrineau, C.E.; Hubert, W.A.; Dey, P.D.; Annear, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    There is little information on the winter features of salmonid habitats associated with constructed instream structures to provide guidance when planning habitat improvement projects. We assessed winter habitat features for trout of the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus in pools associated with two types of instream structures constructed on a low-gradient reach of a mountain stream in western Wyoming with a mean wetted width of 6.4 m. Pool habitat was affected by temporal variability in ice formations from fall into winter. As surface ice and snow accumulated with the progression of winter, variation in ice formations was less frequent and winter habitat conditions became more stable. However, groundwater inflow that maintained water temperatures at 0.2-0.6??C in a portion of the study reach appeared to contribute to incomplete surface ice cover and variation in ice formations in pools through most of the winter. Hanging dams and anchor ice dams were the primary ice features that affected winter habitat in pools associated with constructed instream structures. Trout were observed in these pools in the fall but tended to abandon pools with variation in ice formations as winter progressed. The potential impacts of groundwater inflow and winter ice processes on trout habitat in pools associated with instream structures should be considered when planning habitat improvement projects. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  5. Assessment of In-Stream Phosphorus Dynamics in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The intensive row crop agricultural systems in the Midwestern United States can enrich surface waters with nutrients. This project was conducted to evaluate the in-stream processing of P in agricultural ditches. Phosphorus injection studies were conducted at seven sites along three drainage ditches ...

  6. EVALUATION OF STREAMBANK RESTORATION ON IN-STREAM WATER QUALITY IN AN URBAN WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of this on-going project are to: investigate the effectiveness of streambank restoration techniques on increasing available biological habitat and improving in-stream water quality in an impaired stream; and, demonstrate the utility of continuous water-quality moni...

  7. EFFECTS OF STREAM RESTORATION ON IN-STREAM WATER QUALITY IN AN URBAN WATERSHED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this on-going project is to provide information to Municipal Separate Storm Sewer System (MS4s) operators and states on the performance of selected best management practices (BMPs), specifically, stream restoration techniques, on improving biological and in-stream ...

  8. Aquatic habitat measurement and valuation: imputing social benefits to instream flow levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Instream flow conflicts have been analysed from the perspectives offered by policy oriented applied (physical) science, theories of conflict resolution and negotiation strategy, and psychological analyses of the behavior patterns of the bargaining parties. Economics also offers some useful insights in analysing conflict resolution within the context of these water allocation problems. We attempt to analyse the economics of the bargaining process in conjunction with a discussion of the water allocation process. In particular, we examine in detail the relation between certain habitat estimation techniques, and the socially optimal allocation of non-market resources. The results developed here describe the welfare implications implicit in the contemporary general equilibrium analysis of a competitive market economy. We also review certain currently available techniques for assigning dollar values to the social benefits of instream flow. The limitations of non-market valuation techniques with respect to estimating the benefits provided by instream flows and the aquatic habitat contingent on these flows should not deter resource managers from using economic analysis as a basic tool for settling instream flow conflicts.

  9. The First Hydrology (Geoscience) Degree at a Tribal College or University: Salish Kootenai College

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesser, G.; Berthelote, A. R.

    2010-12-01

    A new Hydrology Degree Program was developed at Salish and Kootenai College in western Montana. This program will begin to address the fact that our nation only awards 20 to 30 Geoscience degrees annually to Native American students. Previously absent from SKC and the other 36 Tribal Colleges or Universities (TCU) Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related programs are specific Geoscience disciplines, particularly those focusing on hydrological and water based sciences. Though 23 TCU’s offer some classes to supplement their environmental science or natural resource programs. This program is timely and essential for addressing the concerns that Native Americans have who maintain sovereignty over approximately 20% of our nation’s fresh water resources which are becoming more stressed each year. The overall objective of this new SKC Hydrology degree program is to produce students who are able to “give voice” to the perspectives of Native peoples on natural resources and particularly water-related issues, including water rights, agriculture, environmental health (related to water), beliefs and spirituality related to water, and sustainability of water resources. It will provide the opportunity for interdisciplinary study in physical, chemical, and biological water resources and their management. Students will gain theoretical, conceptual, computational, and practical knowledge/experiences in quantifying, monitoring, qualifying, and managing today’s water resource challenges with particular emphasis on Tribal lands. Completion of the Associate of Science Degree will provide the student with the necessary skills to work as a hydrology- water quality- or geo-technician within the Reservation area, the U. S. Forest Service, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of Reclamation, the United States Geological Society, and other earth science disciplines. The Bachelor’s Degree program provides students with a broad-based theoretical

  10. Partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes: Establishing an Advisory Committee for Pharmacogenetic Research

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Chelsea T.; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Howlett, Kevin; Azure, Bernie; Bodnar, Brenda; Finley, Vernon; Incashola, Tony; Mathias, Cheryl; Laukes, Cindi; Beatty, Patrick; Burke, Wylie; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Trinidad, Susan Brown; James, Rosalina; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inclusion of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in pharmacogenetic research is key if the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing are to reach these communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage these communities in pharmacogenetics. Objectives An academic-community partnership between the University of Montana and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) was established to engage the community as partners and advisors in pharmacogenetic research. Methods A community advisory committee, the Community Pharmacogenetics Advisory Council (CPAC), was established to ensure community involvement in the research process. To promote bidirectional learning, researchers gave workshops and presentations about pharmacogenetic research to increase research capacity and CPAC members trained researchers in cultural competencies. As part of our commitment to a sustainable relationship, we conducted a self-assessment of the partnership, which included surveys and interviews with CPAC members and researchers. Results Academic and community participants agree that the partnership has promoted a bidirectional exchange of knowledge. Interviews showed positive feedback from the perspectives of both the CPAC and researchers. CPAC members discussed their trust in and support of the partnership as well as having learned more about research processes and pharmacogenetics. Researchers discussed their appreciation of CPAC involvement in the project and guidance the group provided in understanding the CSKT community and culture. Discussion We have created an academic-community partnership to ensure CSKT community input and to share decision-making about pharmacogenetic research. Our CBPR approach may be a model for engaging AI/AN people, and other underserved populations, in genetic research. PMID:27346763

  11. In-stream uptake dampens effects of major forest disturbance on watershed nitrogen export.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, E S; Likens, G E; Buso, D C; Driscoll, C T

    2003-09-02

    Between January 4 and 10, 1998, a severe ice storm impacted large areas of northern New York, New England, and eastern Canada. This storm struck the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire on January 7-8, 1998, and caused extensive forest crown damage (>30%) in a narrow elevation band (600-740 m) across the south-facing experimental watersheds. Stream water has been collected and chemically analyzed since 1963 in six experimental watersheds at Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest; thus, we were able to examine the effect of this severe natural disturbance on watershed nutrient export and changes in instream nitrate (NO3-) processing. The ice storm caused large increases in watershed export of NO3- for 2 years after the disturbance, but our examination of in-stream processing suggests that NO3- losses would have been much more dramatic had there not been an increase in in-stream, nitrogen-processing efficiency after the ice storm. The canopy damage that resulted from the ice storm led to increased light availability and large inputs of woody debris to the stream. We suspect that increases in algal production and storage and processing of terrestrial litter account for the increase in inorganic nitrogen processing in these streams. Our results indicate that, without in-stream processing, export of NO3- from the damaged watersheds would have been 80-140% higher than was observed. These results point to an intriguing negative feedback mechanism whereby the same disturbance that causes watershed NO3- loss may simultaneously lead to increased in-stream retention and transformation.

  12. Opportunities to protect instream flows and wetland uses of water in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkardt, Nina

    1990-01-01

    This document combines the efforts of several individuals, agencies, and organizations toward a common objective: the identification, description, and preliminary evaluation of promising opportunities for protecting instream uses of water under existing laws in Florida. this report is intended for the use of State and Federal planning and management personnel who need an overview of potential opportunities for preserving instream flows. It is not intended to replace or challenge the advice of agency counsel, nor is it written to provide legal advice. Instead, it is designed as a guide for the person trying to find his way among sometimes bewildering State statutes and administrative practices. This report is not, and should not be taken as, official policy or prediction of future actions by any agency. It is simply a summary of some potential opportunities for protecting instream uses. Toward these objectives, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, through its Water Resource Analysis Project, contracted in 1977 with R. Dewsnup and D. Jensen to identify available strategies under State and Federal laws, interstate compacts, and water quality laws. A second firm, Enviro Control, Inc., was contracted to evaluate the most promising strategies. The resulting documents reported instream flow strategies for 11 States. These reports have been revised, updated, and combined in a number of new monographs, and the Service has added more States to this service over the years. The discussion of instream flow programs and opportunities for each State is written so that each report can be read independently, with minimal cross-referencing from one State report to another. The opportunities for Florida are summarized in the table.

  13. Historic evidence for a link between riparian vegetation and bank erosion in the context of instream habitat restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salant, N.; Baillie, M. B.; Schmidt, J. C.; Intermountain CenterRiver Rehabilitation; Restoration

    2010-12-01

    An analysis of historic aerial photographs of the upper Strawberry River, Utah, demonstrates that rates of lateral bank erosion peaked with the loss of riparian cover during periods of willow removal for livestock grazing. Erosion rates have declined over the past two decades, concurrent with the removal of livestock grazing, modest increases in riparian cover, and the return of natural flows. Contrary to perception, present-day erosion rates are actually lower than pre-disturbance rates. Recent restoration activities to stabilize stream banks were based on the assumption that high erosion rates were contributing excess sediment to the streambed and degrading spawning gravels. However, our results show that while the historic loss of riparian vegetation contributed to an increase in bank erosion rates, bank erosion rates were not high prior to restoration. Furthermore, streambed samples show that the percentage of fine sediment in the substrate is insufficient to have a significant biological impact, supporting the finding that present-day bank erosion rates are not excessive relative to pre-disturbance rates. Current bank stabilization efforts were therefore motivated by a limited understanding of system conditions and history, suggesting that these restoration activities are unnecessary and misconceived. Our results demonstrate the large influence of riparian vegetation on bank erosion and instream habitat, as well as the importance of incorporating system history into restoration design.

  14. Computational Modeling of River Flow, Sediment Transport, and Bed Evolution Using Remotely Sensed Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    the best-fit correlation shown in (c). 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 0.4 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 Trinity River: optical depth retrieval log...collection effort, probably a bathymetric LiDAR effort on the Kootenai River near Bonner’s Ferry, Idaho. Detailed multibeam acoustic surveys already...depth itself, with large errors (lower resolution) found at deeper depths. Shadows and other spatial varying optical effects can significantly degrade

  15. The burial of headwater streams in drainage pipes reduces in-stream nitrate retention: results from two US metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Mayer, P. M.; Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Arango, C. P.; Balz, D. A.; Fritz, K. M.; Golden, H. E.; Knightes, C. D.

    2012-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) retention in stream networks is an important ecosystem service that may be affected by the widespread burial of headwater streams in urban watersheds. Stream burial occurs when segments of a channel are encased in drainage pipe and buried beneath the land surface to facilitate above ground development or stormwater runoff. We predicted that burial suppresses the capacity of streams to retain and transform nitrate, the dominate form of bioavailable N in urban streams, by eliminating primary production, reducing respiration rates, and decreasing water residence time. We tested these predictions by measuring whole-stream nitrate (NO3-) removal rates using 15NO3- isotope tracer releases in reaches that were buried and open to the sunlight in three streams in Cincinnati, Ohio and three streams in Baltimore, Maryland during four seasons. Nitrate uptake lengths in buried reaches (range: 560 - 43,650 m) were 2-98 times greater than open reaches exposed to daylight (range: 85 - 7195 m), indicating that buried reaches were substantially less effective at retaining NO3- than open reaches. Nitrate retention in buried reaches was suppressed by a combination of hydrological and biological processes. High water velocities in buried reaches (buried= 5.8 m/s, open=1.48 m/s) rapidly exported NO3- from the channel, reducing the potential for in-stream NO3- retention. Uptake lengths in the buried reaches were lengthened further by low in-stream biological NO3- demand, as indicated by NO3- uptake velocities 16-fold lower than that of the open reaches. Similarly, buried reaches had lower ecosystem respiration rates than open reaches (buried=1.5g O2/m2/hr, open=4.5g O2/m2/hr), likely due to lower organic matter standing stocks (buried=12 gAFMD/m2, open=48 gAFDM/m2). Biological activity in the buried reaches was further suppressed by the absence of light which precluded photosynthetic activity and the associated assimilative N demand. Overall, our results demonstrate that the

  16. Irrigation and Instream Management under Drought Conditions using Probabilistic Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviedo-Salcedo, D. M.; Cai, X.; Valocchi, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    It is well-known that river-aquifer flux exchange may be an important control on low flow condition in a stream. Moreover, the connections between streams and underlying formations can be spatially variable due to geological heterogeneity and landscape topography. For example, during drought seasons, farming activities may induce critical peak pumping rates to supply irrigation water needs for crops, and this leads to increased concerns about reductions in baseflow and adverse impacts upon riverine ecosystems. Quantitative management of the subsurface water resources is a required key component in this particular human-nature interaction system to evaluate the tradeoffs between irrigation for agriculture and the ecosystems low flow requirements. This work presents an optimization scheme developed upon the systems reliability-based design optimization -SRBDO- analysis, which accounts for prescribed probabilistic constraint evaluation. This approach can provide optimal solutions in the presence of uncertainty with a higher level of confidence. In addition, the proposed methodology quantifies and controls the risk of failure. SRBDO have been developed in the aerospace industry and extensively applied in the field of structural engineering, but has only seen limited application in the field of hydrology. SRBDO uses probability theory to model uncertainty and to determine the probability of failure by solving a mathematical nonlinear programming problem. Furthermore, the reliability-based design optimization provides a complete and detailed insight of the relative importance of each random variable involved in the application, in this case the surface -groundwater coupled system. Importance measures and sensitivity analyses of both, random variables and probability distribution function parameters are integral components of the system reliability analysis. Therefore, with this methodology it is possible to assess the contribution of each uncertain variable on the total

  17. Ground-Water Flow Model for the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer, Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hsieh, Paul A.; Barber, Michael E.; Contor, Bryce A.; Hossain, Md. Akram; Johnson, Gary S.; Jones, Joseph L.; Wylie, Allan H.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents a computer model of ground-water flow in the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer in Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho. The aquifer is the sole source of drinking water for more than 500,000 residents in the area. In response to the concerns about the impacts of increased ground-water withdrawals resulting from recent and projected urban growth, a comprehensive study was initiated by the Idaho Department of Water Resources, the Washington Department of Ecology, and the U.S. Geological Survey to improve the understanding of ground-water flow in the aquifer and of the interaction between ground water and surface water. The ground-water flow model presented in this report is one component of this comprehensive study. The primary purpose of the model is to serve as a tool for analyzing aquifer inflows and outflows, simulating the effects of future changes in ground-water withdrawals from the aquifer, and evaluating aquifer management strategies. The scale of the model and the level of detail are intended for analysis of aquifer-wide water-supply issues. The SVRP aquifer model was developed by the Modeling Team formed within the comprehensive study. The Modeling Team consisted of staff and personnel working under contract with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, personnel working under contract with the Washington Department of Ecology, and staff of the U.S. Geological Survey. To arrive at a final model that has the endorsement of all team members, decisions on modeling approach, methodology, assumptions, and interpretations were reached by consensus. The ground-water flow model MODFLOW-2000 was used to simulate ground-water flow in the SVPR aquifer. The finite-difference model grid consists of 172 rows, 256 columns, and 3 layers. Ground-water flow was simulated from September 1990 through September 2005 using 181 stress periods of 1 month each. The areal extent of the model encompasses an area of

  18. Riparian and in-stream controls on nutrient concentrations and fluxes in a headwater forested stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, S.; Lupon, A.; Ribot, M.; Sabater, F.; Martí, E.

    2015-03-01

    Headwater streams are recipients of water sources draining through terrestrial ecosystems. At the same time, stream biota can transform and retain nutrients dissolved in stream water. Yet studies considering simultaneously these two sources of variation in stream nutrient chemistry are rare. To fill this gap of knowledge, we analyzed stream water and riparian groundwater concentrations and fluxes as well as in-stream net uptake rates for nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) along a 3.7 km reach on an annual basis. Chloride concentrations (used as conservative tracer) indicated a strong hydrological connection at the riparian-stream interface. However, stream and riparian groundwater nutrient concentrations showed a moderate to null correlation, suggesting high in-stream biogeochemical processing. In-stream net nutrient uptake (Fsw) was highly variable across contiguous segments and over time, but its temporal variation was not related to the vegetative period of the riparian forest. For NH4+, the occurrence of Fsw > 0 μg N m-1 s-1 (gross uptake > release) was high along the reach, while for NO3-, the occurrence of Fsw < 0 μg N m-1 s-1 (gross uptake < release) increased along the reach. Within segments and dates, Fsw, whether negative or positive, accounted for a median of 6, 18, and 20% of the inputs of NO3-, NH4+, and SRP, respectively. Whole-reach mass balance calculations indicated that in-stream net uptake reduced stream NH4+ flux up to 90%, while the stream acted mostly as a source of NO3- and SRP. During the dormant period, concentrations decreased along the reach for NO3-, but increased for NH4+ and SRP. During the vegetative period, NH4+ decreased, SRP increased, and NO3- showed a U-shaped pattern along the reach. These longitudinal trends resulted from the combination of hydrological mixing with terrestrial inputs and in-stream nutrient processing. Therefore, the assessment of these two sources of variation in stream

  19. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream

  20. In-stream Physical Heterogeneity, Rainfall Aided Flushing, and Discharge on Stream Water Quality.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Pattiyage I A; Wai, Onyx W H

    2015-08-01

    Implications of instream physical heterogeneity, rainfall-aided flushing, and stream discharge on water quality control have been investigated in a headwater stream of a climatic region that has contrasting dry and wet seasons. Dry (low flow) season's physical heterogeneity showed a positive correlation with good water quality. However, in the wet season, physical heterogeneity showed minor or no significance on water quality variations. Furthermore, physical heterogeneity appeared to be more complementary with good water quality subsequent to rainfall events. In many cases stream discharge was a reason for poor water quality. For the dry season, graywater inputs to the stream could be held responsible. In the wet season, it was probably the result of catchment level disturbances (e.g., regulation of ephemeral freshwater paths). Overall, this study revealed the importance of catchment-based approaches on water quality improvement in tandem with in-stream approaches framed on a temporal scale.

  1. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Pink salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raleigh, Robert F.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  2. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Inland stocks of striped bass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crance, Johnie H.

    1984-01-01

    The Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and instream flow Suitability Index (SI) presented in this publication aid in identifying important variables that determine the quality of striped bass habitat. Facts, ideas, and opinions obtained from published and unpublished reports, a Delphi panel of 18 striped bass experts/authorities, and the Striped Bass Committee, Southern Division, American Fisheries Society, are synthesized and presented in a format that can be used for habitat impact assessment and development of management alternatives.

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models and Instream Flow Suitability Curves: Chum salmon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, Stephen S.; McMahon, Thomas E.; Nelson, Patrick C.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model and instream flow suitability curves for the chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. Instream water use in the United States: water laws and methods for determining flow requirements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, Berton L.; Doerksen, Harvey R.

    1987-01-01

    Water use generally is divided into two primary classes - offstream use and instream use. In offstream use, sometimes called out-of-stream or diversionary use, water is withdrawn (diverted) from a stream or aquifer and transported to the place of use. Examples are irrigated agriculture, municipal water supply, and industrial use. Each of these offstream uses, which decreases the volume of water available downstream from the point of diversion, is discussed in previous articles in this volume. Instream use, which generally does not diminish the flow downstream from its point of use, and its importance are described in this article. One of the earliest instream uses of water in the United States was to turn the water wheels that powered much of the Nation's industry in the 18th and 19th centuries. Although a small volume of water might have been diverted to a mill near streamside, that water usually was returned to the stream near the point of diversion and, thus, the flow was not diminished downstream from the mill. Over time, the generation of hydroelectric power replaced mill wheels as a means of converting water flow into energy. Since the 1920's, the generation of hydroelectric power increasingly has become a major instream use of water. By 1985, more than 3 billion acre-feet of water (3,050,000 million gallons per day) was used annually for hydropower generation (Solley and others, 1988, p. 45)-enough water to cover the State of Colorado to a depth of 51 feet. Navigation is another instream use with a long history. The Lewis and Clark expedition journals and many of Mark Twain's novels illustrate the extent to which the Nation originally depended on adequate streamfiows for basic transportation. Navigation in the 1980's is still considered to be an instream use; however, it often is based upon a stream system that has been modified greatly through channelization, diking, and construction of dams and locks. The present (1987) inland water navigation system in

  5. Watershed structure, stream network geometry, and kinetic influences on instream nutrient retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallard, J. M.; McGlynn, B. L.; Covino, T. P.; Bergstrom, A.

    2011-12-01

    Stream network nutrient dynamics are a function of both physical and biological processes. Stream water and associated nutrients are exchanged with groundwater while instream nutrients can also be retained by biological processes that are kinetically controlled. To date the integration of these physical and biological processes at the reach and network scales have been limited. However, watershed and stream network-scale assessment of where and to what degree groundwater surface water exchange (hydrologic turnover), concentration-variable biological uptake, and the interaction between the two modify stream water nutrient concentrations is critical for understanding basic watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry. To address this challenge, we developed an empirically-based network scale model to simulate hydrologic turnover and concentration-dependent nutrient uptake kinetics. Exchange and uptake parameters were determined using conservative and nutrient tracer addition experiments in the Bull Trout Watershed, central Idaho, USA. Our model allowed us to examine the interacting roles of physical and biological drivers of instream nutrient dynamics. We found that the interaction of hydrologic turnover and concentration-variable uptake combined to modify and subsequently stabilize instream concentrations, with specific concentrations dependent on the magnitude of hydrologic turnover, groundwater concentrations, and the shape of stream nutrient uptake kinetic curves.

  6. Temporal dynamics between cattle in-stream presence and suspended solids in a headwater catchment.

    PubMed

    Terry, Julie A; McW H Benskin, Clare; Eastoe, Emma F; Haygarth, Philip M

    2014-07-01

    Cattle in-stream activity is potentially an important contributor to water pollution from agriculture. Here we present research on the physical movements of cattle within a stream on suspended solid concentrations (SSC). This study used camera surveillance to monitor the in-stream activity of dairy cattle in an unfenced reach over a four-month period. Results were compared against high-resolution SSC data. Over the days that cattle grazed the field, 57.9% of the instances when SSC crossed the 25 mg l(-1) Freshwater Fish Directive guideline threshold can be attributed to cattle presence in the stream. Flow was the main driver of total sediments transported over the study period, and no relationship was found between SSC and the absolute number of cattle feet in the water. Hysteresis analysis indicated a 'first-flush' of local sediments rapidly mobilised during the non-cattle related SSC events, a result of cattle proximity to channel margins. Results demonstrate a temporal lag between cattle in-stream presence and a critical amount of their contribution to sediment load, and that monitoring only instantaneously with cattle activity may lead to underestimation of their pollution impact.

  7. Instream sand and gravel mining: Environmental issues and regulatory process in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meador, M.R.; Layher, A.O.

    1998-01-01

    Sand and gravel are widely used throughout the U.S. construction industry, but their extraction can significantly affect the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of mined streams. Fisheries biologists often find themselves involved in the complex environmental and regulatory issues related to instream sand and gravel mining. This paper provides an overview of information presented in a symposium held at the 1997 midyear meeting of the Southern Division of the American Fisheries Society in San Antonio, Texas, to discuss environmental issues and regulatory procedures related to instream mining. Conclusions from the symposium suggest that complex physicochemical and biotic responses to disturbance such as channel incision and alteration of riparian vegetation ultimately determine the effects of instream mining. An understanding of geomorphic processes can provide insight into the effects of mining operations on stream function, and multidisciplinary empirical studies are needed to determine the relative effects of mining versus other natural and human-induced stream alterations. Mining regulations often result in a confusing regulatory process complicated, for example, by the role of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has undergone numerous changes and remains unclear. Dialogue among scientists, miners, and regulators can provide an important first step toward developing a plan that integrates biology and politics to protect aquatic resources.

  8. Assessing possible thermal rearing restrictions for juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) through thermal infrared imaging and in-stream monitoring, Redwood Creek, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madej, M.A.; Currens, C.; Ozaki, V.; Yee, J.; Anderson, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    We quantified patterns in stream temperature in a northern coastal California river using thermal infrared (TIR) imaging and in-stream monitoring and related temperature patterns to the historical and present distributions of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). In Redwood Creek, California, water temperature increased from the headwaters to about 60 km downstream, then gradually decreased over the next 40 km as the river approaches the Pacific Ocean. Despite the lack of fish migration barriers, juvenile coho are currently only observed in the downstream-most 20 km, whereas historically they were found in 90 km of river channel. Maximum daily temperatures and duration of elevated stream temperatures were not significantly different in the headwater and downstream reaches but were significantly higher in the 50 km long intervening reach, where maximum weekly maximum temperatures ranged from 23 to 27??C. An increase in stream temperatures in the middle basin during the last three decades as a result of channel aggradation, widening, and the removal of large riparian conifers may play an important role in restricting juvenile coho to one-fifth of their historical range. ?? 2006 NRC.

  9. River flow regimes and vegetation dynamics along a river transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doulatyari, Behnam; Basso, Stefano; Schirmer, Mario; Botter, Gianluca

    2014-11-01

    Ecohydrological processes occurring within fluvial landscapes are strongly affected by natural streamflow variability. In this work the patterns of vegetation biomass in two rivers characterized by contrasting flow regimes were investigated by means of a comprehensive stochastic model which explicitly couples catchment-scale hydroclimatic processes, morphologic attributes of the river transect and in-stream bio-ecological features. The hydrologic forcing is characterized by the probability distribution (pdf) of streamflows and stages resulting from stochastic precipitation dynamics, rainfall-runoff transformation and reach scale morphologic attributes. The model proved able to reproduce the observed pdf of river flows and stages, as well as the pattern of exposure/inundation along the river transect in both regimes. Our results suggest that in persistent regimes characterized by reduced streamflow variability, mean vegetation biomass is chiefly controlled by the pattern of groundwater availability along the transect, leading to a marked transition between aquatic and terrestrial environments. Conversely, erratic regimes ensure wider aquatic-terrestrial zones in which optimal elevation ranges for species with different sensitivity to flooding and access to groundwater are separated. Patterns of mean biomass in erratic regimes were found to be more sensitive to changes in the underlying hydroclimatic conditions, notwithstanding the reduced responsiveness of the corresponding flow regimes. The framework developed highlights the important role played by streamflow regimes in shaping riverine environments, and may eventually contribute to identifying the influence of landscape, climate and morphologic features on in-stream ecological dynamics.

  10. Is in-stream macrophyte growth predictable and what are its impacts on channel-averaged flow characteristics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, David N.; Thomas, Robert E.; Keevil, Gareth M.; Parsons, Daniel R.; Hardy, Richard J.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how the growth of aquatic vegetation impacts stage-discharge coupling is vital for river management planning. This study presents an annual record of monthly spatial distribution surveys of the in-stream macrophyte Ranunculus penicillatus coupled with channel form and flow velocity measurements, within a 50 m-long reach of a gravel-bed river. Whereas stage has varied by up to 0.4 m, there has been little change in channel form over the monitoring period (ongoing since 23/07/2014). Macrophyte growth continued from the start of the monitoring period until October 2014 when mean patch area was 6.74 m2, and then decreased throughout a decay phase until January 2015 when mean patch area was 1.12 m2. There was a 75.2% loss of macrophyte surface area between October 2014 and January 2015. The largest patches that remained in January 2015 continued to decay until February. Conversely, new macrophyte patches also began to recolonize the channel during this time. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of a transition period during which aquatic vegetation is in both decay and recolonization phases simultaneously. In total 69% of patches present in January exhibited regrowth without further decay to form a base for recolonization. Therefore, the spatial distribution of macrophyte patches could be determined to be somewhat persistent. Despite this, due to several different growth factors, there are recognisable differences in both macrophyte patch shape and distribution when comparing data from July 2014 and July 2015, emphasising the unpredictability of macrophyte growth. The decay period of the Ranunculus p. coincided with seasonal high discharges in this catchment. Discharge remained high from January until March 2015, but then began to decrease, reflecting annual peaks in historical records for the study area. Large discharge variations were not matched by a large stage range. Displacement of water by vegetation growth maintained the stage height when

  11. Floodplain phosphorus distribution in an agricultural watershed and its role in contributing to in-stream phosphorus load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustakidis, Iordanis Vlasios

    This thesis presents an experimental study, both in the field and laboratory to cast more light on the primary role of the river floodplains in releasing and/or removing total-P to/from the in-stream load, under high runoff and flood conditions, by investigating the soil total-P spatial and vertical deposition patterns and topsoil erodibility, along the three (3) main river sections (e.g., headwaters, transfer and deposition zones) of an agricultural watershed, such as the Turkey River (TR). In soils, phosphorus, P, primarily exists as sediment-bound and less often as dissolved. During wet hydrological years, soil erosion and surface runoff are the main P release and transport mechanisms, while during dry hydrological years, P leaches to the deeper soil levels and is transported to freshwaters through groundwater discharge. In between the upland areas and the river network, there is a buffer zone, known as floodplain that regulates the flux exchanges between these two watershed components. Floodplains play an essential role in the riverine system health by supporting important physical and biochemical processes and improving the water quality downstream. These characteristics have led to the conclusion that floodplains primarily act as sinks for P. However, floodplains are subject to erosion as well, where soil particles along with the attached P are removed from the topsoil or enter re-suspension, under high runoff and flood conditions. The study provides an insight into the soil total-P deposition patterns across the floodplains of five (5) identified field sites and couples them with topsoil erodibility to eventually address the research objectives, which can be summarized as follows: (i) investigation of the soil total-P spatial and vertical variability across the floodplains along the main river zones and development of relationships between P variability and soil physical properties (e.g., soil texture); (ii) identification and characterization of the soil

  12. Modeling hyporheic exchange and in-stream transport with time-varying transit time distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, A.; Harman, C. J.; Ward, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    Transit time distributions (TTD) are used to understand in-stream transport and exchange with the hyporheic zone by quantifying the probability of water (and of dissolved material) taking time T to traverse the stream reach control volume. However, many studies using this method assume a TTD that is time-invariant, despite the time-variability of the streamflow. Others assume that storage is 'randomly sampled' or 'well-mixed' with a fixed volume or fixed exchange rate. Here we present a formulation for a time-variable TTD that relaxes both the time-invariant and 'randomly sampled' assumptions and only requires a few parameters. The framework is applied to transient storage, representing some combination of in-stream and hyporheic storage, along a stream reach. This approach does not assume that hyporheic and dead-zone storage is fixed or temporally-invariant, and allows for these stores to be sampled in more physically representative ways determined by the system itself. Instead of using probability distributions of age, probability distributions of storage (ranked by age) called Ω functions are used to describe how the off-stream storage is sampled in the outflow. Here the Ω function approach is used to describe hyporheic exchange during diurnal fluctuations in streamflow in a gaining reach of the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. The breakthrough curves of salt slugs injected four hours apart over a 28-hour period show a systematic variation in transit time distribution. This new approach allows us to relate these salt slug TTDs to a corresponding time-variation in the Ω function, which can then be related to changes in in-stream storage and hyporheic zone mobilization under varying flow conditions. Thus, we can gain insights into how channel storage and hyporheic exchange are changing through time without having to specify difficult to measure or unmeasurable quantities of our system, such as total storage.

  13. Columbia River System Operation Review : Final Environmental Impact Statement, Main Report Exhibits.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River System Operation Review

    1995-11-01

    This Volume is a part of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Columbia River System. This volume contains technical exhibits of cultural resources and commentary on the (System Operation Review) SOR process. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation comment is the majority of the material in the volume, in the Consultation Plan, Identification of trust resources; Criteria for the selection of a System Operating Strategy; comment on rights protection and implementation of Federal Trust responsibility; analysis of the draft EIS. Comment by other Native American Tribes and groups is also included: Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; Spokane Tribe of Indians; Coeur d` Alene tribe.

  14. IVERINE FLOW OBSERVATIONS AND MODELING: Sensitivity of Delft3D River Model to Bathymetric Variability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    equipped backpack and with an echosounder-equipped electric kayak . The meandering reach (Figure 2) is a deep (~10m) channel with flows around 0.5m/s...Kootenai River, ID on 12-16 August 2010. The study reach contained a number of natural channel features, such as a pool-riffle sequence and bank...irregularities, which influence transverse mixing. The dye was released at a constant rate for one hour from a kayak fixed in the center of the channel

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Vertical Stability and Gravel Transport along the Umpqua River, Southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, Jim E.; Wallick, J. Rose; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Cannon, Charles; Anderson, Scott W.

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses physical channel issues related to instream gravel mining on the Umpqua River and its two primary tributaries, the North and South Umpqua Rivers. This analysis constitutes a 'Phase I' investigation, as designated by an interagency team cochaired by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, and the Oregon Department of State Lands to address instream gravel mining issues across Oregon. Phase I analyses rely primarily on existing datasets and cursory analysis to determine the vertical stability of a channel to ascertain whether a particular river channel is aggrading, degrading, or at equilibrium. Additionally, a Phase I analysis identifies other critical issues or questions pertinent to physical channel conditions that may be related to instream gravel mining activities. This analysis can support agency permitting decisions as well as possibly indicating the need for additional studies. This specific analysis focuses on the mainstem Umpqua River from the Pacific Ocean at River Mile (RM) 0 to the confluence of the North and South Umpqua Rivers (at RM 111.8), as well as the lower 29 mi of the North Umpqua River and the lower 80 mi of the South Umpqua River (fig. 1). It is within these reaches where mining of gravel bars for aggregate has been most prevalent.

  16. Technical Note: Alternative in-stream denitrification equation for the INCA-N model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etheridge, J. R.; Birgand, F.; Burchell, M. R., II; Lepistö, A.; Rankinen, K.; Granlund, K.

    2014-04-01

    The Integrated Catchment model for Nitrogen (INCA-N) is a semi-distributed, process based model that has been used to model the impacts of land use, climate, and land management changes on hydrology and nitrogen loading. An observed problem with the INCA-N model is reproducing low nitrate-nitrogen concentrations during the summer growing season in some catchments. In this study, the current equation used to simulate the rate of in-stream denitrification was replaced with an alternate equation that uses a mass transfer coefficient and the stream bottom area. The results of simulating in-stream denitrification using the two different methods were compared for a one year simulation period of the Yläneenjoki catchment in Finland. The alternate equation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.61) simulated concentrations during the periods of the growing season with the lowest flow that were closer to the observed concentrations than the current equation (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency = 0.60), but the results were mixed during other portions of the year. The results of the calibration and validation of the model using the two equations show that the alternate equation will simulate lower nitrate-nitrogen concentrations during the growing season when compared to the current equation, but promote investigation into other errors in the model that may be causing inaccuracies in the modeled concentrations.

  17. Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2014-09-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

  18. Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C.Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Campbell, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3) and other nutrients discharged by the Mississippi River are suspected of causing a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. The hypoxic zone may have an adverse affect on aquatic life and commercial fisheries. The amount of NO3 delivered by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico is well documented, but the relative contributions of different sources of NO3, and the magnitude of subsequent in-stream transformations of NO3, are not well understood. Forty-two water samples collected in 1997 and 1998 at eight stations located either on the Mississippi River or its major tributaries were analysed for NO3, total nitrogen (N), atrazine, chloride concentrations and NO3 stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data are used to assess the magnitude and nature of in-stream N transformation and to determine if the δ15N and δ18O of NO3 provide information about NO3 sources and transformation processes in a large river system (drainage area 2 900 000 km2) that would otherwise be unavailable using concentration and discharge data alone. Results from 42 samples indicate that the δ15N and δ18O ratios between sites on the Mississippi River and its tributaries are somewhat distinctive, and vary with season and discharge rate. Of particular interest are two nearly Lagrangian sample sets, in which samples from the Mississippi River at St Francisville, LA, are compared with samples collected from the Ohio River at Grand Chain, II, and the Mississippi River at Thebes, IL. In both Lagrangian sets, mass-balance calculations indicate only a small amount of in-stream N loss. The stable isotope data from the samples suggest that in-stream N assimilation and not denitrification accounts for most of the N loss in the lower Mississippi River during the spring and early summer months.

  19. Population and climate pressures on global river water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2015-04-01

    We present a global analysis of the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. In-stream Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) concentration is calculated along global river networks using past, current and future information on gridded population and river discharge. Our model accounts for the accumulation (from populated areas), transport, dilution, and degradation of BOD to reveal the combined effects of population growth and climate change on river water quality. From 1950 to 2000, our analysis indicates that rivers that flow through regions with increasing population undergo a prominent deterioration of water quality, especially in developing countries with a lack of treatment plants. By 2050, population growth and climate change have varying effects on degradation of river water quality, with their combined effect amplified in region undergoing both population growth (more pollutant loading) and decrease in discharge (less dilution capacity). Keywords: Population growth, Climate change, River water quality, Space-time analysis, Water management

  20. Grid-connected in-stream hydroelectric generation based on the doubly fed induction machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenberg, Timothy J.

    Within the United States, there is a growing demand for new environmentally friendly power generation. This has led to a surge in wind turbine development. Unfortunately, wind is not a stable prime mover, but water is. Why not apply the advances made for wind to in-stream hydroelectric generation? One important advancement is the creation of the Doubly Fed Induction Machine (DFIM). This thesis covers the application of a gearless DFIM topology for hydrokinetic generation. After providing background, this thesis presents many of the options available for the mechanical portion of the design. A mechanical turbine is then specified. Next, a method is presented for designing a DFIM including the actual design for this application. In Chapter 4, a simulation model of the system is presented, complete with a control system that maximizes power generation based on water speed. This section then goes on to present simulation results demonstrating proper operation.

  1. Did the pre-1980 use of in-stream structures improve streams? A reanalysis of historical data.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Douglas M

    2006-04-01

    In the 1930s, after only three years of scientific investigation at the University of Michigan Institute for Fisheries Research, cheap labor and government-sponsored conservation projects spearheaded by the Civilian Conservation Corps allowed the widespread adoption of in-stream structures throughout the United States. From the 1940s through the 1970s, designs of in-stream structures remained essentially unchanged, and their use continued. Despite a large investment in the construction of in-stream structures over these four decades, very few studies were undertaken to evaluate the impacts of the structures on the channel and its aquatic populations. The studies that were undertaken to evaluate the impact of the structures were often flawed. The use of habitat structures became an "accepted practice," however, and early evaluation studies were used as proof that the structures were beneficial to aquatic organisms. A review of the literature reveals that, despite published claims to the contrary, little evidence of the successful use of in-stream structures to improve fish populations exists prior to 1980. A total of 79 publications were checked, and 215 statistical analyses were performed. Only seven analyses provide evidence for a benefit of structures on fish populations, and five of these analyses are suspect because data were misclassified by the original authors. Many of the changes in population measures reported in early publications appear to result from changes in fishing pressure that often accompanied channel modifications. Modern evaluations of channel-restoration projects must consider the influence of fishing pressure to ensure that efforts to improve fish habitat achieve the benefits intended. My statistical results show that the traditional use of in-stream structures for channel restoration design does not ensure demonstrable benefits for fish communities, and their ability to increase fish populations should not be presumed.

  2. In-stream attenuation of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their metabolites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, Jeffrey; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Ferrar, Imma; Ryan, Joseph N.; Thurman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not. In-stream attenuation over the 5.4-km evaluated reach could be modeled as pseudo-first-order decay for 11 of the 14 evaluated neuro-active pharmaceutical compounds, illustrating the capacity of streams to reduce conveyance of neuro-active compounds downstream. Fluoxetine and N-desmethyl citalopram were the most rapidly attenuated compounds (t1/2 = 3.6 ± 0.3 h, 4.0 ± 0.2 h, respectively). Lamotrigine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, and carbamazepine were the most persistent (t1/2 = 12 ± 2.0 h, 12 ± 2.6 h, 21 ± 4.5 h, respectively). Parent compounds (e.g., buproprion, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) generally were more persistent relative to their metabolites. Several compounds (citalopram, venlafaxine, O-desmethyl-venlafaxine) were not attenuated. It was postulated that the primary mechanism of removal for these compounds was interaction with bed sediments and stream biofilms, based on measured concentrations in stream biofilms and a column experiment using stream sediments.

  3. Instream Wood Loads and Channel Complexity in Headwater Streams Under Alternative Stable States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livers, B.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Channel morphology and irregularities in stream boundaries can create zones of flow separation, where lower velocities trap fine sediment and organic matter and increase opportunities for nutrient processing and biological uptake. This effect is most pronounced with channel-spanning structures such as logjams. Humans have changed the spatial and temporal characteristics of wood distribution in streams, with lasting effects on instream wood recruitment, wood loads, logjam distribution, and hydraulic roughness. Previous studies in the Colorado Front Range show that contemporary headwater streams flowing through old-growth, unmanaged forests have more wood than streams flowing through younger-growth, managed forests, but do not evaluate the effects of wood on channel complexity. 'Managed' versus 'unmanaged' refers to whether forests were or are currently exposed to human alteration. Although some alteration has long since ceased, reduced wood loads in managed streams persist. Our primary objective was to quantify differences in logjams, wood volumes, stream complexity, and organic carbon storage on streams with different management and disturbance histories in order to examine legacy effects across a gradient of stream management. Data were collected during the summers of 2013 and 2014 in the Southern Rocky Mountains. The 25 stream reaches studied are 2nd to 3rd order, subalpine streams that are categorized into: old-growth unmanaged forests; younger, naturally disturbed unmanaged forests; and younger managed forests. We assessed instream and floodplain wood loads and logjams and evaluated the role that large wood plays in local channel complexity, pool volume, and storage of organic carbon. Preliminary results show that greatest wood and carbon storage in sediments, as well as channel complexity, occurs in streams in old-growth, unmanaged forests and the least wood and carbon storage and channel complexity occurs in younger-growth, managed forests.

  4. Instream cover and shade mediate avian predation on trout in semi-natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penaluna, Brooke E.; Dunham, Jason B.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2015-01-01

    Piscivory by birds can be significant, particularly on fish in small streams and during seasonal low flow when available cover from predators can be limited. Yet, how varying amounts of cover may change the extent of predation mortality from avian predators on fish is not clear. We evaluated size-selective survival of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii) in replicated semi-natural stream sections. These sections provided high (0.01 m2 of cover per m2 of stream) or low (0.002 m2 of cover per m2 of stream) levels of instream cover available to trout and were closed to emigration. Each fish was individually tagged, allowing us to track retention of individuals during the course of the 36-day experiment, which we attributed to survival from predators, because fish had no other way to leave the streams. Although other avian predators may have been active in our system and not detected, the only predator observed was the belted kingfisher Megaceryle alcyon, which is known to prey heavily on fish. In both treatments, trout >20.4 cm were not preyed upon indicating an increased ability to prey upon on smaller individuals. Increased availability of cover improved survival of trout by 12% in high relative to low cover stream sections. Trout also survived better in stream sections with greater shade, a factor we could not control in our system. Collectively, these findings indicate that instream cover and shade from avian predators can play an important role in driving survival of fish in small streams or during periods of low flow.

  5. In-stream attenuation of neuro-active pharmaceuticals and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Antweiler, Ronald C; Ferrer, Imma; Ryan, Joseph N; Thurman, E Michael

    2013-09-03

    In-stream attenuation was determined for 14 neuro-active pharmaceuticals and associated metabolites. Lagrangian sampling, which follows a parcel of water as it moves downstream, was used to link hydrological and chemical transformation processes. Wastewater loading of neuro-active compounds varied considerably over a span of several hours, and thus a sampling regime was used to verify that the Lagrangian parcel was being sampled and a mechanism was developed to correct measured concentrations if it was not. In-stream attenuation over the 5.4-km evaluated reach could be modeled as pseudo-first-order decay for 11 of the 14 evaluated neuro-active pharmaceutical compounds, illustrating the capacity of streams to reduce conveyance of neuro-active compounds downstream. Fluoxetine and N-desmethyl citalopram were the most rapidly attenuated compounds (t1/2 = 3.6 ± 0.3 h, 4.0 ± 0.2 h, respectively). Lamotrigine, 10,11,-dihydro-10,11,-dihydroxy-carbamazepine, and carbamazepine were the most persistent (t1/2 = 12 ± 2.0 h, 12 ± 2.6 h, 21 ± 4.5 h, respectively). Parent compounds (e.g., buproprion, carbamazepine, lamotrigine) generally were more persistent relative to their metabolites. Several compounds (citalopram, venlafaxine, O-desmethyl-venlafaxine) were not attenuated. It was postulated that the primary mechanism of removal for these compounds was interaction with bed sediments and stream biofilms, based on measured concentrations in stream biofilms and a column experiment using stream sediments.

  6. Effects of upland disturbance and instream restoration on hydrodynamics and ammonium uptake in headwater streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, B.J.; Mulholland, P.J.; Houser, J.N.

    2007-01-01

    Delivery of water, sediments, nutrients, and organic matter to stream ecosystems is strongly influenced by the catchment of the stream and can be altered greatly by upland soil and vegetation disturbance. At the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia), spatial variability in intensity of military training results in a wide range of intensities of upland disturbance in stream catchments. A set of 8 streams in catchments spanning this upland disturbance gradient was selected for investigation of the impact of disturbance intensity on hydrodynamics and nutrient uptake. The size of transient storage zones and rates of NH4+ uptake in all study streams were among the lowest reported in the literature. Upland disturbance did not appear to influence stream hydrodynamics strongly, but it caused significant decreases in instream nutrient uptake. In October 2003, coarse woody debris (CWD) was added to 1/2 of the study streams (spanning the disturbance gradient) in an attempt to increase hydrodynamic and structural complexity, with the goals of enhancing biotic habitat and increasing nutrient uptake rates. CWD additions had positive short-term (within 1 mo) effects on hydrodynamic complexity (water velocity decreased and transient storage zone cross-sectional area, relative size of the transient storage zone, fraction of the median travel time attributable to transient storage over a standardized length of 200 m, and the hydraulic retention factor increased) and nutrient uptake (NH4+ uptake rates increased). Our results suggest that water quality in streams with intense upland disturbances can be improved by enhancing instream biotic nutrient uptake capacity through measures such as restoring stream CWD. ?? 2007 by The North American Benthological Society.

  7. Effects of upland disturbance and instream restoration on hydrodynamics and ammonium uptake in headwater streams

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brian J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Houser, Jeffrey N

    2007-01-01

    Delivery of water, sediments, nutrients, and organic matter to stream ecosystems is strongly influenced by the catchment of the stream and can be altered greatly by upland soil and vegetation disturbance. At the Fort Benning Military Installation (near Columbus, Georgia), spatial variability in intensity of military training results in a wide range of intensities of upland disturbance in stream catchments. A set of 8 streams in catchments spanning this upland disturbance gradient was selected for investigation of the impact of disturbance intensity on hydrodynamics and nutrient uptake. The size of transient storage zones and rates of NH4+ uptake in all study streams were among the lowest reported in the literature. Upland disturbance did not appear to influence stream hydrodynamics strongly, but it caused significant decreases in instream nutrient uptake. In October 2003, coarse woody debris (CWD) was added to of the study streams (spanning the disturbance gradient) in an attempt to increase hydrodynamic and structural complexity with the goals of enhancing biotic habitat and increasing nutrient uptake rates. CWD additions had positive short-term (within 1 mo) effects on hydrodynamic complexity (water velocity decreased and transient storage zone cross-sectional area, relative size of the transient storage zone, fraction of the median travel time attributable to transient storage over a standardized length of 200 m, and the hydraulic retention factor increased) and nutrient uptake (NH4+ uptake rates increased). Our results suggest that water quality in streams with intense upland disturbances can be improved by enhancing instream biotic nutrient uptake capacity through measures such as restoring stream CWD.

  8. The role of anthropogenic vs. natural in-stream structures in determining connectivity and genetic diversity in an endangered freshwater fish, Macquarie perch (Macquaria australasica)

    PubMed Central

    Faulks, Leanne K; Gilligan, Dean M; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the leading causes of population declines, threatening ecosystems worldwide. Freshwater taxa may be particularly sensitive to habitat loss as connectivity between suitable patches of habitat is restricted not only by the natural stream network but also by anthropogenic factors. Using a landscape genetics approach, we assessed the impact of habitat availability on population genetic diversity and connectivity of an endangered Australian freshwater fish Macquarie perch, Macquaria australasica (Percichthyidae). The relative contribution of anthropogenic versus natural in-stream habitat structures in shaping genetic structure and diversity in M. australasica was quite striking. Genetic diversity was significantly higher in locations with a higher river slope, a correlate of the species preferred habitat – riffles. On the other hand, barriers degrade preferred habitat and impede dispersal, contributing to the degree of genetic differentiation among populations. Our results highlight the importance of landscape genetics to understanding the environmental factors affecting freshwater fish populations and the potential practical application of this approach to conservation management of other freshwater organisms. PMID:25568007

  9. A gas-tracer injection for evaluating the fate of methane in a coastal plain stream: Degassing versus in-stream oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Solomon, D. Kip; Darrah, Thomas H.; Gilmore, Troy E.; Genereux, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Methane emissions from streams and rivers have recently been recognized as an important component of global greenhouse budgets. Stream methane is lost as evasion to the atmosphere or in-stream methane oxidation. Previous studies have quantified evasion and oxidation with point-scale measurements. In this study, dissolved gases (methane, krypton) were injected into a coastal plain stream in North Carolina to quantify stream CH4 losses at the watershed scale. Stream-reach modeling yielded gas transfer and oxidation rate constants of 3.2 ± 0.5 and 0.5 ± 1.5 d–1, respectively, indicating a ratio of about 6:1. The resulting evasion and oxidation rates of 2.9 mmol m–2 d–1 and 1,140 nmol L–1 d–1, respectively, lie within ranges of published values. Similarly, the gas transfer velocity (K600) of 2.1 m d–1 is consistent with other gas tracer studies. This study illustrates the utility of dissolved-gas tracers for evaluating stream methane fluxes. In contrast to point measurements, this approach provides a larger watershed-scale perspective. Further work is needed to quantify the magnitude of these fluxes under varying conditions (e.g., stream temperature, nutrient load, gradient, flow rate) at regional and global scales before reliable bottom-up estimates of methane evasion can be determined at global scales.

  10. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Coquille River basin, southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary study of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Coquille River basin, which encompasses 2,745 km2 (square kilometers) of the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that:

  11. MODELING THE DISTRIBUTION OF NONPOINT NITROGEN SOURCES AND SINKS IN THE NEUSE RIVER BASIN OF NORTH CAROLINA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study quantified nonpoint nitrogen (N) sources and sinks across the 14,582 km2 Neuse River Basin (NRB) located in North Carolina, to provide a tabular database to initialize in-stream N decay models and graphic overlay products for the development of management approaches to...

  12. Seasonal and spatial variation of diffuse (non-point) source zinc pollution in a historically metal mined river catchment, UK.

    PubMed

    Gozzard, E; Mayes, W M; Potter, H A B; Jarvis, A P

    2011-10-01

    Quantifying diffuse sources of pollution is becoming increasingly important when characterising river catchments in entirety - a prerequisite for environmental management. This study examines both low and high flow events, as well as spatial variability, in order to assess point and diffuse components of zinc pollution within the River West Allen catchment, which lies within the northern England lead-zinc Orefield. Zinc levels in the river are elevated under all flow regimes, and are of environmental concern. Diffuse components are of little importance at low flow, with point source mine water discharges dominating instream zinc concentration and load. During higher river flows 90% of the instream zinc load is attributed to diffuse sources, where inputs from resuspension of metal-rich sediments, and groundwater influx are likely to be more dominant. Remediating point mine water discharges should significantly improve water quality at lower flows, but contribution from diffuse sources will continue to elevate zinc flux at higher flows.

  13. Establishing a context for river rehabilitation, North Fork Gunnison River, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Jaquette, Christopher; Wohl, Ellen; Cooper, David

    2005-05-01

    Initial river rehabilitation efforts along the North Fork Gunnison River in Colorado focused on the use of in-stream structures and channel stabilization to create a single-thread channel with pools along a braided river. These efforts were based on the assumption that the river's braided planform results primarily from land use during the past century. In order to establish a context for further rehabilitation, we evaluated the possibility that the river might be braided as a result of processes independent of land use. We estimated volume, grain-size distribution, and lithology of sediment sources along the river corridor and evaluated the planform stability of the river during the past century using historical sources, aerial photographs covering 1939-1997, and comparison of bankfull discharge and gradient in the study area to values published for braided and meandering rivers. Our results indicate that the North Fork Gunnison River has been primarily braided in its lower reaches during the past few hundred years, although the channel planform tends toward a single-thread channel during decades of lower precipitation and discharge. Although land use is not the primary cause of braiding along the North Fork Gunnison River, it has decreased channel stability, and rehabilitation efforts should be designed to reduce these effects. Our results illustrate the importance of planning river rehabilitation measures within a historical context that accounts for both catchment-scale and reach-scale controls on channel processes and planform.

  14. Macroinvertebrate instream flow studies after 20 years: A role in stream management and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gore, J.A.; Layzer, J.B.; Mead, J.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past two decades of refinement and application of instream flow evaluations, we have examined the hydraulic habitat of aquatic macroinvertebrates in a variety of conditions, along with the role of these macroinverte-brates in sustaining ecosystem integrity. Instream flow analyses assume that predictable changes in channel flow characteristics can, in turn, be used to predict the change in the density or distribution of lotic species or, more appropriately, the availability of useable habitat for those species. Five major hydraulic conditions most affect the distribution and ecological success of lotic biota: suspended load, bedload movement, and water column effects, such as turbulence, velocity profile, and substratum interactions (near-bed hydraulics). The interactions of these hydraulic conditions upon the morphology and behavior of the individual organisms govern the distribution of aquatic biota. Historically, management decisions employing the Physical Habitat Simulation (PHABSIM) have focused upon prediction of available habitat for life stages of target fish species. Regulatory agencies have rarely included evaluation of benthos for flow reservations. Although 'taxonomic discomfort' may be cited for the reluctant use or creation of benthic criteria, we suggest that a basic misunderstanding of the links between benthic macroinvertebrate and the fish communities is still a problem. This is derived from the lack of a perceived 'value' that can be assigned to macroinvertebrate species. With the exception of endangered mussel species (for which PHABSIM analysis is probably inappropriate), this is understandable. However, it appears that there is a greater ability to predict macroinvertebrate distribution (that is, a response to the change in habitat quality or location) and diversity without complex population models. Also, habitat suitability criteria for water quality indicator taxa (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera; the so-called 'EPTs

  15. Instream investigations in the Beaver Creek Watershed in West Tennessee, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byl, T.D.; Carney, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Tennessee Department of Agriculture, began a long-term scientific investigation in 1989 to evaluate the effect of agricultural activities on water quality and the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices in the Beaver Creek watershed, West Tennessee. In 1993 as a part of this study, the USGS, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, Shelby County Soil Conservation District, and the Tennessee Soybean Promotion Board, began an evaluation of the physical, chemical, biological and hydrological factors that affect water quality in streams and wetlands, and instream resource-management systems to treat agricultural nonpoint-source runoff and improve water quality. The purpose of this report is to present the results of three studies of stream and wetland investigations and a study on the transport of aldicarb from an agricultural field in the Beaver Creek watershed. A natural bottomland hardwood wetland and an artificially constructed wetland were evaluated as instream resource-management systems. These two studies showed that wetlands are an effective way to improve the quality of agricultural nonpoint-source runoff. The wetlands reduced concentrations and loads of suspended sediments, nutrients, and pesticides in the streams. A third paper documents the influence of riparian vegetation on the biological structure and water quality of a small stream draining an agricultural field. A comparison of the upper reach lined with herbaceous plants and the lower reach with mature woody vegetation showed a more stable biological community structure and Water- quality characteristics in the woody reach than in the herbaceous reach. The water-quality characteristics monitored were pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductance. The herbaceous reach had a greater diversity and abundance of organisms during spring and early summer, but the abundance dropped by approximately

  16. River enhancement in the Upper Mississippi River basin: Approaches based on river uses, alterations, and management agencies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, T. K.; Galat, D.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Upper Mississippi River is characterized by a series of locks and dams, shallow impoundments, and thousands of river channelization structures that facilitate commercial navigation between Minneapolis, Minnesota, and Cairo, Illinois. Agriculture and urban development over the past 200 years have degraded water quality and increased the rate of sediment and nutrient delivery to surface waters. River enhancement has become an important management tool employed to address causes and effects of surface water degradation and river modification in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. We report information on individual river enhancement projects and contrast project densities, goals, activities, monitoring, and cost between commercially non-navigated and navigated rivers (Non-navigated and Navigated Rivers, respectively). The total number of river enhancement projects collected during this effort was 62,108. Cost of all projects reporting spending between 1972 and 2006 was about US$1.6 billion. Water quality management was the most cited project goal within the basin. Other important goals in Navigated Rivers included in-stream habitat improvement and flow modification. Most projects collected for Non-navigated Rivers and their watersheds originated from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the USDA were important sources for projects in Navigated Rivers. Collaborative efforts between agencies that implement projects in Non-navigated and Navigated Rivers may be needed to more effectively address river impairment. However, the current state of data sources tracking river enhancement projects deters efficient and broad-scale integration. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2007 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  17. Analysis of Environmental Issues Related to Small-Scale Hydroelectric Development V: Instream Flow Needs for Fishery Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Loar, James M.; Sale, Michael J.

    1981-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to developers of small-scale hydroelectric projects on the assessment of instream flow needs. While numerous methods have been developed to assess the effects of stream flow regulation on aquatic biota in coldwater streams in the West, no consensus has been reached regarding their general applicability, especially to streams in the eastern United States. This report presents and reviews these methods (Section 2.0), which is intended to provide the reader with general background information that is the basis for the critical evaluation of the methods (Section 3.0). The strategy for instream flow assessment presented in Section 4.0 is, in turn, based on the implicit assumptions, data needs, costs, and decision-making capabilities of the various methods as discussed in Section 3.0.

  18. Wind River watershed restoration: Annual report of U.S. Geological Survey activities November 2010 – October 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes work completed by U.S. Geological Survey’s Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) in the Wind River subbasin during November 2010 through October 2011 under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) contract 40481. The primary focus of USGS activities during this contract was on tagging of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, and working toward a network of instream PIT tag detection systems to monitor movements and life histories of these fish.

  19. Relationships among Land-Use, In-Stream Stressors, and Biological Condition in Prince George's County, MD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, J. L.; Stribling, S.; Leppo, E.

    2005-05-01

    As human disturbance increases in watersheds there is a resulting change in hydrologic stability that leads to alterations of in-stream habitat conditions. These in-stream alterations are called stressors because they represent sub-optimal to lethal conditions for aquatic organisms. The linkages and mechanisms that relate multiple stressors with complex landscape features (sources) are currently the focus of research across North America. The objective of this project was to illustrate the linkages and biological responses for coastal plain watersheds that contain a gradient of severity and types of human disturbance. Stepwise multiple-regression was performed on a routine biological monitoring database from Prince George's County, MD. Results demonstrated that urban land-use sources (medium-density residential, commercial, and industrial) and in-stream stressors of reduced physical habitat complexity (e.g., decreased gravel substrate, reduced channel sinuosity etc.) were most related to biological degradation. The biological response variables that had the strongest relationships with these sources and stressors were: the indexes of biotic integrity, EPT Index, Beck's Biotic Index, % Dominant Fish Species, and % generalists, omnivores, and invertivores. These types of analyses need to be conducted in a variety of ecoregions to understand the dynamics of the relationship between human disturbance and the biological condition of streams.

  20. An approach to incorporate individual personality in modeling fish dispersal across in-stream barriers.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Thorlacius, Magnus; Brodin, Tomas; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Animal personalities are an important factor that affects the dispersal of animals. In the context of aquatic species, dispersal modeling needs to consider that most freshwater ecosystems are highly fragmented by barriers reducing longitudinal connectivity. Previous research has incorporated such barriers into dispersal models under the neutral assumption that all migrating animals attempt to ascend at all times. Modeling dispersal of animals that do not perform trophic or reproductive migrations will be more realistic if it includes assumptions of which individuals attempt to overcome a barrier. We aimed to introduce personality into predictive modeling of whether a nonmigratory invasive freshwater fish (the round goby, Neogobius melanostomus) will disperse across an in-stream barrier. To that end, we experimentally assayed the personalities of 259 individuals from invasion fronts and established round goby populations. Based on the population differences in boldness, asociability, and activity, we defined a priori thresholds with bolder, more asocial, and more active individuals having a higher likelihood of ascent. We then combined the personality thresholds with swimming speed data from the literature and in situ measurements of flow velocities in the barrier. The resulting binary logistic regression model revealed probabilities of crossing a barrier which depended not only on water flow and fish swimming speed but also on animal personalities. We conclude that risk assessment through predictive dispersal modeling across fragmented landscapes can be advanced by including personality traits as parameters. The inclusion of behavior into modeling the spread of invasive species can help to improve the accuracy of risk assessments.

  1. Epilithic biofilms as hotspots of in-stream nitrification in a high N loaded urban stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, S.; Merbt, S. N.; Ribot, M.; Casamayor, E. O.; Martí Roca, E.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, is one of the most important biogeochemical processes in high nitrogen loaded urban streams. The first rate-limiting step of the nitrification process is carried out by ammonia-oxidizing (AO) archaea (AOB) and bacteria (AOB) that live in stream sediments and epilithic biofilms. Yet, the relative contribution of these two stream habitats to whole-reach nitrification is largely unknown. We tested the well-established idea that whole-reach nitrification is mainly driven by AO present in hyporheic sediments because of their relative high active surface area compared to the thin epilithic biofilm interface. To do so, we examined substrata-specific nitrification rates and AO transcripts abundance (amoA gene) in mesocosms and scaled data to whole reach. Further, we compared the scaled data to in situ whole-reach nitrification rates and amoA transcript and gene abundances in a high N loaded urban stream downstream of a waste water treatment plant effluent. Against expectations, whole-reach in-stream nitrification was mainly driven by AOB embedded in biofilms growing on the sediment-facing side (> 60%) and light-exposed side (20%) of stream cobbles. Hyporheic sediments, which were mainly colonized by AOA, accounted for 11% of in situ whole-reach nitrification. Our study points epilithic biofilms as hot spots of nitrification within urban stream ecosystems.

  2. On the turbulent flow structure around an instream structure with realistic geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Seokkoo; Hill, Craig; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the flow dynamics around a rock vane, a widely used instream structure for stream restoration, by conducting laboratory flume experiments, and carrying out high-resolution Large Eddy Simulation (LES) taking advantage of parallel computing. The flume experiments are conducted under fixed- and mobile-bed conditions, where the velocities and bed elevations are measured, respectively. The LES is carried out for the fixed-bed experiment by directly resolving the details of the rocks that constitute the vane and the individual roughness elements on the channel bed. The LES-computed mean flow statistics show good agreement with the measurements, and the analysis of the computed flow field reveals the existence of two counter-rotating secondary flow cells downstream of the vane, which originate from the plunging of the three-dimensional streamlines onto a lower part of the sidewall downstream of the vane. To further examine the role of the secondary flow cells under a mobile-bed condition, the LES results are compared with the equilibrium bed elevation measured in the mobile bed experiment. The mobile-bed experiment reveals the existence of an oblique sand ridge downstream of the vane that is aligned with the line of flow convergence caused by the collision of the two secondary flow cells. The results indicate that the two counter-rotating cells downstream of the rock vane has a profound impact on the mean flow and bed shear stress as well as on the bed morphodynamics.

  3. Assessment of arrays of in-stream tidal turbines in the Bay of Fundy.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Richard; Swan, Amanda; Culina, Joel

    2013-02-28

    Theories of in-stream turbines are adapted to analyse the potential electricity generation and impact of turbine arrays deployed in Minas Passage, Bay of Fundy. Linear momentum actuator disc theory (LMADT) is combined with a theory that calculates the flux through the passage to determine both the turbine power and the impact of rows of turbine fences. For realistically small blockage ratios, the theory predicts that extracting 2000-2500 MW of turbine power will result in a reduction in the flow of less than 5 per cent. The theory also suggests that there is little reason to tune the turbines if the blockage ratio remains small. A turbine array model is derived that extends LMADT by using the velocity field from a numerical simulation of the flow through Minas Passage and modelling the turbine wakes. The model calculates the resulting speed of the flow through and around a turbine array, allowing for the sequential positioning of turbines in regions of strongest flow. The model estimates that over 2000 MW of power is possible with only a 2.5 per cent reduction in the flow. If turbines are restricted to depths less than 50 m, the potential power generation is reduced substantially, down to 300 MW. For large turbine arrays, the blockage ratios remain small and the turbines can produce maximum power with a drag coefficient equal to the Betz-limit value.

  4. Hydraulic controls of in-stream gravel bar hyporheic exchange and reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, Nico; Schmidt, Christian; Vieweg, Michael; Oswald, Sascha E.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-04-01

    Hyporheic exchange transports solutes into the subsurface where they can undergo biogeochemical transformations, affecting fluvial water quality and ecology. A three-dimensional numerical model of a natural in-stream gravel bar (20 m × 6 m) is presented. Multiple steady state streamflow is simulated with a computational fluid dynamics code that is sequentially coupled to a reactive transport groundwater model via the hydraulic head distribution at the streambed. Ambient groundwater flow is considered by scenarios of neutral, gaining, and losing conditions. The transformation of oxygen, nitrate, and dissolved organic carbon by aerobic respiration and denitrification in the hyporheic zone are modeled, as is the denitrification of groundwater-borne nitrate when mixed with stream-sourced carbon. In contrast to fully submerged structures, hyporheic exchange flux decreases with increasing stream discharge, due to decreasing hydraulic head gradients across the partially submerged structure. Hyporheic residence time distributions are skewed in the log-space with medians of up to 8 h and shift to symmetric distributions with increasing level of submergence. Solute turnover is mainly controlled by residence times and the extent of the hyporheic exchange flow, which defines the potential reaction area. Although streamflow is the primary driver of hyporheic exchange, its impact on hyporheic exchange flux, residence times, and solute turnover is small, as these quantities exponentially decrease under losing and gaining conditions. Hence, highest reaction potential exists under neutral conditions, when the capacity for denitrification in the partially submerged structure can be orders of magnitude higher than in fully submerged structures.

  5. Wood and Sediment Dynamics in River Corridors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, E.; Scott, D.

    2015-12-01

    Large wood along rivers influences entrainment, transport, and storage of mineral sediment and particulate organic matter. We review how wood alters sediment dynamics and explore patterns among volumes of instream wood, sediment storage, and residual pools for dispersed pieces of wood, logjams, and beaver dams. We hypothesized that: volume of sediment per unit area of channel stored in association with wood is inversely proportional to drainage area; the form of sediment storage changes downstream; sediment storage correlates most strongly with wood load; and volume of sediment stored behind beaver dams correlates with pond area. Lack of data from larger drainage areas limits tests of these hypotheses, but analyses suggest a negative correlation between sediment volume and drainage area and a positive correlation between wood and sediment volume. The form of sediment storage in relation to wood changes downstream, with wedges of sediment upstream from jammed steps most prevalent in small, steep channels and more dispersed sediment storage in lower gradient channels. Use of a published relation between sediment volume, channel width, and gradient predicted about half of the variation in sediment stored upstream from jammed steps. Sediment volume correlates well with beaver pond area. Historically more abundant instream wood and beaver populations likely equated to greater sediment storage within river corridors. This review of the existing literature on wood and sediment dynamics highlights the lack of studies on larger rivers.

  6. The effect of chamber mixing velocity on bias in measurement of sediment oxygen demand rates in the Tualatin River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Micelis C.; Rounds, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    The same resuspension effect probably exists in the Tualatin River during storm-runoff events following prolonged periods of low flow, when increased stream velocity may result in the resuspension of bottom sediments. The resuspension causes increased turbidity and increased oxygen demand, resulting in lower instream dissolved oxygen concentrations.

  7. Nutrient attenuation in rivers and streams, Puget Sound Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Konrad, Christopher P.; Black, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    From a management perspective, preservation and improvement of instream nutrient attenuation should focus on increasing the travel time through a reach and contact time of water sediment (reactive) surfaces and lowering nutrient concentrations (and loads) to avoid saturation of instream attenuation and increase attenuation efficiency. These goals can be reached by maintaining and restoring channel-flood plain connectivity, maintaining and restoring healthy riparian zones along streams, managing point and nonpoint nutrient loads to streams and rivers, and restoring channel features that promote attenuation such as the addition of woody debris and maintaining pool-riffle morphologies. Many of these management approaches are already being undertaken during projects aimed to restore quality salmon habitat. Therefore, there is a dual benefit to these projects that also may lead to enhanced potential for nitrogen and phosphorus attenuation.

  8. Comparison of fluvial suspended-sediment concentrations and particle-size distributions measured with in-stream laser diffraction and in physical samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Straub, Timothy D.; Curran, Christopher A.; Landers, Mark N.; Domanski, Marian M.

    2015-01-01

    Laser-diffraction technology, recently adapted for in-stream measurement of fluvial suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and particle-size distributions (PSDs), was tested with a streamlined (SL), isokinetic version of the Laser In-Situ Scattering and Transmissometry (LISST) for measuring volumetric SSCs and PSDs ranging from 1.8-415 µm in 32 log-spaced size classes. Measured SSCs and PSDs from the LISST-SL were compared to a suite of 22 datasets (262 samples in all) of concurrent suspended-sediment and streamflow measurements using a physical sampler and acoustic Doppler current profiler collected during 2010-12 at 16 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Illinois and Washington (basin areas: 38 – 69,264 km2). An unrealistically low computed effective density (mass SSC / volumetric SSC) of 1.24 g/ml (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.45 g/ml) provided the best-fit value (R2 = 0.95; RMSE = 143 mg/L) for converting volumetric SSC to mass SSC for over 2 orders of magnitude of SSC (12-2,170 mg/L; covering a substantial range of SSC that can be measured by the LISST-SL) despite being substantially lower than the sediment particle density of 2.67 g/ml (range: 2.56-2.87 g/ml, 23 samples). The PSDs measured by the LISST-SL were in good agreement with those derived from physical samples over the LISST-SL's measureable size range. Technical and operational limitations of the LISST-SL are provided to facilitate the collection of more accurate data in the future. Additionally, the spatial and temporal variability of SSC and PSD measured by the LISST-SL is briefly described to motivate its potential for advancing our understanding of suspended-sediment transport by rivers.

  9. Science for Managing Riverine Ecosystems: Actions for the USGS Identified in the Workshop "Analysis of Flow and Habitat for Instream Aquatic Communities"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bencala, Kenneth E.; Hamilton, David B.; Petersen, James H.

    2006-01-01

    Federal and state agencies need improved scientific analysis to support riverine ecosystem management. The ability of the USGS to integrate geologic, hydrologic, chemical, geographic, and biological data into new tools and models provides unparalleled opportunities to translate the best riverine science into useful approaches and usable information to address issues faced by river managers. In addition to this capability to provide integrated science, the USGS has a long history of providing long-term and nationwide information about natural resources. The USGS is now in a position to advance its ability to provide the scientific support for the management of riverine ecosystems. To address this need, the USGS held a listening session in Fort Collins, Colorado in April 2006. Goals of the workshop were to: 1) learn about the key resource issues facing DOI, other Federal, and state resource management agencies; 2) discuss new approaches and information needs for addressing these issues; and 3) outline a strategy for the USGS role in supporting riverine ecosystem management. Workshop discussions focused on key components of a USGS strategy: Communications, Synthesis, and Research. The workshop identified 3 priority actions the USGS can initiate now to advance its capabilities to support integrated science for resource managers in partner government agencies and non-governmental organizations: 1) Synthesize the existing science of riverine ecosystem processes to produce broadly applicable conceptual models, 2) Enhance selected ongoing instream flow projects with complementary interdisciplinary studies, and 3) Design a long-term, watershed-scale research program that will substantively reinvent riverine ecosystem science. In addition, topical discussion groups on hydrology, geomorphology, aquatic habitat and populations, and socio-economic analysis and negotiation identified eleven important complementary actions required to advance the state of the science and to

  10. Delivery and cycling of phosphorus in rivers: a review.

    PubMed

    Withers, P J A; Jarvie, H P

    2008-08-01

    Phosphorus (P) supply (concentration and flux) is an important driver for biological activity in flowing waters and needs to be managed to avoid eutrophication impacts associated with urbanisation and agricultural intensification. This paper examines the role of in-stream retention and cycling in regulating river P concentrations in order to better understand the links between P sources and their ecological impacts. In terms of their composition (solubility and concentration), patterns of delivery (mode and timing) and therefore ecological relevance, P sources entering rivers are best grouped into wastewater discharges > runoff from impervious surfaces (roads, farmyards) > runoff from pervious surfaces (forestry, cultivated land and pasture). The localized impacts of soluble P discharges during ecologically sensitive periods can be distinguished from the downstream impacts associated with particulate P discharges under high flows due to the different processes by which these sources are retained, transformed and assimilated within the river channel. The range of physico-chemical processes involved in P cycling and the variable importance of these processes in different river environments according to stream size, stream geomorphology and anthropogenic pressures are summarised. It is concluded that the capacity to retain (process) P within the river channel, and hence regulate the downstream delivery of P without stressing the aquatic communities present, is considerable, especially in headwaters. To help achieve good water quality, there is scope to better manage this ecosystem service through regulation of P supply whilst optimising in-stream P retention according to subsidy-stress theory. Further research is needed to develop in-stream management options for maximising P subsidies and to demonstrate that regulation of downstream P delivery will reduce the incidence of eutrophication in connected waterbodies.

  11. Sensitivity of simulated conservation practice effectiveness to representation of field and in-stream processes in the Little River Watershed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluating the effectiveness of conservation practices (CPs) is an important step to achieving efficient and successful water quality management. Watershed-scale simulation models can provide useful and convenient tools for this evaluation, but simulated conservation practice effectiveness should be...

  12. Assessment of in-stream phosphorus dynamics in agricultural drainage ditches.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R

    2009-06-01

    The intensive agricultural systems in the Midwestern United States can enrich surface waters with nutrients. Agricultural drainage ditches serve as the first and second order streams throughout much of this region, as well as other highly productive agricultural areas in humid regions throughout the world. This project was conducted to evaluate in-stream processing of soluble P (SP) in agricultural drainage ditches. Soluble P injection studies were conducted at seven sites along three drainage ditches (298 to 4300 ha drainage area), and one site on a third-order stream that receives the discharge from the agricultural ditches (19,000 ha drainage area) by increasing the SP concentration in the ditch water by approximately 0.25 mg L(-1). Sediments collected from smaller watersheds contained greater amounts of Mehlich 3 and exchangeable P (ExP), silt and clay size particles, and organic matter. Phosphorus uptake lengths (S(net)) ranged from 40 to 1900 m, and SP uptake rates (U) ranged from 0.4 to 52 mg m(-2) h(-1). Phosphorus S(net) was correlated with ditch geomorphological (i.e. width) and sediment properties (i.e. organic matter, ExP, and equilibrium P concentration; r(2)=1.00, P<0.001), indirect drainage in the watershed (r(2)=0.92, P<0.001), and the amount of small grains, forest, urban area, alfalfa and corn (r(2)=1.00, P<0.0001). Agricultural drainage ditches actively process nutrients and could potentially be managed to optimize this processing to minimize SP export from these landscapes.

  13. Distribution of Unionid Mussels in Tributaries of the Lower Flint River, Southwestern Georgia: An Examination of Current and Historical Trends.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golladay, S. W.

    2005-05-01

    The historically diverse assemblage of freshwater mussels in the Flint River Basin has shown declines in abundance and distribution. The mid-reaches of the major tributaries of the Flint River contained one of the richest assemblages of mussels in the southeastern Coastal Plain. Declines in mussel assemblages accelerated following a recent severe drought (1999-2001). Following the drought, we surveyed mussel populations at selected sites in the major tributaries of the Flint River to determine whether declines in abundance and distribution are continuing. Many populations of common, rare, and endangered species were stable in their distribution (# taxa per site) but exhibited declines in abundance. One survey site in particular, on Spring Creek, contains a rich assemblage of mussels unique to the basin, and surveys from this site also suggest diminishing populations. Possible explanations for declines include poor water quality, loss or degradation of instream habitat, competition from the exotic Asiatic clam, and inadequate instream flows.

  14. Hood River Production Program : Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Coccoli, Holly; Lambert, Michael

    2000-02-01

    Effective habitat protection and rehabilitation are essential to the long-term recovery of anadromous fish populations in the Hood River subbasin. This Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was prepared to advance the goals of the Hood River Production Program (HRRP) which include restoring self-sustaining runs of spring chinook salmon and winter and summer steelhead. The HRPP is a fish supplementation and monitoring and evaluation program initiated in 1991 and funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program. The HRPP is a joint effort of the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (CTWSRO) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). Using recent watershed assessment and federal watershed analysis reports, this Plan reviews the historic and current condition of riparian, instream and upland habitats; natural watershed processes; anadromous and resident fish populations; identifies limiting factors, and indicates those subbasin areas that need protection or are likely to respond to restoration. Primary habitat restoration needs were identified as (1) improved fish screening and upstream adult passage at water diversions; (2) improved spawning gravel availability, instream habitat structure and diversity; and (3) improved water quality and riparian conditions. While several early action projects have been initiated in the Hood River subbasin since the mid 1990s, this Plan outlines additional projects and strategies needed to protect existing high quality habitat, correct known fish survival problems, and improve the habitat capacity for natural production to meet HRPP goals.

  15. Wind River subbasin restoration: U.S. Geological Survey annual report November 2012 through December 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating restoration efforts is of interest to many managers and agencies so that funding and time are allocated for best results. The evaluation of various life-histories of Lower Columbia River steelhead within the Wind River subbasin will provide information to better track populations, and to direct habitat restoration and water allocation planning. Increasingly detailed Viable Salmonid Population information, such as that provided by PIT-tagging and instream PTISs networks like those we are building and operating in the Wind River subbasin, will provide data to inform policy and management, as life-history strategies and production bottlenecks are identified and understood.

  16. Lower Flathead River Fisheries Study, 1983 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DosSantos, Joseph M.; Darling, James E.; Cross, Paul D.

    1986-07-01

    In January of 1983 a two-phase study of the lower Flathead River was initiated by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes with funding provided by the Bonneville Power Administration. The study fulfills program measure 804 (a) (3) of the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. During 1983 Phase I of the study was completed resulting in a detailed study plan for the next four years and the methods to be employed during the study. Preliminary observations suggest the present operation of Kerr hydroelectric facility and land use practices within the drainage have combined to significantly reduce spawning success of salmonids and northern pike, and thus recruitment to the fisheries of the main river and tributaries. Main river spawning marshes were observed to be drained frequently during the northern pike spawning season which would result in desiccation of eggs and loss of attached fry. Water level fluctuations also caused trapping of juvenile fish and may be an important source of juvenile mortality.

  17. Impacts of hikers on aquatic invertebrates in the North Fork of the Virgin River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caires, A.M.; Vinson, M.R.; Brasher, A.M.D.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of in-stream hiking on benthic standing stocks and drifting aquatic invertebrates and on organic matter were examined in the North Fork of the Virgin River, Zion National Park, Washington County, Utah. Densities of drifting aquatic invertebrates and organic matter increased with increasing numbers of hikers and reached a threshold level at high numbers of hikers. However, there was no apparent longer-term effect on standing stocks of benthic invertebrates or on organic matter. Densities of benthic invertebrates and organic matter did not differ among sites. Results suggest that in-stream hiking in the North Fork of the Virgin River increases drifting by invertebrates, but invertebrates from nearby undisturbed patches readily colonize impacted reaches.

  18. Instream wood recruitment, channel complexity, and their relationship to stream ecology in forested headwater streams under alternative stable states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livers, B.; Wohl, E.

    2015-12-01

    Human alteration to forests has had lasting effects on stream channels worldwide. Such land use changes affect how wood enters and is stored in streams as individual pieces and as logjams. Changes in wood recruitment affect the complexity and benefits wood can provide to the stream environment, such as zones of flow separation that store fine sediment and organic matter, increased nutrient processing, and greater habitat potential, which can enhance biota and cascade through stream-riparian ecosystems. Previous research in our study area shows that modern headwater streams flowing through old-growth, unmanaged forests have more wood than streams in young, managed forests, but does not explicitly evaluate how wood affects channel complexity or local ecology. 'Managed' refers to forests previously or currently exposed to human alteration. Alteration has long since ceased in some areas, but reduced wood loads in managed streams persist. Our primary objective was to quantify stream complexity metrics, with instream wood as a mediator, on streams across a gradient of management and disturbance histories in order to examine legacy effects of human alteration to forests. Data collected in the Southern Rocky Mountains include 24 2nd to 3rd order subalpine streams categorized into: old-growth unmanaged; younger, naturally disturbed unmanaged; and younger managed. We assessed instream wood loads and logjams and evaluated how they relate to channel complexity using a number of metrics, such as standard deviation of bed and banks, volume of pools, ratios of stream to valley lengths and stream to valley area, and diversity of substrate, gradient, and morphology. Preliminary results show that channel complexity is directly related to instream wood loads and is greatest in streams in old-growth. Related research in the field area indicates that streams with greater wood loads also have increased nutrient processing and greater abundance and diversity of aquatic insect predators.

  19. Chronic toxicity evaluation of the Savannah River Site DETF discharges and three locations on Tims Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-01

    Chronic toxicity tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia were conducted June 6--August 1, 1990, on the Savannah River Site M-Area supernate discharge effluent (M-004), the A-014 effluent discharge with and without DETF process flow, and for stream samples collected in Tims Branch upstream and downstream from A-014. A secondary objective of the study was to determine what DETF flow rate would not cause instream impact to the aquatic community. 2 figs., 68 tabs.

  20. An initial SPARROW model of land use and in-stream controls on total organic carbon in streams of the conterminous United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Alexander, Richard B.; Smith, Richard A.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; Shwarz, Grogory E.; Chung, Susie

    2010-01-01

    Watersheds play many important roles in the carbon cycle: (1) they are a site for both terrestrial and aquatic carbon dioxide (CO2) removal through photosynthesis; (2) they transport living and decomposing organic carbon in streams and groundwater; and (3) they store organic carbon for widely varying lengths of time as a function of many biogeochemical factors. Using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Spatially Referenced Regression on Watershed Attributes (SPARROW) model, along with long-term monitoring data on total organic carbon (TOC), this research quantitatively estimates the sources, transport, and fate of the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams of the conterminous United States. The model simulations use surrogate measures of the major terrestrial and aquatic sources of organic carbon to estimate the long-term mean annual load of TOC in streams. The estimated carbon sources in the model are associated with four land uses (urban, cultivated, forest, and wetlands) and autochthonous fixation of carbon (stream photosynthesis). Stream photosynthesis is determined by reach-level application of an empirical model of stream chlorophyll based on total phosphorus concentration, and a mechanistic model of photosynthetic rate based on chlorophyll, average daily solar irradiance, water column light attenuation, and reach dimensions. It was found that the estimate of in-stream photosynthesis is a major contributor to the mean annual TOC load per unit of drainage area (that is, yield) in large streams, with a median share of about 60 percent of the total mean annual carbon load in streams with mean flows above 500 cubic feet per second. The interquartile range of the model predictions of TOC from in-stream photosynthesis is from 0.1 to 0.4 grams (g) carbon (C) per square meter (m-2) per day (day-1) for the approximately 62,000 stream reaches in the continental United States, which compares favorably with the reported literature range for net carbon fixation by

  1. Development and evaluation of habitat suitability criteria for use in the instream flow incremental methodology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bovee, Ken D.

    1986-01-01

    The Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) is a habitat-based tool used to evaluate the environmental consequences of various water and land use practices. As such, knowledge about the conditions that provide favorable habitat for a species, and those that do not, is necessary for successful implementation of the methodology. In the context of IFIM, this knowledge is defined as habitat suitability criteria: characteristic behavioral traits of a species that are established as standards for comparison in the decision-making process. Habitat suitability criteria may be expressed in a variety of types and formats. The type, or category, refers to the procedure used to develop the criteria. Category I criteria are based on professional judgment, with little or no empirical data. Category II criteria have as their source, microhabitat data collected at locations where target organisms are observed or collected. These are called “utilization” functions because they are based on observed locations that were used by the target organism. These functions tend to be biased by the environmental conditions that were available to the fish or invertebrates at the time they were observed. Correction of the utilization function for environmental availability creates category III, or “preference” criteria, which tend to be much less site specific than category II criteria. There are also several ways to express habitat suitability in graphical form. The binary format establishes a suitable range for each variable as it pertains to a life stage of interest, and is presented graphically as a step function. The quality rating for a variable is 1.0 if it falls within the range of the criteria, and 0.0 if it falls outside the range. The univariate curve format established both the usable range and the optimum range for each variable, with conditions of intermediate usability expressed along the portion between the tails and the peak of the curve. Multivariate probability

  2. Challenges of river basin management: Current status of, and prospects for, the River Danube from a river engineering perspective.

    PubMed

    Habersack, Helmut; Hein, Thomas; Stanica, Adrian; Liska, Igor; Mair, Raimund; Jäger, Elisabeth; Hauer, Christoph; Bradley, Chris

    2016-02-01

    In the Danube River Basin multiple pressures affect the river system as a consequence of river engineering works, altering both the river hydrodynamics and morphodynamics. The main objective of this paper is to identify the effects of hydropower development, flood protection and engineering works for navigation on the Danube and to examine specific impacts of these developments on sediment transport and river morphology. Whereas impoundments are characterised by deposition and an excess of sediment with remobilisation of fine sediments during severe floods, the remaining five free flowing sections of the Danube are experiencing river bed erosion of the order of several centimetres per year. Besides the effect of interruption of the sediment continuum, river bed degradation is caused by an increase in the sediment transport capacity following an increase in slope, a reduction of river bed width due to canalisation, prohibition of bank erosion by riprap or regressive erosion following base level lowering by flood protection measures and sediment dredging. As a consequence, the groundwater table is lowered, side-arms are disconnected, instream structures are lost and habitat quality deteriorates affecting the ecological status of valuable floodplains. The lack of sediments, together with cutting off meanders, leads also to erosion of the bed of main arms in the Danube Delta and coastal erosion. This paper details the causes and effects of river engineering measures and hydromorphological changes for the Danube. It highlights the importance of adopting a basin-wide holistic approach to river management and demonstrates that past management in the basin has been characterised by a lack of integration. To-date insufficient attention has been paid to the wide-ranging impacts of river engineering works throughout the basin: from the basin headwaters to the Danube Delta, on the Black Sea coast. This highlights the importance of new initiatives that seek to advance knowledge

  3. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FSWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described.

  4. Nutrient sources and transport in the Missouri River Basin, with emphasis on the effects of irrigation and reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, J.B.; Sprague, L.A.; Dupree, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were used to relate instream nutrient loads to sources and factors influencing the transport of nutrients in the Missouri River Basin. Agricultural inputs from fertilizer and manure were the largest nutrient sources throughout a large part of the basin, although atmospheric and urban inputs were important sources in some areas. Sediment mobilized from stream channels was a source of phosphorus in medium and larger streams. Irrigation on agricultural land was estimated to decrease the nitrogen load reaching the Mississippi River by as much as 17%, likely as a result of increased anoxia and denitrification in the soil zone. Approximately 16% of the nitrogen load and 33% of the phosphorus load that would have otherwise reached the Mississippi River was retained in reservoirs and lakes throughout the basin. Nearly half of the total attenuation occurred in the eight largest water bodies. Unlike the other major tributary basins, nearly the entire instream nutrient load leaving the outlet of the Platte and Kansas River subbasins reached the Mississippi River. Most of the larger reservoirs and lakes in the Platte River subbasin are upstream of the major sources, whereas in the Kansas River subbasin, most of the source inputs are in the southeast part of the subbasin where characteristics of the area and proximity to the Missouri River facilitate delivery of nutrients to the Mississippi River.

  5. Nutrient Sources and Transport in the Missouri River Basin, with Emphasis on the Effects of Irrigation and Reservoirs1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Juliane B; Sprague, Lori A; Dupree, Jean A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models were used to relate instream nutrient loads to sources and factors influencing the transport of nutrients in the Missouri River Basin. Agricultural inputs from fertilizer and manure were the largest nutrient sources throughout a large part of the basin, although atmospheric and urban inputs were important sources in some areas. Sediment mobilized from stream channels was a source of phosphorus in medium and larger streams. Irrigation on agricultural land was estimated to decrease the nitrogen load reaching the Mississippi River by as much as 17%, likely as a result of increased anoxia and denitrification in the soil zone. Approximately 16% of the nitrogen load and 33% of the phosphorus load that would have otherwise reached the Mississippi River was retained in reservoirs and lakes throughout the basin. Nearly half of the total attenuation occurred in the eight largest water bodies. Unlike the other major tributary basins, nearly the entire instream nutrient load leaving the outlet of the Platte and Kansas River subbasins reached the Mississippi River. Most of the larger reservoirs and lakes in the Platte River subbasin are upstream of the major sources, whereas in the Kansas River subbasin, most of the source inputs are in the southeast part of the subbasin where characteristics of the area and proximity to the Missouri River facilitate delivery of nutrients to the Mississippi River. PMID:22457581

  6. Effects of In-stream Restorations on Stream Hydrodynamics, Nutrient Uptake, and Ecosystem Metabolism at Fort Benning, GA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, B. J.; Mulholland, P. J.

    2005-05-01

    Spatial variability in military training intensity results in a wide range of upland disturbance intensity at the Fort Benning Military Reservation (near Columbus, GA). We selected stream reaches within 8 catchments with contrasting levels of upland denudation and stream ecosystem disturbance. In October 2003, 4 of these streams (spanning the disturbance gradient) received in-stream restorations in the form of coarse woody debris dams every 10 m for the 100 m study reaches. Stream hydrodynamic properties, NH4+ uptake, and whole-stream metabolism were examined both prior to and after restoration for all 8 streams. In-stream restorations resulted in increases in the relative size of transient storage zones (important for biological processes) and spatial variation in water velocity (enhances habitat variability). These hydrodynamic changes corresponded to increases in both NH4+ uptake rate and velocity as the ability of stream biota to control stream NH4+ concentration increased. By monitoring stream metabolism rates for two years prior to restoration we are able to assess the impact of the restorations on these important integrative processes using a BACI-type analysis (before-after control-treatment analysis) for the first year of post-restoration.

  7. Characterization of benthic communities and physical habitat in the Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, California.

    PubMed

    Hall, Lenwood W; Killen, William D; Anderson, Ronald D

    2006-04-01

    The primary goal of this study was to characterize physical habitat and benthic communities (macroinvertebrates) in the Stanislaus, Tuolumne and Merced Rivers in California's San Joaquin Valley in 2003. These rivers have been listed as impaired water bodies (303 (d) list) by the State of California due to the presence of organophosphate (OP) insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon, Group A pesticides (i.e., organochlorine pesticides), mercury, or unknown toxicity. Based on 10 instream and riparian physical habitat metrics, total physical habitat scores in the Stanislaus River ranged from 124 to 188 (maximum possible total score is 200). The highest total habitat score was reported at the upstream site. Tuolumne River physical habitat scores ranged from 86 to 167. Various Tuolumne River physical habitat metrics, including total habitat score, increased from downstream to upstream in this river. Merced River physical habitat scores ranged from 121 to 170 with a significant increase in various physical habitat metrics, including total habitat score, reported from downstream to upstream. Channel flow (an instream metric) and bank stability (a riparian metric) were the most important physical habitat metrics influencing the various benthic metrics for all three rivers. Abundance measures of benthic macroinvertebrates (5,100 to 5,400 individuals) were similar among the three rivers in the San Joaquin watershed. Benthic communities in all three rivers were generally dominated by: (1) Baetidae species (mayflies) which are a component of EPT taxa generally considered sensitive to environmental degradation; (2) Chironomidae (midges) which can be either tolerant or sensitive to environmental stressors depending on the species; (3) Ephemerellidae (mayflies) which are considered sensitive to pollution stress; and (4) Naididae (aquatic worms) which are generally considered tolerant to environmental stressors. The presence of 117 taxa in the Stanislaus River, 114 taxa in the

  8. Model based hydropower gate operation for mitigation of CSO impacts by means of river base flow increase.

    PubMed

    Achleitner, S; De Toffol, S; Engelhard, C; Rauch, W

    2005-01-01

    In river stretches being subjected to flow regulation, usually for the purpose of energy production (e.g. Hydropower) or flood protection (river barrage), a special measure can be taken against the effect of combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The basic idea is the temporal increase of the river base flow (during storm weather) as an in-stream measure for mitigation of CSO spilling. The focus is the mitigation of the negative effect of acute pollution of substances. The measure developed can be seen as an application of the classic real time control (RTC) concept onto the river system. Upstream gate operation is to be based on real time monitoring and forecasting of precipitation. The main objective is the development of a model based predictive control system for the gate operation, by modelling of the overall wastewater system (incl. the receiving water). The main emphasis is put on the operational strategy and the appropriate short-term forecast of spilling events. The potential of the measure is tested for the application of the operational strategy and its ecological and economic feasibility. The implementation of such an in-stream measure into the hydropower's operational scheme is unique. Advantages are (a) the additional in-stream dilution of acute pollutants entering the receiving water and (b) the resulting minimization of the required CSO storage volume.

  9. ESTIMATION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED NITRATE LOAD IN NATURAL STREAM FLOWS USING AN IN-STREAM MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries respond rapidly to rain events and the nutrients carried by inflowing rivers such that discrete samples at weekly or monthly intervals are inadequate to catch the maxima and minima in nutrient variability. To acquire data with sufficient sampling frequency to realistica...

  10. Attraction to and Avoidance of instream Hydrokinetic Turbines by Freshwater Aquatic Organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2011-05-01

    The development of hydrokinetic (HK) energy projects is under consideration at over 150 sites in large rivers in the United States, including the Mississippi, Ohio, Tennessee, and Atchafalaya Rivers. These waterbodies support numerous fish species that might interact with the HK projects in a variety of ways, e.g., by attraction to or avoidance of project structures. Although many fish species inhabit these rivers (about 172 species in the Mississippi River alone), not all of them will encounter the HK projects. Some species prefer low-velocity, backwater habitats rather than the high-velocity, main channel areas that would be the best sites for HK. Other, riverbank-oriented species are weak swimmers or too small to inhabit the main channel for significant periods of time. Some larger, main channel fish species are not known to be attracted to structures. Based on a consideration of habitat preferences, size/swim speed, and behavior, fish species that are most likely to be attracted to HK structures in the main channel include carps, suckers, catfish, white bass, striped bass, smallmouth bass, spotted bass, and sauger. Proper siting of the project in order to avoid sensitive fish populations, backwater and fish nursery habitat areas, and fish migration corridors will likely minimize concerns about fish attraction to or avoidance of HK structures.

  11. ECOREGIONAL INFLUENCES ON WATERSHED LAND COVER, WATER QUALITY, AND IN-STREAM BIOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Omernik's ecoregions were developed to serve as a spatial framework for environmental monitoring and research. We examined the biology and chemistry in 35 headwater streams in the Little Miami River (LMR) of Ohio to determine whethEr there were real differences among three ecore...

  12. Quantitative assessment of future development of cooper/silver resources in the Kootenai National Forest, Idaho/Montana: Part I-Estimation of the copper and silver endowments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spanski, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    Faced with an ever-increasing diversity of demand for the use of public lands, managers and planners are turning more often to a multiple-use approach to meet those demands. This approach requires the uses to be mutually compatible and to utilize the more valuable attributes or resource values of the land. Therefore, it is imperative that planners be provided with all available information on attribute and resource values in a timely fashion and in a format that facilitates a comparative evaluation. The Kootenai National Forest administration enlisted the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Bureau of Mines to perform a quantitative assessment of future copper/silver production potential within the forest from sediment-hosted copper deposits in the Revett Formation that are similar to those being mined at the Troy Mine near Spar Lake. The U.S. Geological Survey employed a quantitative assessment technique that compared the favorable host terrane in the Kootenai area with worldwide examples of known sediment-hosted copper deposits. The assessment produced probabilistic estimates of the number of undiscovered deposits that may be present in the area and of the copper and silver endowment that might be contained in them. Results of the assessment suggest that the copper/silver deposit potential is highest in the southwestern one-third of the forest. In this area there is an estimated 50 percent probability of at least 50 additional deposits occurring mostly within approximately 260,000 acres where the Revett Formation is thought to be present in the subsurface at depths of less than 1,500 meters. A Monte Carlo type simulation using data on the grade and tonnage characteristics of other known silver-rich, sediment-hosted copper deposits predicts a 50 percent probability that these undiscovered deposits will contain at least 19 million tonnes of copper and 100,000 tonnes of silver. Combined with endowments estimated for identified, but not thoroughly explored deposits, and

  13. Beyond Rating Curves: Time Series Models for in-Stream Turbidity Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Mukundan, R.; Zion, M.; Pierson, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    The New York City Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) manages New York City's water supply, which is comprised of over 20 reservoirs and supplies over 1 billion gallons of water per day to more than 9 million customers. DEP's "West of Hudson" reservoirs located in the Catskill Mountains are unfiltered per a renewable filtration avoidance determination granted by the EPA. While water quality is usually pristine, high volume storm events occasionally cause the reservoirs to become highly turbid. A logical strategy for turbidity control is to temporarily remove the turbid reservoirs from service. While effective in limiting delivery of turbid water and reducing the need for in-reservoir alum flocculation, this strategy runs the risk of negatively impacting water supply reliability. Thus, it is advantageous for DEP to understand how long a particular turbidity event will affect their system. In order to understand the duration, intensity and total load of a turbidity event, predictions of future in-stream turbidity values are important. Traditionally, turbidity predictions have been carried out by applying streamflow observations/forecasts to a flow-turbidity rating curve. However, predictions from rating curves are often inaccurate due to inter- and intra-event variability in flow-turbidity relationships. Predictions can be improved by applying an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) time series model in combination with a traditional rating curve. Since 2003, DEP and the Upstate Freshwater Institute have compiled a relatively consistent set of 15-minute turbidity observations at various locations on Esopus Creek above Ashokan Reservoir. Using daily averages of this data and streamflow observations at nearby USGS gauges, flow-turbidity rating curves were developed via linear regression. Time series analysis revealed that the linear regression residuals may be represented using an ARMA(1,2) process. Based on this information, flow-turbidity regressions with

  14. Wind River subbasin restoration: Annual report of U.S. Geological Survey activities January 2014 through December 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating restoration efforts is of interest to many managers and agencies so that funding and time are allocated for best results. The evaluation of various life-histories of Lower Columbia River steelhead within the Wind River subbasin provides information to better track populations, and more effectively direct habitat restoration and water allocation planning. Increasingly detailed Viable Salmonid Population information (Crawford and Rumsey 2009), such as that provided by PIT-tagging and instream PTISs networks like those we build and operate in the Wind River subbasin, provide data to better inform policy and management, as life-history strategies and production bottlenecks are identified and understood.

  15. Chemical and isotopic evidence of nitrogen transformation in the Mississippi River, 1997-98

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglin, William A.; Kendall, Carol; Chang, Cecily C. Y.; Silva, Steven R.; Campbell, D. H.

    2001-05-01

    An Erratum has been published for this article in Hydrological Processes 16(5) 2002, 1129-1130.Nitrate (NO3) and other nutrients discharged by the Mississippi River are suspected of causing a zone of depleted dissolved oxygen (hypoxic zone) in the Gulf of Mexico each summer. The hypoxic zone may have an adverse affect on aquatic life and commercial fisheries. The amount of NO3 delivered by the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico is well documented, but the relative contributions of different sources of NO3, and the magnitude of subsequent in-stream transformations of NO3, are not well understood. Forty-two water samples collected in 1997 and 1998 at eight stations located either on the Mississippi River or its major tributaries were analysed for NO3, total nitrogen (N), atrazine, chloride concentrations and NO3 stable isotopes (15N and 18O). These data are used to assess the magnitude and nature of in-stream N transformation and to determine if the 15N and river system (drainage area 2 900 000 kmRiver and its tributaries are somewhat distinctive, and vary with season and discharge rate. Of particular interest are two nearly Lagrangian sample sets, in which samples from the Mississippi River at St Francisville, LA, are compared with samples collected from the Ohio River at Grand Chain, II, and the Mississippi River at Thebes, IL. In both Lagrangian sets, mass-balance calculations indicate only a small amount of in-stream N loss. The stable isotope data from the samples suggest that in-stream N assimilation and not denitrification accounts for most of the N loss in the lower Mississippi River during the spring and early summer

  16. Transverse Mixing in a Natural River Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swick, W. A.; Macmahan, J. H.; Reniers, A. J.; Thornton, E. B.; Brown, J.

    2010-12-01

    Transverse mixing in a river channel is investigated using field observations and a three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model, Delft3D. Six fluorescent Rhodamine dye releases were conducted in a 30 m wide, 500 m long, and 2 m deep relatively straight reach in the Kootenai River, ID on 12-16 August 2010. The study reach contained a number of natural channel features, such as a pool-riffle sequence and bank irregularities, which influence transverse mixing. The dye was released at a constant rate for one hour from a kayak fixed in the center of the channel. River discharge was steady and all releases were conducted in the morning hours to avoid diurnal wind effects. Vertical dye concentrations and velocity profiles were measured near the source and four downstream locations: 25m, 100m, 300m and 500m. In addition to the stationary observations, two different roving dye sampling schemes were performed to increase the spatial dye concentration resolution. The first sampling scheme consisted of 5 evenly-spaced dye sensors being slowly moved upstream. The second scheme consisted of 3 dye sensors moved transversely across the channel at various streamwise channel locations. These observations provide the horizontal and vertical extent of the dye plume and the spatial and temporal variability of the dye concentration. Local flow structures, produced by the separation of flow over riffles and bank irregularities, strongly control the observed local concentration distributions. Qualitative calculations highlight the influence of channel irregularities on the rate of transverse mixing and quantitative inferences shed light on the dominant mixing processes operating within different parts of the channel. 1D analytical and 3D numerical model are used to assess the relative importance of turbulent diffusion and local flow structure on predicted spatial dye concentrations.

  17. Changes in phosphorus concentrations and loads in the Assabet River, Massachusetts, October 2008 through April 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savoie, Jennifer G.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Mullaney, John R.; Zimmerman, Marc J.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2016-10-24

    Treated effluent discharged from municipal wastewater-treatment plants to the Assabet River in central Massachusetts includes phosphorus, which leads to increased growth of nuisance aquatic plants that decrease the river’s water quality and aesthetics in impounded reaches during the growing season. To improve the river’s water quality and aesthetics, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency approved a total maximum daily load for phosphorus in 2004 that directed the wastewater-treatment plants to reduce the amount of total phosphorus discharged to the river by 2012. The permitted total phosphorus monthly average of 0.75 milligrams per liter during the aquatic plant growing season (April 1 through October 31) was reduced by the total maximum daily load to a target of 0.1 milligrams per liter by 2012, and the nongrowing-season limit was unchanged at 1.0 milligrams per liter.From October 2008 through April 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, measured streamflow and collected weekly flow-proportional, composite samples of water from the Assabet River for analysis of concentrations of total phosphorus and orthophosphate. Streamflow and concentration data were used to estimate total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads in the river. The purpose of this monitoring effort was to evaluate phosphorus concentrations and loads in the river before, during, and after the wastewater-treatment-plant upgrades and to assess the effects of seasonal differences in permitted discharges. The locations of water-quality-monitoring stations, with respect to the Hudson and Ben Smith impoundments, enabled examination of effects of phosphorus entering and leaving the impoundments.Annual median concentrations of total phosphorus in wastewater-treatment plants were reduced by more than 80 percent with the plant upgrades. Measured instream annual median concentrations of total phosphorus in the Assabet River decreased

  18. The long-term effects of invasive signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus) on instream macroinvertebrate communities.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Kate L; Chadd, Richard P; Dunbar, Michael J; Extence, Chris A; Reeds, Jake; Rice, Stephen P; Wood, Paul J

    2016-06-15

    Non-native species represent a significant threat to indigenous biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. It is widely acknowledged that invasive crayfish species may be instrumental in modifying benthic invertebrate community structure, but there is limited knowledge regarding the temporal and spatial extent of these effects within lotic ecosystems. This study investigates the long term changes to benthic macroinvertebrate community composition following the invasion of signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, into English rivers. Data from long-term monitoring sites on 7 rivers invaded by crayfish and 7 rivers where signal crayfish were absent throughout the record (control sites) were used to examine how invertebrate community composition and populations of individual taxa changed as a result of invasion. Following the detection of non-native crayfish, significant shifts in invertebrate community composition were observed at invaded sites compared to control sites. This pattern was strongest during autumn months but was also evident during spring surveys. The observed shifts in community composition following invasion were associated with reductions in the occurrence of ubiquitous Hirudinea species (Glossiphonia complanata and Erpobdella octoculata), Gastropoda (Radix spp.), Ephemeroptera (Caenis spp.), and Trichoptera (Hydropsyche spp.); although variations in specific taxa affected were evident between regions and seasons. Changes in community structure were persistent over time with no evidence of recovery, suggesting that crayfish invasions represent significant perturbations leading to permanent changes in benthic communities. The results provide fundamental knowledge regarding non-native crayfish invasions of lotic ecosystems required for the development of future management strategies.

  19. Predicted Effects of Hydropower Uprate on Trout Habitat in the Cumberland River, Downstream of Wolf Creek Dam, Kentucky

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    is useful for predicting flow patterns in simple, straight channels. Flow patterns at cross sections located on bends or with complex channel...URN), regulates flows in the Cumberland River at Wolf Creek Dam to provide for hydropower generation and flood control. The ORN is considering...Instream Flow Incremental Methodology concepts. The relative downstream habitat impacts of hydro- power uprate are assessed by contrasting existing

  20. Investigations on the Influence of the In-Stream Pylon and Strut on the Performance of a Scramjet Combustor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weidong; Sun, Mingbo

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the in-stream pylon and strut on the performance of scramjet combustor was experimentally and numerically investigated. The experiments were conducted with a direct-connect supersonic model combustor equipped with multiple cavities. The entrance parameter of combustor corresponds to scramjet flight Mach number 4.0 with a total temperature of 947 K. The research results show that, compared with the scramjet combustor without pylon and strut, the wall pressure and the thrust of the scramjet increase due to the improvement of mixing and combustion effect due to the pylon and strut. The total pressure loss caused by the strut is considerable whereas pylon influence is slight. PMID:25254234

  1. Evaluation of the instream flow incremental methodology by U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service field users

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armour, Carl L.; Taylor, Jonathan G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper summarizes results of a survey conducted in 1988 of 57 U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service field offices. The purpose was to document opinions of biologists experienced in applying the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM). Responses were received from 35 offices where 616 IFIM applications were reported. The existence of six monitoring studies designed to evaluate the adequacy of flows provided at sites was confirmed. The two principal categories reported as stumbling blocks to the successful application of IFIM were beliefs that the methodology is technically too simplistic or that it is too complex to apply. Recommendations receiving the highest scores for future initiatives to enhance IFIM use were (1) training and workshops for field biologists; and (2) improving suitability index (SI) curves and computer models, and evaluating the relationship of weighted useable area (WUA) to fish responses. The authors concur that emphasis for research should be on addressing technical concerns about SI curves and WUA.

  2. In-stream biotic control on nutrient biogeochemistry in a forested stream, West Fork of Walker Branch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Brian J.; Mulholland, Patrick J.

    2007-12-01

    A growing body of evidence demonstrates the importance of in-stream processing in regulating nutrient export, yet the influence of temporal variability in stream metabolism on net nutrient uptake has not been explicitly addressed. Stream water DIN and SRP concentrations in Walker Branch, a first-order deciduous forest stream in eastern Tennessee, show a repeated pattern of annual maxima in summer and biannual minima in spring and autumn. Temporal variations in catchment hydrologic flow paths result in lower winter and higher summer nutrient concentrations, but do not explain the spring and autumn nutrient minima. Ambient nutrient uptake rates were measured 2-3 times per week over an 18-month period and compared to daily rates of gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) to examine the influence of in-stream biotic activity on nutrient export. GPP and ER rates explained 81% of the variation in net DIN retention with high net NO3- uptake (and lower net NH4+ release) rates occurring during spring and autumn and net DIN release in summer. Diel nutrient concentration patterns were examined several times throughout the year to determine the relative importance of autotrophic and heterotrophic activity on net nutrient uptake. High spring GPP corresponded to daily decreases in NO3- over the illuminated hours resulting in high diel NO3- amplitude which dampened as the canopy closed. GPP explained 91% of the variance in diel NO3- amplitude. In contrast, the autumn nutrient minima was largely explained by heterotrophic respiration since GPP remained low and little diel NO3- variation was observed during the autumn.

  3. Fecal Coliform Removal by River Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Bacterial pathogens are a major cause of water quality impairment in the United States. Freshwater ecosystems provide the ecosystem service of reducing pathogen levels by diluting and removing pathogens as water flows from source areas through the river network. However, the integration of field-scale monitoring data and watershed-scale hydrologic models to estimate pathogen loads and removal in varied aquatic ecosystems is still limited. In this study we applied a biogeochemical river network model (the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System or FrAMES) and utilized available field data the Oyster R. watershed, a small (51.7 km2) draining coastal New Hampshire (NH, USA), to quantify pathogen removal at the river network scale, using fecal coliform as an indicator. The Oyster R. Watershed is comprised of various land use types, and has had its water quality monitored for fecal coliform, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity since 2001. Water samples were also collected during storm events to account for storm responses. FrAMES was updated to incorporate the dominant processes controlling fecal coliform concentrations in aquatic ecosystems: spatially distributed terrestrial loading, in-stream removal, dilution, and downstream transport. We applied an empirical loading function to estimate the terrestrial loading of fecal coliform across flow conditions. Data was collected from various land use types across a range of hydrologic conditions. The loading relationship includes total daily precipitation, antecedent 24-hour rainfall, air temperature, and catchment impervious surface percentage. Attenuation is due to bacterial "die-off" and dilution processes. Results show that fecal coliform input loads varied among different land use types. At low flow, fecal coliform concentrations were similar among watersheds. However, at high flow the concentrations were significantly higher in urbanized watersheds than forested watersheds. The mainstem had lower fecal coliform

  4. Incorporating groundwater-surface water interaction into river management models.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Allison; Rajaram, Harihar; Zagona, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Accurate representation of groundwater-surface water interactions is critical to modeling low river flows in the semi-arid southwestern United States. Although a number of groundwater-surface water models exist, they are seldom integrated with river operation/management models. A link between the object-oriented river and reservoir operations model, RiverWare, and the groundwater model, MODFLOW, was developed to incorporate groundwater-surface water interaction processes, such as river seepage/gains, riparian evapotranspiration, and irrigation return flows, into a rule-based water allocations model. An explicit approach is used in which the two models run in tandem, exchanging data once in each computational time step. Because the MODFLOW grid is typically at a finer resolution than RiverWare objects, the linked model employs spatial interpolation and summation for compatible communication of exchanged variables. The performance of the linked model is illustrated through two applications in the Middle Rio Grande Basin in New Mexico where overappropriation impacts endangered species habitats. In one application, the linked model results are compared with historical data; the other illustrates use of the linked model for determining management strategies needed to attain an in-stream flow target. The flows predicted by the linked model at gauge locations are reasonably accurate except during a few very low flow periods when discrepancies may be attributable to stream gaging uncertainties or inaccurate documentation of diversions. The linked model accounted for complex diversions, releases, groundwater pumpage, irrigation return flows, and seepage between the groundwater system and canals/drains to achieve a schedule of releases that satisfied the in-stream target flow.

  5. Flow controls on lowland river macrophytes: a review.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Paul; Dunbar, Michael; Whitehead, Paul

    2008-08-01

    We review the current status of knowledge regarding the role that flow parameters play in controlling the macrophyte communities of temperate lowland rivers. We consider both direct and indirect effects and the interaction with other factors known to control macrophyte communities. Knowledge gaps are identified and implications for the management of river systems considered. The main factors and processes controlling the status of macrophytes in lowland rivers are velocity (hence also discharge), light, substrate, competition, nutrient status and river management practices. We suggest that whilst the characteristics of any particular macrophyte community reflect the integral effects of a combination of the factors, fundamental importance can be attributed to the role of discharge and velocity in controlling instream macrophyte colonisation, establishment and persistence. Velocity and discharge also appear to control the relative influence of some of the other controlling factors. Despite the apparent importance of velocity in determining the status of macrophyte communities in lowland rivers, relatively little is understood about the nature of the processes controlling this relationship. Quantitative knowledge is particularly lacking. Consequently, the ability to predict macrophyte abundance and distribution in rivers is still limited. This is further complicated by the likely existence of feedback effects between the growth of macrophytes and velocity. Demand for water resources increases the pressure on lowland aquatic ecosystems. Despite growing recognition of the need to allocate water for the needs of instream biota, the inability to assess the flow requirements of macrophyte communities limits the scope to achieve this. This increases the likelihood of overexploitation of the water resource as other users, whose demands are quantifiable, are prioritised.

  6. Cultural Resources Investigations for Libby Reservoir, Lincoln County, Northwest, Montana. Volume 1. Environment, Archaeology, and Land Use Patterns in the Middle Kootenai River Valley.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    154 3 Container-Clear 15 6 Container- Aquamarine 39 9 Container-Green 8 4 Container-Purple 24 8 Container-Amber 16 4 Other Items 16 7 Subtotal 272 17...clear, aquamarine , green, purple, and amber. The 16 clear bottle fragments were collected from seven sites. The complete, small, clear, battery oil bottle...bottle (with an asymmetrical mouth) came from 24LN705. A total of 39 aquamarine bottle fragments, including an isolated find, was collected. The isolated

  7. Maps and geospatial data for the Shorty’s Island and Myrtle Bend substrate enhancement pilot projects, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fosness, Ryan L.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the methods used to develop georeferenced portable document format maps and geospatial data that describe spawning locations and physical habitat characteristics (including egg mat locations, bathymetry, surficial sediment facies, and streamflow velocity) within the substrate enhancement pilot project study area. The results are presented as two maps illustrating the physical habitat characteristics along with proposed habitat enhancement areas, aerial imagery, and hydrography. The results of this study will assist researchers, policy makers, and management agencies in deciding the spatial location and extent of the substrate enhancement pilot project.

  8. Measuring and modeling multidimensional dispersion in a meandering river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. L.; Nelson, J. M.; Runkel, R. L.; McDonald, R. R.

    2009-04-01

    As part of a study to separate and characterize the active and passive components of sturgeon larval dispersal in a large river, we made detailed measurements of the dispersion of a large pulse of Rhodamine dye injected at a single upstream point. The study occurred on the Kootenai River, USA, a 200m-wide meandering river with an unusually low gradient, 2x10-5, and an average depth of 5 m at the moderate study flow of 271 m3/s. For the first 14 river kilometers downstream from the injection site, a detailed concentration data set describing the spatial and temporal evolution of the dye pulse was obtained using GPS receivers and high-accuracy fluorometers mounted on several boats. Beyond this initial reach, the dye was predominantly well-mixed in the cross-stream direction except near the leading and trailing edges of the pulse, and only longitudinal dispersion was measured. These measurements were made at a series of 11 fixed locations for an additional 45 river kilometers downstream, at which point peak dye concentrations were near the detection limit. Even for a relatively simple channel, the data indicate that local topography and bank irregularity exert a strong influence on the distribution of dye. While most of the dye pulse was apparently well mixed in the cross-stream and vertical directions, deep pools and lateral separation zones produced complex 3-dimensional structure in the concentration field, especially at the leading edge of the dye pulse. The dispersion data show that travel times in different reaches were more variable than predicted by a simple 1-dimensional model. Comparisons of the field data with results from multidimensional computational models indicate that uncommon channel features play a disproportionately important role in determining the storage and subsequent release of constituents that are passively advected and diffused.

  9. An analysis of the allocation of Yakima River water in terms of sustainability and economic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Brett; Douglas, Ellen M; Terkla, David

    2012-07-30

    Decades of agricultural growth has led to the over appropriation of Yakima water and the ecological integrity of the Basin has been compromised. We evaluate the impact of current water allocation on the natural flow regime of the Yakima River using the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration/Range of Variability Analysis and by quantifying indicators of ecosurplus and ecodeficit. We analyze the sustainability of the current water allocation scheme based on a range of sustainability criteria, from weak to strong to environmentally sustainable. Economic efficiency is assessed by describing the current allocation framework and suggesting ways to make it more efficient. Our IHA/RVA analysis suggests that the allocation of water in the Yakima River has resulted in a highly altered flow regime. Ecodeficit is far in excess of ecosurplus. We conclude that this allocation scheme is weakly sustainable, if sustainable at all, in its current framework. The allocation of water is also not economically efficient and we suggest that a reallocation of water rights may be necessary in order to achieve this objective. The creation of water markets to stimulate voluntary water rights transactions is the best way to approach economic efficiency. The first step would be to extend beneficial use requirements to include instream flows, which would essentially allow individuals to convert offstream rights into instream rights. The Washington trust water rights program was implemented as a means of creating a water market, which has contributed to the protection of instream flows, however more needs to be done to create an ideal water rights market so that rights migrate to higher valued uses, many of which are met instream. However, water markets will likely not solve the Yakima's water allocation problems alone; some degree of regulation may still be necessary.

  10. Assessing patterns of bed-material storage and flux on a mixed bedrock-alluvium river: Umpqua River Oregon, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallick, R.; Anderson, S.; Keith, M.; Cannon, C.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    Gravel bed rivers in the Pacific Northwest and elsewhere provide an important source of commercial aggregate. Mining in-stream gravel, however, can alter channel and bar morphology, resulting in habitat degradation for aquatic species. In order to sustainably manage rivers subject to in-stream gravel extraction, regulatory agencies in Oregon have requested that the USGS complete a series of comprehensive geomorphic and sediment transport studies to provide context for regulatory-agency management of in-stream gravel extraction in Oregon streams. The Umpqua River in western Oregon poses special challenges to this type of assessment. Whereas most rivers subject to gravel extraction are relatively rich in bed-material sediment, the Umpqua River is a mixed bedrock-alluvium system draining a large (1,804 km2) basin; hence typical bed-material transport analyses and ecologic and geomorphic lessons of in-stream gravel extraction on more gravel-rich rivers have limited applicability. Consequently, we have relied upon multiple analyses, including comprehensive historical mapping, bedload transport modeling, and a GIS-based sediment yield analysis to assess patterns of bed-material transport and annual rates of bed-material flux. These analyses, combined with numerous historical accounts, indicate that since at least the 1840’s, the Umpqua River planform has been stable, as bar geometry is largely fixed by valley physiography and the channel itself is underlain mainly by bedrock. Preliminary estimates of annual bedload transport rates calculated for the period 1951-2008 from bed-material transport capacity relations at 42 bars along the South Umpqua and mainstem Umpqua Rivers vary from 0 to 600,000 metric tons per year, with this large spread reflecting variability in bar geometry and grainsize. Large stable bars are activated only during exceptionally large floods and have negligible transport during most years whereas smaller, low elevation bars serve as transient

  11. Pseudo-spectral methodology for a quantitative assessment of the cover of in-stream vegetation in small streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkovitz, Yaron; Anker, Yaakov; Ben-Dor, Eyal; Schwartz, Guy; Gasith, Avital

    2010-05-01

    In-stream vegetation is a key ecosystem component in many fluvial ecosystems, having cascading effects on stream conditions and biotic structure. Traditionally, ground-level surveys (e.g. grid and transect analyses) are commonly used for estimating cover of aquatic macrophytes. Nonetheless, this methodological approach is highly time consuming and usually yields information which is practically limited to habitat and sub-reach scales. In contrast, remote-sensing techniques (e.g. satellite imagery and airborne photography), enable collection of large datasets over section, stream and basin scales, in relatively short time and reasonable cost. However, the commonly used spatial high resolution (1m) is often inadequate for examining aquatic vegetation on habitat or sub-reach scales. We examined the utility of a pseudo-spectral methodology, using RGB digital photography for estimating the cover of in-stream vegetation in a small Mediterranean-climate stream. We compared this methodology with that obtained by traditional ground-level grid methodology and with an airborne hyper-spectral remote sensing survey (AISA-ES). The study was conducted along a 2 km section of an intermittent stream (Taninim stream, Israel). When studied, the stream was dominated by patches of watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and mats of filamentous algae (Cladophora glomerata). The extent of vegetation cover at the habitat and section scales (100 and 104 m, respectively) were estimated by the pseudo-spectral methodology, using an airborne Roli camera with a Phase-One P 45 (39 MP) CCD image acquisition unit. The swaths were taken in elevation of about 460 m having a spatial resolution of about 4 cm (NADIR). For measuring vegetation cover at the section scale (104 m) we also used a 'push-broom' AISA-ES hyper-spectral swath having a sensor configuration of 182 bands (350-2500 nm) at elevation of ca. 1,200 m (i.e. spatial resolution of ca. 1 m). Simultaneously, with every swath we used an Analytical

  12. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel

    2009-04-03

    validate an existing Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) model developed for the Kootenai River and will also be used to assess the effect of changes in discharge on fish movements and habitat use downstream of Libby Dam. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags will be injected into rainbow, bull, and cutthroat trout throughout the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries to provide information on growth, survival, and migration patterns in relation to abiotic and biotic variables. Model simulations (RIVBIO) are used to calculate the effects of dam operations on the wetted perimeter and benthic biomass in the Kootenai River below Libby Dam. Additional models (IFIM) will also be used to evaluate the impacts of dam operations on the amount of available habitat for different life stages of rainbow and bull trout in the Kootenai River.

  13. Linking catchment and in-stream processes for an integrated simulation of freshwater biota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiesel, Jens; Hering, Daniel; Jähnig, Sonja; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Natural catchments, streams and aquatic diversity are globally degraded due to the impacts of industrial and urban development, as well as the intensification of agriculture. Degradation occurres at different spatial scales and rehabilitation measures are required in both streams and catchments, to improve conditions for the aquatic biota. Models, applied for planning restoration measures, are mostly targeting individual components of the complex chain linking the abiotic and biotic environment; e.g., models might be used just for predicting hydrological or hydraulic variables. Hereby, the cause-effect chain is compromised, which links drivers, pressures, state and impacts of the riverine system. We describe the design of an integrated, GIS-based model system considering the cause-effect chain from the catchment to the stream and aquatic biota. The models require data on climatic and physical catchment properties, and on the geometry and structure of the streams. This enables the assessment of the impact of global change as well as of more regional and local changes on the stream ecosystem on different scales. The approach is based on the Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-(Response) concept and includes the linkage of one ecohydrologic, two hydraulic and two habitat models: The ecohydrologic model SWAT was used for depicting the discharge regime and ero-sion processes controlled by land use and climate on the catchment scale. The discharge and sediment time series resulting from the hydrologic modelling were used for hydraulic simulations on the reach scale. Water depth, flow velocity, substrate changes and sediment transport were simulated in variable resolutions with the hydraulic models HEC-RAS one-dimensionally and with AdH two-dimensionally. Combined with structural river mapping, the temporally and spatially dynamic results of the hydraulic models were used for describing macroinvertebrate habitats. Two independent simulations were carried out: First, the

  14. The river as a chemostat: fresh perspectives on dissolved organic matter flowing down the river continuum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Creed, Irena F.; McKnight, Diane M.; Pellerin, Brian; Green, Mark B.; Bergamaschi, Brian; Aiken, George R.; Burns, Douglas A.; Findlay, Stuart E G; Shanley, James B.; Striegl, Robert G.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Clow, David W.; Laudon, Hjalmar; McGlynn, Brian L.; McGuire, Kevin J.; Smith, Richard A.; Stackpoole, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    A better understanding is needed of how hydrological and biogeochemical processes control dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and dissolved organic matter (DOM) composition from headwaters downstream to large rivers. We examined a large DOM dataset from the National Water Information System of the US Geological Survey, which represents approximately 100 000 measurements of DOC concentration and DOM composition at many sites along rivers across the United States. Application of quantile regression revealed a tendency towards downstream spatial and temporal homogenization of DOC concentrations and a shift from dominance of aromatic DOM in headwaters to more aliphatic DOM downstream. The DOC concentration–discharge (C-Q) relationships at each site revealed a downstream tendency towards a slope of zero. We propose that despite complexities in river networks that have driven many revisions to the River Continuum Concept, rivers show a tendency towards chemostasis (C-Q slope of zero) because of a downstream shift from a dominance of hydrologic drivers that connect terrestrial DOM sources to streams in the headwaters towards a dominance of instream and near-stream biogeochemical processes that result in preferential losses of aromatic DOM and preferential gains of aliphatic DOM.

  15. Characterizing the thermal suitability of instream habitat for salmonids: A cautionary example from the Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Wegner, Seth J.; Isaak, Daniel J.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding a species’ thermal niche is becoming increasingly important for management and conservation within the context of global climate change, yet there have been surprisingly few efforts to compare assessments of a species’ thermal niche across methods. To address this uncertainty, we evaluated the differences in model performance and interpretations of a species’ thermal niche when using different measures of stream temperature and surrogates for stream temperature. Specifically, we used a logistic regression modeling framework with three different indicators of stream thermal conditions (elevation, air temperature, and stream temperature) referenced to a common set of Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis distribution data from the Boise River basin, Idaho. We hypothesized that stream temperature predictions that were contemporaneous with fish distribution data would have stronger predictive performance than composite measures of stream temperature or any surrogates for stream temperature. Across the different indicators of thermal conditions, the highest measure of accuracy was found for the model based on stream temperature predictions that were contemporaneous with fish distribution data (percent correctly classified = 71%). We found considerable differences in inferences across models, with up to 43% disagreement in the amount of stream habitat that was predicted to be suitable. The differences in performance between models support the growing efforts in many areas to develop accurate stream temperature models for investigations of species’ thermal niches.

  16. Management scenarios for the Jordan River salinity crisis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farber, E.; Vengosh, A.; Gavrieli, I.; Marie, A.; Bullen, T.D.; Mayer, B.; Holtzman, R.; Segal, M.; Shavit, U.

    2005-01-01

    Recent geochemical and hydrological findings show that the water quality of the base flow of the Lower Jordan River, between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, is dependent upon the ratio between surface water flow and groundwater discharge. Using water quality data, mass-balance calculations, and actual flow-rate measurements, possible management scenarios for the Lower Jordan River and their potential affects on its salinity are investigated. The predicted scenarios reveal that implementation of some elements of the Israel-Jordan peace treaty will have negative effects on the Jordan River water salinity. It is predicted that removal of sewage effluents dumped into the river (???13 MCM/a) will significantly reduce the river water's flow and increase the relative proportion of the saline groundwater flux into the river. Under this scenario, the Cl content of the river at its southern point (Abdalla Bridge) will rise to almost 7000 mg/L during the summer. In contrast, removal of all the saline water (16.5 MCM/a) that is artificially discharged into the Lower Jordan River will significantly reduce its Cl concentration, to levels of 650-2600 and 3000-3500 mg/L in the northern and southern areas of the Lower Jordan River, respectively. However, because the removal of either the sewage effluents or the saline water will decrease the river's discharge to a level that could potentially cause river desiccation during the summer months, other water sources must be allocated to preserve in-stream flow needs and hence the river's ecosystem. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2000 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.; Morris, K.J.

    2001-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks (MOE), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1.1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenays they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MOE applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that was undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  18. Wigwam River Juvenile Bull Trout and Fish Habitat Monitoring Program : 2002 Data Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cope, R.S.

    2003-03-01

    The Wigwam River bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and fish habitat monitoring program is a trans-boundary initiative implemented by the British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land, and Air Protection (MWLAP), in cooperation with Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The Wigwam River is an important fisheries stream located in southeastern British Columbia that supports healthy populations of both bull trout and Westslope cutthroat trout (Figure 1). This river has been characterized as the single most important bull trout spawning stream in the Kootenay Region (Baxter and Westover 2000, Cope 1998). In addition, the Wigwam River supports some of the largest Westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi) in the Kootenay Region. These fish are highly sought after by anglers (Westover 1999a, 1999b). Bull trout populations have declined in many areas of their range within Montana and throughout the northwest including British Columbia. Bull trout were blue listed as vulnerable in British Columbia by the B.C. Conservation Data Center (Cannings 1993) and although there are many healthy populations of bull trout in the East Kootenay they remain a species of special concern. Bull trout in the United States portion of the Columbia River were listed as threatened in 1998 under the Endangered Species Act by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The upper Kootenay River is within the Kootenai sub-basin of the Mountain Columbia Province, one of the eleven Eco-provinces that make up the Columbia River Basin. MWLAP applied for and received funding from BPA to assess and monitor the status of wild, native stocks of bull trout in tributaries to Lake Koocanusa (Libby Reservoir) and the upper Kootenay River. This task is one of many that were undertaken to ''Monitor and Protect Bull Trout for Koocanusa Reservoir'' (BPA Project Number 2000-04-00).

  19. Effects of lateral nitrate flux and instream processes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen export in a forested catchment: A model sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Laurence; Webster, Jackson R.; Hwang, Taehee; Band, Lawrence E.

    2015-04-01

    The importance of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in controlling nitrogen dynamics in streams is a key interest of ecologists studying dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) export from watersheds. In this study, we coupled a stream model with a terrestrial ecohydrological model and conducted a global sensitivity analysis to evaluate the relative importance of both ecosystems to nitrogen export. We constructed two scenarios ("normal" and high nitrate loads) to explore conditions under which terrestrial (lateral nitrate flux) or aquatic ecosystems (instream nutrient processes) may be more important in controlling DIN export. In a forest catchment, although the forest ecosystem controls the nitrogen load to streams, sensitivity results suggested that most nitrogen output from the terrestrial ecosystem was taken up by instream microbial immobilization associated with benthic detritus and retained in detritus. Later the immobilized nitrogen was remineralized as DIN. Therefore, the intra-annual pattern of DIN concentration in the stream was low in fall and became high in spring. Not only was instream microbial immobilization saturated with the high nitrogen load scenario, but also the net effect of immobilization and mineralization on DIN export was minimized because nitrogen cycling between organic and inorganic forms was accelerated. Overall, our linked terrestrial-aquatic model simulations demonstrated that stream process could significantly affect the amount and timing of watershed nitrogen export when nitrogen export from the terrestrial system is low. However, when nitrogen export from the terrestrial system is high, the effect of stream processes is minimal.

  20. Salmonid Gamete Preservation in the Snake River Basin, Annual Report 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, William; Kucera, Paul

    2003-07-01

    repository by Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission, respectively. To date, a total of 3,928 Columbia River salmon and steelhead gamete samples and three Kootenai River white sturgeon are preserved in the repository. Samples are stored in independent locations at the University of Idaho (UI) and Washington State University (WSU).

  1. River meanders

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Langbein, Walter Basil

    1966-01-01

    The striking geometric regularity of a winding river is no accident. Meanders appear to be the form in which a river does the least work in turning; hence they are the most probable form a river can take

  2. White sturgeon spawning and rearing habitat in the lower Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Beckman, Lance G.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of spawning habitat for white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus in the tailraces of the four dams on the lower 470 km of the Columbia River were obtained by using the Physical Habitat Simulation System of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Instream Flow Incremental Methodology to identify areas with suitable water depths, water velocities, and substrates. Rearing habitat throughout the lower Columbia River was assessed by using a geographic information system to identify areas with suitable water depths and substrates. The lowering of spring and summer river discharges from hydropower system operation reduces the availability of spawning habitat for white sturgeons. The four dam tailraces in the study area differ in the amount and quality of spawning habitat available at various discharges; the differences are due to channel morphology. The three impoundments and the free-flowing Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam provide extensive areas that are physically suitable for rearing young-of-the-year and juvenile white sturgeons.

  3. Urbanization in a great plains river: Effects on fishes and food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eitzmann, J.L.; Paukert, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    Spatial variation of habitat and food web structure of the fish community was investigated at three reaches in the Kansas River, USA to determine if ??13C variability and ??15N values differ longitudinally and are related to urbanization and instream habitat. Fish and macroinvertebrates were collected at three river reaches in the Kansas River classified as the less urbanized reach (no urban in riparian zone; 40% grass islands and sand bars, braided channel), intermediate (14% riparian zone as urban; 22% grass islands and sand bars) and urbanized (59% of riparian zone as urban; 6% grass islands and sand bars, highly channelized) reaches in June 2006. The less urbanized reach had higher variability in ??13C than the intermediate and urbanized reaches, suggesting fish from these reaches utilized a variety of carbon sources. The ??15N also indicated that omnivorous and detritivorous fish species tended to consume prey at higher trophic levels in the less urbanized reach. Channelization and reduction of habitat related to urbanization may be linked to homogenization of instream habitat, which was related to river food webs. ?? 2009.

  4. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume II Yakima (Overview, Report, Appendices).

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  5. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume III (Overview and Tools).

    SciTech Connect

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    2001-10-01

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systems with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.

  6. Stream discharge events increase the reactive efficiency of the hyporheic zone of an in-stream gravel bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, Nico; Schmidt, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2016-04-01

    Streambed structures such as dunes, pool-riffles or bars enhance the exchange of stream water and solutes with the subsurface, the hyporheic zone. Prior studies have evaluated the factors which control hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processes for steady state hydrological conditions using numerical models. However, the impact of natural discharge variability on water and solute exchange, creating hydraulically specific conditions for the reactions in the shallow streambed, has received less attention to date. In our study, we set up a transient flow and reactive transport model to elucidate the impact of single stream discharge events on water exchange, solute transport and reactions within the hyporheic zone of an in-stream gravel bar. The discharge events were varied by their duration and the maximum stream discharge. Temporally varying hydraulic heads were assigned as hydraulic head boundary conditions at the top of the reactive groundwater model MIN3P. A steady ambient groundwater flow field was introduced by lateral upstream and downstream hydraulic head boundaries, resulting in losing, neutral, or gaining conditions in the stream with respect to exchange with groundwater. Stream water borne dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate can infiltrate across the top of the modelling domain, where aerobic respiration and denitrification are simulated. Our results show that water and solute exchange through the hyporheic zone (only stream water that infiltrates into the subsurface and exfiltrates back to the stream) is highly dependent on the interplay between event characteristics and the ambient groundwater level. In scenarios where the stream discharge shifts the hydraulic system to strong and long-lasting losing conditions, hyporheic flow paths are longer and the extent of the hyporheic zone deeper than under base flow conditions and small hydrologic events where gaining conditions prevail. Consequently, stream discharge events may

  7. Stream discharge events increase the reaction efficiency of the hyporheic zone of an in-stream gravel bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleckenstein, J. H.; Trauth, N.; Schmidt, C.

    2015-12-01

    Streambed structures such as dunes, pool-riffles or bars enhance the exchange of stream water and solutes with the subsurface, the hyporheic zone. Prior studies have evaluated the factors which control hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processes for steady state hydrological conditions using numerical models. However, the impact of natural discharge variability on water and solute exchange, creating hydraulically specific conditions for the reactions in the shallow streambed, has not been studied so far. In our study, we set up a transient flow and reactive transport model to elucidate the impact of single stream discharge events on water exchange, solute transport and reactions within the hyporheic zone of an in-stream gravel bar. The discharge events were varied by their duration and the maximum stream discharge. Temporally variable hydraulic heads were assigned as hydraulic head boundary conditions at the top of the reactive groundwater model MIN3P. A steady ambient groundwater flow field was introduced by lateral upstream and downstream hydraulic head boundaries, generating in combination with the stream water level, losing, neutral, or gaining stream conditions. Stream water borne dissolved oxygen, dissolved organic carbon and nitrate can infiltrate into the modelling domain across the top boundary and can react with each other by aerobic respiration and denitrification. Our results show that water and solute exchange through the hyporheic zone (only stream water that infiltrates into the subsurface and exfiltrates back to the stream) is highly dependent on the interplay between event characteristics and the ambient groundwater level. In scenarios where the stream discharge shifts the hydraulic system to strong and long-lasting losing conditions, hyporheic flow paths are longer and the extent of the hyporheic zone are deeper than under base flow conditions and small events where gaining conditions prevail. Consequently, stream discharge events may

  8. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  9. Modeling water quality, temperature, and flow in Link River, south-central Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-09

    The 2.1-km (1.3-mi) Link River connects Upper Klamath Lake to the Klamath River in south-central Oregon. A CE-QUAL-W2 flow and water-quality model of Link River was developed to provide a connection between an existing model of the upper Klamath River and any existing or future models of Upper Klamath Lake. Water-quality sampling at six locations in Link River was done during 2013–15 to support model development and to provide a better understanding of instream biogeochemical processes. The short reach and high velocities in Link River resulted in fast travel times and limited water-quality transformations, except for dissolved oxygen. Reaeration through the reach, especially at the falls in Link River, was particularly important in moderating dissolved oxygen concentrations that at times entered the reach at Link River Dam with marked supersaturation or subsaturation. This reaeration resulted in concentrations closer to saturation downstream at the mouth of Link River.

  10. Longitudinal differences in habitat complexity and fish assemblage structure of a great plains river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eitzmann, J.L.; Paukert, C.P.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation in the Kansas River (USA) fish assemblage to determine how fish community structure changes with habitat complexity in a large river. Fishes were collected at ten sites throughout the Kansas River for assessing assemblage structure in summer 2007. Aerial imagery indicated riparian land use within 200 m from the river edge was dominated by agriculture in the upper river reaches (>35) and tended to increase in urban land use in the lower reaches (>58). Instream habitat complexity (number of braided channels, islands) also decreased with increased urban area (<25). Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that species that prefer high-velocity flows and sandy substrate (e.g., blue sucker Cycleptus elongatus and shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) were associated with the upper river reaches. Abundance of omnivorous and planktivorous fish species were also higher in the lower river. The presence of fluvial dependent and fluvial specialist species was associated with sites with higher water flows, more sand bars, and log jams. Our results suggest that conserving intolerant, native species in the Kansas River may require maintaining suitable habitat for these species and restoration of impacted areas of the river.

  11. Designing and Assessing Restored Meandering River Planform Using RVR Meander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langendoen, E. J.; Abad, J. D.; Motta, D.; Frias, C. E.; Wong, M.; Barnes, B. J.; Anderson, C. D.; Garcia, M. H.; MacDonald, T. E.

    2013-12-01

    The ongoing modification and resulting reduction in water quality of U.S. rivers have led to a significant increase in river restoration projects over the last two decades. The increased interest in restoring degraded streams, however, has not necessarily led to improved stream function. Palmer and Allan (2005) found that many restoration projects fail to achieve their objectives due to the lack of policies to support restoration standards, to promote proven methods and to provide basic data needed for planning and implementation. Proven models of in-stream and riparian processes could be used not only to guide the design of restoration projects but also to assess both pre- and post-project indicators of ecological integrity. One of the most difficult types of river restoration projects concern reconstructing a new channel, often with an alignment and channel form different from those of the degraded pre-project channel. Recreating a meandering planform to provide longitudinal and lateral variability of flow and bed morphology to improve in-stream aquatic habitat is often desired. Channel meander planform is controlled by a multitude of variables, for example channel width to depth ratio, radius of curvature to channel width ratio, bankfull discharge, roughness, bed-material physical characteristics, bed material transport, resistance to erosion of the floodplain soils, riparian vegetation, etc. Therefore, current practices that use simple, empirically based relationships or reference reaches have led to failure in several instances, for example a washing out of meander bends or a highly unstable planform, because they fail to address the site-specific conditions. Recently, progress has been made to enhance a physically- and process-based model, RVR Meander, for rapid analysis of meandering river morphodynamics with reduced empiricism. For example, lateral migration is based on measurable physical properties of the floodplain soils and riparian vegetation versus

  12. Reservoir Control Center: Activities and Accomplishments of the Southwestern Division of the Army Corps of Engineers Related to Reservoir Regulation and Water Management. Part 3. Instream Flow Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Southwestern Division DallasTexas C. 3 , January 1981 Thdccum t h~P 8󈧊itsI2 for pub11- -lpsoun OCL*’S fl t 8 6 2 dj&UzibU1,n t d’ 4 i ei AM jbi~d&%A M...11-5 d. LONG-TERM GOALS 11-6 e. IMMEDIATE GOALS 11-6 3 . SWD SEDIMENT PROGRAM AND ACTIVITIES 11-8 4 . DATA COLLECTION AND MANAGEMENT 11-9 a. STREAM...ACTIVITIES 1. SPECIAL RESERVOIR OPERATION 2. WATER QUALITY PROGRAM AND ACTIVITIES 3 . SEDIMENT PROGRAM AND ACTIVITIES 4 . COOPERATIVE PROGRAMS S.. 5. INSTREAM

  13. Avian community responses to variability in river hydrology.

    PubMed

    Royan, Alexander; Hannah, David M; Reynolds, S James; Noble, David G; Sadler, Jonathan P

    2013-01-01

    River flow is a major driver of morphological structure and community dynamics in riverine-floodplain ecosystems. Flow influences in-stream communities through changes in water velocity, depth, temperature, turbidity and nutrient fluxes, and perturbations in the organisation of lower trophic levels are cascaded through the food web, resulting in shifts in food availability for consumer species. River birds are sensitive to spatial and phenological mismatches with aquatic prey following flow disturbances; however, the role of flow as a determinant of riparian ecological structure remains poorly known. This knowledge is crucial to help to predict if, and how, riparian communities will be influenced by climate-induced changes in river flow characterised by more extreme high (i.e. flood) and/or low (i.e. drought) flow events. Here, we combine national-scale datasets of river bird surveys and river flow archives to understand how hydrological disturbance has affected the distribution of riparian species at higher trophic levels. Data were analysed for 71 river locations using a Generalized Additive Model framework and a model averaging procedure. Species had complex but biologically interpretable associations with hydrological indices, with species' responses consistent with their ecology, indicating that hydrological-disturbance has implications for higher trophic levels in riparian food webs. Our quantitative analysis of river flow-bird relationships demonstrates the potential vulnerability of riparian species to the impacts of changing flow variability and represents an important contribution in helping to understand how bird communities might respond to a climate change-induced increase in the intensity of floods and droughts. Moreover, the success in relating parameters of river flow variability to species' distributions highlights the need to include river flow data in climate change impact models of species' distributions.

  14. Avian Community Responses to Variability in River Hydrology

    PubMed Central

    Royan, Alexander; Hannah, David M.; Reynolds, S. James; Noble, David G.; Sadler, Jonathan P.

    2013-01-01

    River flow is a major driver of morphological structure and community dynamics in riverine-floodplain ecosystems. Flow influences in-stream communities through changes in water velocity, depth, temperature, turbidity and nutrient fluxes, and perturbations in the organisation of lower trophic levels are cascaded through the food web, resulting in shifts in food availability for consumer species. River birds are sensitive to spatial and phenological mismatches with aquatic prey following flow disturbances; however, the role of flow as a determinant of riparian ecological structure remains poorly known. This knowledge is crucial to help to predict if, and how, riparian communities will be influenced by climate-induced changes in river flow characterised by more extreme high (i.e. flood) and/or low (i.e. drought) flow events. Here, we combine national-scale datasets of river bird surveys and river flow archives to understand how hydrological disturbance has affected the distribution of riparian species at higher trophic levels. Data were analysed for 71 river locations using a Generalized Additive Model framework and a model averaging procedure. Species had complex but biologically interpretable associations with hydrological indices, with species’ responses consistent with their ecology, indicating that hydrological-disturbance has implications for higher trophic levels in riparian food webs. Our quantitative analysis of river flow-bird relationships demonstrates the potential vulnerability of riparian species to the impacts of changing flow variability and represents an important contribution in helping to understand how bird communities might respond to a climate change-induced increase in the intensity of floods and droughts. Moreover, the success in relating parameters of river flow variability to species’ distributions highlights the need to include river flow data in climate change impact models of species’ distributions. PMID:24340094

  15. Environmental impact assessment of sand mining from the small catchment rivers in the southwestern coast of India: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sreebha, Sreedharan; Padmalal, Damodaran

    2011-01-01

    In the past few decades, the demand for construction grade sand is increasing in many parts of the world due to rapid economic development and subsequent growth of building activities. This, in many of the occasions, has resulted in indiscriminate mining of sand from in-stream and floodplain areas leading to severe damages to the river basin environment. The case is rather alarming in the small catchment rivers like those draining the southwestern coast of India due to limited sand resources in their alluvial reaches. Moreover, lack of adequate information on the environmental impact of river sand mining is a major lacuna challenging regulatory efforts in many developing countries. Therefore, a scientific assessment is a pre-requisite in formulating management strategies in the sand mining-hit areas. In this context, a study has been made as a case to address the environmental impact of sand mining from the in-stream and floodplain areas of three important rivers in the southwestern coast of India namely the Chalakudy, Periyar and Muvattupuzha rivers, whose lowlands host one of the fast developing urban-cum-industrial centre, the Kochi city. The study reveals that an amount of 11.527 million ty(-1) of sand (8.764 million ty(-1) of in-stream sand and 2.763 million ty(-1) of floodplain sand) is being mined from the midland and lowland reaches of these rivers for construction of buildings and other infrastructural facilities in Kochi city and its satellite townships. Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) carried out as a part of this investigation shows that the activities associated with mining and processing of sands have not only affected the health of the river ecosystems but also degraded its overbank areas to a large extent. Considering the degree of degradation caused by sand mining from these rivers, no mining scenario may be opted in the deeper zones of the river channels. Also, a set of suggestions are made for the overall improvement of the rivers and its

  16. Major ion chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon cycling in a human-disturbed mountainous river (the Luodingjiang River) of the Zhujiang (Pearl River), China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shurong; Lu, X X; Sun, Huiguo; Han, Jingtai; Higgitt, David Laurence

    2009-04-01

    Major ion chemistry and dissolved inorganic carbon system (DIC, mainly HCO3(-) and gaseous CO2) in the Luodingjiang River, a mountainous tributary of the Zhujiang (Pearl River), China, were examined based on a seasonal and spatial sampling scheme in 2005. The diverse distribution of lithology and anthropogenic impacts in the river basin provided the basic idea to assess the effects of lithology vs. human activities on water chemistry and carbon biogeochemistry in river systems. Major ions showed great spatial variations, with higher concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) and DIC in the regions with carbonate rocks and clastic sedimentary rocks, while lower in the regions with metamorphic sandstones and schists as well as granites. pCO2 at all sampling sites was oversaturated in June, ranging with a factor from 1.6 to 18.8 of the atmospheric concentration, reflecting the enhanced contribution from baseflow and interflow influx as well as in situ oxidation of organic matter. However, in April and December, undersaturated pCO2 was found in some shallow, clean rivers in the upstream regions. delta13C of DIC has a narrow range from -9.07 to -13.59 per thousand, which was more depleted in the regions with metamorphic rocks and granites than in the carbonate regions. Seasonally, it was slightly more depleted in the dry season (December) than in the wet season (June). The results suggested that lithological variability had a dominant control on spatial variations of water chemistry and carbon geochemistry in river systems. Besides, anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural and urban activities and in-stream damming, as well as river physical properties, such as water depth and transparency, also indicated their impacts. The seasonal variations likely reflected the changes of hydrological regime, as well as metabolic processes in the river.

  17. Season-ahead Drought Forecast Models for the Lower Colorado River Authority in Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, P. J.; Zimmerman, B.; Grzegorzewski, M.; Watkins, D. W., Jr.; Anderson, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Lower Colorado River Authority (LCRA) in Austin, Texas, manages the Highland Lakes reservoir system in Central Texas, a series of six lakes on the Lower Colorado River. This system provides water to approximately 1.1 million people in Central Texas, supplies hydropower to a 55-county area, supports rice farming along the Texas Gulf Coast, and sustains in-stream flows in the Lower Colorado River and freshwater inflows to Matagorda Bay. The current, prolonged drought conditions are severely taxing the LCRA's system, making allocation and management decisions exceptionally challenging, and affecting the ability of constituents to conduct proper planning. In this work, we further develop and evaluate season-ahead statistical streamflow and precipitation forecast models for integration into LCRA decision support models. Optimal forecast lead time, predictive skill, form, and communication are all considered.

  18. Biogeochemistry and community ecology in a spring-fed urban river following a major earthquake.

    PubMed

    Wells, Naomi S; Clough, Tim J; Condron, Leo M; Baisden, W Troy; Harding, Jon S; Dong, Y; Lewis, G D; Lear, Gavin

    2013-11-01

    In February 2011 a MW 6.3 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand inundated urban waterways with sediment from liquefaction and triggered sewage spills. The impacts of, and recovery from, this natural disaster on the stream biogeochemistry and biology were assessed over six months along a longitudinal impact gradient in an urban river. The impact of liquefaction was masked by earthquake triggered sewage spills (~20,000 m(3) day(-1) entering the river for one month). Within 10 days of the earthquake dissolved oxygen in the lowest reaches was <1 mg l(-1), in-stream denitrification accelerated (attenuating 40-80% of sewage nitrogen), microbial biofilm communities changed, and several benthic invertebrate taxa disappeared. Following sewage system repairs, the river recovered in a reverse cascade, and within six months there were no differences in water chemistry, nutrient cycling, or benthic communities between severely and minimally impacted reaches. This study highlights the importance of assessing environmental impact following urban natural disasters.

  19. Energy development and water options in the Yellowstone River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, R.; MacIntyre, D.D.; Torpy, M.F.

    1980-08-01

    Using a mixed-integer programming model, the impacts of institutional constraints on the marginal capacity for energy development in the Yellowstone River Basin and consequent hydrologic changes were examined. Under average annual flow conditions, energy outputs in the Yellowstone Basin can increase roughly nine times by 1985 and 12 to 18 times by 2000. In contrast, water availability is limiting energy development in the Tongue and Powder River Basins in Wyoming. Variability in hydrologic regime causes model solutions to change drastically. If flows decrease to 80 and 60% of average annual levels, the energy production is decreased by 17 and 95%, respectively. If development strategies in the basin are followed on the basis of 80% average annual flows, the Buffalo Bill enlargement (271,300 acre-ft), Tongue River Modification (58,000 acre-ft), and the two reservoirs at Sweetgrass Creek (each 27,000 acre-ft) will be necessary, in addition to several small storage facilities, to best meet the instream flow needs in Montana and to deliver the waters apportioned by compact between Wyoming and Montana. Furthermore, the results indicate that relaxing the instream flow requirements from recommended levels by 10% could increase regional energy output by 19% in 1985 and 35% in 2000. This model illustrates that modifications in institutional restrictions to achieve greater water mobility between users in a given state, as well as flexible practices for transferring water between states, can assist economic growth. Thus, the probability for restricted energy development at this juncture appears to be affected to a greater degree by institutional constraints than by water availability constraints.

  20. Methylmercury input to the Mississippi River from a large metropolitan wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Balogh, Steven J; Nollet, Yabing H

    2008-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) and total mercury (THg) inputs to the Mississippi River from a large metropolitan wastewater treatment plant were measured to characterize the relative contribution of the treatment plant to in-stream loads of these contaminants. Concentrations of MeHg and THg were determined in filtered and unfiltered whole water samples collected weekly from the treatment plant effluent stream and from the river upstream of the plant discharge. Unfiltered MeHg concentrations in the plant effluent ranged from 0.034 to 0.062 ng L(-1) and were always less than those in the river (range: 0.083-0.227 ng L(-1)). The MeHg loading to the river from the treatment plant ranged from 0.026 to 0.051 g d(-1) and averaged 0.037 g d(-1) over the 13-week sampling period. The in-stream MeHg load in the river upstream varied widely depending on hydrologic conditions, ranging from 0.91 to 18.8 g d(-1) and averaging 4.79 g d(-1). The treatment plant discharge represented 1.6%, on average, of the in-stream MeHg load, ranging from 0.2 to 3.5% depending on flow conditions in the river. MeHg in treatment plant effluent was primarily in the filtered phase (mean: 57%, <0.2 microm), but in the river the filtered/unfiltered ratio (F/UF) was typically less than 30% except during a major precipitation runoff event, when F/UF increased to 78%. The MeHg/THg ratio in unfiltered treatment plant effluent varied little (range: 1.6-1.9%), suggesting that THg concentration can serve as a relatively accurate proxy for MeHg concentration in this effluent stream. Supplemental sampling of the treatment plant influent stream showed that removals of MeHg and THg across the treatment process averaged 97% and 99%, respectively. These results show the treatment plant to be effective in removing MeHg and THg from wastewater and in minimizing its impact on Hg levels in the receiving water.

  1. Charles River

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information on the efforts of the US EPA, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, the municipalities within the Charles River Watershed and nongovernmental organizations to improve the water quality of the Charles River.

  2. The importance of base flow in sustaining surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Buto, Susan G.; Susong, David D.; Rumsey, Christine A.

    2016-05-01

    The Colorado River has been identified as the most overallocated river in the world. Considering predicted future imbalances between water supply and demand and the growing recognition that base flow (a proxy for groundwater discharge to streams) is critical for sustaining flow in streams and rivers, there is a need to develop methods to better quantify present-day base flow across large regions. We adapted and applied the spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) water quality model to assess the spatial distribution of base flow, the fraction of streamflow supported by base flow, and estimates of and potential processes contributing to the amount of base flow that is lost during in-stream transport in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). On average, 56% of the streamflow in the UCRB originated as base flow, and precipitation was identified as the dominant driver of spatial variability in base flow at the scale of the UCRB, with the majority of base flow discharge to streams occurring in upper elevation watersheds. The model estimates an average of 1.8 × 1010 m3/yr of base flow in the UCRB; greater than 80% of which is lost during in-stream transport to the Lower Colorado River Basin via processes including evapotranspiration and water diversion for irrigation. Our results indicate that surface waters in the Colorado River Basin are dependent on base flow, and that management approaches that consider groundwater and surface water as a joint resource will be needed to effectively manage current and future water resources in the Basin.

  3. The importance of base flow in sustaining surface water flow in the Upper Colorado River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Matthew P.; Buto, Susan G.; Susong, David D.; Rumsey, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The Colorado River has been identified as the most overallocated river in the world. Considering predicted future imbalances between water supply and demand and the growing recognition that base flow (a proxy for groundwater discharge to streams) is critical for sustaining flow in streams and rivers, there is a need to develop methods to better quantify present-day base flow across large regions. We adapted and applied the spatially referenced regression on watershed attributes (SPARROW) water quality model to assess the spatial distribution of base flow, the fraction of streamflow supported by base flow, and estimates of and potential processes contributing to the amount of base flow that is lost during in-stream transport in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB). On average, 56% of the streamflow in the UCRB originated as base flow, and precipitation was identified as the dominant driver of spatial variability in base flow at the scale of the UCRB, with the majority of base flow discharge to streams occurring in upper elevation watersheds. The model estimates an average of 1.8 × 1010 m3/yr of base flow in the UCRB; greater than 80% of which is lost during in-stream transport to the Lower Colorado River Basin via processes including evapotranspiration and water diversion for irrigation. Our results indicate that surface waters in the Colorado River Basin are dependent on base flow, and that management approaches that consider groundwater and surface water as a joint resource will be needed to effectively manage current and future water resources in the Basin.

  4. A multi-scale GIS and hydrodynamic modelling approach to fish passage assessment: Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonetti, Rita M.; Reinfelds, Ivars V.; Butler, Gavin L.; Walsh, Chris T.; Broderick, Tony J.; Chisholm, Laurie A.

    2016-05-01

    Natural barriers such as waterfalls, cascades, rapids and riffles limit the dispersal and in-stream range of migratory fish, yet little is known of the interplay between these gradient dependent landforms, their hydraulic characteristics and flow rates that facilitate fish passage. The resurgence of dam construction in numerous river basins world-wide provides impetus to the development of robust techniques for assessment of the effects of downstream flow regime changes on natural fish passage barriers and associated consequences as to the length of rivers available to migratory species. This paper outlines a multi-scale technique for quantifying the relative magnitude of natural fish passage barriers in river systems and flow rates that facilitate passage by fish. First, a GIS-based approach is used to quantify channel gradients for the length of river or reach under investigation from a high resolution DEM, setting the magnitude of identified passage barriers in a longer context (tens to hundreds of km). Second, LiDAR, topographic and bathymetric survey-based hydrodynamic modelling is used to assess flow rates that can be regarded as facilitating passage across specific barriers identified by the river to reach scale gradient analysis. Examples of multi-scale approaches to fish passage assessment for flood-flow and low-flow passage issues are provided from the Clarence and Shoalhaven Rivers, NSW, Australia. In these river systems, passive acoustic telemetry data on actual movements and migrations by Australian bass (Macquaria novemaculeata) provide a means of validating modelled assessments of flow rates associated with successful fish passage across natural barriers. Analysis of actual fish movements across passage barriers in these river systems indicates that two dimensional hydraulic modelling can usefully quantify flow rates associated with the facilitation of fish passage across natural barriers by a majority of individual fishes for use in management

  5. Amazon River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Mouth of the Amazon River     View ... of the world's mightiest rivers. This image of the Amazon's mouth was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) ... available at JPL September 8, 2000 - Mouth of the mighty Amazon River. project:  MISR ...

  6. Hg Isotopes Reveal Importance of In-Stream Processing and Legacy Inputs in East Fork Poplar Creek, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demers, J. D.; Blum, J. D.; Brooks, S. C.; Donovan, P. M.; Gu, B.; Riscassi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how mercury (Hg) contaminated ecosystems will recover as atmospheric emissions and industrial point source discharges are controlled has become a driving motivation of mercury research. Key to predicting recovery of mercury contaminated ecosystems is an understanding of the mobilization of legacy Hg sources, and the subsequent bioavailability and biogeochemical cycling of mobilized Hg within aquatic ecosystems. Herein, we utilize natural abundance stable Hg isotope techniques to place new constraints on mercury sources, transport, and transformations along the flow path of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The isotopic composition of mercury in stream water and suspended sediment along the flow path suggest that: (1) physical processes such as dilution and sedimentation cannot fully explain decreases in total mercury concentrations along the flow path and that in-stream processes may be more important than previously realized; (2) in-stream processes include photochemical transformations (~20%), but microbial reduction is likely more dominant (~80%); and (3) additional sources of mercury inputs to EFPC at base-flow may predominantly arise from the hyporheic zone during the growing season, with adjacent riparian wetlands and non-point-source impacted tributaries increasing in importance during the dormant season when the stream channel is more hydrologically connected to the watershed.

  7. A Modeling Study of In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts in a Tidal Channel and Bay System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Yang, Z.; Copping, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While efforts have been made to assess and map available tidal energy resources using numerical models, little attention has been paid directly quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts as part of tidal energy generation. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional (3-D) unstructured grid coastal ocean model. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a stratified estuarine system. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes in the tidal channel and bay system due to tidal energy extraction. Model results show the maximum extractable energy depends strongly on the turbine hub height, and that the effects of energy extraction on the flow fields vary vertically. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in the estuary. As one of the early modeling efforts aimed directly at examining the impacts of tidal energy extraction on estuarine circulation and biological processes, this study demonstrates that numerical models can serve as a very useful tool for this purpose. However, careful efforts are warranted to address system-specific environmental issues in real world, complex estuarine systems.

  8. Survey and evaluation of instream habitat and stock restoration techniques for wild pink and chum salmon. Restoration study number 105-1 (restoration project 93063). Exxon Valdez oil spill state/federal natural resource damage assessment final report

    SciTech Connect

    Willette, T.M.; Dudiak, N.C.; Honnold, S.G.; Carpenter, G.; Dickson, M.

    1995-08-01

    This project is the result of a three-year survey of the Exxon Valdez oil spill impact area to identify appropriate and cost-effective instream habitat restoration techniques for salmon, including spawning channels and improvement of fish passage through fish ladders or step-pool structures to overcome physical or hydrological barriers. Additional wild salmon stock rehabilitation measures include stream-side incubation boxes, remote egg-taking, incubation at existing hatcheries for fry stocking in oil-impacted streams, and fry rearing. Study results include the identification of the most promising instream habitat restoration projects in each of the spill-impacted areas.

  9. Riverine based eco-tourism: Trinity River non-market benefits estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Douglas, A.J.; Taylor, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    California's Central Valley Project (CVP) was approved by voters in a statewide referendum in 1933. CVP referendum approval initiated funding for construction of important water development projects that had far reaching effects on regional water supplies. The construction of Trinity Dam in 1963 and the subsequent transbasin diversion of Trinity River flow was one of several CVP projects that had noteworthy adverse environmental and regional economic impacts. The Trinity River is the largest tributary of the Klamath River, and has its headwaters in the Trinity Alps of north-central California. After the construction of Trinity Dam in 1963, 90% of the Trinity River flow at Lewiston was moved to the Sacramento River via the Clear Creek Tunnel. Before 1963, the Trinity River was a major recreation resource of Northern California. The loss of streamflow has had a marked adverse impact on Trinity River-related recreation activities and the size and robustness of Trinity River salmon, steelhead, shad, and sturgeon runs. Trinity River water produces hydropower during its transit via Bureau of Reclamation canals and pumps to the northern San Joaquin Valley, where it is used for irrigated agriculture. The benefits provided by Trinity River instream flow-related environmental amenities were estimated with the travel cost method (TCM). Trinity River non-market benefits are about $406 million per annum, while the social cost of sending water down the Trinity River ranges from $17 to $42 million per annum, depending on the exact flow. We also discuss the relative magnitude of Trinity River survey data contingent value method (CVM) benefits estimates.

  10. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  11. Irrigation and streamflow depletion in Columbia River basin above The Dalles, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Wilbur Douglas

    1953-01-01

    The Columbia River is the largest stream in western United States. Above The Dalles, Oregon, it drains an area of 237,000 square miles, of which 39,000 square miles is in Canada. This area is largely mountainous and lies between the Rocky Mountains and the Cascade Range. The Kootenai, Pend Oreille, and Snake Rivers are the principal tributaries. Precipitation varies from 7 inches near Kennewick, Wash. to over 100 inches in some of the mountainous regions. Most of the runoff occurs in the spring and summer months as a result of melting snow. Precipitation is generally light during the summer months, and irrigation is necessary for sustained crop production. Historical data indicate that irrigation in the Columbia River basin began prior to 1840 at the site of missions established near Walla Walla, Wash. and Lewiston, Idaho. During the next half century the increase in irrigated area was slow and by 1890 included only 506,000 acres. The period 1890 to 1910 was marked by phenomenal increase to a total of 2,276,000 acres in 1910. Since that time there has been more gradual addition to a total of 4,004,S00 acres of irrigated land in 1946 in the Columbia River basin above The Dalles, Oreg. Of this total 918,000 acres were located in the Columbia Basin above the mouth of the Snake River; 2,830,000 acres in the Snake River basin, and the balance, 256,000 acres below the mouth of the Snake River. Values of net consumptive use were determined or estimated for various tributary basins of the Columbia River basin and compared to available experimental data. These values were then used to compute the average depletion which could be directly attributed to irrigation. The yield of a drainage basin was considered to be the rum of the ob- served runoff and the estimated depletion. For purposes of comparison, the depletion was expressed both in terms of acre-feet and as a percentage of the yield of the basin. This percentage depletion varied from less than 1 percent for many

  12. Total phosphorus input to the Cache la Poudre River in Northern Colorado.

    PubMed

    Son, Ji-Hee; Goodwin, Stephen; Carlson, Kenneth

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to monitor total phosphorus concentrations and loads along the Cache la Poudre River in Northern Colorado as it flows from a pristine area through urban regions and, finally, through mixed land uses. The study attempted to evaluate the sources and influences of total phosphorus under different hydrologic conditions. Nine sampling events were completed from April 2010 to May 2011 to assess the influence of various hydrologic conditions on aqueous and riverbed sediment total phosphorus concentrations. Total phosphorus concentrations and loads exceeded the in-stream limits proposed by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment in all observed hydrologic conditions, and nonpoint sources were significant in high-flow conditions. Reducing nutrients only at water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) could not achieve the in-stream limits without substantial reduction of non-point-source loads. The study exposed a need for flexibility in WRRF discharge limits based on the overall total phosphorus load in the river from other sources.

  13. Hungry water: Effects of dams and gravel mining on river channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kondolf, G.M.

    1997-07-01

    Rivers transport sediment from eroding uplands to depositional areas near sea level. If the continuity of sediment transport is interrupted by dams or removal of sediment from the channel by gravel mining, the flow may become sediment-starved (hungry water) and prone to erode the channel bed and banks, producing channel incision (downcutting), coarsening of bed material, and loss of spawning gravels for salmon and trout (as smaller gravels are transported without replacement from upstream), Gravel is artificially added to the River Rhine to prevent further incision and to many other rivers in attempts to restore spawning habitat. It is possible to pass incoming sediment through some small reservoirs, thereby maintaining the continuity of sediment transport through the system. Damming and mining have reduced sediment delivery from rivers to many coastal areas, leading to accelerated beach erosion. Sand and gravel are mined for construction aggregate from river channel and floodplains. In-channel mining commonly causes incision, which may propagate up- and downstream of the mine, undermining bridges, inducing channel instability, and lowering alluvial water tables. Floodplain gravel pits have the potential to become wildlife habitat upon reclamation, but may be captured by the active channel and thereby become instream pits. Management of sand and gravel in rivers must be done on a regional basis, restoring the continuity of sediment transport where possible and encouraging alternatives to river-derived aggregate sources. 80 refs., 17 figs.

  14. PROFILE: Hungry Water: Effects of Dams and Gravel Mining on River Channels

    PubMed

    Kondolf

    1997-07-01

    / Rivers transport sediment from eroding uplands to depositional areas near sea level. If the continuity of sediment transport is interrupted by dams or removal of sediment from the channel by gravel mining, the flow may become sediment-starved (hungry water) and prone to erode the channel bed and banks, producing channel incision (downcutting), coarsening of bed material, and loss of spawning gravels for salmon and trout (as smaller gravels are transported without replacement from upstream). Gravel is artificially added to the River Rhine to prevent further incision and to many other rivers in attempts to restore spawning habitat. It is possible to pass incoming sediment through some small reservoirs, thereby maintaining the continuity of sediment transport through the system. Damming and mining have reduced sediment delivery from rivers to many coastal areas, leading to accelerated beach erosion. Sand and gravel are mined for construction aggregate from river channel and floodplains. In-channel mining commonly causes incision, which may propagate up- and downstream of the mine, undermining bridges, inducing channel instability, and lowering alluvial water tables. Floodplain gravel pits have the potential to become wildlife habitat upon reclamation, but may be captured by the active channel and thereby become instream pits. Management of sand and gravel in rivers must be done on a regional basis, restoring the continuity of sediment transport where possible and encouraging alternatives to river-derived aggregate sources.KEY WORDS: Dams; Aquatic habitat; Sediment transport; Erosion; Sedimentation; Gravel mining

  15. In-stream validation of the effects of intermittent sediment toxicity on recruitment of juvenile unionid mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Yeager, M.M.; Cherry, D.S.; Scott, J.C.; Van Hassel, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    A triad approach was used to assess sediment toxicity in the Clinch River, Virginia to determine if sediment bound toxicants are contributing to decreased recruitment of unionid mussel populations. Eleven sites in the Clinch River and one site in a tributary, which exhibited suitable mussel habitat, were included in the analysis. Physical characteristics of the sediment revealed similar particle size distribution and percent water content at the twelve sites; however, three of the sites exhibited high volatile organic compounds. Total recoverable metals analysis of lead, zinc and copper in the interstitial water showed fluctuating metal concentrations throughout the river on different sampling dates. Sediment bioassays using C. riparius, D. magna, and H. azteca identified intermittent toxicity which may be related to non-point runoff from rain events. At ten of the twelve sites, mussel density surveys indicated decreased recruitment despite apparent suitable habitat. Invertebrate community structure analysis identified eight of the twelve sites as having significantly lower total abundance than the reference side and six of the twelve sites as s supporting significantly fewer taxa. In-situ juvenile mussel testing was used to determine the degree to which toxicity may impair juvenile recruitment in unionid populations.

  16. River Discharge and Bathymetry Estimation from Hydraulic Inversion of Surface Currents and Water Surface Elevation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simeonov, J.; Holland, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    We developed an inversion model for river bathymetry and discharge estimation based on measurements of surface currents, water surface elevation and shoreline coordinates. The model uses a simplification of the 2D depth-averaged steady shallow water equations based on a streamline following system of coordinates and assumes spatially uniform bed friction coefficient and eddy viscosity. The spatial resolution of the predicted bathymetry is related to the resolution of the surface currents measurements. The discharge is determined by minimizing the difference between the predicted and the measured streamwise variation of the total head. The inversion model was tested using in situ and remote sensing measurements of the Kootenai River east of Bonners Ferry, ID. The measurements were obtained in August 2010 when the discharge was about 223 m3/s and the maximum river depth was about 6.5 m. Surface currents covering a 10 km reach with 8 m spatial resolution were estimated from airborne infrared video and were converted to depth-averaged currents using acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements along eight cross-stream transects. The streamwise profile of the water surface elevation was measured using real-time kinematic GPS from a drifting platform. The value of the friction coefficient was obtained from forward calibration simulations that minimized the difference between the predicted and measured velocity and water level along the river thalweg. The predicted along/cross-channel water depth variation was compared to the depth measured with a multibeam echo sounder. The rms error between the measured and predicted depth along the thalweg was found to be about 60cm and the estimated discharge was 5% smaller than the discharge measured by the ADCP.

  17. The relative influence of land cover, hydrology, and in-stream processing on the composition of dissolved organic matter in boreal streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothawala, Dolly N.; Ji, Xing; Laudon, Hjalmar; Ögren, Anneli M.; Futter, Martyn N.; Köhler, Stephan J.; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2015-08-01

    Low-order boreal streams are particularly sensitive interfaces where dissolved organic matter (DOM) is transported from soils to inland waters. Disentangling the relative influence of key environmental factors suspected to influence stream water DOM composition is highly relevant to predicting the reactivity and fate of terrestrial DOM entering inland waters. Here we examined changes to DOM composition using absorbance and fluorescence, from 17 boreal streams ranging from first to fourth orders, over 14 months, including the rarely studied winter season, and two snowmelt periods (n = 836). We also analyzed soil pore water samples from three forest soil lysimeters to a depth of 70 cm (n = 60). Of five identified fluorescing parallel factor analysis components, two (C4 and C5) expressed a clear mire wetland or forest signature, providing distinct molecular markers of dominant land cover. In fact, land cover alone explained 49% of the variability in DOM composition. In contrast, seasonal fluctuations in hydrology only contributed to minor shifts (8%) in the composition of stream water DOM, while in-stream transformations to DOM composition were undetectable. These findings suggest that low-order boreal streams act as a passive pipe, since in-stream processing of DOM is restricted by short water residence times (6 h to 2 days). In addition, we demonstrated the sensitivity of optical approaches to distinguish between key terrestrial sources of DOM in the boreal landscape. By distinguishing the proportional leverage of key environmental controls on headwater stream DOM composition, we are better equipped to predict where and when key DOM transformations occur in the aquatic conduit.

  18. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds – a review of the scientific literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    We reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the riparian zone

  19. The importance of the riparian zone and in-stream processes in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed and agricultural watersheds - A review of the scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranalli, Anthony J.; Macalady, Donald L.

    2010-08-01

    SummaryWe reviewed published studies from primarily glaciated regions in the United States, Canada, and Europe of the (1) transport of nitrate from terrestrial ecosystems to aquatic ecosystems, (2) attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone of undisturbed and agricultural watersheds, (3) processes contributing to nitrate attenuation in riparian zones, (4) variation in the attenuation of nitrate in the riparian zone, and (5) importance of in-stream and hyporheic processes for nitrate attenuation in the stream channel. Our objectives were to synthesize the results of these studies and suggest methodologies to (1) monitor regional trends in nitrate concentration in undisturbed 1st order watersheds and (2) reduce nitrate loads in streams draining agricultural watersheds. Our review reveals that undisturbed headwater watersheds have been shown to be very retentive of nitrogen, but the importance of biogeochemical and hydrological riparian zone processes in retaining nitrogen in these watersheds has not been demonstrated as it has for agricultural watersheds. An understanding of the role of the riparian zone in nitrate attenuation in undisturbed watersheds is crucial because these watersheds are increasingly subject to stressors, such as changes in land use and climate, wildfire, and increases in atmospheric nitrogen deposition. In general, understanding processes controlling the concentration and flux of nitrate is critical to identifying and mapping the vulnerability of watersheds to water quality changes due to a variety of stressors. In undisturbed and agricultural watersheds we propose that understanding the importance of riparian zone processes in 2nd order and larger watersheds is critical. Research is needed that addresses the relative importance of how the following sources of nitrate along any given stream reach might change as watersheds increase in size and with flow: (1) inputs upstream from the reach, (2) tributary inflow, (3) water derived from the

  20. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River

    PubMed Central

    Radinger, Johannes; Wolter, Christian; Kail, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream) to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049) and topological variables (e.g., stream order) were included (AUC = +0.014). Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species’ presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity) were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types) and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform) were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i) the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables) to predict fish presence, (ii) the

  1. Spatial Scaling of Environmental Variables Improves Species-Habitat Models of Fishes in a Small, Sand-Bed Lowland River.

    PubMed

    Radinger, Johannes; Wolter, Christian; Kail, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    Habitat suitability and the distinct mobility of species depict fundamental keys for explaining and understanding the distribution of river fishes. In recent years, comprehensive data on river hydromorphology has been mapped at spatial scales down to 100 m, potentially serving high resolution species-habitat models, e.g., for fish. However, the relative importance of specific hydromorphological and in-stream habitat variables and their spatial scales of influence is poorly understood. Applying boosted regression trees, we developed species-habitat models for 13 fish species in a sand-bed lowland river based on river morphological and in-stream habitat data. First, we calculated mean values for the predictor variables in five distance classes (from the sampling site up to 4000 m up- and downstream) to identify the spatial scale that best predicts the presence of fish species. Second, we compared the suitability of measured variables and assessment scores related to natural reference conditions. Third, we identified variables which best explained the presence of fish species. The mean model quality (AUC = 0.78, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) significantly increased when information on the habitat conditions up- and downstream of a sampling site (maximum AUC at 2500 m distance class, +0.049) and topological variables (e.g., stream order) were included (AUC = +0.014). Both measured and assessed variables were similarly well suited to predict species' presence. Stream order variables and measured cross section features (e.g., width, depth, velocity) were best-suited predictors. In addition, measured channel-bed characteristics (e.g., substrate types) and assessed longitudinal channel features (e.g., naturalness of river planform) were also good predictors. These findings demonstrate (i) the applicability of high resolution river morphological and instream-habitat data (measured and assessed variables) to predict fish presence, (ii) the

  2. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Rexervoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1985 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lere, Mark E.

    1985-12-01

    The Bitterroot River, located in western Montana, is an important and heavily used resource, providing water for agriculture and a source for diversified forms of recreation. Water shortages in the river, however, have been a persistent problem for both irrigators and recreational users. Five major diversions and numerous smaller canals remove substantial quantities of water from the river during the irrigation season. Historically, the river has been severely dewatered between the towns of Hamilton and Stevensville as a result of these withdrawals. Demands for irrigation water from the Bitterroot River have often conflicted with the instream flow needs for trout. Withdrawals of water can decrease suitable depths, velocities, substrates and cover utilized by trout (Stalnaker and Arnette 1976, Wesche 1976). Losses in habitat associated with dewatering have been shown to diminish the carrying capacities for trout populations (Nelson 1980). Additionally, dewatering of the Bitterroot River has forced irrigators to dike or channelize the streambed to obtain needed flows. These alterations reduce aquatic habitat and degrade channel stability. Odell (personal communication) found a substantial reduction in the total biomass of aquatic insects within a section of the Bitterroot River that had been bulldozed for irrigation purposes. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP) has submitted a proposal to the Northwest Power Planning Council for the purchase of 10,000 acre-feet (AF) of stored water in Painted Rocks Reservoir to augment low summer flows in the Bitterroot River. This supplemental water potentially would enhance the fishery in the river and reduce degradation of the channel due to diversion activities. The present study was undertaken to: (1) develop an implementable water management plan for supplemental releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir which would provide optimum benefits to the river: (2) gather fisheries and habitat information to

  3. Assessing ecological integrity of Ozark rivers to determine suitability for protective status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Radwell, A.J.; Kwak, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    Preservation of extraordinary natural resources, protection of water quality, and restoration of impaired waters require a strategy to identify and protect least-disturbed streams and rivers. We applied two objective, quantitative methods to determine stream ecological integrity of headwater reaches of 10 Ozark rivers, 5 with Wild and Scenic River federal protective status. Thirty-four variables representing macroinvertebrate and fish assemblage characteristics, in-stream habitat, riparian vegetation, water quality, and watershed attributes were quantified for each river and analyzed using two multivariate approaches. The first approach, cluster and discriminant analyses, identified two groups of river with only one variable (% forested watershed) reliably distinguishing groups. Our second approach employed ordinal scaling to compare variables for each river to conceptually ideal conditions that were developed as a composite of optimal attributes among the 10 rivers. The composite distance of each river from ideal was then calculated using a unidimensional ranking technique. Two rivers without Wild and Scenic River designation ranked highest relative to ideal (highest ecological integrity), and two others, also without designation, ranked most distant from ideal (lowest ecological integrity). Fish density, number of intolerant fish species, and invertebrate density were influential biotic variables for scaling. Contributing physical variables included riparian forest cover, water nitrate concentration, water turbidity, percentage of forested watershed, percentage of private land ownership, and road density. These methods provide a framework for refinement and application in other regions to facilitate the process of establishing least-disturbed reference conditions and identifying rivers for protection and restoration. ?? 2005 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  4. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  5. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Mississippi River Flooding during Spring 2001   ... 794 x 390 South TIFF: 1024 x 724 The Mississippi River, from its source at Lake Itasca Minnesota to the Gulf of ... lower valley occurred in 1927 and the largest in the upper Mississippi in 1993. In April 2001 another flooding event in the upper ...

  6. Carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of particulate organic matter in four large river systems across the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.; Kelly, V.J.

    2001-01-01

    Riverine particulate organic matter (POM) samples were collected bi-weekly to monthly from 40 sites in the Mississippi, Colorado, Rio Grande, and Columbia River Basins (USA) in 1996-97 and analysed for carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic compositions. These isotopic compositions and C : N ratios were used to identify four endmember sources of POM: Plankton, fresh terrestrial plant material, aquatic plants, and soil organic material. This large-scale study also incorporated ancillary chemical and hydrologic data to refine and extend the interpretations of POM sources beyond the source characterizations that could be done solely with isotopic and elemental ratios. The ancillary data were especially useful for differentiating between seasonal changes in POM source materials and the effects of local nutrient sources and in-stream biogeochemical processes. Average values of ??13 C and C : N for all four river systems suggested that plankton is the dominant source of POM in these rivers, with higher percentages of plankton downstream of reservoirs. Although the temporal patterns in some rivers are complex, the low ??13C and C : N values in spring and summer probably indicate plankton blooms, whereas relatively elevated values in fall and winter are consistent with greater proportions of decaying aquatic vegetation and/or terrestrial material. Seasonal shifts in the ??13C of POM when the C : N remains relatively constant probably indicate changes in the relative rates of photosynthesis and respiration. Periodic inputs of plant detritus are suggested by C : N ratios >15, principally on the Columbia and Ohio Rivers. The ??15N and ??13C also reflect the importance of internal and external sources of dissolved carbon and nitrogen, and the degree of in-stream processing. Elevated ??15N values at some sites probably reflect inputs from sewage and/or animal waste. This information on the spatial and temporal variation in sources of POM in four major river systems should prove

  7. Relation of physical and chemical characteristics of streams to fish communities in the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota, 1993-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.; Stauffer, J.C.; Larson, P.R.; Lorenz, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Within the instream habitat data set, measures of habitat volume (channel width and depth) and habitat diversity were most significant in explaining the variability of the fish communities. The amount of nonagricultural land and riparian zone integrity from the terrestrial habitat data set were also useful in explaining fish community composition. Variability of mean monthly discharge and the frequency of high and low discharge events during the three years prior to fish sampling were the most influential of the hydrologic variables.The first two axes of the canonical correspondence analysis accounted for 43.3 percent of the variation in the fish community and 52.5 percent of the variation in the environmental-species relation. Water-quality indicators such as the percent of fine material in suspended sediment, minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations, minimum concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, and the range of concentrations of major ions and nutrients were the variables that were most important in the canonical correspondence analysis of water-quality data with fish. No single environmental variable or data set appeared to be more important than another in explaining variation in the fish community. The environmental factors affecting the fish communities of the Red River of the North are interrelated. For the most part, instream environmental conditions (instream habitat, hydrology, and water chemistry) appear to be more important in explaining variability in fish community composition than factors related to the agricultural nature of the basin.

  8. Sediment oxygen demand in the Saddle River and Salem River watersheds, New Jersey, July-August 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Gibs, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Many factors, such as river depth and velocity, biochemical oxygen demand, and algal productivity, as well as sediment oxygen demand, can affect the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the water column. Measurements of sediment oxygen demand, in conjunction with those of other water-column water-quality constituents, are useful for quantifying the mechanisms that affect in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Sediment-oxygen-demand rates are also needed to develop and calibrate a water-quality model being developed for the Saddle River and Salem River Basins in New Jersey to predict dissolved-oxygen concentrations. This report documents the methods used to measure sediment oxygen demand in the Saddle River and Salem River watersheds along with the rates of sediment oxygen demand that were obtained during this investigation. In July and August 2008, sediment oxygen demand was measured in situ in the Saddle River and Salem River watersheds. In the Saddle River Basin, sediment oxygen demand was measured twice at two sites and once at a third location; in the Salem River Basin, sediment oxygen demand was measured three times at two sites and once at a third location. In situ measurements of sediment oxygen demand in the Saddle River and Salem River watersheds ranged from 0.8 to 1.4 g/m2d (grams per square meter per day) and from 0.6 to 7.1 g/m2d at 20 degrees Celsius, respectively. Except at one site in this study, rates of sediment oxygen demand generally were low. The highest rate of sediment oxygen demand measured during this investigation, 7.1 g/m2d, which occurred at Courses Landing in the Salem River Basin, may be attributable to the consumption of oxygen by a large amount of organic matter (54 grams per kilogram as organic carbon) in the streambed sediments or to potential error during data collection. In general, sediment oxygen demand increased with the concentration of organic carbon in the streambed sediments. Repeated measurements made 6 to 7 days apart

  9. Compilation of geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water flow modeling information for the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie aquifer, Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, Sue C.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Bartolino, James R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources and Washington Department of Ecology compiled and described geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water flow modeling information about the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. Descriptions of the hydrogeologic framework, water-budget components, ground- and surface-water interactions, computer flow models, and further data needs are provided. The SVRP aquifer, which covers about 370 square miles including the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho and the Spokane valley and Hillyard Trough, Washington, was designated a Sole Source Aquifer by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1978. Continued growth, water management issues, and potential effects on water availability and water quality in the aquifer and in the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers have illustrated the need to better understand and manage the region's water resources. The SVRP aquifer is composed of sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders primarily deposited by a series of catastrophic glacial outburst floods from ancient Glacial Lake Missoula. The material deposited in this high-energy environment is coarser-grained than is typical for most basin-fill deposits, resulting in an unusually productive aquifer with well yields as high as 40,000 gallons per minute. In most places, the aquifer is bounded laterally by bedrock composed of granite, metasedimentary rocks, or basalt. The lower boundary of the aquifer is largely unknown except along the margins or in shallower parts of the aquifer where wells have penetrated its entire thickness and reached bedrock or silt and clay deposits. Based on surface geophysics, the thickness of the aquifer is about 500 ft near the Washington-Idaho state line, but more than 600 feet within the Rathdrum Prairie and more than 700 feet in the Hillyard trough based on drilling records. Depth to water in the aquifer is greatest in the northern

  10. Combining citizen science and land use data to identify drivers of eutrophication in the Huangpu River system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuchao; Ma, Ronghua; Hu, Minqi; Luo, Juhua; Li, Jing; Liang, Qichun

    2017-04-15

    In recent years, the massive land use changes and urbanization of Shanghai City have coincided with a growing eutrophication and an overall degradation of Huangpu River, with related risks to the city's drinking water supply and economic development. However, there is only limited information to evaluate the spatial and temporal changes to the Huangpu River and its many tributaries. In the present study, 400 citizen scientists were trained to monitor water quality and environmental conditions on a monthly basis over three years in the lower (high urbanized) Huangpu River catchment. Their data were integrated with high resolution land cover data using GIS techniques to characterize water quality dynamics of the Huangpu River system with respect to main environmental drivers. Environmental driver analysis indicated that up-catchment conditions dominate river dynamics while typical urban impacts (first flush, impermeable land cover…) have only limited influence. According to these results, the city's investments to improve wastewater treatment and mitigate lower river impacts need to be extended throughout the catchment to reduce nutrient concentrations that are near or above thresholds for rivers and streams. The positive impact of in-stream vegetation pointed to the possibilities that local scale ecological remediation activities to reduce runoff could be viable approaches to improve river conditions throughout the catchment.

  11. Relationships between woody vegetation and geomorphological patterns in three gravel-bed rivers with different intensities of anthropogenic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzia, T.; Picco, L.; Ravazzolo, D.; Comiti, F.; Mao, L.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    We compared three gravel-bed rivers in north-eastern Italy (Brenta, Piave, Tagliamento) having similar bioclimate, geology and fluvial morphology, but affected by different intensities of anthropogenic disturbance related particularly to hydropower dams, training works and instream gravel mining. Our aim was to test whether a corresponding difference in the interactions between vegetation and geomorphological patterns existed among the three rivers. In equally spaced and sized plots (n = 710) we collected descriptors of geomorphic conditions, and presence-absence of woody species. In the less disturbed river (Tagliamento), spatial succession of woody communities from the floodplain to the channel followed a profile where higher elevation floodplains featured more developed tree communities, and lower elevation islands and bars were covered by pioneer communities. In the intermediate-disturbed river (Piave), islands and floodplains lay at similar elevation and both showed species indicators of mature developed communities. In the most disturbed river (Brenta), all these patterns were simplified, all geomorphic units lay at similar elevations, were not well characterized by species composition, and presented similar persistence age. This indicates that in human-disturbed rivers, channel and vegetation adjustments are closely linked in the long term, and suggests that intermediate levels of anthropogenic disturbance, such as those encountered in the Piave River, could counteract the natural, more dynamic conditions that may periodically fragment vegetated landscapes in natural rivers.

  12. Estimation of the Risks of Collision or Strike to Freshwater Aquatic Organisms Resulting from Operation of Instream Hydrokinetic Turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, Peter E; Cada, Glenn F; Bevelhimer, Mark S

    2010-05-01

    Hydrokinetic energy technologies have been proposed as renewable, environmentally preferable alternatives to fossil fuels for generation of electricity. Hydrokinetic technologies harness the energy of water in motion, either from waves, tides or from river currents. For energy capture from free-flowing rivers, arrays of rotating devices are most commonly proposed. The placement of hydrokinetic devices in large rivers is expected to increase the underwater structural complexity of river landscapes. Moore and Gregory (1988) found that structural complexity increased local fish populations because fish and other aquatic biota are attracted to structural complexity that provides microhabitats with steep flow velocity gradients (Liao 2007). However, hydrokinetic devices have mechanical parts, blades, wings or bars that move through the water column, posing a potential strike or collision risk to fish and other aquatic biota. Furthermore, in a setting with arrays of hydrokinetic turbines the cumulative effects of multiple encounters may increase the risk of strike. Submerged structures associated with a hydrokinetic (HK) project present a collision risk to aquatic organisms and diving birds (Cada et al. 2007). Collision is physical contact between a device or its pressure field and an organism that may result in an injury to that organism (Wilson et al. 2007). Collisions can occur between animals and fixed submerged structures, mooring equipment, horizontal or vertical axis turbine rotors, and structures that, by their individual design or in combination, may form traps. This report defines strike as a special case of collision where a moving part, such as a rotor blade of a HK turbine intercepts the path of an organism of interest, resulting in physical contact with the organism. The severity of a strike incidence may range from minor physical contact with no adverse effects to the organism to severe strike resulting in injury or death of the organism. Harmful effects

  13. Detection probabilities of electrofishing, hoop nets, and benthic trawls for fishes in two western North American rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Christopher D.; Quist, Michael C.; Hardy, Ryan S.

    2015-01-01

    Research comparing different sampling techniques helps improve the efficiency and efficacy of sampling efforts. We compared the effectiveness of three sampling techniques (small-mesh hoop nets, benthic trawls, boat-mounted electrofishing) for 30 species in the Green (WY, USA) and Kootenai (ID, USA) rivers by estimating conditional detection probabilities (probability of detecting a species given its presence at a site). Electrofishing had the highest detection probabilities (generally greater than 0.60) for most species (88%), but hoop nets also had high detectability for several taxa (e.g., adult burbot Lota lota, juvenile northern pikeminnow Ptychocheilus oregonensis). Benthic trawls had low detection probabilities (<0.05) for most taxa (84%). Gear-specific effects were present for most species indicating large differences in gear effectiveness among techniques. In addition to gear effects, habitat characteristics also influenced detectability of fishes. Most species-specific habitat relationships were idiosyncratic and reflected the ecology of the species. Overall findings of our study indicate that boat-mounted electrofishing and hoop nets are the most effective techniques for sampling fish assemblages in large, coldwater rivers.

  14. Phosphorus sources, speciation and dynamics in the lowland eutrophic River Kennet, UK.

    PubMed

    Jarvi, Helen P; Neal, Colin; Williams, Richard J; Neal, Margaret; Wickham, Heather D; Hill, Linda K; Wade, Andrew J; Warwick, Alan; White, John

    2002-01-23

    This paper examines the behaviour of phosphorus (P) in a lowland chalk (Cretaceous-age) stream, the upper River Kennet in southern England, which has been subject to P remediation by tertiary treatment at the major sewage treatment works in the area. The effects of treatment are examined in relation to boron, a conservative tracer of sewage effluent and in terms of the relative contributions of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) loads from point and diffuse sources, and in-stream SRP loads. These results indicate a baseline reduction in in-stream SRP concentrations immediately following P-treatment of approximately 72%. Subsequent high flows result in a greater contribution of diffuse inputs and increases in SRP levels relative to the initial post-treatment period. The dynamics of SRP and particulate phosphorus (PP) are examined under a wide range of river flow conditions. Given the flashy nature of near-surface runoff in the River Kennet, sub-weekly (daily automated) sampling was used to examine the dynamics in SRP and PP concentrations in response to storm events. Simple empirical models linking weekly SRP concentrations with flow were developed. The empirical models were successfully applied to the daily data, to partition TP measurements and provide an estimate of daily SRP and PP concentrations. Mass balance studies were used to examine net gains and losses along the experimental river reach and indicate large net losses (up to 60%) during the extreme low flows and high SRP concentrations prior to P-treatment, which may be linked to extensive epiphytic growth. Phosphorus dynamics and response to P-treatment are discussed in relation to hydrological controls in permeable chalk catchments and wider implications for eutrophication management are examined.

  15. Sediment characteristics and configuration within three dam impoundments on the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Rachol, C.M.; Hubbell, D.L.; Simard, Andreanne

    2002-01-01

    The removal of the remnants of three hydroelectric dams on the Kalamazoo River near Plainwell, Otsego, and Allegan, Michigan, has been proposed. The benefits of this removal include returning the Kalamazoo River to its pre-dam flow, increasing recreational use and safety on the river, and improving aquatic habitat. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has designated this reach of the Kalamazoo River as a Federal Superfund site because of the historical discharge of papermill waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls. Much of this waste material remains concentrated in organic sediment and kaolinite clay deposited upstream from the three dam foundations. Sediment containing up to 150 milligrams per kilogram polychlorinated biphenyls could move if dam foundations are removed; therefore, it is necessary to estimate the characteristic and configuration of the sediment before work begins. Data collected from augered sections and sediment cores show that impoundment sediments were deposited in two distinctly different sedimentary environments. Interbedded lacustrine sediments that overlie the pre-dam channel surface consist of organic-rich silt and clay, fine to medium sand, and some gravel. These materials were deposited in a repetitive, cyclic fashion related to former stream velocities when the impoundment water levels were 5-10 feet higher. Lowering of these water levels and demolition of the superstructures of these dams resulted in erosion of much of these instream lacustrine sediments and subsequent deposition of coarse-grained alluvium in the impounded channel behind the remaining dam foundations. The composite thicknesses of the lacustrine deposits and overlying alluvium was determined from sediment cores collected from each impoundment. The volume of instream sediment contained in each impoundment is estimated to be about 77,600 cubic yards at the Plainwell impoundment; 268,900 cubic yards at the Otsego impoundment; and 1,192,600 cubic yards at the

  16. Controls on the turnover of fluvial organic carbon in UK rivers - combining experimental, observational and modelling approaches.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worrall, F.

    2015-12-01

    In-stream processing of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) within the UK has been shown to be significant flux pathways in the terrestrial carbon cycle with both DOC and POC evolving into carbon dioxide (CO2). A mass balance approach based upon long term monitoring records was used to consider the loss of DOM and POM across UK watersheds. The total flux of carbon to UK rivers from the terrestrial biosphere was 21.8 tonnes C/km2/yr and the net catchment loss was 70%. Including the role of fluvial organic nitrogen means that for total nitrogen species UK rivers are gaining 9.6 tonnes N/km2/yr from the terrestrial biosphere but are losing 63% of this nitrogen by the tidal limit. In a parallel study, in-situ experiments investigating rates of degradation in unfiltered surface water from a headwater, peat-dominated stream. Experiments were conducted on unfiltered samples (DOM and POM could be considered); on fresh samples (experiments were started stream-side); and over 70 hours (similar to in-stream residence time of the UK). The study found that the DOC concentration of samples in the daylight declined by 64%, compared with 6% decline for the samples kept in the dark: the POC loss in the light was 13%. The organic matter was characterised using elemental analysis (CHNOP); uv-vis spectroscopy, pyrolysis GC-MS; thermos-gravimetric analysis; bomb calorimetry and solid-state 13C nmr. Initial rate kinetics in the light were as high as 3rd order, but the study could show that no single rate law could describe the whole diurnal degradation cycle. Developing a physically-based set of rate laws for the turnover of DOM and POM over the appropriate timescales showed that the derived set of rate laws was able to explain experimental data with a 13% MAPE based on turnover in three types of organic matter (particulate, labile dissolved, refractory dissolved) although the order and rate of reactions did change between sets of

  17. Comparison of Methylmercury Ecology in Adjacent Coastal Plain Rivers in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, P. M.; Journey, C. A.; Chapelle, F. H.; Lowery, M. A.; Conrads, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Fish-tissue mercury concentrations (approximately 2 micrograms per gram) in the Edisto River basin of South Carolina are among the highest recorded in the United States. Substantially lower mercury concentrations (approximately 0.2 microgram per gram) are reported in fish from the adjacent Congaree River sub-basin and the Congaree National Park. Concentrations of total mercury were statistically higher in sediments from the Congaree River compared with those in sediments from the Edisto River. No statistically significant differences were observed in concentrations of methylmercury or in the range of net methylation potentials in sediments collected from various Edisto and Congaree hydrologic settings. In both systems, net methylation potentials were an order of magnitude or more lower in stream-channel sediments than in wetland sediments. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that differences in fish-tissue mercury between the Edisto and Congaree basins reflect fundamental differences in the potential for each system to methylate mercury. The marked differences in net methylation potential observed between the wetland and in-stream settings suggested an alternative hypothesis: differences in the efficiency of methylmercury transport from zones of production (wetlands) to points of entry into the food chain (channels) contribute to the observed differences in fish-tissue mercury concen¬trations between the two river systems. An assessment of the flood hydrodynamics of these two rivers is consistent with the alternative hypothesis.

  18. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  19. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-01-01

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions. PMID:28230079

  20. Organic pollution of rivers: Combined threats of urbanization, livestock farming and global climate change.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingrong; Schoups, Gerrit; van de Giesen, Nick

    2017-02-23

    Organic pollution of rivers by wastewater discharge from human activities negatively impacts people and ecosystems. Without treatment, pollution control relies on a combination of natural degradation and dilution by natural runoff to reduce downstream effects. We quantify here for the first time the global sanitation crisis through its impact on organic river pollution from the threats of (1) increasing wastewater discharge due to urbanization and intensification of livestock farming, and (2) reductions in river dilution capacity due to climate change and water extractions. Using in-stream Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) as an overall indicator of organic river pollution, we calculate historical (2000) and future (2050) BOD concentrations in global river networks. Despite significant self-cleaning capacities of rivers, the number of people affected by organic pollution (BOD >5 mg/l) is projected to increase from 1.1 billion in 2000 to 2.5 billion in 2050. With developing countries disproportionately affected, our results point to a growing need for affordable wastewater solutions.

  1. Intensive survey of the Big Muddy main stem from Rend Lake to the Mississippi River, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hite, R.L.; Matson, M.R.; Bickers, C.A.; King, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    In July and August 1988, the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency conducted an intensive stream quality survey of the lower Big Muddy River main stem. The survey focused on water quality, fish populations, contaminants in fish, instream habitat, and sediment chemistry in a 104-mile segment of the Big Muddy River between Rend Lake and the Mississippi River. The Big Muddy main stem survey was designed to assess stream quality in the vicinity of mine drainage sources and major municipal point source dischargers. A major objective of the project was to identify sources of acid mine drainage contributing to water quality degradation and fish kills in the Big Muddy River upstream from the public water supply intake at Royalton, Illinois. IEPA staff successfully identified two abandoned mines believed to be the major sources of mine-related water quality problems in the Big Muddy River in the vicinity of the Royalton. Water quality samples collected in summer 1988 at 14 main stem sites indicated Big Muddy River water quality was considered between fair/good and was generally not significantly impacted by point source dischargers. Main stem biotic integrity evaluated from fish population sampling at six sites was considered fair.

  2. A review of sediment quantity issues: examples from the River Ebro and adjacent basins (Northeastern Spain).

    PubMed

    Batalla, Ramon J; Vericat, Damià

    2011-04-01

    Sediment flows naturally through the drainage network, from source areas to deposition zones. Sedimentary disequilibrium in rivers and coastlines is related to the imbalance within the fluvial system caused mostly by dams, instream mining, and changes in land use. This phenomenon is also responsible for ecological perturbations in rivers and streams. A broad need exists to establish comprehensive management strategies (soft measures) that would go beyond site-specific engineering practices (technical measures) typically taken to solve particular problems. Long-term programs are also required to monitor sediment transport in river basins, in order to assess the magnitude and variability of sediment transfer and potential deficits. This paper shows examples of rivers with important sediment disequilibrium in the Ebro and adjacent basins. These basins, like most in the Iberian Peninsula, experience sediment discontinuity in the catchment-river-coast system. Reservoir siltation is the main quantitative issue. Land use change and especially gravel mining downstream from dams accentuate the process. We also present and discuss recent developments on water and sediment management undertaken to improve the morphosedimentary dynamics of rivers.

  3. Compliance of the Savannah River Site D-Area cooling system with environmental regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Specht, W.L.; Mackey, H.E.; Paller, M.H.; Wike, L.D.; Wilde, E.W.

    1990-08-01

    This document presents information relating to a demonstration under Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act for the 400-D Area cooling system at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The demonstration was mandated because the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for SRS (SC0000175), granted on January 1, 1984, specified in-stream temperature limits in SRS streams of 32.2{degree}C and a {Delta}T limit of 2.8{degree}C above ambient. To achieve compliance with in-stream temperature limits, the Department of Energy (DOE) and the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) entered into a Consent Order (84-4-W) which temporarily superseded the temperature requirements and identified a process for attaining compliance. The preferred option for achieving thermal compliance in Beaver Dam Creek consisted of increased flow, with mixing of the raw water basin overflow with the cooling water discharge during the summer months. Although this action can achieve instream temperatures of less than 32.2{degree}C, {Delta}T's still exceed 2.8{degree}C. Therefore, a 316 (a) Demonstration was initiated to determine whether a balanced indigenous biological community can be supported in the receiving stream with {Delta}T's in excess of 2.8{degree}C. A Biological Monitoring Program for Beaver Dam Creek was approved by SCDHEC in June 1988 and implemented in September 1988. The program monitored the water quality, habitat formers, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, fish, other vertebrate wildlife and threatened and endangered species in Beaver Dam Creek for an 18-month period (September 1988-February 1990). This document summarizes information collected during the monitoring program and evaluates the data to determine whether Beaver Dam Creek presently supports a balanced indigenous biological community. 97 refs., 32 figs., 51 tabs.

  4. Effective Discharge and Annual Sediment Yield on Brazos River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhnia, M.; Salehi, M.; Keyvani, A.; Ma, F.; Strom, K. B.; Raphelt, N.

    2012-12-01

    Geometry of an alluvial river alters dynamically over the time due to the sediment mobilization on the banks and bottom of the river channel in various flow rates. Many researchers tried to define a single representative discharge for these morphological processes such as "bank-full discharge", "effective discharge" and "channel forming discharge". Effective discharge is the flow rate in which, the most sediment load is being carried by water, in a long term period. This project is aimed to develop effective discharge estimates for six gaging stations along the Brazos River from Waco, TX to Rosharon, TX. The project was performed with cooperation of the In-stream Flow Team of the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). Project objectives are listed as: 1) developing "Flow Duration Curves" for six stations based on mean-daily discharge by downloading the required, additional data from U.S Geological Survey website, 2) developing "Rating Curves" for six gaging stations after sampling and field measurements in three different flow conditions, 3) developing a smooth shaped "Sediment Yield Histogram" with a well distinguished peak as effective discharge. The effective discharge was calculated using two methods of manually and automatic bin selection. The automatic method is based on kernel density approximation. Cross-sectional geometry measurements, particle size distributions and water field samples were processed in the laboratory to obtain the suspended sediment concentration associated with flow rate. Rating curves showed acceptable trends, as the greater flow rate we experienced, the more sediment were carried by water.

  5. Water-quality assessment of the Illinois River basin, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Terry, J.E.; Morris, E.E.; Petersen, Jim C.; Darling, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    A water-quality assessment was made of Illinois River, Muddy Fork, Spring Creek, and Osage Creek in northwest Arkansas. Data were collected to calibrate and verify steady-state digital, stream, water-quality models. The models were then used to simulate changes in instream diel-minimum dissolved-oxygen resulting from changes in nutrient loading. The city of Fayetteville proposes to divert part of its projected wastewater-treatment plant discharge to Illinois River. Muddy Fork, Spring Creek, and Osage Creek currently received effluent from the cities of Prairie Grove, Springdale, and Rogers, respectively. The diel-minimum dissolved-oxygen standard for each of these streams is 4.0 mg/L under projected loadings. Data collected indicate that none of the four streams meet Arkansas state standards for diel-minimum dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform bacteria. Computed dissolved-oxygen deficits indicate that benthal demand is the principal reason for dissolved-oxygen not meeting standards. Model simulations indicate that Spring Creek and Osage Creek can meet dissolved oxygen standards with stringent effluent limits imposed at the inspecting waste water-treatment plants; Muddy Fork and Illinois River can not. (USGS)

  6. Rivers and streams: Ecosystem dynamics and integrating paradigms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cummins, K.W.; Wilzbach, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full understanding of running waters requires an ecosystem perspective, which encompasses the physical and chemical setting in interaction with dependent biological communities. Several conceptual models or paradigms of river and stream ecosystems that capture critical components of lotic ecosystems have been developed, including the ‘river continuum concept’, to describe fluxes of matter and energy within the stream or river channel together with exchanges between the channel and its terrestrial setting. A complete ecosystem perspective includes consideration of hierarchical spatial scales in a temporal context. Flow of energy in lotic ecosystems is driven by two alternative energy sources: sunlight regulating in-stream photosynthesis and plant litter derived from the stream-side riparian corridor or floodplain. Energy transfers within the ecosystem pass through micro- and macroproducers (algae and vascular hydrophytes) and micro- and macroconsumers (microorganisms, invertebrates, and vertebrates). Material fluxes encompass the cycling of key nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, and the transport, storage, and metabolism of dissolved (DOM) and particulate (POM) organic matter (OM). Growth of lotic periphyton (algae and associated microbes, microzoans, and detritus) and coarse (CPOM) and fine (FPOM) particulate organic matter constitute the food resources of nonpredaceous running-water invertebrates (e.g., shredders that consume CPOM and collectors that feed on FPOM and associated microbes of both).

  7. Water quality in the Mahoning River and selected tributaries in Youngstown, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoeckel, Donald M.; Covert, S. Alex

    2002-01-01

    Creek sampling networks. E. coli concentrations increased during wet-weather flow and remained higher than dry-weather concentrations for 48 hours after peak flow. E. coli concentration criteria were more commonly exceeded during wet-weather flow than during dry-weather flow. Exceedances of nutrient-concentration criteria were not substantially more common during wet-weather flow. The fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate network included Mill Creek and its tributaries but did not include the main stem of the Mahoning River. Persistent exceedances of chemical water-quality standards in Mill Creek and the presence of nutrient concentrations in excess of draft criteria may have contributed to biotic index scores that on only one occasion met State criteria throughout the fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate sampling network. Monitored tributary streams did not contribute concentrations of E. coli, nitrate plus nitrite, or total phosphorus to the Mahoning River and Mill Creek that were higher than main-stem concentrations, but monitored WWTP and sewer-overflow discharges did contribute. Twenty-four hour load estimates of sewer-overflow discharge contributions during wet-weather flow indicated that sewer-overflow discharges contributed large loads of bacteria and inorganic nitrogen to the Mahoning River relative to the instream load. The sewer-overflow loads appeared to move as a slug of highly enriched water that passed through Youngstown on the rising limb of the storm hydrograph. The median estimated sewer-overflow load contribution of bacteria was greater than the estimated instream load by a factor of five or more; however, the median estimated sewer-overflow load of inorganic nitrogen was less than half of the estimated instream load. Sewer-overflow discharges contributed loads of E. coli and nutrients to the Mahoning River and Mill Creek at a point where the streams already did not meet State water-quality regulations. Improvement of water quality of

  8. Channel change and bed-material transport in the Umpqua River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Anderson, Scott; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Cannon, Charles; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers of western Oregon; with headwaters in the Cascade Range, the river flows through portions of the Klamath Mountains and Oregon Coast Range before entering the Pacific Ocean. Above the head of tide, the Umpqua River, along with its major tributaries, the North and South Umpqua Rivers, flows on a mixed bedrock and alluvium bed, alternating between bedrock rapids and intermittent, shallow gravel bars composed of gravel to cobble-sized clasts. These bars have been a source of commercial aggregate since the mid-twentieth century. Below the head of tide, the Umpqua River contains large bars composed of mud and sand. Motivated by ongoing permitting and aquatic habitat concerns related to in-stream gravel mining on the fluvial reaches, this study evaluated spatial and temporal trends in channel change and bed-material transport for 350 kilometers of river channel along the Umpqua, North Umpqua, and South Umpqua Rivers. The assessment produced (1) detailed mapping of the active channel, using aerial photographs and repeat surveys, and (2) a quantitative estimation of bed-material flux that drew upon detailed measurements of particle size and lithology, equations of transport capacity, and a sediment yield analysis. Bed-material transport capacity estimates at 45 sites throughout the South Umpqua and main stem Umpqua Rivers for the period 1951-2008 result in wide-ranging transport capacity estimates, reflecting the difficulty of applying equations of bed-material transport to a supply-limited river. Median transport capacity values calculated from surface-based equations of bedload transport for each of the study reaches provide indications of maximum possible transport rates and range from 8,000 to 27,000 metric tons per year (tons/yr) for the South Umpqua River and 20,000 to 82,000 metric tons/yr for the main stem Umpqua River upstream of the head of tide; the North Umpqua River probably contributes little bed material. A

  9. River Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auldridge, Teresa; And Others

    The James River is one of the most precious resources of Virginia. It was the site of the first permanent English settlement in the New World; the power of the water at the Fall Zone was a major factor in the development of Richmond; and the river served as a primary transportation route to the West via the Kanawha Canal. Both the water itself and…

  10. Comparison of Methylmercury Production and Accumulation in Sediments of the Congaree and Edisto River Basins, South Carolina, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Paul M.; Chapelle, Francis H.; Journey, Celeste

    2009-01-01

    Fish-tissue mercury concentrations (approximately 2 micrograms per gram) in the Edisto River basin of South Carolina are among the highest recorded in the United States. Substantially lower mercury concentrations (approximately 0.2 microgram per gram) are reported in fish from the adjacent (about 30 kilometer) Congaree River basin and the Congaree National Park. In contrast, concentrations of total mercury were statistically higher in sediments from the Congaree River compared with those in sediments from the Edisto River. Furthermore, no statistically significant difference was observed in concentrations of methylmercury or net methylation potential in sediments collected from various Edisto and Congaree hydrologic settings. In both systems, the net methylation potential was low (0-0.17 nanogram per gram per day) for in-stream sediments exposed to continuously flowing water but substantially higher (about 1.8 nanograms per gram per day) in wetland sediments exposed to standing water. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis that differences in fish-tissue mercury between the Edisto and Congaree basins reflect fundamental differences in the potential for each system to methylate mercury. Rather, the significantly higher ratios of methylmercury to total mercury observed in the Edisto system suggest that the net accumulation and(or) preservation of methylmercury are greater in the Edisto system. The marked differences in net methylation potential observed between the wetland and in-stream settings suggest the hypothesis that methylmercury transport from zones of production (wetlands) to points of entry into the food chain (channels) may contribute to the observed differences in fish-tissue mercury concentrations between the two river systems.

  11. Nitrogen attenuation in the Connecticut River, northeastern USA; a comparison of mass balance and N2 production modeling approaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.E.; Laursen, A.E.; Deacon, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Two methods were used to measure in-stream nitrogen loss in the Connecticut River during studies conducted in April and August 2005. A mass balance on nitrogen inputs and output for two study reaches (55 and 66 km), at spring high flow and at summer low flow, was computed on the basis of total nitrogen concentrations and measured river discharges in the Connecticut River and its tributaries. In a 10.3 km subreach of the northern 66 km reach, concentrations of dissolved N2 were also measured during summer low flow and compared to modeled N2 concentrations (based on temperature and atmospheric gas exchange rates) to determine the measured "excess" N2 that indicates denitrification. Mass balance results showed no in-stream nitrogen loss in either reach during April 2005, and no nitrogen loss in the southern 55 km study reach during August 2005. In the northern 66 km reach during August 2005, however, nitrogen output was 18% less than the total nitrogen inputs to the reach. N2 sampling results gave an estimated rate of N2 production that would remove 3.3% of the nitrogen load in the river over the 10.3 km northern sub-reach. The nitrogen losses measured in the northern reach in August 2005 may represent an approximate upper limit for nitrogen attenuation in the Connecticut River because denitrification processes are most active during warm summer temperatures and because the study was performed during the annual low-flow period when total nitrogen loads are small. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  12. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Raritan River basin, New Jersey, water years 1976-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Debra E.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Hickman, R. Edward

    1999-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 21 surface-water stations within the drainage area of the Raritan River Basin for water years 1976-93. Surface-water-quality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and between constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall’s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows. Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes through time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) or constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. Highand low-flow trends in concentrations were determined for some constituents at 13 of the 21 water-quality stations; 8 stations have insufficient data to determine trends. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 16 of the 18 constituents. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of the dilution of instream concentrations by storm runoff. The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent sources (storm runoff). Greater slope values indicate larger contributions from storm runoff to instream load, which most likely indicate an increased

  13. Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989 : with Listings of Historical Streamflow, Summation of Storage Change and Adjusted Streamflow : Columbia River and Coastal Basins.

    SciTech Connect

    A.G. Crook Company

    1993-04-01

    The development of irrigation projects since the 1830's and the construction of major dams and reservoirs since the early 1900's have altered substantially the natural streamflow regimen of the Columbia River and its tributaries. As development expanded a multipurpose approach to streamflow regulation evolved to provide flood control, irrigation, hydropower generation, navigation, recreation, water quality enhancement, fish and wildlife, and instream flow maintenance. The responsible agencies use computer programs to determine the effects of various alternative system regulations. This report describes the development of the streamflow data that these computer programs use.

  14. Suspended-Sediment Loads and Yields in the North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, Water Years 1999-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bragg, Heather M.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Uhrich, Mark A.; Piatt, David R.

    2007-01-01

    The North Santiam River provides drinking water to the residents and businesses of the city of Salem, Oregon, and many surrounding communities. Since 1998, water-quality data, including turbidity, were collected continuously at monitoring stations throughout the basin as part of the North Santiam River Basin Turbidity and Suspended Sediment Study. In addition, sediment samples have been collected over a range of turbidity and streamflow values. Regression models were developed between the instream turbidity and suspended-sediment concentration from the samples collected from each monitoring station. The models were then used to estimate the daily and annual suspended-sediment loads and yields. For water years 1999-2004, suspended-sediment loads and yields were estimated for each station. Annual suspended-sediment loads and yields were highest during water years 1999 and 2000. A drought during water year 2001 resulted in the lowest suspended-sediment loads and yields for all monitoring stations. High-turbidity events that were unrelated or disproportional to increased streamflow occurred at several of the monitoring stations during the period of study. These events highlight the advantage of estimating suspended-sediment loads and yields from instream turbidity rather than from streamflow alone.

  15. Indications and potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunn, David D.; Raines, Timothy H.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in the capacity of the Brazos River to transport sand can be identified within the context of Lane’s relation through changes in channel geometry, changes in the characteristics of suspended loads, and changes in discharge. The Brazos River channel has been undergoing continual adjustment since the 1940s. For a discharge of 5,000 cubic feet per second, the watersurface altitude has decreased 2 to 4 feet at the Hempstead and Richmond streamflow-gaging stations between 1940 and 1995. The characteristics of suspended-sediment samples at the Richmond streamflow-gaging station have changed between the periods 1969–81 and 1982– 95. The amount of sand-size sediment transported in suspension has decreased. The distribution of both daily and annual-peak discharges has changed. However, the computed annual loads of suspended sand indicate no statistically significant change in the median annual load.The transport of sand in the Brazos River depends on a complex set of factors, most of which are continually changing. Potential sources of change in sand transport in the Brazos River include the effects of reservoir construction, changes in land use, and instream sand and gravel mining. Extensive reservoir construction in the Brazos River Basin has reduced sand transport by trapping sediment and by reducing the magnitude of peak discharges. However, reductions in sand transport associated with reservoir construction apparently are compensated for by increases associated with tributary sediment inflow and localized bank erosion. The total area of harvested acres of non-hay crops in the lower Brazos River Basin during 1924–92 decreased more than 75 percent from about 32 percent to about 8 percent of the total area. Correspondingly, erosion potential has decreased substantially. Several sand and gravel mining sites are located on the Brazos River between Hempstead and Rosharon. The quantity of sediment extracted by instream sand and gravel mining operations could

  16. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project : 1993 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R. Todd

    1993-04-01

    The Umatilla Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project is funded under the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Measure 704 (d) (1) 34.02 and targets the improvement of water quality and restoration of riparian areas, holding, spawning and rearing habitats of steelhead, spring and fall chinook and coho salmon. The project focused on implementing instream and riparian habitat improvements on private lands on the Umatilla Indian Reservation (hereafter referred to as Reservation) from April 1, 1988 to March 31, 1992. These efforts resulted in enhancement of the lower 1/4 mile of Boston Canyon Creek, the lower 4 river miles of Meacham Creek and 3.2 river miles of the Umatilla River (downstream of the Meacham Creek confluence upstream to the Reservation East Boundary). In 1993, the project shifted emphasis to a comprehensive watershed approach consistent with other basin efforts and began to identify upland and riparian watershed-wide causative factors impacting fisheries habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities throughout the Umatilla River Watershed. Maintenance of existing habitat improvement projects was included under this comprehensive approach. Maintenance of existing gravel traps, instream and bank stabilization structures was required within project areas during the reporting period due to spring flooding damage and high bedload movement. Maintenance activities were completed between river mile (RM) 0.0 and RM 0.25 Boston Canyon Creek, between RM 0.0 and RM 4 Meacham Creek and between RM 78.5 and RM 79 Umatilla River. Habitat enhancement areas were seeded with native grass, legume, shrub and wildflower mixes and planted with willow cuttings to assist in floodplain recovery, stream channel stability and filtering of sediments during high flow periods. Water quality monitoring continued for temperature and turbidity throughout the upper Umatilla River Watershed. Survey of cross sections and photo

  17. Catchment and in-stream influences on iron-deposit chemistry, algal-bacterial biomass and invertebrate richness in upland streams, Northern Ireland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macintosh, Katrina Ann; Griffiths, David

    2013-04-01

    The density and composition of upland stream bed iron-deposits is affected by physical, chemical and biological processes. The basic chemical processes producing ochre deposits are well known. Mobilisation of iron and manganese is influenced by bedrock weathering, the presence of acidic and/or reducing conditions and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon. Ferromanganese-depositing bacteria are significant biogenic agents and can cause/enhance the deposition of metals in streams as (hydr)oxides. Metal concentrations from stream waters in two geological blocks in Northern Ireland were compared to determine the contributions of catchment characteristics and in-stream conditions. One block is composed of metamorphosed schist and unconsolidated glacial drift, with peat or peaty podzol (mainly humic) soils, while the other block consists of tertiary basalt with brown earth and gley soils. Water samples were collected from 52 stream sites and analysed for iron, manganese and aluminium as well as a range of other chemical determinands known to affect metal solubility. Stone deposit material was analysed for metal concentrations, organic matter content and epilithic algae, chlorophyll a concentration. Invertebrates were collected by area-standardised kick samples and animals identified to family and numbers counted. Higher conductivities and concentrations of bicarbonate, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium occurred on basalt than on schist. Despite higher iron and manganese oxide concentrations in basalt-derived non-humic soils, stream water concentrations were much lower and stone deposit concentrations only one third of those occurring on schist overlain by humic soils. Peat-generated acidity and the limited acid neutralising capacity of base-poor metamorphosed schist has resulted in elevated concentrations of metals and ochre deposit in surface waters. Algal biomass was determined by catchment level factors whereas in-stream conditions affected bacterial biomass

  18. On-site evaluation of the suitability of a wetted instream habitat in the Middle Rio Grande, New Mexico, for the Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Two in-situ exposure studies were conducted with the federally-listed endangered Rio Grande silvery minnow (Hybognathus amarus). One-year-old adults were exposed in cages deployed at three sites in the Middle Rio Grande, N. Mex., for 4 days to assess survival and for 26 days to evaluate survival, growth, overall health, and whole-body elemental composition. The test sites were located on the Pueblo of Isleta in the (1) main channel of the Middle Rio Grande, (2) 240-Wasteway irrigation return drain, and (3) wetted instream habitat created below the outfall of the 240-Wasteway irrigation return drain. During the cage exposures, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and turbidity were monitored continuously (15-minute intervals) and common constituents, nutrients, carbons, metals, and pesticides were measured at discrete intervals. In both studies, there were statistical differences in several water-quality parameters among sites; and except for turbidity, these differences were small and were not considered to be biologically significant. The cages used in the 4-day exposure study were ineffective at preventing access to the fish by predators, and survival was highly variable (20 percent to 90 percent) across sites. In the 26-day chronic exposure study, weight and condition factor of caged-exposed fish at all sites were significantly lower than those at test initiation. After 26 days of exposure, there were no significant differences in survival, total length, weight, or condition factor of fish across sites, but absolute weight loss and relative reduction in condition factor were significantly greater in fish at the wetted instream habitat site compared to those at the Middle Rio Grande site. There were no statistical differences in health assessment indices, mesenteric fat indices, or prevalence of abnormalities in cage-exposed fish among sites. Cage-exposed fish had higher health assessment indices and prevalence of fin anomalies and a lower mesenteric

  19. Impacts of episodic acidification on in-stream survival and physiological impairment of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCormick, S.D.; Keyes, A.; Nislow, K.H.; Monette, M.Y.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted field studies to determine the levels of acid and aluminum (Al) that affect survival, smolt development, ion homeostasis, and stress in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolts in restoration streams of the Connecticut River in southern Vermont, USA. Fish were held in cages in five streams encompassing a wide range of acid and Al levels for two 6-day intervals during the peak of smolt development in late April and early May. Physiological parameters were unchanged from initial sampling at the hatchery and the high water quality reference site (pH > 7.0, inorganic Al < 12 μg·L-1). Mortality, substantial loss of plasma chloride, and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and elevated gill Al occurred at sites with the lowest pH (5.4-5.6) and highest inorganic Al (50-80 μg·L-1). Moderate loss of plasma chloride, increased plasma cortisol and glucose, and moderately elevated gill Al occurred at less severely impacted sites. Gill Al was a better predictor of integrated physiological impacts than water chemistry alone. The results indicate that Al and low pH under field conditions in some New England streams can cause mortality and impair smolt development in juvenile Atlantic salmon and provide direct evidence that episodic acidification is impacting conservation and recovery of Atlantic salmon in the northeastern USA.

  20. Hydrology of the lower Little Red River, Arkansas, and a procedure for estimating available streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grosz, G.D.; Terry, J.E.; Hall, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission, conducted a hydrologic investigation of the lower Little Red River from near Searcy, Arkansas (mi 31.7), to the river 's mouth at its confluence with the White River. During 1983 and 1984, data were collected on streamflow, stream altitude, groundwater altitude and diversion pumping from the Little Red River. Flow in the Little Red River near Searcy is computed by using a modified stage/fall/discharge relation and stage data collected at Searcy and at Judsonia 6.5 mi downstream. This procedure uses a family of 12 rating curves that can be selected by stage records at Searcy and fall records between Searcy and Judsonia. A comparison of water levels in the river to water levels in selected alluvial wells near the river indicates that the Little Red is a gaining stream during summer and fall low periods and is a losing stream during periods of high flow. Flows in the lower Little Red River are also significantly affected by releases from Greers Ferry Reservoir at mi 78.8 and by varying backwater conditions resulting from high stages on the White River. To meet the expressed needs of the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission, a mass balance procedure was developed to be used for estimating the amount of streamflow available along a reach of stream, given a minimum instream flow requirement set by the regulating authority. This procedure was coded into a computer program that can be invoked interactively as an aid in making streamflow allocation decisions and in maintaining related data bases. (USGS)

  1. Spatial and temporal trends of freshwater mussel assemblages in the Meramec River Basin, Missouri, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; McMurray, Stephen E.; Roberts, Andrew D.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Augspurger, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The Meramec River basin in east-central Missouri has one of the most diverse unionoid mussel faunas in the central United States with >40 species identified. Data were analyzed from historical surveys to test whether diversity and abundance of mussels in the Meramec River basin (Big, Bourbeuse, and Meramec rivers, representing >400 river miles) decreased between 1978 and 1997. We found that over 20y, species richness and diversity decreased significantly in the Bourbeuse and Meramec rivers but not in the Big River. Most species were found at fewer sites and in lower numbers in 1997 than in 1978. Federally endangered species and Missouri Species of Conservation Concern with the most severe temporal declines were Alasmidonta viridis, Arcidens confragosus, Elliptio crassidens, Epioblasma triquetra, Fusconaia ebena, Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis brittsi, and Simpsonaias ambigua. Averaged across all species, mussels were generally being extirpated from historical sampling sites more rapidly than colonization was occurring. An exception was one reach of the Meramec River between river miles 28.4 and 59.5, where mussel abundance and diversity were greater than in other reaches and where colonization of Margaritiferidae, Lampsilini, and Quadrulini exceeded extirpation. The exact reasons mussel diversity and abundance have remained robust in this 30- mile reach is uncertain, but the reach is associated with increased gradients, few long pools, and vertical rock faces, all of which are preferable for mussels. Complete loss of mussel communities at eight sites (16%) with relatively diverse historical assemblages was attributed to physical habitat changes including bank erosion, unstable substrate, and sedimentation. Mussel conservation efforts, including restoring and protecting riparian habitats, limiting the effects of in-stream sand and gravel mining, monitoring and controlling invasive species, and protecting water quality, may be warranted in the Meramec River basin.

  2. Relations between retired agricultural land, water quality, and aquatic-community health, Minnesota River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christensen, Victoria G.; Lee, Kathy E.; McLees, James M.; Niemela, Scott L.

    2012-01-01

    The relative importance of agricultural land retirement on water quality and aquatic-community health was investigated in the Minnesota River Basin. Eighty-two sites, with drainage areas ranging from 4.3 to 2200 km2, were examined for nutrient concentrations, measures of aquatic-community health (e.g., fish index of biotic integrity [IBI] scores), and environmental factors (e.g., drainage area and amount of agricultural land retirement). The relation of proximity of agricultural land retirement to the stream was determined by calculating the land retirement percent in various riparian zones. Spearman's rho results indicated that IBI score was not correlated to the percentage of agricultural land retirement at the basin scale (p = 0.070); however, IBI score was correlated to retired land percentage in the 50- to 400-m riparian zones surrounding the streams (p < 0.05), indicating that riparian agricultural land retirement may have more influence on aquatic-community health than does agricultural land retirement in upland areas. Multivariate analysis of covariance and analysis of covariance models indicated that other environmental factors (such as drainage area and lacustrine and palustrine features) commonly were correlated to aquatic-community health measures, as were in-stream factors (standard deviation of water depth and substrate type). These results indicate that although agricultural land retirement is significantly related to fish communities as measured by the IBI scores, a combination of basin, riparian, and in-stream factors act together to influence IBI scores.

  3. Reach Scale Application of UAV+SFM Method in Shallow Rivers Hyperspatial Bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, O.; Ghodsian, M.; Saadatseresht, M.

    2015-12-01

    Nowadays, rivers are impacted by different human activities and highly regulated. To rehabilitate these systems, spatial and process-based analyses of rivers are essential. Hydrodynamic models are sophisticated tools in this regard and instream topography is one of the most important input of these models. To represent hyperspatial topography and bathymetry in shallow rivers, UAV imagery and structure from motion may be an optimum method considering the extent of application, vegetation condition and flow quality. However, at the present there is no available workflow for applications of UAV+SfM method in riverine environments at extent of reach or higher scales. Therefore, in this study a new workflow has been presented and evaluated in Alarm River. The evaluation showed that the workflow provides 2 m/s speed for UAV while mapping flight lines with low illumination changes. Specific pattern of image acquisition in the proposed workflow leads to substantial decrease of process time. In addition, precise control of flight height and overlap of images may lead to consistent accurate results. The result of validation against rtkGNSS data points showed that the suggested workflow is capable of providing 0.01 m-resolution topographic data with an error less than 0.075 m and 95% level of confidence in clear shallow rivers.

  4. Evaulation of the Quality of an Aquatic Habitat on the Drietomica River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankoci, Ivan; Jariabková, Jana; Macura, Viliam

    2014-03-01

    The ecological status of a river is influenced by many factors, of which the most important are fauna and flora; in this paper they are defined as a habitat. During the years 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2011, research on the hydroecological quality of a habitat was evaluated in the reference section of the Drietomica River. Drietomica is a typical representative river of the Slovak flysch area and is located in the region of the White Carpathians in the northwestern part of Slovakia. In this article the results of modeling a microhabitat by means of the Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) are presented. For the one-dimensional modeling, the River Habitat Simulation System (RHABSIM) was used to analyse the interaction between a water flow, the morphology of a riverbed, and the biological components of the environment. The habitat ´s hydroecological quality was evaluated after detailed ichthyological, topographical and hydro-morphological surveys. The main step was assessing the biotic characteristics of the habitat through the suitability curves for the Brown trout (Salmo trutta m. fario). Suitability curves are a graphic representation of the main biotic and abiotic preferences of a microhabitat's components. The suitability curves were derived for the depth, velocity, fish covers and degree of the shading. For evaluating the quality of the aquatic habitat, 19 fish covers were closely monitored and evaluated. The results of the Weighted Usable Area (WUA = f (Q)) were evaluated from a comprehensive assessment of the referenced reach of the Drietomica River.

  5. Occurrence, fate, and ecosystem implications of endocrine active compounds in select rivers of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Writer, J.; Keefe, S.; Barber, L. B.; Brown, G.; Schoenfuss, H.; Kiesling, R.; Gray, J. L.

    2009-12-01

    Select endocrine active compounds (EACs) were measured in four rivers in southern Minnesota. Additionally, caged and wild fish were assessed for indication of endocrine disruption using plasma vitellogenin and histopathology. Low concentrations of EACs were identified in all rivers, as was elevated plasma vitellogenin in caged and wild fish, indicating potential endocrine disruption. To evaluate the persistence of these compounds in small rivers, a tracer study was performed on one of the rivers (Redwood River) using Lagrangian sampling coupled with hydrologic modeling incorporating transient storage. Mass exchange (transient storage, sorption) and degradation were approximated as pseudo first order processes, and in-stream removal rates were then computed by comparing conservative tracer concentrations to organic compound concentrations. Production of estrone and 4-nonylphenol in the studied reach as a result of biochemical transformation from their parent compounds (17β-estradiol and alkylphenolpolyethoxylates, respectively) was quantified. The distance required for 17β-estradiol and nonylphenol to undergo a 50% reduction in concentration was >2 km and >10 km, respectively. These results indicate that EACs are transported several kilometers downstream from discharge sources and therefore have the potential of adversely impacting the lotic ecosystem over these distances.

  6. Nitrogen and phosphorus in streams of the Great Miami River Basin, Ohio, 1998-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reutter, David C.

    2003-01-01

    Sources and loads of nitrogen and phosphorus in streams of the Great Miami River Basin were evaluated as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. Water samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from October 1998 through September 2000 (water years 1999 and 2000) at five locations in Ohio on a routine schedule and additionally during selected high streamflows. Stillwater River near Union, Great Miami River near Vandalia, and Mad River near Eagle City were selected to represent predominantly agricultural areas upstream from the Dayton metropolitan area. Holes Creek near Kettering is in the Dayton metropolitan area and was selected to represent an urban area in the Great Miami River Basin. Great Miami River at Hamilton is downstream from the Dayton and Hamilton-Middletown metropolitan areas and was selected to represent mixed agricultural and urban land uses of the Great Miami River Basin. Inputs of nitrogen and phosphorus to streams from point and nonpoint sources were estimated for the three agricultural basins and for the Great Miami River Basin as a whole. Nutrient inputs from point sources were computed from the facilities that discharge one-half million gallons or more per day into streams of the Great Miami River Basin. Nonpoint-source inputs estimated in this report are atmospheric deposition and commercial-fertilizer and manure applications. Loads of ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen, orthophosphate, and total phosphorus from the five sites were computed with the ESTIMATOR program. The computations show nitrate to be the primary component of instream nitrogen loads, and particulate phosphorus to be the primary component of instream phosphorus loads. The Mad River contributed the smallest loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus to the study area upstream from Dayton, whereas the Upper Great Miami River (upstream from Vandalia) contributed the largest loads of total nitrogen and total phosphorus to the Great Miami River Basin

  7. Assessing the effects of hydromorphological degradation on macroinvertebrate indicators in rivers: examples, constraints, and outlook.

    PubMed

    Friberg, Nikolai; Sandin, Leonard; Pedersen, Morten L

    2009-01-01

    An extensive amount of literature on linkages between the in-stream physical environment and river benthic macroinvertebrates reports a number of relationships across multiple spatial scales. We analyzed data on different spatial scales to elucidate the linkages between different measurements of hydromorphological degradation and commonly used macroinvertebrate indices. A regression analysis of 1049 sites from 3 countries revealed that the strongest relationship between a biotic metric--average score per taxon--and physiochemical variables (R2 = 0.61) was obtained with a multiple regression model that included concentration of total phosphorus and percent arable land in the catchment, as well as hydromorphological quality variables. Analyses of 3 data sets from streams primarily affected by hydromorphological degradation showed an overall weak relationship (max R2 = 0.25) with the River Habitat Survey data of 28 Swedish streams, whereas moderate (R2 approximately 0.43) relationships with more detailed measurements of morphology were found in 2 Danish studies (39 and 6 streams, respectively). Although evidence exists in the literature on the importance of physical features for in-stream biota in general and macroinvertebrates specifically, we found only relatively weak relationships between various measures of hydromorphological stress and commonly used macroinvertebrate assessment tools. We attribute this to a combination of factors, including 1) the mixed nature of pressures acting on the majority of river reaches, 2) scaling issues (spatial and temporal) when relating habitat surveys to macroinvertebrate assessments, and 3) the scope of commonly used macroinvertebrate assessment systems (mainly focusing on water chemistry perturbation, such as eutrophication and acidification). The need is urgent to develop refined and updated biological assessment systems targeting hydromorphological stress for the use of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and national

  8. Assessing land-use effects on water quality, in-stream habitat, riparian ecosystems and biodiversity in Patagonian northwest streams.

    PubMed

    Miserendino, María Laura; Casaux, Ricardo; Archangelsky, Miguel; Di Prinzio, Cecilia Yanina; Brand, Cecilia; Kutschker, Adriana Mabel

    2011-01-01

    Changes in land-use practices have affected the integrity and quality of water resources worldwide. In Patagonia there is a strong concern about the ecological status of surface waters because these changes are rapidly occurring in the region. To test the hypothesis that greater intensity of land-use will have negative effects on water quality, stream habitat and biodiversity we assessed benthic macroinvertebrates, riparian/littoral invertebrates, fish and birds from the riparian corridor and environmental variables of 15 rivers (Patagonia) subjected to a gradient of land-use practices (non-managed native forest, managed native forest, pine plantations, pasture, urbanization). A total of 158 macroinvertebrate taxa, 105 riparian/littoral invertebrate taxa, 5 fish species, 34 bird species, and 15 aquatic plant species, were recorded considering all sites. Urban land-use produced the most significant changes in streams including physical features, conductivity, nutrients, habitat condition, riparian quality and invertebrate metrics. Pasture and managed native forest sites appeared in an intermediate situation. The highest values of fish and bird abundance and diversity were observed at disturbed sites; this might be explained by the opportunistic behavior displayed by these communities which let them take advantage of increased trophic resources in these environments. As expected, non-managed native forest sites showed the highest integrity of ecological conditions and also great biodiversity of benthic communities. Macroinvertebrate metrics that reflected good water quality were positively related to forest land cover and negatively related to urban and pasture land cover. However, by offering stream edge areas, pasture sites still supported rich communities of riparian/littoral invertebrates, increasing overall biodiversity. Macroinvertebrates were good indicators of land-use impact and water quality conditions and resulted useful tools to early alert of

  9. In situ quantification of spatial and temporal variability of hyporheic exchange in static and mobile gravel-bed rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Klos, P. Zion; Neal, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Seepage meters modified for use in flowing water were used to directly measure rates of exchange between surface and subsurface water in a gravel- and cobble bed river in western Pennsylvania, USA (Allegheny River, Q mean = 190 m 3/s) and a sand- and gravel-bed river in Colorado, USA (South Platte River, Q mean = 9??7 m 3/s). Study reaches at the Allegheny River were located downstream from a dam. The bed was stable with moss, algae, and river grass present in many locations. Median seepage was + 0??28 m/d and seepage was highly variable among measurement locations. Upward and downward seepage greatly exceeded the median seepage rate, ranging from + 2??26 (upward) to - 3??76 (downward) m/d. At the South Platte River site, substantial local-scale bed topography as well as mobile bedforms resulted in spatial and temporal variability in seepage greatly in exceedence of the median groundwater discharge rate of 0??24 m/d. Both upward and downward seepage were recorded along every transect across the river with rates ranging from + 2??37 to - 3??40 m/d. Despite a stable bed, which commonly facilitates clogging by fine-grained or organic sediments, seepage rates at the Allegheny River were not reduced relative to those at the South Platte River. Seepage rate and direction depended primarily on measurement position relative to local- and meso-scale bed topography at both rivers. Hydraulic gradients were small at nearly all seepage-measurement locations and commonly were not a good indicator of seepage rate or direction. Therefore, measuring hydraulic gradient and hydraulic conductivity at in-stream piezometers may be misleading if used to determine seepage flux across the sediment-water interface. Such a method assumes that flow between the well screen and sediment-water interface is vertical, which appears to be a poor assumption in coarse-grained hyporheic settings.

  10. Simulations of a hypothetical temperature control structure at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Estimated egg-emergence days for endangered Upper Willamette River Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Upper Willamette River winter steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were assessed for all scenarios. Estimated spring Chinook fry emergence under SlidingWeir scenarios was 9 days later immediately downstream of Big Cliff Dam, and 4 days later at Greens Bridge compared with existing structural scenarios at Detroit Dam. Despite the inclusion of a hypothetical sliding weir at Detroit Dam, temperatures exceeded without-dams temperatures during November and December. These late-autumn exceedances likely represent the residual thermal effect of Detroit Lake operated to meet minimum dry-season release rates (supporting instream habitat and irrigation requirements) and lake levels specified by the current (2014) operating rules (supporting recreation and flood mitigation).

  11. Quantification and Simulation of Metal Loading to the Upper Animas River, Eureka to Silverton, San Juan County, Colorado, September 1997 and August 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, Suzanne S.; Kimball, Briant A.; Runkel, Robert L.

    2005-01-01

    Drainage from abandoned and inactive mines and from naturally mineralized areas in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado contributes metals to the upper Animas River near Silverton, Colorado. Tracer-injection studies and associated synoptic sampling were performed along two reaches of the upper Animas River to develop detailed profiles of stream discharge and to locate and quantify sources of metal loading. One tracer-injection study was performed in September 1997 on the Animas River reach from Howardsville to Silverton, and a second study was performed in August 1998 on the stream reach from Eureka to Howardsville. Drainage in the upper Animas River study reaches contributed aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, sulfate, and zinc to the surface-water system in 1997 and 1998. Colloidal aluminum, dissolved copper, and dissolved zinc were attenuated through a braided stream reach downstream from Eureka. Instream dissolved copper concentrations were lower than the State of Colorado acute and chronic toxicity standards downstream from the braided reach to Silverton. Dissolved iron load and concentrations increased downstream from Howardsville and Arrastra Gulch, and colloidal iron remained constant at low concentrations downstream from Howardsville. Instream sulfate concentrations were lower than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's secondary drinking-water standard of 250 milligrams per liter throughout the two study reaches. Elevated zinc concentrations are the primary concern for aquatic life in the upper Animas River. In the 1998 Eureka to Howardsville study, instream dissolved zinc load increased downstream from the Forest Queen mine, the Kittimack tailings, and Howardsville. In the 1997 Howardsville to Silverton study, there were four primary areas where zinc load increased. First, was the increase downstream from Howardsville and abandoned mining sites downstream from the Cunningham Gulch confluence, which also was measured during

  12. Evaluation of total phosphorus mass balance in the lower Boise River and selected tributaries, southwestern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2013-01-01

    phosphorus in the lower Boise River in October 2012 and March 2013. Model results indicate that point sources represent the largest contribution of phosphorus to the Boise River year round, but that reductions in point and nonpoint source phosphorus loads may be necessary to achieve seasonal total phosphorus concentration targets at Parma (RM 3.8) from May 1 through September 30, as set by the 2004 Snake River-Hells Canyon Total Maximum Daily Load document. The mass-balance models do not account for biological or depositional instream processes, but are useful indicators of locations where appreciable phosphorus uptake or release by aquatic plants may occur.

  13. Origin and dynamics of dissolved and particulate nutrients in a minimally disturbed Mediterranean river with intermittent flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoulikidis, Nikolaos; Amaxidis, Yorgos

    2009-06-01

    SummaryHydrological pathways, speciation, and in-stream spatio-temporal variations (including initial flood pulses), along with soil/sediment characteristics, pointed out to the most probable factors and processes driving the origin, levels and dynamics of nutrients in a minimally disturbed Greek temporal river. Nitrogen and phosphorus were predominately found in the organic form and, despite the high suspended sediment transport, in the dissolved phase. Forest soil leaching and erosion fuelled the river with organic nutrients both in the dissolved and particulate phase, especially at the upstream portion of the basin. This part of the basin exhibited "pristine" dissolved nutrient levels (e.g. 30 μg/l DIN, 1.04 μg/l P-PO 4), despite substantial transport through precipitation and subsurface flow, suggesting that certain biogeochemical processes acting in the watershed and in-stream effectively reduce riverine dissolved nutrient concentrations. Intense erosion caused a significant downstream increase of suspended sediments and associated nutrient concentrations. Flushing processes, that were detected even in a monthly base in particular river stretches, enhanced dissolved and particulate nutrient concentrations. Initial flood pulses created "hot moments" chiefly for suspended sediments (RMF during initial flood events reached up to 7) and associated nutrients (e.g. RMF of POC during initial flood events reached up to 32), although flood event sediments presented lower nutrient portions compared to usual sediment transport. Flush peaks of ammonia (max 19 mg/l NH 4) and nitrite (max 42 μg/l NO 2), that surpassed aquatic quality standards, were attributed to rapid mineralization of organic matter upon rewetting and subsequent nitrification. River bed sediments were characterized by organic carbon and nitrogen losses, due to leaching and mineralization processes, and phosphorus retention, thus affecting nutrient ratios and hence photosynthesis in receiving waters.

  14. Niger River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-15

    ... third largest river in Africa, the Niger, forms an inland delta in central Mali. This Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image ... the region as it appears after the rainy season, when the delta is flooded. The image covers an area measuring about 400 kilometers x 450 ...

  15. Mississippi River

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... to melt and the Wapsipinicon River was 52 centimeters above flood stage at De Witt, Iowa (between Clinton and Davenport). By mid-April ... slightly below the level reached in the record-setting flood of 1993. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion ...

  16. How effective is river restoration in re-establishing groundwater-surface water interactions? - A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, A.-M.; Weber, C.; Schirmer, M.

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated whether river restoration was successful in re-establishing groundwater-surface water interactions in a degraded urban stream. Restoration measures included morphological changes to the river bed, such as the installation of gravel islands and spur dykes, as well as the planting of site-specific riparian vegetation. Standard distributed temperature sensing (DTS) and novel active and passive DTS approaches were employed to study groundwater-surface water interactions in two reference streams and an experimental reach of an urban stream before and after its restoration. Radon-222 analyses were utilized to validate the losing stream conditions of the urban stream in the experimental reach. Our results indicated that river restoration at the study site was indeed successful in increasing groundwater-surface water interactions. Increased surface water downwelling occurred locally at the tip of a gravel island created during river restoration. Hence, the installation of in-stream structures increased the vertical connectivity and thus groundwater-surface water interactions. With the methods presented in this publication, it would be possible to routinely investigate the success of river restorations in re-establishing vertical connectivity, thereby gaining insight into the effectiveness of specific restoration measures. This, in turn, would enable the optimization of future river restoration projects, rendering them more cost-effective and successful.

  17. A general protocol for restoration of entire river catchments

    SciTech Connect

    Stanford, J.A.; Frissell, C.A.; Ward, J.V.; Coutant, C.C.; Williams, R.N.; Lichatowich, J.A.

    1996-05-28

    Large catchment basins may be viewed as ecosystems with interactive natural and cultural attributes. Stream regulation severs ecological connectivity between channels and flood plains by reducing the range of natural flow and temperature variation, reduces the capacity of the ecosystem to sustain native biodiversity and bioproduction and promotes proliferation of non-native biota. However, regulated rivers regain normative attributes, which promote recovery of native biota, as distance from the dam increases and in relation to the mode of regulation. Therefore, reregulation of flow and temperature to normative pattern, coupled with elimination of pollutants and constrainment of nonnative biota, can naturally restore damaged habitats from headwaters to mouth. The expectation is rapid recovery of depressed populations of native species. The protocol requires: restoration of seasonal temperature patterns; restoration of peak flows needed to reconnect and periodically reconfigure channel and floodplain habitats; stabilization of base flows to revitalize the shallow water habitats; maximization of dam passage to allow restoration of metapopulation structure; change in the management belief system to rely on natural habitat restoration as opposed to artificial propagation, installation of artificial instream structures (river engineering) and artificial food web control; and, practice of adaptive ecosystem management.

  18. Preliminary assessment of Eflows on Lucanian Rivers through IHA implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Michele; Martino, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    According to the WFD, the ecological flow (Eflow) is assumed to be the hydrological regime consistent with the achievement of the environmental objectives of "good quality status" in natural surface water bodies. As well known, the hydrological regime of natural flow plays a primary and crucial role influencing the physical conditions of habitats, which in turn determines the biotic composition and sustainability of aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, the simple assumption to supply a minimum instream during dry periods is not enough anymore in order to protect the river environment. The recent hydro-ecological knowledge provides that all flow components must be included as operational targets for water quantitative management from base flows (including low flows) to high and flood regimes in terms of magnitude, frequency, duration, timing and rate of change. Several conceptual and numerical codes have been developed and applied on different case studies in order to define common tools to be implemented for the Eflow assessment. In such a frame, the work deals with the application of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration methodology (IHA by TNC) to main Lucanian rivers to assess the ecological flow to be assumed in each monitoring cross section. The analyses have been carried on monthly discharge data derived through a simple rainfall-runoff applied at the basin scale and based on the precipitation measurements obtained by the regional rainfall gauge stations.

  19. 33 CFR 162.90 - White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark., and Catoosa, Okla.; use... White River, Arkansas Post Canal, Arkansas River, and Verdigris River between Mississippi River, Ark... apply to: (1) Waterways. White River between Mississippi River and Arkansas Post Canal, Ark.;...

  20. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground-Water Budget of the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie Aquifer, Spokane County, Washington, and Bonner and Kootenai Counties, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, Sue C.; Bartolino, James R.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources and Washington State Department of Ecology, investigated the hydrogeologic framework and ground-water budget of the Spokane Valley-Rathdrum Prairie (SVRP) aquifer located in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington. Descriptions of the hydrogeologic framework, water-budget components, and further data needs are provided. The SVRP aquifer, which covers about 370 square miles including the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho, and the Spokane Valley and Hillyard Trough, Washington, is the sole source of drinking water for more than 500,000 residents. Continued growth, water-management issues, and potential effects on water availability and water quality in the aquifer and in the Spokane and Little Spokane Rivers have illustrated the need to better understand and manage the region's water resources. The SVRP aquifer consists mostly of gravels, cobbles, and boulders - deposited during a series of outburst floods resulting from repeated collapse of the ice dam that impounded ancient Glacial Lake Missoula. In most places, the SVRP aquifer is bounded by bedrock of pre-Tertiary granite or metasedimentary rocks, or Miocene basalt and associated sedimentary deposits. Discontinuous fine-grained layers are scattered throughout the SVRP aquifer at considerably different altitudes and with considerably different thicknesses. In the Hillyard Trough and the Little Spokane River Arm of the aquifer, a massive fine-grained layer with a top altitude ranging from about 1,500 to 1,700 feet and thickness ranging from about 100 to 200 feet separates the aquifer into upper and lower units. Most of the Spokane Valley part of the aquifer is devoid of fine-grained layers except near the margins of the valley and near the mouths of lakes. In the Rathdrum Prairie, multiple fine-grained layers are scattered throughout the aquifer with top altitudes ranging from about 1,700 to 2,400 feet with thicknesses ranging from 1

  1. Impact of transient stream flow on water exchange and reactions in the hyporheic zone of an in-stream gravel bar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trauth, Nico; Schmidt, Christian; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater-surface water exchange is an important process that can facilitate the degradation of critical substances like nitrogen-species and contaminants, supporting a healthy status of the aquatic ecosystem. In our study, we simulate water exchange, solute transport and reactions within a natural in-stream gravel bar using a coupled surface and subsurface numerical model. Stream water flow is simulated by computational fluid dynamics software that provides hydraulic head distributions at the streambed, which are used as an upper boundary condition for a groundwater model. In the groundwater model water exchange, solute transport, aerobic respiration and denitrification in the subsurface are simulated. Ambient groundwater flow is introduced by lateral upstream and downstream hydraulic head boundaries that generate neutral, losing or gaining stream conditions. Stream water transports dissolved oxygen, organic carbon (as the dominant electron donor) and nitrate into the subsurface, whereas an additional nitrate source exists in the ambient groundwater. Scenarios of stream flow events varying in duration and stream stage are simulated and compared with steady state scenarios with respect to water fluxes, residence times and the solute turn-over rates. Results show, that water exchange and solute turn-over rates highly depend on the interplay between event characteristics and ambient groundwater levels. For scenarios, where the stream flow event shifts the hydraulic system to a net-neutral hydraulic gradient between the average stream stage and the ambient groundwater level (minimal exchange between ground- and surface water), solute consumption is higher, compared to the steady losing or gaining case. In contrast, events that induce strong losing conditions lead to a lower potential of solute consumption.

  2. Guidelines and Procedures for Computing Time-Series Suspended-Sediment Concentrations and Loads from In-Stream Turbidity-Sensor and Streamflow Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    In-stream continuous turbidity and streamflow data, calibrated with measured suspended-sediment concentration data, can be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentration and load at a stream site. Development of a simple linear (ordinary least squares) regression model for computing suspended-sediment concentrations from instantaneous turbidity data is the first step in the computation process. If the model standard percentage error (MSPE) of the simple linear regression model meets a minimum criterion, this model should be used to compute a time series of suspended-sediment concentrations. Otherwise, a multiple linear regression model using paired instantaneous turbidity and streamflow data is developed and compared to the simple regression model. If the inclusion of the streamflow variable proves to be statistically significant and the uncertainty associated with the multiple regression model results in an improvement over that for the simple linear model, the turbidity-streamflow multiple linear regression model should be used to compute a suspended-sediment concentration time series. The computed concentration time series is subsequently used with its paired streamflow time series to compute suspended-sediment loads by standard U.S. Geological Survey techniques. Once an acceptable regression model is developed, it can be used to compute suspended-sediment concentration beyond the period of record used in model development with proper ongoing collection and analysis of calibration samples. Regression models to compute suspended-sediment concentrations are generally site specific and should never be considered static, but they represent a set period in a continually dynamic system in which additional data will help verify any change in sediment load, type, and source.

  3. iSTREEM(®) : An approach for broad-scale in-stream exposure assessment of "down-the-drain" chemicals.

    PubMed

    Kapo, Katherine E; DeLeo, Paul C; Vamshi, Raghu; Holmes, Christopher M; Ferrer, Darci; Dyer, Scott D; Wang, Xinhao; White-Hull, Charlotte

    2016-10-01

    The "in-stream exposure model" iSTREEM(®) , a Web-based model made freely available to the public by the American Cleaning Institute, provides a means to estimate concentrations of "down-the-drain" chemicals in effluent, receiving waters, and drinking water intakes across national and regional scales under mean annual and low-flow conditions. We provide an overview of the evolution and utility of the iSTREEM model as a screening-level risk assessment tool relevant for down-the-drain products. The spatial nature of the model, integrating point locations of facilities along a hydrologic network, provides a powerful framework to assess environmental exposure and risk in a spatial context. A case study compared national distributions of modeled concentrations of the fragrance 1,3,4,6,7,8-Hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8,-hexamethylcyclopenta-γ-2-benzopyran (HHCB) and the insect repellent N,N-Diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) to available monitoring data at comparable flow conditions. The iSTREEM low-flow model results yielded a conservative distribution of values, whereas the mean-flow model results more closely resembled the concentration distribution of monitoring data. We demonstrate how model results can be used to construct a conservative estimation of the distribution of chemical concentrations for effluents and streams leading to the derivation of a predicted environmental concentration (PEC) using the high end of the concentration distribution (e.g., 90th percentile). Data requirements, assumptions, and applications of iSTREEM are discussed in the context of other down-the-drain modeling approaches to enhance understanding of comparative advantages and uncertainties for prospective users interested in exposure modeling for ecological risk assessment. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:782-792. © 2016 SETAC.

  4. Coal aquifer contribution to streams in the Powder River Basin, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Elizabeth Brinck

    2016-06-01

    Groundwater contributions to streams can be reduced by groundwater withdrawal associated with coalbed methane and coal mine production. Quantifying the groundwater contribution to streams aids the assessment of potential impacts to in-stream flow and provides information necessary for energy producers to use coproduced water for beneficial purposes, rather than treating it as a waste product. Stream flow, field parameters, common ions, and isotopes of carbon and strontium were measured on Otter Creek and the Powder River in southeastern Montana. Direct streamflow measurements were ineffective because of the magnitude and nature of coalbed contribution. The coal groundwater contribution did not exceed the geochemical detection threshold on two nearby streams. Geochemical models based on isotopic data proved to be the most effective analytical method, resulting in baseflow measurements from coal aquifers of 28-275 l s-1.

  5. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys, 2006-2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.

    2007-10-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 11 sites during the summer 2006 survey period and at 15 sites during fall 2006 and winter 2007 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 39,898 fish from 14 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 19% of fish enumerated followed by mountain whitefish (18%) and rainbow trout (14%). Day and night surveys were conducted during the summer 2006 period (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2006 (October) and winter 2007 (February/March) surveys. This is second annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  6. Restoration of rivers used for timber floating: effects on riparian plant diversity.

    PubMed

    Helfield, James M; Capon, Samantha J; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland; Palm, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    Fluvial processes such as flooding and sediment deposition play a crucial role in structuring riparian plant communities. In rivers throughout the world, these processes have been altered by channelization and other anthropogenic stresses. Yet despite increasing awareness of the need to restore natural flow regimes for the preservation of riparian biodiversity, few studies have examined the effects of river restoration on riparian ecosystems. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration in the Ume River system, northern Sweden, where tributaries were channelized to facilitate timber floating in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Restoration at these sites involved the use of heavy machinery to replace instream boulders and remove floatway structures that had previously lined stream banks and cut off secondary channels. We compared riparian plant communities along channelized stream reaches with those along reaches that had been restored 3-10 years prior to observation. Species richness and evenness were significantly increased at restored sites, as were floodplain inundation frequencies. These findings demonstrate how river restoration and associated changes in fluvial disturbance regimes can enhance riparian biodiversity. Given that riparian ecosystems tend to support a disproportionate share of regional species pools, these findings have potentially broad implications for biodiversity conservation at regional or landscape scales.

  7. 1992 Columbia River Salmon Flow Measures Options Analysis/EIS : Appendices.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This Options Analysis/Environmental Impact Statement (OA/EIS) identifies, presents effects of, and evaluates the potential options for changing instream flow levels in efforts to increase salmon populations in the lower Columbia and Snake rivers. The potential actions would be implemented during 1992 to benefit juvenile and adult salmon during migration through eight run-of-river reservoirs. The Corps of Engineers (Corps) prepared this document in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration and the Bureau of Reclamation. The US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a participating agency. The text and appendices of the document describe the characteristics of 10 Federal projects and one private water development project in the Columbia River drainage basin. Present and potential operation of these projects and their effects on the salmon that spawn and rear in the Columbia and Snake River System are presented. The life history, status, and response of Pacific salmon to current environmental conditions are described. The document concludes with an evaluation of the potential effects that could result from implementing proposed actions. The conclusions are based on evaluation of existing data, utilization of numerical models, and application of logical inference. This volume contains the appendices.

  8. Sampling Plan for FY2001 Aquatic Mercury Assessment at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Halverson, N.V.

    2001-03-13

    The State of Georgia has declared that seven segments of the Savannah River, including the reach adjacent to the Savannah River Site, are impaired for fish consumption due to high levels of mercury (U. S. EPA 2000). The Clean Water Act requires states to determine a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for pollutants that are responsible for impairment. The TMDL is the total amount of pollutant that can be assimilated by the receiving water body while achieving the water quality target that is protective of fish consumption. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (U. S. EPA) Region 4 issued a proposed TMDL for mercury in the Savannah River on February 8, 2000. The TMDL process establishes the allowable loading of pollutants for a water body, based on the relationship between pollution sources and in-stream water quality conditions, so that states can establish water-quality based controls to reduce pollution and restore and maintain the quality of their water resources (U. S. EPA 2000). The first phase of the proposed TMDL specifies a target mercury concentration of 1 ng/L for the Savannah River and point source discharges. The rationale for this target concentration is to protect human health from mercury toxicity caused by the consumption of contaminated fish. Due to the complexity of mercury cycling, inadequate data and difficulty in quantifying nonpoint source loads of mercury, nonpoint source loads are not considered in this first phase of the TMDL.

  9. Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fsh Habitat Enhancement Project : 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, R. Todd

    2001-12-31

    The Umatilla River Basin Anadromous Fish Habitat Enhancement Project continued to identify impacted stream reaches throughout the Umatilla River Basin for habitat improvements during the 2000 project period. Public outreach efforts, biological and physical monitoring, and continued development of a Umatilla River Basin Watershed Assessment assisted the project in fostering public cooperation, targeting habitat deficiencies and determining habitat recovery measures. Habitat enhancement projects continued to be maintained on 44 private properties, four riparian easements and one in-stream enhancement agreement were secured, two new projects implemented and two existing projects improved to enhance anadromous fish habitat and natural fisheries production capabilities in the Umatilla River Basin. New project locations included sites on the mid Umatilla River and Buckaroo Creek. Improvements were implemented at existing project sites on the upper Umatilla River and Wildhorse Creek. A stream bank stabilization project was implemented at approximately River Mile 37.4 Umatilla River to stabilize 760 feet of eroding stream bank and improve in-stream habitat diversity. Habitat enhancements at this site included construction of six rock barbs with one large conifer root wad incorporated into each barb, stinging approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings, planting 195 tubling willows and 1,800 basin wildrye grass plugs, and seeding 40 pounds of native grass seed. Staff time to assist in development of a subcontract and fence materials were provided to establish eight spring sites for off-stream watering and to protect wetlands within the Buckaroo Creek Watershed. A gravel bar was moved and incorporated into an adjacent point bar to reduce stream energy and stream channel confinement within the existing project area at River Mile 85 Umatilla River. Approximately 10,000 native willow cuttings were stung and trenched into the stream channel margins and stream banks, and 360

  10. Changes in nutrient and pesticide concentrations in urban and agricultural areas of the South Platte River Basin, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska, 1994-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Greve, Adrienne I.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored two sites on the main-stem South Platte River? an urban site in Denver and a mixed urban/agricultural site near Kersey?to determine changes in nutrient and pesticide concentrations from 1994 through 2000. Concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and orthophosphorus decreased at the Denver site during the study period, likely due to an increase in instream dilution of wastewater-treatment plant (WWTP) discharge and upgrades at the WWTPs. In contrast, only concentrations of orthophosphorus decreased at the Kersey site; agricultural inputs between Denver and Kersey may have offset the observed decreases in other nutrients upstream. During the extreme low-flow conditions in 1994, when there was relatively little snowmelt to dilute instream pesticide concentrations, total median pesticide concentrations at both sites were the highest of the study period. During the less extreme conditions in 1997 through 2000, greater amounts of snowmelt likely led to lower total median pesticide concentrations at both sites. Because pesticide-use data are not available, the contribution of changes in the amount and type of pesticides applied on the land to changes in the concentration of pesticides in the river is not known but likely was substantial. In general, insecticides predominated at the Denver site, whereas herbicides predominated at the Kersey site.

  11. Effects of flood control and other reservoir operations on the water quality of the lower Roanoke River, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    The Roanoke River is an important natural resource for North Carolina, Virginia, and the Nation. Flood plains of the lower Roanoke River, which extend from Roanoke Rapids Dam to Batchelor Bay near Albemarle Sound, support a large and diverse population of nesting birds, waterfowl, freshwater and anadromous fish, and other wildlife, including threatened and endangered species. The flow regime of the lower Roanoke River is affected by a number of factors, including flood-management operations at the upstream John H. Kerr Dam and Reservoir. A three-dimensional, numerical water-quality model was developed to explore links between upstream flows and downstream water quality, specifically in-stream dissolved-oxygen dynamics. Calibration of the hydrodynamics and dissolved-oxygen concentrations emphasized the effect that flood-plain drainage has on water and oxygen levels, especially at locations more than 40 kilometers away from the Roanoke Rapids Dam. Model hydrodynamics were calibrated at three locations on the lower Roanoke River, yielding coefficients of determination between 0.5 and 0.9. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were calibrated at the same sites, and coefficients of determination ranged between 0.6 and 0.8. The model has been used to quantify relations among river flow, flood-plain water level, and in-stream dissolved-oxygen concentrations in support of management of operations of the John H. Kerr Dam, which affects overall flows in the lower Roanoke River. Scenarios have been developed to mitigate the negative effects that timing, duration, and extent of flood-plain inundation may have on vegetation, wildlife, and fisheries in the lower Roanoke River corridor. Under specific scenarios, the model predicted that mean dissolved-oxygen concentrations could be increased by 15 percent by flow-release schedules that minimize the drainage of anoxic flood-plain waters. The model provides a tool for water-quality managers that can help identify options that improve

  12. Assessing Impacts of Hydropower Regulation on Salmonid Habitat Connectivity to Guide River Restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddendorf, Bas; Geris, Josie; Malcolm, Iain; Wilkinson, Mark; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity in riverine ecosystems has led to a substantial divergence from the natural state of many rivers globally. Many of Scotland's rivers have been regulated for hydropower with increasing intensity since the 1890s. At the same time they sustain substantial populations of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.), which have a range of requirements in terms of flow and access to habitat, depending on the different life-stages. River barriers for hydropower regulation can change the spatial and temporal connectivity within river networks, the impacts of which on salmon habitat are not fully understood. Insight into such changes in connectivity, and the link with the distribution and accessibility of suitable habitat and areas of high productivity, are essential to aid restoration and/or conservation efforts. This is because they indicate where such efforts might have a higher chance of being successful in terms of providing suitable habitat and increasing river productivity. In this study we applied a graph theory approach to assess historic (natural) and contemporary (regulated) in-stream habitat connectivity of the River Lyon, an important UK salmon river that is moderately regulated for hydropower. Historic maps and GIS techniques were used to construct the two contrasting river networks (i.e., natural vs. regulated). Subsequently, connectivity metrics were used to assess the impacts of hydropower infrastructure on upstream and downstream migration possibilities for adults and juveniles, respectively. A national juvenile salmon production model was used to weight the importance of reaches for juvenile salmon production. Results indicate that the impact of barriers in the Lyon on the connectivity indices depends on the type of barrier and its location within the network, but is generally low for both adults and juveniles, and that compared to the historic river network the reduction in the amount of suitable habitat and juvenile production is most marked

  13. Modeling the Effects of Land Use and Climate Change on Streamflow in the Delaware River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, P. Y. S.; Endreny, T. A.; Kroll, C. N.; Williamson, T. N.

    2014-12-01

    Forest-cover loss and drinking-water reservoirs in the upper Delaware River Basin of New York may alter summer low streamflows, which could degrade the in-stream habitat for the endangered dwarf wedgemussel. Our project analyzes how flow statistics change with land-cover change for 30-year increments of model-simulated streamflow hydrographs for three watersheds of concern to the National Park Service: the East Branch, West Branch, and main stem of the Delaware River. We use four treatments for land cover ranging from historical high to low forest cover. We subject each land cover to adjusted GCM climate scenarios for 1600, 1900, 1940, and 2040 to isolate land cover from potential climate-change effects. Hydrographs are simulated using the Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER), a TOPMODEL-based United States Geological Survey hydrologic decision-support tool, which uses the variable-source-area concept and water budgets to generate streamflow. Model parameters for each watershed change with land-use, and capture differences in soil-physical properties that control how rainfall infiltrates, evaporates, transpires, is stored in the soil, and moves to the stream. Our results analyze flow statistics used as indicators of hydrologic alteration, and access streamflow events below the critical flow needed to provide sustainable habitat for dwarf wedgemussels. These metrics will demonstrate how changes in climate and land use might affect flow statistics. Initial results show that the 1940 WATER simulation outputs generally match observed unregulated low flows from that time period, while performance for regulated flow from the same time period and from 1600, 1900, and 2040 require model input adjustments. Our study will illustrate how increased forest cover could potentially restore in-stream habitat for the endangered dwarf wedgemussel for current and future climate conditions.

  14. Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program - Entiat River Snorkel Surveys and Rotary Screw Trap, 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Nelle, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office conducted snorkel surveys at 24 sites during the summer and fall periods of 2006 survey periods as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program in the Entiat River. A total of 37,938 fish from 15 species/genera and an unknown category were enumerated. Chinook salmon were the overall most common fish observed and comprised 15% of fish enumerated followed by rainbow trout (10%) and mountain whitefish (7%). Day surveys were conducted during the summer period 2007 (August), while night surveys were conducted during the fall 2007 (October) surveys. The USFWS Mid-Columbia River Fishery Resource Office (MCFRO) operated two rotary screw traps on the Entiat River as part of the Integrated Status and Effectiveness Monitoring Program (ISEMP) program from August through November of 2007. Along with the smolt traps, juvenile emigrants were also captured at remote locations throughout the Entiat watershed and its major tributary, the Mad River. A total of 999 wild Oncorhynchus mykiss and 5,107 wild run O. tshawytscha were PIT tagged during the study period. Rotary screw trap efficiencies averaged 22.3% for juvenile O. tshawytscha and 9.0% for juvenile O. mykiss. Rotary screw traps operated 7 days a week and remote capture operations were conducted when flow and temperature regimes permitted. This is third annual progress report to Bonneville Power Administration for the snorkel surveys conducted in the Entiat River as related to long-term effectiveness monitoring of restoration programs in this watershed. The objective of this study is to monitor the fish habitat utilization of planned in-stream restoration efforts in the Entiat River by conducting pre- and post-construction snorkel surveys at selected treatment and control sites.

  15. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam Report C, Annual Progress Report April 2003 - March 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.; Gadomski, Dena M.; Kofoot, Pete

    2005-01-01

    River discharge and water temperatures that occurred during April through July 2003 provided conditions suitable for spawning by white sturgeon downstream from Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary dams. Although optimal spawning temperatures in the four tailraces occurred for less than two weeks, they coincided with a period of relatively high river discharge. Bottom-trawl sampling in Bonneville and The Dalles Reservoirs revealed the presence of young-of-the-year (YOY) white sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir, but none were captured in The Dalles Reservoir. A comparison of five years of indices of abundance of YOY sturgeon from sampling done by ODFW with gillnets and the USGS with bottom trawls was completed. Despite obvious differences in gear sampling characteristics (e.g. one gear is actively fished, one passively fished), it appears that either gear can be used to assess relative trends in YOY white sturgeon abundance. The analyses suffered due to poor catches of YOY fish, as YOY were only captured in The Dalles Reservoir during three of the five years of comparison sampling, and during only one of four years in John Day Reservoir. However, both gears detected the presence or absence of YOY white sturgeon within a reservoir equally. That is, if any YOY white sturgeon were captured in any year in a reservoir, both gears captured at least one fish, and if one gear failed to collect any YOY white sturgeon, both gears failed. Concerns have been raised that the Wang et al. (1985) egg development relationships for Sacramento River white sturgeon may not be applicable to Columbia Basin stocks. However, using laboratory experiments with white sturgeon eggs incubated at 10, 12, 15, and 18o C, we found no significant differences in development rates of eggs of Columbia, Kootenai, Snake, and Sacramento river fish.

  16. Pharmacogenetics in American Indian Populations: Analysis of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes

    PubMed Central

    Fohner, Alison; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Austin, Melissa A.; Gaedigk, Andrea; Gordon, Adam; Thornton, Timothy; Rieder, Mark J.; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Howlett, Kevin; Beatty, Patrick; Thummel, Kenneth E.; Woodahl, Erica L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Cytochrome P450 enzymes play a dominant role in drug elimination and variation in these genes is a major source of interindividual differences in drug response. Little is known, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. We have developed a partnership with the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) in northwestern Montana to address this knowledge gap. Methods We resequenced CYP2D6 in 187 CSKT subjects and CYP3A4, CYP3A5, and CYP2C9 in 94 CSKT subjects. Results We identified 67 variants in CYP2D6, 15 in CYP3A4, 10 in CYP3A5, and 41 in CYP2C9. The most common CYP2D6 alleles were CYP2D6*4 and *41 (20.86 and 11.23%, respectively). CYP2D6*3, *5, *6, *9, *10, *17, *28, *33, *35, *49, *1xN, *2xN, and *4xN frequencies were less than 2%. CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and *1B were detected with frequencies of 92.47, 26.81, and 2.20%, respectively. Allelic variation in CYP2C9 was low: CYP2C9*2 (5.17%) and *3 (2.69%). In general, allele frequencies in CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 were similar to those observed in European Americans. There was, however, a marked divergence in CYP3A4 for the CYP3A4*1G allele. We also observed low levels of linkage between CYP3A4*1G and CYP3A5*1 in the CSKT. The combination of nonfunctional CYP3A5*3 and putative reduced function CYP3A4*1G alleles may predict diminished clearance of CYP3A substrates. Conclusions These results highlight the importance of conducting pharmacogenomic research in AI/AN populations and demonstrate that extrapolation from other populations is not appropriate. This information could help to optimize drug therapy for the CSKT population. PMID:23778323

  17. Quantifying phosphorus retention and release in rivers and watersheds using extended end-member mixing analysis (E-EMMA).

    PubMed

    Jarvie, Helen P R; Neal, Colin; Withers, Paul J A; Baker, David B; Richards, R Peter; Sharpley, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    Extended end-member mixing analysis (E-EMMA) is presented as a novel empirical method for exploring phosphorus (P) retention and release in rivers and watersheds, as an aid to water-quality management. E-EMMA offers a simple and versatile tool that relies solely on routinely measured P concentration and flow data. E-EMMA was applied to two river systems: the Thames (U.K.) and Sandusky River (U.S.), which drain similar watershed areas but have contrasting dominant P sources and hydrology. For both the Thames and Sandusky, P fluxes at the watershed outlets were strongly influenced by processes that retain and cycle P. However, patterns of P retention were markedly different for the two rivers, linked to differences in P sources and speciation, hydrology and land use. On an annual timescale, up to 48% of the P flux was retained for the Sandusky and up to 14% for the Thames. Under ecologically critical low-flow periods, up to 93% of the P flux was retained for the Sandusky and up to 42% for the Thames. In the main River Thames and the Sandusky River, in-stream processes under low flows were capable of regulating the delivery of P and modifying the timing of delivery in a way that may help to reduce ecological impacts to downstream river reaches, by reducing ambient P concentrations at times of greatest river eutrophication risk. The results also suggest that by moving toward cleaner rivers and improved ecosystem health, the efficiency of P retention may actually increase.

  18. Influence of gravel mining and other factors on detection probabilities of Coastal Plain fishes in the Mobile River Basin, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayer, C.-A.; Irwin, E.R.

    2008-01-01

    We used an information-theoretic approach to examine the variation in detection probabilities for 87 Piedmont and Coastal Plain fishes in relation to instream gravel mining in four Alabama streams of the Mobile River drainage. Biotic and abiotic variables were also included in candidate models. Detection probabilities were heterogeneous across species and varied with habitat type, stream, season, and water quality. Instream gravel mining influenced the variation in detection probabilities for 38% of the species collected, probably because it led to habitat loss and increased sedimentation. Higher detection probabilities were apparent at unmined sites than at mined sites for 78% of the species for which gravel mining was shown to influence detection probabilities, indicating potential negative impacts to these species. Physical and chemical attributes also explained the variation in detection probabilities for many species. These results indicate that anthropogenic impacts can affect detection probabilities for fishes, and such variation should be considered when developing monitoring programs or routine sampling protocols. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  19. Analysis of the temperature dynamics of a proglacial river using time-lapse thermal imaging and energy balance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, M. Bayani; Doering, Michael; Rivas, Denny S.; Galdeano, Carlos; Neilson, Bethany T.; Robinson, Christopher T.

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the temperature dynamics of rivers is critical for their management and for ecological and biogeochemical aquatic processes. In proglacial rivers, there is typically a paucity of thermal observations which in turn limits the understanding of these sensitive and evolving environments. Here we collected ground-based thermal images, with approximately meter resolution and imaged every half hour for 24 h, of a proglacial river and 2 km2 of its floodplain and interpret the observations using a numerical energy balance model. The images revealed the longitudinal thermal pattern of the Urbach River in Switzerland - there was gradual cooling in the upstream half of the study section and then warming in the remaining downstream portion. This pattern persisted through the diurnal warming and cooling cycle. The spatio-temporal thermal pattern was explained by a model that included distributed thermal inputs of cooler water in the upstream half coming from alluvial fans and warmer water in the downstream half running off steep cliffs that warm snowmelt. The warm inputs from the cliffs were confirmed by the thermal imaging. These data and the associated modeling illustrated that distributed inflows can overwhelm the influence of atmospheric fluxes, and that their knowledge is critical for understanding stream temperatures. The combination of modeling and detailed time-lapse thermal imaging allowed for identification and quantification of processes critical to in-stream temperature dynamics in a proglacial river.

  20. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Hackensack, Passaic, Elizabeth, and Rahway River basins, New Jersey, water years 1976-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buxton, Debra E.; Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Hickman, R. Edward

    1998-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 19 surface-water-quality stations within the drainage basins of the Hackensack, Passaic, Elizabeth, and Rahway Rivers in New Jersey for water years 1976-93. Surface-waterquality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall’s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows.Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes over time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) or constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. Highand low-flow concentration trends were determined for some constituents at 11 of the 19 waterquality stations; 8 stations have insufficient data to determine trends. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 16 of the 18 constituents. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of dilution of instream concentrations from storm runoff.The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent sources (storm runoff). Greater slope values suggest larger contributions from storm runoff to instream load, which most

  1. Relations of surface-water quality to streamflow in the Atlantic Coastal, lower Delaware River, and Delaware Bay basins, New Jersey, water years 1976-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunchak-Kariouk, Kathryn; Buxton, Debra E.; Hickman, R. Edward

    1999-01-01

    Relations of water quality to streamflow were determined for 18 water-quality constituents at 28 surface-water-quality stations within the drainage area of the Atlantic Coastal, lower Delaware River, and Delaware Bay Basins for water years 1976-93. Surface-water-quality and streamflow data were evaluated for trends (through time) in constituent concentrations during high and low flows, and relations between constituent concentration and streamflow, and between constituent load and streamflow, were determined. Median concentrations were calculated for the entire period of study (water years 1976-93) and for the last 5 years of the period of study (water years 1989-93) to determine whether any large variation in concentration exists between the two periods. Medians also were used to determine the seasonal Kendall\\'s tau statistic, which was then used to evaluate trends in concentrations during high and low flows. Trends in constituent concentrations during high and low flows were evaluated to determine whether the distribution of the observations changes through time for intermittent (nonpoint storm runoff) and constant (point sources and ground water) sources, respectively. High- and low-flow trends in concentrations were determined for some constituents at 26 of the 28 water-quality stations. Seasonal effects on the relations of concentration to streamflow are evident for 10 constituents at 14 or more stations. Dissolved oxygen shows seasonal dependency at all stations. Negative slopes of relations of concentration to streamflow, which indicate a decrease in concentration at high flows, predominate over positive slopes because of dilution of instream concentrations from storm runoff. The slopes of the regression lines of load to streamflow were determined in order to show the relative contributions to the instream load from constant (point sources and ground water) and intermittent sources (storm runoff). Greater slope values indicate larger contributions from

  2. Water quality and ecology of the River Lee: mass balance and a review of temporal and spatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snook, D. L.; Whitehead, P. G.

    A regional overview of the water quality and ecology of the River Lee catchment is presented. Specifically, data describing the chemical, microbiological and macrobiological water quality and fisheries communities have been analysed, based on a division into river, sewage treatment works, fish-farm, lake and industrial samples. Nutrient enrichment and the highest concentrations of metals and micro-organics were found in the urbanised, lower reaches of the Lee and in the Lee Navigation. Average annual concentrations of metals were generally within environmental quality standards although, on many occasions, concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, mercury and zinc were in excess of the standards. Various organic substances (used as herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, chlorination by-products and industrial solvents) were widely detected in the Lee system. Concentrations of ten micro-organic substances were observed in excess of their environmental quality standards, though not in terms of annual averages. Sewage treatment works were the principal point source input of nutrients, metals and micro-organic determinands to the catchment. Diffuse nitrogen sources contributed approximately 60% and 27% of the in-stream load in the upper and lower Lee respectively, whereas approximately 60% and 20% of the in-stream phosphorus load was derived from diffuse sources in the upper and lower Lee. For metals, the most significant source was the urban runoff from North London. In reaches less affected by effluent discharges, diffuse runoff from urban and agricultural areas dominated trends. High microbiological content, observed in the River Lee particularly in urbanised reaches, was far in excess of the EC Bathing Water Directive standards. Water quality issues and degraded habitat in the lower reaches of the Lee has led to impoverished aquatic fauna but, within the mid-catchment reaches and upper agricultural tributaries, less nutrient enrichment and channel alteration has

  3. River nutrient loads and catchment size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.V.; Swaney, D.P.; Buddemeier, R.W.; Scarsbrook, M.R.; Weatherhead, M.A.; Humborg, Christoph; Eriksson, H.; Hannerz, F.

    2005-01-01

    We have used a total of 496 sample sites to calibrate a simple regression model for calculating dissolved inorganic nutrient fluxes via runoff to the ocean. The regression uses the logarithms of runoff and human population as the independent variables and estimates the logarithms of dissolved inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus loading with R 2 values near 0.8. This predictive capability is about the same as has been derived for total nutrient loading with process-based models requiring more detailed information on independent variables. We conclude that population and runoff are robust proxies for the more detailed application, landscape modification, and in-stream processing estimated by more process-based models. The regression model has then been applied to a demonstration data set of 1353 river catchments draining to the sea from the North American continent south of the Canadian border. The geographic extents of these basins were extracted from a 1-km digital elevation model for North America, and both runoff and population were estimated for each basin. Most of the basins (72% of the total) are smaller than 103 km2, and both runoff and population density are higher and more variable among small basins than among larger ones.While total load to the ocean can probably be adequately estimated from large systems only, analysis of the geographic distribution of nutrient loading requires consideration of the small basins, which can exhibit significant hydrologic and demographic heterogeneity between systems over their range even within the same geographic region. High-resolution regional and local analysis is necessary for environmental assessment and management. ?? Springer 2005.

  4. Impact of river stage prediction methods on stream-aquifer exchanges in a hydro(geo)logical model at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, F.; Flipo, N.; de Fouquet, C.

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to provide a realistic simulation of river stage in regional river networks in order to improve the quantification of stream-aquifer exchanges and better assess the associated aquifer responses that are often impacted by the magnitude and the frequency of the river stage fluctuations. The study focuses on the Oise basin (17 000 km2, part of the 65 000 km2 Seine basin in Northern France) where stream-aquifer exchanges cannot be assessed directly by experimental methods. Nowadays numerical methods are the most appropriate approaches for assessing stream-aquifer exchanges at this scale. A regional distributed process-based hydro(geo)logical model, Eau-Dyssée, is used, which aims at the integrated modeling of the hydrosystem to manage the various elements involved in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of water resources. Eau-Dyssée simulates pseudo 3D flow in aquifer systems solving the diffusivity equation with a finite difference numerical scheme. River flow is simulated with a Muskingum model. In addition to the in-stream discharge, a river stage estimate is needed to calculate the water exchange at the stream-aquifer interface using the Darcy law. Three methods for assessing in-stream river stages are explored to determine the most appropriate representation at regional scale over 25 years (1980-2005). The first method consists in defining rating curves for each cell of a 1D Saint-Venant hydraulic model. The second method consists in interpolating observed rating curves (at gauging stations) onto the river cells of the hydro(geo)logical model. The interpolation technique is based on geostatistics. The last method assesses river stage using Manning equation with a simplified rectangular cross-section (water depth equals the hydraulic radius). Compared to observations, the geostatistical and the Manning methodologies lead to slightly less accurate (but still acceptable) results offering a low computational cost opportunity

  5. Modeling water quality in the Tualatin River, Oregon, 1991-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2001-01-01

    The calibration of a model of flow, temperature, and water quality in the Tualatin River, Oregon, originally calibrated for the summers of 1991 through 1993, was extended to the summers of 1991 through 1997. The model is now calibrated for a total period of 42 months during the May through October periods of 7 hydrologically distinct years. Based on a modified version of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers model CE-QUAL-W2, this model provides a good fit to the measured data for streamflow, water temperature, and water quality constituents such as chloride, ammonia, nitrate, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, phytoplankton, and dissolved oxygen. In particular, the model simulates ammonia concentrations and the effects of instream ammonia nitrification very well, which is critical to ongoing efforts to revise ammonia regulations for the Tualatin River. In addition, the model simulates the timing, duration, and relative size of algal blooms with sufficient accuracy to provide important insights for regulators and managers of this river.Efforts to limit the size of algal blooms through phosphorus control measures are apparent in the model simulations, which show this limitation on algal growth. Such measures are largely responsible for avoiding violations of the State of Oregon maximum pH standard of 8.5 in recent years, but they have not yet reduced algal biomass levels below the State of Oregon nuisance phytoplankton growth guideline of 15 ?g/L chlorophyll-a.Most of the dynamics of the instream dissolved oxygen concentrations are captured by the model. About half of the error in the simulated dissolved oxygen concentrations is directly attributable to error in the size of the simulated phytoplankton population. To achieve greater accuracy in simulating dissolved oxygen, therefore, it will be necessary to increase accuracy in the simulation of Tualatin River phytoplankton.Future efforts may include the introduction of multiple algal groups in the model. This model of the

  6. Use of a precipitation-runoff model to simulate natural streamflow conditions in the Methow River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, David Matthew; Risley, John C.

    2001-01-01

    Management of the water resources of the Methow River Basin is changing in response to the listing of three species of fish under the Endangered Species Act and the Washington State-legislated watershed-planning process. Management options must be considered that minimize adverse effects on people but meet instream flow needs for fish. This report describes the construction and calibration of the Methow River Basin watershed model and evaluates the accuracy of the model as a predictive tool for assessing the natural instream flow conditions. The term ?natural? instream flow is stressed because surface water within the Basin is used for agricultural irrigation through an extensive system of diversions. The USGS Modular Modeling System was used for the watershed modeling component of the Methow River Basin study. The Geographic Information System Weasel characterized the physical properties of the basin, and the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System simulated the natural streamflow. Natural streamflow conditions in the Basin were difficult to calibrate because six of the seven streamflow gaging stations are located below irrigation diversions and few streamflow measurements exist for the study area before the diversions were present. Therefore, limited records of natural streamflow conditions were available and estimations concerning some physical processes could not be quantified. Streamflow was simulated for water years 1992-99 to calibrate the model to measured streamflows. Simulated and measured streamflow generally showed close agreement, especially during spring runoff from snowmelt. Low-flow periods, most restrictive to fish habitation, were simulated reasonably well, yet possessed the most uncertainty. Simulations of the total annual runoff as a percentage of measured annual runoff for the 8-year calibration period at seven gaging stations ranged from -33.7 to +30.5 percent with 70 percent of the simulated values within 16 percent. Simulation of water years

  7. Variability of Ecosystem State in Rivers Containing Natural Dams: A Chemical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Flooding, and the resulting economic damage to roads and property, is associated with natural dams such as beaver dams or log jams. For this reason, humans often remove natural dams; however, river reaches with natural dams provide very different ecosystem services in comparison with free-flowing river reaches. Therefore, the goal of this project is to assess the differences in ecosystem state between these different river reach types in the northeastern United States. We focused on differences in basic chemistry (e.g., dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and organic carbon) to assess the impact of natural dams on river ecosystem state. Study sites include rivers in the White Mountains and southeastern New Hampshire at locations with beaver dams, beaver ponds, beaver meadows, log jams, and free-flowing reaches. Dissolved oxygen, ORP, pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured in the field with a YSI Professional Plus meter. Water samples were collected for subsequent laboratory analysis of total organic carbon with a Shimadzu TOC-L. Preliminary results show that the chemistry of river water varies with feature type. Most significantly, dissolved oxygen concentrations are highest in free-flowing reaches and lowest in beaver ponds. Although beaver ponds are often associated with lower pH, due the increased concentration of organic acids, some beaver ponds can increase pH when compared to free-flowing reaches on the same river. Early results also show that water chemistry returns quickly to the chemistry typical of the free-flowing river reaches after being altered by a natural dam. Overall, natural dams create a river system that has more heterogeneity, and therefore has opportunities to provide more ecosystem functions, than a purely free-flowing river; this can increase the number of supported instream and riparian species. By increasing the understanding of how natural dams affect the chemistry of river water, river engineers can improve their decisions on how

  8. Water Quality and Streamflow of the Indian River, Sitka, Alaska, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Edward J.; Brabets, Timothy P.; Frenzel, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The Indian River Basin, located near Sitka Alaska, drains an area of 12.3 square miles. This watershed is an important natural resource of Sitka National Historic Park. At the present time, the watershed faces possible development on large tracts of private land upstream of the park that could affect the water quality of Indian River. Due to this concern, a study was conducted cooperatively with the National Park Service. The approach was to examine the water quality of the Indian River in the upper part of the watershed where no development has occurred and in the lower part of the basin where development has taken place. Measurements of pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the Indian River were within acceptable ranges for fish survival. The Indian River is calcium bicarbonate type water with a low buffering capacity. Concentrations of dissolved ions and nutrients generally were low and exhibited little variation between the two study sites. Analysis of bed sediment trace element concentrations at both sampling sites indicates the threshold effect concentration was exceeded for arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc; while the probable effect concentration was exceeded by arsenic, chromium and nickel. However, due to relatively large amounts of organic carbon present in the bed sediments, the potential toxicity from trace elements is low. Discharge in the Indian River is typical of coastal southeast Alaska streams where low flows generally are in late winter and early spring and greater flows are during the wetter fall months. Alaska Department of Fish and Game has established instream flow reservations on the lower 2.5 miles of the Indian River. Discharge data indicate minimum flow requirements were not achieved during 236 days of