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Sample records for korea central cancer

  1. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

  2. Occupational respiratory cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed.

  3. Occupational Burden of Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The extent of the occupational cancer burden has rarely been estimated in Korea. The aim of this study is to provide an estimation of the population attributable fraction (PAF) of occupational cancer in Korea. Methods Nine kinds of Group 1 carcinogens addressed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and 7 kinds of cancer were selected for the target carcinogens and diseases, respectively. The prevalence of carcinogen-exposed workers was estimated and correction factors were applied so that the value would be representative of the total population. Data on relative risk (RR) were taken from IARC reports and were compared with the RRs from the studies on Korean workers. The PAF was estimated according to Levin's formula. Results The proportion of the general Korean population exposed to carcinogens was 9.7%. The PAF of total cancer was 1.1% for incident cancer cases and 1.7% for cancer deaths. The PAFs of lung cancer and leukemia were 7.0% and 4.%, respectively. With the RRs reported from Korean studies, the PAF for lung cancer and leukemia were 3.7% and 3.4%, respectively. Conclusion The PAF in this study (1.1%) was lower than that reported in previous studies (2-4%) from developed countries. Considering that only 9 of the 29 kinds of Group 1 carcinogens were included in this study, the PAF might be underestimated. However, because the process of industrialization in Korea differs from that which occurred in other developed countries, 1.1% of the PAF might be appropriate for Korea. PMID:22953164

  4. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2017.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2017 in Korea in order to estimate the nation's current cancer burden. Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2015 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observe age-specific cancer rates against observed years, and then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly; we only used data of the latest trend. A total of 221,143 new cancer cases and 80,268 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2017. The most common cancer sites are the colorectum, stomach, lung, thyroid, and breast. These five cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Korea. For mortality, the most common sites are the lung, liver, colorectal, stomach, and pancreas. The incidence rate of all cancers in Korea appears to have decreased mainly because of a decrease in thyroid cancer. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Korea could be an important resource for planning and evaluation of cancer-control programs.

  5. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2017

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2017 in Korea in order to estimate the nation’s current cancer burden. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2015 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observe age-specific cancer rates against observed years, and then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly; we only used data of the latest trend. Results A total of 221,143 new cancer cases and 80,268 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2017. The most common cancer sites are the colorectum, stomach, lung, thyroid, and breast. These five cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Korea. For mortality, the most common sites are the lung, liver, colorectal, stomach, and pancreas. Conclusion The incidence rate of all cancers in Korea appears to have decreased mainly because of a decrease in thyroid cancer. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Korea could be an important resource for planning and evaluation of cancer-control programs. PMID:28301926

  6. Economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening test as a national cancer screening program in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangjin; Kim, Youn Hee; Hwang, Jin Sub; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Sang Moo; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is rapidly increasing in Korea and professional societies have requested adding prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing to the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), but this started a controversy in Korea and neutral evidence on this issue is required more than ever. The purpose of this study was to provide economic evidence to the decision makers of the NCSP. A cost-utility analysis was performed on the adoption of PSA screening program among men aged 50-74-years in Korea from the healthcare system perspective. Several data sources were used for the cost-utility analysis, including general health screening data, the Korea Central Cancer Registry, national insurance claims data, and cause of mortality from the National Statistical Office. To solicit the utility index of prostate cancer, a face-to-face interview for typical men aged 40 to 69 was conducted using a Time-Trade Off method. As a result, the increase of effectiveness was estimated to be very low, when adopting PSA screening, and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was analyzed as about 94 million KRW. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the incidence rate, screening rate, cancer stage distribution, utility index, and treatment costs but the results were consistent with the base analysis. Under Korean circumstances with a relatively low incidence rate of prostate cancer, PSA screening is not cost-effective. Therefore, we conclude that adopting national prostate cancer screening would not be beneficial until further evidence is provided in the future.

  7. Population-attributable causes of cancer in Korea: obesity and physical inactivity.

    PubMed

    Park, Sohee; Kim, Yeonju; Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992-1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea.

  8. Changing trends in colorectal cancer in the Republic of Korea: contrast with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Minjoo; Kim, Nicholas; Nam, Byungho; Joo, Jungnam; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high worldwide incidence. Japan, a country that is geographically and culturally similar to the Republic of Korea (here after Korea), has recently reported a decreasing trend in the incidence of colorectal cancer. However, Korea had the highest incidence of colorectal cancer among Asian countries in 2012. Our aim was to observe the changing trends in incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in Korea and to compare them to those in Japan. Incidence data were collected from the Korean Central Cancer Registry and mortality data were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service. Incidence and mortality data on colorectal cancer in Japan were acquired from the National Cancer Center in Japan. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were determined based on Segi’s world population. Screening data from both countries were collected from the national cancer center in each country. In Korea, the age-standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes was 20.9 to 38.0 per 100,000 from 1999 to 2012 and the rate in males increased more dramatically than in females. In addition, the increase between 2002 and 2012 was first observed in the age group over 40. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer has been more constant over recent years than in Korea. The age-standardized mortality rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes in Korea was 8.5 to 9.3 per 100,000 from 2000 to 2013, and the trend in mortality was constant during this period. In Japan, the mortality rate decreased slightly during the same period. Crude screening rates were increased overall in both Korea and Japan during the period studied. Since the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased in Korea, the control of this cancer is an important public health issue. As Japan has achieved a reduction in colorectal cancer, adjustment of Korea’s current systems for screening and treatment of colorectal cancer according to those of Japan may contribute to

  9. Economic burden of colorectal cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ju-Young; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Oh, In-Hwan; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Yo-Han

    2014-03-01

    The incidence and survival rate of colorectal cancer in Korea are increasing because of improved screening, treatment technologies, and lifestyle changes. In this aging population, increases in economic cost result. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden of colorectal cancer utilizing claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. Economic burdens of colorectal cancer were estimated using prevalence data and patients were defined as those who received ambulatory treatment from medical institutions or who had been hospitalized due to colorectal cancer under the International Classification of Disease 10th revision codes from C18-C21. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer were calculated as direct costs and indirect costs. The prevalence rate (per 100 000 people) of those who were treated for colorectal cancer during 2010 was 165.48. The economic burdens of colorectal cancer in 2010 were 3 trillion and 100 billion Korean won (KRW), respectively. Direct costs included 1 trillion and 960 billion KRW (62.85%), respectively and indirect costs were 1 trillion and 160 billion (37.15%), respectively. Colorectal cancer has a large economic burden. Efforts should be made to reduce the economic burden of the disease through primary and secondary prevention.

  10. Cancer, Stress, and Ironies of Cancer Understanding in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Laura C

    2017-01-01

    Cancer incidence has been rising in South Korea, coincident with industrialization and with increased longevity. This has opened the way to a presentation of cancer as a symptom of prosperity and social advancement. Cancer care for older South Koreans is marketed widely as a way of giving back to the older generation, and is often portrayed as an opportunity to mobilize technological achievement alongside family care work to honor aging parents. Because breast cancer tends to affect a younger cohort, however, breast cancer patients seek more specific explanations for their illness in order to prevent recurrence. Many breast cancer patients identify 'stress' as the cause of their cancer, reflecting endemic stress in the lives of ordinary South Korean women. While this implies a critique of society and, specifically, of gender constructs, the emphasis on interpersonal 'stress' situates cancer causality in family relationships rather than in social, political, or environmental contexts. Cancer management and stress explanations together mute inquiry into causality.

  11. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Methods Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. Results The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Conclusion Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000. PMID:25559576

  12. Investigation of cancer mortality inequalities between rural and urban areas in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mee

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about rural-urban cancer disparities, particularly in South Korea, and this study is to identify cancer-specific mortality inequalities between the rural and urban areas of the country. For 11 specific cancer sites, age-standardised mortality rates were analysed for the rural and urban administrative districts of South Korea during 2006-2011. The Poisson log linear regression models were employed to estimate cancer-specific mortality rates, and Bonferroni comparison method was used to identify rural-urban disparities. There were significant rural-urban disparities observed for all cancer sites except prostate, pancreas and leukaemia. The mortality rates of lung, liver and stomach cancers, the three most common cancers in the country, were observed to be significantly higher in rural areas than in metropolitan areas. In contrast, the reverse relationship was observed for the reproductive system (breast and uterus) and colon cancers. Central nervous system cancer mortality was observed to be significantly higher in rural areas than in non-metro urban areas. For the first time ever, significant rural-urban disparity patterns in cancer mortality rates in South Korea have been identified in this paper. Future investigations on cancer risk factors for the country should address these disparity patterns. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  13. Population-Attributable Causes of Cancer in Korea: Obesity and Physical Inactivity

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hai-Rim; Lee, Boram; Shin, Aesun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Dong Hyun; Yun, Young Ho; Park, Sue Kyung; Boniol, Mathieu; Boffetta, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Background Changes in lifestyle including obesity epidemic and reduced physical activity influenced greatly to increase the cancer burden in Korea. The purpose of the current study was to perform a systematic assessment of cancers attributable to obesity and physical inactivity in Korea. Methodology/Principal Findings Gender- and cancer site-specific population-attributable fractions (PAF) were estimated using the prevalence of overweight and obesity in 1992–1995 from a large-scale prospective cohort study, the prevalence of low physical activity in 1989 from a Korean National Health Examination Survey, and pooled relative risk estimates from Korean epidemiological studies. The overall PAF was then estimated using 2009 national cancer incidence data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry. Excess body weight was responsible for 1,444 (1.5%) and 2,004 (2.2%) cancer cases among men and women, respectively, in 2009 in Korea. Among men, 6.8% of colorectal, 2.9% of pancreatic, and 16.0% of kidney cancer was attributable to excess body weight. In women, 6.6% of colorectal, 3.9% of pancreatic, 18.7% of kidney, 8.2% of postmenopausal breast, and 32.7% of endometrial cancer was attributable to excess body weight. Low leisure-time physical activity accounted for 8.8% of breast cancer, whereas the PAF for overall cancer was low (0.1% in men, 1.4% in women). Projections suggest that cancers attributable to obesity will increase by 40% in men and 16% in women by 2020. Conclusions/Significance With a significantly increasing overweight and physically inactive population, and increasing incidence of breast and colorectal cancers, Korea faces a large cancer burden attributable to these risk factors. Had the obese population of Korea remained stable, a large portion of obesity-related cancers could have been avoided. Efficient cancer prevention programs that aim to reduce obesity- and physical inactivity-related health problems are essential in Korea. PMID:24722008

  14. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%–56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%. PMID:27064578

  15. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  16. Basic Facts of Breast Cancer in Korea in 2014: The 10-Year Overall Survival Progress.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Hwa; Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Oh, Se Jeong; Lee, Seeyoun; Park, Byeong-Woo; Lim, Woosung; Hur, Min Hee

    2017-03-01

    We, the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS), present the facts and the trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2014. Data on the total number of newly diagnosed patients was obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry database, other data were collected from the KBCS online registry database, and the overall survival data of patients were updated from Statistics Korea. A total of 21,484 female patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2014. The crude incidence rate and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer in female patients, including carcinoma in situ, were 83.4 cases and 63.9 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. The ASR showed an annual increase of 6.1% from 1999 to 2014; however, although the increase of the ASR had slowed since 2008, the incidence rate itself continuously increased. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathological features changed accordingly. While breast-conserving surgery was mainly performed, the proportion of total mastectomy was slightly increased. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased rapidly. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates for all stages of breast cancer patients were 91.2% and 84.8%, respectively. The overall survival rate of Korean patients with breast cancer was extremely high, compared with other developed countries. Thus, we consider that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past decade. A nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea.

  17. Basic Facts of Breast Cancer in Korea in 2014: The 10-Year Overall Survival Progress

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Hwa; Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Oh, Se Jeong; Lee, Seeyoun; Park, Byeong-Woo; Lim, Woosung

    2017-01-01

    We, the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS), present the facts and the trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2014. Data on the total number of newly diagnosed patients was obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry database, other data were collected from the KBCS online registry database, and the overall survival data of patients were updated from Statistics Korea. A total of 21,484 female patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2014. The crude incidence rate and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer in female patients, including carcinoma in situ, were 83.4 cases and 63.9 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. The ASR showed an annual increase of 6.1% from 1999 to 2014; however, although the increase of the ASR had slowed since 2008, the incidence rate itself continuously increased. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathological features changed accordingly. While breast-conserving surgery was mainly performed, the proportion of total mastectomy was slightly increased. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased rapidly. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates for all stages of breast cancer patients were 91.2% and 84.8%, respectively. The overall survival rate of Korean patients with breast cancer was extremely high, compared with other developed countries. Thus, we consider that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past decade. A nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:28382089

  18. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required.

  19. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  20. Cancer Incidence and Survival among Adolescents and Young Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Park, Hyeon Jin; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Shin, Hee Young; Park, Byung Kiu; Won, Young-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Korea, cancer is the third leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). However, cancer incidence and survival trends among AYAs (15–29 years) have never been studied in Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the incidence and relative survival rates and their trends among AYAs in Korea. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999–2010 were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR). Each cancer was classified into subgroups according to the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) AYA site recode. Percent distributions, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates per million, and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated for AYAs according to sex. Five-year relative survival rates were estimated for cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2010 and followed up to 2011. Results The age-standardized incidence rates of all cancers combined were 196.4 and 367.8 per million for males and females, respectively (male-to-female (M/F) ratio: 0.5). The age-standardized incidence rates increased from 208.7 per million in 1999 to 396.4 per million in 2010, and the APC was 6.3% (P<0.001). The five most common cancers among AYAs were thyroid carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, stomach carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and acute myeloid leukemia. In males, the 5-year relative survival rate improved, from 46.5% in 1993–1995 to 75.9% in 2006–2010. In females, the 5-year relative survival rate also improved, from 66.7% in 1993–1995 to 89.1% in 2006–2010. Conclusions Our study showed increases in cancer incidence and improvements in the 5-year relative survival rate among Korean AYAs. This study also provides additional data regarding temporal and geographic trends in cancer that may enhance future efforts to identify factors affecting cancer incidence and responses to treatment among AYAs. PMID:24789075

  1. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  2. Having Private Cancer Insurance in Korea: Gender Differences.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Ki-Bong; Noh, Jin-Won; Kwon, Young Dae; Cho, Kyoung Hee; Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    As coverage of public insurance is not sufficient to cover diagnosis or treatment of cancer, having private health insurance is important to prepare for unexpected expenses of cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with having private cancer insurance, considering gender among the socio- demographic factors and health behavior. We used data from the 2011 Korea Health Panel, which included 10,871 participants aged 20 years and older. Socio-demographics, health behavior, and perceived cancer risk were the independent variables and having private cancer insurance was the dependent variable. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with having private cancer insurance. The variables relating to middle age, higher education, higher household income, married men, and the perceived cancer risk groups of 1-10% and 11-30% were significantly associated with having private cancer insurance. Additionally, females who had private non-cancer health insurance were positively associated with the dependent variables (OR=1.36; 95% CI=1.17-1.57). Education, smoking status, exercise, and perceived cancer risk possibility were significantly associated with having private cancer insurance only among women. The men lowered the overall percentages of those having private cancer insurance (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.45-0.63). We found that there were significant differences between men and women who had private cancer insurance. Women with private cancer insurance are more likely to follow precautionary health behavior than men. This could be interpreted as resulting from masculine ideologies. It is important to make males recognize the seriousness of the cancer risk. In general, household income was highly associated with private cancer insurance. These results reveal an inequity among the buyers of private cancer insurance in terms of economic status level, education level, and health condition.

  3. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  4. Hazard Ratio of Smoking on Lung Cancer in Korea According to Histological Type and Gender.

    PubMed

    Yun, Young Duk; Back, Joung Hwan; Ghang, Haryeom; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Yeol; Lee, Sun Mi; Samet, Jonathan M; Lee, Kang Soo

    2016-04-01

    Using nationwide cancer incidence data, we examined whether the strength of the association of cigarette smoking with lung cancer risk differs according to major histological type and gender, taking account of other risk factors in the Korean population. The study population derived from government employees and teachers aged 20 years and over who participated in a national health examination program in 1998 or 1999. Total study subjects were 1,357,447. After excluding 1556 subjects who were treated with lung cancer during 1998-2000, we restricted our analysis to 1,355,891 cases. We followed up those 1,355,891 subjects who were cancer-free at baseline until December 31, 2010. The incident cancer cases were identified from the Korea Central Cancer Registry, which is a nationwide hospital-based cancer registry system that includes 94 % of the university hospitals and 96 % of the resident training hospitals of the country. A higher risk for having ever smoked was observed for squamous-cell and small-cell carcinoma in both men and women. Heavy and long-term smokers were at higher risk for these carcinomas. Significant associations with quantity and duration-related factors were observed mainly among men. These findings indicate that smoking is closely related to the risk of squamous-cell and small-cell carcinoma among women as well as men. However, the magnitude of smoking-related lung cancer risk is likely to differ between men and women. The hazard ratios for all types of lung cancer were significantly higher in male current smokers than in male never smokers. In case of women, the hazard ratios for adenocarcinoma were not different between current smokers and never smokers. The hazard ratios we found, however, were lower than those reported in Western countries and in Korea, but consistent with those reported in North-eastern Asian countries.

  5. Epidemiologic survey of head and neck cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Moon; Kim, Young Mo; Shim, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Hyuck Soon; Choi, Jong Ouck; Rho, Young Soo; Kim, Min-Sik; Choi, Eun Chang; Choi, Geon; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Sang-Yun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Baek, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Im, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, Sang-Hak; Kim, Jae-Hee

    2003-02-01

    Head and neck cancers have never been systematically studied for clinical purposes yet in Korea. This epidemiological survey on head and neck cancer patients was undertaken from January to December 2001 in 79 otorhinolaryngology resident-training hospitals nationwide. The number of head and neck cancer patients was 1,063 cases in the year. The largest proportion of cases arose in the larynx, as many as 488 cases, which accounted for 45.9%. It was followed by, in order of frequency, oral cavity (16.5%), oropharynx (10.0%), and hypopharynx (9.5%). The male:female ratio was 5:1, and the mean age was 60.3 yr. Surgery was the predominant treatment modality in head and neck cancers: 204 (21.5%) cases were treated with only surgery, 198 (20.8%) cases were treated with surgery and radiotherapy, 207 cases (21.8%) were treated with combined therapy of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Larynx and hypopharynx cancers had a stronger relationship with smoking and alcohol drinking than other primary site cancers. Of them, 21 cases were found to be metastasized at the time of diagnosis into the lung, gastrointestinal tract, bone, or brain. Coexisting second primary malignancies were found in 23 cases. At the time of diagnosis, a total of 354 cases had cervical lymph node metastasis accounting for 42.0%.

  6. Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Cement Industry Workers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seung Hee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Cement contains hexavalent chromium, which is a human carcinogen. However, its effect on cancer seems inconclusive in epidemiologic studies. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to elucidate the association between dust exposure in the cement industry and cancer occurrence. Methods The cohorts consisted of male workers in 6 Portland cement factories in Korea. Study subjects were classified into five groups by job: quarry, production, maintenance, laboratory, and office work. Cancer mortality and incidence in workers were observed from 1992 to 2007 and 1997-2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios and standardized incidence ratios were calculated according to the five job classifications. Results There was an increased standardized incidence ratio for stomach cancer of 1.56 (27/17.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-2.26) in production workers. The standardized mortality ratio for lung cancer increased in production workers. However, was not statistically significant. Conclusion Our result suggests a potential association between cement exposure and stomach cancer. Hexavalent chromium contained in cement might be a causative carcinogen. PMID:22953208

  7. Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung Ja; Khang, Shin Kwang; Lee, Seung Sook; Koh, Jae Soo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Lee, Yong Sik; Shim, Yoon Sang

    2002-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) constitute 3.5-4% of all malignancies. Since the majority of cases are squamous cell carcinomas which are related with epidemiologic factors, a different pattern of UADT cancer might be present between the Western and Asian populations. We performed a pathology based statistical study on UADT cancers in Korean patients. Cases from Korea Cancer Center Hospital, from January 1, 1988 through December 31, 1998, were subjected to the study. Among 2,842 cases, epithelial malignancies accounted for 87.8%, with squamous cell carcinoma as the major type (76.5%). The larynx was the most commonly affected site (26%), followed by the oral cavity (25.1%), oropharynx (13%), nasopharynx (9%), hypopharynx (8.4%), paranasal sinuses (6.4%), nasal cavity (6%) and salivary glands (6.1%). The percentage of squamous cell carcinoma was highest (98.7%) at the hypopharynx, and lowest at the nasal cavity (42.3%), which showed the most diverse tumor entities. Korean patients with UADT cancers presented with a higher incidence of non-epidermoid malignancy including sarcoma (1.5%) and malignant melanoma (1.4%), and a higher frequency of involvement of the sinonasal tract, compared with the Western patients. PMID:11850583

  8. Hypocenter Relocations of Earthquakes in Central Southern Korea using the Double- Difference Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, M.; Baag, C.; Rhie, J.

    2007-12-01

    The double-difference method is widely used for precise relocations of earthquakes to estimate the extent and attitude of seismogenic faults. In South Korea, it is very difficult to find the location and estimate the extent of seismogenic faults because large earthquakes are rare. Therefore, we applied the double-difference method to small earthquakes occurred in Central Southern Korea and try to find any evidence of well-defined fault planes. Latitude and longitude of earthquakes range from 35¢ªN to 37¢ªN and from 127¢ªE to 129¢ªE, respectively. The seismicity of this region is relatively higher and density of seismic stations is also higher than other regions in South Korea. We used 65 events in the magnitude (ML) 1.9-3.9 range occurred for the period from February 2001 to October 2007 in this region. We obtained the travel time data from 14 broad band and 42 short period seismic stations deployed by two Korean agencies, such as Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM). We determined P-wave travel times using manual phase picking and also travel time differences among P phases recorded at common station using waveform cross-correlation. The distribution of the earthquake relocations will be compared to the possible fault planes, which are constrained by regional moment tensor solutions.

  9. Fuel Type Classification and Fuel Loading in Central Interior, Korea: Uiseong-Gun

    Treesearch

    Myoung Soo Won; Kyo Sang Koo; Myung Bo Lee; Si Young Lee

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is classification of fuel type and calculation of fuel loading to assess forest fire hazard by fuel characteristics at Uiseong-gun, Gyeongbuk located in the central interior of Korea. A database was constructed of eight factors such as forest type and topography using ArcGIS 9.1 GIS programs. An on-site survey was conducted for investigating...

  10. Association between cancer stigma and depression among cancer survivors: a nationwide survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Juhee; Choi, Eun-kyung; Kim, So Young; Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, Be-Long; Kim, Chang-hoon; Koh, Dai Ha; Guallar, Eliseo; Bardwell, Wayne A; Park, Jong Hyock

    2013-10-01

    Cancer patients are more likely to experience depression than the general population. This study aims to evaluate the possible association between cancer stigma and depression among cancer patients. As a part of the Korean government's program to develop comprehensive supportive care, we conducted a nationwide survey in 2010 at the National Cancer Center and in nine regional cancer centers across Korea. Cancer stigma was assessed by using a set of 12 questions grouped in three domains-impossibility of recovery, stereotypes of cancer patients, and experience of social discrimination. Depression was measured by using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. A total of 466 cancer patients were included in the study. Over 30% of the cancer survivors had negative attitudes toward cancer and held stereotypical views of themselves: about 10% of the participants experienced social discrimination due to cancer, and 24.5% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Patients who had or experienced cancer stigma were 2.5 times more likely to have depression than patients with positive attitudes. Regardless of highly developed medical science and increased survivorship, cancer survivors had cancer stigmas, and it was significantly associated with depression. Our findings emphasize the need for medical societies and health professionals to pay more attention to cancer stigma that patients are likely to experience during treatment. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study presents the 2014 nationwide cancer statistics in Korea, including cancer incidence, survival, prevalence, and mortality. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 was obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database and followed until December 31, 2015. Mortality data from 1983 to 2014 were obtained from Statistics Korea. The prevalence was defined as the number of cancer patients alive on January 1, 2015, among all cancer patients diagnosed since 1999. Crude and age-standardized rates (ASRs) for incidence, mortality, prevalence, and 5-year relative survivals were also calculated. Results In 2014, 217,057 and 76,611 Koreans were newly diagnosed and died from cancer respectively. The ASRs for cancer incidence and mortality in 2014 were 270.7 and 85.1 per 100,000, respectively. The all-cancer incidence rate has increased significantly by 3.4% annually from 1999 to 2012, and started to decrease after 2012 (2012-2014; annual percent change, –6.6%). However, overall cancer mortality has decreased 2.7% annually since 2002. The 5-year relative survival rate for patients diagnosed with cancer between 2010 and 2014 was 70.3%, an improvement from the 41.2% for patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1995. Conclusion Age-standardized cancer incidence rates have decreased since 2012 and mortality rates have also declined since 2002, while 5-year survival rates have improved remarkably from 1993-1995 to 2010-2014 in Korea. PMID:28279062

  12. Korea University Joins the International Efforts in Clinical Proteogenomics Cancer Research | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, part of the National Institutes of Health, and Korea University (KU) located in The Republic of Korea have signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) in clinical proteogenomics cancer research. The MOU between NCI and KU represents the twenty-ninth institution and eleventh country to join the continued effort of the International Cancer Proteogenome Consortium (ICPC), an effort catalyzed through the vision of the 47th Vice President of the United States Joseph R. Biden, Jr. and the Cancer Moonshot.

  13. The National Cancer Screening Program for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea: is it cost-effective?

    PubMed

    Kang, Moon Hae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan; Cho, Eun

    2013-01-01

    This goal of this research was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea from a government expenditure perspective. In 2002-2003 (baseline), a total of 8,724,860 women aged 40 years or over were invited to attend breast cancer screening by the NCSP. Those who attended were identified using the NCSP database, and women were divided into two groups, women who attended screening at baseline (screened group) and those who did not (non-screened group). Breast cancer diagnosis in both groups at baseline, and during 5-year follow-up was identified using the Korean Central Cancer Registry. The effectiveness of the NCSP for breast cancer was estimated by comparing 5-year survival and life years saved (LYS) between the screened and the unscreened groups, measured using mortality data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and the National Health Statistical Office. Direct screening costs, indirect screening costs, and productivity costs were considered in different combinations in the model. When all three of these costs were considered together, the incremental cost to save one life year of a breast cancer patient was 42,305,000 Korean Won (KW) (1 USD=1,088 KW) for the screened group compared to the non-screened group. In sensitivity analyses, reducing the false-positive rate of the screening program by half was the most cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER=30,110,852 KW/LYS) strategy. When the upper age limit for screening was set at 70 years, it became more cost-effective (ICER=39,641,823 KW/LYS) than when no upper age limit was set. The NCSP for breast cancer in Korea seems to be accepted as cost-effective as ICER estimates were around the Gross Domestic Product. However, cost-effectiveness could be further improved by increasing the sensitivity of breast cancer screening and by setting appropriate age limits.

  14. Public attitudes toward cancer and cancer patients: a national survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Juhee; Smith, Katherine; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Im-Ryung; Chang, Yoon-Jung; Park, Hyun-Young; Guallar, Eliseo; Shim, Young Mog

    2013-03-01

    Regardless of improved survival rate, negative images and myths about cancer still abound. Cancer stigma may reduce patients' life opportunities resulting in social isolation, decreased level of emotional well-being, and poor health outcomes. This study was aimed to evaluate public attitudes toward cancer and cancer patients and people's willingness to disclose cancer diagnosis in South Korea. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in August and September 2009. A nationally representative sample of 1011 men and women with no history of cancer was recruited. A set of 12 questions grouped into three domains (impossibility of recovery, cancer stereotypes, and discrimination) was used to assess public attitudes toward cancer. It was found 58.5% of study participants agreed that it is impossible to treat cancer regardless of highly developed medical science, 71.8% agreed that cancer patients would not be able to make contributions to society, and 23.5% agreed that they would avoid working with persons who have cancer. The proportions of people who said that that they would not disclose a cancer diagnosis to family, friends or neighbors, or coworkers were 30.2%, 47.0%, and 50.7%, respectively. Negative attitudes toward cancer were strongly associated with lower willingness to disclose a cancer diagnosis. Negative attitudes, stereotypes, and discriminating attitudes toward cancer and people affected by the disease were very common in spite of clinical progress and improved survivorship. Our findings emphasize the need for health policy and social changes to provide a more supportive environment for cancer survivors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, and Central America: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Swaminathan, Rajaraman; Brenner, Hermann; Chen, Kexin; Chia, Kee Seng; Chen, Jian Guo; Law, Stephen C K; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Xiang, Yong Bing; Yeole, Balakrishna B; Shin, Hai Rim; Shanta, Viswanathan; Woo, Ze Hong; Martin, Nimit; Sumitsawan, Yupa; Sriplung, Hutcha; Barboza, Adolfo Ortiz; Eser, Sultan; Nene, Bhagwan M; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Jayalekshmi, Padmavathiamma; Dikshit, Rajesh; Wabinga, Henry; Esteban, Divina B; Laudico, Adriano; Bhurgri, Yasmin; Bah, Ebrima; Al-Hamdan, Nasser

    2010-02-01

    Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are not widely available from countries in Africa, Asia, and Central America. The aim of this study is to describe and discuss cancer survival in these regions. Survival analysis was done for 341 658 patients diagnosed with various cancers from 1990 to 2001 and followed up to 2003, from 25 population-based cancer registries in 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa (The Gambia, Uganda), Central America (Costa Rica), and Asia (China, India, Pakistan, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Thailand, Turkey). 5-year age-standardised relative survival (ASRS) and observed survival by clinical extent of disease were determined. For cancers in which prognosis depends on stage at diagnosis, survival was highest in China, South Korea, Singapore, and Turkey and lowest in Uganda and The Gambia. 5-year ASRS ranged from 76-82% for breast cancer, 63-79% for cervical cancer, 71-78% for bladder cancer, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancers in China, Singapore, South Korea, and Turkey. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia; in Uganda, survival did not exceed 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%). Variations in survival correlated with early detection initiatives and level of development of health services. The wide variation in cancer survival between regions emphasises the need for urgent investments in improving awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources. Association for International Cancer Research (AICR; St Andrews, UK), Association pour la Recherche sur le Cancer (ARC, Villejuif, France), and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (Seattle, USA). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2009-04-01

    Compensation for asbestos-related cancers occurring in occupationally-exposed workers is a global issue; this is also an issue in Korea. To provide basic information regarding compensation for workers exposed to asbestos, 60 cases of asbestos-related occupational lung cancer and mesothelioma that were compensated during 15 yr; from 1993 (the year the first case was compensated) to 2007 by the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation (KLWC) are described. The characteristics of the cases were analyzed using the KLWC electronic data and the epidemiologic investigation data conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA). The KLWC approved compensation for 41 cases of lung cancer and 19 cases of mesothelioma. Males accounted for 91.7% (55 cases) of the approved cases. The most common age group was 50-59 yr (45.0%). The mean duration of asbestos exposure for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 19.2 and 16.0 yr, respectively. The mean latency period for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 22.1 and 22.6 yr, respectively. The major industries associated with mesothelioma cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (4 cases) and manufacture of asbestos textiles (3 cases). The major industries associated with lung cancer cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (7 cases), construction (6 cases), and manufacture of basic metals (4 cases). The statistics pertaining to asbestos-related occupational cancers in Korea differ from other developed countries in that more cases of mesothelioma were compensated than lung cancer cases. Also, the mean latency period for disease onset was shorter than reported by existing epidemiologic studies; this discrepancy may be related to the short history of occupational asbestos use in Korea. Considering the current Korean use of asbestos, the number of compensated cases in Korea is expected to increase in the future but not as much as developed countries.

  17. Middle Holocene environmental change in central Korea and its linkage to summer and winter monsoon changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaesoo; Yang, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Young; Hong, Sei-Sun; Um, In Kwon

    2015-07-01

    To trace the surficial responses of lowlands to past climate change, we investigated δ13C in total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratios, magnetic susceptibility (MS), and silicon (Si) intensity (directly proportional to concentration) in wetland sediments collected from the Gimpo area of central Korea, covering 6600-4600 cal yr BP. Two organic layers with high TOC%, negatively depleted δ13CTOC values (- 27 to - 29‰), low MS values, and low Si intensities were found at 6200-5900 and 5200-4800 cal yr BP, respectively. These middle Holocene wet periods corresponded to relatively intensified summer monsoon and solar activity periods. The intervening dry period (5900-5200 cal yr BP) with high MS, high Si, and low TOC% corresponded to an intensified dust-activity interval and stronger winter monsoon. This multi-centennial climatic fluctuation of wet periods (6200-5900 cal yr BP and 5200-4800 cal yr BP) and an intervening dry period (5900-5200 cal yr BP) in central Korea was more synchronous with climate change in the arid inner part of China than with that in South China, suggesting possible strong high-latitude-driven climatic influences (e.g., North Atlantic cooling events) during the middle Holocene.

  18. Cancer screening status in Korea, 2011: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the use of screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers, which are included in the Korean National Cancer Screening Programme. In 2011 the National Cancer Centre in Korea conducted a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional interview survey using multi-stage random sampling. Participants included 4,100 cancer-free men 40 years and over of age and women over 30 years of age. The lifetime screening rates for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 76.2%, 54.3%, 56.1%, 79.0%, and, 74.8%, respectively. The rates of recommended screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 64.6%, 22.9%, 35.3%, 60.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. More than 70% of all screening was attributed to organised cancer screening programmes. The main reason given for non attendance was 'no symptoms'. A greater effort is needed to increase screening rates, especially for liver and colorectal cancers.

  19. The Economic Burden of Cancers Attributable to Metabolic Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongwoo; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Gong, Young-Hoon; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, A-Rim

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Metabolic syndrome is an important etiologic factor in the development of certain types of cancers. The economic cost of the treatment of cancer has been steadily increasing. We therefore estimated the economic burden of cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome in Korea. Methods: We reviewed metabolic syndrome-related cancers and relative risk and then calculated population attributable fractions. We analyzed insurance claims data for metabolic syndrome-related cancers in 2012 in order to estimate the direct costs associated with these cancers, including hospitalization, outpatient visits, transportation costs, and caregivers’ costs as well as indirect costs such as loss of productivity due to cancer treatment and premature death. Results: In 2012, 18 070 patients in Korea had cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome. The economic burden was USD 199.8 million and the direct and indirect costs were USD 124.5 million and USD 75.3 million, respectively. Conclusions: We estimated the economic burden of cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome in Korea and the efforts are necessary to reduce this burden. PMID:26265663

  20. The Economic Burden of Cancers Attributable to Metabolic Syndrome in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongwoo; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Gong, Young-Hoon; Kim, Young Ae; Seo, Hye-Young; Yoon, Jihyun; Kim, A-Rim

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an important etiologic factor in the development of certain types of cancers. The economic cost of the treatment of cancer has been steadily increasing. We therefore estimated the economic burden of cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome in Korea. We reviewed metabolic syndrome-related cancers and relative risk and then calculated population attributable fractions. We analyzed insurance claims data for metabolic syndrome-related cancers in 2012 in order to estimate the direct costs associated with these cancers, including hospitalization, outpatient visits, transportation costs, and caregivers' costs as well as indirect costs such as loss of productivity due to cancer treatment and premature death. In 2012, 18,070 patients in Korea had cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome. The economic burden was USD 199.8 million and the direct and indirect costs were USD 124.5 million and USD 75.3 million, respectively. We estimated the economic burden of cancers attributable to metabolic syndrome in Korea and the efforts are necessary to reduce this burden.

  1. Incidence of retinoblastoma and survival rate of retinoblastoma patients in Korea using the Korean National Cancer Registry database (1993-2010).

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Jun; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2014-05-01

    We determined the incidence of retinoblastoma and the long-term survival rate of retinoblastoma patients in South Korea. We reviewed retrospectively data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry recorded between 1993 and 2010 to identify the incidence of retinoblastoma and the survival rate of retinoblastoma patients in Korea. The incidence of retinoblastoma was estimated by population-based analysis of children aged 0 to 4 years and children aged 0 to 9 years, population-based analysis per live birth, and birth cohort analysis. Survival was analyzed using the Korea Central Cancer Registry database, which was crosschecked with the national death registry. The overall incidence was 11.2 for children aged 0 to 4 years and 5.3 for children aged 0 to 9 years per 1,000,000 person-years, 5.9 per 100,000 live births, and 5.3 per 100,000 live births. Birth cohort analysis showed less variable results in incidence rates over 4 calendar-periods compared to the population-based analyses. The all-cause mortality rate was 7.9% at 5 years and 8.4% at 10 years. The rate improved from 12.5% for patients diagnosed in 1993 to 2000 to 4.5% for those diagnosed in 2001 to 2010. The incidence of retinoblastoma in Korea was found to be similar to that in the United States, Europe, and Asia. The survival rate of retinoblastoma patients in Korea was significantly better during 2001 to 2010 than during 1993 to 2000.

  2. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors.

  3. Determinants of gastric cancer screening attendance in Korea: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yunryong; Cho, Belong; Son, Ki Young; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Hosung; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Shin, Aesun; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to assess individual and area-level determinants of gastric cancer screening participation. Data on gastric cancer screening and individual-level characteristics were obtained from the 2007-2009 Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The area-level variables were collected from the 2005 National Population Census, 2008 Korea Medical Association, and 2010 National Health Insurance Corporation. The data were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models. The estimated participation rate in gastric cancer screening adhered to the Korea National Cancer Screening Program guidelines was 44.0% among 10,658 individuals aged over 40 years who were included in the analysis. Among the individual-level variables, the highest income quartile, a college or higher education level, living with spouse, having a private health insurance, limited general activity, previous history of gastric or duodenal ulcer, and not currently smoking were associated with a higher participation rate in gastric cancer screening. Urbanization showed a significant negative association with gastric cancer screening attendance among the area-level factors (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57-0.93 for the most urbanized quartile vs. least urbanized quartile). There are differences in gastric cancer screening attendance according to both individual and regional area characteristics.

  4. Social Media Use for Cancer Education at a Community-Based Cancer Center in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jaesung; Chun, Mison; Lee, Hyun Woo; Woo, Jeong-Hee

    2016-12-12

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the education system using social media. Eight educational video clips were developed instructing the viewer on cancer-related issues such as prevention, treatment, and survivorship. Each video was made with participation of medical professors and posted on a YouTube channel. A mobile phone application was produced containing a scheduler function, introduction of a community cancer center program, and cancer information. A medical blog was established to provide stationary materials such as images and articles. Descriptive analysis was done by Google analytics. From May of 2014 to June of 2016, 15,247 total views were recorded on the YouTube channel, and the average view duration was about 3 min. The most popular video was about chemotherapy treatment; 5409 (36%) people watched this video, and 3615 (23.5%) people viewed a video on balanced dietary habits. As well as South Korea, 1,113 (7%) views were confirmed in the United States and 175 (1%) in Japan. The equipment used to watch the contents were mobile phones (59%), laptops (33%), and tablets (6%). Five hundred people installed the smartphone application from March of 2015 to July of 2016. Three hundred eighty-three medical contents were posted on the blog since March of 2015. Cancer education is necessary to address the education needs of patients with cancer and their caregivers. Education based on social media could be an effective method that reaches beyond geographical boundaries.

  5. Has the National Cancer Screening Program reduced income inequalities in screening attendance in South Korea?

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Kwon, Soonman; Subramanian, S V

    2015-11-01

    In 1999, the Korean government introduced the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) to increase the cancer-screening rate, particularly among the low-income population. This study investigates how the NCSP has decreased both relative and absolute income inequalities in the uptake of cancer screening in South Korea. A nationally representative cross-sectional repeated data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1998-2012, managed by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, was used to assess changes over time and the extent of discontinuity at the NCSP-recommended initiation age in the uptake of screening for breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers across income quartiles. Relative inequalities in the uptake of screening for all cancers decreased significantly over the policy period. Absolute inequalities did not change for most cancers, but marginally increased from 9 to 14% points in the uptake of screening for colorectal cancer among men. At the recommended initiation age, absolute inequalities did not change for breast and colorectal cancers but increased from 5 to 16% points for gastric cancer, for which relative inequality significantly decreased. The NCSP, which reduced out-of-pocket payment, may not decrease absolute gap although it leads to overall increases in the uptake of cancer screening and decreases in relative inequalities. Further investigations are needed to understand barriers that prevent the low-income population from attending cancer screening.

  6. Trends of liver cancer and its major risk factors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun-young; Xuan Mai, Tran Thi; Chang, Yoonjung; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Korea (hereafter Korea) is one of the countries with high incidence of liver cancer and there is great difference in incidence of liver cancer between male and female. We investigated the sex-specific trends of three major risk factors of liver cancer, which are hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection, hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection, and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The incidence of liver cancer was obtained from the Cancer Registration Statistics of the National Cancer Center of Korea. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity was based on data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Disease statistics from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea were used to evaluate trends in HCV infection and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The prevalence of these risk factors were compared with the incidence of liver cancer. Males had a three to four times higher incidence of liver cancer than females did from 1999 to 2011. This gap between the incidence for males and females increased with age and males aged 50 to 59 showed a five times higher incidence than females of the same age did. In general, HBsAg seropositivity decreased from 1998 to 2011. The prevalence of HCV infections was 96.2 and 90.3 per 100,000 females and males, respectively in 2013. The prevalences of HCV infections from 2009 to 2013 did not substantially differ. The annual average prevalence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis from 2009 to 2013 was 77.22 and 8.90 per 100,000 males and females, respectively; the prevalence among males was 8.7 times higher than that among females. The prevalence rapidly increased with age in males, and males aged 60 to 69 peaked with a 19.2 times higher prevalence than that among females of the same age group. We found that the incidence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, a major risk factor of liver cancer, exhibited a trend similar to that of liver cancer incidence in males, and this trend also differed remarkably by sex

  7. A comparison of the cancer incidence rates between the national cancer registry and insurance claims data in Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hee Jung; Oh, In-Hwan; Yoon, Seok-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Although much health services research has been conducted using national health insurance claims data in Korea, the validity of this method has not been ascertained. The objective of this study was to validate the use of claims data for health services research by comparing incidence rate of cancers found using insurance claims data against rates of the national cancer registry of Korea. An algorithm to estimate incidence rates using claims data was developed and applied. The claims data from 2005-2008 were acquired and the patients admitted to hospitals due to cancer in 2008 without admission to hospital from 2005- 2007 by the same diagnosis code were regarded as incident cases. The acquired results were compared with the values from the National Cancer Registry of Korea. The incidence rate of all cancers found using claims data was 363.1 per 100,000 people, which is very similar to the 361.9 per 100,000 rate of the national cancer registry. Also the age-, gender- and disease-specific rates between the two data sources were similar. Therefore, national health insurance claims data may be a worthwhile resource for health services research if appropriate algorithms are applied, especially considering the cost effectiveness of this method.

  8. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  9. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kil, Won Ho

    2014-09-01

    Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening.

  10. Effectiveness of interventions to increase screening for gastric and colorectal cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kam, Sin

    2014-01-01

    Public health centers in Korea play an important role at the community level in encouraging residents to participate in cancer screening, usually by sending reminders in the mail and by making phone calls. However, there have not been any studies on the effectiveness of these interventions by public health centers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this question. The study was limited to male subjects aged 50-59 years living in one district of Daegu, Korea. A total of 923 subjects were selected for the study among the target population for gastric and colorectal cancer screening as part of the National Cancer Screening Program in 2012. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control, postal intervention, telephone intervention, and telephone and postal intervention. Three months after the interventions, the results were confirmed by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Logistic regression analyses were performed to find differences in participation rates in cancer screening for each group. Men who received telephone and postal intervention were most likely (40.5%) to undergo gastric cancer screening, in comparison to the men who received telephone intervention only (31.7%), postal intervention only (22.2%) and those in the control group (17.9%). Also, men who received telephone and postal intervention were most likely (27.8%) to participate in colorectal cancer screening, followed by the men who received telephone intervention only (24.3%), postal intervention only (16.5%), and men in the control group (13.5%). Combined telephone and postal intervention and telephone only intervention as well produced significantly increased rates of participation in cancer screening in comparison to the control group. There was no significant difference, however, between the postal intervention only and control groups for either colorectal or gastric cancer screening.

  11. Factors associated with compliance with recommendations for liver cancer screening in Korea: a nationwide survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with compliance with recommendations regarding liver cancer screening intervals and methods among individuals at high-risk for liver cancer in the Republic of Korea. We used data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), a representative cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2009. The liver cancer screening rate and factors associated with compliance with recommended screening intervals (6 months) and methods (both abdominal ultrasonography and serum alpha-fetoprotein testing) among individuals at high risk for liver cancer such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were investigated. Out of 24,871 KNHANES IV participants, 604 HBV carriers aged ≥ 20 years were included in our analysis. 39.6% of our study sample reported attending liver cancer screening at least once in their lifetime, 12.3% had attended within the previous 6 months, and 14.6% were screened using both recommended methods. Older age was associated with increased compliance with screening intervals (P-trend 0.011) and methods (40-49 year: OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.62-6.51; 50-59 years: OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.44-6.66; 60-69 years: OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.28-7.82). Unawareness of HBV infection status was negatively related to compliance with screening intervals and methods (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.53; OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.26-0.79). Female sex (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.25-0.78), lower household income (P-trend 0.011), and routine and manual occupations (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97) were associated with decreased compliance with screening methods. The liver cancer screening rate among high-risk individuals is much less suboptimal. Considering that those unaware of their HBV infection status got regular and complete liver cancer screening much less often, efforts should be made not only to decrease sociodemographic disparities, but also to better identify the high-risk population.

  12. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Gastric Cancer in Korea: An Evidence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Haeng; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Young Il; Ryu, Keun Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Yong Sik; Zang, Dae Young; Cho, Jae Yong; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Do Hoon; Jung, Eun Sun; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Although gastric cancer is quite common in Korea, the treatment outcome is relatively favorable compared to those in western countries. However, there are currently no Korean multidisciplinary guidelines for gastric cancer. Experts from related societies developed guidelines de novo to meet Korean circumstances and requirements, including 23 recommendation statements for diagnosis (n=9) and treatment (n=14) based on relevant key questions. The quality of the evidence was rated according to the GRADE evidence evaluation framework: the evidence levels were based on a systematic review of the literature, and the recommendation grades were classified as either strong or weak. The applicability of the guidelines was considered to meet patients' view and preferences in the context of Korea. The topics of the guidelines cover diagnostic modalities (endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and radiologic diagnosis), treatment modalities (surgery, therapeutic endoscopy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy), and pathologic evaluation. An external review of the guidelines was conducted during the finalization phase. PMID:25061536

  13. Costs for 5-year lung cancer survivors in a tertiary care hospital in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Sik; Kim, Seon Ha; Park, Sue Kyung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Yoo, Chul-Gyu; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Shim, Young-Soo; Yang, Seok-Chul

    2010-05-01

    As the population of patients with lung cancer increases, the expenditure on lung cancer treatment will become a huge economic burden in many countries. To support public health services for the treatment of lung cancer, the calculation of lung cancer-specific costs is important. This study included newly diagnosed 76 lung cancer patients who had survived for at least 5 years after the diagnosis in a tertiary care hospital in South Korea. Direct medical costs were calculated from health care claims obtained from Seoul National University Hospital, which included out-of-pocket expenditures. Direct non-medical and indirect costs were calculated from national statistics. Mean direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs amounted to $21,321, $6444 and $4943 respectively, based on an exchange rate of Korean Won 1200=US $1. The average cost for treatment of one lung cancer patient for all 5 years was $32,708. This constituted 44.7% of the per capita income during the same 5-year period. The economic burden of lung cancer treatment is significant in Korea. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends in major cancer mortality in Korea, 1983-2012, with a joinpoint analysis.

    PubMed

    Lim, Daroh; Ha, Mina; Song, Inmyung

    2015-12-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death in Korea. This study aims to examine changes in temporal trends in major cancer mortality. Mortality data for 1993-2012 were obtained from the Korean Statistics Information Service(KOSIS) database and age-standardized to the 2000 Korean population. Joinpoint analysis was used to identify significant changes in trends over time. The annual percentage rate change (APC) was computed for each segment of the trends. The age-standardized mortality rates (ASR) for all cancer sites combined decreased by 9.1% and 1.1% in men and women, respectively, from 1983 to 2012. ASRs from cancers of esophagus, stomach, and liver decreased substantially, whereas ASRs from cancer for all other sites increased markedly. ASRs for all cancer sites combined increased until 1994 and thereafter decreased significantly in both genders except for the period of 1998-2002 (APC: -5.5% for men [p<0.05] and 0.07% for women). ASRs for esophagus and liver cancers increased until the early 1990s and thereafter declined, leading to significant decreases [p<0.05] for esophagus cancer (APC: -1.85% for men and -3.82% for women) and liver cancer (APC: -1.55% for men and -0.56% for women) in 1983-2012. ASRs for stomach cancer declined (APC: -4.06% for men and -4.07% for women) except for 1990-1994. ASRs for uterine cancer peaked in 2003 and then declined (APC: 2.85%). ASRs increased significantly until 2002 for colorectal cancer in men (APC: 7.52%) and lung cancer in both genders. The most consistently upward trend was observed for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (APC: 3.55% for men and 5.29% for women; number of joinpoints=0). The greatest ASR increase was seen for prostate cancer for which mortality increased until 2002 at an APC of 12.56%. While mortality decreased significantly for esophagus, stomach and liver cancers in recent decades in Korea, challenges still remain for many other cancers, especially pancreatic, breast, and prostate cancers and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

  15. Thinning intensity influences on soil microbial and inorganic nitrogen in Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Li, G.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Lee, S. T.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    With growing considerations for sustainable forest management, examining thinning effects on forest ecosystems becomes one of the principal research focuses. Soil microbial biomass and inorganic nitrogen (N) have, particularly, received increasing attentions, as they are the relevant indices for N availability in forests. Here, we investigated the influences of thinning on soil microbial biomass N (MBN) and inorganic N (NH4+ and NO3-) in two Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea. The thinning from below with different intensities based on stand density (site 1: control, 20%, and 30% thinning; site 2: control, 39%, and 74% thinning) was applied in 2008, and MBN, NH4+, and NO3- at 0-10 cm depth were measured seven years after thinning. The MBN, NH4+, and NO3- concentrations (mg kg-1) of the site 1 were 69.8, 9.8, and 6.3 in the control, 94.6, 9.3, and 4.0 in the 20% thinning plot, and 97.2, 8.4, and 5.2 in the 30% thinning plot, respectively. On the other hand, those of the site 2 were 34.5, 5.4, and 6.3 in the control, 37.3, 4.7, and 7.8 in the 39% thinning plot, and 44.4, 4.4, and 9.2 in the 74% thinning plot, respectively. The MBN of the thinning plots tended to be higher compared to those of the controls, although the analysis of variance reported the significant difference only for the MBN in the site 1 (P<0.05). This might be attributed to the incorporation of organic matter from the introduced thinning residues and from the increased understory vegetation following thinning. However, no significant difference was found for the NH4+ and NO3- (P>0.05). The results of the present study show that the application of thinning could differently affect MBN and inorganic N; accordingly, this difference might alter N availability of the study sites. This study was supported by Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute.

  16. When public health intervention is not successful: Cost sharing, crowd-out, and selection in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuncheol Bryant; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2017-03-06

    This study investigates the impact of and behavioral responses to cost sharing in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program, which provides free stomach and breast cancer screenings to those with an income below a certain cutoff. Free cancer screening substantially increases the screening take up rate, yielding more cancer detections. However, the increase in cancer detection is quickly crowded out by cancer detection through other channels such as diagnostic testing and private cancer screening. Further, compliers are much less likely to have cancer than never takers. Crowd-out and selection help explain why the program has been unable to reduce cancer mortality.

  17. Cancer incidence and mortality among temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Chung, Eun-Kyo; Jang, Jae-Kil; Lee, Hye-Eun; Ryu, Hyang-Woo; Yoo, Kye-Mook; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Kyoo-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petrochemical plant maintenance workers are exposed to various carcinogens such as benzene and metal fumes. In Korea, maintenance operations in petrochemical plants are typically performed by temporary employees hired as contract workers. Objectives: The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate cancer risk in temporary maintenance workers in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea. Methods: Subjects consisted of 14 698 male workers registered in a regional petrochemical plant maintenance workers union during 2002–2007. Cancer mortality and incidence were identified by linking with the nationwide death and cancer registries during 2002–2007 and 2002–2005, respectively. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for each cancer. Results: Increased SMR 3.61 (six cases, 95% CI: 1.32–7.87) and SIR 3.18 (five cases, 95% CI: 1.03–7.42) were observed in oral and pharyngeal cancers. Conclusion: Our findings may suggest a potential association between oral and pharyngeal cancers and temporary maintenance jobs in the petrochemical industry. Future studies should include a longer follow-up period and a quantitative exposure assessment. PMID:24999849

  18. Guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung Don; Lee, Jin Young; Son, Ji Seon; Byeon, Gyeong Jo; Yeo, Jin Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Yoo, Sie Hyeon; Hong, Ji Hee

    2017-01-01

    As the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain gradually increases, clinicians have more opportunities to encounter opioid prescription. However, guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain have never been published in Korea. The present guidelines were prepared by reviewing various research data. In cases in which the data were insufficient, recommendations were presented following discussion among experts affiliated with the Opioids Research Group in the Korean Pain Society. The present guidelines may need to be continuously revised and amended as more clinical evidence is acquired. PMID:28119768

  19. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea practice guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC.

  20. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25995680

  1. Estimates of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risk from Food Intake in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Ha, Wi-Ho; Seo, Songwon; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (131)I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food). Cancer risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated committed effective dose and the detriment adjusted nominal risk coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The lifetime committed effective doses from the daily diet are ranged 2.957-3.710 mSv. Excess lifetime cancer risks are 14.4-18.1, 0.4-0.5, and 1.8-2.3 per 100,000 for all solid cancers combined, thyroid cancer, and leukemia, respectively.

  2. Estimates of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risk from Food Intake in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 131I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food). Cancer risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated committed effective dose and the detriment adjusted nominal risk coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The lifetime committed effective doses from the daily diet are ranged 2.957-3.710 mSv. Excess lifetime cancer risks are 14.4-18.1, 0.4-0.5, and 1.8-2.3 per 100,000 for all solid cancers combined, thyroid cancer, and leukemia, respectively. PMID:26770031

  3. Chemostratigraphy of the Gohan Formation in the eastern central Korea : implications for the Capitanian environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyosang; Lee, Yong Il; Lim, Hyoun Soo

    2017-04-01

    The Gohan Formation in the Pyeongan Supergroup in central eastern Korea was deposited in a marginal marine to terrestrial setting in the Capitanian. It is 450 m thick and comprises alternation of gray-greenish medium-grained sandstone and mudrock. A detailed carbon isotope profile along with some paleoenvironmental proxies are presented for the Gohan Formation at Danyang site. CN ratios of organic matters reveal the presence of both vascular and non vascular plants. Excursion of carbon isotope ratios represents disturbance of carbon cycle. Carbon isotope values indicated a 3‰ negative excursion in the lower part of the studied section. This can be interpreted carbon cycle disturbance from the Capitanian extinction event. Mercury concentration is a proxy of volcanic activity. The horizon of a mercury peak near the bottom of the section is consistent with that of negative carbon isotope excursion and the coincidence between negative carbon isotope excursion and high mercury concentration may represent the influence from Emeishan volcanism, which has been regarded as a possible cause of the Capitanian extiction. Two more mercury peaks are noted in the upper part of the section but they are not related to carbon cycle disturbance which suggests effect of local volcanic eruptions as supported by the presence of volcanic rock fragments in coarse-grained sediment. Trace metal redox proxies indicate that the depositional basin was ventillated. TOC values tend to increase when the concentration of redox elements rise. However, the TOC and trace metal redox proxies trends are observed to behave independently of changes in carbon isotope and mercury concentrations suggesting transitions in local paleoenvironmental conditions.

  4. Setting a health policy research agenda for controlling cancer burden in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung-In; Cho, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Kwang-Sig; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    The aim of study was to provide suggestions for prioritizing research in effort to reduce cancer burden in Korea based on a comprehensive analysis of cancer burden and Delphi consensus among cancer experts. Twenty research plans covering 10 topics were selected based on an assessment of the literature, and e-mail surveys were analyzed using a two-round modified Delphi method. Thirty-four out of 79 experts were selected from four organizations to participate in round one, and 21 experts among them had completed round two. Each item had two questions; one regarding the agreement of the topic as a priority item to reduce cancer burden, and the other about the importance of the item on a nine-point scale. A consensus was defined to be an average lower coefficient of variation with less than 30% in importance. Seven plans that satisfied the three criteria were selected as priority research plans for reducing cancer burden. These plans are "research into advanced clinical guidelines for thyroid cancer given the current issue with over-diagnosis," "research into smoking management plans through price and non-price cigarette policy initiatives," "research into ways to measure the quality of cancer care," "research on policy development to expand hospice care," "research into the spread and management of Helicobacter pylori," "research on palliative care in a clinical setting," and "research into alternative mammography methods to increase the accuracy of breast cancer screenings." The seven plans identified in this study should be prioritized to reduce the burden of cancer in Korea. We suggest that policy makers and administrators study and invest significant effort in these plans.

  5. The influence of family management style on psychosocial problems of childhood cancer survivors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Hee; Im, Yeo Jin

    2015-04-01

    To examine the psychosocial problems of childhood cancer survivors in Korea and investigate whether such problems are influenced by family management style. Family members of 158 childhood cancer survivors answered a questionnaire on demographic and illness characteristics, described psychosocial problems in their children using the Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PSC), and completed the Family Management Measure (FaMM). Perceived economic status and all six subscales of the FaMM were significantly correlated with children's psychosocial problems. In a multiple regression model, the Family Life Difficulty and Parental Mutuality scales of the FaMM were each independent predictors of psychosocial problems in young cancer survivors. A detailed care plan designed to (1) promote balance between the management of a child's condition and normal family life and (2) encourage parents to share their feelings with one another and provide mutual support should be required to improve psychosocial outcomes for childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Negative Public Attitudes Towards Cancer Survivors Returning to Work: A Nationwide Survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hye-Young; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jong Heun; Kim, So-Young; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2016-04-01

    Early diagnosis and an improved survival rate have emerged as important issues for cancer survivors returning to work during the prime of their working life. This study investigated the attitudes of the general public towards cancer survivors returning to work in Korea and attempted to identify the factors influencing this negative attitude. A general public perception survey regarding cancer survivors returning to work, targeting 2,000 individuals between 40-70 years of age, was conducted as face-to-face home visit. The public expressed a negative attitude towards cancer survivors returning to work, in terms of both perception and acceptance. Negative perception was higher among those in metropolitan areas compared with urban/rural areas (odds ratio [OR], 1.71), with monthly incomes < $2,000 compared with > $4,000 (OR, 1.54), and with patient care experience compared with those without (OR, 1.41). Negative acceptance was higher among those with monthly incomes < $2,000 compared with > $4,000 (OR, 1.71) and those with patient care experience compared with those without (OR, 1.54). The common factors between acceptance and perception that influenced negative attitude included area of residence, patient care experience, and monthly income. This study identified negative attitudes towards cancer survivors returning to work in South Korea and the factors influencing the reintegration of cancer survivors into society. It is necessary to promote community awareness and intervention activities to enable access to community, social, and individual units for the social reintegration of cancer survivors.

  7. Childhood cancer mortality and birth characteristics in Korea: a national population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cha, Eun Shil; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Moon, Eun Kyeong; Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Won Jin

    2011-03-01

    To examine the relationship between birth characteristics and childhood cancer mortality, a retrospective cohort study of Korean children was conducted using data collected by the national birth register between 1995 and 2006, which were then individually linked to death data. A cohort of 6,479,406 children was followed from birth until their death or until December 31, 2006. Poisson regression analyses were used to calculate rate ratios of childhood cancer deaths according to birth characteristics. A total of 1,469 cancer deaths were noted and the childhood cancer mortality rate was found to be 3.43 per 100,000 person-years in Korea during the period of 1995-2006. The birth characteristics examined in this study (i.e. , birth weight, gestational age, multiple births, parental ages, and number of siblings) were generally found to be not significantly associated with childhood cancer mortality, and the associations did not vary meaningfully with gender nor with cancer sites. However, among children aged 5-11 yr, higher birth weight was associated with elevated childhood cancer mortality (rate ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.58). Our results offer no overall associations between childhood cancer mortality and birth characteristics, but suggest that the association may be specific to age group.

  8. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Waymire, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  9. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Ae; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-07-30

    The role of diet-associated inflammation in colorectal cancer is of interest. Accordingly, we aimed to examine whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII) was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study conducted in Korea. The DII was based on dietary intake, which was determined by a 106-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire completed by 923 colorectal cancer cases and 1846 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were conducted by the anatomical site of the cancer, sex, and other risk factors. Higher DII scores were associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer (OR (95% CI) = 2.16 (1.71, 2.73) for highest vs. lowest tertile). The magnitude differed by anatomical site and sex. This association was slightly weaker in subjects with proximal colon cancer (1.68 (1.08, 2.61)) and was stronger in women (2.50 (1.64, 3.82)). Additionally, stronger associations were observed in subjects who were older than 50 years (p for interaction = 0.004) and engaged in physical activity (p for interaction < 0.001). Results from this study suggest that diet-associated inflammation may increase the risk of colorectal cancer, and this effect may differ by certain factors, such as anatomical site, age, sex, and lifestyle.

  10. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43–0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  11. Risk prediction model for colorectal cancer: National Health Insurance Corporation study, Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Joo, Jungnam; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Bak, Jeongin; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeongseon; Oh, Jae Hwan; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer have been rapidly increasing in Korea during last few decades. Development of risk prediction models for colorectal cancer in Korean men and women is urgently needed to enhance its prevention and early detection. Gender specific five-year risk prediction models were developed for overall colorectal cancer, proximal colon cancer, distal colon cancer, colon cancer and rectal cancer. The model was developed using data from a population of 846,559 men and 479,449 women who participated in health examinations by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Examinees were 30-80 years old and free of cancer in the baseline years of 1996 and 1997. An independent population of 547,874 men and 415,875 women who participated in 1998 and 1999 examinations was used to validate the model. Model validation was done by evaluating its performance in terms of discrimination and calibration ability using the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow-type chi-square statistics. Age, body mass index, serum cholesterol, family history of cancer, and alcohol consumption were included in all models for men, whereas age, height, and meat intake frequency were included in all models for women. Models showed moderately good discrimination ability with C-statistics between 0.69 and 0.78. The C-statistics were generally higher in the models for men, whereas the calibration abilities were generally better in the models for women. Colorectal cancer risk prediction models were developed from large-scale, population-based data. Those models can be used for identifying high risk groups and developing preventive intervention strategies for colorectal cancer.

  12. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers’ involvement. Design A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. Setting A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. Participants The snowball method was used to select mothers. Results Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers’ awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. Conclusions The mothers’ awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:25976761

  13. Colorectal cancer among Koreans living in South Korea versus California: incidence, mortality, and screening rates.

    PubMed

    Ryu, So Yeon; Crespi, Catherine M; Maxwell, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    This study compared trends in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates among Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California between 1999 and 2009, and examined CRC screening rates and socio-demographic correlates of CRC screening in the two Korean populations. Age-standardized CRC incidence and mortality rates of Koreans in South Korea and Korean Americans and non-Hispanic whites in California for the years 1999-2009 were obtained from annual reports of cancer statistics and modeled using joinpoint regression. Using 2009 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the California Health Interview Survey, we estimated and compared CRC screening rates and test modalities. We used multiple logistic regression to examine socio-demographic correlates of completion of CRC screening according to the guidelines among the two Korean populations. CRC incidence and mortality rates among South Koreans increased during 1999-2009 but more slowly during the late 2000s. In California, CRC incidence increased among Korean American females but decreased among non-Hispanic whites. About 37% of South Koreans and 60% of Korean Americans reported completion of CRC screening according to guidelines in 2009. Among South Koreans, married status, higher income, and private health insurance were associated with CRC screening, adjusting for other factors. Among Korean Americans, having health insurance was associated with CRC screening. Despite almost identical CRC screening guidelines in South Korea and the USA and substantially higher screening rates among Korean Americans as compared to South Koreans, disparities remain in both populations with respect to CRC statistics. Thus, efforts to promote primary and secondary prevention of CRC in both Korean populations are critically important in both countries.

  14. Dust exposure and the risk of cancer in cement industry workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seunghee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Cement is used widely in the construction industry, though it contains hazardous chemicals such as hexavalent chromium. Several epidemiological studies have examined the association between cement dust exposure and cancer, but these associations have proved inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the association between dust exposure and cancer in cement industry workers in Korea. Our cohort consisted of 1,324 men who worked at two Portland cement manufacturing factories between 1997 and 2005. We calculated cumulative dust exposures, then categorized workers into high and low dust exposure groups. Cancer cases were identified between 1997 and 2005 by linking with the national cancer registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for all workers and the high and low dust exposure groups, respectively. The SIR for overall cancers in all workers was increased (1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.78). The SIR for stomach cancer in the high dust exposure group was increased (2.18, 95% CI: 1.19-3.65), but there was no increased stomach cancer risk in the low dust exposure group. The SIR for rectal cancer in all workers was increased (3.05, 95% CI: 1.32-6.02). Rectal cancer risk was similar in the high and low exposure groups. Our findings suggest a potential association between exposure in the cement industry and an increased risk of stomach and rectal cancers. However, due to the small number of cases, this association should be further investigated in a study with a longer follow-up period and adjustment for confounders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cancer-related fatigue: central or peripheral?

    PubMed

    Yavuzsen, Tugba; Davis, Mellar P; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Walsh, Declan; Siemionow, Vlodek; Kirkova, Jordanka; Khoshknabi, Dilara; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan; Yue, Guang H

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate cancer-related fatigue (CRF) by objective measurements to determine if CRF is a more centrally or peripherally mediated disorder, cancer patients and matched noncancer controls completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) and underwent neuromuscular testing. Cancer patients had fatigue measured by the BFI, were off chemotherapy and radiation (for more than four weeks), had a hemoglobin level higher than 10 g/dL, and were neither receiving antidepressants nor were depressed on a screening question. The controls were screened for depression and matched by age, gender, and body mass index. Neuromuscular testing involved a sustained submaximal elbow flexion contraction (SC) at 30% maximal level (30% maximum elbow flexion force). Endurance time (ET) was measured from the beginning of the SC to the time when participants could not maintain the SC. Evoked twitch force (TF), a measure of muscle fatigue, and compound action potential (M-wave), an assessment of neuromuscular-junction transmission were performed during the SC. Compared with controls, the CRF group had a higher BFI score (P<0.001), a shorter ET (P<0.001), and a greater TF with the SC (CRF>controls, P<0.05). This indicated less muscle fatigue. There was a greater TF (P<0.05) at the end of the SC, indicating greater central fatigue, in the CRF group, which failed to recruit muscle (to continue the SC), as well as the controls. M-Wave amplitude was lower in the CRF group than in the controls (P<0.01), indicating impaired neuromuscular junction conduction with CRF unrelated to central fatigue (M-wave amplitude did not change with SC). These data demonstrate that CRF patients exhibited greater central fatigue, indicated by shorter ET and less voluntary muscle recruitment during an SC relative to controls.

  16. [Synopsis on clinical practice guideline of gastric cancer in Korea: an evidence-based approach].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae G; Jung, Hye Kyung; Kim, Jung Hoon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Jeon, Tae Joo; Kim, Joon Mee; Kim, Young Il; Ryu, Keun Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyoung Il; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Kim, Yong Sik; Zang, Dae Young; Cho, Jae Yong; Park, Joon Oh; Lim, Do Hoon; Jung, Eun Sun; Ahn, Hyeong Sik; Kim, Hyun Jung

    2014-02-01

    Although, gastric cancer is quite common in Korea, the treatment outcome is relatively favorable compared to that of Western countries. However, there is no Korean multidisciplinary guideline for gastric cancer and thus, a guideline adequate for domestic circumstances is required. Experts from related societies developed 22 recommendation statements for the diagnosis (n=9) and treatment (n=13) based on relevant key questions. Evidence levels based on systematic review of literatures were classified as five levels from A to E, and recommendation grades were classified as either strong or weak. The topics of this guideline cover diagnostic modalities (endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, radiologic diagnosis), treatment modalities (surgery, therapeutic endoscopy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) and pathologic evaluation. External review of the guideline was conducted at the finalization phase.

  17. [Diagnosis and risk assessment of postoperative complications of gastric cancer in Japan and Korea].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Chi

    2017-02-25

    Radical surgery of gastric cancer (D2 lymph node dissection) as the standard operation is widely used in clinical practice and satisfactory prognosis can be obtained in patients who receive radical gastrectomy. But surgical invasion can cause high morbidity of complications and mortality. The data of large-scale evidence-based medical clinical trials and large databases in Japan and Korea showed that anastomotic leakage, pancreatic leakage and abdominal abscess were the most common complications after gastrectomy, and the morbidity of complication was about 20% and mortality was about 1%. The risk factors such as elderly, obesity, and comorbidities may increase the morbidity of complications and mortality, and these factors were regarded as poor predictors after operation. Postoperative complications criteria of gastric cancer surgery is mainly used with Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications as international standard, and this criteria is also used in Korea. The postoperative complications are evaluated with the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE v4.0) and Japanese Clinical Oncology Group(JCOG) postoperative complications criteria for grading definitions of postoperative complications after gastric surgery in Japan. These classifications of postoperative complications criteria were adopted widely in Japan with large-scale evidence-based medical clinical trials of gastric cancer. PS, ASA, POSSUM, E-PASS, APACHE-II(, Charison weighted index of comorbidities (WIC), Frailty Score was used in predicting postoperative mortality and morbidity in gastric cancer patients. These risk factors were assigned points in scoring systems to objectively evaluate risk of surgery, and surgical operation method was one of the risk factors on the basis of these scoring systems. We can use these scoring systems for choosing reasonable surgical methods and proper perioperative management.

  18. The Economic Burden of Breast Cancer in Korea from 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Ae; Oh, In-Hwan; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Eun-Jung; Lee, Yo Han; Jung, Jae Hun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study estimates the socioeconomic cost and burden for breast cancer patients in Korea between 2007 and 2010. Materials and Methods This study used a prevalence-based approach to estimate the cost of breast cancer. Breast cancer patients were defined as those who were hospitalized or have visited an outpatient clinic during the period from 2007 to 2010. The socioeconomic costs of breast cancer were subdivided into two costs: direct and indirect. Results From 2007 to 2010, the prevalence of treated breast cancer increased from 7.9% to 20.4%. The total socioeconomic costs incurred by breast cancer increased by approximately 40.7% from US $668.49 million in 2007 to US $940.75 million in 2010. The direct medical care costs for 2010 were 1.4 times greater (US $399.22 million) than for 2007 (US $278.71 million). The direct non-medical costs rose from US $50.69 million in 2007 to US $75.83 million in 2010, a 49.6% increase. Regarding the economic burden of breast cancer, the total indirect costs were US $339.09 million in 2007 and increased by 37.3% to US $465.70 million in 2010. In the sensitivity analysis, with the annual discount rate for each year ranging from 0%-5%, the costs increased 1.1-1.2 times. Conclusion Due to the growing incidence of breast cancer, the annual prevalence and related costs are increasing. We must strive to reduce the socioeconomic burden of breast cancer through preventive measures and early screening. PMID:25687860

  19. Risks of Lung Cancer due to Radon Exposure among the Regions of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Lim, Dohee; Park, Su Hyun; Baik, Sun Jung; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Park, Hyesook

    2015-05-01

    Radon is likely the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. We estimated the lung cancer risk due to radon using common risk models. Based on national radon survey data, we estimated the population-attributable fraction (PAF) and the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon. The exposure-age duration (EAD) and exposure-age concentration (EAC) models were used. The regional average indoor radon concentration was 37.5 95 Bq/m(3). The PAF for lung cancer was 8.3% (European Pooling Study model), 13.5% in males and 20.4% in females by EAD model, and 19.5% in males and 28.2% in females by EAC model. Due to differences in smoking by gender, the PAF of radon-induced lung cancer deaths was higher in females. In the Republic of Korea, the risk of radon is not widely recognized. Thus, information about radon health risks is important and efforts are needed to decrease the associated health problems.

  20. The Effects of Occupational Stress, Work-Centrality, Self-Efficacy, and Job Satisfaction on Intent to Quit Among Long-Term Care Workers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongkyu; Yoon, Seokwon; Moon, Sung Seek; Lee, Kyoung Hag; Park, Jueun

    2017-01-01

    A large and growing population of elderly Koreans with chronic conditions necessitates an increase in long-term care. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of occupational stress, work-centrality, self-efficacy, and job satisfaction on intent to leave among long-term care workers in Korea. We tested the hypothesized structural equation model predicting the intention to quit among long-term care workers in Korea. Survey data were collected from 532 long-term care workers in Seoul, Korea. Results showed that occupational stress was positively associated with intention to leave the job. The study also identified several possible mediators (self-efficacy, work-centrality, job satisfaction) in the relationship between stress and intent to quit. Evidence-based stress management interventions are suggested to help the workers better cope with stressors. Mentoring programs should also be considered for new workers.

  1. Clinical Validation of Anyplex II HPV HR Detection Test for Cervical Cancer Screening in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunkyung; Lee, Byungdoo; Lee, Kap No; Kim, Yonggoo; Oh, Eun-Jee

    2016-03-01

    The Anyplex II HPV HR detection kit (Seegene Inc, Seoul, Korea) is a new, multiplex, real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to detect individual 14 high-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) types in a single tube. To evaluate the clinical performance of the HPV HR kit in predicting high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse in cervical cancer screening. We analyzed 1137 cervical samples in Huro Path medium (CelltraZone, Seoul, Korea) from Korean women. The clinical performance of the HPV HR kit was compared with Hybrid Capture 2 (Qiagen, Valencia, California) using the noninferiority score test in a routine cervical cancer screening setting. The intralaboratory and interlaboratory agreements of HPV HR were also evaluated. Overall agreement between the 2 assays was 92.4% (1051 of 1137) with a κ value of 0.787. Clinical sensitivity of HPV HR for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical intraepithelial lesions grade 2 or worse was 94.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 89.2-99.7) and 92.5% (95% CI, 84.3-100.0), respectively. The respective values for Hybrid Capture 2 were 93.1% (95% CI, 87.2-98.9) and 87.5% (95% CI, 77.3-99.7). Clinical sensitivity and specificity of HPV HR were not inferior to those of Hybrid Capture 2 (P = .005 and P = .04, respectively). The HPV HR showed good intralaboratory and interlaboratory reproducibility at 98.0% (κ = 0.953) and 97.4% (κ = 0.940), respectively. The HPV HR demonstrates comparable performance to the Hybrid Capture 2 test and can be useful for HPV-based cervical cancer screening testing.

  2. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Gastric Cancer in Korea: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the context of the global decrease in mortality due to gastric cancer, previous studies have reported that the effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on the incidence of gastric cancer varies among regions. This systematic review was conducted to investigate H. pylori as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Korea, where the incidence of gastric cancer is among the highest in the world. Methods: A search strategy was established to identify articles published in Korean as well as in English. Ultimately, we included observational studies conducted among Korean patients that designed with an age-matched and sex-matched control group that reported the odds ratio associated with H. pylori. Gastric cancer cases were subdivided into overall (OGC), cardia (CGC), non-cardia (NGC), early (EGC), advanced, intestinal (IGC), and diffuse forms of gastric cancer. Summary odds ratios (SORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the meta-analysis using a random-effect model. Results: Eleven case-control studies were ultimately selected. H. pylori was associated with an SOR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29 to 2.54) for OGC. Additionally, statistically significant risks were observed for CGC, NGC, EGC, and IGC. Conclusions: Chronic H. pylori infection was found to raise the risk of gastric cancer among Koreans, with the highest risk observed for CGC and EGC (SOR=2.88 for both). Follow-up clinical epidemiologic studies are needed to assess the effects of current treatments aimed at eradicating H. pylori infections. PMID:27499162

  3. Effectiveness of gastric cancer screening programs in South Korea: Organized vs opportunistic models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Jin; Heo, Chae; Kim, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Jae Yeol; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcome and effectiveness of two screening programs, National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opportunistic screening (OS), for the detection of gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 45  654 subjects underwent upper endoscopy as part of the NCSP or OS at the Chung-Ang University Healthcare System in Korea between January 2007 and December 2010. The study population was comprised of subjects over the age of 40 years. More specifically, subjects who took part in the NCSP were Medicaid recipients and beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Corporation. Still photographs from the endoscopies diagnosed as gastric cancer were reviewed by two experienced endoscopists. RESULTS: The mean age of the screened subjects was 55 years for men and 54 years for women. A total of 126 cases (0.28%) of gastric cancer were detected from both screening programs; 100 cases (0.3%) from NCSP and in 26 cases (0.2%) from OS. The proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) detected in NCSP was higher than that in OS (74.0% vs 53.8%, P = 0.046). Among the 34  416 screenees in NCSP, 6585 (19.1%) underwent upper endoscopy every other year as scheduled. Among the 11  238 screenees in OS, 3050 (27.1%) underwent upper endoscopy at least once every two years during the study period. The detection rate of gastric cancer was found to be significantly higher during irregular follow-up than during regular follow-up in both screening programs (0.3% vs 0.2%, P = 0.036). A higher incidence of EGC than advanced gastric cancer was observed during regular follow-up compared with irregular follow-up. CONCLUSION: Compliance to the screening program is more important than the type of screening system used. PMID:23430471

  4. Gastric cancer and salt preference: a population-based cohort study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Park, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2010-05-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer is declining, it remains the most common cancer in Korea. There have been discrepancies in epidemiologic studies regarding a causal relation between highly salted food and the risk of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of salt preference on the incidence of gastric cancer in Korean adults through a population-based, prospective cohort study. Participants were Korean government employees, school faculty members, and their unemployed dependents, aged 30-80 y, who underwent health examinations between 1996 and 1997. In 2003, information on the gastric cancer incidence in these participants was obtained during the 6-7-y follow-up period. The final data analysis included 2,248,129 study subjects. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI of the HR were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years for the overall total population, men only, and women only were 97.64, 136.03, and 52.90, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards regression model, with adjustment for possible confounding factors, showed evidence of an increased risk of gastric cancer with salt preference. The HRs were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.16) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.17) for the overall total population and men only, respectively. The current findings suggest that salt preference has a marginal positive association with a risk of gastric cancer.

  5. Changes in economic status of households associated with catastrophic health expenditures for cancer in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Cho, Kyoung-Hee; Choi, Young; Han, Kyu-Tae; Kwon, Jeoung-A; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Cancer imposes significant economic challenges for individuals, families, and society. Households of cancer patients often experience income loss due to change in job status and/or excessive medical expenses. Thus, we examined whether changes in economic status for such households is affected by catastrophic health expenditures. We used the Korea Health Panel Survey (KHPS) Panel 1st-4th (2008- 2011 subjects) data and extracted records from 211 out of 5,332 households in the database for this study. To identify factors associated with catastrophic health expenditures and, in particular, to examine the relationship between change in economic status and catastrophic health expenditures, we conducted a generalized linear model analysis. Among 211 households with cancer patients, 84 (39.8%) experienced catastrophic health expenditures, while 127 (40.2%) did not show evidence of catastrophic medical costs. If a change in economic status results from a change in job status for head of household (job loss), these households are more likely to incur catastrophic health expenditure than households who have not experienced a change in job status (odds ratios (ORs)=2.17, 2.63, respectively). A comparison between households with a newly-diagnosed patient versus households with patients having lived with cancer for one or two years, showed the longer patients had cancer, the more likely their households incurred catastrophic medical costs (OR=1.78, 1.36, respectively). Change in economic status of households in which the cancer patient was the head of household was associated with a greater likelihood that the household would incur catastrophic health costs. It is imperative that the Korean government connect health and labor policies in order to develop economic programs to assist households with cancer patients.

  6. Pregnancy-Associated Risk Factors of Postpartum Breast Cancer in Korea: A Nationwide Health Insurance Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun Joo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kim, Log Young; Park, Geun U.; Oh, Min-Jeong; Park, Pyoung-Jae; Cho, Geum Joon

    2016-01-01

    Patients with postpartum breast cancer have been reported to have a poor prognosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the pregnancy-related risk factors of postpartum breast cancer in Korea. We collected patient data from the Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) for the 2009–2013 period. We evaluated the pregnancy-related risk factors for postpartum breast cancer in two population groups. For Group 1 (women who had given birth during the 2010–2012 period), data on those who were diagnosed with breast cancer from childbirth to 1-year postpartum were extracted. For Group 2, we extracted the data of women who gave birth in 2010 and traced them until December 31, 2013. In Group 1, 1,384,551 deliveries and 317 postpartum breast cancer patients were recorded in Korea between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Women aged ≥35 years (Odds Ratio [OR], 2.003; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.567–2.560) and those who gave birth via cesarean delivery (OR, 1.237; 95% CI, 0.986–1.553) were considered to be at a higher risk for breast cancer. Lower risk was noted in primiparous women (OR, 0.737; 95% CI, 0.585–0.928). In Group 2, the data of 457,924 women who gave birth in 2010 were traced until December 31, 2013. Among them, 655 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, and age ≥35 years and cesarean delivery were associated with an higher risk of breast cancer, whereas primiparous status was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, older age (≥35 years) and cesarean delivery are significant risk factors for postpartum breast cancer, and primiparous women have a lower risk of developing postpartum breast cancer. PMID:27977789

  7. [Factors Influencing Quality of Life during Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer Patients in South Korea].

    PubMed

    Baek, Yongae; Yi, Myungsun

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of physical symptoms, anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL) during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer patients in South Korea and to identify factors influencing their QOL. Data were collected from 144 colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy during 2012 at one general hospital located in Seoul. Physical symptoms were measured by the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory-Gastrointestinal Cancer Module, and anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. QOL was measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Scheffé post hoc test, Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression. Mean age of the participants was 56.6 and most of them were not employed. In terms of cancer stage, 38.2% were in stage 3, followed by stage 4 (34.7%). The most frequent symptom was lack of appetite, followed by sleep disturbance and fatigue. The mean score for anxiety was 5.40 with a prevalence of 23% and that of depression 8.85 with a prevalence of 64.6%. The mean score for quality of life was 81.93 out of 136 and 75.3% of the variance in QOL was explained by depression, symptoms, anxiety, treatment place, and occupational status. Depression was the strongest predictive factor. Oncology professionals need to pay special attention to relieving depression as well as physical symptoms to improve QOL during chemotherapy for colorectal cancer patients.

  8. Lymphohematopoietic Cancer Mortality and Morbidity of Workers in a Refinery/Petrochemical Complex in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Woo; Yoon, Yong-Hoon; Shin, Kyung-Seok; Yoo, Seung-Won

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to investigate the relationship between exposure of Korean workers to petrochemicals in the refinery/petrochemical industry and lymphohematopoietic cancers. Methods The cohort consisted of 8,866 male workers who had worked from the 1960s to 2007 at one refinery and six petrochemical companies located in a refinery/petrochemical complex in Korea that produce benzene or use benzene as a raw material. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for 1992-2007 and 1997-2005 based on the death rate and cancer incidence rate of the Korean male population according to job title (production, maintenance, laboratory, and office workers). Results The overall mortality and most cause-specific mortalities were lower among these workers than those of the general Korean population. Increased SMRs were observed for leukemia (4/1.45; SMR 2.77, 95% CI: 0.75-7.09) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/2.51; SMR 2, 95% CI: 0.65-4.66) in production workers, and increased SIRs were also observed in leukemia (3/1.34; SIR 2.24, 95% CI: 0.46-6.54) and lymphohematopoietic cancers (5/3.39; SIR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.48-3.44) in production workers, but the results were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results showed a potential relationship between leukemia and lymphohematopoietic cancers and exposure to benzene in refinery/petrochemical complex workers. This study yielded limited results due to a short observational period; therefore, a follow-up study must be performed to elucidate the relationship between petrochemical exposure and cancer rates. PMID:22953184

  9. Summer-time thermal environment characteristics in central Korea using Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Park, Jong-Hwa; Na, Sang-il

    2010-10-01

    Urban heat island(UHI) effect is the temperature increase in urban areas compared to that in surrounding rural areas and is caused by a number of factors, such as land use / land cover (LULC)change, increase fuel consumption and lack of vegetation in urban core areas. The replacement of natural surface types from soil and vegetation to impervious materials such as asphalt and concrete structures affects the albedo and runoff characteristics of the urban land surface. The impervious materials have a lower albedo than soil and vegetation and hold more solar energy, which increase land surface temperature (LST) during the summer season. UHI effects on the center region of South Korea were analyzed using remotely sensed data. The objectives of this study are to examine the summer-time thermal environment of the Cheongju city in Korea, review the satellite assessment of the thermal environment of LULC, and compare thermal environment in 1991 to 2006. Chang detection of thermal environment is performed to determine whether a significant change has occurred. The average of LST of study area has increased 2.7°C during 15years because of changed land cover from paddy field and forest to barren, factory, and concrete. This case study indicates that barren, factory, and residential apartment over on the Cheongju and Ochang increased in the late 1990s and that vegetation area are changing predominantly in the direction of decreased forest and paddy fields. Decreasing forest and paddy fields are an important result, as it suggests that directional changes are occurring on the Cheongju and Ochang that are consistent with experimental urban warming. The most influential factors for controlling the summer-time thermal environment are the distribution of surface cover characteristics (e.g. LULC) and urban morphology, such as urban consistence materials, geometry, development stage, and density.

  10. Non-cancer Diseases of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors in Residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-01-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined non-cancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors. PMID:16778377

  11. Cost-effective mammography screening in Korea: high incidence of breast cancer in young women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon Young; Jeong, Seong Hwa; Kim, Youn Nam; Kim, Jinheum; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon-Chang; Nam, Chung Mo

    2009-06-01

    The epidemiological characteristics of breast cancer in Korean women are different from the characteristics reported in Western women. The highest incidence rate occurs in Korean women in their 40s. The purpose of this study was to determine the most cost-effective screening interval and target age range for Korean women from the perspective of the national healthcare system. A stochastic model was used to simulate breast cancer screenings by varying both the screening intervals and the age ranges. The effectiveness of mammography screening was defined as the probability of detecting breast cancer in the preclinical state and the cost was based on the direct cost of mammography screening and the confirmative tests. The age-specific mean sojourn times and the sensitivity of the mammography were applied in the stochastic model. An optimal cost-effectiveness was determined by the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio and lifetime schedule sensitivity. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to assess parameter uncertainty. The selected cost-effective strategies were: (1) the current biennial mammography screenings for women who are at least 40 years old; (2) biennial screening for women between the ages of 35 and 75 years; and (3) a combination strategy consisting of biennial screening for women aged between 45 and 54 years, and 3-year interval screening for women aged between 40 and 44 years and 55 and 65 years. Further studies should follow to investigate the effectiveness of mammography screening in women younger than 40 years in Asia as well as in Korea.

  12. Secular trends in breast cancer mortality in five East Asian populations: Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hai-Rim; Boniol, Mathieu; Joubert, Clementine; Hery, Clarisse; Haukka, Jari; Autier, Philippe; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Sobue, Tomotaka; Chen, Chien-Jen; You, San-Lin; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Jung, Kyu Won; Law, Stephen Chun-Key; Mang, Oscar; Chia, Kee-Seng

    2010-05-01

    Breast cancer risk is increasing in most Asian female populations, but little is known about the long-term mortality trend of the disease among these populations. We extracted data for Hong Kong (1979-2005), Japan (1963-2006), Korea (1985-2006), and Singapore (1963-2006) from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database and for Taiwan (1964-2007) from the Taiwan cancer registry. The annual age-standardized, truncated (to > or =20 years) breast cancer death rates for 11 age groups were estimated and joinpoint regression was applied to detect significant changes in breast cancer mortality. We also compared age-specific mortality rates for three calendar periods (1975-1984, 1985-1994, and 1995-2006). After 1990, breast cancer mortality tended to decrease slightly in Hong Kong and Singapore except for women aged 70+. In Taiwan and Japan, in contrast, breast cancer death rates increased throughout the entire study period. Before the 1990s, breast cancer death rates were almost the same in Taiwan and Japan; thereafter, up to 1996, they rose more steeply in Taiwan and then they began rising more rapidly in Japan than in Taiwan after 1996. The most rapid increases in breast cancer mortality, and for all age groups, were in Korea. Breast cancer mortality trends are expected to maintain the secular trend for the next decade mainly as the prevalence of risk factors changes and population ages in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Early detection and treatment improvement will continue to reduce the mortality rates in Hong Kong and Singapore as observed in Western countries.

  13. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  14. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho

    2016-08-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients.

  15. Economic evaluation of eribulin as second-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Majethia, Unnati; Breeze, Janis L; Kontoudis, Ilias; Park, Jeongae

    2016-01-01

    Background Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly for those patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative tumor. Similar to the rest of the world, treatment options are limited in South Korea following first-line chemotherapy with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of eribulin in South Korean patients with HER2-negative MBC who have progressed after usage of at least one chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced disease (second-line therapy). Methods A partition survival model was developed from the perspective of the South Korean health care system. The economic impact of introducing eribulin as second-line therapy for HER2-negative MBC was compared to that of capecitabine and vinorelbine. The analysis estimated incremental cost per life-year (LY), that is, cost-effectiveness, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), that is, cost-utility, of eribulin for management of HER2-negative MBC in South Korea. The model accounted for overall survival, progression-free survival, drug costs, grade 3/4 adverse events, and health care utilization. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to identify uncertainty in the results of the economic evaluation. Results Second-line eribulin was associated with greater benefits in terms of LY and QALY, compared to capecitabine and vinorelbine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was ₩10.5M (approximately USD 9,200) per LY, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was ₩17M (approximately USD 14,800) per QALY in the basecase analysis. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from ₩12M (USD 10,461) to ₩27M (USD 23,538) per QALY in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, >99% of the simulations were below ₩50M (USD 42,300), and the lower and upper 95% confidence intervals were ₩3M (USD 2,600) and ₩24M (USD 20,900) per QALY

  16. Economic evaluation of eribulin as second-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Majethia, Unnati; Breeze, Janis L; Kontoudis, Ilias; Park, Jeongae

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly for those patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative tumor. Similar to the rest of the world, treatment options are limited in South Korea following first-line chemotherapy with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of eribulin in South Korean patients with HER2-negative MBC who have progressed after usage of at least one chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced disease (second-line therapy). A partition survival model was developed from the perspective of the South Korean health care system. The economic impact of introducing eribulin as second-line therapy for HER2-negative MBC was compared to that of capecitabine and vinorelbine. The analysis estimated incremental cost per life-year (LY), that is, cost-effectiveness, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), that is, cost-utility, of eribulin for management of HER2-negative MBC in South Korea. The model accounted for overall survival, progression-free survival, drug costs, grade 3/4 adverse events, and health care utilization. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to identify uncertainty in the results of the economic evaluation. Second-line eribulin was associated with greater benefits in terms of LY and QALY, compared to capecitabine and vinorelbine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was ₩10.5M (approximately USD 9,200) per LY, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was ₩17M (approximately USD 14,800) per QALY in the basecase analysis. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from ₩12M (USD 10,461) to ₩27M (USD 23,538) per QALY in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, >99% of the simulations were below ₩50M (USD 42,300), and the lower and upper 95% confidence intervals were ₩3M (USD 2,600) and ₩24M (USD 20,900) per QALY, respectively. There currently exist

  17. Supergene vermiculitization of phlogopite and biotite in ultramafic and mafic rocks, central Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, H.S.; Song, Y.; Lee, S.Y.

    1994-12-31

    An X-ray diffraction study of vermiculitized micas in ultramafic and mafic intrusive rocks from Cheongyang, Korea, shows the following weathering sequence: mica to ordered mica/vermiculite interstratification to vermiculite. Electron microprobe analyses show the general trends of K leaching and Ca enrichment with increased weathering. The vermiculitization of phlogopite from ultramafic rocks proceeds by means of a continuous decrease in Al-for-Si tetrahedral substitutions and a progressive increase in Al-for-(Fe{sup 2+} + Mg) octahedral substitutions in the early stage of weathering.these substitutions occur to compensate for the excess of negative charge in the mica-like layer, in agreement with currently accepted vermiculitization mechanisms. They change to a slight increase of Al-for-Si tetrahedral substitutions in the late stage of the vermiculitization of phlogopite, owing to the oxidation of Fe despite its low content. However, the behavior of Fe in the late stage of the transformation of biotite into vermiculite is significantly different; that is, Fe increases substantially. The reason for this Fe increase in the late stage remains unresolved. Recalculations of the structural formulas on the basis of several assumptions indicate that the oxidation of Fe is necessary for the vermiculite derived from biotite to form the reasonable structural formulas.

  18. Numerical simulations of heavy rainfall over central Korea on 21 September 2010 using the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Ui-Yong; Hong, Jinkyu; Hong, Song-You; Shin, Hyeyum Hailey

    2015-06-01

    On 21 September 2010, heavy rainfall with a local maximum of 259 mm d-1 occurred near Seoul, South Korea. We examined the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in reproducing this disastrous rainfall event and identified the role of two physical processes: planetary boundary layer (PBL) and microphysics (MPS) processes. The WRF model was forced by 6-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Final analysis (FNL) data for 36 hours form 1200 UTC 20 to 0000 UTC 22 September 2010. Twenty-five experiments were performed, consisting of five different PBL schemes—Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), Quasi Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE), Bougeault and Lacarrere (BouLac), and University of Washington (UW)—and five different MPS schemes—WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6), Goddard, Thompson, Milbrandt 2-moments, and Morrison 2-moments. As expected, there was a specific combination of MPS and PBL schemes that showed good skill in forecasting the precipitation. However, there was no specific PBL or MPS scheme that outperformed the others in all aspects. The experiments with the UW PBL or Thompson MPS scheme showed a relatively small amount of precipitation. Analyses form the sensitivity experiments confirmed that the spatial distribution of the simulated precipitation was dominated by the PBL processes, whereas the MPS processes determined the amount of rainfall. It was also found that the temporal evolution of the precipitation was influenced more by the PBL processes than by the MPS processes.

  19. Psychosocial needs of low-income people with cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yi, Myungsun; Park, Keeho; Park, Eun Young

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate significant psychosocial needs of low-income people with cancer in Korea and the extent to which these needs are unmet and which factors influence them. A descriptive study with a cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected by questionnaires from a convenience sample of 238 low-income people with cancer during 2009. A psychosocial needs inventory consisting of 7 categories with 48 items was used to identify significant psychosocial needs and unmet needs. Unmet psychosocial needs were defined to the needs that the participants reported as both important and unsatisfied. Influencing factors defined with multivariate regression analysis. "Health professionals" was the most important needs category, followed by "information. Among the 48 items, 37 were identified to be important or very important by more than 50% of the participants. All 37 important psychosocial needs were also identified to be unmet needs. "Emotional and spiritual" was the most unmet psychosocial needs category, followed by "practical matters" and "identity" categories. The most unmet need item was 'help with financial matters' (50.0%). The strongest influencing factor was 'no one to talk with'. Low-income people with cancer experience high levels of unmet needs across a wide range of psychosocial needs. They need to be supported not only for practical matters but also for emotional and spiritual areas. The results provide a first step towards a development of interventions tailored to meet psychosocial needs and expectations of low-income people with cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    W81XWH-04-1-0701 TITLE: Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Urszula T. Iwaniec...CONTRACT NUMBER Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...control of obesity through centrally administered, recombinant adeno-associated virus leptin gene (rAAV-lep) therapy will decrease the incidence of

  1. Protocol of a Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS): a prospective, clinical and epidemiological study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Belong; Hwang, Yunji; Choi, June Young; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, Hoonsung; Choi, Ho-Chun; An, Ah Reum; Park, Do Joon; Park, Sue K; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid cancer incidence in Korea is the highest in the world and has recently increased steeply. However, factors contributing to this sudden increase have not been fully elucidated, and few studies have explored the postoperative prognosis. The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) was initiated with three aims: (1) to identify factors predicting quality of life, recurrence, and incidence of other diseases after thyroid cancer treatments; (2) to investigate environmental exposure to radiation, toxicants and molecular factors in relation to tumour aggressiveness; and (3) to evaluate gene–environment interactions that increase thyroid cancer in comparison with healthy participants from a pool of nationwide population-based healthy examinees. Methods and analysis T-CALOS enrols patients with incident thyroid cancer from three general hospitals, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and National Medical Center, Korea. The study is an ongoing project expecting to investigate 5000 patients with thyroid cancer up until 2017. Healthy examinees with a normal thyroid confirmed by sonography have been enrolled at the Healthy Examination Center at Seoul National University Hospital. We are also performing individual matching using two nationwide databases that are open to the public. Follow-up information is obtained at patients’ clinical visits and by linkage to the national database. For statistical analysis, we will use conditional logistic regression models and a Cox proportional hazard regression model. A number of stratifications and sensitivity analyses will be performed to confirm the results. Ethics and dissemination Based on a large sample size, a prospective study design, comprehensive data collection and biobank, T-CALOS has been independently peer-reviewed and approved by the three hospitals and two funding sources (National Research Foundation of Korea and Korean Foundation for Cancer Research

  2. Colorectal Cancer Statistics From the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Zullig, Leah L; Smith, Valerie A; Jackson, George L; Danus, Susanne; Schnell, Merritt; Lindquist, Jennifer; Provenzale, Dawn; Weinberger, Morris; Kelley, Michael J; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2016-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common and potentially deadly disease. Although the United States has robust cancer data reporting, information from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system has often been underrepresented in national cancer data sources. We describe veterans with incident CRC in terms of their patient and tumor characteristics and mortality. Patients diagnosed or treated with CRC at any VA institution in the fiscal years 2009 to 2012 were identified using 3 data sources: (1) VA Central Cancer Registry (VACCR); (2) VA Corporate Data Warehouse; and (3) VA Reports and Measures Portal. The CRC frequencies within the VA population and survival curves were examined descriptively and compared with the national projections using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data. A total of 12,551 veterans with CRC were included in the present analysis. The median age at diagnosis was 65.5 years. Approximately 97% (n = 12,229) of the CRC cases were diagnosed among men. Approximately 44% (n = 5517) of the patients were diagnosed with localized disease. The 3-year survival rate was associated with age (P < .01) and stage (P < .01) at diagnosis. We identified a possible decrease in VA CRC incidence over time. Although the VA CRC patient population was heavily skewed toward the male gender, the patient and tumor characteristics were similar between the incident CRC cases reported by the VACCR and those reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. This suggests that research findings resulting from the VACCR might have applicability beyond the VA healthcare system setting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Practice of breast self-examination and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Park, Hyo Jung; Kim, Mijung

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the practice of breast self-examination and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students in Korea. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The participants were 2186 female university students in Korea. The Breast Cancer and Heredity Knowledge Scale was used. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, χ(2)-test, t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Twenty-seven percent of students reported engaging in breast self-examination. The participants displayed a medium-level score (total score: 5.33 ± 2.70, range: 0-11) on knowledge about breast cancer. Predictors for breast self-examination were age (odds ratio = 1.15, P < 0.001), major (odds ratio = 1.80, P < 0.001), and knowledge of breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.16, P < 0.001). This study was the sole nationwide-scale research that examined the practice of breast self-examination, related factors, and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students, as a representative sample of young Korean women. The results are valuable in developing educational programs that can increase knowledge related to breast cancer, as well as the practice of breast self-examination, to support health promotion among young women. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Attributable fraction of alcohol consumption on cancer using population-based nationwide cancer incidence and mortality data in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In the Republic of Korea, cancer is the most common cause of death, and cancer incidence and mortality rates are the highest in East Asia. As alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans, we estimated the burden of cancer related to alcohol consumption in the Korean population. Methods The cancer sites studied were those for which there is convincing evidence of a positive association with alcohol consumption: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, colon, rectum, liver, larynx and female breast. Sex- and cancer-specific population attributable fractions (PAF) were calculated based on: 1) the prevalence of alcohol drinkers among adults ≥20 years of age in 1989; 2) the average daily alcohol consumption (g/day) among drinkers in 1998; 3) relative risk (RR) estimates for the association between alcohol consumption and site-specific cancer incidence obtained either from a large Korean cohort study or, when more than one Korean study was available for a specific cancer site, meta-analyses were performed and the resulting meta-RRs were used; 4) national cancer incidence and mortality data from 2009. Results Among men, 3% (2,866 cases) of incident cancer cases and 2.8% (1,234 deaths) of cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol consumption. Among women, 0.5% (464 cancer cases) of incident cancers and 0.1% (32 deaths) of cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol consumption. In particular, the PAF for alcohol consumption in relation to oral cavity cancer incidence among Korean men was 29.3%, and the PAFs for pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer incidence were 43.3% and 25.8%, respectively. Among Korean women, the PAF for colorectal cancer incidence was the highest (4.2%) and that for breast cancer incidence was only 0.2%. Avoiding alcohol consumption, or reducing it from the median of the highest 4th quartile of consumption (56.0 g/day for men, 28.0 g/day for women) to the median of the lowest quartile (2.80 g/day for men, 0.80 g/day for women), would reduce the

  5. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population.

  6. The prevalence of BRCA mutations among familial breast cancer patients in Korea: results of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Ah; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sue K; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Lee, Min Hyuk; Nam, Seok-Jin; Han, Wonshik; Bae, Young Tae; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Young Up; Chang, Myung Chul; Paik, Nam Sun; Hwang, Ki-Tae; Kim, Sei Joong; Noh, Dong-Young; Choi, Doo Ho; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Lee Su; Kim, Ku Sang; Suh, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Jung, Yongsik; Moon, Byung-In; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Sung Yong; Lee, Hyde; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2013-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations among familial breast cancer (BC) patients in Korea. We analyzed 775 familial BC patients who were enrolled in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study and treated at 36 institutions between May 2007 and May 2010. Patients with familial BC were defined as BC patients with family histories of BC or ovarian cancer (OC) in any relatives. All probands received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing was performed after obtaining informed consent. The mean age of BC diagnosis was 43.6 years. The numbers of probands with family histories of BC only and OC only were 682 and 93, respectively. The overall prevalence of the BRCA mutation among familial BC patients was 21.7 % (BRCA1 9.3 % and BRCA2 12.4 %). Subgroup analyses observed prevalences of the BRCA mutation as follows: 19.6 % among patients with BC family history only (BRCA1 7.6 % and BRCA2 12.0 %) and 36.6 % among patients with OC family history only (BRCA1 21.5 % and BRCA2 15.1 %). Most of the subgroups satisfied the 10 % probability criteria to undergo BRCA testing. However, the prevalence of the BRCA mutations among subgroups that had 2 BC patients in a family with both age at diagnosis of more than 50 years old did not reach the 10 % criteria (4.1 %). Korean familial BC patients are good candidates for BRCA testing even when they have family histories of single breast cancers. However, proband age at diagnosis should be carefully considered when selecting patients for testing.

  7. Cytogenetic characterizations of central nervous system tumors: the first comprehensive report from a single institution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Eun; Kim, Ki-Uk; Kim, Dae-Cheol; Park, Joo-In; Han, Jin-Yeong

    2009-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors incorporates morphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunologic markers. Despite the relatively large number of CNS tumors with clonal chromosome abnormalities, only few studies have investigated cytogenetic abnormalities for CNS tumors in Korea. Thus, we investigated 119 CNS tumors by conventional G-banded karyotypes to characterize patterns of chromosomal abnormalities involving various CNS tumors, and 92.4% of them were cultured and karyotyped successfully. Totally, 51.8% of karyotypable CNS tumors showed abnormal cytogenetic results, including neuroepithelial tumors (75.0%), meningeal tumors (71.1%), pituitary adenomas (4.2%), schwannomas (44.4%), and metastatic tumors (100.0%). Glioblastomas had hyperdiploid, complex karyotypes, mainly involving chromosomes Y, 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, and 14. Monosomy 22 was observed in 56.4% of meningiomas. There was a significant increase in the frequencies of karyotypic complexity according to the increase of WHO grade between grades I and II (P=0.0422) or IV (P=0.0101). Abnormal karyotypes were more complex at high-grade tumors, suggesting that the karyotype reflects the biologic nature of the tumor. More detailed cytogenetic and molecular characterizations of CNS tumors contribute to better diagnostic criteria and deeper insights of tumorigenesis, eventually resulting in development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. Metagenomic assessment of the microbial diversity in ground pork products from markets in the North Central Region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok-Kyung; Baker, Christopher A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community in ground pork using molecular approaches. Forty six ground pork products were purchased from local stores in the north central area of South Korea. Aerobic plate counts varied 4.23 ± 5.14 × 10(5) CFU/g with the range between 5.00 × 10(3) and 1.85 × 10(6) CFU/g for ground pork samples. Four ground meat samples were further processed for metagenomic analysis. Pseudomonas species was the most relative abundant with a wide range occurring (1.72 to 77.7%) as part of the microbial genera in ground pork. Bacteria such as Carnobacterium, Yersinia, Photobacterium were also identified in ground pork. Despite the prominence of certain genera across all samples there was still extensive microbial diversity among ground pork products that originated from different slaughter houses and were processed in different markets. Such diversity indicates that designing interventions to extend shelf life may be hampered by the extensive variability in the microbial consortia associated with pork products. However, this diversity may be useful for developing microbial traceability signatures unique to a slaughter house or a particular market.

  9. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  10. Dietary factors and gastric cancer in Korea: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ja; Chang, Woong Ki; Kim, Mi Kyung; Lee, Sang Sun; Choi, Bo Youl

    2002-02-01

    To assess gastric cancer (GC) risk in relation to dietary intake in Korea, a case-control study was performed. Trained dietitians interviewed 136 patients diagnosed with GC, and the same number of controls were selected by matching sex, age and hospital. A significant decrease in GC risk was observed with increased intake of Baiechu kimchi (prepared with salted Chinese cabbage and red pepper, etc.), Baiechu kimchi-stew, garlic, mushroom and soybean milk. On the contrary, a significant increase in the risk of GC was observed with increased intake of cooked rice with bean, charcoal grilled beef, pollack soup, Kkakduki (a kind of kimchi prepared with salted radish and red pepper, etc.), Dongchimi (a kind of kimchi prepared with radish and a large quantity of salt water) and cooked spinach. In food groups, increased intake of soybean products was associated with decreased risk of GC. Intake of citrus fruits rather than total fruits was shown to have a protective effect on the risk of GC, but was not significant. In this study, intake of total vegetables was shown to have a protective effect, whereas high nitrate-containing vegetables increased the risk of GC. In conclusion, our study suggests that the risk of GC decreased with high consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, whereas high consumption of foods rich in nitrate and carcinogenic substances produced during the cooking process increased the risk of GC. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Non-cancer diseases of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young-Su; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-06-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined noncancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of noncancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors.

  12. Cancer screening in Korea, 2012: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the cancer screening rates for five types of cancer (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) using data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), which is a nationwide, annual cross-sectional survey. The eligible study population included cancer-free men 40 years of age and older and women 30 years of age and older. The lifetime screening rate and screening rate with recommendation were calculated. The lifetime screening rates for gastric, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 77.9%, 69.9%, 65.8%, 82.9%, and 77.1%, respectively. The screening rates with recommendation were 70.9%, 21.5%, 44.7%, 70.9%, and 67.9%, respectively. The most common reason for all types of cancer was "no symptoms, " followed by "lack of time" and "fear of the examination procedure. " Efforts to facilitate participation in liver and colorectal cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed.

  13. Childhood cancer mortality and socioeconomic position in South Korea: a national population-based birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kong, Kyoung Ae; Khang, Young-Ho; Cha, Eun Shil; Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Yo Han; Lee, Won Jin

    2010-10-01

    Cancer is among the leading causes of death in children, and the influence of socioeconomic inequalities on childhood cancer is an important public health concern. We examined the relationship of socioeconomic position with childhood cancer mortality in South Korea. A retrospective cohort study of South Koreans was conducted using data from the national birth register collected between 1995 and 2006, which was individually linked to mortality data. A cohort of 6,479,406 children was followed from birth until their death or through December 31, 2006. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate the rate ratios of childhood cancer death according to socioeconomic position. A total of 1,469 cancer deaths were observed during the study period. We found significantly increased cancer mortality to be associated with the educational level of mother (RR = 1.56, 95% CI 1.27-1.91) and father (RR = 1.39, 95% CI 1.15-1.70) in middle school graduate or below compared with those of college graduate or higher. The risks of cancer death increased among children born with fathers outside the workforce (RR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.09-1.69) and with mothers engaged in manual work (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.03-1.92), when compared with those of non-manual counterparts. Children born in rural areas showed significantly increased risk of death from cancer. We concluded that in South Korea, there were inequalities in childhood cancer mortality by socioeconomic position.

  14. An overview of cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: the case for investment in cancer health services.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Jayant, K; Brenner, H

    2011-01-01

    Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are reported from 27 population-based cancer registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. In China, Singapore, the Republic of Korea, and Turkey, the 5-year age-standardized relative survival ranged from 76-82% for breast, 63-79% for cervical, 71-78% for bladder, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancer. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia, or 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%) in Uganda. For localized cancers of the breast, large bowel, larynx, ovary, urinary bladder and for regional diseases at all sites, higher survival rates were observed in countries with more rather than less developed health services. Inter- and intra-country variations in survival imply that the levels of development of health services and their efficiency to provide early diagnosis, treatment and clinical follow-up care have a profound impact on survival from cancer. These are reliable baseline summary estimates to evaluate improvements in cancer control and emphasise the need for urgent investment to improve awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources in these countries in the future.

  15. A morphometric analysis of maxillary central incisor on the basis of facial appearance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ji-Eun; Yang, Hong-So

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to identify a more esthetic width-to-length ratio by analyzing maxillary central incisor of Korean adult population. Information regarding tooth ratio in the Korean population may be useful to clinicians when restoring anterior teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 40 men and 40 women were included in this study. The NON-MEDIA group included 40 non-celebrities, who were healthy and 25 to 39 years old, with normal dentofacial appearance. The MEDIA group consisted of 40 celebrities selected only on the basis of their soft-tissue facial appearance. The facial photographs of 40 celebrities were collected from the Internet websites. The width and length of the maxillary central incisor were measured using Adobe Photoshop® 7.0, a software for analysis, measurement and edition of photographs. Data were analyzed statistically using the Independent t-test at 5% statistical significance level. RESULTS The mean ratio for the MEDIA group was 0.77, whereas that of the NON-MEDIA group was 0.88. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No significant gender differences were found in the width-to-length ratio in MEDIA group. In NON-MEDIA group, however, there were significant differences between female and male. CONCLUSION After analyzing maxillary anterior teeth of Korean adults, our results were in accordance with the general Western standards of esthetics. A dentist restoring the natural look and beauty of teeth will have to consider those standards. PMID:22439095

  16. Association between screening and the thyroid cancer “epidemic” in South Korea: evidence from a nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohee; Oh, Chang-Mo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jun, Jae Kwan; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether screening for thyroid cancer led to the current “epidemic” in South Korea. Design Review of the medical records of nationally representative samples of patients with a diagnosis of thyroid cancer in 1999, 2005, and 2008. Setting Sample cases were randomly selected from South Korea’s nationwide cancer registry, using a systematic sampling method after stratification by region. Participants 5796 patients with thyroid cancer were included (891 in 1999, 2355 in 2005, and 2550 in 2008). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was age standardised incidence of thyroid cancer and the changes in incidence between 1999 and 2008 according to the methods used to detect tumours (screen detection versus clinical detection versus unspecified). Results Between 1999 and 2008, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased 6.4-fold (95% confidence interval 4.9-fold to 8.4-fold), from 6.4 (95% confidence interval 6.2 to 6.6) per 100 000 population to 40.7 (40.2 to 41.2) per 100 000 population. Of the increase, 94.4% (34.4 per 100 000 population) were for tumours less than 20 mm, which were detected mainly by screening. 97.1% of the total increase was localised and regional tumours according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) summary stage. Where cases were clinically detected, 99.9% of the increased incidences (6.4 per 100 000 population) over the same period were tumours less than 20 mm. Conclusion The current “epidemic” of thyroid cancer in South Korea is due to an increase in the detection of small tumours, most likely as a result of overdetection. Concerted efforts are needed at a national level to reduce unnecessary thyroid ultrasound examinations in the asymptomatic general population. PMID:27903497

  17. Increased breast cancer mortality only in the lower education group: age-period-cohort effect in breast cancer mortality by educational level in South Korea, 1983-2012.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Jinwook; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2017-03-31

    A steadily increasing pattern of breast cancer mortality has been reported in South Korea since the late 1980s. This paper explored the trends of educational inequalities of female breast cancer mortality between 1983 and 2012 in Korea, and conducted age-period-cohort (APC) analysis by educational level. Age-standardized mortality rates of breast cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated. Relative index of inequality (RII) for breast cancer mortality was used as an inequality measure. APC analyses were conducted using the Web tool for APC analysis provided by the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics at the U.S. National Cancer Institute. An increasing trend in breast cancer mortality among Korean women between 1983 and 2012 was due to the increased mortality of the lower education groups (i.e., no formal education or primary education and secondary education groups), not the highest education group. The breast cancer mortality was higher in women with a tertiary education than in women with no education or a primary education during 1983-1992, and the reverse was true in 1993-2012. Consequently, RII was changed from positive to negative associations in the early 2000s. The lower education groups had the increased breast cancer mortality and significant cohort and period effects between 1983 and 2012, whereas the highest group did not. APC analysis by socioeconomic position used in this study could provide an important clue for the causes on breast cancer mortality. The long-term monitoring of socioeconomic patterning in breast cancer risk factors is urgently needed.

  18. Nationwide Incidence of Ocular Melanoma in South Korea by Using the National Cancer Registry Database (1999-2011).

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Jun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung Woo; Woo, Se Joon; Cho, Hyunsoon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the age-standardized incidence rate of ocular melanoma and its subtypes in South Korea from 1999 to 2011. The national cancer registry in South Korea was reviewed to ascertain all ocular melanoma incidents between 1999 and 2011, which covered the entire South Korean population. Age-standardized incidence rates of ocular melanoma and its subtypes were calculated. Trends in incidence were analyzed by the use of Joinpoint regression. Analyses were stratified by tumor type, sex, age, and year of cancer diagnosis. A total of 464 ocular melanoma cases (227 men [48.9%]) were identified from 1999 to 2011. The age-standardized incidence rate for 1999 to 2011 was 0.60 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.66) per million people. Among ocular melanomas, uveal melanoma had the highest age-standardized incidence rate for 1999 to 2011 (0.42 [95% CI: 0.38-0.47] per million people), followed by conjunctival melanoma (0.12 [95% CI: 0.09-0.14] per million people). The age-standardized incidence rate was higher in 2006 to 2011 than in 1999 to 2005, and increasing incidence trends were observed throughout the study period. Incidence rate of ocular melanoma for 1999 to 2011 is relatively lower in South Korean population than in that reported in white population. Although ocular melanoma is still considered a rare cancer in South Korea, our findings suggest increasing incidence trends. This may warrant future in-depth study.

  19. Large genomic rearrangement of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in familial breast cancer patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ja Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Choi, Su-Youn; Shin, Inkyung; Park, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Yu, Jong Han; Ko, Beom Seok; Ku, Bo Kyung; Son, Byung Ho

    2014-06-01

    We screened large genomic rearrangements of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Korean, familial breast cancer patients. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay was used to identify BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic rearrangements in 226 Korean familial breast cancer patients with risk factors for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, who previously tested negative for point mutations in the two genes. We identified only one large deletion (c.4186-1593_4676-1465del) in BRCA1. No large rearrangements were found in BRCA2. Our result indicates that large genomic rearrangement in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes does not seem like a major determinant of breast cancer susceptibility in the Korean population. A large-scale study needs to validate our result in Korea.

  20. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among Bereaved Family Members of Cancer Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Choi, Jin Young; Kwak, Kiu Sang; Chang, Yoon Jung; Ahn, Eun Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Paek, Soo Jin; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Bereaved family members of cancer patient are at risk of having psychological problems such as anxiety and depression. However, prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among this population have not been explored in Korea. We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 3522 bereaved family members of cancer patients who died at 44 hospice palliative care unit (HPCU) in Korea in 2012. The questionnaire comprised the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Good Death Inventory (GDI). Deceased patient's age, sex, primary site of cancer, duration of stay at HPCU, awareness of terminal status, bereaved family member's age, sex, and relation to the deceased were collected from Korean Terminal Cancer Patients Information System. 1121 returned questionnaires were analyzed (response rate, 31.8%). Using a cut-off value of 8 for HADS subscale, the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms was 48.0% and 57.6%, respectively. Mean scores for HADS-A and HADS-D were 7.88 ± 4.87 and 8.91 ± 4.82, respectively. Among the bereaved, older age, being a spouse to the deceased, family members of younger patient, and negative score for a few GDI items were significantly associated with an increased risk of having anxiety or depressive symptoms in the multivariate logistic analysis. In conclusion, we noted the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among the bereaved of cancer patients and identified associated factors for these psychological morbidities. Systematic efforts are needed to improve the mental health of the bereaved family members of cancer patients. PMID:27258497

  1. Performance of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy testing through the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Park, Sohee; Jung, Kyu Won; Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Il Ju; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports have proposed endoscopy as an alternative strategy to radiography for gastric cancer (GC) screening. The current study presents the first reported population-based data from a large GC screening program that provided endoscopic examinations. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database. We evaluated GC detection rates, sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value of an endoscopic screening program for the average-risk Korean population, aged 40 years and older, who underwent the NCSP from 2002 to 2005. The detection rates of GC by endoscopy in the first and subsequent rounds were 2.71 and 2.14 per 1000 examinations, respectively. Localized cancer accounted for 45.7% of screen-detected GC cases. The sensitivity of endoscopy was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-71.8). The endoscopic screening was less sensitive for the detection of localized GC (65.7%, 95% CI = 61.8-69.5) than for regional or distant GC (73.6%, 95% CI = 67.4-79.8). In the multiple logistic models for localized GC and all combined GC, the odds ratio (OR) of sensitivity for the undifferentiated type was statistically significantly higher than that for the differentiated type, whereas the OR of sensitivity for the mixed type was lower than that for the differentiated type. The sensitivity of the endoscopic test in a population-based screening was slightly higher for the detection of regional or distant GC than for localized GC. Further evaluation of the impact of endoscopic screening should take into account the balance of cost and mortality reduction.

  2. Incidence of primary skin cancer after organ transplantation: An 18-year single-center experience in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Gyeong-Hun; Chang, Sung Eun; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Moon, Kee Chan; Han, Duck Jong; Park, Su Kil; Kim, Jae-Joong; Lee, Jae Won; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2014-03-01

    Skin cancer is the most common malignancy to arise after organ transplantation in Caucasians, but limited data are available on its incidence in Asian transplant recipients. We sought to assess the incidence of skin cancer after organ transplantation in a Korean cohort. A cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence and risk factors for skin cancers among kidney, liver, heart, or pancreas transplant recipients, treated at the Asan Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. The cumulative incidences of skin cancer were 0.70% at 5 years, 1.66% at 10 years, and 2.31% at 15 years. For all skin cancers, squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, and Kaposi sarcoma, the standardized incidence ratios between the recipients and the Korean general population were 30.9 (95% confidence interval, 12.4-63.6), 61.9 (12.8-180.8), 11.9 (0.3-66.1), and 565.2 (68.4-2041.6) after the end of the fifth posttransplantation year, respectively. We cannot exclude the possibility of both the underestimation because of potential missing cases and the overestimation because of the ascertainment bias. The incidence of posttransplantation skin cancer is very low in Korean patients. However, the risk of skin cancer in organ transplant recipients may be considerably higher than that in the Korean general population. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Knowledge, practices, and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea: a nationwide multicenter survey.

    PubMed

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeol; Kong, Kyung Ae; Kim, Dae Hyun; Choi, Jin Young; Nam, Eun Jeong; Choi, Jin Young; Koh, Sujin; Hwang, Kwan Ok; Baek, Sun Kyung; Park, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Medical professionals' practices and knowledge regarding cancer pain management have often been cited as inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, practices and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea. A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered to physicians and nurses involved in the care of cancer patients. Questionnaire items covered pain assessment and documentation practices, knowledge regarding cancer pain management, the perceived barriers to cancer pain control, and processes perceived as the major causes of delay in opioid administration. A total of 333 questionnaires (149 physicians and 284 nurses) were analyzed. Nurses performed pain assessment and documentation more regularly than physicians did. Although physicians had better knowledge of pain management than did nurses, both groups lacked knowledge regarding the side effects and pharmacology of opioids. Physicians working in the palliative care ward and nurses who had received pain management education obtained higher scores on knowledge. Physicians perceived patients' reluctance to take opioids as a barrier to pain control, more so than did nurses, while nurses perceived patients' tendency to under-report of pain as a barrier, more so than did physicians. Physicians and nurses held different perceptions regarding major cause of delay during opioid administration. There were differences between physicians and nurses in knowledge and practices for cancer pain management. An effective educational strategy for cancer pain management is needed in order to improve medical professionals' knowledge and clinical practices.

  4. Dose-dependent protective effect of breast-feeding against breast cancer among ever-lactated women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonju; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Park, Sue Kyung; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Noh, Dong-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2007-04-01

    Lactation might have a crucial role in an extraordinary increase in breast cancer incidence in Korea, as the proportion of mothers who practised breast-feeding fell dramatically. This hospital-based case-control analysis has been carried out since 1997 to evaluate whether lactation is associated with breast cancer risk in Korean women. Among the eligible study participants, a total of 753 histologically confirmed incident cases and an equal number of controls were included in the analysis. The risk was estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. Family history, older at menopause, more full-term pregnancies increased the risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer risk decreased according to the total months of breast-feeding (P for trend=0.03). Average duration of breast-feeding of 11-12 months reduced risk of breast cancer by 54% compared with the duration of 1-4 months (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.70). The decreasing risk trend according to average months of breast-feeding was also statistically significant (P for trend=0.02). Moreover, a reduced risk of breast cancer was apparent when analysis was restricted to the first breast-fed child (P for trend=0.006). This study confirms that lactation has an apparent dose-dependent protective effect against breast cancer in Korean women.

  5. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  6. National reimbursement listing determinants of new cancer drugs: a retrospective analysis of 58 cancer treatment appraisals in 2007-2016 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sook; Kim, Jung-Ae; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2017-08-01

    Since the positive-list system was introduced, concerns have been raised over restricting access to new cancer drugs in Korea. Policy changes in the decision-making process, such as risk-sharing agreement and the waiver of pharmacoeconomic data submission, were implemented to improve access to oncology medicines, and other factors are also involved in the reimbursement for cancer drugs. The aim of this study is to investigate the reimbursement listing determinants of new cancer drugs in Korea. All cancer treatment appraisals of Health Insurance Review and Assessment during 2007-2016 were analyzed based on 13 independent variables (comparative effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, drug-price comparison, oncology-specific policy, and innovation such as new mode of action). Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were conducted. Of 58 analyzed submissions, 40% were listed in the national reimbursement formulary. In univariate analysis, four variables were related to listing: comparative effectiveness, drug-price comparison, new mode of action, and risk-sharing agreement. In multivariate logistic analysis, three variables significantly increased the likelihood of listing: clinical improvement, below alternative's price, and risk-sharing arrangement. Cancer drug's listing increased from 17% to 47% after risk-sharing agreement implementation. Clinical improvement, cost-effectiveness, and RSA application are critical to successful national reimbursement listing.

  7. Central compartment neck dissection for thyroid cancer. Technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Pai, Sara I; Tufano, Ralph P

    2008-01-01

    The central compartment of the neck is a common site of local metastasis for thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, knowledge of the surgical techniques employed during a central compartment neck dissection is important to master for any surgeon who manages thyroid cancer patients. We review the anatomical boundaries of the central compartment of the neck as well as discuss the lymphatic drainage patterns of the thyroid gland. We advocate standardization of the surgical approach to the central compartment in order to minimize morbidity and ensure comprehensive removal of all lymph nodes when indicated, which can reduce the need for reoperative dissections. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The epidemiology of psychiatric disorders among women with breast cancer in South Korea: analysis of national registry data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jee In; Sung, Na Young; Park, Sang Jin; Lee, Chong Gul; Lee, Byung Ook

    2014-01-01

    Population-based data on the epidemiology of psychiatric disorders in patients with breast cancer are lacking. Because the National Health Insurance (NHI) Program in South Korea is a compulsory social insurance system covering the entire Korean population, the NHI is a good source of information for epidemiological studies. In the present study, we examined the incidence of psychiatric disorders among Korean women newly diagnosed with breast cancer using the NHI Corporation (NHIC) database. Data were collected for adult women newly diagnosed with breast cancer using the claim database and cancer registration files of the NHIC from 2005 to 2008. We analysed data for women diagnosed with psychiatric disorders over a 5-year period, from 2004 (at least 1 year before the cancer registration date) to 2009 (at least 1 year after the cancer registration date). We identified 6536 patients with psychiatric disorders among 42 190 women with breast cancer. The most prevalent psychiatric disorder was anxiety disorder (N = 2518). The incidence rates of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, sleep disorders and adjustment disorders were 27.08, 22.41, 10.57 and 4.35 cases per 1000 person-year, respectively. The incidence rates of psychiatric disorders in Korean women with breast cancer from the nationwide database were much lower than found by previous reports using screening tools. The finding implicates that psychiatric disorders among breast cancer patients tend to be underdiagnosed and undertreated in actual clinical practice. Our epidemiological findings provide important information for establishing a national strategy of cancer care to detect and manage psychiatric problems. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Characteristics of BRCA1/2 Mutation-Positive Breast Cancers in Korea: A Comparison Study Based on Multicenter Data and the Korean Breast Cancer Registry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jong-Han; Son, Byung Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Sue K.; Lee, Min Hyuk; Kim, Lee Su; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Jung, Jin Hyang; Jung, Sang Seol; Gong, Gyungyup; Ahn, Sei-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA genes are the main cause of hereditary breast cancer in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of breast cancers involving BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) and BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutations. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) or BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutation positive breast cancer from multiple centers and compared the data to that of the Korean Breast Cancer Society registry (registry group). Results The patients of the BRCA1 group were diagnosed at a younger age (median age, 37 years) and had tumors of higher histological (61.3% with histological grade 3) and nuclear (37.5% with nuclear grade 3) grade than those of the registry group. In addition, the frequency of ductal carcinoma in situ in the BRCA1 group was lower (3.7%) than in the registry group, and the BRCA1 group were more likely to be triple-negative breast cancer (61.3%). Patients in the BRCA2 group were also younger at diagnosis (mean age, 41 years) and were more likely to have involvement of the axillary node than the registry group (45.5% vs. 33.5%, p=0.002). The BRCA1 and BRCA2 groups did not show a correlation between tumor size and axillary node involvement. Conclusion We report the characteristics of BRCA mutation positive breast cancer patients in the Korean population through multicenter data and nation-wide breast cancer registry study. However, BRCA-mutated breast cancers appear highly complex, and further research on their molecular basis is needed in Korea. PMID:25013433

  10. Breast cancer by stage of disease at diagnosis, central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Owora, Arthur H; Wendelboe, Aaron; Thompson, David; Campbell, Janis

    2010-10-01

    We describe factors associated with an initial diagnosis of stage IV breast cancer to identify segments of Oklahoma's population that need earlier screening. We obtained data from the Central Oklahoma chapter of Susan G. Komen for the Cure and from the Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry. All analyses were cross-sectional and ecologic. The distributions of breast cancer stage at diagnosis for ten central Oklahoma counties were analyzed with respect to age group, race/ethnicity, insurance status, family income, and the percent of women who reported [not] receiving a mammogram in the previous twelve months. The percentage of African American women diagnosed with stage IV disease (7.8%) was nearly double that in white (4.2%) and other races (4.1%; p < 0.01). After controlling for confounding variables, the proportion of women diagnosed with breast cancer at stage IV was still higher among African American than among white females (p < 0.01) and females aged 65+ years (p = 0.02). The availability of breast cancer screening services should be increased among African American women in central Oklahoma.

  11. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  12. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  13. Ecological study on residences in the vicinity of AM radio broadcasting towers and cancer death: preliminary observations in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sue Kyung; Ha, Mina; Im, Hyung-Jun

    2004-08-01

    Public health concern about the health effects of radio-frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) has increased with the increase in public exposure. This study was to evaluate some health effect of RF exposure by the AM radio broadcasting towers in Korea. We calculated cancer mortality rates using Korean death certificates over the period of 1994-1995 and population census data in ten RF-exposed areas, defined as regions that included AM radio broadcasting towers of over 100 kW, and in control areas, defined as regions without a radio broadcasting tower inside and at least 2 km away from the towers. All cancers-mortality was significantly higher in the exposed areas [direct standardized mortality rate ratio (MRR) = 1.29, 95%CI = 1.12-1.49]. When grouped by each exposed area and by electrical power, MRRs for two sites of 100 kW, one site of 250 kW and one site of 500 kW, for all subjects, and for one site of 100 kW and two sites of 250 kW, for male subjects, showed statistically significant increases without increasing trends according to the groups of electric power. Leukemia mortality was higher in exposed areas (MRR = 1.70, 95% CI = 0.84-3.45), especially among young adults aged under 30 years (0-14 years age group, MRR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.05-5.98; 15-29 age group, MRR = 2.44, 95% CI = 1.07-5.24). We observed higher mortality rates for all cancers and leukemia in some age groups in the area near the AM radio broadcasting towers. Although these findings do not prove a causal link between cancer and RF exposure from AM radio broadcasting towers, it does suggest that further analytical studies on this topic are needed in Korea.

  14. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: data from a national community health survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Heo, Jeongyun; Kim, Soyeun; Jeon, Young-Jee; Oh, Myungju

    2013-11-01

    This study investigated factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening using data from a nationwide community survey. A nationwide cross-sectional study was performed in all 253 administrative districts of Korea. The breast and cervical cancer screening rate was negatively associated with the obesity (β = -2.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -4.73 to -1.03; β = -1.93, 95% CI = -3.43 to -0.43), positively associated with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions scale (β =2.53, 95% CI = 0.24 to 4.81; β = 2.51, 95% CI = 0.68 to 4.34). Moreover, higher alcohol consumption rate was negatively related to screening rates for breast cancer, while areas with higher proportion of diabetes were found to have higher screening rates. Area with higher rate of osteoarthritis had a lower screening rate for cervical cancer. This study showed breast and cervical cancer screening was associated with particular area characteristics. This ecological approach is thought to be a major complement to measures of health attributes.

  15. Cancer risk in adult residents near nuclear power plants in Korea - a cohort study of 1992-2010.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Li, Zhong Min

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated cancer risk for adult residents near Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Korea through a valid prospective cohort study during 1992-2010. The study cohort was composed of 11,367 adults living within a five km radius from the NPPs for the exposed and 24,809 adults for the non-exposed or reference cohort set at two different levels of proximity; 5-30 km radius and more than 30 km radius away from NPPs. In 303,542.5 person-years of follow-up, a total of 2,298 cancer cases of all sites, or 1,377 radio-inducible cancers diagnosed during 1992-2008 were ascertained. Multiple adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. There were no epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer due to radiation from NPPs. Radiological study results or surveillance data of radiation doses around NPPs could be well documented for risk estimation of radio-inducible cancers, instead of epidemiological study results of the long-time required. Continuous surveillance of quantitative measures of dose levels around NPPs and radiation exposures to the residents is warranted.

  16. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  17. The burden of oesophageal cancer in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Enrique; Sierra, Monica S; Musetti, Carina; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Oesophageal cancer shows marked geographic variations and is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. We described the burden of this malignancy in Central and South America. Regional and national level incidence data were obtained from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries. Mortality data were obtained from the WHO mortality database. Incidence of oesophageal cancer by histological subtype were available from high-quality population-based cancer registries. Males had higher incidence and mortality rates than females (male-to-female ratios: 2-6:1 and 2-5:1). In 2003-2007, the highest rates were in Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Chile. Mortality rates followed the incidence patterns. Incidence of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was higher than adenocarcinoma (AC), except in females from Cuenca (Ecuador). SCC and AC incidence were higher in males than females, except in the Region of Antofagasta and Valdivia (Chile), Manizales (Colombia) and Cuenca (Ecuador). Incidence and mortality rates tended to decline in Argentina, Chile, Brazil (incidence) and Costa Rica from 1997 to 2008. The geographic variation and sex disparity in oesophageal cancer across Central and South America may reflect differences in the prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption which highlights the need to implement and/or strengthen tobacco and alcohol control policies. Maté consumption, obesity, diet and Helicobacter pylori infection may also explain the variation in oesophageal cancer rates but these relationships should be evaluated. Continuous monitoring of oesophageal cancer rates is necessary to provide the basis for cancer prevention and control in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Gastric cancer screening uptake trends in Korea: results for the National Cancer Screening Program from 2002 to 2011: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-02-01

    Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of endoscopy

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis of cervical cancer screening strategies based on the Papanicolaou smear test in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ko, Min Jung; Kim, Jimin; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Yoon Jae; Hong, Sung Ran; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing number of screening examinations performed for cervical cancer utilizing the Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test), few studies have examined whether this strategy is cost-effective in Korea. This study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening strategies incorporating the Pap test based on age at the start and end of screening as well as screening interval. We designed four alternative screening strategies based on patient age when screening was started (20 or 30 years) and discontinued (lifetime, 79 years). Each strategy was assessed at screening intervals of 1, 2, 3, or 5 years. A Markov model was developed to determine the cost-effectiveness of the 16 possible cervical cancer screening strategies, and this was evaluated from a societal perspective. The main outcome measures were average lifetime cost, incremental quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Compared with various strategies comprising younger starting age, discontinuation age, and longer screening intervals, strategies employing annual screening for cervical cancer starting at a target age of 30 years and above were the most cost-effective, with an ICER of 21,012.98 dollars per QALY gained (with a Korean threshold of 30,000,000 KRW or US$27,272). We found that annual screening for cervical cancer beginning at a target age of 30 years and above is most cost-effective screening strategy. Considering the potential economic advantages, more intense screening policies for cervical cancer might be favorable among countries with high rates of cervical cancer and relatively low screening costs.

  20. Young women with breast cancer in the United States and South Korea: comparison of demographics, pathology and management.

    PubMed

    Son, Byung Ho; Dominici, Laura S; Aydogan, Fatih; Shulman, Lawrence N; Ahn, Sei Hyn; Cho, Ja Young; Coopey, Suzanne B; Kim, Sung Bae; Min, H Elise; Valero, Monica; Wang, Jiping; Caragacianu, Diana; Gong, Gyung-yub; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Baek, Seunghee; Golshan, Mehra

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer diagnosed in young women may be more aggressive, with higher rates of local and distant recurrence compared to the disease in older women. Epidemiologic evidence suggests that Korean women have a lower incidence of breast cancer than women in the United States, but that they present at a younger age than their American counterparts. We sought to compare risk factors and management of young women with breast cancer in Boston, Massachusetts (US) with those in Seoul, South Korea (KR). A retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients less than 35 years old with a diagnosis of breast cancer at academic cancer centers in the US and KR from 2000-2005. Patient data were obtained by chart review. Demographic, tumor and treatment characteristics were compared utilizing Pearson's chi- square or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests where appropriate. All differences were assessed as significant at the 0.05 level. 205 patients from the US and 309 from KR were analyzed. Patients in US were more likely to have hormone receptor positive breast cancer, while patients in KR had a higher rate of triple negative lesions. Patients in US had a higher mean body mass index and more often reported use of birth control pills, while those in the KR were less likely to have a sentinel node procedure performed or to receive post mastectomy radiation. Patients under 35 diagnosed with breast cancer in the US and KR differ with respect to demographics, tumor characteristics and management. Although rates of breast conservation and mastectomy were similar, US patients were more likely to receive post mastectomy radiation. The lower use of sentinel node biopsy is explained by the later adoption of the technique in KR. Further evaluation is necessary to evaluate recurrence rates and survival in the setting of differing disease subtypes in these patients.

  1. Analysis of Prognostic Factors and Treatment Modality Changes in Breast Cancer: A Single Institution Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Suk; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Jung Han; Nam, Seok Jin

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of new breast cancer treatments and to provide a baseline for monitoring the development of breast cancer in Korean women, we conducted an analysis at our institution to determine long-term clinicopathological features, survival rates, and prognostic factors. Materials and Methods This study retrospectively analyzed 2,403 patients between Sep 1994 and Dec 2002, who underwent breast cancer surgery at Samsung Medical Center in Korea. Demographic data, pathologic records and surgical records were collected. Results After a median follow-up duration of 121.9 (range: 2-158.1) months, the 5-year disease free survival (DFS) was 82.8% and the 10-year DFS was 74.7%. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 89.4% and 82.9%, respectively. Using multivariate analyses, we determined that the nodal status (p < 0.001), angioinvasion (p < 0.001), positive PR (p < 0.001), and C-erb-B2 (p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for OS. The frequency of breast conserving surgery was 33.9% before Dec 1999, and increased up to 44.1% by year Dec 2002. Conclusion Most of the prognostic variables and clinical characteristics of the Korean breast cancer patients were similar to those reported for Western populations. However, the age distribution in Korean patients seemed to be different from that in patients from Western countries. PMID:17594155

  2. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines Compared with Other Guidelines and Remaining Issues.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Joong-Won; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed "washout" in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  3. Who participates in the gastric cancer screening and on-time rescreening in the National Cancer Screening Program? A population-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Myung-Il; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Oh, Dongkwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-12-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) screening is a major challenge in countries where the disease is highly prevalent. This study was conducted to identify the factors associated with participation in GC screening and on-time rescreening among the average-risk population in Korea. The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Program database. The population for this study was 22 913 618 individuals aged ≥40 years who had been invited to participate in a GC screening program from 2005 to 2006. We determined whether these individuals had attended the GC screening program and which method - an upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy-they underwent. We followed the participants to determine whether they had a second GC screening after 2 years. The overall participation rate in the GC screening was 20.5%. More people underwent UGIS than endoscopy. Individuals who had been screened by endoscopy rather than UGIS were more likely to be younger, male, or those who were National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries with a higher premium rate. Of those who underwent baseline screening, 59.4% participated in a rescreening program 2 years later. NHI beneficiaries with a higher premium rate were significantly more likely to be rescreened than medical aid recipients. The results from this study showed that the UGIS were more commonly used in organized GC screenings in Korea, and those who underwent UGIS were more likely to return for subsequent screening compared to those who underwent an endoscopy.

  4. On large-scale transport of dust storms and anthropogenic dust-falls over east Asia observed in central Korea in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Kim, Hak-Sung; Chun, Youngsin

    2014-05-01

    Dust air pollution has been routinely monitored in central Korea for the last two decades. In 2009, there were eight typical episodes of significant dust loadings in the air: four were caused by dust storms from deserts in Mongolia and Northern China, while the remaining were typical cases of anthropogenic air pollution masses arriving from the Yellow Sea and East China. These natural dust loadings occurred with cool northwesterly airflows in the forward side of an intense anticyclone coming from Mongolia and Siberia. The mean concentrations of the four natural dustfall cases for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were 632, 480 and 100 μg m-3, respectively. In contrast, the anthropogenic dust-pollution episodes occurred with the warm westerly and southwesterly airflows in the rear side of an anticyclone. This produced a favorable atmospheric and chemical condition for the build-up of anthropogenic dust air pollution in the Yellow Sea. The mean concentrations of the four anthropogenic dust loadings for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were 224, 187 and 137 μg m-3, respectively. The contents of fine dust loadings of PM2.5 were comparatively high in the cases of anthropogenic air pollution. High atmospheric concentrations of fine particles in the atmosphere cause poor visibility and constitute a health hazard. Satellite observations clearly showed the movement of dust-pollution masses from Mongolia and Northern China and from the Yellow Sea and East China that caused these dust pollution episodes in Korea.

  5. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in non-familial breast cancer patients with high risks in Korea: the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) Study.

    PubMed

    Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sue K; Lee, Min Hyuk; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Lee Su; Jung, Yongsik; Kim, Ku Sang; Noh, Dong-Young; Moon, Byung-In; Suh, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Choi, Doo Ho; Kim, Sung Yong; Jung, Sung Hoo; Yom, Cha Kyong; Lee, Hyde; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Prevalence and phenotype of BRCA mutation can vary by race. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in non-familial breast cancer patients with high risks in Korea. A subset of 758 patients was selected for this study from the KOHBRA nationwide multicenter prospective cohort study. Mutations in BRCA1/2 genes were tested using fluorescent-conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography or direct sequencing. Mutation of BRCA1/2 genes were identified in 65 (8.6%) patients among total 758 patients [BRCA1 mutation: 25 (3.3%), BRCA2 mutation: 40 (5.3%)]. According to risk groups, mutation of BRCA1/2 genes were identified in 53 (8.5%) of 625 early onset patients (age ≤ 40), in 22 (17.7%) of 124 bilateral breast cancer patients, in 3 (50.0%) of 6 breast and ovarian cancer patients, in one (5.9%) of 17 male breast cancer patients, in 5 cases (7.6%) of 66 multiple organ cancer patients. The most common mutation was 509C>A for BRCA1 and 7708C>T for BRCA2. The prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations by age in early onset patients was significantly different (age <35 vs age ≥35; 10.0 vs 2.9%, p = 0.0007). BRCA1/2 mutations for non-familial Korean breast cancer patients were detected at a high rate, particularly, in patients with early onset of less than 35 years of age, bilateral breast cancer, and breast and ovarian cancer. Individualized genetic counseling should be offered for non-familial breast cancer patients with these risk factors.

  6. Impact of Targeted Interventions on Trends in Central Line-Associated Bloodstream Infection: A Single-Center Experience From the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sun Young; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Ryu, Jae Geum; Choi, Jong Rim; Ahn, Nayeon; Kim, Seonwoo; Kim, Min-Ji; Ha, Young Eun; Kang, Cheol-In; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    To assess the impact of targeted interventions on trends in central line-associated bloodstream infection. A before-and-after study between January 2013 and September 2014. Tertiary hospital in the Republic of Korea. All patients with central-line catheters in the hospital. In September 2013, interventions that targeted central line insertion practices were implemented in 10 ICUs, including compliance monitoring with a central line insertion practices bundle and use of an all-inclusive catheter kit. The impact of targeted interventions on trends in central line-associated bloodstream infection was evaluated by segmented autoregression analysis of an interrupted time series. The average hospital-wide central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in the baseline and intervention periods were 1.84 and 1.56 per 1,000 catheter-days, respectively. During the baseline period, there was an increase of central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of 0.12 per 1,000 catheter-days per month. In the intervention period, there was a decrease of central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of 0.16 per 1,000 catheter-days per month (change in slope, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.37 to -0.19; p < 0.0001). In ICUs, the average central line-associated bloodstream infection rates in the baseline and intervention periods were 1.92 and 1.64 per 1,000 catheter-days, respectively. During the baseline period, there was an increase of central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of 0.18 per 1,000 catheter-days per month in ICUs. After sequential-targeted interventions, there was a decrease of central line-associated bloodstream infection rate of 0.16 per 1,000 catheter-days per month (change in slope, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.50 to -0.18; p = 0.0007). Targeted interventions were associated with significant changes in trends in the occurrence rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection in ICUs and the entire hospital.

  7. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  8. Effectiveness of interventions to increase the participation rate of gastric cancer screening in the Republic of Korea: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Ha; Lee, Yoon Young; Jung, Da Won; Park, Boyoung; Yun, E Hwa; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Choi, Kui Son

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of three intervention strategies to improve the participation rate of gastric cancer screening among people who had never undergone such screening, and those who had been screened for the disease, but not recently. It was conducted in the Ilsandong-gu District of Goyang City, Korea. The population for the current study was restricted to male residents, aged 40-65 years, who received an invitation letter to undergo gastric cancer screening from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Corporation at the beginning of 2010. The subjects were divided into two categories according to their screening history: never-screened, and ever-screened. A total of 2,065 men were eligible: 803 never-screened and 1,262 ever-screened. In each screening category they were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: 1) tailored telephone counseling; 2) tailored postcard reminder after tailored telephone counseling;and 3) tailored telephone counseling after tailored postcard reminder. At 3 months post-intervention, never- screened men with any intervention were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.18) compared to those in the reference group (no intervention). However, there was no statistically significant intervention effect in ever-screened men (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.65-2.27). Examination of the intervention effects by intervention group among never-screened men showed that those in the postcard reminder after telephone counseling group to be statistically significantly more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=4.49, 95% CI: 1.79-11.29) than the reference group (no intervention). Our results highlight that use of tailored postcard reminders after tailored telephone counseling is an effective method to increase participation in gastric cancer screening among men who had never been screened.

  9. Descriptive epidemiology of brain and central nervous system cancers in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Marion; Sierra, Mónica S; Izarzugaza, M Isabel; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Although malignant tumors of the brain and central nervous system (CNS) represent less than 3% of new cancer cases estimated worldwide, they cause significant morbidity and in the case of gliomas, the most common histological type, have a poor prognosis. We describe patterns and trends in brain and CNS incidence and mortality in Central and South America. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence rates (ASRs) and mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100,000 person-years, and present incidence by histological subtypes. In general, incidence rates were higher in males than in females. The highest incidence ASRs were observed for Cuba (5.1 males, 3.6 females) in Central America, and for Brazil (6.4 males, 4.8 females) and Uruguay (6.2 and 4.0) in South America. Mortality rates closely followed the pattern of incidence rates. Argentina, Brazil and Chile showed increasing mortality trends, although these were not statistically significant. Glioma and unspecified tumors were the most common histological types, accounting for 55.4% and 32.8%, respectively. The proportion of microscopically verified diagnoses was 47-70% in most countries. Although incidence and mortality rates in general were low, some countries displayed high- to intermediate-level incidence rates; under-reporting and under-ascertainment of cases could contribute to the geographic variations observed. There is a need to improve both the ascertainment of cases and the accuracy of histological diagnosis. Monitoring of brain and CNS cancers along with etiological research remain priorities. Copyright © 2016 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Laser irradiation for central-type lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai

    1993-03-01

    Based on laser irradiation experiments on isolated lung specimens of animals done in 1989, 8 patients with central type lung cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation via fiberoptic bronchoscope from January 1990 to August 1991 in our hospital. The patients recruited were all diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histology as having central type bronchopulmonary cancer without distal metastasis. All patients were male with a mean age of 64 (range 57 - 72). Of 8 patients, 4 had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 1 undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, all being stage TUM 3. After laser treatment, 6 cases had a result of significant response and 2 had minor response. Among 6 cases of atelectasis, 4 were completely cured or partially improved and 4 recovered from their hemoptysis. The subjective symptoms in all cases remitted. A combined chemotherapy was carried out accompanying laser therapy for all, 6 of whom had a shrink of focus over 25%. Six cases were re-examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy, showing a distinct reduction of the tumor. Four cases expectorated black charring tissues and residual tumorous tissues persistently as an outcome. Two typical cases are reported, the characteristics, indications, techniques, and side effects of laser therapy are analyzed and factors affecting efficacy discussed, indicating that the technique has such advantages as easy operation, accurate orientation, and safe outcome. The procedure is really an effective one for treating central type lung cancer in intermediate or late stage.

  11. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  12. Factors related with colorectal and stomach cancer screening practice among disease-free lung cancer survivors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Min; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Young Ae; Chang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Moon Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Zo, Jae Ill; Yun, Young Ho

    2017-08-30

    Lung cancer survivors are more likely to develop colorectal and stomach cancer than the general population. However, little is known about the current status of gastrointestinal cancer screening practices and related factors among lung cancer survivors. We enrolled 829 disease-free lung cancer survivors ≥40 years of age, who had been treated at two hospitals from 2001 to 2006. The patients completed a questionnaire that included stomach and colorectal cancer screening after lung cancer treatment, as well as other sociodemographic variables. Among lung cancer survivors, correlations with stomach and colorectal screening recommendations were 22.7 and 25.8%, respectively. Of these, 40.7% reported receiving physician advice to screen for second primary cancer (SPC). Those who were recommended for further screening for other cancers were more likely to receive stomach cancer screening [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-2.30] and colorectal cancer screening [aOR = 1.37, 95% CI, 0.99-1.90]. Less-educated lung cancer survivors were less likely to have stomach and colorectal cancer screenings. Lack of a physician's advice for SPC screening and lower educational status had negative impact on the gastrointestinal cancer screening rates of lung cancer survivors.

  13. Radiation exposure and cancer incidence in a cohort of nuclear power industry workers in the Republic of Korea, 1992-2005.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Meeseon; Jin, Young-Woo; Yang, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Cha, Chang-Yong

    2010-03-01

    This study examines for the first time cancer incidence between radiation and non-radiation workers in nuclear power facilities in the Republic of Korea. Radiation workers were defined as persons who were issued with a dosimeter at nuclear power facilities, until 2005. All analyses were conducted on male workers only (in total 16,236 individuals) because of the sparseness of females. Statistical analyses were carried out using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), to compare the cancer risks of radiation and non-radiation workers with those of the general population, and the chi(2) trend test was used to investigate any increase in cancer rates with dose. Poisson regression was also used to estimate the rate ratio (RR) and the excess relative risk (ERR) after considering the confounding effect due to smoking. During 1992-2005, 99 cancer cases in 63,503 person-years were observed among 8,429 radiation workers, while 104 cancer cases were observed in 48,301 person-years among 7,807 non-radiation workers. When compared with the site- and age-specific cancer rates for the male population of Korea, the SIR for all cancers combined was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.30] for radiation workers, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.72-1.06) for non-radiation workers, respectively. The RR for radiation workers compared with non-radiation workers was 1.18 (95% CI 0.89-1.58) for all cancers combined. The SIRs for thyroid cancer were noticeably high for both radiation and non-radiation workers, possibly due to the screening effect, but analysis of the RR showed that there was no statistically significant difference in thyroid cancer incidence rates between the two groups. For lung cancer, radiation workers showed a higher incidence rate as compared to non-radiation workers, with the RR being 3.48 (95% CI 1.19-11.48). A chi(2) trend test showed that there was no evidence for an increase in cancer rate with increasing cumulative dose for all cancers combined (p = 0.5108). The ERR per

  14. Central neck dissection in differentiated thyroid cancer: technical notes.

    PubMed

    Giugliano, G; Proh, M; Gibelli, B; Grosso, E; Tagliabue, M; De Fiori, E; Maffini, F; Chiesa, F; Ansarin, M

    2014-02-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers may be associated with regional lymph node metastases in 20-50% of cases. The central compartment (VIupper VII levels) is considered to be the first echelon of nodal metastases in all differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The indication for central neck dissection is still debated especially in patients with cN0 disease. For some authors, central neck dissection is recommended for lymph nodes that are suspect preoperatively (either clinically or with ultrasound) and/or for lymph node metastases detected intra-operatively with a positive frozen section. In need of a better definition, we divided the dissection in four different areas to map localization of metastases. In this study, we present the rationale for central neck dissection in the management of differentiated thyroid carcinoma, providing some anatomical reflections on surgical technique, oncological considerations and analysis of complications. Central neck dissection may be limited to the compartments that describe a predictable territory of regional recurrences in order to reduce associated morbidities.

  15. The Burden of Cancer in Korea during 2012: Findings from a Prevalence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cancer causes a significant deterioration in health and premature death and is a national socioeconomic burden. This study aimed to measure the burden of cancer using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metric based on the newly adopted methodology from the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010. This study was conducted based on data from the Korean National Cancer Registry. The DALYs were calculated using a prevalence-based method instead of the incidence-based method used by previous studies. The total burden of cancer in 2012 was 3,470.79 DALYs per 100,000 persons. Lung cancer was the most prevalent cancer burden, followed by liver, stomach, colorectal, and breast cancer. The DALYs for lung, liver, stomach, colon and rectum, and pancreatic cancer were high in men, whereas the DALYs for breast, lung, stomach, colorectal, and liver cancer were high in women. Health loss from leukemia and cancer of the brain and nervous system was prevalent for those younger than age 20; from stomach, breast, and liver for those aged 30–50; and from lung, colon and rectum, and pancreas for a large proportion of individuals over the age of 60. The most important differences were that the DALYs were calculated by prevalence and that other components of the DALYs were measured by a population-based perspective. Thus, prevalence-based DALYs could provide more suitable data for decision making in the healthcare field. PMID:27775254

  16. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  17. Observation of fine particle concentration and its chemical characteristics in central region of Korea during KORUS-AQ pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Y.; Lee, M.; Hwang, T.; Hong, Y.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Region super site is one of the 6 super sites operated in Korean peninsula by Ministry of Environment Korea and monitor air quality of central district of Korea continuously and intensively. Located 160km south of Seoul, this site represents an urban site surrounded by residential, commercial area and an 8-lane road cross section which is one of the most crowed main roads in this area. This site also plays a significant role especially in tracing air pollutants flowing through the West Sea from China. During Korus-AQ(Korea-US Air Quality Study) pre-campaign conducted from 18th May to 12th June, PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration using BAM1020 (MetOne), PM2.5bounded ion concentration using AIM (URG), metal concentrations using XRF (Cooper), organic and elemental carbon contents using SOCEC (Sunset), light scattering coefficient using Nephelometer (TSI) and meteorological parameters were continuously measured at this super site. PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations were 31 and 49 ug/m3 with 0.63 fine to course ratio, which were relatively lower than those of annual average concentration of 2014 (39 and 58 ug/m3, respectively). The chemical composition of PM2.5 were determined as ion(46%), TC(37%), CM(2%), TM(0.1%) and unknown(15%). The average concentration of organic and elemental carbon were 5.6 and 1.8 ug/m3 which were similar lever to average of 2014 (5.9 ug/m3, 1.71 ug/m3, respectively). And the metal concentration including Pb(12.5 ng/m3), Fe(151.7 ng/m3), Ca(26.2 ng/m3), Ti(5.2 ng/m3), Cd(4.1 ng/m3) were significantly lower than those of 2014(31.4 ng/m3, 242.1 ng/m3, 167.9 ng/m3, 13.0 ng/m3, 8.3 ng/m3, respectively). However, the average concentration of sulfate was 6.3 ug/m3 which was 43% higher than that of 2014 (4.4 ug/m3). Overall aerosol and its component's concentrations except for secondary sulfate have been decreased since it was late spring and early summer in Korea during pre-campaign and usually in this season aerosol level is

  18. Difference of stage at cancer diagnosis by socioeconomic status for four target cancers of the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea: Results from the Gwangju and Jeonnam cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Sun-Seog; Kim, Min-Gyeong; Kang, Mi-Ran; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether stage at cancer diagnosis differed according to patient economic status. A total of 10,528 patients with cancer of the stomach, colorectum, breast, or cervix, which are target organs of the Korean National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP; fully implemented in 2005) were extracted from population-based cancer registries. The patients were classified into four groups based on socioeconomic status (SES), as determined using their National Health Insurance (NHI) monthly premium at the time of cancer diagnosis. Cancer stage at diagnosis was defined as early (in situ/local) or late stage (regional/distant) based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) summary stage. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the risk of non-local stage using age, residential area, and community deprivation index as covariates. The lowest SES subjects showed significantly higher risks of being diagnosed at a later stage for stomach, colorectal, and female breast cancer, but not for cervical cancer, compared with the highest SES subjects. The estimated ORs were 1.28 (95% CI, 1.10-1.49), 1.29 (95% CI, 1.03-1.61), and 1.35 (95% CI, 1.02-1.81) in the lowest SES subjects with stomach, colorectal, and breast cancer, respectively. In conclusion, later stage diagnoses of stomach, colon, and female breast cancer are still associated with SES in Korea in the era of the NCSP for the lower SES population. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Total Cholesterol and Cancer Risk in a Large Prospective Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Berrington de González, Amy; Freedman, Neal D.; Huxley, Rachel; Mok, Yejin; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To further clarify the relationship between total cholesterol and cancer, which remains unclear. Methods We prospectively examined the association between total cholesterol and site-specific and all-cancer incidence among 1,189,719 Korean adults enrolled in the National Health Insurance Corporation who underwent a standardized biennial medical examination in 1992 to 1995 and were observed for 14 years until cancer diagnosis or death. Results Over follow-up, 53,944 men and 24,475 women were diagnosed with a primary cancer. Compared with levels less than 160 mg/dL, high total cholesterol (≥ 240 mg/dL) was positively associated with prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.44; P trend = .001) and colon cancer (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.25; P trend = .05) in men and breast cancer in women (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.33; P trend = .03). Higher total cholesterol was associated with a lower incidence of liver cancer (men: HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.45; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.39; P trend < .001), stomach cancer (men: HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.93; P trend ≤ .001; women: HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97; P trend = .06), and, in men, lung cancer (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.96; P trend < .001). Results for liver cancer were slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for liver enzyme levels and hepatitis B surface antigen status (men: HR, 0.60; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.46; P trend = .003) and exclusion of the first 10 years of follow-up (men: HR, 0.59; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.44; P trend < .001). Total cholesterol was inversely associated with all-cancer incidence in both men (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.86; P trend < .001) and women (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.95; P trend < .001), but these associations were attenuated after excluding incident liver cancers (men: HR, 0.95; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.98; P trend = .32). Conclusion In this large prospective study, we found that total cholesterol was

  20. Relationship between Salt Preference and Gastric Cancer Screening: An Analysis of a Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeongseon; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population. Materials and Methods The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend=0.048). Conclusion Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice. PMID:26693914

  1. Relationship between Salt Preference and Gastric Cancer Screening: An Analysis of a Nationwide Survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeongseon; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population. The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend=0.048). Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice.

  2. Dietary intake of folate and alcohol, MTHFR C677T polymorphism, and colorectal cancer risk in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Cho, Young Ae; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Bong-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Yong; Jeong, Jinyoung; Lee, Hun-Jae; Matsuo, Keitaro; Tajima, Kazuo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing sharply in Korea, and evidence has suggested the role of dietary methyl supply and related polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated the association between folate and alcohol intake, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism, and CRC risk in Koreans. A total of 787 cases and 656 controls were recruited from 2 university hospitals. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate ORs and corresponding 95% CIs. MTHFR 677T homozygotes were at a lower risk of CRC (OR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.78 for TT compared with CC/CT). High folate intake was associated with reduced CRC risk (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.84 for high compared with low intake), and high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of CRC (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.46 for high compared with low intake). When data were stratified by the amount of dietary methyl (combined intake of folate and alcohol), those with low-methyl diets had higher risk of CRC (OR: 2.32; 95% CI: 1.18, 4.56) than did those with high-methyl diets among CC/CT carriers, whereas the amount of dietary methyl did not affect the CRC risk among carriers with the TT homozygous variant. This association was stronger in patients with colon cancer than in patients with rectal cancer. We found that the effect of dietary methyl supply on colorectal carcinogenesis may differ according to MTHFR C677T genotype and the subsite of origin in a Korean population.

  3. Changes in NOx and O3 concentrations over a decade at a central urban area of Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Jin Yong; Brown, Richard J. C.; Jung, Myung-Chae

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to explore trends of NOx (NO + NO2) pollution over ten years (2004-2013) at an urban monitoring station at Yongsan in Seoul, Korea. The mean concentrations (in nmol/mol) of NO, NO2, and O3 measured over the entire study period were 25.3 ± 7.30, 36.9 ± 1.76, and 17.5 ± 1.31, respectively. The decadal trend of these pollutants exhibited statistically significant, but contrasting, results with downward NO and NOx trends and upward O3 trends throughout the study period. Correlation studies and principal component analysis (PCA) explained association of NO and NO2 with traffic related pollutants (CO, PM, and SO) at a statistically significant level while O3 exhibited patterns correlated with meteorological parameters. The overall results of this study indicate that the decadal trend of NO and NO2 was highly dependent on automotive related pollution, while O3 concentration was influenced by both the availability of NO and meteorological conditions.

  4. The impact of breast cancer on mother-child relationships in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sue; Ko, Yun Hee; Jun, Eun Young

    2012-06-01

    For families with dependent children, the situational crisis of a cancer diagnosis may compound the developmental task of parenting. This study aimed to explore the impact of breast cancer on Korean mothers and their children following diagnosis. Korean women diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or younger more than a year ago were recruited by posting announcements at a breast cancer clinic and through referrals and snowball sampling. A one-time in-depth interview ranging from 60 to 90 min was conducted and data were transcribed verbatim for content analysis. Five themes emerged from the data: (1) The delicate balance of being able to focus on self, which also was a conflicting factor in their relationship with children; (2) The continuing challenge of taking care of children, which was closely linked to supports, health condition, and cultural notions of parenting and lingering stigma; (3) The importance of informing children in a timely manner; (4) An overall shift in attitudes towards raising children as independent beings; and (5) Relinquishing and re-envisioning the future for their children and themselves. Breast cancer brings new challenges in mother-child relationships with culturally framed issues. Findings can guide healthcare providers in giving relevant anticipatory guidance for women diagnosed with breast cancer and in considering family-focused psychosocial and behavioral interventions for families with breast cancer. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Depression and suicide ideas of cancer patients and influencing factors in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Jin; Park, Jong Hyock; Park, Bo Young; Kim, So Young; Lee, Il Hak; Kim, Jong Heun; Koh, Dai Ha; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Park, Jae Hyun; Sohn, Myong Sei

    2014-01-01

    This study compared risk factors for depression and suicidal ideas among cancer patients for comparison with the general population, and identified influencing factors. We analyzed data from 2,472 cancer patients in the National Cancer Center and nine Regional Cancer Centers and frequency-matched data for age and sex from 2,349 members of the general population who completed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors affecting depression and suicidal ideas. Cancer patients were not likely to have more depression (OR=0.96, 95%CI=0.79-1.18) and were less likely to have suicidal ideas (OR=0.64, 95%CI=0.53-0.79) compared to the general population. Female sex, more stress, and lower quality of life were influencing factors. The additional risk factors for suicidal ideas among cancer patients included income (OR=0.62, 95%CI=0.43-0.91), smoking (OR=1.63, 95% CI=1.06-2.50), recurrence (OR=1.50, 95%CI=1.15-1.95), and chemotherapy (OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.26-2.19). No differences appeared in depression rates between cancer patients and the general population, and cancer patients were less likely to have suicidal ideas. However, cancer patients were likely to have more risk factors than the general population, and those classified as being at high risk of suicide should receive distress management and social economic support, from early in the treatment process.

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening and Its Associated Factors Among North Korean Defectors Living in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongok; Kim, HeesSook; Yang, Wonhee; Lee, HaeWon; Park, Sang Min

    2016-10-13

    North Korean defectors (NKD) have many health problems related to insufficient nutrition, trauma from escaping, and being exposed to infectious diseases, but little research exists on their cancer screening. A total of 638 NKD participated in this cross-sectional survey. South Korean natives (SKN) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V were selected using age matching to each NKD. Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression were used for data analysis. The cervical cancer screening rate of NKD was significantly lower than for SKN (42 and 70 %, respectively; P < .001). The adjusted proportions of cervical cancer screening for NKD in all age groups under 60 years (P < .01) and having education beyond high school (P < .001) were significantly lower than that of SKN. NKD who had education under a high school level were more likely to have cervical cancer screening compared to NKD with education beyond a high school level (OR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.12-2.93). NKD were less likely to receive appropriate cervical cancer screening compared to SKN, especially those aged 30-39 years or married. Tailored interventions for NKD are needed to improve cervical cancer screening compliance.

  7. Untreated head and neck cancer in Korea: a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo Geun; Park, Bumjung; Ahn, Soon-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have analyzed the survival of patients with untreated head and neck cancer. The objective of this study is to assess the survival rates of untreated head and neck cancer patients and to determine why the patients were not treated. Using data from a national patient sample cohort (1,025,340 cases) from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, 605 patients with diagnoses of head and neck cancer (lip and oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and laryngeal cancer) between 2003 and 2013 were evaluated. Cox proportional hazards modeling and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Of the considered cases of head and neck cancer, 32.2% were untreated. The median survival rate of untreated groups was 9 months. The untreated group showed poorer survival than the treatment groups. Old age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.37, 95% confidence internal (CI) 1.25-1.49, P < 0.001] and low income (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-1.00, P = 0.028) were related to not receiving treatment. Many head and neck cancers go untreated. Clinicians should focus on untreated patients and seek to understand the reasons for their lack of treatment.

  8. Nd isotope and detrital zircon U-Pb age constraints on the provenance of the Pyeongan Supergroup (late Paleozoic-Early Triassic) in central eastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. G.; Lee, Y. I.; Choi, T.

    2016-12-01

    During the late Paleozoic, subduction occurred beneath the both northern and southern margins of the Sino-Korean (North China) Craton (SKC), which led to collision with the Siberian Craton and the South China Craton, respectively. The collision among three cratons resulted in the formation of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in the northern part of the SKC and the Qinling-Dabie Belt in the southern part. What happened in the east of the SKC during that time is rather unclear, except for the accretion and active arc magmatism recorded in the Japanese Islands. To investigate tectonics of the eastern SKC during the late Paleozoic, sandstone and shale samples taken from the Pyeongan Supergroup in central eastern Korea were analyzed for detrital zircon U-Pb and whole-rock Sm-Nd geochronology. The Pyeongan Supergroup, a Middle Carboniferous-Lower Triassic sedimentary succession in Korea, is largely correlatable to its age-equivalent succession in North China. However, its basinfill is interpreted to have been derived from recycled orogen located to the east-southeast. Detrital zircon age patterns are consistent from the bottom to the top of the succession, with the dominance of 1.7 2.0 Ga zircons (>80%), which suggests in the previous cycle the origination of sediments from Paleoproterozoic basement rocks of the Yeongnam Massif located in the southeast of the studied succession. The presence of some detrital zircon grains of near syn-depositional age suggest contemporaneous magmatic activity in the source terrane. ɛNd(0) varies between -22.7 and -8.7, with an average of -15.5. The lower ɛNd values (<-15.0) match that of the Yeongnam Massif basement rocks, but the higher ɛNd values (>-15.0) suggest significant mixing of juvenile materials, implying the input of the weathered product of late Paleozoic magmatism. Three pulses of relatively high ɛNd values at 315 Ma, 290 Ma, and 265 Ma are observed. The juvenile material with andesitic to basaltic composition is

  9. The Effects of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on Discussion of Cancer Experiences: Survivors of Childhood Cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee; Prince, Kort C; Nagelhout, Elizabeth; Wu, Yelena

    2017-09-18

    This study aimed to identify young adult Korean cancer survivors' individual- (psychological distress, stigma, sociodemographic variables, and cancer-related variables) and network-level factors (relationship type, social support type) that influence discussion of their cancer experiences. Sixty-eight survivors of childhood cancer who were recruited using snowball sampling nominated 245 individuals from their networks, including family and intimate partners (40%) and friends and acquaintances (60%), as people with whom they most frequently interacted. Results of multilevel modeling analysis indicated that higher levels of internalized shame were a prominent individual-level factor associated with a lack of discussion of cancer experiences. Relationship type and support type at the network-level were also significant correlates of discussion of cancer experiences. Programs for reducing the survivors' shame, improving illness identity, and providing professional training for building social relationships that are intimate and in which they could exchange reciprocal support may help Korean childhood cancer survivors to openly share their cancer experiences with others in their social network and to be successful in the journey of cancer survivorship.

  10. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  11. Transmissibility of the Campaign for Colorectal Cancer Awareness in Korea Among Twitter Users

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keun Chul; Park, Gibeom; Park, SoHyun; Bae, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jin Won; Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Myung Jo; Kang, Sung-Il; Son, Il Tae; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Korean Society of Coloproctology holds its annual colorectal awareness month every September. This study analyzed the users and the contents of Korean tweets regarding colorectal cancer and estimated the transmissibility of the awareness campaign among Twitter users. Methods Prospective data collection was employed to accumulate Korean tweets containing the keywords "colorectal cancer," "colorectal cancer awareness campaign," "gold ribbon," and/or "love handle," from August 1 to September 30, 2014. Twitter users and contents were analyzed, and the credibility of information-sharing tweets throughout the study period was evaluated. Results In total, 10,387 tweets shared by 1,452 unique users were analyzed. As for users, 57.8% were individuals whereas 5.8% were organizations/communities; spambots accounted for a considerable percentage (36.4%). As for content, most tweets were spam (n = 8,736, 84.1%), repetitively advertising unverified commercial folk remedies, followed by tweets that shared information (n = 1,304, 12.6%) and non-information (n = 347, 3.3%). In the credibility assessment, only 80.6% of the information-sharing tweets were medically correct. After spam tweets had been excluded, a significant increase was seen in the percentage of information-sharing tweets (77.1% to 81.1%, P = 0.045) during the awareness campaign month. Conclusion Most Korean tweets regarding colorectal cancer during the study months were commercial spam tweets; informative public tweets accounted for an extremely small percentage. The transmissibility of the awareness campaign among Twitter users was questionable at best. To expand the reach of credible medical information on colorectal cancer, public health institutions and organizations must pay greater attention to social media. PMID:27847789

  12. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-21

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean=35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  13. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-01

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean = 35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  14. Obesity is associated with higher risk of prostate cancer detection in a biopsy population in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Juhyun; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Son, Hwancheol; Jeong, Hyeon

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of obesity on prostate cancer detection, as measured by the body mass index (BMI) in a Korean biopsy population. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1213 men who underwent transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy at our institution. Biopsy outcomes were analysed with respect to various variables, including patient age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate volume, digital rectal examination (DRE) findings and obesity, defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) , an Asian BMI category. Among 1213 men, 408 (33.6%) were obese and 344 (28.4%) had a positive biopsy. Obese men were younger (65.5 vs 67.1 years, P = 0.003), had a larger prostate (49.2 vs 42.9 mL, P < 0.001) and were less likely to have any abnormality on DRE (8.1 vs 15.9% P < 0.001) than non-obese men. In the multivariate analysis, obesity was significantly associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection in men undergoing biopsy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.446, P = 0.024). In addition, obesity was significantly associated with a higher rate of biopsy-detected high grade (Gleason score ≥4 + 3) disease, and this association remained after multivariate adjustment (OR = 1.498, P = 0.039). Obese men were younger, had a larger prostate, and had less tendency to have an abnormality on DRE than non-obese men. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer detection as an independent factor, including high grade prostate cancer in a Korean biopsy population. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  15. Preference elicitation approach for measuring the willingness to pay for liver cancer treatment in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Donghun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The Korean government has expanded the coverage of the national insurance scheme for four major diseases: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and rare diseases. This policy may have a detrimental effect on the budget of the national health insurance agency. Like taxes, national insurance premiums are levied on the basis of the income or wealth of the insured. Methods Using a preference elicitation method, we attempted to estimate how much people are willing to pay for insurance premiums that would expand their coverage for liver cancer treatment. Results We calculated the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) through the marginal rate of substitution between the two attributes of the insurance premium and the total annual treatment cost by adopting conditional logit and mixed logit models. Conclusions The effects of various other terms that could interact with socioeconomic status were also estimated, such as gender, income level, educational attainment, age, employment status, and marital status. The estimated MWTP values of the monthly insurance premium for liver cancer treatment range from 4,130 KRW to 9,090 KRW. PMID:26523270

  16. An Evaluation of Nutrition Support for Terminal Cancer Patients at Teaching Hospitals in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Yeun; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Keun-Wook; Lee, Jong Seok

    2006-01-01

    Purpose We wanted to analyze the use of nutrition support for terminal cancer patients, the effect of discussing withdrawal of nutrition support and do-not-resuscitate (DNR) consent on the use of intravenous nutrition during the patient's last week of life and at the time of death. Materials and Methods The study involved 362 patients with terminal cancer from four teaching hospitals, and they all died between January 1 2003 and December 31 2005. The basic demographic data, the use of intravenous nutrition during the patient's last week of life and at death, discussion of terminal nutrition withdrawal and DNR consent were evaluated. Results In the week before death, the patients received artificial nutrition such as total parenteral nutrition (31%), intravenous albumin infusion (25%), and feeding tube placements (9%). A discussion concerning withdrawal of nutrition support was limited to 25 (7%) patients. DNR consent was obtained from 294 (81%) patients. None of the patients were directly involved in any of these decisions. The discussion about withdrawal of terminal nutrition and DNR consent with the patient's surrogates did not have any effect on reducing the use of parenteral nutrition. Conclusion The majority of patients dying of terminal cancer were still given potentially futile nutritional support. Modern clinical guidelines and ethical education about nutritional support at the end of life care is urgently needed in Korean medical practice to provide proper administration of terminal nutrition for end of life care. PMID:19771245

  17. The association of physical activity and colorectal and breast cancer: The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2011).

    PubMed

    Kang, Suh-Jung

    2015-06-01

    Therapeutic importance of physical activity during and after cancer treatment has been supported. To examine the patterns of physical activity according to the stages of breast and colorectal cancer survivor-ship in Korean, Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2008 to 2011 were used. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was utilized to estimate weekly time spent in vigorous- and moderate-intensity physical activity, and walking, and to calculate MET-minute/week. Depending on the survivorship, the subjects were categorized into "never diagnosed with cancer" (group 1), "0-4 yr since cancer diagnosis" (group 2), and "5 or more years since cancer diagnosis" (group 3), separately for colorectal and breast cancer. The associations between physical activity and the cancer survivorship were studied. Following results were obtained: (1) Breast cancer (n=10,167, mean age=48.55±16.27): The mean physical activity levels expressed in MET-minutes/week were 2,064.83, 1748.82, and 1998.36 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Even though cancer survivors tended to be less active compared to people without cancer, there were no statistically significant difference among the three groups. (2) Colorectal cancer (n=17,270, mean age=48.62): MET-minutes/week was 2064.30, 1084.83, and 709.04 36 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The differences were significant between group 1 and 2 (F=5.87, P=0.016) and group 1 and 3 (F=28.99, P<0.001). Despite potential therapeutic benefits of physical activity, colorectal cancer survivors were less active than people without cancer in Korea.

  18. Strategies to improve treatment outcome in gastric cancer: A retrospective analysis of patients from two high-volume hospitals in Korea and China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xin-Zu; Song, Mi Kyung; Lee, Jinae; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Chen, Jia-Ping; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hyung, Woo Jin; Hu, Jian-Kun; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    China has high incidence of gastric cancer (GC). However, the treatment outcomes of China were unsatisfactory compared to those of Korea. We performed this study to compare tumour characteristics, treatment parameters, and survival outcomes of GC patients between Korea and China based on the databases of two high-volume hospitals, with the aim of identifying indicators of GC prognosis. Data of patients undergoing gastrectomy for GC from 2006 to 2010 were analysed retrospectively. Subgroup survival analyses, stratified by clinicopathologic factors and multivariable analyses, were performed. The interactive roles of chemotherapy and D2 lymphadenectomy for overall survival were also investigated. Among 1365 Chinese and 4981 Korean patients, the proportion of early cancer detection in Chinese patients was much lower relative to that of Korean patients. There were no significant differences between countries in terms of surgical morbidity and mortality. The overall 5-year survival rates were 54.3% and 81.4%; when stratified by clinicopathologic factors, the survival were generally statistically higher in Korean patients. Gender, age, T stage, N stage, extent of lymphadenectomy, radicality of surgery, resection type, and chemotherapy were independently associated with survival in patients without metastasis. Survival rates for stage II and III GC differed significantly between the two countries, but this difference was eliminated among patients who underwent D2 lymphadenectomy or received chemotherapy. These treatments were given to patients with advanced-stage diagnoses (approximately 20% and 80% of patients, respectively). Treatment type was selected as independent prognostic factors in stage I–III and D2/D2+, with chemotherapy resulting in the best prognosis. Many differences in GC tumour characteristics exist between two countries. Early cancer detection and standardized treatment in Korea contribute to superior survival rates. Promotion of an early screening

  19. Oral Bisphosphonates and Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Risks in Asians with Osteoporosis: A Nested Case-Control Study Using National Retrospective Cohort Sample Data from Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sun-Young; Sohn, Hyun Soon; Park, Eun-Ja; Suh, Hae Sun; Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Bisphosphonate can irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa and increase the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer. The relatively high prevalence of upper gastrointestinal cancers and the widespread use of bisphosphonate in Korea call for further investigation. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer after exposure to oral bisphosphonates in Korean patients with osteoporosis. We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database of Korea from 2002 to 2013. Among osteoporotic patients (>40 years), cases were defined as incident diagnosis of esophageal or gastric cancer between 2006 and 2013. For each case, four controls were matched for age, sex, and income level by type of insurance. We categorized bisphosphonate use as non-user, recent user, past user, and past and recent user, depending on prescription in two periods (1 to 2 years and 2 to 4 years prior to the index date). We also assessed the duration of bisphosphonate use by measuring cumulative duration of exposure (CDE). To examine the association between oral bisphosphonates and esophageal or gastric cancer, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for concomitant diseases. A total of 1,708 cases and 6,832 controls were identified. The aORs (95% CIs) of recent, past, and continuous bisphosphonate use compared to non-users were 1.18 (0.93-1.51), 1.04 (0.83-1.29), and 1.25 (0.95-1.58)), respectively. In addition, no significant association was observed by CDE, even when different outcome definitions were applied. This study did not prove an increased risk of esophageal or gastric cancer risk associated with bisphosphonate use, with respect to both risk windows and duration of exposure, in an Asian population-based, real-world setting.

  20. Impacts of household income and economic recession on participation in colorectal cancer screening in Korea.

    PubMed

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of household income and economic recession on participation in CRC screening, we estimated annual participating proportions from 2007 to 2009 for different CRC screening modalities according to household income levels. A total of 8,042 subjects were derived from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for CRC screening with household income quartiles by gender in each year. People were less likely to attend a high-cost CRC screening such as a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy independent of the income quartile during the economic recession. Income disparities for participating in opportunistic cancer screening appear to have existed among both males and females during the three years (2007-2009), but were most distinctive in 2009. An increase in mortality of CRC can therefore be expected due to late detection in periods of economic crisis. Accordingly, the government should expand the coverage of CRC screening to prevent excess deaths by reducing related direct and indirect costs during the economic recession.

  1. Eliciting societal preferences of reimbursement decision criteria for anti cancer drugs in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun-Hong; Park, Sun-Kyeong; Byun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2017-08-01

    In order to look beyond the cost-effectiveness analysis, this study used a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA), which reflects societal values with regard to reimbursement decisions. This study aims to elicit societal preferences of the reimbursement decision criteria for anti cancer drugs from public and healthcare professionals. Eight criteria were defined based on a literature review and focus group sessions: disease severity, disease population size, pediatrics targets, unmet needs, innovation, clinical benefits, cost-effectiveness, and budget impacts. Using quota sampling and purposive sampling, 300 participants from the Korean public and 30 healthcare professionals were selected for the survey. Preferences were elicited using an analytic hierarchy process. Both groups rated clinical benefits the highest, followed by cost-effectiveness and disease severity, but differed with regard to disease population size and unmet needs. Innovation was the least preferred criteria. Clinical benefits and other social values should be reflected appropriately with cost-effectiveness in healthcare coverage. MCDA can be used to assess decision priorities for complicated health policy decisions, including reimbursement decisions. It is a promising method for making logical and transparent drug reimbursement decisions that consider a broad range of factors, which are perceived as important by relevant stakeholders.

  2. Geographical Correlations between Indoor Radon Concentration and Risks of Lung Cancer, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, and Leukemia during 1999-2008 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kang, Sungchan; Park, No-Wook; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae

    2017-03-24

    Indoor radon is the second most important risk factor for lung cancer and may also be a risk factor for hematopoietic cancers, particularly in children and adolescents. The present study measured indoor radon concentration nationwide at 5553 points during 1989-2009 and spatially interpolated using lognormal kriging. The incidences of lung cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and leukemia, stratified by sex and five-year age groups in each of the 234 administrative regions in the country during 1999-2008, were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and used to calculate the standardized incidence ratios. After considering regional deprivation index values and smoking rates by sex in each region as confounding variables, the cancer risks were estimated based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling. We found that a 10 Bq/m³ increase in indoor radon concentration was associated with a 1% increase in the incidence of lung cancer in male and a 7% increase in NHL in female children and adolescents in Korea aged less than 20 years. Leukemia was not associated with indoor radon concentration. The increase in NHL risk among young women requires confirmation in future studies, and the radon control program should consider children and adolescents.

  3. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Sarcopenia in Korean Cancer Survivors: Based on Data Obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang; Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Won-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we analyzed anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined body composition findings for 493 cancer survivors (mean age a61.1 ± 12.6 years; 35.7% male). A much higher proportion of men (30.1%) than women (0.6%) met the criteria of sarcopenia. Subjects with a history of lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, or gastric cancer were prone to develop sarcopenia (31.6%, 26.3%, and 21.4%, respectively). Furthermore, sarcopenia was more prevalent among elderly (≥65 years; P < 0.001), those with a lower BMI level (<23 kg/m(2); P < 0.001), heavy drinker (P = 0.012), or smoker (P < 0.001), and those with inadequate intakes of protein (P = 0.017) and vitamin A (P = 0.024). Multivariable logistic analyses revealed sarcopenia was significantly associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR], 68.14; 95% CI, 15.52-299.13), a BMI of <23 kg/m(2) (OR 35.93, 95% CI, 8.24-156.67), and inadequate protein intake (OR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.30-7.22); these factors are significant predictors of sarcopenia in Korean cancer survivors.

  4. Risk of bladder cancer among patients with diabetes treated with a 15 mg pioglitazone dose in Korea: a multi-center retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Man; Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Chang, Jin-Sun; Suh, Sunghwan; Kang, Seung Min; Jung, Inkyung; Park, Cheol-Young; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Cho, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2014-02-01

    It has not yet been determined whether chronic exposure to relatively low doses of pioglitazone increases risk of bladder cancer. We aimed to assess the risk of bladder cancer associated with pioglitazone in Korean patients. This was a retrospective cohort study of diabetic patients who had ≥ 2 clinic visits between November 2005 and June 2011 at one of four tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. A prevalent case-control analysis nested within the cohort was conducted to further adjust confounders. A total of 101,953 control patients and 11,240 pioglitazone-treated patients were included, in which there were 237 and 30 cases of incidental bladder cancer (64.9 and 54.9 per 100,000 person-years; age, sex-adjusted HR 1.135, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.769-1.677), respectively. In the prevalent case-control analysis nested within the cohort, use of pioglitazone for a duration of > 6 months, but not ever use of pioglitazone, was associated with an increased rate of bladder cancer as compared to never use of pioglitazone. In conclusion, we failed to exclude the possible association between use of pioglitazone for a duration of > 6 months and bladder cancer.

  5. The descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer in Central America and comparison with United States Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Corral, Juan E; Delgado Hurtado, Juan J; Domínguez, Ricardo L; Valdez de Cuéllar, Marisabel; Balmore Cruz, Carlos; Morgan, Douglas R

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the USA. Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based, and hospital-based registries. US data was obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Epidemiology End Results Program (SEER) registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985 and 2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two thirds of the cases were male, 20.5 % were under age 55, and 58.5 %were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n = 7871), 57.8 % were male and 28.9 % were under age 55. Among the US Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n = 1210), 50.3 % of cases were male and 38.1 % were under age 55. Non-cardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3 %), among US Hispanics (80.2 %), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3 %). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6 %), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among US Hispanics (54.0 %). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7 %) and US Hispanics (69.5 %), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50 % of cases. A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and US Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing US Hispanic population.

  6. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment.

  7. Survivor Centrality Among Breast Cancer Survivors: Implications for Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which 10-year breast cancer survivors integrated cancer into their self-concept (i.e., survivor centrality), identify predictors of survivor centrality, and determine the relation of survivor centrality to well-being. Methods Breast cancer survivors (n = 240) were interviewed 10 years following the initial diagnosis. They completed measures of survivor centrality, illness valence (i.e., positive or negative views of illness), and well-being (positive and negative affect, mental and physical functioning, psychological distress, benefit-finding). Results There were few predictors of the kinds of women who were more likely to integrate breast cancer into their self-concepts, but survivor centrality was related to engaging in behaviors that suggested survivorship was relevant to women’s daily lives, such as becoming involved in breast cancer activities. Survivor centrality was related to three markers of negative psychological well-being: more negative affect, poorer mental functioning, and greater psychological distress. However, in the case of negative affect and psychological distress, this relation was moderated by illness valence, such that survivor centrality was only related to negative psychological well-being when the illness was viewed in less positive terms. Conclusions Women vary in the extent to which they define themselves in terms of the breast cancer experience. Survivor centrality in and of itself is not always indicative of adjustment to disease. When women have a more negative view of being a breast cancer survivor, survivor centrality is more likely to signify potential problems. PMID:20878844

  8. The descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer in Central America and comparison with United States Hispanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Juan E.; Delgado Hurtado, Juan J.; Domínguez, Ricardo L.; de Cuéllar, Marisabel Valdez; Cruz, Carlos Balmore; Morgan, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the U.S. Methods Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based and hospital-based registries. U.S. data was obtained from the NCI-SEER registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985–2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. Results In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two-thirds of cases were male, 20.5% were under age 55, and 58.5% were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n=7,871), 57.8% were male, and 28.9% were under age 55. Among the U.S. Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n=1,210), 50.3% of cases were male, and 38.1% were under age 55. Noncardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3%), among U.S. Hispanics (80.2%), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3%). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6%), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among U.S. Hispanics (54.0%). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7%), and U.S. Hispanics (69.5%), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50% of cases. Conclusions A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and U.S. Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing U.S. Hispanic population. PMID:25412859

  9. Advances in prevention and management of central line-associated bloodstream infections in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Raad, Issam; Chaftari, Anne-Marie

    2014-11-15

    Central lines, which are essential for treating cancer, are associated with at least 400,000 episodes of bloodstream infection in patients with cancer every year in the United States. Effective novel interventions for preventing and managing these infections include antimicrobial-coated catheters and antimicrobial lock solutions.

  10. Trends in the Incidence of In Situ and Invasive Cervical Cancer by Age Group and Histological Type in Korea from 1993 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Sang-yoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective Our study aims to describe changes in carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) in Korean women diagnosed between 1993 and 2009. Methods All cases of CIS and invasive cervical carcinoma diagnosed from 1993 to 2009 in the Korean National Cancer Incidence database were analyzed. Age-standardized rates (ASRs) and annual percent changes (APCs) in incidence rates were compared according to age and histological type. Additionally, we used Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to know the association between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate of cervical cancer. Results Between 1993 and 2009, 72,240 cases of ICC were reported in Korea. Total incidence rate of ICC was 14.7 per 100,000 females. ASRs of ICC declined 3.8% per year, from 19.3 per 100,000 in 1993 to 10.5 per 100,000 in 2009. Although the overall incidence rate of adenocarcinoma remained stable, invasive squamous cell carcinoma showed a decreasing trend (APC −4.2%). For women aged 60–79 years, ASRs for squamous cell carcinoma increased from 1993 to 2001, and decreased from 2001 to 2009 (APC: −4.6%). Total 62,300 cases of CIS were diagnosed from 1993 to 2009. Total incidence rate of CIS was 12.2 per 100,000 females. ASRs of CIS increased 5.7% per year, from 7.5 per 100,000 in 1993 to 19.0 per 100,000 in 2009. Adenocarcinoma in situ increased 13.2% per year. There was a strong positive correlation between screening rate for cervical cancer and incidence rate for CIS (p-value = 0.03) whereas screening rate showed a strong negative correlation with incidence rate for squamous ICC (p-value = 0.04). Conclusions The increasing trend in CIS, coupled with a decreasing trend in ICC, suggests the important role of cervix cancer screening. The incidence of adenocarcinoma showed a plateau, but the incidence of adenocarcinoma in situ showed an increasing trend. PMID:23977194

  11. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-01-01

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors. PMID:26690183

  12. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-12-04

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors.

  13. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    our goal is to: 1. To identify differentially expressed proteins and phosphoproteins in prostate cancer cells from patients on high ω-3 and control...serum/ plasma samples within the next three months and finish the global expression proteomics part of the project within the next six months. 15...SUBJECT TERMS Biomarker, proteomics, prostate cancer, 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  14. [Localization of prostate cancer within the central gland by endorectal MR spectroscopic imaging].

    PubMed

    Comet Batlle, Josep; Vilanova Busquets, Joan Carles; Maroto Genover, Albert; Areal Calama, Joan; Osorio Fernández, Margarita; López Bonet, Eugeni; Torrent Quer, Narcis; Ordis Dalmau, Miquel; Saladié Roig, Josep María; Barceló Vidal, Carles

    2005-03-01

    The endorectal MR spectroscopic imaging is a new imaging test which allows more accurate and reliable localization and staging of prostate cancer than simple endorectal MRI. The combination of spectroscopic MR and MRI has recently achieved technical improvements that increased reliability in the detection of prostate cancer. Our group is now working in the detection of prostate cancer with the spectroscopic MR, in co-operation with the Agency for the Evaluation of Technology for Medical Research (Agencia de Evaluación de Tecnología para la Investigación Médica-AATRM); although we are waiting for definitive results, we can advance that this technique may be used as a good alternative for localization of prostate cancer in patients with previous negative biopsies in whom the suspicion of prostate cancer persists. We present a series of 5 patients under control for permanent elevation of PSA with previous negative biopsies. We were performing ultrasound guided sextant biopsies every 6 months, after blood test for PSA. Endorectal MRI and spectroscopic MRI were performed to try to localize the prostate cancer so diminishing the number of biopsies. All patients in the series had a low intensity lesion within the normal low intensity of the central gland, with an obvious spectroscopic metabolic abnormality suggesting the existence of prostate cancer, as it was then demonstrated by biopsy. The endorectal MR spectroscopic imaging is a non invasive method which offers the ability to detect prostate cancer within the central gland with a higher reliability in selected patients. The central gland is an area in which prostate cancer is less commonly localized, but it often shows the same signal intensity than hyperplastic tissue, so that it is difficult to be detected by purely morphological methods. Endorectal MR spectroscopic imaging allows evaluating the metabolic disturbances in the whole gland, increasing the reliability of detection of prostate cancer both in the

  15. Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Behavior in Female Cancer Survivors: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ae; Shin, Jinyoung; Hwang, Eun-Joo; Lee, Jung-Woong

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare breast and cervical cancer screening rates between female cancer survivors and a population without cancer to identify factors related to cervical and breast cancer screening in cancer survivors. We included 17,765 adults (738 cancer survivors and 17,027 individuals without cancer) in this study, all of whom who were 30 years of age or older and participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys from 2007-2012. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors related to cervical and breast cancer screening uptake in female cancer survivors. The screening rate for breast cancer was 56.6%, which was higher than that in the non-cancer control group (P=0.001). The screening rate for cervical cancer was 51.4%, which was not different from that of the non-cancer control group. In terms of breast cancer screening, cancer survivors showed no significant difference in the rate of screening 5 years after their cancer diagnosis. However, cervical cancer survivors were less likely to have cervical cancer screening 10 years after their cancer diagnosis. There was no significant association between cancer screening and sociodemographic factors. Breast and cervical cancer screening rates in Korean female cancer survivors are low. Secondary primary cancer screening of female cancer survivors needs to be planned in a comprehensive manner, with the consideration of influences beyond sociodemographic factors.

  16. Telomerase: central regulator of all of the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Low, Kee Chung; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2013-09-01

    The hallmarks of cancer described by Hanahan and Weinberg are properties that cancer cells must possess for successful transformation. It is believed that each of these hallmarks is independently driven. Although elongation of telomeres is thought to be the prime function of reactivated telomerase reverse transcriptase, this activity does not account for all its effects, such as increasing cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and invasion. Recent studies suggest that the telomerase subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has novel molecular functions including transcriptional regulation and metabolic reprogramming. We summarize these functions and discuss how they could directly regulate the various hallmarks of cancer. Finally, we suggest that therapeutics targeting noncanonical telomerase functions may work better than those that target its role in telomere extension.

  17. Complications of peripherally inserted central catheters in advanced cancer patients undergoing combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Linjie; Xu, Xiaomin; Huang, Yunjuan

    2017-03-23

    To identify whether patients with advanced cancers were at high risk of peripherall"y inserted central catheter-related complications when treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Peripherally inserted central catheters are widely used in chemotherapy. However, catheter usage may elevate the risks of infections and thrombosis. It is important to identify the patients with high risk of peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications. To date, little is known about peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications in patients with advanced cancers and receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Five hundred and sixty-nine cancer patients with advanced cancers and treated by chemo-radiotherapy were analysed in the study. The incidences of peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications were investigated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for identification of risk factors. Eighty-six (15.1%) patients exhibited peripherally inserted central catheter-related infectious complications, of which 6.3% were local infection, 3.9% were catheter-related bloodstream infection and 4.9% were exit-site infection. Sixty-five (11.4%) developed symptomatic peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis, and 52 (9.1%) were suffering from phlebitis. The overall complication rate was 53.1%. The univariable logistic regression and multivariate analysis showed that comorbidity (OR 1.51, p = .0148) and body mass index (OR 1.46, p = .0157), and duration of radio-chemotherapy (OR 1.4733, p = .0049) were significantly associated with peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications. Patients with peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications showed lower 5-year survival rate than those without peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications. Identification of risk factors for peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications in patients with advanced

  18. Effects of interval between age at first pregnancy and age at diagnosis on breast cancer survival according to menopausal status: a register-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, JungSun; Oh, Minkyung

    2014-09-18

    The influence of parity and time interval between age at first pregnancy (AFP) and age at diagnosis on breast cancer survival is not established in the same way as their influence on breast cancer risk. We aimed to investigate the association of time interval or parity with prognosis in pre- and postmenopausal women in Korea. We conducted a retrospective study of 29,167 women with breast cancer through the Korean Breast Cancer Registry from 1993-2009. Information on reproductive factors, including breastfeeding, AFP, and parity were collected from a routine questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the associations between menopausal status and overall mortality (OM) and breast-cancer-specific mortality (BCSM), adjusting for treatment and stage. High parity (≥5) increased the hazard ratios (HR) of BCSM (HR = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83-2.11, p < 0.001) and OM (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.85-1.68.73, p < 0.001) in premenopausal and postmenopausal women (BCSM, HR: 1.62, 95% CI: 0.93-2.82, p < 0.001; OM, HR = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.14-2.21, p <0.001). A longer time interval between age at breast cancer diagnosis and AFP reduced the HRs of BCSM (HR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.96-0.98, p = 0.001) and OM (HR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.98, p < 0.001) in premenopausal women, but had an adverse effect on the HR of OM (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.03, p < 0.001) in postmenopausal women. High parity (≥5) was associated with poor breast cancer prognosis in both pre- and postmenopausal women. The time intervals between reproductive events had different effects on breast cancer outcomes depending on menopausal status.

  19. Economic Evaluation of Companion Diagnostic Testing for EGFR Mutations and First-Line Targeted Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun-A; Bae, Eunmi; Lim, Jaeok; Shin, Young Kee; Choi, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background As targeted therapy becomes increasingly important, diagnostic techniques for identifying targeted biomarkers have also become an emerging issue. The study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treating patients as guided by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status compared with a no-testing strategy that is the current clinical practice in South Korea. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted to compare an EGFR mutation testing strategy with a no-testing strategy from the Korean healthcare payer’s perspective. The study population consisted of patients with stage 3b and 4 lung adenocarcinoma. A decision tree model was employed to select the appropriate treatment regimen according to the results of EGFR mutation testing and a Markov model was constructed to simulate disease progression of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The length of a Markov cycle was one month, and the time horizon was five years (60 cycles). Results In the base case analysis, the testing strategy was a dominant option. Quality-adjusted life-years gained (QALYs) were 0.556 and 0.635, and total costs were $23,952 USD and $23,334 USD in the no-testing and testing strategy respectively. The sensitivity analyses showed overall robust results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) increased when the number of patients to be treated with erlotinib increased, due to the high cost of erlotinib. Conclusion Treating advanced adenocarcinoma based on EGFR mutation status has beneficial effects and saves the cost compared to no testing strategy in South Korea. However, the cost-effectiveness of EGFR mutation testing was heavily affected by the cost-effectiveness of the targeted therapy. PMID:27483001

  20. Comparison of cancer diagnoses between the US solid organ transplant registry and linked central cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Nogueira, Leticia M; Koch, Lori; Copeland, Glenn; Lynch, Charles F; Pawlish, Karen S; Finch, Jack L; Kahn, Amy R; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Segev, Dorry L; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Snyder, Jon J; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A

    2016-04-07

    US transplant centers are required to report cancers in transplant recipients to the transplant network. The accuracy and completeness of these data, collected in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR), are unknown. We compared diagnoses in the SRTR and 15 linked cancer registries, for colorectal, liver, lung, breast, prostate, and kidney cancers, melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Among 187,384 transplants, 9323 cancers were documented in the SRTR or cancer registries. Only 36.8% of cancers were in both, with 47.5% and 15.7% of cases additionally documented solely in cancer registries or the SRTR, respectively. Agreement between the SRTR and cancer registries varied (kappa: 0.28 for liver cancer, 0.52-0.66 for lung, prostate, kidney, colorectum and breast cancers). Upon evaluation, some NHLs documented only in cancer registries were identified in the SRTR as another type of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Some SRTR-only cases were explained by miscoding (colorectal cancer instead of anal cancer, metastases as lung or liver cancers) or missed matches with cancer registries, partly due to out-migration from their catchment areas. Estimated sensitivity for identifying cancer was 52.5% for the SRTR and 84.3% for cancer registries. In conclusion, SRTR cancer data are substantially incomplete, limiting their usefulness for surveillance and research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Cancer mortality in central-eastern Europe: facts behind the figures.

    PubMed

    Döbrossy, Lajos

    2002-06-01

    An epidemiological assessment of the status and trends of cancer mortality shows that Europe is still divided by the rate of cancer death. Overall, cancer mortality in Europe has been steadily decreasing since the early 1990s. However, when the data are broken down, the burden of cancer in the central-eastern European countries is substantial, and mortality has actually continued to increase. Differences in lifestyle and environmental exposure are the most likely causes, and these are inevitably linked to political, social, and economic inequalities. For the time being, improvements in the health of the population are not a high priority for the new democratic governments. Even if attempts at cancer prevention are eventually realised, a major cancer burden will persist for many decades to come.

  2. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Activity and Sitting Time in Cancer Survivors: 2009-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hoon; Lee, Hyo

    2016-12-01

    Objectives: A physically active lifestyle is important for cancer survivors. Therefore, this study was conducted to 1) provide population-based estimates of the prevalence of physical activity and sitting time, and 2) their correlates in Korean cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed a cancer survivor subsample (N=1,482) from 2008-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), data selected with a complex sampling design. Overall and subgroup-specific prevalences of physical activity and sitting time were estimated. Correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity ( MVPA) and sitting time were tested using age-groupspecific hierarchical multiple regression models. Results: Overall adherence rate to physical activity guidelines was 34.9% (95% CI=31.5-38.4). Age-group-specific adherence rates were 41.1% (95% CI=36.3-45.9) in adults (30-64 years old), and 25.3% (95% CI=21.0-25.3) in older adults (65 years or older). Adults spent 213.33 minutes (95% CI=172.4-254.3) per week on MVPA and 55.3 minutes (95% CI=36.4-64.6) on sitting time per day. In adults, sitting time was significantly associated with employed status (B=28.0, p=0.046), smoking (B=-47.4, p=0.020), and number of comorbidity conditions (B=-13, p=.037). MVPA was significantly associated with marital status (B=134.9, p<0.001), employment status (B=98.12, p=.046), and years since cancer diagnosis (B=104.7, p=0.015). Older adults spent 162.2 minutes (95% CI=119.5-204.8) per week on MVPA and 63.0 minutes (95% CI=45.0-89.5) on sitting time per day. Their significant correlates were sex (B= -45.2, p=0.014), smoking (B=-70.14, p<0.001), and years since cancer diagnosis (B=37.0, p=0.024). Age (B=5.8, p=0.042) and marital status (B=83.8, p=0.033) were also significantly associated with MVPA in older adults. Conclusion: A majority of Korean cancer survivors do not sufficiently participate in physical activity. In general, older, unhealthier, non-working, and

  3. Lung cancer screening with low-dose helical CT in Korea: experiences at the Samsung Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Rhee, Chong H

    2005-06-01

    To determine overall detection rates of lung cancer by low-dose CT (LDCT) screening and to compare histopathologic and imaging differences of detected cancers between high- and low-risk groups, this study included 6,406 asymptomatic Korean adults with >or=45 yr of age who underwent LDCT for lung cancer screening. All were classified into high- (>or=20 pack-year smoking; 3,353) and low-risk (3,053; <20 pack-yr smoking and non-smokers) groups. We compared CT findings of detected cancers and detection rates between high- and low-risk. At initial CT, 35% (2,255 of 6,406) had at least one or more non-calcified nodule. Lung cancer detection rates were 0.36% (23 of 6,406). Twenty-one non-small cell lung cancers appeared as solid (n=14) or ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n=7) nodules. Cancer likelihood was higher in GGO nodules than in solid nodules (p<0.01). Fifteen of 23 cancers occurred in high-risk group and 8 in low-risk group (p=0.215). Therefore, LDCT screening help detect early stage of lung cancer in asymptomatic Korean population with detection rate of 0.36% on a population basis and may be useful for discovering early lung cancer in low-risk group as well as in high-risk group.

  4. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostrate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    6 Introduction Work from our laboratories and others suggests that the metabolites of dietary omega ~ 3 and ~6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...tumorigenic ones. PCa cells also have elevated fatty acid synthase (FASN). FASN regulates the expression of a myriad of genes, including the PUFA ...efficacy of daily oral doses of purified fish oil omega ~3 fatty acid in prostate cancer patients scheduled to have a Radical Prostatectomy (RP). Through

  5. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    part of a three-PI team for this synergy grant, our goal is to: 1. To identify differentially expressed proteins and phosphoproteins in prostate cancer...be able to start analyzing the clinical serum/ plasma samples within the next three months and finish the global expression proteomics part of the...ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 5 19b

  6. Head and neck cancer burden and preventive measures in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Perdomo, Sandra; Martin Roa, Guillermo; Brennan, Paul; Forman, David; Sierra, Mónica S

    2016-09-01

    Central and South America comprise one of the areas characterized by high incidence rates for head and neck cancer. We describe the geographical and temporal trends in incidence and mortality of head and neck cancers in the Central and South American region in order to identify opportunities for intervention on the major identified risk factors: tobacco control, alcohol use and viral infections. We obtained regional- and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. Age-standardized incidence (ASR) and mortality (ASMR) rates per 100,000 person-years were estimated. Brazil had the highest incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer in the region for both sexes, followed by Cuba, Uruguay and Argentina. Cuba had the highest incidence and mortality rates of laryngeal cancer in the region for males and females. Overall, males had rates about four times higher than those in females. Most countries in the region have implemented WHO recommendations for both tobacco and alcohol public policy control. Head and neck squamous-cell cancer (HNSCC) incidence and mortality rates in the Central and South America region vary considerably across countries, with Brazil, Cuba, French Guyana, Uruguay and Argentina experiencing the highest rates in the region. Males carry most of the HNSCC burden. Improvement and implementation of comprehensive tobacco and alcohol control policies as well as the monitoring of these factors are fundamental to prevention of head and neck cancers in the region. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Progress in the Biological Understanding and Management of Breast Cancer-Associated Central Nervous System Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) is a devastating neurological complication of systemic cancer. Brain metastases from breast cancer have been documented to occur in approximately 10%–16% of cases over the natural course of the disease with leptomeningeal metastases occurring in approximately 2%–5% of cases of breast cancer. CNS metastases among women with breast cancer tend to occur among those who are younger, have larger tumors, and have a more aggressive histological subtype such as the triple negative and HER2-positive subtypes. Treatment of CNS metastases involves various combinations of whole brain radiation therapy, surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and chemotherapy. We will discuss the progress made in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer-associated CNS metastases and will delve into the biological underpinnings of CNS metastases including evaluating the role of breast tumor subtype on the incidence, natural history, prognostic outcome, and impact of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:23740934

  8. Epidemiology and trend of cancer in Yazd, a central province of Iran, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Mahmood; Pirdehghan, Azar; Adimi, Meisam; Sadeghian, Mohamadreza; Akhondi, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Cancer incidence rate is increasing in the world particularly in developing countries. The awareness regarding cancer incidence and distribution helps policy makers and researchers to design comprehensive plan for controlling cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence rate and trend of cancer in Yazd Province, central Iran. Data from Yazd cancer registry were derived from 2005 to 2009. Direct standardization through world standard population produced by the world health organization was used and Age- Standardized Incidence rate (ASR) was calculated. Data were analyzed using ASR, by EXCEL and SPSS software. The new cases of cancer were 4631 patients from 2005 to 2009. Mean age of these patients was 57.98 ±27.49 years and 53.5% were male. Female patients were approximately 5 years younger than males. The most frequent cancer was breast in women followed by skin, colorectal, hematologic system and stomach. The 5 most frequent cancers in men were skin, bladder, colorectal, stomach and prostate. The ASR in 2005 to 2009 was respectively 85.2, 86.1, 92.6, 102.2 and 104.7 per 100,000 populations. ASR of cancer is increasing rapidly in Yazd Province. It is necessary to have a comprehensive health policy for prevention and control of this problem.

  9. Comparison of male and female breast cancer incidence and mortality trends in Central Serbia.

    PubMed

    Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra; Murtezani, Zafir; Ratkov, Isidora; Grgurevic, Anita; Marinkovic, Jelena; Bjekic, Milan; Miljus, Dragan

    2013-01-01

    To compare breast cancer incidence and mortality trends in Central Serbia between males and females in the period 1999-2009. In this descriptive study, mortality data were obtained from the National Statistics Institute and morbidity data were derived from Institute of Public Health of Serbia for the period of interest. Breast cancer is a leading cancer in the female population of Central Serbia, whereas in male population it is not on the list of 10 leading localizations, concerning both incidence as well as mortality. In the period 1999-2009 the average standardized incidence rates of breast cancer were 60.5/100,000 in women and 1.4/100,000 in men, while average standardized mortality rates were 20.4/100,000 and 0.4/100,000. The average standardized incidence and mortality rates were about 45 times higher in females than males. Male breast cancer comprises approximately 2.1% of all breast cancer cases. The average age-specific mortality and incidence rates increased with age in both sexes. In the observed period standardized mortality rates of breast cancer increased significantly only in men (y=0.320+0.021?, p=0.044). The increase of breast cancer incidence in both sexes and mortality in men, indicate an urgent need for Serbian health professionals to apply existing cancer control and preventive measures. Male breast cancer is more present than in other world regions, with an outstanding increase of mortality, which demands a timely identification (screening) and adequate treatment. A national policy including mammography should be considered in the light of the newest findings.

  10. Clinical trial aims to study immunotherapy for central nervous system tumors | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A new clinical trial aims to determine whether nivolumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, can improve control of cancer for patients with several types of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). The CNS is composed of the brain and spinal cord and the cause of most CNS tumors in adults is unknown. Learn more...

  11. Workload and time management in central cancer registries: baseline data and implication for registry staffing.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Susan A; Mulvihill, Linda; Herrera, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The Workload and Time Management Survey of Central Cancer Registries was conducted in 2011 to assess the amount of time spent on work activities usually performed by cancer registrars. A survey including 39 multi-item questions,together with a work activities data collection log, was sent by email to the central cancer registry (CCR) manager in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Twenty-four central cancer registries (47%) responded to the survey.Results indicate that registries faced reductions in budgeted staffing from 2008-2009. The number of source records and total cases were important indicators of workload. Four core activities, including abstracting at the registry, visual editing,case consolidation, and resolving edit reports, accounted for about half of registry workload. We estimate an average of 12.4 full-time equivalents (FTEs) are required to perform all cancer registration activities tracked by the survey; however,estimates vary widely by registry size. These findings may be useful for registries as a benchmark for their own registry workload and time-management data and to develop staffing guidelines.

  12. [Alpha lipoic acid and its antioxidant against cancer and diseases of central sensitization].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marisa; Mach, Núria

    2013-01-01

    The alpha lipoic acid (ALA) may control and limit the production of free radicals, influencing the development of pathologies such cancer or central sensitization diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms are still not elucidated. The objective of the present review is to contrast the antioxidant properties of ALA in the prevention and development of pathologies related to the oxidative stress. In this work, more than 100 articles published during the last 20 years that relate ALA consumption and pathologies related to the oxidative stress have been analysed. The articles have been obtained from different specialized databases (PubMed central, Web of science, Elsevier Journal, Science Direct) and included experiments in animals, cells, and humans. Domains evaluated included ALA, central sensitization diseases, free radicals, and ALA. Results from in vitro and laboratory animals experiments demonstrate that ALA controls the cell apoptosis of different type of cancers through out the increase of reactive oxygen species, and decrease of cell growth. Moreover, results demonstrated that ALA presents an antioxidant capacity and the ability to regenerate other antioxidants, which is essential to treat the central sensitization diseases. The ALA plays a significant role as antioxidant and prooxidant in cancer and central sensitization diseases, although more extensive studies are required to determine the clinical significance in humans. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Cancer Care in East and Central Harlem: Community Partnership Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jandorf, Lina; Freemantle, Hurdley; Sly, Jamilia; Ellison, Jennie; Wong, Carrie R.; Villagra, Cristina; Hong, Joseph; Kaleya, Sara; Poultney, Madrid; Villegas, Carmen; Brenner, Barbara; Bickell, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the largely African American and Hispanic communities of East and Central Harlem in New York City (NYC), health inequities are glaring. Mortality from cancer is 20–30 % higher than in Manhattan and 30–40 % higher than rates in the general population in NYC. Despite advances in risk assessment, early detection, treatment, and survivorship, individuals in Harlem and similar urban communities are not benefiting equally. Guided by community-based participatory research, this study serves as an important step in understanding cancer care needs and the range of factors that impact the disparate rates of cancer in East and Central Harlem. Forty individual interviews were conducted with community leaders and residents. Major themes included: need for appropriate supportive services; health care access and financial challenges; beliefs related to stigma, trust, and accountability; and the impact of the physical environment on health. Education was seen as a critical area of need and intervention. PMID:23108854

  14. Cancer in HIV-infected Persons from the Caribbean, Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Valeria I.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Cesar, Carina; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Wehbe, Firas; Cortés, Claudia P.; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Padgett, Denis; Shafaee, Maryam; Schechter, Mauro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bacon, Melanie; McGowan, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Masys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infected individuals have heightened cancer risk. With the advent of HAART, the frequency of some AIDS defining cancers (ADC) has decreased while certain non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are becoming more frequent. Cancers among HIV-infected individuals in Latin American and the Caribbean have not yet been carefully studied. Methods Cancer cases among the Caribbean, Central and South American network for HIV Research (CCASAnet) cohort were identified reviewing clinical records and preexisting databases. Results There were 406 cancers reported: 331 ADC (224 Kaposi´s sarcomas and 98 non Hodgkin lymphomas). Most frequent NADC (n=75) were Hodgkin lymphoma and skin cancers. Seventy-three percent of NADC and 45% of ADC were diagnosed >1 year after HIV diagnosis. 56% of ADC occurred before HAART start. Median time from HAART start until cancer diagnosis was 2.5 years for NADC and 0.5 years for ADC (p=<0.001). Within 3372 HAART starters, 158 were diagnosed with 165 cancers (82.4% ADC); 85 cases were previous to or concomitant with HAART initiation. Incidence of cancer after HAART initiation in 8080 person-years of follow-up was 7.2 per 1000 person-years (95%CI= 5.5–9.3) for ADC and 2.7 (95%CI= 1.8–4.1) for NADC; incidence was higher in the first two months, particularly for ADC (47.6). A pre-HAART ADC was a predictor of mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and CD4 at HAART initiation. Conclusions ADC were the most frequent cancers in this region and were often diagnosed close to HIV diagnosis and HAART start. Incidence of cancer was highest around HAART initiation. PMID:21239992

  15. Incidence and risk factors for central venous access port-related infection in Chinese cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Yao; Lee, Kuan-Der; Chen, Ping-Tsung; Chen, Min-Chi; Chen, Yi-Yang; Huang, Cih-En; Kuan, Feng-Che; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Lu, Chang Hsien

    2015-11-01

    Cytotoxic chemotherapy via central venous access ports is an important part of the standard treatment for most cancers, but it is accompanied with the risk of infections. This study aimed to analyze the incidence and risk factors for central venous access port-related infection (CPI) among Chinese patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy. Between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2005 a total of 1391 cancer patients with 1449 totally implantable central venous access ports were evaluated. The log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards model were used for the analyses of risk factors. The overall CPI incidence rate was 0.21 per 1000 catheter-days. Hematological malignancies and head and neck cancer were associated with an increased risk of CPI (hazard ratio 4.00 and 4.11, respectively, both p < 0.001) and less infection-free catheter longevity (p < 0.001) compared with other cancer types. Chemotherapy in an adjuvant setting was associated with a lower risk of infection than for patients in a nonadjuvant setting (p < 0.001). The most common pathogens isolated from CPI were Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida. Infection remains to be a challenging issue for totally implantable central venous ports. Implementation of an insertion bundle for the prevention of central line-associated bloodstream infections is warranted, especially for those patients with hematological and head and neck cancers, as well as for patients receiving chemotherapy in the metastatic settings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Correlation of breast cancer incidence with the number of motor vehicles and consumption of gasoline in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ha, Eunhee; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Kyung Hwa; Jang, Sungmi; Moon, Byung-In; Ha, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time (R2 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship (R2 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.

  17. A randomized, multicenter, phase III study of gemcitabine combined with capecitabine versus gemcitabine alone as first-line chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Seung; Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Kim, Ho Gak; Noh, Myung Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyub; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Chang Duck; Lee, Dong Ki; Cho, Kwang Bum; Cho, Chang Min; Moon, Jong Ho; Kim, Dong Uk; Kang, Dae Hwan; Cheon, Young Koog; Choi, Ho Soon; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jae Kwang; Moon, Jieun; Shin, Hye Jung; Song, Si Young

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This phase III trial compared the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine plus capecitabine (GemCap) versus single-agent gemcitabine (Gem) in advanced pancreatic cancer as first-line chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 214 advanced pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled from 16 hospitals in South Korea between 2007 and 2011. Patients were randomly assigned to receive GemCap (oral capecitabine 1660 mg/m2 plus Gem 1000 mg/m2 by 30-minute intravenous infusion weekly for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week break every 4 weeks) or Gem (by 30-minute intravenous infusion weekly for 3 weeks every 4 weeks). Results: Median overall survival (OS) time, the primary end point, was 10.3 and 7.5 months in the GemCap and Gem arms, respectively (P = 0.06). Progression-free survival was 6.2 and 5.3 months in the GemCap and Gem arms, respectively (P = 0.08). GemCap significantly improved overall response rate compared with Gem alone (43.7% vs 17.6%; P = 0.001). Overall frequency of grade 3 or 4 toxicities was similar in each group. Neutropenia was the most frequent grade 3 or 4 toxicity in both groups. Conclusion: GemCap failed to improve OS at a statistically significant level compared to Gem treatment. This study showed a trend toward improved OS compared to Gem alone. GemCap and Gem both exhibited similar safety profiles. PMID:28072706

  18. Prostate cancer incidence rates have started to decrease in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Ciatto, Stefano; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has dramatically changed the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Growing incidence rates have been documented in almost all western countries following the increased usage of PSA screening. In the United States after a period of huge increase in incidence, rates have decreased to values lower than those of the pre-PSA era. Similar changes have been documented also in the area of the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, where prostate cancer incidence rates doubled from the early 1990s to 2003 and afterwards decreased. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a decline in prostate cancer incidence in Italy following the screening-related increase.

  19. Evaluation of the Vulvar Cancer Histology Code Reported by Central Cancer Registries: Importance in Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Siegel, David A; Wilson, Reda; Wilkinson, Edward J; Gargano, Julia W; Watson, Meg; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Goodman, Marc T; Lynch, Charles F; Unger, Elizabeth R; Saraiya, Mona

    2017-01-01

    -Knowing the subtype of vulvar cancer histology is important for estimating human papillomavirus-related cancer etiology. Surveillance of human papillomavirus-related vulvar cancers informs public health decisions related to vaccination against human papillomavirus. -To assess the accuracy of registry classifications of vulvar cancer and determine the histologic classification of cases reported as not otherwise specified. -Pathology specimens were collected from Florida, Iowa, and Hawaii cancer registries. Registry diagnosis was compared with the pathology report from the medical record and a single expert study histology review of a representative histologic section from each case. -The study included 60 invasive vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases, 6 Paget disease cases, 2 basal cell carcinoma cases, and 53 in situ cases. Comparing subtypes of invasive vulvar SCC, the registry agreed with the pathology report classification in 49 of 60 cases (81.7%). Study histology review identified the same SCC subtype as the registry in 9 of 60 cases (15.0%) and the same SCC subtype as the pathology report in 11 of 60 cases (18.3%). Whereas the registry and pathology reports classified 37 and 34 cases, respectively, as being SCC not otherwise specified, the study histology review identified a more specific subtype in all cases. -Subtypes of vulvar cancer were frequently recorded as not otherwise specified in the cancer registry primarily because the pathology report often did not specify the histologic subtype. Vulvar cancer registry data are useful for tracking broad diagnostic categories, but are less reliable for vulvar cancer subtypes.

  20. Role of prophylactic central neck dissection in cN0 papillary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Costa, S; Giugliano, G; Santoro, L; Ywata De Carvalho, A; Massaro, MA; Gibelli, B; De Fiori, E; Grosso, E; Ansarin, M; Calabrese, L

    2009-01-01

    Summary Prophylactic central neck dissection in papillary thyroid cancer is controversial. In this retrospective cohort study, the aim was to assess possible advantages of prophylactic central neck dissection with total thyroidectomy in cN0 papillary thyroid cancer. A total of 244 consecutive patients with papillary thyroid cancer, without clinical and ultrasound nodal metastases (cN0), were evaluated out of 1373 patients operated for a thyroid disease at the Istituto Europeo di Oncologia, Milan, Italy from 1994 to 2006. Of these 244 patients, 126 (Group A) underwent thyroidectomy with central neck dissection, while 118 (Group B) underwent thyroidectomy alone. Demographic, clinical and pathological features were analysed. Overall recurrence rate was 6.3% (8/126) in Group A and 7.7% (9/118) in Group B, with a mean follow-up of 47 (Group A) and 64 (Group B) months. In Group A patients, 47% were pN1a and all patients with recurrence had nodal involvement (p = 0.002). Survival rate did not differ in the two groups. Nine patients were lost to follow-up. Group A patients were older and their tumours were larger in size; according to the pT distribution, a higher extra-capsular invasion rate was observed. The two groups were equivalent as far as concerns histological high risk variants and multifocality. Nodal metastases correlated with stage: pT1-2 vs. pT3-T4a, p = 0.0036. A lower risk of nodal metastases was related to thyroiditis (p = 0.0034). In conclusion, central neck metastases were predictive of recurrence without influencing prognosis. From data obtained, possible greatest efficacy of central neck dissection in pT3-4 papillary thyroid cancer without thyroiditis is suggested. PMID:20111614

  1. Practice guidelines for management of uterine corpus cancer in Korea: a Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology Consensus Statement

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Dae Gy; Shin, So-Jin; Ju, Woong; Cho, Hanbyoul; Lee, Chulmin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines for gynecologic cancers have been developed by many organizations. Although these guidelines have much in common in terms of the practice of standard of care for uterine corpus cancer, practice guidelines that reflect the characteristics of patients and healthcare and insurance systems are needed for each country. The Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology (KSGO) published the first edition of practice guidelines for gynecologic cancer treatment in late 2006; the second edition was released in July 2010 as an evidence-based recommendation. The Guidelines Revision Committee was established in 2015 and decided to produce the third edition of the guidelines as an advanced form based on evidence-based medicine, considering up-to-date clinical trials and abundant qualified Korean data. These guidelines cover screening, surgery, adjuvant treatment, and advanced and recurrent disease with respect to endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. The committee members and many gynecologic oncologists derived key questions from the discussion, and a number of relevant scientific literatures were reviewed in advance. Recommendations for each specific question were developed by the consensus conference, and they are summarized here, together with other details. The objective of these practice guidelines is to establish standard policies on issues in clinical areas related to the management of uterine corpus cancer based on the findings in published papers to date and the consensus of experts as a KSGO Consensus Statement. PMID:27894165

  2. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    The dearth of reliable survival statistics from developing countries was very evident until the mid-1990s. This prompted the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to undertake a project that facilitated hands-on-training and thereby transfer of knowledge and technology on cancer survival analysis to a majority of researchers from the participating population-based cancer registries, which culminated in the publication of the first volume of the IARC scientific publication on Cancer Survival in Developing Countries in 1998. The present study is the second in the series with wider geographical coverage and is based on data from 27 registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. The calendar period of registration of incident cases for the present study ranges between 1990 and 2001. Data on 564 606 cases of 1-56 cancer sites from different registries are reported. Data from eleven registries were utilized for eliciting survival trend and seventeen registries for reporting survival by clinical extent of disease. Besides chapters on every registry and general chapters on methodology, database and overview, the availability of online comparative statistics on cancer survival data by participating registries or cancer site in the form of tables or graphs is an added feature (available online at http://survcan.iarc.fr).

  3. An epidemiological study of oral and pharyngeal cancer in Central and South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Hirayama, Takeshi

    1966-01-01

    The author has investigated the epidemiology of oral and pharyngeal cancer in several different countries and localities in Central and South-East Asia. From comparisons of the various countries and areas and from detailed case studies among oral-cancer groups and control groups, the author has obtained strong supportive evidence for the association of the disease with the habit of chewing tobacco. He has also found a less marked association with smoking, the drinking of alcohol, and vegetarian dietary customs. PMID:5295564

  4. Pathological, clinical and prognostic characteristics of breast cancer in Central Sudan versus Northern Italy: implications for breast cancer in Africa.

    PubMed

    Awadelkarim, K D; Arizzi, C; Elamin, E O M; Hamad, H M A; De Blasio, P; Mekki, S O; Osman, I; Biunno, I; Elwali, N E; Mariani-Costantini, R; Barberis, M C

    2008-03-01

    In patients of Black African ethnicity, breast cancer is reportedly characterized by aggressive, poorly differentiated phenotype(s). To highlight possible differences between breast cancer in indigenous sub-Saharan African and European patients, two breast cancer case series, from Central Sudan (Khartoum) and Northern Italy (Milan), were compared for clinicopathological characteristics, expression of oestrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), Her-2/neu, basal cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 and CK17, and breast cancer subtypes. After careful antigen retrieval, 114 and 138 consecutive formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) breast cancer cases from the Radiation and Isotope Centre (Khartoum) and from MultiMedica (Milan), respectively, were screened by immunohistochemistry for ER, PR, Her-2/neu, CK5/6 and CK17. Compared with the Italian patients, the Sudanese patients were younger (P < 0.0001) and their tumours were larger (P < 0.0001), more advanced in stage (P < 0.00001), higher grade (P < 0.00001) and more frequently positive for nodal metastases (P < 0.00001). ER expression varied between the two series (P < 0.0008), but no significant differences were found for PR (P < 0.32), combined hormone receptors (P < 0.12), Her-2/neu (P < 0.09), CK5/6 (P < 0.1), CK17 (P = 0.4), combined basal CK status (P = 1) or breast cancer subtypes (P = 0.12). The differences between the Sudanese and Italian breast cancer series reflect stage at diagnosis rather than intrinsic biological characteristics. This may have relevant implications for breast cancer prevention and treatment in Africa.

  5. Sex Disparity in Survival of Patients With Uveal Melanoma: Better Survival Rates in Women Than in Men in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, San Jun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Yeon, Bora; Cho, Hyunsoon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the survival rate of patients with uveal melanoma and sex disparity in this rate in South Korea. We extracted incident uveal melanoma patients using the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database, which covered the entire population from 1999 to 2012 in South Korea. We estimated all-cause survival probabilities and cancer-specific survival probabilities of patients with uveal melanoma and compared these probabilities between subgroups (sex, tumor site, age at diagnosis, etc.) using Kaplan-Meier methods and log-rank tests. We fitted the Cox-proportional hazards models for all-cause death and cancer death to determine sex disparities in survival. A total of 344 uveal melanoma patients (175 women, 51%) were ascertained. They comprised 283 patients with choroidal melanoma (82%) and 61 patients with ciliary body/iris melanoma (18%). The observed 5-year survival probability from all-cause death was 75% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 69%-79%); women with uveal melanoma showed higher survival probability (83% [95% CI: 76%-89%]) compared with men (66% [95% CI: 58%-73%], P < 0.01). After adjusting for age, year of diagnosis, tumor sites, and diagnostic verification method, the hazards for all-cause death and cancer death in women with uveal melanoma were lower than those in men (hazards ratio for cancer death = 0.50 [95% CI: 0.30-0.81]; hazards ratio for all-cause death = 0.39 [95% CI: 0.25-0.61]). Women with uveal melanoma have better survival probabilities relative to men with uveal melanoma. Our findings show a comprehensive picture of survival probability in uveal melanoma cancer patients in Korea, which requires further investigation of mechanism of the sex disparity in uveal melanoma.

  6. Trends in childhood obesity and central adiposity between 1998-2001 and 2010-2012 according to household income and urbanity in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bahk, Jinwook; Khang, Young-Ho

    2016-01-07

    This study examined trends in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and childhood overweight and obesity prevalence between 1998-2001 and 2010-2012 according to household income and urbanity among nationally representative Korean children and adolescents aged 10-19. The repeated cross-sectional data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1998-2001 and 2010-2012 were used. Gender specific trends in age-adjusted means of WC and BMI by household equivalized income and urbanity were compared between years. The age-standardized prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity was calculated using three international criteria (International Obesity Task Force, World Health Organization, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) and a Korean national reference standard. Among boys, overall BMI and overweight prevalence increased between 1998-2001 and 2010-2012, while overall WC decreased. Clear gender differences were found in the relationship of childhood obesity metrics with household income and urbanity and the time trends of those relationships. Positive relationships between these parameters were found for boys while negative relationships appeared for girls. In addition, compared with the childhood obesity prevalence among boys in rural areas, the prevalence among boys in urban areas were slightly lower in 1998-2001 but became greater in 2010-2012. This study revealed gender difference in the association of childhood obesity with household income and urbanity and its time trends. The long-term gender-specific monitoring of socioeconomic and urban-rural differences in childhood obesity measures is warranted in South Korea.

  7. Discordance in pathology report after central pathology review: Implications for breast cancer adjuvant treatment.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Laura; Viale, Giuseppe; Bria, Emilio; Lutrino, Eufemia Stefania; Sperduti, Isabella; Carbognin, Luisa; Schiavone, Paola; Quaranta, Annamaria; Fedele, Palma; Caliolo, Chiara; Calvani, Nicola; Criscuolo, Mario; Cinieri, Saverio

    2016-12-01

    Pathological predictive factors are the most important markers when selecting early breast cancer adjuvant therapy. In randomized clinical trials the variability in pathology report after central pathology review is noteworthy. We evaluated the discordance rate (DR) and inter-rater agreement between local and central histopathological report and the clinical implication on treatment decision. A retrospective analysis was conducted in a series of consecutive early breast cancer tumors diagnosed by local pathologists and subsequently reviewed at the Pathology Division of European Institute of Oncology. The inter-rater agreement (k) between local and central pathology was calculated for Ki-67, grading, hormone receptors (ER/PgR) and HER2/neu. The Bland-Altman plots were derived to determine discrepancies in Ki-67, ER and PgR. DR was calculated for ER/PgR and HER2. From 2007 to 2013, 187 pathology specimens from 10 Cancer Centers were reviewed. Substantial agreement was observed for ER (k0.612; 95% CI, 0538-0.686), PgR (k0.659; 95% CI, 0580-0.737), Ki-67 (k0.609; 95% CI, 0.534-0.684) and grading (k0.669; 95% CI, 0.569-0.769). Moderate agreement was found for HER2 (k0.546; 95% CI, 0444-0.649). DR was 9.5% (negativity to positivity) and 31.7% (positivity to negativity) for HER2 and 26.2% (negativity to positivity) and 12.5% (positivity to negativity) for ER/PgR. According to changes in Her2 and ER/PgR status, 23 (12.2%) and 33 (17.6%) systemic prescription were respectively modified. In our retrospective analysis, central pathological review has a significant impact in the decision-making process in early breast cancer, as shown in clinical trials. Further studies are warranted to confirm these provocative results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. No benefit of extended mesenteric resection with central vascular ligation in right-sided colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, F; Buchwald, P; Elmståhl, S; Syk, I

    2016-08-01

    The optimal extent of mesenteric resection in colon cancer surgery is not known. We have previously shown an increased mortality associated with wider mesenteric resection in right hemicolectomy. This study compares the short- and long-term outcome in three variations of right hemicolectomy based on the position of the vascular ligature in the mesentery. In all, 2084 cases of cancer in the caecum or ascending colon were identified in the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry and categorized according to the position of the vascular ligature: central ligation of ileocolic vessels (ICVs) ± right colic vessels (n = 390), central ligation of ICVs + right branch of middle colic vessels (MCVs) (n = 1360) and central ligation of ICVs + central ligation of MCVs (n = 334). Neither 3-year overall survival, 3-year disease-free survival nor local recurrence rate differed between the groups (P = 0.604; P = 0.247; P = 0.237). There was still no difference after multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, TNM stage and adjuvant therapy. An increased peri-operative mortality, however, was observed in extended mesenteric resections, increasing from 0.8% in non-extended to 3.6% in more extended resection, P = 0.025. The study showed no survival benefit by more extended mesenteric resection, indicating that there is no need to extend the mesenteric resection to involve the MCVs in cancer of the caecum or ascending colon. On the contrary, increased peri-operative mortality by more extensive mesenteric resection was noted suggesting that a more conservative approach may be favourable. Colorectal Disease © 2016 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Knowledge of cervical cancer and screening among women in east-central England.

    PubMed

    Philips, Z; Avis, M; Whynes, D K

    2005-01-01

    This study assesses the extent and accuracy of women's knowledge of cervical cancer, risk factors, and the efficacy of the national screening program. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of randomly selected women eligible for screening, drawn from a population in east-central England. The majority of women in the sample overestimated the current incidence of cervical cancer, both absolutely and relative to other cancers. Perceiving incidence to be high was associated with reporting worries about the disease. With respect to the screening process, 78.3% believe that the smear abnormality rate is higher than it actually is, and only 7.6% correctly appreciate that the abnormality rate is highest at younger ages. With respect to performance, 16.3% believed the smear test to be completely accurate, and more than half overestimated the likely number of cancer cases prevented by screening. While certain cervical cancer risk factors were correctly assigned by the majority of women, undue emphasis was placed on genetic influence, while the risks posed by human papillomavirus infection were unfamiliar to almost half of the sample. We conclude that women typically possess only a partial picture of risk factors and overestimate both the incidence of cervical cancer and the efficacy of screening.

  10. Is it time to centralize ovarian cancer care in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Renee A.; O'Cearbhaill, Roisin E; Gardner, Ginger J.; Levine, Douglas A.; Roche, Kara Long; Sonoda, Yukio; Zivanovic, Oliver; Tew, William P.; Sala, Evis; Lakhman, Yulia; Vargas Alvarez, Hebert A.; Sarasohn, Debra M.; Mironov, Svetlana; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.; Chi, Dennis S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to broadly review the most up-to-date information pertaining to the centralization of ovarian cancer care in the United States and worldwide. Methods Much of the present literature pertaining to disparities in and centralization of ovarian cancer care in the United States and internationally was reviewed and included, specifically, original research and review articles. Results Data show improved optimal debulking rates, NCCN guideline adherence, and overall survival rates in higher volume, more specialized hospitals and amongst higher volume providers. Conclusion Patients with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, especially those with higher stages (III and IV), are better served by centralized care in high-volume hospitals, by high-volume physicians, who adhere to NCCN guidelines wherever possible. More research is needed to determine the policy changes that can increase NCCN guideline adherence in low-volume hospitals and in low-provider caseload scenarios. Policy and future research should be aimed at increasing patient access, either directly or indirectly, to high-volume hospital and high-volume providers, especially amongst Medicare, lower socioeconomic status, and minority patients. PMID:26511267

  11. Nation Building in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    opportunity to rebuild South Korea . He saw it as “something almost unique in history. It is the opportunity of an army in a foreign land to contribute...problems. The North Korean invasion in 1950 wedded South Korea to the United States and confronted the United States with the enormous task of...elections in Korea .8 After failing to achieve agreement to peninsula-wide elections, the United Nations sponsored elections in South

  12. Outcomes for patients with papillary thyroid cancer who do not undergo prophylactic central neck dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, I. J.; Wang, L. Y.; Ganly, I.; Patel, S. G.; Morris, L. G.; Migliacci, J. C.; Tuttle, R. M.; Shah, J. P.; Shaha, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) in the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is controversial. This report describes outcomes of an observational approach in patients without clinical evidence of nodal disease in PTC. Methods All patients who had surgery between 1986 and 2010 without CND for PTC were identified. All patients had careful clinical assessment of the central neck during preoperative and perioperative evaluation, with any suspicious nodal tissue excised for analysis. The cohort included patients in whom lymph nodes had been removed, but no patient had undergone a formal neck dissection. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), central neck RFS and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Of 1798 patients, 397 (22·1 per cent) were men, 1088 (60·5 per cent) were aged 45 years or more, and 539 (30·0 per cent) had pT3 or pT4 disease. Some 742 patients (41·3 per cent) received adjuvant treatment with radioactive iodine. At a median follow-up of 46 months the 5-year DSS rate was 100 per cent. Five-year RFS and central neck RFS rates were 96·6 and 99·1 per cent respectively. Conclusion Observation of the central neck is safe and should be recommended for all patients with PTC considered before and during surgery to be free of central neck metastasis. PMID:26511531

  13. Characteristics of breast cancer in Central China, literature review and comparison with USA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuang; Sun, Si; Yuan, Jing-Ping; Wang, Yao-Huai; Cao, Tian-Ze; Zheng, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Xue-Qing; Gong, Yi-Ping; Tu, Yi; Yao, Feng; Hu, Ming-Bai; Li, Juan-Juan; Sun, Sheng-Rong; Wei, Wen

    2016-12-01

    This work was to analyze characteristics of breast cancer (BC) in Central China, summarize main characteristics in China and compare with USA. BC main characteristics from four hospitals in Central China from 2002 to 2012 were collected and analyzed. All the single and large-scale clinical reports covering at least ten years were selected and summarized to calculate the BC characteristics of China. BC Characteristics in USA were selected based on the database from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Age distribution in Central China was normal with one age peak at 45-49 years, displaying differences from USA and Chinese American with two age peaks. BC characteristics in Central China displayed distinct features from USA and Chinese American, including significant younger onset age, lower proportion of patients with stage I, lymph node negative, small tumor size and ER positive. A total ten long-term and large-scale clinical reports were selected for BC characteristics of Mainland China analysis. A total of 53,571 BC patients were enrolled from 1995 to 2012. The main characteristics of BC in Mainland China were similar as that in Central China, but were significant different from developed regions of China (Hong Kong and Taiwan), USA and Chinese American. BC characteristics in Central China displayed representative patterns of Mainland China, while showed distinct patterns from Chinese patients in other developed areas and USA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. An oncoplastic procedure for central and medio-cranial breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fitzal, F; Nehrer, G; Hoch, D; Riedl, O; Gutharc, S; Deutinger, M; Jakesz, R; Gnant, M

    2007-12-01

    Breast conserving therapy shows remarkable oncologic results and is eligible for up to 73% of patients with breast cancer. Cosmetic results are good, however, in patients with central or medio-cranial ("no-man's land") located breast cancer, the cosmetic result may be unsatisfying. The use of different breast reduction techniques have been shown to increase resection free margins and improve cosmetic results. We report here about the use of the Hall Findlay breast reduction technique for oncoplastic surgery to improve the cosmetic result in 11 patients. The Hall Findlay technique shows good postoperative breast symmetry, all patients had resection free margins above 5mm and are free of disease at a mean follow-up of 12 months. The technique may be used for breast cancer at various locations and reduces scar visibility and morbidity.

  15. Activation of the NRF2 antioxidant program generates an imbalance in central carbon metabolism in cancer.

    PubMed

    Sayin, Volkan I; LeBoeuf, Sarah E; Singh, Simranjit X; Davidson, Shawn M; Biancur, Douglas; Guzelhan, Betul S; Alvarez, Samantha W; Wu, Warren L; Karakousi, Triantafyllia R; Zavitsanou, Anastasia Maria; Ubriaco, Julian; Muir, Alexander; Karagiannis, Dimitris; Morris, Patrick J; Thomas, Craig J; Possemato, Richard; Vander Heiden, Matthew G; Papagiannakopoulos, Thales

    2017-10-02

    During tumorigenesis, the high metabolic demand of cancer cells results in increased production of reactive oxygen species. To maintain oxidative homeostasis, tumor cells increase their antioxidant production through hyperactivation of the NRF2 pathway, which promotes tumor cell growth. Despite the extensive characterization of NRF2-driven metabolic rewiring, little is known about the metabolic liabilities generated by this reprogramming. Here, we show that activation of NRF2, in either mouse or human cancer cells, leads to increased dependency on exogenous glutamine through increased consumption of glutamate for glutathione synthesis and glutamate secretion by xc(-) antiporter system. Together, this limits glutamate availability for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and other biosynthetic reactions creating a metabolic bottleneck. Cancers with genetic or pharmacological activation of the NRF2 antioxidant pathway have a metabolic imbalance between supporting increased antioxidant capacity over central carbon metabolism, which can be therapeutically exploited.

  16. Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in east, central and southern African countries.

    PubMed Central

    Chirenje, Z. M.; Rusakaniko, S.; Kirumbi, L.; Ngwalle, E. W.; Makuta-Tlebere, P.; Kaggwa, S.; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W.; Makoae, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors influencing cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in countries of East, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA). METHODS: Data were collected from randomly selected primary health care centres, district and provincial hospitals, and tertiary hospitals in each participating country. Health care workers were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. FINDINGS: Although 95% of institutions at all health care levels in ECSA countries had the basic infrastructure to carry out cervical cytology screening, only a small percentage of women were actually screened. Lack of policy guidelines, infrequent supply of basic materials, and a lack of suitable qualified staff were the most common reasons reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ECSA countries. In these, and other countries with low resources, suitable screening programmes should be established. PMID:11242819

  17. The risk of colorectal cancer in inflammatory bowel disease: a hospital-based cohort study from Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Su; Park, Sang Hyoung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Ye, Byong Duk; Kim, Ji-Hun; Kim, Seon-Ok; Soh, Jae Seung; Lee, Seohyun; Bae, Jung Ho; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yoon, Yong Sik; Yu, Chang Sik; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-02-01

    Limited data are available on the incidence and risk factors of colorectal cancer (CRC) in Asian patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Information on 5212 Korean patients with IBD (2414 with Crohn's disease [CD] and 2798 with ulcerative colitis [UC]) was retrieved from the IBD registry of Asan Medical Center. Data on CRC incidence for the entire Korean population were derived from the Korean Statistical Information Service. During 39,951 person-years of follow-up (17,679 for CD and 22,272 for UC), 30 patients (12 with CD and 18 with UC) developed CRC. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of CRC was 6.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.10-10.48) for CD and 1.68 (95% CI, 1.00-2.66) for UC; it was 9.69 (95% CI, 5.01-16.93) for CD with colonic involvement and 4.31 (95% CI, 2.46-7.00) for extensive UC. The SIR was also increased in patients diagnosed with IBD at younger than 30 years old. CRC location was the low rectum in 11 of 12 CD patients (91.7%). The cumulative probability of rectal cancer was higher in CD patients with a perianal fistula than in those without a perianal fistula (p = 0.02). A high prevalence of perianal fistulas in Korean CD patients may be the cause of the predominance of low rectal cancer in this population and the higher SIR of CRC in Koreans than in Westerners. In contrast, the SIR of CRC in Korean UC patients may be similar to that in Western UC patients.

  18. Safety and effectiveness of central venous catheterization in patients with cancer: prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Yun, Jina; Kim, Han Jo; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Bae, Sang Byung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Lee, Nam Su; Lee, Kyu Taek; Park, Seong Kyu; Won, Jong-Ho; Park, Hee Sook; Hong, Dae Sik

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of each type of central venous catheters (CVC) in patients with cancer. We prospectively enrolled patients with cancer who underwent catheterization involving a subclavian venous catheter (SVC), peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC), or chemo-port (CP) in our department. From March 2007 to March 2009, 116 patients underwent 179 episodes of catheterization. A SVC was inserted most frequently (46.4%). Fifty-four complications occurred (30.1%): infection in 23 cases, malpositioning or migration of the tip in 18 cases, thrombosis in eight cases, and bleeding in five cases. Malpositioning or migration of the tip occurred more frequently with a PICC (P<0.001); infection occurred more often with a tunneled catheter (P=0.028) and was observed more often in young patients (P=0.023). The catheter life span was longer for patients with solid cancer (P=0.002) than for those with hematologic cancer, with a CP (P<0.001) than a PICC or SVC, and for an indwelling catheter with image guidance (P=0.014) than a blind procedure. In conclusion, CP is an effective tool for long term use and the fixation of tip is important for the management of PICC.

  19. Multiple venous thrombosis complicating central venous cannulation in a non cancer patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ce; Menkiti, Id; Desalu, I; Thomas, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is a common procedure for critically ill patients. Like all procedures, it has its complications, one of which is thrombosis. Reports of thrombosis are commoner among cancer patients. We present a 37 year old non cancer patient who developed thrombi in both right and left internal jugular veins, 10 and 13 days respectively after insertion of central venous catheter. This was detected by ultrasound scans of the neck while attempting re-cannulation for parenteral feeding. She also had left lower limb deep venous thrombosis, confirmed by doppler scan, which was managed with low molecular weight heparin and warfarin. The patient was subsequently treated with streptokinase. A repeat scan of the internal jugular veins 4 days after thrombolysis revealed a reduction in size of the thrombi. Symptoms of deep venous thrombosis improved and she was transferred to the wards where she made remarkable improvement. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of ultrasound guided-central line insertion in patients who have had central venous lines inserted previously in order to detect thrombi.

  20. Korea and the Yellow Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired September 24, 2012 City lights at night are a fairly reliable indicator of where people live. But this isn’t always the case, and the Korean Peninsula shows why. As of July 2012, South Korea’s population was estimated at roughly 49 million people, and North Korea’s population was estimated at about half that number. But where South Korea is gleaming with city lights, North Korea has hardly any lights at all—just a faint glimmer around Pyongyang. On September 24, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite captured this nighttime view of the Korean Peninsula. This imagery is from the VIIRS “day-night band,” which detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe signals such as gas flares, auroras, wildfires, city lights, and reflected moonlight. The wide-area image shows the Korean Peninsula, parts of China and Japan, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The white inset box encloses an area showing ship lights in the Yellow Sea. Many of the ships form a line, as if assembling along a watery border. Following the 1953 armistice ending the Korean War, per-capita income in South Korea rose to about 17 times the per-capital income level of North Korea, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Worldwide, South Korea ranks 12th in electricity production, and 10th in electricity consumption, per 2011 estimates. North Korea ranks 71st in electricity production, and 73rd in electricity consumption, per 2009 estimates. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day-Night Band data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Defense. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Suomi NPP - VIIRS Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Click here to view all of the Earth at Night 2012

  1. Long-Term Central Venous Catheter Use and Risk of Infection in Older Adults With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Sepkowitz, Kent A.; Elkin, Elena B.; Pinheiro, Laura C.; Sima, Camelia S.; Son, Crystal H.; Atoria, Coral L.; Bach, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used in patients with cancer to facilitate venous access to administer intravenous fluids and chemotherapy. CVCs can also be a source of bloodstream infections, although this risk is not well understood. We examined the impact of long-term CVC use on infection risk, independent of other risk factors such as chemotherapy, in a population-based cohort of patients with cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis using SEER-Medicare data for patients age > 65 years diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 with invasive colorectal, head and neck, lung, or pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or invasive or noninvasive breast cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between CVC use and infections, with CVC exposure as a time-dependent predictor. We used multivariable analysis and propensity score methods to control for patient characteristics. Results CVC exposure was associated with a significantly elevated infection risk, adjusting for demographic and disease characteristics. For patients with pancreatic cancer, risk of infections during the exposure period was three-fold greater (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.93; 95% CI, 2.58 to 3.33); for those with breast cancer, it was six-fold greater (AHR, 6.19; 95% CI, 5.42 to 7.07). Findings were similar when we accounted for propensity to receive a CVC and limited the cohort to individuals at high risk of infections. Conclusion Long-term CVC use was associated with an increased risk of infections for older adults with cancer. Careful assessment of the need for long-term CVCs and targeted strategies for reducing infections are critical to improving cancer care quality. PMID:24982458

  2. Long-term central venous catheter use and risk of infection in older adults with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Sepkowitz, Kent A; Elkin, Elena B; Pinheiro, Laura C; Sima, Camelia S; Son, Crystal H; Atoria, Coral L; Bach, Peter B

    2014-08-01

    Long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used in patients with cancer to facilitate venous access to administer intravenous fluids and chemotherapy. CVCs can also be a source of bloodstream infections, although this risk is not well understood. We examined the impact of long-term CVC use on infection risk, independent of other risk factors such as chemotherapy, in a population-based cohort of patients with cancer. We conducted a retrospective analysis using SEER-Medicare data for patients age > 65 years diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 with invasive colorectal, head and neck, lung, or pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or invasive or noninvasive breast cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between CVC use and infections, with CVC exposure as a time-dependent predictor. We used multivariable analysis and propensity score methods to control for patient characteristics. CVC exposure was associated with a significantly elevated infection risk, adjusting for demographic and disease characteristics. For patients with pancreatic cancer, risk of infections during the exposure period was three-fold greater (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.93; 95% CI, 2.58 to 3.33); for those with breast cancer, it was six-fold greater (AHR, 6.19; 95% CI, 5.42 to 7.07). Findings were similar when we accounted for propensity to receive a CVC and limited the cohort to individuals at high risk of infections. Long-term CVC use was associated with an increased risk of infections for older adults with cancer. Careful assessment of the need for long-term CVCs and targeted strategies for reducing infections are critical to improving cancer care quality. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  3. SUBSEQUENT NEOPLASMS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM AMONG SURVIVORS OF CHILDHOOD CANCER: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Daniel C.; Nathan, Paul C.; Constine, Louis; Woodman, Catherine; Bhatia, Smita; Keller, Karen; Bashore, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for development of subsequent neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS). Better understanding of the rates, risk factors for and outcomes of subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among survivors of childhood cancer may lead to the development of more informed screening guidelines. Two independent investigators independently performed a systematic search of studies from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases (1966 – 2012) for studies examining subsequent neoplasms of the CNS among childhood cancer survivors. Articles were selected to answer 3 questions: What is the risk of CNS tumors following radiation to the cranium for a pediatric cancer as compared with the general population? What are the outcomes in children with subsequent neoplasms of the CNS who have been treated with CNS directed radiation for a pediatric cancer? Are outcomes of subsequent neoplasms different from primary neoplasms of the same histology? Our search identified 72 reports, of which 18 publications were included in this review. These studies reported that childhood cancer survivors have an 8.1 – 52.3 times higher incidence of subsequent CNS neoplasms compared with the general population. Nearly all cancer survivors who developed a CNS neoplasm had been exposed to cranial radiation; some studies demonstrate a correlation between radiation dose and risk of subsequent CNS tumors. Five year survival rates for subsequent high-grade gliomas and meningiomas range from 0 – 19.5% and 73 – 100%, respectively, which are similar to those observed in patients with primary gliomas or meningiomas. The quality of evidence was limited by variation in study design, heterogeneity of details regarding treatment and outcomes, limited follow-up and relatively small sample sizes. We concluded that survivors of childhood cancer who were treated with cranial radiation therapy have an elevated risk for subsequent CNS neoplasms. The current literature is insufficient to comment

  4. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis examining long-term mortality in subjects who participated in controlled studies evaluating the impact of daily aspirin on vascular risk, has concluded that aspirin confers substantial protection from cancer mortality. Remarkably, low-dose aspirin was as effective as higher-dose regimens; hence this protection may be achievable with minimal risk. There is reason to believe that this protection stems primarily from inhibition of cox-2 in pre-neoplastic lesions. Since safe aspirin regimens can only achieve a partial and transitory inhibition of cox-2, it may be feasible to complement the cancer-protective benefit of aspirin with other measures which decrease cox-2 expression or which limit the bioactivity of cox-2-derived PGE2. Oxidative stress boosts cox-2 expression by up-regulating activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases; NADPH oxidase activation may thus promote carcinogenesis by increasing cox-2 expression while also amplifying oxidant-mediated mutagenesis. A prospective cohort study has observed that relatively elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with a marked reduction in subsequent cancer mortality; this may reflect bilirubin's physiological role as a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. It may be feasible to mimic this protective effect by supplementing with spirulina, a rich source of a phycobilin which shares bilirubin's ability to inhibit NADPH oxidase. Ancillary antioxidant measures - phase 2 inducing phytochemicals, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, and astaxanthin - may also aid cox-2 down-regulation. The cancer protection often associated with high-normal vitamin D status may be attributable, in part, to the ability of the activated vitamin D receptor to decrease cox-2 expression while promoting PGE2 catabolism and suppressing the expression of PGE2 receptors. Diets with a relatively low ratio of omega-6 to long-chain omega-3 fats may achieve cancer protection by antagonizing the production and bioactivity of PGE2. Growth

  5. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  6. Trend Analysis for the Choice and Cost of Lung Cancer Treatment in South Korea, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohun; Kim, So Young; Suh, Beomseok; Park, Jong Hyock

    2017-09-04

    Our study aimed to report the annual changes in lung cancer statistics and analyze trends in sociodemographic, medical, and financial factors from 2003 to 2013 in the national database from the Korean National Health Insurance (KNHI). Among 7,489 patients with code C34 in KNHI database, only lung cancer patients newly diagnosed after 2003 were included in the study population, for a total of 4,582 patients. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize treatment patterns and medical costs according to sociodemographic factors. Approximately 70% of subjects were male, and the mean age was 67 years. Around 46% of patients were over 70 years old, and 12% were over 80 years old. The medical costs were highest for patients younger than 60 and lowest for those over 80 years old. Surgery was more common in younger patients, while 'no treatment' increased greatly with age. In trend analysis, the proportions of aging (P-for-trend < 0.001), female (P-for-trend = 0.003), metropolitan/urban (P-for-trend = 0.041) and lowest or highest-income patients (P-for-trend = 0.004) increased over time, along with the prevalence of surgery as the primary treatment (P-for-trend < 0.001). There was also a trend with regard to change in medical costs (P-for-trend < 0.001), in that those of surgery and radiotherapy increased. Surgery as a curative treatment has increased over the past decade. However, the elderly, suburban/rural residents, and low-income patients were more likely to be untreated. Therefore, active measures are required for these increasingly vulnerable groups.

  7. Economic assessment of central cancer registry operations, Part III: Results from 5 programs.

    PubMed

    Tangka, Florence; Subramanian, Sujha; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Trebino, Diana; Michaud, Frances

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report results from the cost analysis of 5 central cancer registries funded by the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). To estimate the true economic costs of operating a cancer registry, we used a cost-assessment tool (CAT) to collect data on all registry activities, not just those funded by the NPCR. Data were collected on actual, rather than budgeted, expenditures, including personnel, consultants, information technology (IT) support, and other factors influencing costs. Factors that can affect registry costs include the amount of consolidation from abstract to incident cases, the method of data reporting, the number of edits that must be performed manually versus electronically, and the amount of interstate data exchange required of a registry. Expenditures were allocated to specific surveillance and data enhancement and analysis activities. Our study confirmed that cost per case varies across registry activities. The cost of surveillance activities per case ranges from $24.79 to $95.78 while the cost of data enhancement and analysis registry activities per reported cancer case ranges from $2.91 to $9.32. Total cost per reported cancer case also varies, ranging from $30 to slightly more than $100, with a median of $45.84. Further research using data from all NPCR-funded registries is required to assess reasons for this variation. Information gained from such an assessment will improve efficiency in registry operations and provide data to better quantify the funding requirements for expanding registry activities.

  8. Overall and Central Adiposity and Breast Cancer Risk in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Alexandra J.; Nichols, Hazel B.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater body mass index (BMI), a measure of overall adiposity, is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The role of central adiposity, often measured by waist circumference, is less well understood especially among premenopausal women. We aimed to examine multiple measures of adiposity in relation to breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Methods 50,884 Sister Study cohort participants ages 35–74 were enrolled from 2003–2009. Inclusion criteria for the cohort included having a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Trained study personnel measured height, weight, waist and hip circumference during a home visit and study participants completed a detailed questionnaire. Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer risk associated with adiposity measurements, considering tumor subtype and menopausal status. Results In total, 2,009 breast cancers were diagnosed during follow-up (mean=5.4 years). Weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip-ratio were positively associated with overall breast cancer risk and HRs were greater among postmenopausal women, those with hormonally responsive tumors and non-current postmenopausal hormone users. In models that adjusted for BMI, waist circumference associations persisted among both postmenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.16, 95%CI 1.01, 1.35; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.54) and premenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19, 2.04; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 0.91, 1.87). Conclusions Findings from this large, prospective study with examiner-measured body size indicate that waist circumference is independently and positively associated with both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:26193782

  9. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  10. Acute High-Dose and Chronic Lifetime Exposure to Alcohol Consumption and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: T-CALOS Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yunji; Lee, Kyu Eun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Park, Young Joo; Chai, Young Jun; Kwon, Hyungju; Park, Do Joon; Cho, BeLong; Choi, Ho-Chun; Kang, Daehee; Park, Sue K.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effects of acute high-dose and chronic lifetime exposure to alcohol and exposure patterns on the development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) included 2,258 DTC patients (449 men and 1,809 women) and 22,580 healthy participants (4,490 men and 18,090 women) who were individually matched by age, gender, and enrollment year. In-person interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire to obtain epidemiologic data. Clinicopathologic features of the patients were obtained by chart reviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using conditional regression models. Results While light or moderate drinking behavior was related to a reduced risk of DTC, acute heavy alcohol consumption (151 g or more per event or on a single occasion) was associated with increased risks in men (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.27–3.87) and women (OR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.52–8.58) compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of alcohol for 31 or more years was a significant risk factor for DTC for both men (31–40 years: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.10–2.28; 41+ years: OR = 3.46, 95%CI = 2.06–5.80) and women (31–40 years: OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.62–2.92; 41+ years: OR = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.36–5.05) compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of a large amount of alcohol on a single occasion was also a significant risk factor, even after restricting DTC outcomes to tumor size, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension and TNM stage. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the threshold effects of acute high-dose alcohol consumption and long-term alcohol consumption are linked to an increased risk of DTC. PMID:26985827

  11. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  12. Cost comparison between surgical treatments and endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients with early gastric cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younhee; Kim, Young Woo; Choi, Il Ju; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Jong Hee; Kwon, Jin Won; Lee, Ja Youn; Lee, Na Rae; Seol, Sang Yong

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether medical costs can be reduced using endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) instead of conventional surger-ies in patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). Pa-tients who underwent open gastrectomy (OG), laparoscopy-assisted gastrectomy (LAG), and ESD for EGC were recruited from three medical institutions in 2009. For macro-costing, the medical costs for each patient were derived from the ex-penses incurred during the patient's hospital stay and 1-year follow-up. The overall costs in micro-costing were determined by multiplying the unit cost with the resources used during the patients' hospitalization. A total of 194 patients were included in this study. The hospital stay for ESD was 5 to 8 days and was significantly shorter than the 12-day hospital stay for OG or the 11- to 17-day stay for LAG. Using macro-costing, the average medical costs for ESD during the hospital stay ranged from 2.1 to 3.4 million Korean Won (KRW) per patient, and the medical costs for conventional surgeries were estimated to be between 5.1 million and 8.2 million KRW. There were no significant differences in the 1-year follow-up costs between ESD and conventional surger-ies. ESD patients had lower medical costs than those patients who had conventional surgeries for EGC with conservative indications. (Gut Liver, 2015;9174-180).

  13. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: database and attributes.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, R; Lucas, E; Sankaranarayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-one registries in 17 countries submitted data for systematic and centralized scrutiny. Data on 564 606 cases of different cancers ranging 1-56 sites/types from 27 registries in 14 low-/medium-resource countries in Eastern and Western Africa, the Caribbean, Central America and four regions of Asia, registered during 1990-2001 (period varying for individual registries) were reported. The database for this survival study comprised data that were classified as mandatory and optional. Mandatory variables provided by all registries included case-ID, age at diagnosis, sex, incidence date, most valid basis of diagnosis, cancer site/type (ICD-10 codes C00-96), vital status at follow-up and corresponding date. Clinical extent of disease was prominent among the optional variables provided by 17 registries and analysed. The grouping of cancer sites for analysis was based on standard norms, and only categories with at least 25 cases were reported. Cases registered based on a death certificate only, cases lacking any follow-up after initial registration, or cases rejected based on validation checks were excluded from the survival analysis. An easy guide to contents in subsequent chapters, especially tables and graphs describing data quality indices, survival statistics and online dynamic functions, is provided.

  14. Standardizing central venous catheter care by using observations from patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Saul N; Hsieh, Candace; Lane, Sharon; Cleary, Angela M

    2014-06-01

    To understand the vulnerability of patients with cancer to central line-associated bloodstream infections related to tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), patients were asked to describe their line care at home and in clinic and to characterize their knowledge and experience managing CVCs. Forty-five adult patients with cancer were recruited to participate. Patients were interviewed about the type of line, duration of use, and observations of variations in line care. They also were asked about differences between line care at home and in the clinic, precautions taken when bathing, and their education regarding line care. Demographic information and primary cancer diagnosis were taken from the patients' medical records. Patients with hematologic and gastrointestinal malignancies were heavily represented. The majority had tunneled catheters with subcutaneous implanted ports. Participants identified variations in practice among nurses who cared for them. Although many participants expressed confidence in their knowledge of line care, some were uncertain about what to do if the dressing became loose or wet, or how to recognize an infection. Patients seemed to be astute observers of their own care and offered insights into practice variation. Their observations show that CVC care practices should be standardized, and educational interventions should be created to address patients' knowledge deficits.

  15. Targeting the Central Pocket in Human Transcription Factor TEAD as a Potential Cancer Therapeutic Strategy.

    PubMed

    Pobbati, Ajaybabu V; Han, Xiao; Hung, Alvin W; Weiguang, Seetoh; Huda, Nur; Chen, Guo-Ying; Kang, CongBao; Chia, Cheng San Brian; Luo, Xuelian; Hong, Wanjin; Poulsen, Anders

    2015-11-03

    The human TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) is required for YAP-mediated transcription in the Hippo pathway. Hyperactivation of TEAD's co-activator YAP contributes to tissue overgrowth and human cancers, suggesting that pharmacological interference of TEAD-YAP activity may be an effective strategy for anticancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a central pocket in the YAP-binding domain (YBD) of TEAD that is targetable by small-molecule inhibitors. Our X-ray crystallography studies reveal that flufenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), binds to the central pocket of TEAD2 YBD. Our biochemical and functional analyses further demonstrate that binding of NSAIDs to TEAD inhibits TEAD-YAP-dependent transcription, cell migration, and proliferation, indicating that the central pocket is important for TEAD function. Therefore, our studies discover a novel way of targeting TEAD transcription factors and set the stage for therapeutic development of specific TEAD-YAP inhibitors against human cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Targeting the Central Pocket in Human Transcription Factor TEAD as a Potential Cancer Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Pobbati, Ajaybabu V.; Han, Xiao; Hung, Alvin W.; Weiguang, Seetoh; Huda, Nur; Chen, Guo-Ying; Kang, CongBao; Chia, Cheng San Brian; Luo, Xuelian; Hong, Wanjin; Poulsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The human TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) is required for YAP-mediated transcription in the Hippo pathway. Hyperactivation of TEAD’s co-activator YAP contributes to tissue overgrowth and human cancers, suggesting that pharmacological interference of TEAD-YAP activity may be an effective strategy for anticancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a central pocket in the YAP-binding domain (YBD) of TEAD that is targetable by small molecule inhibitors. Our X-ray crystallography studies reveal that flufenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), binds to the central pocket of TEAD2 YBD. Our biochemical and functional analyses further demonstrate that binding of NSAIDs to TEAD inhibits TEAD-YAP-dependent transcription, cell migration and proliferation, indicating that the central pocket is important for TEAD function. Therefore, our studies discover a novel way of targeting TEAD transcription factors and set the stage for therapeutic development of specific TEAD-YAP inhibitors against human cancers. PMID:26592798

  17. Current status of the use of antiadhesive agents for gastric cancer surgery: a questionnaire survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Ho; Jeong, Sang-Ho; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan; Jung, Eun-Jung; Jeong, Chi-Young; Ju, Young-Tae; Ha, Woo-Song

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the use of antiadhesive agents (AAdAs) via a questionnaire and to discuss the availability of AAdAs. Methods The survey was sent to a list of members that was approved by the Korean Gastric Association. The survey included questions on AAdA use by surgeons, the type of AAdAs used, and the reasons for not using AAdAs. Surgeons were also asked to describe complications related to AAdAs, and the reliability of its use. Results The response rate was 21%. The rates of frequent use stratified by procedure were 26.9% (14/52) for open gastrectomy, 5.9% (3/51) for laparoscopic gastrectomy, and 31.5% (17/54) for surgery for postoperative bowel obstruction (P < 0.01). After including data from the occasional use group, the corresponding values were 51.9% (27/52), 19.6% (10/51), and 70.4% (38/54), respectively (P < 0.01). Sefrafilm and Guardix were most commonly used for open procedures. Guardix and Interceed were most commonly used for laparoscopic surgery. The primary reasons for nonuse of AAdAs were ineffectiveness and high cost. Ten percent (4/40) of surgeons observed complications associated with AAdAs. A minority (17.3%, 9/52) had positive attitudes toward AAdAs. The majority of respondents expressed neutral (73.1%, 38/52) or negative (9.6%, 5/52) attitudes toward AAdAs. Conclusion The low use rates of AAdAs in gastric cancer surgery may be attributable to perceptions that AAdAs are ineffective, unreliable, and costly. We anticipate the emergence of promising antiadhesive strategies that reach far beyond the limitations of current products. PMID:23487148

  18. In Vivo Radiobiological Characterization of Proton Beam at the National Cancer Center in Korea: Effect of the Chk2 Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Soo; Choo, Dong Wan; Shin, Dongho; Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Motoyama, Noboru; De Coster, Blanche M.; Gueulette, John; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Ando, Koichi; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the presence or absence of CHK2 was estimated at the Korean National Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center (NCCPTC). Methods and Materials: The proton beam was fixed at 210 MeV with 6-cm spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) because this is expected to be the most frequently used clinical setting. X-rays were obtained using a 6-MV conventional linear accelerator. The RBE was estimated from the survival of jejunal crypt in C3H/He and Chk2{sup -/-} mice. Results: The estimated RBEs of the NCCPTC at the middle of the SOBP were 1.10 and 1.05 in the presence and absence of CHK2, respectively. The doses that reduced the number of regenerated crypt per jejunal circumference to 20 (D{sub 20}) in C3H/He mice were 14.8 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7-15.9) for X-rays and 13.5 Gy (95% CI, 14.5-15.5) for protons. By contrast, the doses of D{sub 20} in Chk2{sup -/-} mice were 15.7 Gy (95% CI, 15.0-16.4) and 14.9 Gy (95% CI, 14.0-15.8) for X-rays and protons, respectively. Conclusions: The RBE of the NCCPTC is clearly within the range of RBEs determined at other facilities and is consistent with the generic RBE value of 1.10 for 150- to 250-MeV beams. The mutation of Chk2 gave rise to radioresistance but exhibited similar RBE.

  19. The Influence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Prostate Size and Voiding Symptoms in Prostate Cancer Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on total prostate volume and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods Between January 2007 and June 2014, 110 patients who received androgen deprivation treatment were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical parameters and urodynamic parameters along with changes at follow-up were analyzed. Factors such as reduction in prostate volume, changes in LUTS, and prostate volume tertiles were compared 1 year after ADT. Results After ADT, the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) score decreased from 17.45 to 12.21 and the IPSS voiding subscore decreased from 9.16 to 6.24. Maximal uroflow rate increased from 8.62 to 11.50 mL/sec and residual urine also reduced significantly by 29.34 mL. Change in prostate size was more prominent (–51.14%) in the patients with less than 1 year of ADT (n=21) than those who had more than 1 year of treatment (n=89, –44.12%). The decrease in the IPSS voiding subscore was greater within 1 year of ADT than after 1 year of treatment (–4.10 vs. –2.65). The differences were more significant in the 30–50 g group (n=59) and >50 g group (n=11) than the <30 g group (n=40) of the IPSS voiding subscore improvement (–3.76 , –4.91 vs. –2.10), and maximal uroflow rate improvement (2.78, 2.90 vs 1.49). Conclusion ADT resulted in statistically significant clinical improvement in terms of prostate volume, urodynamic parameters, and LUTS for patients with prostate cancer when analyzed by ADT duration and prostate volume. PMID:28043112

  20. Diffusion-tensor MRI at 3 T: differentiation of central gland prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Yoon; Kim, Chan Kyo; Park, Byung Kwan; Ha, Sang Yun; Kwon, Ghee Young; Kim, Bohyun

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to retrospectively evaluate the utility of diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) at 3 T in differentiating central gland prostate cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Eighty consecutive patients (57 with central gland cancer and 23 without central gland cancer) were included in this study. All patients underwent T2-weighted imaging and DTI at 3 T, followed by surgery. For predicting central gland cancer, experienced and less-experienced radiologists independently analyzed T2-weighted imaging and combined T2-weighted imaging and DTI, respectively. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured for central gland cancers and BPH foci of stromal and glandular hyperplasia. Statistical analyses were performed using McNemar test, linear mixed model, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and kappa statistics. For predicting central gland cancers, the area under the curve (Az) of combined T2-weighted imaging and DTI for the experienced (0.915) and less-experienced reader (0.753) was superior to that of T2-weighted imaging (0.723 vs 0.664; p<0.001). The mean ADC and FA values were 0.77×10(-3) mm2/s and 0.35, respectively, for central gland cancers, 1.22×10(-3) mm2/s and 0.26, respectively, for stromal hyperplasia foci, and 1.59×10(-3) mm2/s and 0.21, respectively, for glandular hyperplasia foci, and the values differed significantly. For differentiating central gland cancer from stromal hyperplasia foci and glandular hyperplasia foci, Az values of ADC versus FA were 0.989 and 1.0 versus 0.818 and 0.916, respectively, and the difference was statistically different. DTI at 3 T is useful for distinguishing central gland cancers from BPH foci, with significantly different ADC and FA values. Furthermore, ADC showed greater diagnostic accuracy than FA in differentiating central gland cancers from stromal and glandular hyperplasia foci.

  1. Overview of Asbestos Issues in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required. PMID:19543418

  2. Overview of asbestos issues in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-06-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required.

  3. Oncological outcomes of metastatic testicular cancers under centralized management through regional medical network.

    PubMed

    Inai, Hiromu; Kawai, Koji; Kojima, Takahiro; Joraku, Akira; Shimazui, Toru; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Miyagawa, Tomoaki; Endo, Tsuyoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshiharu; Miyazaki, Jun; Uchida, Katsunori; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the dose intensity of induction chemotherapy and oncological outcomes of metastatic testicular cancer under centralized management through a regional medical network. We retrospectively analyzed the outcomes of 86 metastatic testicular cancer patients who were given induction chemotherapy at Tsukuba University Hospital and four branch hospitals between January 2000 and November 2010. Principally, management of patients with poor-prognosis disease and patients having risk factors for bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin were referred to Tsukuba University Hospital before chemotherapy. For high-risk groups, etoposide and cisplatin or etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin was used as an alternative to bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin. Overall, 56 and 30 patients were treated at Tsukuba University Hospital and branch hospitals, respectively. Forty-seven, 18 and 21 patients were classified with good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis disease, respectively, according to the International Germ Cell Cancer Collaborative Group criteria. Eighteen of the 21 patients (86%) with poor-prognosis disease were treated at Tsukuba University Hospital from the beginning of induction chemotherapy. Induction chemotherapy with a high relative dose intensity was possible in most patients. The average relative dose intensity of each drug was >0.96. Treatment procedures other than induction chemotherapy were efficiently centralized; 74% of post-chemotherapy surgery and all second-line or subsequent chemotherapies were performed at Tsukuba University Hospital. The 5-year overall survival rates of the good-, intermediate- and poor-prognosis groups were 97, 93 and 84%, respectively. Induction chemotherapy with high relative dose intensity, post-chemotherapy surgery and salvage chemotherapy was accomplished efficiently through centralization of management. Oncological outcomes were excellent, especially in patients with poor-prognosis disease, whose 5-year OS reached 84%.

  4. A comprehensive review of clinical nurse specialist-led peripherally inserted central catheter placement in Korea: 4101 cases in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Yun; Kim, Hyun Lim

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are expected to be convenient and reliable venous access devices. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical nurse specialist (CNS)-led PICC placement and to describe its growth in a tertiary hospital. A computerized database identified 3508 patients who had PICCs placed between November 2001 and June 2010. One thousand, eight hundred ninety-eight of the 4101 PICCs were available for complete follow-up, and 791 of 1898 PICCs were still in place. The mean dwell time of 1898 PICCs was 27.4 days (1∼422 days). Most PICCs were removed after the completion of infusion therapy; the remainder were removed following death, occlusion, suspected infection, or phlebitis, or were removed by the patient. The study found that CNS-led PICC placement for infusion therapies was effective and safe with relatively low complication rates and that CNSs played important roles in the increased use of PICCs.

  5. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Nagamallika; Streiff, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) play an essential role in the management of cancer patients. Venous thrombosis is a common complication of CVC. The incidence of CVC-associated venous thromboembolism (CVC-VTE) is 1.7 per 1000 catheter days. Risk factors for CVC-VTE include the patient's underlying cancer, a history of previous thrombotic events and the location and type of CVC. Anticoagulant prophylaxis is not effective for CVC-VTE. Anticoagulation alone is the preferred initial treatment for CVC-VTE. CVC removal may be considered in refractory cases or when anticoagulation is contraindicated. Thrombolytic therapy is reserved for patients with limb-threatening thrombosis or thrombosis unresponsive to conventional treatment. Anticoagulation should be continued for at least 3 months or as long as the CVC is present.

  6. Use of Chinese herbal medicine therapies in comprehensive hospitals in central China: A parallel survey in cancer patients and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying

    2015-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.

  7. Determining the main risk factors and high-risk groups of breast cancer using a predictive model for breast cancer risk assessment in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; You, Chunghee; Lee, Dong-Suk; Han, Wonshik; Choe, Kuk-Jin; Noh, Dong-Young

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at developing a predictive model for assessing the breast cancer risk of Korean women under the assumption of differences in the risk factors between Westerners and Koreans. The cohort comprised 384 breast cancer patients and 2 control groups: one comprising 166 hospitalized patients and the other comprising 104 nurses and teachers. Two initial models were produced by comparing cases and the 2 control groups, and the final equations were established by selecting highly significant variables of the initial models to test the accuracy of the models in terms of disease probability and predictability. Both the initial models and the final disease-probability models were confirmed to exhibit high degrees of accuracy and predictability. Major risk factors determined by comparing the patients with hospitalized controls were a family history, menstrual regularity, total menstrual duration, age at first full-term pregnancy, and duration of breastfeeding. Major risk factors determined by comparing patients with nurse/teacher controls were age, education level, menstrual regularity, drinking status, and smoking status. The predictive model developed here shows that risk factors for breast cancer differ between Korean and Western subjects in the aspect of breastfeeding behavior. However, identifying the relationship between genetic susceptibility and breast cancer will require further studies with larger samples. In a model with nurse/teacher controls, drinking and higher education were found to be protective variables, whereas smoking was a risk factor. Hence the predictive model in this group could not be generalized to the Korean population; instead, breast cancer incidence needs to be compared among nurses and teachers in a nurse-and-teacher cohort.

  8. Distinct Characteristics of Small Cell Lung Cancer Correlate With Central or Peripheral Origin

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Eisaku; Motoi, Noriko; Ono, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Hironori; Ohyanagi, Fumiyoshi; Nishio, Makoto; Okumura, Sakae; Ichinose, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a type of lung cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation and a poor prognosis that is widely believed to arise in the central lung. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a peripheral marker of lung adenocarcinoma that is also highly expressed in SCLC. In this study, we examined whether SCLC is really a central-type tumor and the relationship between tumor location, TTF-1 expression and prognosis of SCLC. Ninety six SCLCs, diagnosed from biopsies or surgical materials, for which detailed computed tomography (CT) images were available, were collected consecutively from Japanese patients between 2004 and 2011. We examined the location of the primary tumor (central or peripheral) using thin-sliced CT, a TTF-1 immunohistochemical expression, and clinicopathology including prognosis. Of the 96 SCLCs, 74% (71/96) were of the peripheral type and found to have a significantly worse prognosis than central-type tumors. TTF-1 immunoreactivity was identified in 79 tumors (82%), 78% of which (62/79) were of the peripheral type and 22% of which were central. TTF-1 expression was significantly correlated with peripheral location (P = 0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that high TNM stages and the peripheral location were independent markers for poor survival. The majority of SCLCs were of the peripheral type. The peripheral-type SCLC expressed TTF-1 more frequently and had a poorer prognosis than central-type tumors did. Further analysis on original sites of SCLC, using molecular methodology, or based on another ethnicity, should be warranted. PMID:26705222

  9. [Central retinal vein occlusion as the first symptom of ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Hernaez-Ortega, M C; Castresana-Jauregui, I

    2013-12-01

    A healthy 57-year-old woman presented with decreased vision in her right eye. Dilated fundus examination revealed central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). The laboratory test results for hypercoagulability state showed an abnormal protein S. A few months later she developed an ovarian malignancy. This case illustrates an association between CRVO and ovarian tumour. Coagulation disorders in cancer may be a mechanism for CRVO. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The Complex Diagnostic Challenge in Children With Non-Central Nervous System Cancer and Cerebellar Mutism.

    PubMed

    Helton, Kathleen; Patterson, Amy L; Khan, Raja B; Sadighi, Zsila S

    2017-08-01

    Multiple etiologies should be considered in the differential diagnosis of immunocompromised patients with non-central nervous system cancer and viral infections who develop mutism. Acute cerebellitis, caused by infections or by neurotoxicity resulting from chemotherapy; paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration; atypical posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome; and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis may all cause mutism in such patients. This condition warrants prompt recognition and may require treatment with immunotherapy, as it may be an immune-mediated process. We present 2 patients with leukemia and viral illness who developed cerebellar mutism in the setting of acute cerebellitis and responded to immunotherapy, suggesting that the condition involved a parainfectious immune-mediated response.

  11. Bronchial and arterial sleeve resection for centrally-located lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrilli, Antonio; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The use of bronchial and arterial sleeve resections for the treatment of centrally-located lung cancers, when available, has become the option of choice in comparison with pneumonectomy (PN). Technical expertise, in particular in vascular reconstruction, and perioperative management improved over time allowing excellent short-term and long-term results. This is even truer if considering literature data from the main experiences published in the last years. These evidences have given to such lung sparing reconstructive procedures more and more acceptance among the surgical community. This article focuses on the main technical aspects and literature data regarding bronchovascular sleeve resections. PMID:27942409

  12. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  13. Statistics of hematologic malignancies in Korea: incidence, prevalence and survival rates from 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Eun-Hye; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Byung-Kiu; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background The nationwide statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea has not been reported yet. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Korean Society of Hematology jointly investigated domestic incidence rates and prevalence of hematologic malignancies occurred between 1999 and 2008, and analyzed survival rates of patients who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2008. Data of hematologic malignancies from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Data base. The crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates, annual percentage change of incidence, and prevalence from 1999-2008 were calculated. Survival rates for patients diagnosed in 1993-2008 were estimated. Results In 2008, a total of 8,006 cases of hematologic malignancies were occurred, which comprised 4.5% of all malignancies. In all genders, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and multiple myeloma were most frequent diseases. In terms of age, ages between 60 and 69 were most prevalent. From 1999 to 2008, the age-standardized incidence rates increased from 10.2 to 13.7, and the annual percentage change was 3.9%. The 5-year survival rate increased from 38.2% during 1993-1995 to 55.2% during 2004-2008. As of January 2009, number of patients with 10-year prevalence was 33,130, and with 5- to 10-year prevalence was 10,515. Conclusion This is the first nationwide statistical report of hematologic malignancies in Korea. It could be used as the basic information to help investigate epidemiologic characteristics, evaluate progress during the past years, and establish future strategies for hematologic malignancies. Periodic statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea should be continued. PMID:22479275

  14. A Comparison of a Centralized Versus De-Centralized Recruitment Schema in Two Community-Based Participatory Research Studies for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Heiney, Sue P.; Brandt, Heather M.; Wirth, Michael D.; Khan, Samira; Johnson, Hiluv; Davis, Lisa; Wineglass, Cassandra M.; Warren-Jones, Tatiana Y.; Felder, Tisha M.; Drayton, Ruby F.; Davis, Briana; Farr, Deeonna E.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches is increasing with the goal of making more meaningful and impactful advances in eliminating cancer-related health disparities. While many reports have espoused its advantages, few investigations have focused on comparing CBPR-oriented recruitment and retention. Consequently, the purpose of this analysis was to report and compare two different CBPR approaches in two cancer prevention studies. We utilized frequencies and chi-squared tests to compare and contrast subject recruitment and retention for two studies that incorporated a randomized, controlled intervention design of a dietary and physical activity intervention among African Americans. One study utilized a de-centralized approach to recruitment in which primary responsibility for recruitment was assigned to the general AA community of various church partners whereas the other incorporated a centralized approach to recruitment in which a single lay community individual was hired as research personnel to lead recruitment and intervention delivery. Both studies performed equally well for both recruitment and retention (75 and 88% recruitment rates and 71 and 66% retention rates) far exceeding those rates traditionally cited for cancer clinical trials (~5%). The de-centralized approach to retention appeared to result in statistically greater retention for the control participants compared to the centralized approach (77 vs 51%, P<0.01). Consequently, both CBPR approaches appeared to greatly enhance recruitment and retention rates of AA populations. We further note lessons learned and challenges to consider for future research opportunities. PMID:25086566

  15. Coding of Central Cancer Registry Industry and Occupation Information: The Texas and Louisiana Experiences.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Nancy S; Cooper, Sharon P; Socias, Christina; Weiss, Ronnie A; Chen, Vivien W

    2015-01-01

    Usual industry and occupation text information have been collected by central cancer registries but few have had the resources to code these data, limiting their usefulness for assessing occupational cancer risks. This project was undertaken to use software available from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to code industry and occupation information in cancer records reported to the Texas Cancer Registry (TCR) and the Louisiana Tumor Registry (LTR) and to assess the feasibility of its use in ongoing registry operations; to assess the quality of the reported information; and to determine its usefulness in occupational cancer research. De-identified data files of TCR (n = 103,276) and LTR (n = 26,090) cancer records were obtained for diagnosis years 2010 and 2011, respectively, for cases aged 14 years and older, with industry and occupation text. These data fields were coded to the 2000 US Census Bureau using the NIOSH Industry and Occupation Computerized Coding System (NIOCCS) software at the high level confidence (90% or greater accuracy) and through manual code assignments for records not coded by NIOCCS. NIOCCS assigned a code for 37.2% of TCR records and 59.9% of LTR records. Examination of the quality of the coded data found 44.2% of TCR records and 31.1% of LTR records to have missing, unknown, or otherwise insufficient text for assigning a specific industry and occupation code. Additionally, the vague noninformative category of "retired" was reported for 14.9% and 11.2% of TCR and LTR records, respectively. Records with "homemaker/housewife" or those with terms indicating that they never worked represented 7.2% of TCR cases and 9.7% of LTR cases. Excluding the unknown, never worked, and retired categories, no one specific industry or occupation major grouping represented more than 5% of cases in either of the registries. NIOCCS is a helpful tool for coding industry and occupation text and continues to improve, but other registry

  16. Disasters can happen to anybody: The case of Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Kyoo-Man

    2016-02-15

    In Korea, there is a pervasive feeling of invincibility to the point that people and organizations do not believe that disasters can strike them. This has impact on the level of preparedness for disasters. This study aims to delve into how Korea has to change its governmental policies/practices with some private partners' efforts to mitigate disaster risks. A case study was utilized as the major methodology by comparing exclusive management with inclusive management. These two approaches have been comparatively analyzed via four variables, namely the central government, the local governments, the incident commander, and other stakeholders. The major finding is that Korea's practices and policies have to evolve from the current exclusive management into future-oriented inclusive management. Moreover, the importance of communication, cooperation, collaboration, and multi-discipline coordination is discussed. Additionally, the problem of reductionism and equal participation among all stakeholders, as well as the resistance from vested interests, are recognized and elaborated for Korea and the international community. - Highlights: • Only a few stakeholders in Korea believe that disaster can happen to anyone. This study aims to delve into how Korea has to change its current practices to mitigate disaster risks. • To compare exclusive management with inclusive management, we have examined four comparative variables, namely the central government's policy, local government's strategy, the incident commander's post, and other stakeholders' efforts. • The major finding is that Korea's practices and policies have to evolve from the current exclusive management into future-oriented inclusive management.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of potentially inappropriate prescribing of central nervous system and psychotropic drugs among elderly patients: A national population study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyeonseok; Choi, Junjeong; Kim, Young-Sang; Son, Sang Joon; Lee, Kang Soo; Hwang, Hee-Jin; Kang, Hye-Young

    2017-09-06

    To investigate the prevalence of potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) of central nervous system and psychotropic (CNS-PS) drugs to the Korean elderly population, and to identify PIP-associated factors. Ambulatory care visits were identified from the 2013 National Aged Patient Sample (HIRA-APS-2013) data, composed of 20% random samples of all enrollees in the universal health security program aged ≥65 years. The CNS-PS section of Screening Tool of Older Person's potentially inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria version 2 was used to identify PIP at these visits. A total of 24,427,069 prescription claims records and 1,122,080 patients were included in the study; 10.73% of the claims and 53.64% of the patients satisfied at least one STOPP criterion in the prescription of CNS-PS drugs. The highest prevalence of PIP was observed for the criteria of "first-generation antihistamines" (FGAH), followed by tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) in patients with prostatism and TCA in patients with dementia. The generalized estimating equation logistic regression analysis showed that the PIP of FGAH was significantly associated with polypharmacy (5-9 drugs: odds ratio (OR) 4.965, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.936-4.994; ≥10 drugs: OR 5.704, 95% CI 5.604-5.807), less severe health conditions (Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)=2: OR 0.852, 95% CI 0.842-0.862; CCI=1: OR 0.975, 95% CI 0.964-0.986), prescriptions from clinics (OR>1.0), and outpatient care by general practitioners (OR>1.0). Appropriate interventions to reduce PIP should be made, especially for the criteria that indicate a high PIP prevalence. Targeted strategies are necessary to modify the risk factors of PIP identified from this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Consensus Conference on Cancer Registration of Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors1

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Bridget J.; Kruchko, Carol

    2005-01-01

    The passage of Public Law 107–260, the Benign Brain Tumor Cancer Registries Amendment Act, in October 2002 has made the collection of all primary brain tumors a reality. However, at the first Consensus Conference on Brain Tumor Definition for Registration in 2002, and during the development of training materials for benign brain tumor collection, several issues were identified that were tabled for future discussion. These and other issues were addressed at the subsequent 2003 Consensus Conference on Cancer Registration of Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors, at which the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States facilitated a discussion among epidemiologists, neurosurgeons, and neuro-pathologists. Multidisciplinary consensus was reached on four points, for which the following recommendations were made: (1) amend the histology coding scheme for cysts and tumor-like lesions that currently have a code in the third edition of the International Classification of Disease for Oncology (ICDO), (2) collect data on all instances of specific cysts and tumor-like lesions that are located in brain and other CNS sites but currently lack ICDO codes, (3) establish a new ICDO topography site for skull base tumors for the brain and CNS, and (4) collect data on genetic syndromes in patients diagnosed with brain or CNS tumors. We view this conference as part of a continuing process. Because classification of primary intracranial and other CNS tumors is dynamic, and the registration and coding of these tumors will need to be periodically reviewed. PMID:15831238

  19. Centralization of Penile Cancer Management in the United States: A Combined Analysis of the American Board of Urology and National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Matulewicz, Richard S; Flum, Andrew S; Helenowski, Irene; Jovanovic, Borko; Palis, Bryan; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Meeks, Joshua J

    2016-04-01

    To assess the potential benefit of centralization of care in penile cancer. Centralization of care in other disease processes standardizes treatment and improves outcomes. Because penile cancer is a rare malignancy with unchanged mortality rates over the last two decades, we hypothesize that there may be a benefit to centralization. We identified surgeon, patient, and hospital characteristics captured by the National Cancer Data Base (1998-2012) and American Board of Urology case logs (2003-2013) for all penile cancer cases and procedures. Differences in patient demographics, stage of disease, referral patterns, and surgical quality indicators were assessed between academic and community hospitals. Using case logs to evaluate the distribution of penile cancer care, we found that only 4.1% of urologists performed a penile surgery and 1.5% performed a lymph node dissection (LND). Academic centers treated higher-stage cancers and saw more cases/year than community centers, suggesting informal centralization. Two guideline-based quality indicators demonstrated no difference in use of penile-sparing surgery but a higher likelihood of having an LND performed at an academic center (48.4% vs 26.6%). The total lymph node yield was significantly greater at academic centers (18.5 vs 12.5). Regression modeling demonstrated a 2.29 increased odds of having an LND at an academic center. Our data provide the first evidence for centralization of penile cancer in the US. At the time of diagnosis, equal number of patients is treated with penile-sparing surgery but there is greater use of LND and higher lymph node yield at academic centers. Ultimately, longer follow-up is necessary to determine if this improves survival of patients with penile cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Outcome of different oncoplastic surgical (OPs) techniques for centrally located breast cancer (CLBC).

    PubMed

    Moustafa, A; Fakhr, I

    2014-12-01

    Oncoplastic breast surgery is a standard treatment of early breast cancer, offering a balance between good cosmetic outcome and limited risk of locoregional recurrence, by enabling proper resection margins. To present multiple techniques of partial breast reconstruction following the resection of centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) resection. From January 2011 to August 2014, 21 patients underwent central quadrantectomy for carcinoma of the central region of the breast. Excisions included the nipple/areola complex, in most of the cases, down to the pectoralis fascia with a wide safety margin, and proper axillary management. Oncoplastic approaches included latissimus dorsi flap, inferior pedicle flap, Melon slice, Grisotti and round block techniques. Mean age of patients was 49.5±10.61 years. Tumor size ranged from 1.5 to 4.5 cm. Postoperative pathology revealed a tumor mean safety margin of 2.5±0.83 cm, with positive axillary lymph nodes in 15 (75.0%) patients. Nineteen (95.0%) patients received postoperative breast radiotherapy, while 9/20 (45.0%) and 3/20 (15.0%) received adjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy, respectively, and only 8/20 (40.0%) patients received both therapies. During a median follow-up period of 14.89 months, neither local nor distant metastasis, were detected. The postoperative cosmetic result evaluated by the patients was excellent in 6/20 patients (30.0%), good in 11/20 patients (55.0%), fair in 3/20 (15.0%) with neither poor nor bad results, with an overall mean of 4.0±0.5 equivalent to 80% satisfaction. Multiple oncoplastic breast surgery techniques can be used for the resection of CLBC with satisfying cosmetic outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Descriptive epidemiology of lung cancer and current status of tobacco control measures in Central and South America.

    PubMed

    Piñeros, Marion; Sierra, Mónica S; Forman, David

    2016-09-01

    Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death in the world. In Central and South America lung cancer is now one of most frequent cancers and the leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes. We describe patterns and trends in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Central and South America and give a brief overview of the current status of tobacco control measures based on the most recent MPOWER report. We obtained regional and national-level incidence data from 48 population-based cancer registries in 13 countries and cancer deaths from the WHO mortality database for 18 countries. We estimated world population age-standardized incidence and mortality rates per 100,000 person-years. Incidence of lung cancer by histological subtype were only available from high-quality population-based cancer registries for the period 2003-2007. The highest incidence and mortality rates in the region were seen among males in Argentina, Cuba, Chile and Uruguay. Adenocarcinoma was the most frequent histological type overall, though squamous carcinoma was more frequent in Antofagasta-Chile and Villa Clara-Cuba. Smoke-free policies and warnings are widely implemented tobacco control measures; cessation is offered but the costs are not covered by health systems in the majority of countries. The high burden of lung cancer in the region highlights the need to improve long term information and strengthen current tobacco control policies including aggressive taxing measures and supporting smoking cessation in order to achieve the targeted reductions in smoking prevalence. Copyright © 2015 International Agency for Research on Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. High incidence of esophageal cancer in central-western Brazil: a migrant effect?

    PubMed

    e Silva, Diego Rodrigues Mendonça; Curado, Maria-Paula; de Oliveira, José Carlos

    2013-05-01

    To determine the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in central-western Brazil: Goiânia, Brasília, Cuiabá, and Campo Grande, incidence data for Cuiabá (2000-2005) and Brasília (1999-2002) were obtained from the National Cancer Institute, and data from Goiânia (1995-2008) from the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiânia. Mortality data for the cities of central-western Brazil were obtained for the period 1980-2008 from the Ministry of Health. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated using the world population of Segi. Mortality trends were assessed with the Joinpoint Regression Program and a P value less than 0.05 was defined as significant. The highest incidence of esophageal cancer among men was in Cuiabá (16.0/100 000); the lowest was in Goiânia (6.5/100 000). Among women, the incidence rates were similar in Brasília and Cuiabá, but in Goiânia, the incidence declined. There was a significant increase in mortality among men in Cuiabá (2.4%, P=0.03) and Campo Grande (1.2%, P=0.05), and in women (1.6%, P=0.04) in Goiânia. Mortality by age group increased significantly in Campo Grande by 1.9% for men aged at least 50 years and in Goiânia by 2.7% among women aged at least 50 years; the mortality decreased in Goiânia by 2.2% for women aged less than 50 years. The incidence of esophageal cancer in Brasília and Cuiabá was similar to that of southern Brazil in some periods. There was an increase in mortality trends for men in Cuiabá and Campo Grande, and for women in Goiânia.

  3. Indications of airway stenting for severe central airway obstruction due to advanced cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Hiroaki; Kishaba, Tomoo; Nei, Yuichirou; Yamashiro, Shin; Takara, Hiroaki

    2017-01-01

    Management of severe central airway obstruction due to advanced cancer is a medical and technical challenge. The impact of airway stenting on the clinical outcome of such patients is unclear. This single-center, retrospective study evaluated 21 patients who underwent airway stenting for advanced cancer. We examined predictors of the post-stenting mortality, including age, serum albumin, tracheal diameter, smoking, opioid use, respiratory failure, and performance status (PS). We also compared survival according to the PS. The mean survival period after stenting was 85.2 days. On univariate analysis, age, albumin, PS before airway stenting, respiratory failure, admission route, and PS grade were the candidates as possible predictors of prognosis after the procedure. On multivariate analysis, PS before airway stenting was identified as possible predictor of prognosis after stenting (HR 1.6180, 95% CI 0.969 to 2.7015, p = 0.066). The mean survival period after stenting was significantly longer in the good PS group, compared to the poor PS group (147.8 days vs. 38.2 days,p = 0.0346). Airway stenting for advanced cancer may be more effective for patients in good general condition than in those with poor performance status.

  4. Trends in radical prostatectomy: centralization, robotics, and access to urologic cancer care.

    PubMed

    Stitzenberg, Karyn B; Wong, Yu-Ning; Nielsen, Matthew E; Egleston, Brian L; Uzzo, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Robotic surgery has been widely adopted for radical prostatectomy. We hypothesized that this change is rapidly shifting procedures away from hospitals that do not offer robotics and consequently increasing patient travel. A population-based observational study of all prostatectomies for cancer in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 2000 to 2009 was performed using hospital discharge data. Hospital procedure volume was defined as the number of prostatectomies performed for cancer in a given year. Straight-line travel distance to the treating hospital was calculated for each case. Hospitals were contacted to determine the year of acquisition of the first robot. From 2000 to 2009, the total number of prostatectomies performed annually increased substantially. The increase occurred almost entirely at the very high-volume centers (≥ 106 prostatectomies/year). The number of hospitals performing prostatectomy fell 37% from 2000 to 2009. By 2009, the 9% (21/244) of hospitals that had very high volume performed 57% of all prostatectomies, and the 35% (86/244) of hospitals with a robot performed 85% of all prostatectomies. The median travel distance increased 54% from 2000 to 2009 (P<.001). The proportion of patients traveling ≥ 15 miles increased from 24% to 40% (P < .001). Over the past decade, the number of radical prostatectomies performed has risen substantially. These procedures have been increasingly centralized at high-volume centers, leading to longer patient travel distances. Few prostatectomies are now performed at hospitals that do not offer robotic surgery. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  5. Developmental therapeutics for patients with breast cancer and central nervous system metastasis: current landscape and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Costa, R; Carneiro, B A; Wainwright, D A; Santa-Maria, C A; Kumthekar, P; Chae, Y K; Gradishar, W J; Cristofanilli, M; Giles, F J

    2016-10-03

    Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of metastatic disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent advances in the biological understanding of breast cancer have facilitated an unprecedented increase of survival in a subset of patients presenting with metastatic breast cancer. Patients with HER2 positive (HER2+) or triple negative breast cancer are at highest risk of developing CNS metastasis, and typically experience a poor prognosis despite treatment with local and systemic therapies. Among the obstacles ahead in the realm of developmental therapeutics for breast cancer CNS metastasis is the improvement of our knowledge on its biological nuances and on the interaction of the blood brain barrier with new compounds. This manuscript reviews recent discoveries related to the underlying biology of breast cancer brain metastases, clinical progress to date and suggests rational approaches for investigational therapies.

  6. SU-E-E-16: The Application of Texture Analysis for Differentiation of Central Cancer From Atelectasis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M; Fan, T; Duan, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prospectively assess the potential utility of texture analysis for differentiation of central cancer from atelectasis. Methods: 0 consecutive central lung cancer patients who were referred for CT imaging and PET-CT were enrolled. Radiotherapy doctor delineate the tumor and atelectasis according to the fusion imaging based on CT image and PET-CT image. The texture parameters (such as energy, correlation, sum average, difference average, difference entropy), were obtained respectively to quantitatively discriminate tumor and atelectasis based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) Results: The texture analysis results showed that the parameters of correlation and sum average had an obviously statistical significance(P<0.05). Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that texture analysis may be useful for the differentiation of central lung cancer and atelectasis.

  7. Prevalence and clinical outcomes of young breast cancer (YBC) patients according to intrinsic breast cancer subtypes: Single institutional experience in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Yeon Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Jung, Hyun Ae; Kim, Sung Min; Kim, Moon Jin; Kil, Won Ho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate and identify comprehensively the clinicopathological features and long-term outcome of young breast cancer (YBC) according to intrinsic subtype. We analyzed clinical and pathological characteristics of 2844 women who were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 2000 to 2007 and the treatment outcomes by age at diagnosis. The median age of the patients was 46 years (range, 21-83 years), and we divided them into three age group: ≤35 years (Group 1), 36-50 years (Group 2), and >50 years (Group 3). During a median follow-up of 100 months, the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate (RFSR) and overall survival rate (OSR) were 90.8% and 94.6%, respectively. The 10-year estimated RFSR and OSR were 81.9% and 86.9%, respectively. The prognosis of TN subtype appeared not to be worse than that of other subtypes in Group 1. In Group 1 alone (≤35 years), subtype was not identified as an independent risk factor for distant recurrence-free survival (DRFS) in a Cox-regression multivariate model (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.68-1.06; p = 0.148). This analysis revealed a very high prevalence of YBC in this cohort. The poor outcomes of YBC patients might result from an increased frequency of triple negative (TN)/HER2 subtypes and the more aggressive clinical behavior of ER-positive tumors compared with older patients. Further research to elucidate the biologic difference of the ER+ tumors of YBC patients is warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospective cohort study of general and central obesity, weight change trajectory and risk of major cancers among Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Wen, Wanqing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2016-10-01

    General obesity, typically measured using body mass index (BMI), has been associated with an increased risk of several cancers. However, few prospective studies have been conducted in Asian populations. Although central obesity, often measured using waist-hip ratio (WHR), is more predictive for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk than BMI, knowledge of its association with cancer incidence is limited. In a cohort of 68,253 eligible Chinese women, we prospectively investigated the association of BMI, WHR and weight change during adulthood with risk of overall cancer and major site-specific cancers using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Compared to the BMI group of 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2) , obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ) women were at an increased risk of developing overall cancer (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.21-1.52), postmenopausal breast cancer (HR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.73-3.40), endometrial cancer (HR: 5.34, 95% CI: 3.48-8.18), liver cancer (HR: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.14-3.27) and epithelial ovarian cancer (HR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.37-4.35). Weight gain during adulthood (per 5 kg gain) was associated with increased risk of all cancers combined (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03-1.08), postmenopausal breast cancer (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.10-1.24) and endometrial cancer (HR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.27-1.48). On the other hand, WHR was not associated with cancer risk after adjustment for baseline BMI. These findings suggest that obesity may be associated with cancer risk through different mechanisms from those for type 2 diabetes and CVD and support measures of maintaining health body weight to reduce cancer risk in Chinese women. © 2016 UICC.

  9. Independent dose verification system with Monte Carlo simulations using TOPAS for passive scattering proton therapy at the National Cancer Center in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Wook-Geun; Testa, Mauro; Kim, Hak Soo; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Byeong Lee, Se; Kim, Yeon-Joo; Min, Chul Hee

    2017-10-01

    For the independent validation of treatment plans, we developed a fully automated Monte Carlo (MC)-based patient dose calculation system with the tool for particle simulation (TOPAS) and proton therapy machine installed at the National Cancer Center in Korea to enable routine and automatic dose recalculation for each patient. The proton beam nozzle was modeled with TOPAS to simulate the therapeutic beam, and MC commissioning was performed by comparing percent depth dose with the measurement. The beam set-up based on the prescribed beam range and modulation width was automated by modifying the vendor-specific method. The CT phantom was modeled based on the DICOM CT files with TOPAS-built-in function, and an in-house-developed C++ code directly imports the CT files for positioning the CT phantom, RT-plan file for simulating the treatment plan, and RT-structure file for applying the Hounsfield unit (HU) assignment, respectively. The developed system was validated by comparing the dose distributions with those calculated by the treatment planning system (TPS) for a lung phantom and two patient cases of abdomen and internal mammary node. The results of the beam commissioning were in good agreement of up to 0.8 mm2 g-1 for B8 option in both of the beam range and the modulation width of the spread-out Bragg peaks. The beam set-up technique can predict the range and modulation width with an accuracy of 0.06% and 0.51%, respectively, with respect to the prescribed range and modulation in arbitrary points of B5 option (128.3, 132.0, and 141.2 mm2 g-1 of range). The dose distributions showed higher than 99% passing rate for the 3D gamma index (3 mm distance to agreement and 3% dose difference) between the MC simulations and the clinical TPS in the target volume. However, in the normal tissues, less favorable agreements were obtained for the radiation treatment planning with the lung phantom and internal mammary node cases. The discrepancies might come from the

  10. Is central neck dissection a safe procedure in the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer? Our experience.

    PubMed

    Palestini, N; Borasi, A; Cestino, L; Freddi, M; Odasso, C; Robecchi, A

    2008-09-01

    routinely combined with total thyroidectomy in the primary treatment of pre- or intraoperatively diagnosed papillary thyroid cancer. When no macroscopic evidence of metastasis is present, ipsilateral central neck dissection is the best treatment strategy in a balanced decision between the need for achieving local radical excision, correct disease staging, and reducing the risk of complications.

  11. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  12. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology: Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic viral infectious disease involving the central nervous system . In humans, the disease most...subsequently enter and multiply in the circulatory system of the louse. Lice are highly infective after 6 days and remain so for life (30-40 days...Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas Published and Distributed by the Armed Forces Pest Management Board Information

  13. Charcoal tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence in the central compartment of the neck.

    PubMed

    Soprani, F; Bondi, F; Puccetti, M; Armaroli, V

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer can often require further surgical options. Reoperations may carry significant risk of surgical complications; additionally, as the anatomy is subverted, there is the possibility of leaving residual neoplasm. In order to avoid such problems during reoperation for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence, we have introduced the technique of preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of the lymphatic structure to be removed with a 4% solution of active charcoal. Using ultrasound guidance, the lesion is identified and 0.5-2 ml of colloidal charcoal is injected near the lesion. The extraction of the needle is accompanied by injection at constant pressure of other charcoal as to leave a trace of colouring along the path of the needle up to the skin. The preoperative injection was well tolerated in all cases. In the last 5 years, we have used this technique in 13 patients with suspected recurrence in the central compartment (all from papillary carcinomas). Postoperative ultrasound and histological examination confirmed the removal of the lesion in all patients; in one case, the lesion was a parathyroid cyst. Complications were observed in two of 13 (15.4%) cases (one transitory hypoparathyroidism, and one transitory vocal cord paresis). Considering our experience, charcoal tattoo localization can be considered a safe, low-cost technique that is extremely useful for facilitating surgical procedures, and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage.

  14. Epigenetic plasticity: A central regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Upasana; Mishra, Vivek Kumar; Wasilewski, David; Scheel, Christina; Johnsen, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in most solid cancers. A growing body of evidence suggests that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role during tumor metastasis and frequently imparts a stem cell-like phenotype and therapeutic resistance to tumor cells. The induction of EMT is accompanied by a dynamic reprogramming of the epigenome involving changes in DNA methylation and several post-translational histone modifications. These changes in turn promote the expression of mesenchymal genes or repress those associated with an epithelial phenotype. Importantly, in order for metastatic colonization and the formation of macrometastases to occur, tumor cells frequently undergo a reversal of EMT referred to as the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Thus, a high degree of epigenetic plasticity is required in order to induce and reverse EMT during tumor progression. In this review, we describe various epigenetic regulatory mechanisms employed by tumor cells during EMT and elaborate on the importance of the histone code in controlling both the expression and activity of EMT-associated transcription factors. We propose that a more thorough understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms controlling EMT may provide new opportunities which may be harnessed for improved and individualized cancer therapy based on defined molecular mechanisms. PMID:24840099

  15. Infection related to implantable central venous access devices in cancer patients: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Freire, Maristela P; Pierrotti, Ligia C; Zerati, Antônio E; Araújo, Pedro H X N; Motta-Leal-Filho, J M; Duarte, Laiane P G; Ibrahim, Karim Y; Souza, Antonia A L; Diz, Maria P E; Pereira, Juliana; Hoff, Paulo M; Abdala, Edson

    2013-07-01

    To describe the epidemiology of infections related to the use of implantable central venous access devices (CVADs) in cancer patients and to evaluate measures aimed at reducing the rates of such infections. Prospective cohort study. Referral hospital for cancer in São Paulo, Brazil. We prospectively evaluated all implantable CVADs employed between January 2009 and December 2011. Inpatients and outpatients were followed until catheter removal, transfer to another facility, or death. Outcome measures were bloodstream infection and pocket infection. We also evaluated the effects that the creation of a multidisciplinary team for CVAD care, avoiding in-hospital implantation of CVADs, and limiting CVAD insertion in neutropenic patients have on the rates of such infections. During the study period, 966 CVADs (mostly venous ports) were implanted in 933 patients, for a combined total of 243,792 catheter-days. We identified 184 episodes of infection: 154 (84%) were bloodstream infections, 21 (11%) were pocket infections, and 9 (5%) were surgical site infections. During the study period, the rate of CVAD-related infection dropped from 2.2 to 0.24 per 1,000 catheter-days ([Formula: see text]). Multivariate analysis revealed that relevant risk factors for such infection include surgical reintervention, implantation in a neutropenic patient, in-hospital implantation, use of a cuffed catheter, and nonchemotherapy indication for catheter use. Establishing a multidisciplinary team specifically focused on CVAD care, together with systematic reporting of infections, appears to reduce the rates of infection related to the use of these devices.

  16. Implementing a central venous catheter self-management education program for patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Yun

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of the central venous catheter self-management education program (CVC S-MEP) in improving knowledge, attitude, and behavior regarding CVC and in decreasing CVC-related complications in patients with cancer during homecare service. A quasi-experimental, sequential cohort design study of patients with cancer and who have CVCs was performed to compare the effect of CVC S-MEP with usual care. The study group consisted of 45 participants (26 male and 19 female), and the mean age was 46.1 (SD, 10.5) years. The subjects of the CVC S-MEP had significantly high mean levels of self-management knowledge (p = 0.007), attitude (p < 0.001), and behavior (p = 0.002). Also, the participants in the CVC S-MEP had significantly lower frequency of catheter-related complications (p = 0.030). The CVC S-MEP helped improve patients' ability to resolve problems and adequately respond to CVC-related emergency situations by fostering greater self-care ability. Additionally, providing practical information for CVC self-management in a gradual and repetitive manner had a notable positive effect on patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of complications related to central venous catheters in cancer patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit

    2014-04-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are important for the treatment of patients with cancer, especially in the perioperative and palliative care settings. These devices not only allow for the administration of chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and other intravenous therapies, but they may also improve the patients' quality of life by reducing the need for repeated peripheral venipunctures. Thrombotic and infectious complications are common, especially in the long-term use of CVCs. There are different types of thrombotic complications associated with CVCs, that is, a thrombotic occlusion of the catheter, a mural thrombus at the catheter tip and classical deep vein thrombosis, which occurs most frequently in the upper extremity where the majority of long-term catheters are inserted. Infections are common complications associated with CVCs. Patients with cancer who receive intensive chemotherapy and those patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a markedly increased risk for insertion site and bloodstream infections. In this review, the epidemiology and risk factors that predispose patients to CVC-related thrombosis and infection are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the published data and the current guidelines are summarized and data for establishing primary and secondary preventative strategies are provided.

  18. Preclinical Modeling and Therapeutic Avenues for Cancer Metastasis to the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mohini; Bakhshinyan, David; Venugopal, Chitra; Singh, Sheila K

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis is the dissemination of cells from the primary tumor to other locations within the body, and continues to be the predominant cause of death among cancer patients. Metastatic progression within the adult central nervous system is 10 times more frequent than primary brain tumors. Metastases affecting the brain parenchyma and leptomeninges are associated with grave prognosis, and even after successful control of the primary tumor the median survival is a dismal 2-3 months with treatment options typically limited to palliative care. Current treatment options for brain metastases (BM) and disseminated brain tumors are scarce, and the improvement of novel targeted therapies requires a broader understanding of the biological complexity that characterizes metastatic progression. In this review, we provide insight into patterns of BM progression and leptomeningeal spread, outlining the development of clinically relevant in vivo models and their contribution to the discovery of innovative cancer therapies. In vivo models paired with manipulation of in vitro methods have expanded the tools available for investigators to develop agents that can be used to prevent or treat metastatic disease. The knowledge gained from the use of such models can ultimately lead to the prevention of metastatic dissemination and can extend patient survival by transforming a uniformly fatal systemic disease into a locally controlled and eminently more treatable one.

  19. Living with a peripherally inserted central catheter: the perspective of cancer outpatients-a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Parás-Bravo, Paula; Paz-Zulueta, María; Santibañez, Miguel; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Herrero-Montes, Manuel; Caso-Álvarez, Vanesa; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2017-07-13

    The aim of this study was to describe the experience of using a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in cancer sufferers receiving outpatient treatment. A qualitative, phenomenological study was performed. Purposeful sampling methods were used. Data collection methods included semi-structured interviews and researcher field notes. Thematic analysis was used to analyze data. The study was conducted following the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research guidelines. Eighteen patients (61% women, mean age 58 years) participated. They spent a mean duration of 155 days with the line in place. Two themes were identified with different subgroups. The theme "Living with a PICC line," including the subthemes "Benefits" and "Disadvantages," displays how the implantation is experienced by patients in a dichotomous manner. This highlighted both the beneficial and negative aspects of the implantation. The second theme was "Adapting to life with the catheter" and comprised three subthemes: "Advantages," "Lifestyle modifications," and "Overall assessment of the peripherally inserted central catheter," which shows how patients gradually accept the catheter by adapting their lifestyle. Over time, most patients considered having a PICC line to be a positive experience that they would recommend to other patients, as they found that it did not alter their quality of life. These results can be applied in Oncology Units for developing specific protocols for patients.

  20. Centralized primary care of advanced ovarian cancer improves complete cytoreduction and survival - A population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dahm-Kähler, Pernilla; Palmqvist, Charlotte; Staf, Christian; Holmberg, Erik; Johannesson, Liza

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate centralized primary care of advanced ovarian and fallopian tube cancers in a complete population cohort in relation to complete cytoreduction, time interval from surgery to chemotherapy and relative survival. A regional population-based cohort study of women diagnosed with primary ovarian and fallopian tube cancers and included in the Swedish Quality Registry (SQR) during 2008-2013 in a region where primary care of advanced stages was centralized in 2011. Surgical, oncological characteristics, outcomes, follow-ups and relative survivals were analyzed. There were 817 women diagnosed with ovarian and fallopian tube cancers during 2008-2013 and 523 were classified as FIGO stage III-IV and further analyzed. Primary debulking surgery (PDS) was performed in 81% and neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) followed by interval debulking surgery (IDS) in 11%. Complete cytoreduction at PDS was performed in 37% before compared to 49% after centralization (p<0.03). The chemotherapy protocols were identical in the cohorts and they received and completed the planned chemotherapy equally. The time interval between PDS and chemotherapy was 36days (median) before compared to 24days after centralization (p<0.01). The relative 3-year survival rate in women treated by PDS was 44% compared to 65% after centralization and the estimated excess mortality rate ratio (EMRR) was reduced (RR 0.58; 95% CI 0.42-0.79). Comparing the complete cohorts before and after centralization, regardless primary treatment, the relative 3-year survival rate increased from 40% to 61% with reduced EMRR (RR 0.59; 95% CI 0.45-0.76). Centralized primary care of advanced ovarian and fallopian tube cancers increases complete cytoreduction, decreases time interval from PDS to chemotherapy and improves relative survival significantly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  2. Decentralization of Educational Administration and Strengthening of Local Educational Planning in Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Il-hwan

    The decentralization of educational administration has been undertaken as a major reform effort in the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Current efforts at decentralization are only the most recent of numerous attempts to reduce what many observers agree is an excessive centralization of the nation's statewide administration for public affairs and…

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of cervical cancer among women in an urban community of Kwara State, north central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Durowade, K A; Osagbemi, G K; Salaudeen, A G; Musa, O I; Akande, T M; Babatunde, O A; Raji, H O; Okesina, B S; Fowowe, A A; Ibrahim, O O K; Kolawole, O M

    2012-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide with a high incidence in under-developed countries and Nigeria is one of these countries. This study aimed at screening for cervical cancer using Papanicolaou smear and to identify risk factors for cervical cancer among women in Olufadi community, Kwara State, North-central Nigeria. This was a cross-sectional study involving the screening of women aged 25-64 years for cervical cancer using Papanicolaou smear. Respondents were selected through systematic random sampling of households. Interviewer- administered questionnaire and clinical report form were also used to collect data. In addition, Pap smear samples were taken. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 15. Only 10 (5.0%) respondents had positive cytology result, while the rest were normal. Of the 10 positive cytology results, 1 (10.0%) was high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) while the remaining 9 (90.0%) were low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL) which corresponds to 0.5% and 4.5% of the total respondents respectively. Risk factors for cervical cancer identified included coitarche, tobacco smoking, number of sexual partners and family history of cervical cancer. The findings from this study attest to the increasing burden of cervical cancer. The high number of positive results obtained from the study coupled with the presence of risk factors was an indication of how useful regular screening will be in the early detection of cervical cancer.

  4. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  5. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  6. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  7. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  8. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  9. Educational Facilities in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Korean program to modernize school buildings and equipment to better meet current teaching needs.Examines Korea's education and administrative systems, and the Ministry of Education's involvement in schooling trends, facilities for higher education, and developments in information and technology. (GR)

  10. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  11. Central adiposity, obesity during early adulthood, and pancreatic cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Genkinger, J M; Kitahara, C M; Bernstein, L; Berrington de Gonzalez, A; Brotzman, M; Elena, J W; Giles, G G; Hartge, P; Singh, P N; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R Z; Weiderpass, E; Adami, H-O; Anderson, K E; Beane-Freeman, L E; Buring, J E; Fraser, G E; Fuchs, C S; Gapstur, S M; Gaziano, J M; Helzlsouer, K J; Lacey, J V; Linet, M S; Liu, J J; Park, Y; Peters, U; Purdue, M P; Robien, K; Schairer, C; Sesso, H D; Visvanathan, K; White, E; Wolk, A; Wolpin, B M; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A; Jacobs, E J

    2015-11-01

    Body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity typically assessed in middle age or later, is known to be positively associated with pancreatic cancer. However, little evidence exists regarding the influence of central adiposity, a high BMI during early adulthood, and weight gain after early adulthood on pancreatic cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of individual-level data from 20 prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute BMI and Mortality Cohort Consortium to examine the association of pancreatic cancer mortality with measures of central adiposity (e.g. waist circumference; n = 647 478; 1947 pancreatic cancer deaths), BMI during early adulthood (ages 18-21 years) and BMI change between early adulthood and cohort enrollment, mostly in middle age or later (n = 1 096 492; 3223 pancreatic cancer deaths). Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Higher waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.17 per 0.1 increment) and waist circumference (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00-1.14 per 10 cm) were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer mortality, even when adjusted for BMI at baseline. BMI during early adulthood was associated with increased pancreatic cancer mortality (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.25 per 5 kg/m(2)), with increased risk observed in both overweight and obese individuals (compared with BMI of 21.0 to <23 kg/m(2), HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.55 for BMI 25.0 < 27.5 kg/m(2), HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.20-1.84 for BMI 27.5 to <30 kg/m(2), HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.11-1.85 for BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). BMI gain after early adulthood, adjusted for early adult BMI, was less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01-1.10 per 5 kg/m(2)). Our results support an association between pancreatic cancer mortality and central obesity, independent of BMI, and also suggest that being overweight or obese during early adulthood may be important in

  12. Central adiposity, obesity during early adulthood, and pancreatic cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, J. M.; Kitahara, C. M.; Bernstein, L.; Berrington de Gonzalez, A.; Brotzman, M.; Elena, J. W.; Giles, G. G.; Hartge, P.; Singh, P. N.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z.; Weiderpass, E.; Adami, H.-O.; Anderson, K. E.; Beane-Freeman, L. E.; Buring, J. E.; Fraser, G. E.; Fuchs, C. S.; Gapstur, S. M.; Gaziano, J. M.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Lacey, J. V.; Linet, M. S.; Liu, J. J.; Park, Y.; Peters, U.; Purdue, M. P.; Robien, K.; Schairer, C.; Sesso, H. D.; Visvanathan, K.; White, E.; Wolk, A.; Wolpin, B. M.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Jacobs, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity typically assessed in middle age or later, is known to be positively associated with pancreatic cancer. However, little evidence exists regarding the influence of central adiposity, a high BMI during early adulthood, and weight gain after early adulthood on pancreatic cancer risk. Design We conducted a pooled analysis of individual-level data from 20 prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute BMI and Mortality Cohort Consortium to examine the association of pancreatic cancer mortality with measures of central adiposity (e.g. waist circumference; n = 647 478; 1947 pancreatic cancer deaths), BMI during early adulthood (ages 18–21 years) and BMI change between early adulthood and cohort enrollment, mostly in middle age or later (n = 1 096 492; 3223 pancreatic cancer deaths). Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Higher waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17 per 0.1 increment) and waist circumference (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00–1.14 per 10 cm) were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer mortality, even when adjusted for BMI at baseline. BMI during early adulthood was associated with increased pancreatic cancer mortality (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11–1.25 per 5 kg/m2), with increased risk observed in both overweight and obese individuals (compared with BMI of 21.0 to <23 kg/m2, HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.55 for BMI 25.0 < 27.5 kg/m2, HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.20–1.84 for BMI 27.5 to <30 kg/m2, HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.11–1.85 for BMI ≥30 kg/m2). BMI gain after early adulthood, adjusted for early adult BMI, was less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.10 per 5 kg/m2). Conclusions Our results support an association between pancreatic cancer mortality and central obesity, independent of BMI, and also suggest that being overweight or obese

  13. Retrospective observation on contribution and limitations of screening for breast cancer with mammography in Korea: detection rate of breast cancer and incidence rate of interval cancer of the breast.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyeongsu; Lee, Jung Hyun; Jeong, Hyoseon; Shin, Soon Ae; Han, Taehwa; Seo, Young Lan; Yoo, Youngbum; Nam, Sang Eun; Park, Jong Heon; Park, Yoo Mi

    2016-11-18

    The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits and limitations of screening for breast cancer using mammography. Descriptive design with follow-up was used in the study. Data from breast cancer screening and health insurance claim data were used. The study population consisted of all participants in breast cancer screening from 2009 to 2014. Crude detection rate, positive predictive value and sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer screening and, incidence rate of interval cancer of the breast were calculated. The crude detection rate of breast cancer screening per 100,000 participants increased from 126.3 in 2009 to 182.1 in 2014. The positive predictive value of breast cancer screening per 100,000 positives increased from 741.2 in 2009 to 1,367.9 in 2014. The incidence rate of interval cancer of the breast per 100,000 negatives increased from 51.7 in 2009 to 76.3 in 2014. The sensitivities of screening for breast cancer were 74.6% in 2009 and 75.1% in 2014 and the specificities were 83.1% in 2009 and 85.7% in 2014. To increase the detection rate of breast cancer by breast cancer screening using mammography, the participation rate should be higher and an environment where accurate mammography and reading can be performed and reinforcement of quality control are required. To reduce the incidence rate of interval cancer of the breast, it will be necessary to educate women after their 20s to perform self-examination of the breast once a month regardless of participation in screening for breast cancer.

  14. Assessment of Breast Cancer Knowledge among Health Workers in Bangui, Central African Republic: a Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Balekouzou, Augustin; Yin, Ping; Pamatika, Christian Maucler; Nambei, Sylvain Wilfrid; Djeintote, Marceline; Doromandji, Eric; Gouaye, Andre Richard; Yamba, Pascal Gastien; Guessy, Elysee Ephraim; Ba-Mpoutou, Bertrand; Mandjiza, Dieubeni Rawago; Shu, Chang; Yin, Minghui; Fu, Zhen; Qing, Tingting; Yan, Mingming; Mella, Grace; Koffi, Boniface

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide. High breast cancer mortality has been attributed to lack of public awareness of the disease. Little is known about the level of knowledge of breast cancer in Central African Republic. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge of health professionals on breast cancer. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 158 health professionals (27 medical; 131 paramedical) in 17 hospitals in Bangui using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis, Person's χ 2 test and ANOVA were applied to examine associations between variables with <0.05 being considered significant. Data analyzed using SPSS version 20 indicates that average knowledge about breast cancer perception of the entire population was 47.6%, diagnosis method 45.5%, treatment 34.3% and risk factors 23.8%. Most respondents (65.8%) agreed that breast cancer is important in the Central African Republic and that family history is a risk factor (44.3%). Clinical assessments and mammography were considered most suitable diagnostic methods, and surgery as the best treatment. The knowledge level was significantly higher among medical than paramedical staff with regard to risk factors, diagnosis and treatment. However the trainee group had very high significant differences of knowledge compared with all other groups. There is a very urgent need to update the various training programs for these professionals, with recommendations of retraining. Health authorities must create suitable structures for the overall management of cancer observed as a serious public health problem.

  15. Clinicopathologic features of gastric cancer with synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer in Korea: are microsatellite instability and p53 overexpression useful markers for predicting colorectal cancer in gastric cancer patients?

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Choi, Yoon Jin; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Lee, Hye Seung; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho; Son, Il Tae; Kang, Sung-Bum; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-07-01

    A large-scale study was performed to identify the risk factors for developing synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer (CRC) in gastric cancer (GC) patients, including microsatellite instability (MSI) and p53 overexpression. A total of 1041 GC patients who underwent endoscopic resection or surgery and underwent colonoscopy simultaneously or during surveillance for GC were consecutively enrolled. Clinicopathologic characteristics, MSI, and p53 overexpression were compared between the GC patients with and those without synchronous and metachronous CRC. Of the 1041 patients, CRCs were detected in 67 (6.4 %) patients with GC. Forty-six (4.4 %) had synchronous CRC and 21 (2.0 %) had metachronous CRC. Univariate analysis indicated that age ≥63 years (P < 0.001), male sex (P = 0.005), and p53 overexpression (P = 0.040) were significantly associated with a higher incidence of CRC. However, body mass index, smoking, tumor location, tumor multiplicity, tumor histology, TNM stage, and MSI were not significantly associated with the incidence of CRC. Age ≥63 years (OR: 5.881; 95 % CI: 3.083-11.221; P < 0.001) and male sex (OR: 2.933; 95 % CI: 1.307-6.584; P = 0.009) were risk factors for CRC in GC patients according to multivariate analysis. GC patients who are male and/or ≥63 years old are recommended to receive colonoscopy to detect CRC. MSI and p53 overexpression were not useful molecular markers for predicting CRC in GC.

  16. Trends in incidence of colorectal cancer in Jewish and Arab populations in central Israel.

    PubMed

    Fireman, Zvi; Neiman, Elena; Abu Mouch, Saif; Kopelman, Yael

    2005-01-01

    To compare the current differences with our earlier findings on the incidence and locations of colorectal cancer (CRC) among Israeli-born Jews and Arabs living within the same central coastal region in Israel. Data on demographics and the incidence and locations of malignancies were retrieved from hospital files of pathology-diagnosed patients with CRC throughout 1997-2003 and compared with equivalent data from 1988 to 1996. Of the 624 patients recently diagnosed as having CRC, 562 (90.1%) were Jews and 62 (9.9%) were Arabs (p < 0.001). The average age of the entire cohort was significantly lower since our earlier study (72.9 +/- 12.5 compared to 67.9 +/- 12.7 years, p < 0.0001). The Jewish patients were significantly younger (p < 0.0001) but the Arab patients were not. The percentage of the adenocarcinoma being located in the right colon was significantly lower (p < 0.0006) and significantly higher in the rectum (p < 0.008). The reverse was true among the Jewish patients, but not significantly. Both study groups were younger than those in our earlier study. The lower incidence of CRC among the Arab patients persisted over time, but the location of their adenocarcinoma changed significantly. The increased incidence of CRC in 'westernized' countries is reflected in the Jewish but not the Arab community.

  17. Anti-angiogenetic therapies for central nervous system metastases from non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buttigliero, Consuelo; Novello, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) metastases are common in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), occurring in 24% to 44% of patients in the course of their disease and confer significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic therapies have been deemed ineffective in brain metastases (BM) under the hypothesis that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits their delivery to the brain. Angiogenesis, which is mainly mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, is crucial for tumor survival, growth and invasion both in primary and metastatic brain lesions. Two major categories of agents have been developed to target this pathway: antibody-based agents and VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Clinical benefits have been shown with anti-angiogenetic therapies in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC. However, patients with CNS metastases were often excluded from trials with these agents, due to concerns about a potentially greater risk of cerebral haemorrhage and thromboembolic disease. Therefore, the overall efficacy and safety of angiogenetic agents in patients with BM from NSCLC are yet to be clarified. This paper aims to review available data about the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenetic therapies for CNS metastases in NSCLC patients. PMID:28149756

  18. Clinical outcomes of a cohort of patients with central nervous system metastases from thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Daniel; Bugalho, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metastases to central nervous system (M1-CNS) are rarely reported in thyroid cancer (TC) patients. We aimed to characterize patients with M1-CNS from TC followed in our department. Methods Review of the medical records of 27 patients with TC-related M1-CNS. Results Mean age at TC diagnosis was 56.9 ± 19.1 years. Papillary TC (55.6%) was the commonest histological type, followed by poorly differentiated (18.5%), medullary (11.1%), follicular (7.4%) and Hürthle cell (7.4%) carcinomas. Angioinvasion and extrathyroidal extension were observed in a high number of patients. At M1-CNS diagnosis, other distant metastases were already present in 77.8% of the patients. Treatment directed to M1-CNS was offered to 20 (74%) patients: 1 was submitted to surgery, 18 to radiotherapy (either whole-brain radiotherapy or stereotaxic radiosurgery or both) and 4 to surgery and radiotherapy. Four patients received cytotoxic chemotherapy and one was submitted to 131I. Median survival since M1-CNS detection was 5.0 months. The only factor associated with better survival was surgery to brain metastases (P = 0.012). Conclusions The management of these patients is very challenging given the inexistence of effective treatments, except for brain surgery in selected cases. PMID:27856495

  19. Clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA mutations in a Central European gastric cancer cohort

    PubMed Central

    Röcken, Christoph; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Böger, Christine; Krüger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Genomically stable gastric cancers (GCs) are enriched for the diffuse phenotype and hotspot mutations of RHOA. Here we aimed to validate the occurrence, phenotype and clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA mutant GCs in an independent Central European GC cohort consisting of 415 patients. The RHOA genotype (exon 2 and 3) was correlated with various genotypic, phenotypic and clinicopathological patient characteristics. Sixteen (3.9%) tumours had a RHOA mutation including four hitherto unreported mutations, that is, p.G17Efs*24, p.V24F, p.T37A and p.L69R. RHOA mutation was more prevalent in women (5.4% vs 2.8%), distal GCs (4.5% vs 2.4%), in poorly differentiated GCs (G3/G4; 4.8% vs 1.1%), T1/T2 tumours (6.2% vs 3.1%) and lacked distant metastases. Nine RHOA mutant GCs had a diffuse, four an intestinal, two an unclassified and one a mixed Laurén phenotype. KRAS and RHOA mutations were mutually exclusive. A single case showed both a RHOA and a PIK3CA mutation. No significant difference was found in the overall survival between RHOA mutant and wildtype GCs. Our study confirms the occurrence and clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA hotspot mutations in an independent patient cohort. However, we found no evidence for a prognostic or growth advantageous effect of RHOA mutations in GC. PMID:26251521

  20. Five-year Survival Rate for Gastric Cancer in Yazd Province, Central Iran, from 2001 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Akhondi-Meybodi, Mohsen; Ghane, Marzieh; Akhondi-Meybodi, Sara; Dashti, Golnaz

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of patients with gastric cancer is growing worldwide. In Iran (in 2009) of 74067 new cases of cancer, 6886 were diagnosed as having gastric cancer. This study was conducted to investigate 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer in Yazd province, central Iran. METHODS In this descriptive study, the medical records of patients with gastric cancer were collected from the archives of Yazd hospitals from 2001 to 2008. The data gathered included age, sex, type of histopathology, site of involvement, cancer staging, and mode of treatment, which were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. To investigate the survival and the factors influencing the survival time of patients, which are the main objectives of this study, Kaplan-Meier method was used and Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to the data. To compare survival function in different subgroups, the log rank test or generalized Wilcoxon test was used. RESULTS 295 cases of gastric cancer were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 59.3 ± 9 years. 5-year survival rate of the patients was calculated as 18% where the highest rate was 39% for the age group of 50-60 years and the lowest was 3% for the age group of above 80 years. 5-year survival rates in different groups were as follows: 32% in women, 13% in men; 16% in adenocarcinoma, 46% in other pathologies; 16% in gastric cardia involvement, 17% in antrum; 59% in stage 1, 31% in stage 2, 13% in stage 3, and 3% in stage 4. CONCLUSION The results of this study showed that age, stage of the cancer, mode of therapy, and type of histopathology affected the survival rate of gastric cancer. No significant association was found between the site of involvement and survival rate. In general, the survival rate for gastric cancer was low, which might be due to slow but steady progress of the disease and delayed referral of the patients.

  1. The effect of raw vegetable and fruit intake on thyroid cancer risk among women: a case-control study in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Kirang; Tae, Kyung; Kong, Gu; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-14

    Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer among Korean women. However, there are few data on dietary factors related to thyroid cancer risk. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between raw vegetables and fruits intake and thyroid cancer in a case-control study. We included 111 histologically confirmed malignant thyroid cancer cases and 115 benign cases. Controls who did not have nodules in thyroid ultrasonography were matched to cases by age (± 2 years). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a quantitative FFQ with 121 items. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain OR and corresponding 95 % CI. The intake of total vegetables was not associated with malignant thyroid cancer, but inversely associated with benign cases. High raw vegetable intake was inversely associated with thyroid cancer risk both in malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·01 in both malignant and benign cases). Among fruits, persimmon intake had an inverse association with thyroid cancer risk in both malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·06 in malignant cases; P for trend = 0·01 in benign cases) and tangerine intake had an inverse association in malignant cases (P for trend = 0·03). The frequency of consumption of raw vegetables and persimmon also had a consistent inverse association in both malignant and benign cases. These results suggest that high consumption of raw vegetables, persimmons and tangerines may decrease thyroid cancer risk and help prevent early-stage thyroid cancer.

  2. Burden of disease in Korea during 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Park, J H

    2014-06-01

    This study estimates the burden of disease in Korea during 2000-10, using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DALYs are the sum of years of life lost from mortality and years of life lost from disability. DALYs for 24 major diseases in 2000, 2005 and 2010 Korea were calculated based on the Global Burden of Disease Study method. As in other advanced nations, the burden of disease in Korea is characterized by an increasing importance of cancer, unipolar depression and ischemic heart disease (1681, 1508 and 562 person-years for Year 2010 in terms of DALYs per 10 0000, respectively). At the same time, unipolar depression, liver cirrhosis and mental and behavioral disorder due to alcohol use (1508, 323 and 535 person-years for 2010, respectively) became much more common in Korea than in other advanced nations. The burden of disease in Korea follows the pattern of other advanced nations in general but also registers some unique characteristics affected by the nation's distinctive epidemiological and sociocultural contexts, e.g. rapid economic growth and dramatic social transition without appropriate policy response. Korea's health and welfare policy might need to incorporate these special conditions for the effective reduction of its disease burden. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Filling the gap in central shielding: three-dimensional analysis of the EQD2 dose in radiotherapy for cervical cancer with the central shielding technique.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kato, Shingo; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to provide accurate dose distribution profiles of radiotherapy for cervical cancer when treated with the central shielding technique by analysing the composite 3D EQD2 dose distribution of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). On a phantom, four patterns of the combinations of whole pelvis irradiation (WP) (4 fields), pelvis irradiation with central shielding technique (CS) [anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP-PA fields), shielding width of 3 or 4 cm] and ICBT using Point-A prescription were created: 30 Gy/15 fractions + 20 Gy/10 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (30 + 20 + 24)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 18 Gy/3 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 18)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 24)] and 45 Gy/25 fractions + 0 Gy + 28 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (45 + 0 + 28)]. The composite EQD2 dose distributions of the complete treatment were analysed. The Point-A dose of Plan (30 + 20 + 24), Plan (40 + 10 + 18), Plan (40 + 10 + 24) and Plan (45 + 0 + 28) were 78.0 Gy (CS 3 cm)/71.8 Gy (CS 4 cm), 72.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/69.0 Gy (CS 4 cm), 80.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/77.0 Gy (CS 4 cm) and 84.1 Gy, whereas it has been previously reported to be 62 Gy, 64 Gy, 72 Gy and 84 Gy, respectively. For all the treatment plans with CS, equivalent or wider coverage of 60 Gy (EQD2) was achieved in the right-left direction, while coverage in the anterior-posterior direction decreased in plans with CS. There were no irregularly 'cold' regions around the central target. The use of CS in radiotherapy for cervical cancer resulted in tumor coverage in the lateral direction with doses higher than the previously reported Point-A doses.

  4. Filling the gap in central shielding: three-dimensional analysis of the EQD2 dose in radiotherapy for cervical cancer with the central shielding technique

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kato, Shingo; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide accurate dose distribution profiles of radiotherapy for cervical cancer when treated with the central shielding technique by analysing the composite 3D EQD2 dose distribution of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). On a phantom, four patterns of the combinations of whole pelvis irradiation (WP) (4 fields), pelvis irradiation with central shielding technique (CS) [anterior–posterior/posterior–anterior (AP-PA fields), shielding width of 3 or 4 cm] and ICBT using Point-A prescription were created: 30 Gy/15 fractions + 20 Gy/10 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (30 + 20 + 24)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 18 Gy/3 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 18)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 24)] and 45 Gy/25 fractions + 0 Gy + 28 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (45 + 0 + 28)]. The composite EQD2 dose distributions of the complete treatment were analysed. The Point-A dose of Plan (30 + 20 + 24), Plan (40 + 10 + 18), Plan (40 + 10 + 24) and Plan (45 + 0 + 28) were 78.0 Gy (CS 3 cm)/71.8 Gy (CS 4 cm), 72.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/69.0 Gy (CS 4 cm), 80.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/77.0 Gy (CS 4 cm) and 84.1 Gy, whereas it has been previously reported to be 62 Gy, 64 Gy, 72 Gy and 84 Gy, respectively. For all the treatment plans with CS, equivalent or wider coverage of 60 Gy (EQD2) was achieved in the right–left direction, while coverage in the anterior–posterior direction decreased in plans with CS. There were no irregularly ‘cold’ regions around the central target. The use of CS in radiotherapy for cervical cancer resulted in tumor coverage in the lateral direction with doses higher than the previously reported Point-A doses. PMID:26062811

  5. Central compartment reoperation for recurrent/persistent differentiated thyroid cancer: patterns of recurrence, morbidity, and prediction of postoperative hypocalcemia.

    PubMed

    Roh, Jong-Lyel; Kim, Jin-Man; Park, Chan Il

    2011-05-01

    Incidence rates of hypoparathyroidism and vocal cord paralysis are high following central compartment reoperation, but few prospective studies have assessed morbidities and factors predictive of hypocalcemia after reoperation. We investigated recurrence patterns, morbidity, and factors predictive of postoperative hypocalcemia in patients undergoing central compartment reoperation for recurrent/persistent differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). We prospectively evaluated 45 consecutive patients with recurrent/persistent DTC. Thyroid remnants or recurrent cancers were removed in 16 patients, the unilateral or bilateral central compartment was cleared in all patients, and the lateral compartment on the diseased side was comprehensively removed from 24 patients. Recurrence patterns were assessed histopathologically, morbidities were monitored, and serum concentrations of calcium and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured in all patients. Eleven patients (24.4%) had tumor invasion into the recurrent laryngeal nerve and/or the tracheoesophagus. Central nodal involvement occurred frequently (86.7%), and the ipsilateral jugular nodes of the lateral compartment were frequently involved. Temporary and permanent vocal cord paralysis developed in 10 (22.2%) and 8 (17.8%) patients, respectively, due primarily to intentional nerve resection following tumor invasion. Of 41 patients without preoperative hypoparathyroidism, 21 (46.3%) had temporary and 2 (4.9%) had permanent hypocalcemia. Multivariate analysis showed that bilateral central compartment dissection and low iPTH levels (<12.0 pg/ml) were independent predictors of postoperative hypocalcemia. Most patients with recurrent/persistent DTC harbor lesions in the central compartment. Central compartment reoperation may lead to high rates of morbidity, including hypoparathyroidism, which can be predicted by surgical extent and low serum iPTH levels.

  6. East Asia: Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-18

    CHOSON Reviews Korean Army 13 ECONOMIC Samsung Group Moves Toward Merger, Expansion 34 Production of Export Goods Diversified 35 Rapid Information...events and the income from the sale of TV broadcasting privileges." However, the IOC and the Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) of Seoul have taken the...explanation into rumors that 6.5 million U.S. dollars was received as a commis- sion for Korea’s purchase of u.s. weapons during the Chon government, as

  7. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  8. Differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis: comparison of diffusion-weighted MRI with PET/CT.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui-Meng; Li, Long; Wei, Xin-Hua; Guo, Yong-Mei; Huang, Yun-Hai; Lai, Li-Sha; Chen, A-Mei; Liu, Guo-Shun; Xiong, Wei-Feng; Luo, Liang-Ping; Jiang, Xin-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Prospectively assess the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis. 38 consecutive lung cancer patients (26 males, 12 females; age range: 28-71 years; mean age: 49 years) who were referred for thoracic MR imaging examinations were enrolled. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5-T clinical scanner and scanning sequences of T1WI, T2WI, and DWI. Cancers and atelectasis were measured by mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained with a b-value of 500 s/mm(2). PET/CT and DW-MR allowed differentiation of tumor and atelectasis in all 38 cases, but T2WI did not allow differentiation in 9 cases. Comparison of conventional T2WI and DW-MRI indicated a higher contrast noise ratio of the central lung carcinoma than the atelectasis by DW-MRI. ADC maps indicated significantly lower mean ADC in the central lung carcinoma than in the atelectasis (1.83±0.58 vs. 2.90±0.26 mm(2)/s, p<0.0001). ADC values of small cell lung carcinoma were significantly greater than those from squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (p<0.0001 for both). DW-MR imaging provides valuable information not obtained by conventional MR and may be useful for differentiation of central lung carcinoma from atelectasis. Future developments may allow DW-MR imaging to be used as an alternative to PET-CT in imaging of patients with lung cancer.

  9. Differentiation of Central Lung Cancer from Atelectasis: Comparison of Diffusion-Weighted MRI with PET/CT

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui-Meng; Li, Long; Wei, Xin-Hua; Guo, Yong-Mei; Huang, Yun-Hai; Lai, Li-Sha; Chen, A-Mei; Liu, Guo-Shun; Xiong, Wei-Feng; Luo, Liang-Ping; Jiang, Xin-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prospectively assess the performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) for differentiation of central lung cancer from atelectasis. Materials and Methods 38 consecutive lung cancer patients (26 males, 12 females; age range: 28–71 years; mean age: 49 years) who were referred for thoracic MR imaging examinations were enrolled. MR examinations were performed using a 1.5-T clinical scanner and scanning sequences of T1WI, T2WI, and DWI. Cancers and atelectasis were measured by mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) obtained with a b-value of 500 s/mm2. Results PET/CT and DW-MR allowed differentiation of tumor and atelectasis in all 38 cases, but T2WI did not allow differentiation in 9 cases. Comparison of conventional T2WI and DW-MRI indicated a higher contrast noise ratio of the central lung carcinoma than the atelectasis by DW-MRI. ADC maps indicated significantly lower mean ADC in the central lung carcinoma than in the atelectasis (1.83±0.58 vs. 2.90±0.26 mm2/s, p<0.0001). ADC values of small cell lung carcinoma were significantly greater than those from squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma (p<0.0001 for both). Conclusions DW-MR imaging provides valuable information not obtained by conventional MR and may be useful for differentiation of central lung carcinoma from atelectasis. Future developments may allow DW-MR imaging to be used as an alternative to PET-CT in imaging of patients with lung cancer. PMID:23593186

  10. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  11. Multifocal Papillary Thyroid Cancer Increases the Risk of Central Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Al Afif, Ayham; Williams, Blair A; Rigby, Mathew H; Bullock, Martin J; Taylor, S Mark; Trites, Jonathan; Hart, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is the most common thyroid malignancy, with a strong predilection for lymph node metastasis, most commonly to the central neck compartment (level VI). Few studies have evaluated lymph node metastasis in multifocal PTC, and the role of level VI dissection in the management of PTC remains controversial. This retrospective analysis evaluated the rate of level VI lymph node positivity in multifocal PTC, as compared with unifocal disease, in order to inform surgical decision making better. Patients with PTC who underwent total or hemi-thyroidectomy plus level VI lymph node dissection at the authors' institution between January 2008 and June 2014 were included (N=227). The number and laterality of PTC foci, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), extrathyroidal extension (ETE), and positive/total number of level VI lymph nodes were recorded. Fisher's exact test was used to determine univariate associations, and multivariate analysis was done by logistical regression. There was an association between the number of PTC foci and level VI node positivity (p<0.001), with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.355 in patients with three or more tumor foci (p=0.026). The OR for central neck metastasis was 1.088 with each additional focus of PTC (p=0.018). The risk of level VI node positivity in the presence of one or two foci was only 19%, with no appreciable difference between one and two foci. This risk increased in the presence of between three and nine foci (38%), and 10 or more foci (88%). Level VI node positivity was associated with ETE (p<0.001), LVI (p<0.001), and size of the largest focus (p<0.001). There was no association between level VI lymph node positivity and male sex (p=0.089), bilaterality (p=0.276), or age (p=0.076). There is a significant association between multifocal PTC and level VI lymph node positivity, increasing proportionally with the number of foci. These findings recognize multifocality as a sign of tumor aggressiveness, as evidenced by a

  12. Identification of a pan-cancer oncogenic microRNA superfamily anchored by a central core seed motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Mark P.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Hartig, Sean M.; Reva, Boris; McLellan, Michael D.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Zack, Travis I.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Wheeler, David A.; Coarfa, Cristian; McGuire, Sean E.

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs modulate tumorigenesis through suppression of specific genes. As many tumour types rely on overlapping oncogenic pathways, a core set of microRNAs may exist, which consistently drives or suppresses tumorigenesis in many cancer types. Here we integrate The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pan-cancer data set with a microRNA target atlas composed of publicly available Argonaute Crosslinking Immunoprecipitation (AGO-CLIP) data to identify pan-tumour microRNA drivers of cancer. Through this analysis, we show a pan-cancer, coregulated oncogenic microRNA ‘superfamily’ consisting of the miR-17, miR-19, miR-130, miR-93, miR-18, miR-455 and miR-210 seed families, which cotargets critical tumour suppressors via a central GUGC core motif. We subsequently define mutations in microRNA target sites using the AGO-CLIP microRNA target atlas and TCGA exome-sequencing data. These combined analyses identify pan-cancer oncogenic cotargeting of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, TGFβ and p53 pathways by the miR-17-19-130 superfamily members.

  13. Long-term central venous catheter infection in HIV-infected and cancer patients: a multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Astagneau, P; Maugat, S; Tran-Minh, T; Douard, M C; Longuet, P; Maslo, C; Patte, R; Macrez, A; Brücker, G

    1999-07-01

    To evaluate and compare the risk of long-term central venous catheter (CVC) infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and cancer patients. Prospective multicenter cohort study based on active surveillance of long-term CVC manipulations and patient outcome over a 6-month period. Services of infectious diseases and oncology of 12 university hospitals in Paris, France. In 1995, all HIV and cancer patients with solid malignancy were included at the time of long-term CVC implantation. Overall, 31.6% of long-term CVC infections were identified in 32% of 201 HIV and 5% of 255 cancer patients. Most were associated with bacteremia, most commonly coagulase-negative staphylococci. The long-term CVC time-related infection risk was greater in HIV than in cancer patients (3.78 vs 0.39 infections per 1,000 long-term CVC days; P<.001). The independent risk factors of long-term CVC infection were as follows: in HIV patients, frequency of long-term CVC handling and neutropenia; in cancer patients, poor Karnofsky performance status; in both HIV and cancer patients, recent history of bacterial infection. The risk of long-term CVC infection was similar for tunneled catheters and venous access ports in each population. Prevention of long-term CVC infection should focus first on better sterile precautions while handling long-term CVC, especially in HIV patients who have frequent and daily use of the long-term CVC.

  14. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Idowu, Ajibola; Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Fagbemi, Aderonke Tolulope; Ogunlaja, Olumuyiwa Ayotunde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, p = 0.001), respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, p = 0.001), and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, p = 0.001). Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.01–0.28). Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them. PMID:26880916

  15. Critical Perspectives on Colonisation of the Art Curriculum in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jeong-Ae

    2009-01-01

    This article examines some characteristics of art education in Korea. It takes the form of a historical overview using a postcolonial lens. The findings were that the predominant Western aesthetic concepts and theories as central culture embodied in Korean art education as local culture are: (i) ideas of art as self-expression developed in Europe…

  16. Profiles of School Administrators in South Korea: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Songmi; Kim, Eugene P.

    2005-01-01

    Research literature considering school administrators in South Korea is disappointingly sparse. A central focus of this article is to investigate vital descriptors of Korean school administrators, including demographic profiles, entry perspectives, pre-service and in-service training and career commitment. Secondarily, the findings are compared to…

  17. Peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications in cancer patients: a prospective study of over 50,000 catheter days.

    PubMed

    Kang, Junren; Chen, Wei; Sun, Wenyan; Ge, Ruibin; Li, Hailong; Ma, Enling; Su, Qingxia; Cheng, Fang; Hong, Jinhua; Zhang, Yuanjuan; Lei, Cheng; Wang, Xinchuan; Jin, Aiyun; Liu, Wanli

    2017-03-21

    To evaluate incidence and risk factors of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related complications in cancer patients. A prospective, multicenter, cohort study of cancer patients with PICC insertion was performed from February 1, 2013 to April 24, 2014. All patients were monitored in clinic until PICCs were removed. The primary endpoint was PICC removal due to complications. Patient-, catheter- and insertion-related factors were analyzed in univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify significant independent risk factors for PICC-related complications. There were 477 cancer patients included, for a total of 50,841 catheter-days. Eighty-one patients (17.0%) developed PICC-related complications, with an incidence of 1.59 per 1000 catheter days. Thirty-six (7.5%) PICCs were removed because of complications. The most common complications were skin allergy (4.6%), catheter occlusion (3.4%) and accidental withdrawal (2.3%). Nine (1.9%) patients developed symptomatic upper extremity deep venous thrombosis (UEDVT) and central line associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) was shown in six (1.3%) PICCs with an infection rate 0.12 per 1000 catheter days. In multivariable analysis, body mass index (BMI) >25 (odds ratio, 2.09; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-3.47, p = 0.004) was shown to be a significant risk factor for PICC complications. Cancer patients with BMI greater than 25 were more likely to have PICC complications.

  18. Characteristics of breast cancer patients with central nervous system metastases: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Harputluoglu, Hakan; Dizdar, Omer; Aksoy, Sercan; Kilickap, Saadettin; Dede, Didem S; Ozisik, Yavuz; Guler, Nilufer; Barista, Ibrahim; Gullu, Ibrahim; Hayran, Mutlu; Selek, Ugur; Cengiz, Mustafa; Zorlu, Faruk; Tekuzman, Gulten; Altundag, Kadri

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of breast cancer patients with central nervous system (CNS) metastases and factors associated with survival after development of CNS metastasis. One-hundred-forty-four patients with brain metastases were retrospectively analyzed. Median age at the time of brain metastasis diagnosis was 48.9. Median time between initial diagnosis and development of brain metastasis was 36 months. Fourteen cases had leptomeningeal involvement. Twenty-two patients (15.3%) had single metastasis. Ten percent of the patients had surgery, 94% had radiotherapy and 63% had chemotherapy. Median survival after development of brain metastasis was 7.4 months. Survival of patients with single metastasis was significantly longer than those with multiple metastases (33.5 vs. 6.5 months, p = 0.0006). Survival of patients who received chemotherapy was significantly longer than those who received radiotherapy alone (9.9 vs. 2 months, p < 0.0001). In multivariate Cox regression analyses, presence of single metastasis and application of chemotherapy were the only significant factors associated with better survival (p = 0.047 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Age at initial diagnosis or at the time of brain metastasis, time from initial diagnosis to development of brain metastasis, menopausal status, tumor stage, grade, hormone receptor or HER2 status individually were not associated with survival. In this study, survival after the diagnosis of CNS metastases appeared to be affected by patient characteristics rather than biologic characteristics of the tumor. This is probably secondary to the lack of effective treatment options in these patients and overall poor prognosis.

  19. Central nervous system metastasis secondary to colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mondaca, Sebastián; Hornig, Valentina; Munoz-Schuffenegger, Pablo; Acevedo, Francisco; Garrido, Marcelo; Nervi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) secondary to colorectal cancer is infrequent and associated with a poor prognosis. Its treatment is extrapolated from metastases of other origins as the information available on this scenario is limited. The goal of this study is to assess the clinical characteristics of a series of patients and determine the results in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and global survival. Method The records of patients with CNS metastasis of colorectal origin who were treated in this facility between the years 2001 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Results 20 patients with CNS lesions of this origin were identified. Of these, 45% were male and 55% were female (average age 65.5 years). The histology corresponded to tubular adenocarcinoma in 95% of cases. Around 85% of the patients showed a neurological deficit, and their recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classifications were 1 in 20%, 2 in 55%, and 3 in 25% of the cases studied. The treatments provided were: holocerebral radiotherapy (45%), stereotactic radiosurgery (25%), surgery followed by holocerebral radiotherapy (25%), and exclusively palliative care (5%). The PFS was 2.6 months from treatment of the CNS lesion, while the median survival was 3.8 months. The survival times for patients receiving different treatments were as follows: surgery plus holocerebral radiotherapy 16.2 months, stereotactic radiotherapy 12 months, and holocerebral radiotherapy 2.4 months (p = 0.003). Conclusion The prognosis for patients with metastasis of colorectal origin is poor. The patients treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy can have a greater survival. PMID:28105076

  20. A preliminary analysis of the reduction of chemotherapy waste in the treatment of cancer with centralization of drug preparation.

    PubMed

    Hyeda, Adriano; Costa, Elide Sbardellotto Mariano da

    2015-08-01

    chemotherapy is essential to treat most types of cancer. Often, there is chemotherapy waste in the preparation of drugs prescribed to the patient. Leftover doses result in toxic waste production. the aim of the study was to analyze chemotherapy waste reduction at a centralized drug preparation unit. the study was cross-sectional, observational and descriptive, conducted between 2010 and 2012. The data were obtained from chemotherapy prescriptions made by oncologists linked to a health insurance plan in Curitiba, capital of the state of Paraná, in southern Brazil. Dose and the cost of chemotherapy waste were calculated in each application, considering the dose prescribed by the doctor and the drug dosages available for sale. The variables were then calculated considering a hypothetical centralized drug preparation unit. there were 176 patients with a cancer diagnosis, 106 of which underwent treatment with intravenous chemotherapy. There were 1,284 applications for intravenous anticancer medications. There was a total of 63,824mg in chemotherapy waste, the cost of which was BRL 448,397.00. The average cost of chemotherapy waste per patient was BRL 4,607.00. In the centralized model, there was 971.80mg of chemotherapy waste, costing BRL 13,991.64. The average cost of chemotherapy waste per patient was BRL 132.00. the use of centralized drug preparation units may be a strategy to reduce chemotherapy waste.

  1. Economic burden of smoking in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H; Kim, H; Park, T; Jee, S; Nam, C; Park, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To support tobacco control policies in Korea by providing the estimated annual economic burden attributed to cigarette smoking. Methods: The following two different approaches were used to estimate the cost: "disease specific" and "all causes". In the disease specific approach, we focused on estimating direct and indirect costs involved in treatments of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases, and cancer as a result of smoking, by using an epidemiologic approach—the population attributable risk (PAR). To compute PAR, the relative risks of smoking in terms of physician visits, hospital admission, and death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. In the all causes approach, we examined the differences in direct and indirect costs between smokers and non-smokers for all conditions and types of disease. The major data source was the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation cohort study, which had complete records of smoking status as of 1992 for 115 682 male and 67 932 female insured workers. Results: By the disease specific approach, the estimated costs attributable to smoking in 1998 in Korea ranged from US$2269.42 million ($4.89 million per 100 000 population; 0.59% of gross domestic product (GDP)) to $2956.75 million ($6.37 million; 0.78% of GDP). The all causes approach yielded a minimum cost of $3154.75 million ($6.79 million; 0.82% GDP) and a maximum of $4580.25 million ($9.86 million; 1.19% GDP). Conclusion: The study confirms that smoking places a substantial economic burden on Korean society. In light of this, our study provides evidence for a strong need to develop a national policy to effectively control tobacco consumption in Korea. PMID:12612360

  2. Progressive central nervous system metastases in responder patients for outside central nervous system metastases on trastuzumab-based therapy--report of two cases of refractory breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Okita, Riki; Saeki, Toshiaki; Takashima, Shigemitsu; Aogi, Kenjiro; Ohsumi, Shozo

    2005-03-01

    We report two cases of central nervous system (CNS) metastases during systemic response to trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy for refractory breast cancer. The patients responded to trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy. During combination treatment, the patients developed cerebellar metastases. A follow-up computed tomography scan revealed that their diseases continued to respond outside the CNS. These cases suggest that the failure of trastuzumab to cross the blood-brain barrier may compromise its overall effectiveness and raises the possibility that CNS metastasis may become clinically more significant in patients receiving antibody-based therapies, including patients responding to therapy outside the CNS. Additionally, repeated stereotactic radiosurgery as gammaknife combination therapy synchronously with systematic trastuzumab-based therapy was useful for the treatment of metastatic breast carcinoma.

  3. Clinical significance of prophylactic central compartment neck dissection in the treatment of clinically node-negative papillary thyroid cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Gambardella, Claudio; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Nunziata, Anna; Izzo, Graziella; Siciliano, Giuseppe; Cavallo, Fabio; Mauriello, Claudio; Napolitano, Salvatore; Thomas, Guglielmo; Testa, Domenico; Rossetti, Gianluca; Sanguinetti, Alessandro; Avenia, Nicola; Conzo, Giovanni

    2016-09-19

    Lymph nodal involvement is very common in differentiated thyroid cancer, and in addition, cervical lymph node micrometastases are observed in up to 80 % of papillary thyroid cancers. During the last decades, the role of routine central lymph node dissection (RCLD) in the treatment of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has been an object of research, and it is now still controversial. Nevertheless, many scientific societies and referral authors have definitely stated that even if in expert hands, RCLD is not associated to higher morbidity; it should be indicated only in selected cases. In order to better analyze the current role of prophylactic neck dissection in the surgical treatment of papillary thyroid cancers, an analysis of the most recent literature data was performed. Prophylactic or therapeutic lymph node dissection, selective, lateral or central lymph node dissection, modified radical neck dissection, and papillary thyroid cancer were used by the authors as keywords performing a PubMed database research. Literature reviews, PTCs large clinical series and the most recent guidelines of different referral endocrine societies, inhering neck dissection for papillary thyroid cancers, were also specifically evaluated. A higher PTC incidence was nowadays reported in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) clinical series. In addition, ultrasound guided fine-needle aspiration citology allowed a more precocious diagnosis in the early phases of disease. The role of prophylactic neck dissection in papillary thyroid cancer management remains controversial especially regarding indications, approach, and surgical extension. Even if morbidity rates seem to be similar to those reported after total thyroidectomy alone, RCLD impact on local recurrence and long-term survival is still a matter of research. Nevertheless, only a selective use in high-risk cases is supported by more and more scientific data. In the last years, higher papillary thyroid cancer incidence and more

  4. The Effects of Mind Subtraction Meditation on Breast Cancer Survivors' Psychological and Spiritual Well-being and Sleep Quality: A Randomized Controlled Trial in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Mi Ra; Song, Misoon; Jung, Kyung-Hae; Yu, Boas J; Lee, Kyung Jae

    Most breast cancer survivors experience psychological and spiritual distress, including depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and loss of meaningfulness in life. This distress can negatively impact physical health, quality of life, and quality of sleep. The aim of this study was to compare and examine the effectiveness of mind subtraction meditation (MSM) and a self-management education (SME) group on breast cancer survivors. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with South Korean female breast cancer survivors (stages I-III). Self-reported questionnaires were administered to both MSM group (n = 22) and SME group (n = 24) to measure psychological and spiritual well-being, as well as quality of sleep. Compared with the SME group, the MSM group reported a significant decrease in depression (P = .034), anxiety (P = .036), and perceived stress (P = .009) and an increase in quality of life (P < .001), satisfaction with life (P < .001), posttraumatic growth (P = .007), and quality of sleep (P = .010). Mind subtraction meditation may have positive therapeutic effects among breast cancer survivors. This meditation program may be useful to manage psychological and spiritual distress, as well as improve quality of life and sleep, in clinical settings among breast cancer survivors. This study demonstrated the clinical effectiveness and the feasibility of applying the MSM method to breast cancer survivors. The participants had a high attendance rate in the program, which speaks to the likelihood of the applicability of the meditation program on an outpatient basis.

  5. Comparison of lung asbestos fiber content in cancer subjects with healthy individuals with no known history of occupational asbestos exposure in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong Hee; Park, Jung Duck; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Hisanaga, Naomi; Chang, Hee Kyung; Lee, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Il Hoon; Choi, Byung Sun; Chung, Yong Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Yeong; Yang, Jung Sun; Cho, Myung Haing; Yu, Il Je

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of environmental asbestos exposure on the inducement of lung cancer, pulmonary asbestos and non-asbestos fiber content was determined in 36 normal Korean subjects and 38 lung cancer subjects with no known occupational history of asbestos exposure. Pulmonary asbestos fiber content was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis after applying a low-temperature ashing procedure. Chrysotile fibers were the major fiber type found in the lungs of the Korean subjects. The asbestos fiber concentrations found in the lungs of normal males (25) and females (11) were 0.26 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue and 0.16 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue, respectively. The asbestos concentrations found in the lungs of cancer subjects were 0.16 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue for 32 males and 0.44 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue for 6 females. No statistical difference was found in pulmonary asbestos content between the normal and lung cancer subjects, whereas a statistical difference was noted between normal and lung cancer subjects with respect to lung non-asbestos content, indicating a potential role for non-asbestos fibers being associated with lung cancer.

  6. JPRS Report, East Asia. Korea: KULLOJA, No. 12, December 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-23

    JPRS-AKU-90-004 23 JULY 1990 ffSBBBl ■■■■■« L.%^^ W J’#’A FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No...QUALITY DJSPMJTED 3 East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 12, December 1989 JPRS-AKU-90-004 CONTENTS 23 JULY 1990 [This report is a translation of the table...of contents and selected articles from the monthly theoretical journal of the Central Committee of the Korean Workers Party, published in Pyongyang

  7. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  8. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  9. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  10. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Balekouzou, Augustin; Yin, Ping; Afewerky, Henok Kessete; Bekolo, Cavin; Pamatika, Christian Maucler; Nambei, Sylvain Wilfrid; Djeintote, Marceline; Doui Doumgba, Antoine; Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamont; Shu, Chang; Yin, Minghui; Fu, Zhen; Qing, Tingting; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Zhongyu; Koffi, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries; however, there is very little evidence of behavioral factors associated with breast cancer risk. This study was conducted to identify lifestyles as risk factors for breast cancer among Central African women. A case-control study was conducted with 174 cases confirmed histologically by the pathology unit of the National Laboratory and 348 age-matched controls. Data collection tools included a questionnaire with interviews and medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained by unconditional logistic regression. In total, 522 women were studied with a mean age of 45.8 (SD = 13.4) years. By unconditional logistic regression model, women with breast cancer were more likely to have attained illiterate and elementary education level [11.23 (95% CI, 4.65-27.14) and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.15-4.99)], married [2.09 (95% CI, 1.18-3.71)], positive family history [2.31 (95% CI, 1.36-3.91)], radiation exposure [8.21 (95% CI, 5.04-13.38)], consumption charcuterie [10.82 (95% CI, 2.39-48.90)], fresh fish consumption [4.26 (95% CI, 1.56-11.65)], groundnut consumption [6.46 (95% CI, 2.57-16.27)], soybean consumption [16.74 (95% CI, 8.03-39.84)], alcohol [2.53 (95% CI, 1.39-4.60)], habit of keeping money in bras[3.57 (95% CI, 2.24-5.69)], overweight [5.36 (95% CI, 4.46-24.57)] and obesity [3.11(95% CI, 2.39-20.42)]. However, decreased risk of breast cancer was associated with being employed [0.32 (95% CI, 0.19-0.56)], urban residence [0.16 (95% CI, 0.07-0.37)], groundnut oil consumption [0.05 (95% CI, 0.02-0.14)], wine consumption [0.16 (95% CI, 0.09-0.26)], non habit of keeping cell phone in bras [0.56 (95% CI, 0.35-0.89)] and physical activity [0.71(95% CI, 0.14-0.84)]. The study showed that little or no education, marriage, positive family history of cancer, radiation exposure, charcuterie, fresh fish

  11. North Korea Drought

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-29

    North Korea's state news agency reported the country is facing its worst drought in a century. Rice-growing provinces have been badly affected and more than 30% of rice paddies were parching up. A Landsat 7 image from June 29, 2002, compared with an ASTER image from June 26, 2015, shows the disparity in the rice crop. The images display vegetation in red, and bare fields in dark blue. The images cover an area of 27 x 34.5 km, and are located at 38.5 degrees north, 125.6 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19501

  12. Volume-outcome relationship in colon cancer surgery: another biased logical short cut towards questionable centralization policies.

    PubMed

    Violi, Vincenzo; Costi, Renato; De Bernardinis, Massimo; Roncoroni, Luigi

    2014-01-23

    The association between hospital high volumes and good outcomes after complex surgery has given rise to a worldwide controversial debate. Important and unsolved questions have followed, both theoretical and practical, which could have repercussions on health care and health economic policies, such as the centralization/regionalization of major surgical procedures.We read a recent study on the impact of surgery volumes on short-term outcomes after colon cancer resection in Emilia Romagna, Italy, the same geographic area where we operate. Ten issues were submitted to critical analysis and many sources of planning and methodology bias were identified, which, in our opinion, paradigmatically led to unreliable results, inadequate statistical analysis and deceptive conclusions. Despite the authors' admitted awareness of their study's limits, their conclusive message was, surprisingly, that centralization of colon cancer surgery should be substantially encouraged.Unrecognized, systemic biases may easily turn into cognitive biases, into logical short cuts which could confuse healthcare policy-makers. The volume-outcome relationship, in which a direct causal link has never been demonstrated, should not be used as a reliable measure of quality, rather  than less implementable process indicators, to address centralization policies.A disregarded negative consequence of centralization could be that non-high-volume centres, after a further progressive workload decrease and depletion in resources and surgical skills, will have to cope with patients in bad general condition and at high risk, who must be treated in emergency or cannot anyway afford the move for age, indigence or severe co-morbidities. Thus, centralization policies might disadvantage the weak segments of the population, thereby moving towards an iniquitous health service.

  13. Mitochondrial genomic comparison of Clonorchis sinensis from South Korea with other isolates of this species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daxi; Young, Neil D; Koehler, Anson V; Tan, Patrick; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Korhonen, Pasi K; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-02-22

    Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects >35 million people mainly in China, Vietnam, South Korea and some parts of Russia. The disease-causing agent, Clonorchis sinensis, is a liver fluke of humans and other piscivorous animals, and has a complex aquatic life cycle involving snails and fish intermediate hosts. Chronic infection in humans causes liver disease and associated complications including malignant bile duct cancer. Central to control and to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of the specific identity of the causative agent as well as genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single species and that genetic variation within the species is limited, karyotypic variation within C. sinensis among China, Korea (2n=56) and Russian Far East (2n=14) suggests that this taxon might contain sibling species. Here, we assessed and applied a deep sequencing-bioinformatic approach to sequence and define a reference mitochondrial (mt) genome for a particular isolate of C. sinensis from Korea (Cs-k2), to confirm its specific identity, and compared this mt genome with homologous data sets available for this species. Comparative analyses revealed consistency in the number and structure of genes as well as in the lengths of protein-coding genes, and limited genetic variation among isolates of C. sinensis. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences predicted from mt genes showed that representatives of C. sinensis clustered together, with absolute nodal support, to the exclusion of other liver fluke representatives, but sub-structuring within C. sinensis was not well supported. The plan now is to proceed with the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a high quality draft nuclear genome of this defined isolate (Cs-k2) as a basis for a detailed investigation of molecular variation within C. sinensis from disparate

  14. Recurrent hepatic alveolar echinococcosis: report of the first case in Korea with unproven infection route.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jin; Kim, Jong-Han; Han, Sang-Young; Kim, Young-Hoon; Cho, Jin-Han; Chai, Jong-Yil; Jeong, Jin-Sook

    2011-12-01

    Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a hepatic disorder that resembles liver cancer, is a highly aggressive and lethal zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the fox tapeworm, Echinococcus multilocularis. E. multilocularis is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere; the disease-endemic area stretches from north America through Europe to central and east Asia, including northern parts of Japan, but it has not been reported in Korea. Herein, we represent a first case of AE in Korea. A 41-year-old woman was found to have a large liver mass on routine medical examination. The excised mass showed multinodular, necrotic, and spongiform appearance with small irregular pseudocystic spaces. Microscopically, the mass was composed of chronic granulomatous inflammation with extensive coagulation necrosis and parasite-like structure, which was revealed as parasitic vesicles and laminated layer delineated by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain. Clinical and histologic features were consistent with AE. After 8 years, a new liver mass and multiple metastatic pulmonary nodules were found and the recurred mass showed similar histologic features to the initial mass. She had never visited endemic areas of AE, and thus the exact infection route is unclear.

  15. Incidence, Survival and Prevalence Statistics of Classical Myeloproliferative Neoplasm in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The nationwide statistical analysis of each disease of classical myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in Korea has not been reported yet. To this end, we have analyzed incidence rates, survival rates and treatment pattern of polycythemia vera (PV), primary myelofibrosis (MF) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) using Korea National Cancer Incidence Database (KNCIDB) and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 4,342 new cases of MPN were reported to the KNCIDB. ET was the most common, followed by MF and PV. The crude incidence rates for PV, MF, and ET have increased during the period, reaching 0.40, 0.15, and 0.84 per 100,000, respectively. Five-year relative survival rate of all MPN patients was 89.3%, with lowest relative survival rate with MF (53.1%). The prevalence of each disease estimated from HIRA data also increased during the study period. Notably, ET was found to be most prevalent. The prescription rate of hydroxyurea and phlebotomy to PV, MF and ET patients remained constant over the period, and the prescription rate of hydroxyurea was higher in patients with age over 60 years. This is the first Korean nationwide statistics of MPN, using central registry data. This set of data can be utilized to compare the Korean MPN status to international data and guidelines. PMID:27550486

  16. Incidence, Survival and Prevalence Statistics of Classical Myeloproliferative Neoplasm in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yoojoo; Lee, Jeong Ok; Bang, Soo Mee

    2016-10-01

    The nationwide statistical analysis of each disease of classical myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) in Korea has not been reported yet. To this end, we have analyzed incidence rates, survival rates and treatment pattern of polycythemia vera (PV), primary myelofibrosis (MF) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) using Korea National Cancer Incidence Database (KNCIDB) and Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) database. Between 2003 and 2011, a total of 4,342 new cases of MPN were reported to the KNCIDB. ET was the most common, followed by MF and PV. The crude incidence rates for PV, MF, and ET have increased during the period, reaching 0.40, 0.15, and 0.84 per 100,000, respectively. Five-year relative survival rate of all MPN patients was 89.3%, with lowest relative survival rate with MF (53.1%). The prevalence of each disease estimated from HIRA data also increased during the study period. Notably, ET was found to be most prevalent. The prescription rate of hydroxyurea and phlebotomy to PV, MF and ET patients remained constant over the period, and the prescription rate of hydroxyurea was higher in patients with age over 60 years. This is the first Korean nationwide statistics of MPN, using central registry data. This set of data can be utilized to compare the Korean MPN status to international data and guidelines.

  17. Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

  18. Does a central review platform improve the quality of radiotherapy for rectal cancer? Results of a national quality assurance project.

    PubMed

    Joye, Ines; Lambrecht, Maarten; Jegou, David; Hortobágyi, Eszter; Scalliet, Pierre; Haustermans, Karin

    2014-06-01

    Quality assurance (QA) for radiation treatment has become a priority since poorly delivered radiotherapy can negatively influence patient outcome. Within a national project we evaluated the feasibility of a central review platform and its role in improving uniformity of clinical target volume (CTV) delineation in daily practice. All Belgian radiotherapy departments were invited to participate and were asked to upload CTVs for rectal cancer treatment onto a secured server. These were centrally reviewed and feedback was given per e-mail. For each five consecutive patients per centre, the overlap parameter dice coefficient (DC) and the volumetric parameters volumetric ratio (RV) and commonly contoured volume (VCC) were calculated. Twenty departments submitted 1224 eligible cases of which 909 were modified (74.3%). There was a significant increase in RV and VCC between the first ten patients per centre and the others. This was not seen for DC. Statistical analysis did not show a further significant improvement in delineation over the entire review period. Central review was feasible and increased the uniformity in CTV delineation in the first ten rectal cancer patients per centre. The observations in this study can be used to optimize future QA initiatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  20. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  1. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  2. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  3. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  4. Comparison of cases captured in the national cancer data base with those in population-based central cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Lerro, Catherine C; Robbins, Anthony S; Phillips, Jerri Linn; Stewart, Andrew K

    2013-06-01

    The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) is a large, geographically diverse hospital-based cancer registry that has been used to study factors related to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survival. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the case counts and characteristics of patients in NCDB with population-based registries reported in the United States Cancer Statistics (USCS). Cancer case counts from NCDB were compared to case counts from USCS to measure NCDB's case coverage, or the percentage of cases captured. Case coverage was examined by a variety of characteristics, including state of residence, race/ethnicity, age, and primary cancer site. The overall NCDB case coverage was 67.4 %, ranging from a high of 88.7 % for Delaware to a low of 27.1 % for Arizona. Case coverage for white, black, and Asian/Pacific Islander cases was high (64.7 % to 67.4 %), but it was much lower for American Indians/Alaskan Natives (32.8 %) and those of Hispanic ethnicity (51.1 %). Among the elderly (aged 65 + years), case coverage is much lower compared to persons younger than 65 (63.0 % and 73.0 %, respectively). Case coverage also varied widely by site, with the highest being cervix (77.9 %) and the lowest being melanoma (50.6 %). This study highlights the geographic- and site-specific variation in NCDB case coverage, primarily as a result of NCDB facility presence and data collection and processing protocols. These findings illustrate the strengths and limitations of NCDB as a resource for nationwide data on cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survival.

  5. Risk of leukaemia or cancer in the central nervous system among children living in an area with high indoor radon concentrations: results from a cohort study in Norway.

    PubMed

    Del Risco Kollerud, R; Blaasaas, K G; Claussen, B

    2014-09-23

    Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in assessing the relationship between exposure to radon at home and the risk of childhood cancer. Previous studies have produced conflicting results, probably because of limitations assessing radon exposure, too few cancer cases and poorly documented health statistics. We used a cohort approach of 0-15-year-old children to examine whether residential radon exposure was associated with childhood leukaemia and cancer in the central nervous system in the Oslo region. The study was based on Norwegian population registers and identified cancer cases from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The residence of every child was geo-coded and assigned a radon exposure. In all, 712 674 children were followed from 1967 to 2009 from birth to date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration or 15 years of age. A total of 864 cancer cases were identified, 437 children got leukaemia and 427 got cancer in the central nervous system.Conclusions or interpretation:No association was found for childhood leukaemia. An elevated nonsignificant risk for cancer in the central nervous system was observed. This association should be interpreted with caution owing to the crude exposure assessment and possibilities of confounding.

  6. Risk of leukaemia or cancer in the central nervous system among children living in an area with high indoor radon concentrations: results from a cohort study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Del Risco Kollerud, R; Blaasaas, K G; Claussen, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in assessing the relationship between exposure to radon at home and the risk of childhood cancer. Previous studies have produced conflicting results, probably because of limitations assessing radon exposure, too few cancer cases and poorly documented health statistics. Methods: We used a cohort approach of 0–15-year-old children to examine whether residential radon exposure was associated with childhood leukaemia and cancer in the central nervous system in the Oslo region. The study was based on Norwegian population registers and identified cancer cases from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The residence of every child was geo-coded and assigned a radon exposure. Results: In all, 712 674 children were followed from 1967 to 2009 from birth to date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration or 15 years of age. A total of 864 cancer cases were identified, 437 children got leukaemia and 427 got cancer in the central nervous system. Conclusions or interpretation: No association was found for childhood leukaemia. An elevated nonsignificant risk for cancer in the central nervous system was observed. This association should be interpreted with caution owing to the crude exposure assessment and possibilities of confounding. PMID:25117818

  7. Perceptions of Prophylactic Mastectomy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Han Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasingly, prophylactic mastectomy has been evaluated as a treatment of breast cancer. Hereditary breast cancer now accounts for approximately 5%–10% of all cases of breast cancer, meaning that the widespread implementation of prophylactic mastectomy may significantly reduce the occurrence of breast cancer. However, prophylactic mastectomy is rarely performed in Korea. Therefore, in this study, we assessed Koreans' attitudes toward and awareness of preventive mastectomy. Methods This was a prospective study of a cohort of patients attending outpatient clinics and their relatives. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires assessing sex, age, educational level, knowledge of breast cancer, understanding of prophylactic mastectomy, attitudes toward prophylactic mastectomy, and reasons for choosing prophylactic mastectomy. Results Sixty-five patients were included. Most patients (36.9%) were between 40 and 49 years of age and 58.4% were college graduates. Only six respondents (9%) understood prophylactic mastectomy, and 17 respondents (27%) stated that they would agree to undergo prophylactic mastectomy if necessary. Reasons given for refusing prophylactic mastectomy included aesthetic concerns (38%), the perception that it would not cure the disease (26%), possible surgical complications (24%), and financial cost (6%). Conclusions In this study, most of the respondents showed a poor knowledge of prophylactic mastectomy. Ultimately, it will be necessary to establish medical guidelines for patients with a high risk of breast cancer, with the objective of providing accurate information and proper treatment at hospitals. PMID:26848446

  8. Ionizing Radiation-induced Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Meeseon; Moon, Kieun; Jo, Min-Heui; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Radiation risk has become well known through epidemiological studies of clinically or occupationally exposed populations, animal experiments, and in vitro studies; however, the study of radiation related or induced disease has been limited in Korea. This study is to find the level of occupational radiation exposure for various kinds of accidents, compensated occupational diseases, related studies, and estimations on future occupational disease risks. Research data of related institutions were additionally investigated. About 67% of 62,553 radiation workers had no exposure or less than 1.2 mSv per year. The 5 reported cases on radiation accident patients in Korea occurred during nondestructive testing. According to the recent rapid increase in the number of workers exposed to radiation, a higher social recognition of cancer, and an increasing cancer mortality rate, it is expected that occupational disease compensation will rapidly increase as well. Therefore, it is important to develop scientific and objective decision methods, such as probability of causation and screening dose in the establishment of an exposure and health surveillance system. PMID:21258594

  9. The impact of a family history of prostate cancer on the prognosis and features of the disease in Korea: results from a cross-sectional longitudinal pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang Suk; Koo, Kyo Chul; Chung, Byung Ha

    2017-09-13

    Reports on the impact of a family history of prostate cancer among Asians are scarce. We evaluated whether a positive prostate cancer family history is associated with the prognosis and features of the disease. From January 2006 to December 2015, patients who received treatment for pathologically diagnosed prostate cancer were enrolled. Information on family history was obtained via self-administered questionnaires between January 2015 and December 2016. The overall survival rate for all patients and the rate of biochemical failure after radical prostatectomy were assessed according to the presence of family history. Of 1266 patients (median age, 68.1 years; median prostate-specific antigen, 8.73 ng/mL; median follow-up, 40.0 months), 47 (3.8%) were identified as having a family history. Men with a family history had a younger age, higher proportion of cases diagnosed before 55 years of age, and lower stage than those without a family history. Family history was not a potential risk factor for overall survival. In an analysis of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy (median prostate-specific antigen, 7.40 ng/mL; median follow-up, 40.5 months), no differences in pathologic characteristics were found between patients with (n = 39, 93.5%) and without (n = 567, 6.4%) a family history. Family history was not predictive of biochemical failure. A family history of prostate cancer seemed to have no effect on prognosis and disease aggressiveness. However, this study proposed a rationale for performing earlier prostate-specific antigen testing in men with a family history of prostate cancer.

  10. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  11. Rupture of totally implantable central venous access devices (Intraports) in patients with cancer: report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Dimitrios K; Tsikkinis, Christoforos; Filippou, Georgios K; Nissiotis, Athanasios; Rizos, Spiros

    2004-01-01

    Background Totally implantable central venous access devices (intraports) are commonly used in cancer patients to administer chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition. Rupture of intraport is a rare complication. Patients and methods During 3 years period, a total of 245 intraports were placed in cancer patients for chemotherapy. Four of these cases (two colon cancer and one each of pancreas and breast cancer) had rupture of the intraport catheter, these forms the basis of present report. Results Mean time insitu for intraports was 164∀35 days. Median follow-up time was 290 days and total port time in situ was 40180 days. The incidence of port rupture was 1 per 10,000 port days. Three of the 4 cases were managed by successful removal of catheters. In two of these the catheter was removed under fluoroscopic control using femoral route, while in the third patient the catheter (partial rupture) was removed surgically. One of the catheters could not be removed and migrated to right ventricle on manipulations. Conclusion Port catheter rupture is a rare but dreaded complication associated with subcutaneous port catheter device placement for chemotherapy. In case of such an event the patient should be managed by an experienced vascular surgeon and interventional radiologist, as in most cases the ruptured catheter can be retrieved by non operative interventional measures. PMID:15494075

  12. Vocational identity, positive affect, and career thoughts in a group of young adult central nervous system cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lange, Dustin D; Wong, Alex W K; Strauser, David R; Wagner, Stacia

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to compare levels of career thoughts and vocational identity between young adult childhood central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors and noncancer peers and (b) to investigate the contribution of vocational identity and affect on career thoughts among cancer survivors. Participants included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors and a comparison sample of 60 college students. Participants completed Career Thoughts Inventory, My Vocational Situation, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data in this study. CNS cancer survivors had a higher level of decision-making confusion than the college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vocational identity and positive affect significantly predicted the career thoughts of CNS survivors. The differences in decision-making confusion suggest that young adult CNS survivors would benefit from interventions that focus on providing knowledge of how to make decisions, while increasing vocational identity and positive affect for this specific population could also be beneficial.

  13. Preoperative High-Resolution Ultrasound for the Assessment of Malignant Central Compartment Lymph Nodes in Papillary Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Khokhar, Mamoona T; Day, Kristopher M; Sangal, Rohit B; Ahmedli, Nigar N; Pisharodi, Latha R; Beland, Michael D; Monchik, Jack M

    2015-12-01

    The identification and removal of malignant central compartment lymph nodes (MCLN) is important to minimize the risk of persistent or recurrent local disease in patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). While the diagnostic accuracy of preoperative ultrasound for the assessment of lateral compartment node metastases is well recognized, its role in the identification of central compartment node metastases in patients with PTC is less established. This study delineates the utility of high-resolution ultrasound (HUS) for the assessment of MCLN in patients with PTC. A retrospective chart review was performed of 227 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy for biopsy-proven PTC by a single endocrine surgeon in an academic tertiary care center between 2004 and 2014. Preoperative sonographic results were compared to postoperative pathology reports to determine the accuracy of HUS for the assessment of MCLN. Statistical analysis also included sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). HUS identified abnormal central compartment nodes in 51 (22.5%) patients. All 227 patients underwent a careful central compartment node exploration. One hundred and four (45.8%) patients had MCLN identified by surgery, of whom 65 (62.5%) had a negative preoperative central compartment HUS. The sensitivity and specificity of preoperative HUS for the assessment of MCLN were 0.38 and 0.90, respectively. The PPV and NPV were 0.76 and 0.63, with an accuracy of 0.66. Preoperative HUS is quite specific for the identification of MCLN in patients with PTC. The present findings emphasize, however, that a negative HUS does not obviate the need for careful exploration of the central compartment to minimize the risk of persistent or recurrent local disease.

  14. Does El Niño-Southern Oscillation affect the precipitation in Korea on seasonal time scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Woosuk; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Yoo, Hee-Dong

    2016-08-01

    A number of studies in the past two decades have attempted to find the relationship between the precipitation in Korea and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on various time scales. Comprehensive analyses of station precipitation data in Korea for the 61-year period, 1954-2014, in this study show that the effects of ENSO on the seasonal precipitation in Korea are practically negligible. The correlation between summer precipitation and ENSO is insignificant regardless of the intensity, type (e.g., eastern-Pacific or central-Pacific), and stage (e.g., developing, mature, or decaying) of ENSO. Somewhat meaningful correlation between ENSO and precipitation in Korea occurs only in the ENSO-developing fall. Because summer rainfall accounts for over half of the annual total and fall is a dry season in Korea, the overall effects of ENSO on precipitation in Korea are practically nonexistent.

  15. Breast cancer patients in Libya: Comparison with European and central African patients

    PubMed Central

    BODER, JAMELA MOSTAFA E.; ELMABROUK ABDALLA, FATHI B.; ELFAGEIH, MOHAMED AHMED; ABUSAA, ABUAGELA; BUHMEIDA, ABDELBASET; COLLAN, YRJÖ

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the incidence of breast cancer in Libya and described the clinicopathological and demographic features. These features were then compared with corresponding data from patients from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Finland). The study consisted of 234 patients with breast carcinoma, admitted to the African Oncology Institute in Sabratha, Libya, during the years 2002–2006. The pathological features were collected from pathology reports, patient histories from hospital files and the Sabratha Cancer Registry. The demographic differences between the Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations were prominent. The mean age of breast cancer patients in Libya was 46 years which was almost identical to that of Nigeria, but much lower than that of Finland. The Libyan breast cancer incidence was evaluated as 18.8 per 100,000 female individuals. This incidence was markedly higher in Finland, but was also high in Nigeria. Libyan and Nigerian breast cancer is predominantly of premenopausal type and exhibits unfavorable characteristics such as high histological grade and stage, large tumor size and frequent lymph node metastases. However, the histological types and histopathological risk features show similar importance regarding survival as European breast cancer cases. Survival in Libya ranks between the rates of survival in Nigeria (lowest) and Finland (highest). In conclusion, in Libya and other African countries, premenopausal breast cancer is more common than postmenopausal breast cancer. However, the opposite is true for Europe. Population differences may be involved, as suggested by the known variation, in the distribution of genetic markers in these populations. Different types of environmental impacts, however, cannot be excluded. PMID:22866085

  16. Impact of the policy of expanding benefit coverage for cancer patients on catastrophic health expenditure across different income groups in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-08-01

    To increase financial protection for catastrophic illness, South Korean government expanded the National Health Insurance (NHI) benefit coverage for cancer patients in September 2005. This paper investigated whether the policy has reduced inequality in catastrophic payments, defined as annual out-of-pocket (OOP) health payments exceeding 10% annual income, across different income groups. This study used the NHI claims data from 2002 to 2004 and 2006 to 2010. Triple difference estimator was employed to compare cancer patients as a treatment group with those with liver and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases as control groups and the low-income with the high-income groups. While catastrophic payments decreased in cancer patients compared with those of two diseases, they appeared to decrease more in the high-income than the low-income group. Considering that increased health care utilization and poor economic capacity may lead to a smaller reduction in catastrophic payments for the low-income than the high-income patients, the government needs to consider additional policy measures to increase financial protection for the poor.

  17. Population-based risks of central nervous system tumours in childhood cancer survivors: the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Aliki J; Little, Mark P; Winter, David L; Sugden, Elaine; Ellison, David W; Stiller, Charles A; Stovall, Marilyn; Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose CNS tumours are the most common second primary neoplasm observed after childhood cancer in Britain, but the relationship of risk to dose of previous radiotherapy and chemotherapy is uncertain. Methods The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a national population-based cohort study of 17980 individuals surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis of childhood cancer. Linkage to national population-based cancer registries identified 247 second primary neoplasms of the CNS. Cohort and nested case-control studies were undertaken. Results There were 137 meningiomas, 73 gliomas and 37 other CNS neoplasms included in the analysis. The risk of meningioma increased strongly, linearly and independently with each of dose of radiation to meningeal tissue and dose of intrathecal methotrexate. Those whose meningeal tissue received 0.01-9.99,10.00-19.99,20.00-29.99,30.00-39.99 and ≥40Gy had a risk 2,8,52,568 and 479-fold that experienced by those whose meningeal tissue was unexposed, respectively. The risk of meningioma among individuals receiving 1-39,40-69 and at least 70mg/m2 of intrathecal methotrexate was 15,11 and 36-fold that experienced by those unexposed, respectively. The standardised incidence ratio for gliomas was 10·8 (95% confidence interval: 8·5, 13·6). The risk of glioma/primitive neuroectodermal tumours increased linearly with dose of radiation and those with CNS tissue exposed to at least 40Gy experienced a risk 4-fold that experienced by those with CNS tissue unexposed. Conclusion The largest ever study of CNS tumours in childhood cancer survivors indicates the risk of meningioma increases rapidly with increased dose of radiation to meningeal tissue and increased dose of intrathecal methotrexate. PMID:21079138

  18. Ethno-entomological observations from North Korea (officially known as the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea").

    PubMed

    Meyer-Rochow, V Benno

    2013-01-16

    In terms of scientific activities generally and ethnobiological pursuits in particular, North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, is an almost blank entity on the quilt of global research. During a sabbatical semester at Pyongyang University of Science and Technology the author used this opportunity to gather some information on the uses of insect and other terrestrial arthropods as human food and components of traditional healing methods in that country. Despite the widely publicised shortcomings in the supply of food stuffs to the population of North Korea, insects are not generally seen as a source of food worthy of exploitation. However, the therapeutic use of insects, centipedes and scorpions to treat illnesses as diverse as the common cold, skin rashes, constipation, dysentery, nervous prostration, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, tetanus, and various forms of cancer is apparently still popular. The arthropods used therapeutically are credited with anti-inflammatory, immunological and other health-promoting effects, because they are said to contain hormones, steroids, lipids and plant-derived alkaloids, all of which capable of exerting their effects on the human body.

  19. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  20. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  1. [Formation of medical education in North Korea: 1945-1948].

    PubMed

    Heo, Yun-Jung; Cho, Young-Soo

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on the formation of medical education in North Korea from 1945 to 1948 in terms of the centralization of medical education, and on the process and significance of the systemization of medical education. Doctors of the past trained under the Japanese colonial system lived and worked as liberalists. More than half of these doctors who were in North Korea defected to South Korea after the country was liberated. Thus the North Korean regime faced the urgent task of cultivating new doctors who would 'serve the state and people.' Since the autumn of 1945, right after national liberation, Local People's Committees organized and implemented medical education autonomously. Following the establishment of the Provisional People's Committee of North Korea, democratic reform was launched, leading to the centralized administration of education. Consequently, medical educational institutions were realigned, with some elevated to medical colleges and others shut down. The North Korean state criticised the liberalistic attitude of doctors and the bureaucratic style of health administration, and tried to reform their political consciousness through political inculcation programs. The state also grant doctors living and housing privileges, which show its endeavor to build 'state medicine'. By 1947, a medical education system was established in which the education administration was put in charge of training new doctors while the health administration was put in charge of nurturing and retraining health workers. In this way, the state was the principal agent that actively established a centralized administrative system in the process of the formation of medical education in North Korea following national liberation. Another agent was deeply involved in this process - the faculty that was directly in charge of educating the new doctors. Studying the medical faculty remains another research task for the future. By exploring how the knowledge, generational experience

  2. Evaluating Early Case Capture of Pediatric Cancers in Seven Central Cancer Registries in the United States, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Antonio; Rohan, Elizabeth; Clerkin, Castine; Underwood, J. Michael; Ryerson, A. Blythe; Stewart, Sherri L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in children, but incidence data are not available until two years after diagnosis, thereby delaying data dissemination and research. An early case capture (ECC) surveillance program was piloted in seven state cancer registries to register pediatric cancer cases within 30 days of diagnosis. We sought to determine the quality of ECC data and understand pilot implementation. Methods We used quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate ECC. We assessed data quality by comparing demographic and clinical characteristics from the initial ECC submission to a resubmission of ECC pilot data and to the most recent year of routinely collected cancer data for each state individually and in aggregate. We conducted telephone focus groups with registry staff to determine ECC practices and difficulties in August and September 2013. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes. Results Comparing ECC initial submissions with submissions for all states, ECC data were nationally representative for age (9.7 vs. 9.9 years) and sex (673 of 1,324 [50.9%] vs. 42,609 of 80,547 [52.9%] male cases), but not for primary site (472 of 1,324 [35.7%] vs. 27,547 of 80,547 [34.2%] leukemia/lymphoma cases), behavior (1,219 of 1,324 [92.1%] vs. 71,525 of 80,547 [88.8%] malignant cases), race/ethnicity (781 of 1,324 [59.0%] vs. 64,518 of 80,547 [80.1%] white cases), or diagnostic confirmation (1,233 of 1,324 [93.2%] vs. 73,217 of 80,547 [90.9%] microscopically confirmed cases). When comparing initial ECC data with resubmission data, differences were seen in race/ethnicity (808 of 1,324 [61.1%] vs. 1,425 of 1,921 [74.2%] white cases), primary site (475 of 1,324 [35.9%] vs. 670 of 1,921 [34.9%] leukemia/lymphoma cases), and behavior (1,215 of 1,324 [91.8%] vs. 1,717 of 1,921 [89.4%] malignant cases). Common themes from focus group analysis included implementation challenges and facilitators, benefits of ECC, and utility of

  3. Evaluating Early Case Capture of Pediatric Cancers in Seven Central Cancer Registries in the United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Rohan, Elizabeth; Clerkin, Castine; Underwood, J Michael; Ryerson, A Blythe; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second-leading cause of death in children, but incidence data are not available until two years after diagnosis, thereby delaying data dissemination and research. An early case capture (ECC) surveillance program was piloted in seven state cancer registries to register pediatric cancer cases within 30 days of diagnosis. We sought to determine the quality of ECC data and understand pilot implementation. We used quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate ECC. We assessed data quality by comparing demographic and clinical characteristics from the initial ECC submission to a resubmission of ECC pilot data and to the most recent year of routinely collected cancer data for each state individually and in aggregate. We conducted telephone focus groups with registry staff to determine ECC practices and difficulties in August and September 2013. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded to identify themes. Comparing ECC initial submissions with submissions for all states, ECC data were nationally representative for age (9.7 vs. 9.9 years) and sex (673 of 1,324 [50.9%] vs. 42,609 of 80,547 [52.9%] male cases), but not for primary site (472 of 1,324 [35.7%] vs. 27,547 of 80,547 [34.2%] leukemia/lymphoma cases), behavior (1,219 of 1,324 [92.1%] vs. 71,525 of 80,547 [88.8%] malignant cases), race/ethnicity (781 of 1,324 [59.0%] vs. 64,518 of 80,547 [80.1%] white cases), or diagnostic confirmation (1,233 of 1,324 [93.2%] vs. 73,217 of 80,547 [90.9%] microscopically confirmed cases). When comparing initial ECC data with resubmission data, differences were seen in race/ethnicity (808 of 1,324 [61.1%] vs. 1,425 of 1,921 [74.2%] white cases), primary site (475 of 1,324 [35.9%] vs. 670 of 1,921 [34.9%] leukemia/lymphoma cases), and behavior (1,215 of 1,324 [91.8%] vs. 1,717 of 1,921 [89.4%] malignant cases). Common themes from focus group analysis included implementation challenges and facilitators, benefits of ECC, and utility of ECC data. ECC provided data

  4. Symptomatic diagnosis of cancer of the brain and central nervous system in primary care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Berendse, Sabine; Hamilton, William

    2015-12-01

    We performed a systematic review of diagnostic studies of symptomatic patients in primary care to quantify the risk of brain/central nervous system (CNS) cancer in patients presenting in primary care with symptoms that may indicate brain/CNS cancer. To quantify the risk of brain/CNS cancer in symptomatic patients presenting in primary care. We searched Medline, Premedline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and ISI Proceedings (1980 to August 2014) and PsychInfo (1980 to February 2013) for diagnostic studies of symptomatic adult patients in primary care. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-II and data were extracted to calculate the positive predictive values (PPVs) of symptoms, singly or in combination, for brain/CNS cancer. Six studies with 159938 patients were included. The PPVs of single symptoms were very low with only 'new-onset seizure' being above 1% in patients aged 18 years and above, rising to 2.3% in patients aged 60-69 years. In patients aged 15-24 years, the PPVs for the individual symptoms were also very low, with the highest, also for seizure, being 0.024%, similar to that in children aged 0-14 years of 0.02%. For symptom combinations, none of the PPVs were above 0.39%. All the symptoms of brain tumours are individually low risk, apart from new-onset epilepsy. This provides a real diagnostic problem, as brain tumours have all the expected features seen with cancer diagnostic delay, with high proportions presenting as an emergency and having had multiple primary care consultations before referral, and the prognosis is poor. Improving these metrics can only be done by liberalizing investigation, although the health economics of that strategy is undetermined. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Post-thrombotic syndrome after central venous catheter removal in childhood cancer survivors: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Polen, E; Weintraub, M; Stoffer, C; Jaffe, D H; Burger, A; Revel-Vilk, S

    2015-02-01

    Although the use of central venous catheters (CVCs) has greatly improved the quality of care of children with cancer, these catheters increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and the potential long-term complication of post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). We aimed to study PTS post-CVC removal using physical, functional and health related quality of life (HRQoL) domains in childhood cancer and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) survivors. We conducted a prospective study in a cohort of childhood cancer and BMT survivors post-CVC use. Participants were evaluated for PTS with the Modified Villalta Score (MVS) and the Manco-Johnson Instrument (MJI). HRQoL was assessed using the PedsQL™ questionnaire. A total of 158 children were enrolled at a median of 41 (4-149) months from CVC removal. Signs and symptoms of PTS were present in 34% (95% confidence interval [CI] 27-43%) (MVS criteria) and 30.5% (95% CI 23.1-37.8%) (MJI criteria). Diagnosis of PTS was associated with history of CVC occlusion, history of CVC-related DVT and the use of ≥2 CVCs. The presence of signs and symptoms of PTS was a predictor for low HRQoL tested by the PedsQL™ Total Scale scores and Physical Health Summary scores. PTS post-CVC removal in pediatric cancer survivors is not a rare event. The association between PTS and the history of CVC occlusion confirms earlier findings, and suggests that CVC occlusion may indicate asymptomatic DVT. PTS is also associated with lower HRQoL scores highlighting the need to study preventive measures, especially for high risk groups. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:285-290. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D.

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

  7. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  8. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  9. South Korea and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Se Ho

    1988-01-01

    Examines projections about the future of Korea, predicting a highly diversified society built upon industrialization and moving toward an information society. Discusses the growing middle class and its societal implications and considers the effects of the country's increasing democratization. (GEA)

  10. Effect of annual endoscopic screening on clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment modality of gastric cancer in a high-incidence region of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Su Jin; Park, Min Jung; Kang, Seung Joo; Kang, Hae Yeon; Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2012-11-15

    We investigated risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) and effect of annual endoscopic screening on detection and treatment modality of GC. Asymptomatic adults who underwent upper endoscopy during health checkups at Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center were enrolled. We compared clinicopathologic characteristics of GC according to screening interval (repeated vs. infrequent, annual vs. biennial). After age- and sex-matching, relative risk was computed by hazard ratio (HR) using Cox proportional regression with multivariate adjustment. Of the 58,849 subjects who received screening endoscopy, 277 (0.47%) were found to have GC. Intestinal type comprised 55.4% (102/184) followed by diffuse type (n = 65, 35.3%). Age ≥ 50 years, family history and smoking independently increased the risk of GC for both types, whereas male gender [HR = 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.72-8.03] and intestinal metaplasia (IM) (HR = 10.87, 95% CI: 3.36-22.30) were significant predictors for intestinal type only. Proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) was 98.6% (71/72) in annual screening group and 80.7% (46/57) in biennial screening group (p < 0.01). In the former, tumor size was smaller (1.7 ± 1.3 vs. 2.3 ± 1.8 cm; p < 0.01] and proportion of intramucosal cancer was larger (75.0 vs. 56.1%; p = 0.04). Endoscopic resection was performed more frequently in annual screening group (56.9 vs. 33.3%; p = 0.02). IM along with male gender and older age was a strong risk factor for intestinal type GC. Annual screening group improved detection of early-stage and endoscopically treatable GC suggesting that intensive screening and surveillance may be useful for high-risk subpopulations with epidemiologic risk factors or premalignant lesions such as IM.

  11. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  12. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  13. Port catheter versus peripherally inserted central catheter for postoperative chemotherapy in early breast cancer: a retrospective analysis of 448 patients.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, L; Noyon, E; Georgescu, D; Proust, V; Alexandru, C; Leheurteur, M; Thery, J C; Savary, L; Rigal, O; Di Fiore, F; Veyret, C; Clatot, F

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to compare the complication rate between port catheters (PC) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) for the administration of postoperative chemotherapy for breast cancer. All patients treated from January 2010 to August 2012 at the Centre Henri Becquerel for early breast cancer requiring postoperative chemotherapy were retrospectively screened. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a major complication related to the central venous catheter. Major complications were defined as any grade 3 event according to CTCAE 4.0, delay in chemotherapy >7 days, change of the device, life-threatening event, event requiring a hospitalization, or a prolongation of hospitalization. A total of 448 patients were included; 290 had a PC and 158 a PICC. Overall, 31 major complications related to the central venous catheter were observed: 13 for patients with a PC (4.5%) and 18 for patients with a PICC (11.4%). In univariate analysis, having a PICC was the only factor significantly associated with a higher risk of major complications (HR = 2.83, p = 0.0027). We observed a trend for a higher risk of major complications for patients older than 60 years or with BMI >25 (p = 0.06). In multivariate analysis, having a PICC was the only predictive factor of major complications (HR = 2.89, p = 0.004). In univariate and multivariate analysis, having a PICC instead of a PC was the only predictive factor of device-related major complication. If confirmed prospectively by the NCT02095743 ongoing trial, this result might modify the management of adjuvant chemotherapy administration.

  14. Accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with contralateral central or mediastinal lung cancer relapse after pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abu Jawad, Jehad; Gkika, Eleni; Freitag, Lutz; Lübcke, Wolfgang; Welter, Stefan; Gauler, Thomas; Schuler, Martin; Eberhardt, Wilfried Ernst Erich; Stamatis, Georgios; Stuschke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment options are very limited for patients with lung cancer who experience contralateral central or mediastinal relapse following pneumonectomy. We present results of an accelerated salvage chemoradiotherapy regimen. Methods Patients with localized contralateral central intrapulmonary or mediastinal relapse after pneumonectomy were offered combined chemoradiotherapy including concurrent weekly cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and accelerated radiotherapy [accelerated fractionated (AF), 60 Gy, 8×2 Gy per week] to reduce time for repopulation. Based on 4D-CT-planning, patients were irradiated using multifield intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or helical tomotherapy. Results Between 10/2011 and 12/2012, seven patients were treated. Initial stages were IIB/IIIA/IIIB: 3/1/3; histopathological subtypes scc/adeno/large cell: 4/1/2. Tumour relapses were located in mediastinal nodal stations in five patients with endobronchial tumour in three patients. The remaining patients had contralateral central tumour relapses. All patients received 60 Gy (AF), six patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Median dose to the remaining contralateral lung, esophagus, and spinal cord was 6.8 (3.3-11.4), 8.0 (5.1-15.5), and 7.6 (2.8-31.2) Gy, respectively. With a median follow-up of 29 [17-32] months, no esophageal or pulmonary toxicity exceeding grade 2 [Common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTC-AE) v. 3] was observed. Median survival was 17.2 months, local in-field control at 12 months 80%. Only two local recurrences were observed, both in combination with out-field metastases. Conclusions This intensified accelerated chemoradiotherapy schedule was safely applicable and offers a curative chance in these pretreated frail lung cancer patients. PMID:25922702

  15. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  16. Prognostic and predictive impact of central necrosis and fibrosis in early breast cancer. Results from two International Breast Cancer Study Group randomized trials of chemoendocrine adjuvant therapy

    PubMed Central

    Maiorano, Eugenio; Regan, Meredith M.; Viale, Giuseppe; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Colleoni, Marco; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A minority of early invasive breast cancers show a pattern of central necrosis and fibrosis (CNF). Previous studies have documented an adverse prognostic impact and association with other adverse pathological features, but its predictive importance for therapy selection is unknown. Methods We examined the prognostic and predictive value of CNF in two randomized clinical trials comparing chemoendocrine therapy with endocrine therapy alone in patients with node-negative breast cancer. A total of 1850 patients randomly assigned to treatment groups comparing endocrine with chemoendocrine therapy, and with centrally-assessed CNF, ER, PgR and HER2 were included in the analytic cohort. The median follow up was 10 years. Results CNF was present in 84 of 1850 trial patients (4.5%). It was associated with tumor characteristics suggesting poor outcome, but was an independent adverse factor for disease-free survival. In the presence of CNF outcome was worse regardless of tumor grade, whereas in the absence of CNF, patients with grade 3 tumors had poorer outcome than those with grade 1-2 tumors. Among patients with estrogen receptor-absent tumors chemoendocrine therapy was superior to endocrine therapy alone only in the absence of CNF [HR (chemoendocrine:endocrine)=0.46 in CNF-absent, 0.90 in CNF-present], while among those with receptor-positive disease chemoendocrine therapy was beneficial only in the presence of CNF [HR=0.34 CNF-present, 0.96 CNF-absent]. Conclusion The results suggest that the presence of CNF reflects a biological difference in early breast cancer that is important in modulating the efficacy of standard therapies. Accordingly we believe that its presence should be routinely reported. PMID:19280340

  17. Outcomes, cost comparison, and patient satisfaction during long-term central venous access in cancer patients: Experience from a Tertiary Care Cancer Institute in South India

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K. Govind; Suresh Babu, M. C.; Lokanatha, D.; Bhat, Gita R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prolonged treatment, frequent administration of chemotherapy, antibiotics and blood products in cancer patients requires long term venous access. Central venous catheters (CVC) inserted into the subclavian vein or internal jugular vein, peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) and chemoport (CP) are the commonly used central venous access devices (CVAD). Aim: This study was envisaged to review our experience of CVADs over a one year period and analyze the outcome with regard to catheter life, reasons for removal, complications, patient satisfaction and cost comparison between the CVAD types in the Indian setting. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational study carried out in a tertiary care cancer institute. Materials and Methods: 180 CVADs placed in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors from January 2014 to December 2014 were included. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U test. P <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: 180 CVADs were placed in 160 patients. The median catheter indwelling period was 76 days (16 days to 313 days) for CVC, 59 days (20days – 313 days) for PICC and 137 days (70 days – 258 days) for CP. 66 out of 160 patients developed complications (41.2%). 108 complication events were noted in 66 patients. There were 40 episodes of CRBSI. Out of the 68 mechanical complications, 37 were encountered during insertion of the CVAD and 31 were during the catheter indwelling period. Out of 160 patients, 138 (86.25%) were satisfied with the CVAD. The cost incurred for CVC/PICC (INR 4,480) was lower than that for CP (INR 24,150) and it was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Our patients were highly satisfied with the CVAD. Conclusion: Use of CVC and PICC is a safe, reliable and cost saving way of administration of chemotherapy in developing countries. The incidence of complications and catheter loss was acceptable. Our

  18. Associations Between Cigarette Smoking Status and Colon Cancer Prognosis Among Participants in North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Shi, Qian; Newcomb, Polly A.; Nelson, Garth D.; Sargent, Daniel J.; Alberts, Steven R.; Limburg, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose By using data from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase III Trial N0147, a randomized adjuvant trial of patients with stage III colon cancer, we assessed the relationship between smoking and cancer outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS), and time to recurrence (TTR), accounting for heterogeneity by patient and tumor characteristics. Patients and Methods Before random assignment to infusional fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) or FOLFOX plus cetuximab, 1,968 participants completed a questionnaire on smoking history and other risk factors. Cox models assessed the association between smoking history and the primary trial outcome of DFS (ie, time to recurrence or death), as well as TTR, adjusting for other clinical and patient factors. The median follow-up was 3.5 years among patients who did not experience events. Results Compared with never-smokers, ever smokers experienced significantly shorter DFS (3-year DFS proportion: 70% v 74%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.42). This association persisted after multivariate adjustment (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.49). There was significant interaction in this association by BRAF mutation status (P = .03): smoking was associated with shorter DFS in patients with BRAF wild-type (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.66) but not BRAF mutated (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.29) colon cancer. Smoking was more strongly associated with poorer DFS in those with KRAS mutated versus KRAS wild-type colon cancer (HR, 1.50 [95% CI, 1.12 to 2.00] v HR, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.85 to 1.39]), although interaction by KRAS mutation status was not statistically significant (P = .07). Associations were comparable in analyses of TTR. Conclusion Overall, smoking was significantly associated with shorter DFS and TTR in patients with colon cancer. These adverse relationships were most evident in patients with BRAF wild-type or KRAS mutated colon cancer. PMID:23547084

  19. Welding and lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Brennan, Paul; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Occupation as a welder has been associated with a 25%-40% increase in lung cancer risk. This study aims to elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium. The study included 2,197 male incident lung cancer cases and 2,295 controls from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2001. Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face interviews. Experts assessed exposure to 70 agents, and risk estimates were adjusted for smoking and occupational exposures. Occupation as a welder/flame cutter (prevalence controls: 3.7%) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.86) after adjustment for smoking and occupational exposures including asbestos. An odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.38) was found for welding fumes (prevalence controls: 22.8%), increasing to 1.38 for more than 25 exposure years (95% CI: 1.09, 1.75). A duration-response association was also observed for mild steel welding without chromium exposure. In this population, occupational exposure to welding fumes accounted for approximately 4% of lung cancer cases, to which both stainless and mild steel welding contributed equally. Given that welding remains a common task for many workers, exposure to welding fumes represents an important risk factor for lung cancer.

  20. The androgen receptor fuels prostate cancer by regulating central metabolism and biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Massie, Charles E; Lynch, Andy; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Boren, Joan; Stark, Rory; Fazli, Ladan; Warren, Anne; Scott, Helen; Madhu, Basetti; Sharma, Naomi; Bon, Helene; Zecchini, Vinny; Smith, Donna-Michelle; DeNicola, Gina M; Mathews, Nik; Osborne, Michelle; Hadfield, James; MacArthur, Stewart; Adryan, Boris; Lyons, Scott K; Brindle, Kevin M; Griffiths, John; Gleave, Martin E; Rennie, Paul S; Neal, David E; Mills, Ian G

    2011-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate growth and the principal drug target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Previous studies have mapped AR targets and identified some candidates which may contribute to cancer progression, but did not characterize AR biology in an integrated manner. In this study, we took an interdisciplinary approach, integrating detailed genomic studies with metabolomic profiling and identify an anabolic transcriptional network involving AR as the core regulator. Restricting flux through anabolic pathways is an attractive approach to deprive tumours of the building blocks needed to sustain tumour growth. Therefore, we searched for targets of the AR that may contribute to these anabolic processes and could be amenable to therapeutic intervention by virtue of differential expression in prostate tumours. This highlighted calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, which we show is overexpressed in prostate cancer and regulates cancer cell growth via its unexpected role as a hormone-dependent modulator of anabolic metabolism. In conclusion, it is possible to progress from transcriptional studies to a promising therapeutic target by taking an unbiased interdisciplinary approach. PMID:21602788

  1. The androgen receptor fuels prostate cancer by regulating central metabolism and biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Massie, Charles E; Lynch, Andy; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Boren, Joan; Stark, Rory; Fazli, Ladan; Warren, Anne; Scott, Helen; Madhu, Basetti; Sharma, Naomi; Bon, Helene; Zecchini, Vinny; Smith, Donna-Michelle; Denicola, Gina M; Mathews, Nik; Osborne, Michelle; Hadfield, James; Macarthur, Stewart; Adryan, Boris; Lyons, Scott K; Brindle, Kevin M; Griffiths, John; Gleave, Martin E; Rennie, Paul S; Neal, David E; Mills, Ian G

    2011-05-20

    The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate growth and the principal drug target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Previous studies have mapped AR targets and identified some candidates which may contribute to cancer progression, but did not characterize AR biology in an integrated manner. In this study, we took an interdisciplinary approach, integrating detailed genomic studies with metabolomic profiling and identify an anabolic transcriptional network involving AR as the core regulator. Restricting flux through anabolic pathways is an attractive approach to deprive tumours of the building blocks needed to sustain tumour growth. Therefore, we searched for targets of the AR that may contribute to these anabolic processes and could be amenable to therapeutic intervention by virtue of differential expression in prostate tumours. This highlighted calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, which we show is overexpressed in prostate cancer and regulates cancer cell growth via its unexpected role as a hormone-dependent modulator of anabolic metabolism. In conclusion, it is possible to progress from transcriptional studies to a promising therapeutic target by taking an unbiased interdisciplinary approach.

  2. Trends in the Use of Chemotherapy before and after Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Seo, Ho Kyung; Shin, Hee Chul; Chang, Sung Ja; Yun, Sooin; Joo, Jungnam; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyung Suk; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Jeong, In Gab; Kang, Seok Ho; Hong, Bumsik

    2015-08-01

    We investigated trends in perioperative chemotherapy use, and determined factors associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) use in Korean patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We recruited 1,324 patients who had MIBC without nodal invasion or metastases and had undergone radical cystectomies (RC) between 2003 and 2013. The study's cut-off time for AC was three months after surgery, and the study's timespan was divided into three periods based on NAC use, namely, 2003-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013. Complete remission was defined as histologically confirmed T0N0M0 after RC. NAC and AC were administered to 7.3% and 18.1% of the patients, respectively. The median time interval between completing NAC and undergoing RC was 32 days and the mean number of cycles was 3.2. The median time interval between RC and AC was 43 days and the mean number of cycles was 4.1. Gemcitabine and cisplatin were most frequently used in combination for NAC (49.0%) and AC (74.9%). NAC use increased significantly from 4.6% between 2003 and 2005 to 8.4% between 2010 and 2013 (P < 0.05), but AC use did not increase. Only 1.9% of patients received NAC and AC. Complete remission after NAC was achieved in 12 patients (12.5%). Multivariable modeling revealed that an advanced age, the earliest time period analyzed, and clinical tumor stage ≤ cT2 bladder cancer were negatively associated with NAC use (P < 0.05). While NAC use has slowly increased over time, it remains an underutilized therapeutic approach in Korean clinical practice.

  3. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Balekouzou, Augustin; Yin, Ping; Afewerky, Henok Kessete; Bekolo, Cavin; Pamatika, Christian Maucler; Nambei, Sylvain Wilfrid; Djeintote, Marceline; Doui Doumgba, Antoine; Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamont; Shu, Chang; Yin, Minghui; Fu, Zhen; Qing, Tingting; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Zhongyu; Koffi, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries; however, there is very little evidence of behavioral factors associated with breast cancer risk. This study was conducted to identify lifestyles as risk factors for breast cancer among Central African women. A case-control study was conducted with 174 cases confirmed histologically by the pathology unit of the National Laboratory and 348 age-matched controls. Data collection tools included a questionnaire with interviews and medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained by unconditional logistic regression. In total, 522 women were studied with a mean age of 45.8 (SD = 13.4) years. By unconditional logistic regression model, women with breast cancer were more likely to have attained illiterate and elementary education level [11.23 (95% CI, 4.65–27.14) and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.15–4.99)], married [2.09 (95% CI, 1.18–3.71)], positive family history [2.31 (95% CI, 1.36–3.91)], radiation exposure [8.21 (95% CI, 5.04–13.38)], consumption charcuterie [10.82 (95% CI, 2.39–48.90)], fresh fish consumption [4.26 (95% CI, 1.56–11.65)], groundnut consumption [6.46 (95% CI, 2.57–16.27)], soybean consumption [16.74 (95% CI, 8.03–39.84)], alcohol [2.53 (95% CI, 1.39–4.60)], habit of keeping money in bras[3.57 (95% CI, 2.24–5.69)], overweight [5.36 (95% CI, 4.46–24.57)] and obesity [3.11(95% CI, 2.39–20.42)]. However, decreased risk of breast cancer was associated with being employed [0.32 (95% CI, 0.19–0.56)], urban residence [0.16 (95% CI, 0.07–0.37)], groundnut oil consumption [0.05 (95% CI, 0.02–0.14)], wine consumption [0.16 (95% CI, 0.09–0.26)], non habit of keeping cell phone in bras [0.56 (95% CI, 0.35–0.89)] and physical activity [0.71(95% CI, 0.14–0.84)]. The study showed that little or no education, marriage, positive family history of cancer, radiation

  4. Central role of Snail1 in the regulation of EMT and resistance in cancer: a target for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Snail1 is the founding member of the Snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors, which also includes Snail2 (Slug) and Snail3 (Smuc). The superfamily is involved in cell differentiation and survival, two processes central in cancer research. Encoded by the SNAI1 gene located on human chromosome 20q13.2, Snail1 is composed of 264 amino acids and usually acts as a transcriptional repressor. Phosphorylation and nuclear localization of Snail1, governed by PI3K and Wnt signaling pathways crosstalk, are critical in Snail1’s regulation. Snail1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the process by which epithelial cells acquire a migratory, mesenchymal phenotype, as a result of its repression of E-cadherin. Snail1-induced EMT involves the loss of E-cadherin and claudins with concomitant upregulation of vimentin and fibronectin, among other biomarkers. While essential to normal developmental processes such as gastrulation, EMT is associated with metastasis, the cancer stem cell phenotype, and the regulation of chemo and immune resistance in cancer. Snail1 expression is a common sign of poor prognosis in metastatic cancer, and tumors with elevated Snail1 expression are disproportionately difficult to eradicate by current therapeutic treatments. The significance of Snail1 as a prognostic indicator, its involvement in the regulation of EMT and metastasis, and its roles in both drug and immune resistance point out that Snail1 is an attractive target for tumor growth inhibition and a target for sensitization to cytotoxic drugs. PMID:25084828

  5. Venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients with central venous catheters for 5-FU infusion-based pharmacokinetic modulating chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Reigetsu; Yanagi, Hidenori; Noda, Masafumi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Nakano, Hiroki; Gega, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi; Oshima, Tsutomu; Inoue, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shoji, Yasutsugu; Sakaki, Takatoshi; Higasa, Satoshi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Yamamura, Takehira

    2005-04-01

    Colorectal cancer patients with central venous catheters (CVC) for pharmacokinetic modulating chemotherapy (PMC) have a substantial risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). PMC, designed as a hybrid of lower metronomic and higher shorter plasma 5-FU concentrations, has been clinically successful. To determine the effectiveness and safety of D-dimer tests and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for diagnosis in cancer patients with suspected VTE, we carried out a clinical outcome study on PMC outpatients. Patients received a D-dimer test before and after commencing the PMC regimen. MDCT was performed additionally if the D-dimer test appeared positive or showed signs of VTE. When CT results were positive for thromboembolism, anticoagulation was started. The overall prevalence of VTE in PMC patients was 2.0% (7 of 350 patients). In this study, 34 out of 102 colorectal cancer patients gave a positive D-dimer test (33.3%). CT identified venous thrombi in 2 of the 102 patients (2.0%), mural thrombosis on catheterized veins in another 3 patients (2.9%), and endothelial hyperplasia on catheterized veins in 8 patients (7.8%). The catheters of these patients did not show any significant abnormalities. Patients with negative D-dimer tests showed no signs or symptoms of VTE. In colorectal cancer patients receiving continuous 5-FU infusion via CVC, a D-dimer test can be safely used as the primary diagnostic test for ruling out VTE. We suggest 7.0 microg/ml as the D-dimer cut-off value. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered in the patients showing values >7.0 microg/ml.

  6. Trends in central nervous system tumor incidence relative to other common cancers in adults, adolescents, and children in the United States, 2000 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Gittleman, Haley R; Ostrom, Quinn T; Rouse, Chaturia D; Dowling, Jacqueline A; de Blank, Peter M; Kruchko, Carol A; Elder, J Bradley; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Selman, Warren R; Sloan, Andrew E; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    Time trends in cancer incidence rates (IR) are important to measure the changing burden of cancer on a population over time. The overall IR of cancer in the United States is declining. Although central nervous system tumors (CNST) are rare, they contribute disproportionately to mortality and morbidity. In this analysis, the authors examined trends in the incidence of the most common cancers and CNST between 2000 and 2010. The current analysis used data from the United States Cancer Statistics publication and the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States. Age-adjusted IR per 100,000 population with 95% confidence intervals and the annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for selected common cancers and CNST overall and by age, sex, race/ethnicity, selected histologies, and malignancy status. In adults, there were significant decreases in colon (2000-2010: APC, -3.1), breast (2000-2010: APC, -0.8), lung (2000-2010: APC, -1.1), and prostate (2000-2010: APC, -2.4) cancer as well as malignant CNST (2008-2010: APC, -3.1), but a significant increase was noted in nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 2.7). In adolescents, there were significant increases in malignant CNST (2000-2008: APC, 1.0) and nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 3.9). In children, there were significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia (2000-2010: APC, 1.0), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2000-2010: APC, 0.6), and malignant CNST (2000-2010: APC, 0.6). Surveillance of IR trends is an important way to measure the changing public health and economic burden of cancer. In the current study, there were significant decreases noted in the incidence of adult cancer, whereas adolescent and childhood cancer IR were either stable or increasing. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  7. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  8. Comparison of Effects Between Central and Peripheral Stage I Lung Cancer Using Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy via Helical Tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Huang, Yan; Shi, Shiming; Hu, Yong; Zeng, Zhaochong

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality. Here we compared the effects and outcome between central and peripheral stage I lung cancer using image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy. From June 2011 to July 2013, a total of 33 patients with stage I lung cancer were enrolled. A total of 50 Gy in 10 fractions or 60 Gy in 10 fractions was delivered in the central arm (n = 18), while 50 Gy in 5 fractions in the peripheral arm (n = 15). Statistical analyses were performed using logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier method. The mean follow-up time was 38.1 months. Three-month, 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall response rates were 66.7%, 83.3%, 61.1%, and 72.2% and 66.7%, 80%, 80%, and 80% in the central and peripheral arms, respectively. Three-year local control rates (94.4% vs 93.3%, P = .854), regional control rates (94.4% vs 86.7%, P = .412), and distant control rates (64.2% vs 61.7%, P = .509) had no differences between the central and the peripheral arms. Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis was observed in 6 of 18 patients in the central arm and in 1 of 15 patients in the peripheral arm (P = .92). Grade 2 radiation esophagitis was 5.7% in the central arm, while none occurred in the peripheral arm (P = .008). Five (15.1%) of all patients felt slight fatigue during radiotherapy. Other major complications were not observed. In conclusion, helical image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy for central stage I lung cancer is safe and effective compared to peripheral stage I lung cancer.

  9. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. Breast cancer screening services: trade-offs in quality, capacity, outreach, and centralization.

    PubMed

    Güneş, Evrim D; Chick, Stephen E; Akşin, O Zeynep

    2004-11-01

    This work combines and extends previous work on breast cancer screening models by explicitly incorporating, for the first time, aspects of the dynamics of health care states, program outreach, and the screening volume-quality relationship in a service system model to examine the effect of public health policy and service capacity decisions on public health outcomes. We consider the impact of increasing standards for minimum reading volume to improve quality, expanding outreach with or without decentralization of service facilities, and the potential of queueing due to stochastic effects and limited capacity. The results indicate a strong relation between screening quality and the cost of screening and treatment, and emphasize the importance of accounting for service dynamics when assessing the performance of health care interventions. For breast cancer screening, increasing outreach without improving quality and maintaining capacity results in less benefit than predicted by standard models.

  11. PEPCK coordinates the regulation of central carbon metabolism to promote cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Montal, Emily; Dewi, Ruby; Bhalla, Kavita; Ou, Lihui; Hwang, Bor Jang; Ropell, Ashley; Gordon, Chris; Liu, Wan-Ju; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Sudderth, Jessica; Twaddel, William; Boros, Lazlo; Shroyer, Kenneth; Duraisamy, Sekhar; Drapkin, Ronny; Powers, R. Scott; Rohde, Jason M.; Boxer, Matthew B.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Girnun, Geoffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is well known for its role in gluconeogenesis. However, PEPCK is also a key regulator of TCA cycle flux. The TCA cycle integrates glucose, amino acid and lipid metabolism depending on cellular needs. In addition, biosynthetic pathways crucial to tumor growth require the TCA cycle for the processing of glucose and glutamine derived carbons. We show here an unexpected role for PEPCK in promoting cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by increasing glucose and glutamine utilization toward anabolic metabolism. Unexpectedly, PEPCK also increased the synthesis of ribose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as glutamine, a phenomenon not previously described. Finally, we show that the effects of PEPCK on glucose metabolism and cell proliferation are in part mediated via activation of mTORC1. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for PEPCK that links metabolic flux and anabolic pathways to cancer cell proliferation. PMID:26481663

  12. Trends in central nervous system tumor incidence relative to other common cancers in adults, adolescents, and children in the United States, 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gittleman, Haley R; Ostrom, Quinn T; Rouse, Chaturia D; Dowling, Jacqueline A; de Blank, Peter M; Kruchko, Carol A; Elder, J Bradley; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Selman, Warren R; Sloan, Andrew E; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Time trends in cancer incidence rates (IR) are important to measure the changing burden of cancer on a population over time. The overall IR of cancer in the United States is declining. Although central nervous system tumors (CNST) are rare, they contribute disproportionately to mortality and morbidity. In this analysis, the authors examined trends in the incidence of the most common cancers and CNST between 2000 and 2010. METHODS The current analysis used data from the United States Cancer Statistics publication and the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States. Age-adjusted IR per 100,000 population with 95% confidence intervals and the annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for selected common cancers and CNST overall and by age, sex, race/ethnicity, selected histologies, and malignancy status. RESULTS In adults, there were significant decreases in colon (2000-2010: APC, −3.1), breast (2000-2010: APC, −0.8), lung (2000-2010: APC, −1.1), and prostate (2000-2010: APC, −2.4) cancer as well as malignant CNST (2008-2010: APC, −3.1), but a significant increase was noted in nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 2.7). In adolescents, there were significant increases in malignant CNST (2000-2008: APC, 1.0) and nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 3.9). In children, there were significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia (2000-2010: APC, 1.0), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2000-2010: APC, 0.6), and malignant CNST (2000-2010: APC, 0.6). CONCLUSIONS Surveillance of IR trends is an important way to measure the changing public health and economic burden of cancer. In the current study, there were significant decreases noted in the incidence of adult cancer, whereas adolescent and childhood cancer IR were either stable or increasing. Cancer 2015;121:102–112. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. Time trends in cancer incidence rates are important to

  13. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea...

  14. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.

  15. Cancer and central nervous system disorders: protocol for an umbrella review of systematic reviews and updated meta-analyses of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Hutton, Brian; Driver, Jane A; Page, Matthew J; Ridao, Manuel; Valderas, José M; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Forés-Martos, Jaume; Martínez, Salvador; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Macías-Saint-Gerons, Diego; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Vieta, Eduard; Valencia, Alfonso; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael

    2017-04-04

    The objective of this study will be to synthesize the epidemiological evidence and evaluate the validity of the associations between central nervous system disorders and the risk of developing or dying from cancer. We will perform an umbrella review of systematic reviews and conduct updated meta-analyses of observational studies (cohort and case-control) investigating the association between central nervous system disorders and the risk of developing or dying from any cancer or specific types of cancer. Searches involving PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS and Web of Science will be used to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. In addition, online databases will be checked for observational studies published outside the time frames of previous reviews. Eligible central nervous system disorders will be Alzheimer's disease, anorexia nervosa, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, autism spectrum disorders, bipolar disorder, depression, Down's syndrome, epilepsy, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and schizophrenia. The primary outcomes will be cancer incidence and cancer mortality in association with a central nervous system disorder. Secondary outcome measures will be site-specific cancer incidence and mortality, respectively. Two reviewers will independently screen references identified by the literature search, as well as potentially relevant full-text articles. Data will be abstracted, and study quality/risk of bias will be appraised by two reviewers independently. Conflicts at all levels of screening and abstraction will be resolved through discussion. Random-effects meta-analyses of primary observational studies will be conducted where appropriate. Parameters for exploring statistical heterogeneity are pre-specified. The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF)/American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) criteria and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach will be used

  16. Mental health services and R&D in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Sang-Uk; Soh, Minah; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Hyunjin; Jang, Jung Won; Lim, Hee Young; Jeon, Mina; Park, Jong-Ik; Choi, SungKu; Ha, Kyooseob

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has asserted that mental illness is the greatest overriding burden of disease in the majority of developed countries, and that the socioeconomic burden of mental disease will exceed that of cancer and cardiovascular disorders in the future. The life-time prevalence rate for mental disorders in Korea is reported at 27.6 %, which means three out of 10 adults experience mental disorders more than once throughout their lifetime. Korea's suicide rate has remained the highest among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations for 10 consecutive years, with 29.1 people out of every 100,000 having committed suicide. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study on the mental health services and the Research and Development (R&D) status in Korea is hard to find. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the mental health services and the R&D status in Korea, and examines their shortcomings and future direction. The paper discusses the mental health service system, budget and human resources, followed by the mental health R&D system and budget. And, by a comparison with other OECD countries, the areas for improvement are discussed and based on that, a future direction is suggested. This paper proposes three measures to realize mid and long-term mental health promotion services and to realize improvements in mental health R&D at the national level: first, establish a national mental health system; second, forecast demand for mental health; and third, secure and develop mental health professionals.

  17. Antibiotic and other lock treatments for tunnelled central venous catheter-related infections in children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Schoot, Reineke A; van Dalen, Elvira C; van Ommen, Cornelia H; van de Wetering, Marianne D

    2013-06-25

    The risk of developing a tunnelled central venous catheter (CVC)-related infection ranges between 0.1 and 2.3 per 1000 catheter days for children with cancer. These infections are difficult to treat with systemic antibiotics (salvage rate 24% - 66%) due to biofilm formation in the CVC. Lock treatments can achieve 100 - 1000 times higher concentrations locally without exposure to high systemic concentrations. Our objective was to investigate the efficacy of antibiotic and other lock treatments in the treatment of CVC-related infections in children with cancer compared to a control intervention. We also assessed adverse events of lock treatments. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, issue 3, 2011), MEDLINE/PubMed (1945 to August 2011) and EMBASE/Ovid (1980 to August 2011). In addition we searched reference lists from relevant articles and the conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) (from 2006 to 2010), American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) (from 2006 to 2010), the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) (from 2006 to 2011), the American Society of Hematology (ASH) (from 2006 to 2010) and the International Society of Thrombosis and Haematology (ISTH) (from 2006 to 2011). We scanned the ISRCTN Register and the National Institute of Health Register for ongoing trials (www.controlled-trials.com) (August 2011). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing an antibiotic lock or other lock treatment (with or without concomitant systemic antibiotics) with a control intervention (other lock treatment with or without concomitant systemic antibiotics or systemic antibiotics alone) for the treatment of CVC-related infections in children with cancer. For the description of adverse events, cohort studies were also eligible for inclusion. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data and performed

  18. Efficacy of Letrozole as First-Line Treatment of Postmenopausal Women with Hormone Receptor-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Beom, Seung Hoon; Oh, Jisu; Kim, Tae-Yong; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Yang, Yaewon; Suh, Koung Jin; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Han, Sae-Won; Oh, Do-Youn; Han, Wonshik; Kim, Tae-You; Noh, Dong-Young; Im, Seock-Ah

    2017-04-01

    Letrozole showed efficacy and generally favorable toxicities, along with the convenience of oral administration in postmenopausal patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of the clinical outcomes in Korean patients, although letrozole is widely used in practice. Therefore, this studywas conducted to affirm the efficacy and toxicities of letrozole in Korean patients. This study retrospectively analyzed 84 HR-positive MBC patients who had been treated with letrozole from January 2001 to December 2012. Clinicopathological characteristics and treatment history were extracted from medicalrecords. All patients received 2.5 mg letrozole once a day until there were disease progressions or unacceptable toxicity. Progression-free survival (PFS) was the primary endpoint, and secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and toxicity. The median age of the subjects was 59.3 years. Letrozole treatment resulted in a median PFS of 16.8 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.8 to 23.8) and a median OS of 56.4 months (95% CI, 38.1 to 74.7). The ORR was 36.9% for the 84 patients with measurable lesions. Multivariate analysis revealed symptomatic visceral disease (hazard ratio, 3.437; 95% CI, 1.576 to 7.495; p=0.002) and a disease-free interval ≤ 2 years (hazard ratio, 2.697; 95% CI, 1.262 to 5.762; p=0.010) were independently associated with shorter PFS. However, sensitivity to adjuvant hormone treatment was not related to PFS. Letrozole was generally well tolerated. Letrozole showed considerable efficacy and tolerability as a first-line treatment in postmenopausal patients with HR-positive MBC.

  19. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  20. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

    PubMed Central

    Mbaveng, Armelle T.; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae), Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr.) Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51), two

  1. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets.

    PubMed

    Mbaveng, Armelle T; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae), Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr.) Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51), two

  2. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  3. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  4. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...

  5. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  6. A Central Role for Long Non-Coding RNA in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sheetal A.; Mitra, Anirban P.; Triche, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to regulate important biological processes that support normal cellular functions. Aberrant regulation of these essential functions can promote tumor development. In this review, we underscore the importance of the regulatory role played by this distinct class of ncRNAs in cancer-associated pathways that govern mechanisms such as cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. We also highlight the possibility of using these unique RNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in malignancies. PMID:22363342

  7. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  8. Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery with nipple-areolar preservation for centrally located breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhao-Jun; Li, Xiu-Juan; Xu, Xin-Yu; Xia, Lei; Tang, Jin-Hai

    2014-01-01

    A compariosn was made of survival outcomes of oncoplastic breast conserving therapy (oBCT) with nipple- areolar (NAC) preservation in women with centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in China in a matched retrospective cohort study. We used a database including patients who received oBCT (n=91) or MRM (n=182) from 2003 to 2013 in our hospital. Matching was conducted according to five variables: age at diagnosis, axillary lymph node status, hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 status (HER-2) and tumor stage. The match ratio was 1:2. Median follow-up times for the oBCT and MRM groups were 83 and 81 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in 87-month overall, local, or distant recurrence-free survival between patients with oBCT and MRM (89%vs.90%; 93%vs.95%; 91%vs.92%;). For appropriate breast cancer patients, oBCT for CLBC is oncologically safe, oncoplastic techniques improving cosmetic outcomes.

  9. Harvey Cushing's operative treatment of metastatic breast cancer to the central nervous system in the early 1900s.

    PubMed

    Latimer, Katherine; Pendleton, Courtney; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo

    2011-08-01

    A review of the surgical cases of Harvey Cushing, MD, at The Johns Hopkins Hospital provided insight into his early work treating breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS). At the time, neurologic surgery was in its infancy. Metastases of breast carcinoma to the CNS were recognized; however, many surgeons of the era adhered to a general principle of not operating in these situations. The Johns Hopkins Hospital surgical records from 1896 to 1912 were reviewed. Four cases in which Cushing treated patients with a history of breast cancer who were diagnosed as having CNS metastasis were selected for further study. Cushing performed surgery on 4 patients with suspected CNS metastasis in the early 1900s. For a spinal metastasis, Cushing performed a laminectomy and intradural exploratory surgery. His treatments in cerebral cases sought to relieve increased intracranial pressure through decompression. He resected the lesions when they could be located. From the start of his career as a neurosurgeon, Cushing chose to perform surgery on patients with suspected CNS metastasis in an attempt to palliate some of their symptoms. Although his patients did not survive long after the procedures, they did experience temporary relief of symptoms that likely encouraged Cushing's continued operations in such situations and laid the foundation for future therapies for these patients.

  10. Social inequalities in non-small cell lung cancer management and survival: a population-based study in central Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Anders; Holmberg, Lars; Tishelman, Carol; Wagenius, Gunnar; Eaker, Sonja; Lambe, Mats

    2010-04-01

    To examine possible associations between socioeconomic status, management and survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In a population-based cohort study, information was retrieved from the Regional Lung Cancer Register in central Sweden, the Cause of Death Register and a social database. ORs and HRs were compared to assess associations between educational level and management and survival. 3370 eligible patients with an NSCLC diagnosis between 1996 and 2004 were identified. There were no differences in stage at diagnosis between educational groups. A higher diagnostic intensity was observed in patients with high compared with low education. There were also social gradients in time between referral and diagnosis in early stage disease (median time: low, 32 days; high, 17 days). Social differences in treatment remained following adjustment for prognostic factors (surgery in early stage disease, high vs low OR 2.84; CI 1.40 to 5.79). Following adjustment for prognostic factors and treatment, the risk of death in early stage disease was lower in women with a high education (high vs low HR 0.33; CI 0.14 to 0.77). The results of this study indicate that socioeconomically disadvantaged groups with NSCLC receive less intensive care. Low education remained an independent predictor of poor survival only in women with early stage disease. The exact underlying mechanisms of these social inequalities are unknown, but differences in access to care, co-morbidity and lifestyle factors may all contribute.

  11. Clinicopathologic characteristics and pattern of central lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer located in the isthmus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Chan; Na, Se Young; Chung, Hoon; Kim, Su Il; Eun, Young-Gyu

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics and pattern of lymph node (LN) metastasis in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) located in the isthmus. Retrospective cohort study. One hundred ninety consecutive patients with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy and bilateral central neck dissection were analyzed. Preoperative ultrasonography was reviewed to identify PTC located in the isthmus. Clinicopathologic factors including age, sex, tumor size, extrathyroidal extension (ETE), margin, angiolymphatic invasion, and nodal metastasis were evaluated. Of 190 PTC patients, 14 patients (7.3%) had a tumor located in the isthmus. The PTCs located in the isthmus were more likely to have ETE and central LN involvement. Furthermore, PTCs located in the isthmus had a higher frequency of metastasis to pretracheal and prelaryngeal LNs than those located in the lobes. PTCs located in the isthmus were associated with ETE and more likely to involve the pretracheal and prelaryngeal LNs. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2419-2421, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Binder, David C; Davis, Andrew A; Wainwright, Derek A

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies.

  13. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Binder, David C.; Davis, Andrew A.; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies. PMID:27057463

  14. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and its genotype among 1336 invasive cervical cancer patients in Hunan province, central south China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqian; Wu, Baiping; Li, Junjun; Chen, Liyu

    2015-03-01

    Existing data on the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited in Hunan province, central south China. To evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection and its genotype among women with invasive cervical cancer in Hunan, a total of 1,336 patients were included in this study between July 2012 and June 2013. Eighteen high-risk and eight low-risk genotypes of HPV were detected by Luminex xMAP technology. The results show that HPV prevalence in invasive cervical cancer in Hunan was 75.7%. A single HPV infection was found in 82.3% of the HPV-positive samples, and 91.8% of the cases had high-risk HPV infection. The most common HPV type was HPV 16 (50.6%), followed by HPV 58 (12.4%), HPV 52 (10.9%), HPV 18 (7.3%), HPV 33 (5.5%), HPV 59 (4.2%), HPV 39 (4.0%), HPV 61 (3.4%), HPV 31 (3.3%), and HPV 56 (3.2%). A single infection with HPV 16 was detected in 42.5% of the samples, which was significantly more frequent than any other HPV type in this population. Dual-infection with HPV 16 and HPV 52 were relatively common. The available vaccines for HPV 16 and 18 are therefore expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the burden of cervical cancer in China, even though HPV 18 showed a lower frequency. In addition to HPV 16 and 18, other HPV types including 58, 52, and 33, should be targeted in the next generation HPV vaccines.

  15. Peripherally inserted central catheters in non-hos