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Sample records for korea central cancer

  1. Occupational respiratory cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed.

  2. Occupational Burden of Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The extent of the occupational cancer burden has rarely been estimated in Korea. The aim of this study is to provide an estimation of the population attributable fraction (PAF) of occupational cancer in Korea. Methods Nine kinds of Group 1 carcinogens addressed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and 7 kinds of cancer were selected for the target carcinogens and diseases, respectively. The prevalence of carcinogen-exposed workers was estimated and correction factors were applied so that the value would be representative of the total population. Data on relative risk (RR) were taken from IARC reports and were compared with the RRs from the studies on Korean workers. The PAF was estimated according to Levin's formula. Results The proportion of the general Korean population exposed to carcinogens was 9.7%. The PAF of total cancer was 1.1% for incident cancer cases and 1.7% for cancer deaths. The PAFs of lung cancer and leukemia were 7.0% and 4.%, respectively. With the RRs reported from Korean studies, the PAF for lung cancer and leukemia were 3.7% and 3.4%, respectively. Conclusion The PAF in this study (1.1%) was lower than that reported in previous studies (2-4%) from developed countries. Considering that only 9 of the 29 kinds of Group 1 carcinogens were included in this study, the PAF might be underestimated. However, because the process of industrialization in Korea differs from that which occurred in other developed countries, 1.1% of the PAF might be appropriate for Korea. PMID:22953164

  3. Changing trends in colorectal cancer in the Republic of Korea: contrast with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Minjoo; Kim, Nicholas; Nam, Byungho; Joo, Jungnam; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high worldwide incidence. Japan, a country that is geographically and culturally similar to the Republic of Korea (here after Korea), has recently reported a decreasing trend in the incidence of colorectal cancer. However, Korea had the highest incidence of colorectal cancer among Asian countries in 2012. Our aim was to observe the changing trends in incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in Korea and to compare them to those in Japan. Incidence data were collected from the Korean Central Cancer Registry and mortality data were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service. Incidence and mortality data on colorectal cancer in Japan were acquired from the National Cancer Center in Japan. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were determined based on Segi’s world population. Screening data from both countries were collected from the national cancer center in each country. In Korea, the age-standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes was 20.9 to 38.0 per 100,000 from 1999 to 2012 and the rate in males increased more dramatically than in females. In addition, the increase between 2002 and 2012 was first observed in the age group over 40. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer has been more constant over recent years than in Korea. The age-standardized mortality rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes in Korea was 8.5 to 9.3 per 100,000 from 2000 to 2013, and the trend in mortality was constant during this period. In Japan, the mortality rate decreased slightly during the same period. Crude screening rates were increased overall in both Korea and Japan during the period studied. Since the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased in Korea, the control of this cancer is an important public health issue. As Japan has achieved a reduction in colorectal cancer, adjustment of Korea’s current systems for screening and treatment of colorectal cancer according to those of Japan may contribute to

  4. Cancer, Stress, and Ironies of Cancer Understanding in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Laura C

    2017-01-01

    Cancer incidence has been rising in South Korea, coincident with industrialization and with increased longevity. This has opened the way to a presentation of cancer as a symptom of prosperity and social advancement. Cancer care for older South Koreans is marketed widely as a way of giving back to the older generation, and is often portrayed as an opportunity to mobilize technological achievement alongside family care work to honor aging parents. Because breast cancer tends to affect a younger cohort, however, breast cancer patients seek more specific explanations for their illness in order to prevent recurrence. Many breast cancer patients identify 'stress' as the cause of their cancer, reflecting endemic stress in the lives of ordinary South Korean women. While this implies a critique of society and, specifically, of gender constructs, the emphasis on interpersonal 'stress' situates cancer causality in family relationships rather than in social, political, or environmental contexts. Cancer management and stress explanations together mute inquiry into causality.

  5. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Methods Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. Results The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Conclusion Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000. PMID:25559576

  6. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%–56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%. PMID:27064578

  7. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  8. Basic Facts of Breast Cancer in Korea in 2014: The 10-Year Overall Survival Progress

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Hwa; Min, Sun Young; Kim, Zisun; Yoon, Chan Seok; Jung, Kyu-Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Oh, Se Jeong; Lee, Seeyoun; Park, Byeong-Woo; Lim, Woosung

    2017-01-01

    We, the Korean Breast Cancer Society (KBCS), present the facts and the trends of breast cancer in Korea in 2014. Data on the total number of newly diagnosed patients was obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry database, other data were collected from the KBCS online registry database, and the overall survival data of patients were updated from Statistics Korea. A total of 21,484 female patients were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 2014. The crude incidence rate and the age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) of breast cancer in female patients, including carcinoma in situ, were 83.4 cases and 63.9 cases per 100,000 women, respectively. The ASR showed an annual increase of 6.1% from 1999 to 2014; however, although the increase of the ASR had slowed since 2008, the incidence rate itself continuously increased. The proportion of early breast cancer increased consistently, and the pathological features changed accordingly. While breast-conserving surgery was mainly performed, the proportion of total mastectomy was slightly increased. The total number of breast reconstruction surgeries increased rapidly. The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates for all stages of breast cancer patients were 91.2% and 84.8%, respectively. The overall survival rate of Korean patients with breast cancer was extremely high, compared with other developed countries. Thus, we consider that the clinical characteristics of breast cancer have changed over the past decade. A nationwide registry data will contribute to a better understanding of the characteristics of breast cancer in Korea. PMID:28382089

  9. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required.

  10. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  11. Cancer Incidence and Survival among Adolescents and Young Adults in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Park, Hyeon Jin; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Shin, Hee Young; Park, Byung Kiu; Won, Young-Joo

    2014-01-01

    Background In Korea, cancer is the third leading cause of death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs). However, cancer incidence and survival trends among AYAs (15–29 years) have never been studied in Korea. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the incidence and relative survival rates and their trends among AYAs in Korea. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999–2010 were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR). Each cancer was classified into subgroups according to the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) AYA site recode. Percent distributions, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates per million, and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated for AYAs according to sex. Five-year relative survival rates were estimated for cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2010 and followed up to 2011. Results The age-standardized incidence rates of all cancers combined were 196.4 and 367.8 per million for males and females, respectively (male-to-female (M/F) ratio: 0.5). The age-standardized incidence rates increased from 208.7 per million in 1999 to 396.4 per million in 2010, and the APC was 6.3% (P<0.001). The five most common cancers among AYAs were thyroid carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, stomach carcinoma, breast carcinoma, and acute myeloid leukemia. In males, the 5-year relative survival rate improved, from 46.5% in 1993–1995 to 75.9% in 2006–2010. In females, the 5-year relative survival rate also improved, from 66.7% in 1993–1995 to 89.1% in 2006–2010. Conclusions Our study showed increases in cancer incidence and improvements in the 5-year relative survival rate among Korean AYAs. This study also provides additional data regarding temporal and geographic trends in cancer that may enhance future efforts to identify factors affecting cancer incidence and responses to treatment among AYAs. PMID:24789075

  12. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  13. High Incidence of Breast Cancer in Light-Polluted Areas with Spatial Effects in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Park, Man Sik; Lee, Eunil; Choi, Jae Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have reported a high prevalence of breast cancer in light-polluted areas in Korea. However, it is necessary to analyze the spatial effects of light polluted areas on breast cancer because light pollution levels are correlated with region proximity to central urbanized areas in studied cities. In this study, we applied a spatial regression method (an intrinsic conditional autoregressive [iCAR] model) to analyze the relationship between the incidence of breast cancer and artificial light at night (ALAN) levels in 25 regions including central city, urbanized, and rural areas. By Poisson regression analysis, there was a significant correlation between ALAN, alcohol consumption rates, and the incidence of breast cancer. We also found significant spatial effects between ALAN and the incidence of breast cancer, with an increase in the deviance information criterion (DIC) from 374.3 to 348.6 and an increase in R2 from 0.574 to 0.667. Therefore, spatial analysis (an iCAR model) is more appropriate for assessing ALAN effects on breast cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show spatial effects of light pollution on breast cancer, despite the limitations of an ecological study. We suggest that a decrease in ALAN could reduce breast cancer more than expected because of spatial effects.

  14. Epidemiologic survey of head and neck cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Moon; Kim, Young Mo; Shim, Yoon-Sang; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Hyuck Soon; Choi, Jong Ouck; Rho, Young Soo; Kim, Min-Sik; Choi, Eun Chang; Choi, Geon; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Sang-Yun; Lee, Yong-Sik; Baek, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Young-Ho; Im, Jung-Hyuk; Choi, Sang-Hak; Kim, Jae-Hee

    2003-02-01

    Head and neck cancers have never been systematically studied for clinical purposes yet in Korea. This epidemiological survey on head and neck cancer patients was undertaken from January to December 2001 in 79 otorhinolaryngology resident-training hospitals nationwide. The number of head and neck cancer patients was 1,063 cases in the year. The largest proportion of cases arose in the larynx, as many as 488 cases, which accounted for 45.9%. It was followed by, in order of frequency, oral cavity (16.5%), oropharynx (10.0%), and hypopharynx (9.5%). The male:female ratio was 5:1, and the mean age was 60.3 yr. Surgery was the predominant treatment modality in head and neck cancers: 204 (21.5%) cases were treated with only surgery, 198 (20.8%) cases were treated with surgery and radiotherapy, 207 cases (21.8%) were treated with combined therapy of surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Larynx and hypopharynx cancers had a stronger relationship with smoking and alcohol drinking than other primary site cancers. Of them, 21 cases were found to be metastasized at the time of diagnosis into the lung, gastrointestinal tract, bone, or brain. Coexisting second primary malignancies were found in 23 cases. At the time of diagnosis, a total of 354 cases had cervical lymph node metastasis accounting for 42.0%.

  15. Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung Ja; Khang, Shin Kwang; Lee, Seung Sook; Koh, Jae Soo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Lee, Yong Sik; Shim, Yoon Sang

    2002-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) constitute 3.5-4% of all malignancies. Since the majority of cases are squamous cell carcinomas which are related with epidemiologic factors, a different pattern of UADT cancer might be present between the Western and Asian populations. We performed a pathology based statistical study on UADT cancers in Korean patients. Cases from Korea Cancer Center Hospital, from January 1, 1988 through December 31, 1998, were subjected to the study. Among 2,842 cases, epithelial malignancies accounted for 87.8%, with squamous cell carcinoma as the major type (76.5%). The larynx was the most commonly affected site (26%), followed by the oral cavity (25.1%), oropharynx (13%), nasopharynx (9%), hypopharynx (8.4%), paranasal sinuses (6.4%), nasal cavity (6%) and salivary glands (6.1%). The percentage of squamous cell carcinoma was highest (98.7%) at the hypopharynx, and lowest at the nasal cavity (42.3%), which showed the most diverse tumor entities. Korean patients with UADT cancers presented with a higher incidence of non-epidermoid malignancy including sarcoma (1.5%) and malignant melanoma (1.4%), and a higher frequency of involvement of the sinonasal tract, compared with the Western patients. PMID:11850583

  16. The National Cancer Screening Program for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea: is it cost-effective?

    PubMed

    Kang, Moon Hae; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan; Cho, Eun

    2013-01-01

    This goal of this research was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for breast cancer in the Republic of Korea from a government expenditure perspective. In 2002-2003 (baseline), a total of 8,724,860 women aged 40 years or over were invited to attend breast cancer screening by the NCSP. Those who attended were identified using the NCSP database, and women were divided into two groups, women who attended screening at baseline (screened group) and those who did not (non-screened group). Breast cancer diagnosis in both groups at baseline, and during 5-year follow-up was identified using the Korean Central Cancer Registry. The effectiveness of the NCSP for breast cancer was estimated by comparing 5-year survival and life years saved (LYS) between the screened and the unscreened groups, measured using mortality data from the Korean National Health Insurance Corporation and the National Health Statistical Office. Direct screening costs, indirect screening costs, and productivity costs were considered in different combinations in the model. When all three of these costs were considered together, the incremental cost to save one life year of a breast cancer patient was 42,305,000 Korean Won (KW) (1 USD=1,088 KW) for the screened group compared to the non-screened group. In sensitivity analyses, reducing the false-positive rate of the screening program by half was the most cost-effective (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio, ICER=30,110,852 KW/LYS) strategy. When the upper age limit for screening was set at 70 years, it became more cost-effective (ICER=39,641,823 KW/LYS) than when no upper age limit was set. The NCSP for breast cancer in Korea seems to be accepted as cost-effective as ICER estimates were around the Gross Domestic Product. However, cost-effectiveness could be further improved by increasing the sensitivity of breast cancer screening and by setting appropriate age limits.

  17. Asbestos-related occupational cancers compensated under the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2009-04-01

    Compensation for asbestos-related cancers occurring in occupationally-exposed workers is a global issue; this is also an issue in Korea. To provide basic information regarding compensation for workers exposed to asbestos, 60 cases of asbestos-related occupational lung cancer and mesothelioma that were compensated during 15 yr; from 1993 (the year the first case was compensated) to 2007 by the Korea Labor Welfare Corporation (KLWC) are described. The characteristics of the cases were analyzed using the KLWC electronic data and the epidemiologic investigation data conducted by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA). The KLWC approved compensation for 41 cases of lung cancer and 19 cases of mesothelioma. Males accounted for 91.7% (55 cases) of the approved cases. The most common age group was 50-59 yr (45.0%). The mean duration of asbestos exposure for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 19.2 and 16.0 yr, respectively. The mean latency period for lung cancer and mesothelioma cases was 22.1 and 22.6 yr, respectively. The major industries associated with mesothelioma cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (4 cases) and manufacture of asbestos textiles (3 cases). The major industries associated with lung cancer cases were shipbuilding and maintenance (7 cases), construction (6 cases), and manufacture of basic metals (4 cases). The statistics pertaining to asbestos-related occupational cancers in Korea differ from other developed countries in that more cases of mesothelioma were compensated than lung cancer cases. Also, the mean latency period for disease onset was shorter than reported by existing epidemiologic studies; this discrepancy may be related to the short history of occupational asbestos use in Korea. Considering the current Korean use of asbestos, the number of compensated cases in Korea is expected to increase in the future but not as much as developed countries.

  18. Cancer screening status in Korea, 2011: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Seo, Hong Gwan

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the use of screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers, which are included in the Korean National Cancer Screening Programme. In 2011 the National Cancer Centre in Korea conducted a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional interview survey using multi-stage random sampling. Participants included 4,100 cancer-free men 40 years and over of age and women over 30 years of age. The lifetime screening rates for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 76.2%, 54.3%, 56.1%, 79.0%, and, 74.8%, respectively. The rates of recommended screening for stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 64.6%, 22.9%, 35.3%, 60.4%, and 62.4%, respectively. More than 70% of all screening was attributed to organised cancer screening programmes. The main reason given for non attendance was 'no symptoms'. A greater effort is needed to increase screening rates, especially for liver and colorectal cancers.

  19. Middle Holocene environmental change in central Korea and its linkage to summer and winter monsoon changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaesoo; Yang, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Young; Hong, Sei-Sun; Um, In Kwon

    2015-07-01

    To trace the surficial responses of lowlands to past climate change, we investigated δ13C in total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratios, magnetic susceptibility (MS), and silicon (Si) intensity (directly proportional to concentration) in wetland sediments collected from the Gimpo area of central Korea, covering 6600-4600 cal yr BP. Two organic layers with high TOC%, negatively depleted δ13CTOC values (- 27 to - 29‰), low MS values, and low Si intensities were found at 6200-5900 and 5200-4800 cal yr BP, respectively. These middle Holocene wet periods corresponded to relatively intensified summer monsoon and solar activity periods. The intervening dry period (5900-5200 cal yr BP) with high MS, high Si, and low TOC% corresponded to an intensified dust-activity interval and stronger winter monsoon. This multi-centennial climatic fluctuation of wet periods (6200-5900 cal yr BP and 5200-4800 cal yr BP) and an intervening dry period (5900-5200 cal yr BP) in central Korea was more synchronous with climate change in the arid inner part of China than with that in South China, suggesting possible strong high-latitude-driven climatic influences (e.g., North Atlantic cooling events) during the middle Holocene.

  20. Effectiveness of interventions to increase screening for gastric and colorectal cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kam, Sin

    2014-01-01

    Public health centers in Korea play an important role at the community level in encouraging residents to participate in cancer screening, usually by sending reminders in the mail and by making phone calls. However, there have not been any studies on the effectiveness of these interventions by public health centers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this question. The study was limited to male subjects aged 50-59 years living in one district of Daegu, Korea. A total of 923 subjects were selected for the study among the target population for gastric and colorectal cancer screening as part of the National Cancer Screening Program in 2012. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control, postal intervention, telephone intervention, and telephone and postal intervention. Three months after the interventions, the results were confirmed by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Logistic regression analyses were performed to find differences in participation rates in cancer screening for each group. Men who received telephone and postal intervention were most likely (40.5%) to undergo gastric cancer screening, in comparison to the men who received telephone intervention only (31.7%), postal intervention only (22.2%) and those in the control group (17.9%). Also, men who received telephone and postal intervention were most likely (27.8%) to participate in colorectal cancer screening, followed by the men who received telephone intervention only (24.3%), postal intervention only (16.5%), and men in the control group (13.5%). Combined telephone and postal intervention and telephone only intervention as well produced significantly increased rates of participation in cancer screening in comparison to the control group. There was no significant difference, however, between the postal intervention only and control groups for either colorectal or gastric cancer screening.

  1. Factors associated with compliance with recommendations for liver cancer screening in Korea: a nationwide survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with compliance with recommendations regarding liver cancer screening intervals and methods among individuals at high-risk for liver cancer in the Republic of Korea. We used data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), a representative cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2009. The liver cancer screening rate and factors associated with compliance with recommended screening intervals (6 months) and methods (both abdominal ultrasonography and serum alpha-fetoprotein testing) among individuals at high risk for liver cancer such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were investigated. Out of 24,871 KNHANES IV participants, 604 HBV carriers aged ≥ 20 years were included in our analysis. 39.6% of our study sample reported attending liver cancer screening at least once in their lifetime, 12.3% had attended within the previous 6 months, and 14.6% were screened using both recommended methods. Older age was associated with increased compliance with screening intervals (P-trend 0.011) and methods (40-49 year: OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.62-6.51; 50-59 years: OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.44-6.66; 60-69 years: OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.28-7.82). Unawareness of HBV infection status was negatively related to compliance with screening intervals and methods (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.53; OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.26-0.79). Female sex (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.25-0.78), lower household income (P-trend 0.011), and routine and manual occupations (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97) were associated with decreased compliance with screening methods. The liver cancer screening rate among high-risk individuals is much less suboptimal. Considering that those unaware of their HBV infection status got regular and complete liver cancer screening much less often, efforts should be made not only to decrease sociodemographic disparities, but also to better identify the high-risk population.

  2. When public health intervention is not successful: Cost sharing, crowd-out, and selection in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyuncheol Bryant; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2017-03-06

    This study investigates the impact of and behavioral responses to cost sharing in Korea's National Cancer Screening Program, which provides free stomach and breast cancer screenings to those with an income below a certain cutoff. Free cancer screening substantially increases the screening take up rate, yielding more cancer detections. However, the increase in cancer detection is quickly crowded out by cancer detection through other channels such as diagnostic testing and private cancer screening. Further, compliers are much less likely to have cancer than never takers. Crowd-out and selection help explain why the program has been unable to reduce cancer mortality.

  3. Guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eung Don; Lee, Jin Young; Son, Ji Seon; Byeon, Gyeong Jo; Yeo, Jin Seok; Kim, Do Wan; Yoo, Sie Hyeon; Hong, Ji Hee

    2017-01-01

    As the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain gradually increases, clinicians have more opportunities to encounter opioid prescription. However, guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic non-cancer pain have never been published in Korea. The present guidelines were prepared by reviewing various research data. In cases in which the data were insufficient, recommendations were presented following discussion among experts affiliated with the Opioids Research Group in the Korean Pain Society. The present guidelines may need to be continuously revised and amended as more clinical evidence is acquired. PMID:28119768

  4. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea practice guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC.

  5. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25995680

  6. Thinning intensity influences on soil microbial and inorganic nitrogen in Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Li, G.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Lee, S. T.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    With growing considerations for sustainable forest management, examining thinning effects on forest ecosystems becomes one of the principal research focuses. Soil microbial biomass and inorganic nitrogen (N) have, particularly, received increasing attentions, as they are the relevant indices for N availability in forests. Here, we investigated the influences of thinning on soil microbial biomass N (MBN) and inorganic N (NH4+ and NO3-) in two Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea. The thinning from below with different intensities based on stand density (site 1: control, 20%, and 30% thinning; site 2: control, 39%, and 74% thinning) was applied in 2008, and MBN, NH4+, and NO3- at 0-10 cm depth were measured seven years after thinning. The MBN, NH4+, and NO3- concentrations (mg kg-1) of the site 1 were 69.8, 9.8, and 6.3 in the control, 94.6, 9.3, and 4.0 in the 20% thinning plot, and 97.2, 8.4, and 5.2 in the 30% thinning plot, respectively. On the other hand, those of the site 2 were 34.5, 5.4, and 6.3 in the control, 37.3, 4.7, and 7.8 in the 39% thinning plot, and 44.4, 4.4, and 9.2 in the 74% thinning plot, respectively. The MBN of the thinning plots tended to be higher compared to those of the controls, although the analysis of variance reported the significant difference only for the MBN in the site 1 (P<0.05). This might be attributed to the incorporation of organic matter from the introduced thinning residues and from the increased understory vegetation following thinning. However, no significant difference was found for the NH4+ and NO3- (P>0.05). The results of the present study show that the application of thinning could differently affect MBN and inorganic N; accordingly, this difference might alter N availability of the study sites. This study was supported by Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute.

  7. Estimates of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risk from Food Intake in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 131I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food). Cancer risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated committed effective dose and the detriment adjusted nominal risk coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The lifetime committed effective doses from the daily diet are ranged 2.957-3.710 mSv. Excess lifetime cancer risks are 14.4-18.1, 0.4-0.5, and 1.8-2.3 per 100,000 for all solid cancers combined, thyroid cancer, and leukemia, respectively. PMID:26770031

  8. Estimates of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risk from Food Intake in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Ha, Wi-Ho; Seo, Songwon; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (131)I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food). Cancer risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated committed effective dose and the detriment adjusted nominal risk coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The lifetime committed effective doses from the daily diet are ranged 2.957-3.710 mSv. Excess lifetime cancer risks are 14.4-18.1, 0.4-0.5, and 1.8-2.3 per 100,000 for all solid cancers combined, thyroid cancer, and leukemia, respectively.

  9. Development processes and growth pattern of Pinus densiflora stands in central eastern Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Pil Sun; Kim, Kyung Yoon; Han, Ahreum; Jang, Woongsoon; Son, Yowhan; Yi, Myong Jong; Park, Byung Bae; Son, Yeongmo

    2010-07-01

    Stand growth and developmental processes were investigated in Pinus densiflora Siebold et Zucc. stands of different ages in the central eastern region of Korea. Stands were inventoried and five trees per stand were sampled for stem analysis, age estimation, and growth analysis. More than 80% of sampled trees in a stand were established within 3-5 years, and most stands had a single cohort structure. The initial growth of pine seedlings was slow, but the height growth accelerated beyond 2-3 m height, 5-10 years after establishment. Linear growth was maintained until 10-12 m height, at which suppressed trees fell behind and might die out. The young stand was composed of pure pines, while few pine seedlings and saplings were found in the understory of older stands. The peak of diameter growth rate occurred around 5-15 years after tree establishment, implying that competition begins during that period. The pine stand development follows four stages: (1) the young stage when the growth rate increases and peaks; (2) the height competition stage when trees focus on height growth for light while maintaining a narrow DBH and height distribution; (3) the differentiation stage when suppressed trees die out, and the DBH distribution becomes wider; and (4) the mature stage when stands have a multi-canopy structure with a wide DBH and height distribution, while the understory is dominated by other tree species. The changes in growth rates and stand structure through forest development would be implemented to predict alterations of above-ground carbon sequestration rates.

  10. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Ae; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-07-30

    The role of diet-associated inflammation in colorectal cancer is of interest. Accordingly, we aimed to examine whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII) was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study conducted in Korea. The DII was based on dietary intake, which was determined by a 106-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire completed by 923 colorectal cancer cases and 1846 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were conducted by the anatomical site of the cancer, sex, and other risk factors. Higher DII scores were associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer (OR (95% CI) = 2.16 (1.71, 2.73) for highest vs. lowest tertile). The magnitude differed by anatomical site and sex. This association was slightly weaker in subjects with proximal colon cancer (1.68 (1.08, 2.61)) and was stronger in women (2.50 (1.64, 3.82)). Additionally, stronger associations were observed in subjects who were older than 50 years (p for interaction = 0.004) and engaged in physical activity (p for interaction < 0.001). Results from this study suggest that diet-associated inflammation may increase the risk of colorectal cancer, and this effect may differ by certain factors, such as anatomical site, age, sex, and lifestyle.

  11. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43–0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  12. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers’ involvement. Design A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. Setting A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. Participants The snowball method was used to select mothers. Results Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers’ awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. Conclusions The mothers’ awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:25976761

  13. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Waymire, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  14. Cancer-related fatigue: central or peripheral?

    PubMed

    Yavuzsen, Tugba; Davis, Mellar P; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Walsh, Declan; Siemionow, Vlodek; Kirkova, Jordanka; Khoshknabi, Dilara; Lagman, Ruth; LeGrand, Susan; Yue, Guang H

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate cancer-related fatigue (CRF) by objective measurements to determine if CRF is a more centrally or peripherally mediated disorder, cancer patients and matched noncancer controls completed a Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) and underwent neuromuscular testing. Cancer patients had fatigue measured by the BFI, were off chemotherapy and radiation (for more than four weeks), had a hemoglobin level higher than 10 g/dL, and were neither receiving antidepressants nor were depressed on a screening question. The controls were screened for depression and matched by age, gender, and body mass index. Neuromuscular testing involved a sustained submaximal elbow flexion contraction (SC) at 30% maximal level (30% maximum elbow flexion force). Endurance time (ET) was measured from the beginning of the SC to the time when participants could not maintain the SC. Evoked twitch force (TF), a measure of muscle fatigue, and compound action potential (M-wave), an assessment of neuromuscular-junction transmission were performed during the SC. Compared with controls, the CRF group had a higher BFI score (P<0.001), a shorter ET (P<0.001), and a greater TF with the SC (CRF>controls, P<0.05). This indicated less muscle fatigue. There was a greater TF (P<0.05) at the end of the SC, indicating greater central fatigue, in the CRF group, which failed to recruit muscle (to continue the SC), as well as the controls. M-Wave amplitude was lower in the CRF group than in the controls (P<0.01), indicating impaired neuromuscular junction conduction with CRF unrelated to central fatigue (M-wave amplitude did not change with SC). These data demonstrate that CRF patients exhibited greater central fatigue, indicated by shorter ET and less voluntary muscle recruitment during an SC relative to controls.

  15. Risks of Lung Cancer due to Radon Exposure among the Regions of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Lim, Dohee; Park, Su Hyun; Baik, Sun Jung; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Park, Hyesook

    2015-05-01

    Radon is likely the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. We estimated the lung cancer risk due to radon using common risk models. Based on national radon survey data, we estimated the population-attributable fraction (PAF) and the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon. The exposure-age duration (EAD) and exposure-age concentration (EAC) models were used. The regional average indoor radon concentration was 37.5 95 Bq/m(3). The PAF for lung cancer was 8.3% (European Pooling Study model), 13.5% in males and 20.4% in females by EAD model, and 19.5% in males and 28.2% in females by EAC model. Due to differences in smoking by gender, the PAF of radon-induced lung cancer deaths was higher in females. In the Republic of Korea, the risk of radon is not widely recognized. Thus, information about radon health risks is important and efforts are needed to decrease the associated health problems.

  16. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Gastric Cancer in Korea: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the context of the global decrease in mortality due to gastric cancer, previous studies have reported that the effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on the incidence of gastric cancer varies among regions. This systematic review was conducted to investigate H. pylori as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Korea, where the incidence of gastric cancer is among the highest in the world. Methods: A search strategy was established to identify articles published in Korean as well as in English. Ultimately, we included observational studies conducted among Korean patients that designed with an age-matched and sex-matched control group that reported the odds ratio associated with H. pylori. Gastric cancer cases were subdivided into overall (OGC), cardia (CGC), non-cardia (NGC), early (EGC), advanced, intestinal (IGC), and diffuse forms of gastric cancer. Summary odds ratios (SORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the meta-analysis using a random-effect model. Results: Eleven case-control studies were ultimately selected. H. pylori was associated with an SOR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29 to 2.54) for OGC. Additionally, statistically significant risks were observed for CGC, NGC, EGC, and IGC. Conclusions: Chronic H. pylori infection was found to raise the risk of gastric cancer among Koreans, with the highest risk observed for CGC and EGC (SOR=2.88 for both). Follow-up clinical epidemiologic studies are needed to assess the effects of current treatments aimed at eradicating H. pylori infections. PMID:27499162

  17. Pregnancy-Associated Risk Factors of Postpartum Breast Cancer in Korea: A Nationwide Health Insurance Database Study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Eun Joo; Seo, Jae Hong; Kim, Log Young; Park, Geun U.; Oh, Min-Jeong; Park, Pyoung-Jae; Cho, Geum Joon

    2016-01-01

    Patients with postpartum breast cancer have been reported to have a poor prognosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the pregnancy-related risk factors of postpartum breast cancer in Korea. We collected patient data from the Korea National Health Insurance (KNHI) Claims Database of the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA) for the 2009–2013 period. We evaluated the pregnancy-related risk factors for postpartum breast cancer in two population groups. For Group 1 (women who had given birth during the 2010–2012 period), data on those who were diagnosed with breast cancer from childbirth to 1-year postpartum were extracted. For Group 2, we extracted the data of women who gave birth in 2010 and traced them until December 31, 2013. In Group 1, 1,384,551 deliveries and 317 postpartum breast cancer patients were recorded in Korea between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012. Women aged ≥35 years (Odds Ratio [OR], 2.003; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.567–2.560) and those who gave birth via cesarean delivery (OR, 1.237; 95% CI, 0.986–1.553) were considered to be at a higher risk for breast cancer. Lower risk was noted in primiparous women (OR, 0.737; 95% CI, 0.585–0.928). In Group 2, the data of 457,924 women who gave birth in 2010 were traced until December 31, 2013. Among them, 655 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer, and age ≥35 years and cesarean delivery were associated with an higher risk of breast cancer, whereas primiparous status was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer. In conclusion, older age (≥35 years) and cesarean delivery are significant risk factors for postpartum breast cancer, and primiparous women have a lower risk of developing postpartum breast cancer. PMID:27977789

  18. Non-cancer Diseases of Korean Atomic Bomb Survivors in Residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Young-Su; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-01-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined non-cancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors. PMID:16778377

  19. Secular trends in breast cancer mortality in five East Asian populations: Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Singapore and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hai-Rim; Boniol, Mathieu; Joubert, Clementine; Hery, Clarisse; Haukka, Jari; Autier, Philippe; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Sobue, Tomotaka; Chen, Chien-Jen; You, San-Lin; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Jung, Kyu Won; Law, Stephen Chun-Key; Mang, Oscar; Chia, Kee-Seng

    2010-05-01

    Breast cancer risk is increasing in most Asian female populations, but little is known about the long-term mortality trend of the disease among these populations. We extracted data for Hong Kong (1979-2005), Japan (1963-2006), Korea (1985-2006), and Singapore (1963-2006) from the World Health Organization (WHO) mortality database and for Taiwan (1964-2007) from the Taiwan cancer registry. The annual age-standardized, truncated (to > or =20 years) breast cancer death rates for 11 age groups were estimated and joinpoint regression was applied to detect significant changes in breast cancer mortality. We also compared age-specific mortality rates for three calendar periods (1975-1984, 1985-1994, and 1995-2006). After 1990, breast cancer mortality tended to decrease slightly in Hong Kong and Singapore except for women aged 70+. In Taiwan and Japan, in contrast, breast cancer death rates increased throughout the entire study period. Before the 1990s, breast cancer death rates were almost the same in Taiwan and Japan; thereafter, up to 1996, they rose more steeply in Taiwan and then they began rising more rapidly in Japan than in Taiwan after 1996. The most rapid increases in breast cancer mortality, and for all age groups, were in Korea. Breast cancer mortality trends are expected to maintain the secular trend for the next decade mainly as the prevalence of risk factors changes and population ages in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. Early detection and treatment improvement will continue to reduce the mortality rates in Hong Kong and Singapore as observed in Western countries.

  20. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  1. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho

    2016-08-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients.

  2. Economic evaluation of eribulin as second-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Majethia, Unnati; Breeze, Janis L; Kontoudis, Ilias; Park, Jeongae

    2016-01-01

    Background Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly for those patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative tumor. Similar to the rest of the world, treatment options are limited in South Korea following first-line chemotherapy with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of eribulin in South Korean patients with HER2-negative MBC who have progressed after usage of at least one chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced disease (second-line therapy). Methods A partition survival model was developed from the perspective of the South Korean health care system. The economic impact of introducing eribulin as second-line therapy for HER2-negative MBC was compared to that of capecitabine and vinorelbine. The analysis estimated incremental cost per life-year (LY), that is, cost-effectiveness, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), that is, cost-utility, of eribulin for management of HER2-negative MBC in South Korea. The model accounted for overall survival, progression-free survival, drug costs, grade 3/4 adverse events, and health care utilization. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to identify uncertainty in the results of the economic evaluation. Results Second-line eribulin was associated with greater benefits in terms of LY and QALY, compared to capecitabine and vinorelbine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was ₩10.5M (approximately USD 9,200) per LY, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was ₩17M (approximately USD 14,800) per QALY in the basecase analysis. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from ₩12M (USD 10,461) to ₩27M (USD 23,538) per QALY in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, >99% of the simulations were below ₩50M (USD 42,300), and the lower and upper 95% confidence intervals were ₩3M (USD 2,600) and ₩24M (USD 20,900) per QALY

  3. Summer-time thermal environment characteristics in central Korea using Landsat TM data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ki; Park, Jong-Hwa; Na, Sang-il

    2010-10-01

    Urban heat island(UHI) effect is the temperature increase in urban areas compared to that in surrounding rural areas and is caused by a number of factors, such as land use / land cover (LULC)change, increase fuel consumption and lack of vegetation in urban core areas. The replacement of natural surface types from soil and vegetation to impervious materials such as asphalt and concrete structures affects the albedo and runoff characteristics of the urban land surface. The impervious materials have a lower albedo than soil and vegetation and hold more solar energy, which increase land surface temperature (LST) during the summer season. UHI effects on the center region of South Korea were analyzed using remotely sensed data. The objectives of this study are to examine the summer-time thermal environment of the Cheongju city in Korea, review the satellite assessment of the thermal environment of LULC, and compare thermal environment in 1991 to 2006. Chang detection of thermal environment is performed to determine whether a significant change has occurred. The average of LST of study area has increased 2.7°C during 15years because of changed land cover from paddy field and forest to barren, factory, and concrete. This case study indicates that barren, factory, and residential apartment over on the Cheongju and Ochang increased in the late 1990s and that vegetation area are changing predominantly in the direction of decreased forest and paddy fields. Decreasing forest and paddy fields are an important result, as it suggests that directional changes are occurring on the Cheongju and Ochang that are consistent with experimental urban warming. The most influential factors for controlling the summer-time thermal environment are the distribution of surface cover characteristics (e.g. LULC) and urban morphology, such as urban consistence materials, geometry, development stage, and density.

  4. Protocol of a Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS): a prospective, clinical and epidemiological study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Belong; Hwang, Yunji; Choi, June Young; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, Hoonsung; Choi, Ho-Chun; An, Ah Reum; Park, Do Joon; Park, Sue K; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid cancer incidence in Korea is the highest in the world and has recently increased steeply. However, factors contributing to this sudden increase have not been fully elucidated, and few studies have explored the postoperative prognosis. The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) was initiated with three aims: (1) to identify factors predicting quality of life, recurrence, and incidence of other diseases after thyroid cancer treatments; (2) to investigate environmental exposure to radiation, toxicants and molecular factors in relation to tumour aggressiveness; and (3) to evaluate gene–environment interactions that increase thyroid cancer in comparison with healthy participants from a pool of nationwide population-based healthy examinees. Methods and analysis T-CALOS enrols patients with incident thyroid cancer from three general hospitals, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and National Medical Center, Korea. The study is an ongoing project expecting to investigate 5000 patients with thyroid cancer up until 2017. Healthy examinees with a normal thyroid confirmed by sonography have been enrolled at the Healthy Examination Center at Seoul National University Hospital. We are also performing individual matching using two nationwide databases that are open to the public. Follow-up information is obtained at patients’ clinical visits and by linkage to the national database. For statistical analysis, we will use conditional logistic regression models and a Cox proportional hazard regression model. A number of stratifications and sensitivity analyses will be performed to confirm the results. Ethics and dissemination Based on a large sample size, a prospective study design, comprehensive data collection and biobank, T-CALOS has been independently peer-reviewed and approved by the three hospitals and two funding sources (National Research Foundation of Korea and Korean Foundation for Cancer Research

  5. Practice of breast self-examination and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung Rim; Park, Hyo Jung; Kim, Mijung

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the practice of breast self-examination and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students in Korea. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. The participants were 2186 female university students in Korea. The Breast Cancer and Heredity Knowledge Scale was used. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, χ(2)-test, t-test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Twenty-seven percent of students reported engaging in breast self-examination. The participants displayed a medium-level score (total score: 5.33 ± 2.70, range: 0-11) on knowledge about breast cancer. Predictors for breast self-examination were age (odds ratio = 1.15, P < 0.001), major (odds ratio = 1.80, P < 0.001), and knowledge of breast cancer (odds ratio = 1.16, P < 0.001). This study was the sole nationwide-scale research that examined the practice of breast self-examination, related factors, and knowledge of breast cancer among female university students, as a representative sample of young Korean women. The results are valuable in developing educational programs that can increase knowledge related to breast cancer, as well as the practice of breast self-examination, to support health promotion among young women.

  6. Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    W81XWH-04-1-0701 TITLE: Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Urszula T. Iwaniec...CONTRACT NUMBER Central Leptin Gene Therapy to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk Factors 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0701 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...control of obesity through centrally administered, recombinant adeno-associated virus leptin gene (rAAV-lep) therapy will decrease the incidence of

  7. Numerical simulations of heavy rainfall over central Korea on 21 September 2010 using the WRF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Ui-Yong; Hong, Jinkyu; Hong, Song-You; Shin, Hyeyum Hailey

    2015-06-01

    On 21 September 2010, heavy rainfall with a local maximum of 259 mm d-1 occurred near Seoul, South Korea. We examined the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in reproducing this disastrous rainfall event and identified the role of two physical processes: planetary boundary layer (PBL) and microphysics (MPS) processes. The WRF model was forced by 6-hourly National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Final analysis (FNL) data for 36 hours form 1200 UTC 20 to 0000 UTC 22 September 2010. Twenty-five experiments were performed, consisting of five different PBL schemes—Yonsei University (YSU), Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ), Quasi Normal Scale Elimination (QNSE), Bougeault and Lacarrere (BouLac), and University of Washington (UW)—and five different MPS schemes—WRF Single-Moment 6-class (WSM6), Goddard, Thompson, Milbrandt 2-moments, and Morrison 2-moments. As expected, there was a specific combination of MPS and PBL schemes that showed good skill in forecasting the precipitation. However, there was no specific PBL or MPS scheme that outperformed the others in all aspects. The experiments with the UW PBL or Thompson MPS scheme showed a relatively small amount of precipitation. Analyses form the sensitivity experiments confirmed that the spatial distribution of the simulated precipitation was dominated by the PBL processes, whereas the MPS processes determined the amount of rainfall. It was also found that the temporal evolution of the precipitation was influenced more by the PBL processes than by the MPS processes.

  8. Supergene vermiculitization of phlogopite and biotite in ultramafic and mafic rocks, central Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, H.S.; Song, Y.; Lee, S.Y.

    1994-12-31

    An X-ray diffraction study of vermiculitized micas in ultramafic and mafic intrusive rocks from Cheongyang, Korea, shows the following weathering sequence: mica to ordered mica/vermiculite interstratification to vermiculite. Electron microprobe analyses show the general trends of K leaching and Ca enrichment with increased weathering. The vermiculitization of phlogopite from ultramafic rocks proceeds by means of a continuous decrease in Al-for-Si tetrahedral substitutions and a progressive increase in Al-for-(Fe{sup 2+} + Mg) octahedral substitutions in the early stage of weathering.these substitutions occur to compensate for the excess of negative charge in the mica-like layer, in agreement with currently accepted vermiculitization mechanisms. They change to a slight increase of Al-for-Si tetrahedral substitutions in the late stage of the vermiculitization of phlogopite, owing to the oxidation of Fe despite its low content. However, the behavior of Fe in the late stage of the transformation of biotite into vermiculite is significantly different; that is, Fe increases substantially. The reason for this Fe increase in the late stage remains unresolved. Recalculations of the structural formulas on the basis of several assumptions indicate that the oxidation of Fe is necessary for the vermiculite derived from biotite to form the reasonable structural formulas.

  9. The prevalence of BRCA mutations among familial breast cancer patients in Korea: results of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Ah; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sue K; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Lee, Min Hyuk; Nam, Seok-Jin; Han, Wonshik; Bae, Young Tae; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Young Up; Chang, Myung Chul; Paik, Nam Sun; Hwang, Ki-Tae; Kim, Sei Joong; Noh, Dong-Young; Choi, Doo Ho; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Lee Su; Kim, Ku Sang; Suh, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Jung, Yongsik; Moon, Byung-In; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Sung Yong; Lee, Hyde; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2013-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations among familial breast cancer (BC) patients in Korea. We analyzed 775 familial BC patients who were enrolled in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study and treated at 36 institutions between May 2007 and May 2010. Patients with familial BC were defined as BC patients with family histories of BC or ovarian cancer (OC) in any relatives. All probands received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing was performed after obtaining informed consent. The mean age of BC diagnosis was 43.6 years. The numbers of probands with family histories of BC only and OC only were 682 and 93, respectively. The overall prevalence of the BRCA mutation among familial BC patients was 21.7 % (BRCA1 9.3 % and BRCA2 12.4 %). Subgroup analyses observed prevalences of the BRCA mutation as follows: 19.6 % among patients with BC family history only (BRCA1 7.6 % and BRCA2 12.0 %) and 36.6 % among patients with OC family history only (BRCA1 21.5 % and BRCA2 15.1 %). Most of the subgroups satisfied the 10 % probability criteria to undergo BRCA testing. However, the prevalence of the BRCA mutations among subgroups that had 2 BC patients in a family with both age at diagnosis of more than 50 years old did not reach the 10 % criteria (4.1 %). Korean familial BC patients are good candidates for BRCA testing even when they have family histories of single breast cancers. However, proband age at diagnosis should be carefully considered when selecting patients for testing.

  10. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population.

  11. Cancer screening in Korea, 2012: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the cancer screening rates for five types of cancer (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) using data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), which is a nationwide, annual cross-sectional survey. The eligible study population included cancer-free men 40 years of age and older and women 30 years of age and older. The lifetime screening rate and screening rate with recommendation were calculated. The lifetime screening rates for gastric, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 77.9%, 69.9%, 65.8%, 82.9%, and 77.1%, respectively. The screening rates with recommendation were 70.9%, 21.5%, 44.7%, 70.9%, and 67.9%, respectively. The most common reason for all types of cancer was "no symptoms, " followed by "lack of time" and "fear of the examination procedure. " Efforts to facilitate participation in liver and colorectal cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed.

  12. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  13. Non-cancer diseases of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young-Su; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-06-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined noncancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of noncancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors.

  14. An overview of cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: the case for investment in cancer health services.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Jayant, K; Brenner, H

    2011-01-01

    Population-based cancer survival data, a key indicator for monitoring progress against cancer, are reported from 27 population-based cancer registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. In China, Singapore, the Republic of Korea, and Turkey, the 5-year age-standardized relative survival ranged from 76-82% for breast, 63-79% for cervical, 71-78% for bladder, and 44-60% for large-bowel cancer. Survival did not exceed 22% for any cancer site in The Gambia, or 13% for any cancer site except breast (46%) in Uganda. For localized cancers of the breast, large bowel, larynx, ovary, urinary bladder and for regional diseases at all sites, higher survival rates were observed in countries with more rather than less developed health services. Inter- and intra-country variations in survival imply that the levels of development of health services and their efficiency to provide early diagnosis, treatment and clinical follow-up care have a profound impact on survival from cancer. These are reliable baseline summary estimates to evaluate improvements in cancer control and emphasise the need for urgent investment to improve awareness, population-based cancer registration, early detection programmes, health-services infrastructure, and human resources in these countries in the future.

  15. Cytogenetic characterizations of central nervous system tumors: the first comprehensive report from a single institution in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Eun; Kim, Ki-Uk; Kim, Dae-Cheol; Park, Joo-In; Han, Jin-Yeong

    2009-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors incorporates morphology, cytogenetics, molecular genetics, and immunologic markers. Despite the relatively large number of CNS tumors with clonal chromosome abnormalities, only few studies have investigated cytogenetic abnormalities for CNS tumors in Korea. Thus, we investigated 119 CNS tumors by conventional G-banded karyotypes to characterize patterns of chromosomal abnormalities involving various CNS tumors, and 92.4% of them were cultured and karyotyped successfully. Totally, 51.8% of karyotypable CNS tumors showed abnormal cytogenetic results, including neuroepithelial tumors (75.0%), meningeal tumors (71.1%), pituitary adenomas (4.2%), schwannomas (44.4%), and metastatic tumors (100.0%). Glioblastomas had hyperdiploid, complex karyotypes, mainly involving chromosomes Y, 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 12, 13, and 14. Monosomy 22 was observed in 56.4% of meningiomas. There was a significant increase in the frequencies of karyotypic complexity according to the increase of WHO grade between grades I and II (P=0.0422) or IV (P=0.0101). Abnormal karyotypes were more complex at high-grade tumors, suggesting that the karyotype reflects the biologic nature of the tumor. More detailed cytogenetic and molecular characterizations of CNS tumors contribute to better diagnostic criteria and deeper insights of tumorigenesis, eventually resulting in development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. Association between screening and the thyroid cancer “epidemic” in South Korea: evidence from a nationwide study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sohee; Oh, Chang-Mo; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu-Won; Jun, Jae Kwan; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether screening for thyroid cancer led to the current “epidemic” in South Korea. Design Review of the medical records of nationally representative samples of patients with a diagnosis of thyroid cancer in 1999, 2005, and 2008. Setting Sample cases were randomly selected from South Korea’s nationwide cancer registry, using a systematic sampling method after stratification by region. Participants 5796 patients with thyroid cancer were included (891 in 1999, 2355 in 2005, and 2550 in 2008). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was age standardised incidence of thyroid cancer and the changes in incidence between 1999 and 2008 according to the methods used to detect tumours (screen detection versus clinical detection versus unspecified). Results Between 1999 and 2008, the incidence of thyroid cancer increased 6.4-fold (95% confidence interval 4.9-fold to 8.4-fold), from 6.4 (95% confidence interval 6.2 to 6.6) per 100 000 population to 40.7 (40.2 to 41.2) per 100 000 population. Of the increase, 94.4% (34.4 per 100 000 population) were for tumours less than 20 mm, which were detected mainly by screening. 97.1% of the total increase was localised and regional tumours according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) summary stage. Where cases were clinically detected, 99.9% of the increased incidences (6.4 per 100 000 population) over the same period were tumours less than 20 mm. Conclusion The current “epidemic” of thyroid cancer in South Korea is due to an increase in the detection of small tumours, most likely as a result of overdetection. Concerted efforts are needed at a national level to reduce unnecessary thyroid ultrasound examinations in the asymptomatic general population. PMID:27903497

  17. Large genomic rearrangement of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in familial breast cancer patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ja Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Choi, Su-Youn; Shin, Inkyung; Park, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Yu, Jong Han; Ko, Beom Seok; Ku, Bo Kyung; Son, Byung Ho

    2014-06-01

    We screened large genomic rearrangements of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Korean, familial breast cancer patients. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay was used to identify BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic rearrangements in 226 Korean familial breast cancer patients with risk factors for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, who previously tested negative for point mutations in the two genes. We identified only one large deletion (c.4186-1593_4676-1465del) in BRCA1. No large rearrangements were found in BRCA2. Our result indicates that large genomic rearrangement in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes does not seem like a major determinant of breast cancer susceptibility in the Korean population. A large-scale study needs to validate our result in Korea.

  18. Performance of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy testing through the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Park, Sohee; Jung, Kyu Won; Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Il Ju; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports have proposed endoscopy as an alternative strategy to radiography for gastric cancer (GC) screening. The current study presents the first reported population-based data from a large GC screening program that provided endoscopic examinations. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database. We evaluated GC detection rates, sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value of an endoscopic screening program for the average-risk Korean population, aged 40 years and older, who underwent the NCSP from 2002 to 2005. The detection rates of GC by endoscopy in the first and subsequent rounds were 2.71 and 2.14 per 1000 examinations, respectively. Localized cancer accounted for 45.7% of screen-detected GC cases. The sensitivity of endoscopy was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-71.8). The endoscopic screening was less sensitive for the detection of localized GC (65.7%, 95% CI = 61.8-69.5) than for regional or distant GC (73.6%, 95% CI = 67.4-79.8). In the multiple logistic models for localized GC and all combined GC, the odds ratio (OR) of sensitivity for the undifferentiated type was statistically significantly higher than that for the differentiated type, whereas the OR of sensitivity for the mixed type was lower than that for the differentiated type. The sensitivity of the endoscopic test in a population-based screening was slightly higher for the detection of regional or distant GC than for localized GC. Further evaluation of the impact of endoscopic screening should take into account the balance of cost and mortality reduction.

  19. Dose-dependent protective effect of breast-feeding against breast cancer among ever-lactated women in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeonju; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Kyoung-Mu; Park, Sue Kyung; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Noh, Dong-Young; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2007-04-01

    Lactation might have a crucial role in an extraordinary increase in breast cancer incidence in Korea, as the proportion of mothers who practised breast-feeding fell dramatically. This hospital-based case-control analysis has been carried out since 1997 to evaluate whether lactation is associated with breast cancer risk in Korean women. Among the eligible study participants, a total of 753 histologically confirmed incident cases and an equal number of controls were included in the analysis. The risk was estimated using unconditional logistic regression models. Family history, older at menopause, more full-term pregnancies increased the risk of breast cancer. Breast cancer risk decreased according to the total months of breast-feeding (P for trend=0.03). Average duration of breast-feeding of 11-12 months reduced risk of breast cancer by 54% compared with the duration of 1-4 months (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.30-0.70). The decreasing risk trend according to average months of breast-feeding was also statistically significant (P for trend=0.02). Moreover, a reduced risk of breast cancer was apparent when analysis was restricted to the first breast-fed child (P for trend=0.006). This study confirms that lactation has an apparent dose-dependent protective effect against breast cancer in Korean women.

  20. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  1. Characteristics of BRCA1/2 Mutation-Positive Breast Cancers in Korea: A Comparison Study Based on Multicenter Data and the Korean Breast Cancer Registry

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jong-Han; Son, Byung Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Sue K.; Lee, Min Hyuk; Kim, Lee Su; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Eun-Kyu; Yoon, Dae Sung; Lee, Jeeyeon; Jung, Jin Hyang; Jung, Sang Seol; Gong, Gyungyup; Ahn, Sei-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA genes are the main cause of hereditary breast cancer in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of breast cancers involving BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) and BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutations. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with BRCA1 (BRCA1 group) or BRCA2 (BRCA2 group) mutation positive breast cancer from multiple centers and compared the data to that of the Korean Breast Cancer Society registry (registry group). Results The patients of the BRCA1 group were diagnosed at a younger age (median age, 37 years) and had tumors of higher histological (61.3% with histological grade 3) and nuclear (37.5% with nuclear grade 3) grade than those of the registry group. In addition, the frequency of ductal carcinoma in situ in the BRCA1 group was lower (3.7%) than in the registry group, and the BRCA1 group were more likely to be triple-negative breast cancer (61.3%). Patients in the BRCA2 group were also younger at diagnosis (mean age, 41 years) and were more likely to have involvement of the axillary node than the registry group (45.5% vs. 33.5%, p=0.002). The BRCA1 and BRCA2 groups did not show a correlation between tumor size and axillary node involvement. Conclusion We report the characteristics of BRCA mutation positive breast cancer patients in the Korean population through multicenter data and nation-wide breast cancer registry study. However, BRCA-mutated breast cancers appear highly complex, and further research on their molecular basis is needed in Korea. PMID:25013433

  2. Cancer risk in adult residents near nuclear power plants in Korea - a cohort study of 1992-2010.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Li, Zhong Min

    2012-09-01

    This study evaluated cancer risk for adult residents near Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in Korea through a valid prospective cohort study during 1992-2010. The study cohort was composed of 11,367 adults living within a five km radius from the NPPs for the exposed and 24,809 adults for the non-exposed or reference cohort set at two different levels of proximity; 5-30 km radius and more than 30 km radius away from NPPs. In 303,542.5 person-years of follow-up, a total of 2,298 cancer cases of all sites, or 1,377 radio-inducible cancers diagnosed during 1992-2008 were ascertained. Multiple adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard model. There were no epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer due to radiation from NPPs. Radiological study results or surveillance data of radiation doses around NPPs could be well documented for risk estimation of radio-inducible cancers, instead of epidemiological study results of the long-time required. Continuous surveillance of quantitative measures of dose levels around NPPs and radiation exposures to the residents is warranted.

  3. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  4. Gastric cancer screening uptake trends in Korea: results for the National Cancer Screening Program from 2002 to 2011: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-02-01

    Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of endoscopy

  5. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  6. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines Compared with Other Guidelines and Remaining Issues.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Joong-Won; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed "washout" in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  7. Who participates in the gastric cancer screening and on-time rescreening in the National Cancer Screening Program? A population-based study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Myung-Il; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Oh, Dongkwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-12-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) screening is a major challenge in countries where the disease is highly prevalent. This study was conducted to identify the factors associated with participation in GC screening and on-time rescreening among the average-risk population in Korea. The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Program database. The population for this study was 22 913 618 individuals aged ≥40 years who had been invited to participate in a GC screening program from 2005 to 2006. We determined whether these individuals had attended the GC screening program and which method - an upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy-they underwent. We followed the participants to determine whether they had a second GC screening after 2 years. The overall participation rate in the GC screening was 20.5%. More people underwent UGIS than endoscopy. Individuals who had been screened by endoscopy rather than UGIS were more likely to be younger, male, or those who were National Health Insurance (NHI) beneficiaries with a higher premium rate. Of those who underwent baseline screening, 59.4% participated in a rescreening program 2 years later. NHI beneficiaries with a higher premium rate were significantly more likely to be rescreened than medical aid recipients. The results from this study showed that the UGIS were more commonly used in organized GC screenings in Korea, and those who underwent UGIS were more likely to return for subsequent screening compared to those who underwent an endoscopy.

  8. Prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in non-familial breast cancer patients with high risks in Korea: the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) Study.

    PubMed

    Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sue K; Lee, Min Hyuk; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Lee Su; Jung, Yongsik; Kim, Ku Sang; Noh, Dong-Young; Moon, Byung-In; Suh, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Choi, Doo Ho; Kim, Sung Yong; Jung, Sung Hoo; Yom, Cha Kyong; Lee, Hyde; Yang, Jung-Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Prevalence and phenotype of BRCA mutation can vary by race. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations in non-familial breast cancer patients with high risks in Korea. A subset of 758 patients was selected for this study from the KOHBRA nationwide multicenter prospective cohort study. Mutations in BRCA1/2 genes were tested using fluorescent-conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis, denaturing high performance liquid chromatography or direct sequencing. Mutation of BRCA1/2 genes were identified in 65 (8.6%) patients among total 758 patients [BRCA1 mutation: 25 (3.3%), BRCA2 mutation: 40 (5.3%)]. According to risk groups, mutation of BRCA1/2 genes were identified in 53 (8.5%) of 625 early onset patients (age ≤ 40), in 22 (17.7%) of 124 bilateral breast cancer patients, in 3 (50.0%) of 6 breast and ovarian cancer patients, in one (5.9%) of 17 male breast cancer patients, in 5 cases (7.6%) of 66 multiple organ cancer patients. The most common mutation was 509C>A for BRCA1 and 7708C>T for BRCA2. The prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations by age in early onset patients was significantly different (age <35 vs age ≥35; 10.0 vs 2.9%, p = 0.0007). BRCA1/2 mutations for non-familial Korean breast cancer patients were detected at a high rate, particularly, in patients with early onset of less than 35 years of age, bilateral breast cancer, and breast and ovarian cancer. Individualized genetic counseling should be offered for non-familial breast cancer patients with these risk factors.

  9. Effectiveness of interventions to increase the participation rate of gastric cancer screening in the Republic of Korea: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Ha; Lee, Yoon Young; Jung, Da Won; Park, Boyoung; Yun, E Hwa; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan; Choi, Kui Son

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of three intervention strategies to improve the participation rate of gastric cancer screening among people who had never undergone such screening, and those who had been screened for the disease, but not recently. It was conducted in the Ilsandong-gu District of Goyang City, Korea. The population for the current study was restricted to male residents, aged 40-65 years, who received an invitation letter to undergo gastric cancer screening from the National Health Insurance (NHI) Corporation at the beginning of 2010. The subjects were divided into two categories according to their screening history: never-screened, and ever-screened. A total of 2,065 men were eligible: 803 never-screened and 1,262 ever-screened. In each screening category they were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups: 1) tailored telephone counseling; 2) tailored postcard reminder after tailored telephone counseling;and 3) tailored telephone counseling after tailored postcard reminder. At 3 months post-intervention, never- screened men with any intervention were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=2.75, 95% CI: 1.22-6.18) compared to those in the reference group (no intervention). However, there was no statistically significant intervention effect in ever-screened men (OR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.65-2.27). Examination of the intervention effects by intervention group among never-screened men showed that those in the postcard reminder after telephone counseling group to be statistically significantly more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening (OR=4.49, 95% CI: 1.79-11.29) than the reference group (no intervention). Our results highlight that use of tailored postcard reminders after tailored telephone counseling is an effective method to increase participation in gastric cancer screening among men who had never been screened.

  10. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  11. On large-scale transport of dust storms and anthropogenic dust-falls over east Asia observed in central Korea in 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Y. S.; Kim, Hak-Sung; Chun, Youngsin

    2014-05-01

    Dust air pollution has been routinely monitored in central Korea for the last two decades. In 2009, there were eight typical episodes of significant dust loadings in the air: four were caused by dust storms from deserts in Mongolia and Northern China, while the remaining were typical cases of anthropogenic air pollution masses arriving from the Yellow Sea and East China. These natural dust loadings occurred with cool northwesterly airflows in the forward side of an intense anticyclone coming from Mongolia and Siberia. The mean concentrations of the four natural dustfall cases for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were 632, 480 and 100 μg m-3, respectively. In contrast, the anthropogenic dust-pollution episodes occurred with the warm westerly and southwesterly airflows in the rear side of an anticyclone. This produced a favorable atmospheric and chemical condition for the build-up of anthropogenic dust air pollution in the Yellow Sea. The mean concentrations of the four anthropogenic dust loadings for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were 224, 187 and 137 μg m-3, respectively. The contents of fine dust loadings of PM2.5 were comparatively high in the cases of anthropogenic air pollution. High atmospheric concentrations of fine particles in the atmosphere cause poor visibility and constitute a health hazard. Satellite observations clearly showed the movement of dust-pollution masses from Mongolia and Northern China and from the Yellow Sea and East China that caused these dust pollution episodes in Korea.

  12. Radiation exposure and cancer incidence in a cohort of nuclear power industry workers in the Republic of Korea, 1992-2005.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Meeseon; Jin, Young-Woo; Yang, Kwang Hee; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Cha, Chang-Yong

    2010-03-01

    This study examines for the first time cancer incidence between radiation and non-radiation workers in nuclear power facilities in the Republic of Korea. Radiation workers were defined as persons who were issued with a dosimeter at nuclear power facilities, until 2005. All analyses were conducted on male workers only (in total 16,236 individuals) because of the sparseness of females. Statistical analyses were carried out using the standardized incidence ratio (SIR), to compare the cancer risks of radiation and non-radiation workers with those of the general population, and the chi(2) trend test was used to investigate any increase in cancer rates with dose. Poisson regression was also used to estimate the rate ratio (RR) and the excess relative risk (ERR) after considering the confounding effect due to smoking. During 1992-2005, 99 cancer cases in 63,503 person-years were observed among 8,429 radiation workers, while 104 cancer cases were observed in 48,301 person-years among 7,807 non-radiation workers. When compared with the site- and age-specific cancer rates for the male population of Korea, the SIR for all cancers combined was 1.07 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.30] for radiation workers, and 0.88 (95% CI 0.72-1.06) for non-radiation workers, respectively. The RR for radiation workers compared with non-radiation workers was 1.18 (95% CI 0.89-1.58) for all cancers combined. The SIRs for thyroid cancer were noticeably high for both radiation and non-radiation workers, possibly due to the screening effect, but analysis of the RR showed that there was no statistically significant difference in thyroid cancer incidence rates between the two groups. For lung cancer, radiation workers showed a higher incidence rate as compared to non-radiation workers, with the RR being 3.48 (95% CI 1.19-11.48). A chi(2) trend test showed that there was no evidence for an increase in cancer rate with increasing cumulative dose for all cancers combined (p = 0.5108). The ERR per

  13. The Burden of Cancer in Korea during 2012: Findings from a Prevalence-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cancer causes a significant deterioration in health and premature death and is a national socioeconomic burden. This study aimed to measure the burden of cancer using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metric based on the newly adopted methodology from the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010. This study was conducted based on data from the Korean National Cancer Registry. The DALYs were calculated using a prevalence-based method instead of the incidence-based method used by previous studies. The total burden of cancer in 2012 was 3,470.79 DALYs per 100,000 persons. Lung cancer was the most prevalent cancer burden, followed by liver, stomach, colorectal, and breast cancer. The DALYs for lung, liver, stomach, colon and rectum, and pancreatic cancer were high in men, whereas the DALYs for breast, lung, stomach, colorectal, and liver cancer were high in women. Health loss from leukemia and cancer of the brain and nervous system was prevalent for those younger than age 20; from stomach, breast, and liver for those aged 30–50; and from lung, colon and rectum, and pancreas for a large proportion of individuals over the age of 60. The most important differences were that the DALYs were calculated by prevalence and that other components of the DALYs were measured by a population-based perspective. Thus, prevalence-based DALYs could provide more suitable data for decision making in the healthcare field. PMID:27775254

  14. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  15. Relationship between Salt Preference and Gastric Cancer Screening: An Analysis of a Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeongseon; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population. Materials and Methods The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend=0.048). Conclusion Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice. PMID:26693914

  16. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  17. Observation of fine particle concentration and its chemical characteristics in central region of Korea during KORUS-AQ pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Y.; Lee, M.; Hwang, T.; Hong, Y.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Region super site is one of the 6 super sites operated in Korean peninsula by Ministry of Environment Korea and monitor air quality of central district of Korea continuously and intensively. Located 160km south of Seoul, this site represents an urban site surrounded by residential, commercial area and an 8-lane road cross section which is one of the most crowed main roads in this area. This site also plays a significant role especially in tracing air pollutants flowing through the West Sea from China. During Korus-AQ(Korea-US Air Quality Study) pre-campaign conducted from 18th May to 12th June, PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration using BAM1020 (MetOne), PM2.5bounded ion concentration using AIM (URG), metal concentrations using XRF (Cooper), organic and elemental carbon contents using SOCEC (Sunset), light scattering coefficient using Nephelometer (TSI) and meteorological parameters were continuously measured at this super site. PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations were 31 and 49 ug/m3 with 0.63 fine to course ratio, which were relatively lower than those of annual average concentration of 2014 (39 and 58 ug/m3, respectively). The chemical composition of PM2.5 were determined as ion(46%), TC(37%), CM(2%), TM(0.1%) and unknown(15%). The average concentration of organic and elemental carbon were 5.6 and 1.8 ug/m3 which were similar lever to average of 2014 (5.9 ug/m3, 1.71 ug/m3, respectively). And the metal concentration including Pb(12.5 ng/m3), Fe(151.7 ng/m3), Ca(26.2 ng/m3), Ti(5.2 ng/m3), Cd(4.1 ng/m3) were significantly lower than those of 2014(31.4 ng/m3, 242.1 ng/m3, 167.9 ng/m3, 13.0 ng/m3, 8.3 ng/m3, respectively). However, the average concentration of sulfate was 6.3 ug/m3 which was 43% higher than that of 2014 (4.4 ug/m3). Overall aerosol and its component's concentrations except for secondary sulfate have been decreased since it was late spring and early summer in Korea during pre-campaign and usually in this season aerosol level is

  18. Untreated head and neck cancer in Korea: a national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo Geun; Park, Bumjung; Ahn, Soon-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have analyzed the survival of patients with untreated head and neck cancer. The objective of this study is to assess the survival rates of untreated head and neck cancer patients and to determine why the patients were not treated. Using data from a national patient sample cohort (1,025,340 cases) from the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service, 605 patients with diagnoses of head and neck cancer (lip and oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and laryngeal cancer) between 2003 and 2013 were evaluated. Cox proportional hazards modeling and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed. Of the considered cases of head and neck cancer, 32.2% were untreated. The median survival rate of untreated groups was 9 months. The untreated group showed poorer survival than the treatment groups. Old age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.37, 95% confidence internal (CI) 1.25-1.49, P < 0.001] and low income (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.89-1.00, P = 0.028) were related to not receiving treatment. Many head and neck cancers go untreated. Clinicians should focus on untreated patients and seek to understand the reasons for their lack of treatment.

  19. Colorectal cancer incidence rates have decreased in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-11-01

    We analyzed colorectal cancer incidence data from the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, for the period 1985-2005. We carried out a trend analysis through a Joinpoint regression analysis, and summarized trends as annual percent change (APC) of the standardized (European standard) rates. Colorectal incidence rates increased until 1996 (APC=+1.4, 95% CI: 0.8-1.9), then decreased significantly (APC=-1.1, 95% CI: -0.8 to -0.4). The change was detected as statistically significant in the age group of 54+ years. Among younger individuals, we observed an increasing incidence until 2003. In the same geographical area, a colorectal screening programme has been active from 1982; it was initially based on guaiac faecal occult blood testing (GFOBT) and on immunological testing (IFOBT) since the mid 1990s. The decline in colorectal cancer incidence since 1996, in the whole population and especially among individuals older than 54 years, may suggest the effect of FOBT screening in terms of precancerous polyps removal.

  20. Transmissibility of the Campaign for Colorectal Cancer Awareness in Korea Among Twitter Users

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Keun Chul; Park, Gibeom; Park, SoHyun; Bae, Woo Kyung; Kim, Jin Won; Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Myung Jo; Kang, Sung-Il; Son, Il Tae; Kim, Duck-Woo; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Korean Society of Coloproctology holds its annual colorectal awareness month every September. This study analyzed the users and the contents of Korean tweets regarding colorectal cancer and estimated the transmissibility of the awareness campaign among Twitter users. Methods Prospective data collection was employed to accumulate Korean tweets containing the keywords "colorectal cancer," "colorectal cancer awareness campaign," "gold ribbon," and/or "love handle," from August 1 to September 30, 2014. Twitter users and contents were analyzed, and the credibility of information-sharing tweets throughout the study period was evaluated. Results In total, 10,387 tweets shared by 1,452 unique users were analyzed. As for users, 57.8% were individuals whereas 5.8% were organizations/communities; spambots accounted for a considerable percentage (36.4%). As for content, most tweets were spam (n = 8,736, 84.1%), repetitively advertising unverified commercial folk remedies, followed by tweets that shared information (n = 1,304, 12.6%) and non-information (n = 347, 3.3%). In the credibility assessment, only 80.6% of the information-sharing tweets were medically correct. After spam tweets had been excluded, a significant increase was seen in the percentage of information-sharing tweets (77.1% to 81.1%, P = 0.045) during the awareness campaign month. Conclusion Most Korean tweets regarding colorectal cancer during the study months were commercial spam tweets; informative public tweets accounted for an extremely small percentage. The transmissibility of the awareness campaign among Twitter users was questionable at best. To expand the reach of credible medical information on colorectal cancer, public health institutions and organizations must pay greater attention to social media. PMID:27847789

  1. Preference elicitation approach for measuring the willingness to pay for liver cancer treatment in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Donghun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The Korean government has expanded the coverage of the national insurance scheme for four major diseases: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and rare diseases. This policy may have a detrimental effect on the budget of the national health insurance agency. Like taxes, national insurance premiums are levied on the basis of the income or wealth of the insured. Methods Using a preference elicitation method, we attempted to estimate how much people are willing to pay for insurance premiums that would expand their coverage for liver cancer treatment. Results We calculated the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) through the marginal rate of substitution between the two attributes of the insurance premium and the total annual treatment cost by adopting conditional logit and mixed logit models. Conclusions The effects of various other terms that could interact with socioeconomic status were also estimated, such as gender, income level, educational attainment, age, employment status, and marital status. The estimated MWTP values of the monthly insurance premium for liver cancer treatment range from 4,130 KRW to 9,090 KRW. PMID:26523270

  2. An Evaluation of Nutrition Support for Terminal Cancer Patients at Teaching Hospitals in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do Yeun; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Hye Ran; Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Keun-Wook; Lee, Jong Seok

    2006-01-01

    Purpose We wanted to analyze the use of nutrition support for terminal cancer patients, the effect of discussing withdrawal of nutrition support and do-not-resuscitate (DNR) consent on the use of intravenous nutrition during the patient's last week of life and at the time of death. Materials and Methods The study involved 362 patients with terminal cancer from four teaching hospitals, and they all died between January 1 2003 and December 31 2005. The basic demographic data, the use of intravenous nutrition during the patient's last week of life and at death, discussion of terminal nutrition withdrawal and DNR consent were evaluated. Results In the week before death, the patients received artificial nutrition such as total parenteral nutrition (31%), intravenous albumin infusion (25%), and feeding tube placements (9%). A discussion concerning withdrawal of nutrition support was limited to 25 (7%) patients. DNR consent was obtained from 294 (81%) patients. None of the patients were directly involved in any of these decisions. The discussion about withdrawal of terminal nutrition and DNR consent with the patient's surrogates did not have any effect on reducing the use of parenteral nutrition. Conclusion The majority of patients dying of terminal cancer were still given potentially futile nutritional support. Modern clinical guidelines and ethical education about nutritional support at the end of life care is urgently needed in Korean medical practice to provide proper administration of terminal nutrition for end of life care. PMID:19771245

  3. Strategies to improve treatment outcome in gastric cancer: A retrospective analysis of patients from two high-volume hospitals in Korea and China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei-Han; Chen, Xin-Zu; Song, Mi Kyung; Lee, Jinae; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Zhi-Xin; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Chen, Jia-Ping; Cheong, Jae-Ho; Zhou, Zong-Guang; Hyung, Woo Jin; Hu, Jian-Kun; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    China has high incidence of gastric cancer (GC). However, the treatment outcomes of China were unsatisfactory compared to those of Korea. We performed this study to compare tumour characteristics, treatment parameters, and survival outcomes of GC patients between Korea and China based on the databases of two high-volume hospitals, with the aim of identifying indicators of GC prognosis. Data of patients undergoing gastrectomy for GC from 2006 to 2010 were analysed retrospectively. Subgroup survival analyses, stratified by clinicopathologic factors and multivariable analyses, were performed. The interactive roles of chemotherapy and D2 lymphadenectomy for overall survival were also investigated. Among 1365 Chinese and 4981 Korean patients, the proportion of early cancer detection in Chinese patients was much lower relative to that of Korean patients. There were no significant differences between countries in terms of surgical morbidity and mortality. The overall 5-year survival rates were 54.3% and 81.4%; when stratified by clinicopathologic factors, the survival were generally statistically higher in Korean patients. Gender, age, T stage, N stage, extent of lymphadenectomy, radicality of surgery, resection type, and chemotherapy were independently associated with survival in patients without metastasis. Survival rates for stage II and III GC differed significantly between the two countries, but this difference was eliminated among patients who underwent D2 lymphadenectomy or received chemotherapy. These treatments were given to patients with advanced-stage diagnoses (approximately 20% and 80% of patients, respectively). Treatment type was selected as independent prognostic factors in stage I–III and D2/D2+, with chemotherapy resulting in the best prognosis. Many differences in GC tumour characteristics exist between two countries. Early cancer detection and standardized treatment in Korea contribute to superior survival rates. Promotion of an early screening

  4. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-21

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean=35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  5. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-01

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean = 35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  6. Impacts of household income and economic recession on participation in colorectal cancer screening in Korea.

    PubMed

    Myong, Jun-Pyo; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of household income and economic recession on participation in CRC screening, we estimated annual participating proportions from 2007 to 2009 for different CRC screening modalities according to household income levels. A total of 8,042 subjects were derived from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for CRC screening with household income quartiles by gender in each year. People were less likely to attend a high-cost CRC screening such as a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy independent of the income quartile during the economic recession. Income disparities for participating in opportunistic cancer screening appear to have existed among both males and females during the three years (2007-2009), but were most distinctive in 2009. An increase in mortality of CRC can therefore be expected due to late detection in periods of economic crisis. Accordingly, the government should expand the coverage of CRC screening to prevent excess deaths by reducing related direct and indirect costs during the economic recession.

  7. Geographical Correlations between Indoor Radon Concentration and Risks of Lung Cancer, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, and Leukemia during 1999-2008 in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kang, Sungchan; Park, No-Wook; Chang, Byung-Uck; Kim, Yongjae

    2017-03-24

    Indoor radon is the second most important risk factor for lung cancer and may also be a risk factor for hematopoietic cancers, particularly in children and adolescents. The present study measured indoor radon concentration nationwide at 5553 points during 1989-2009 and spatially interpolated using lognormal kriging. The incidences of lung cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and leukemia, stratified by sex and five-year age groups in each of the 234 administrative regions in the country during 1999-2008, were obtained from the National Cancer Registry and used to calculate the standardized incidence ratios. After considering regional deprivation index values and smoking rates by sex in each region as confounding variables, the cancer risks were estimated based on Bayesian hierarchical modeling. We found that a 10 Bq/m³ increase in indoor radon concentration was associated with a 1% increase in the incidence of lung cancer in male and a 7% increase in NHL in female children and adolescents in Korea aged less than 20 years. Leukemia was not associated with indoor radon concentration. The increase in NHL risk among young women requires confirmation in future studies, and the radon control program should consider children and adolescents.

  8. Risk of bladder cancer among patients with diabetes treated with a 15 mg pioglitazone dose in Korea: a multi-center retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sang-Man; Song, Sun Ok; Jung, Chang Hee; Chang, Jin-Sun; Suh, Sunghwan; Kang, Seung Min; Jung, Inkyung; Park, Cheol-Young; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Cho, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2014-02-01

    It has not yet been determined whether chronic exposure to relatively low doses of pioglitazone increases risk of bladder cancer. We aimed to assess the risk of bladder cancer associated with pioglitazone in Korean patients. This was a retrospective cohort study of diabetic patients who had ≥ 2 clinic visits between November 2005 and June 2011 at one of four tertiary referral hospitals in Korea. A prevalent case-control analysis nested within the cohort was conducted to further adjust confounders. A total of 101,953 control patients and 11,240 pioglitazone-treated patients were included, in which there were 237 and 30 cases of incidental bladder cancer (64.9 and 54.9 per 100,000 person-years; age, sex-adjusted HR 1.135, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.769-1.677), respectively. In the prevalent case-control analysis nested within the cohort, use of pioglitazone for a duration of > 6 months, but not ever use of pioglitazone, was associated with an increased rate of bladder cancer as compared to never use of pioglitazone. In conclusion, we failed to exclude the possible association between use of pioglitazone for a duration of > 6 months and bladder cancer.

  9. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Sarcopenia in Korean Cancer Survivors: Based on Data Obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang; Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Won-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we analyzed anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined body composition findings for 493 cancer survivors (mean age a61.1 ± 12.6 years; 35.7% male). A much higher proportion of men (30.1%) than women (0.6%) met the criteria of sarcopenia. Subjects with a history of lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, or gastric cancer were prone to develop sarcopenia (31.6%, 26.3%, and 21.4%, respectively). Furthermore, sarcopenia was more prevalent among elderly (≥65 years; P < 0.001), those with a lower BMI level (<23 kg/m(2); P < 0.001), heavy drinker (P = 0.012), or smoker (P < 0.001), and those with inadequate intakes of protein (P = 0.017) and vitamin A (P = 0.024). Multivariable logistic analyses revealed sarcopenia was significantly associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR], 68.14; 95% CI, 15.52-299.13), a BMI of <23 kg/m(2) (OR 35.93, 95% CI, 8.24-156.67), and inadequate protein intake (OR 3.07, 95% CI, 1.30-7.22); these factors are significant predictors of sarcopenia in Korean cancer survivors.

  10. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment.

  11. Survivor Centrality Among Breast Cancer Survivors: Implications for Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which 10-year breast cancer survivors integrated cancer into their self-concept (i.e., survivor centrality), identify predictors of survivor centrality, and determine the relation of survivor centrality to well-being. Methods Breast cancer survivors (n = 240) were interviewed 10 years following the initial diagnosis. They completed measures of survivor centrality, illness valence (i.e., positive or negative views of illness), and well-being (positive and negative affect, mental and physical functioning, psychological distress, benefit-finding). Results There were few predictors of the kinds of women who were more likely to integrate breast cancer into their self-concepts, but survivor centrality was related to engaging in behaviors that suggested survivorship was relevant to women’s daily lives, such as becoming involved in breast cancer activities. Survivor centrality was related to three markers of negative psychological well-being: more negative affect, poorer mental functioning, and greater psychological distress. However, in the case of negative affect and psychological distress, this relation was moderated by illness valence, such that survivor centrality was only related to negative psychological well-being when the illness was viewed in less positive terms. Conclusions Women vary in the extent to which they define themselves in terms of the breast cancer experience. Survivor centrality in and of itself is not always indicative of adjustment to disease. When women have a more negative view of being a breast cancer survivor, survivor centrality is more likely to signify potential problems. PMID:20878844

  12. Advances in prevention and management of central line-associated bloodstream infections in patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Raad, Issam; Chaftari, Anne-Marie

    2014-11-15

    Central lines, which are essential for treating cancer, are associated with at least 400,000 episodes of bloodstream infection in patients with cancer every year in the United States. Effective novel interventions for preventing and managing these infections include antimicrobial-coated catheters and antimicrobial lock solutions.

  13. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-12-04

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors.

  14. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-01-01

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors. PMID:26690183

  15. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    our goal is to: 1. To identify differentially expressed proteins and phosphoproteins in prostate cancer cells from patients on high ω-3 and control...serum/ plasma samples within the next three months and finish the global expression proteomics part of the project within the next six months. 15...SUBJECT TERMS Biomarker, proteomics, prostate cancer, 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  16. Economic Evaluation of Companion Diagnostic Testing for EGFR Mutations and First-Line Targeted Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun-A; Bae, Eunmi; Lim, Jaeok; Shin, Young Kee; Choi, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background As targeted therapy becomes increasingly important, diagnostic techniques for identifying targeted biomarkers have also become an emerging issue. The study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treating patients as guided by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status compared with a no-testing strategy that is the current clinical practice in South Korea. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted to compare an EGFR mutation testing strategy with a no-testing strategy from the Korean healthcare payer’s perspective. The study population consisted of patients with stage 3b and 4 lung adenocarcinoma. A decision tree model was employed to select the appropriate treatment regimen according to the results of EGFR mutation testing and a Markov model was constructed to simulate disease progression of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The length of a Markov cycle was one month, and the time horizon was five years (60 cycles). Results In the base case analysis, the testing strategy was a dominant option. Quality-adjusted life-years gained (QALYs) were 0.556 and 0.635, and total costs were $23,952 USD and $23,334 USD in the no-testing and testing strategy respectively. The sensitivity analyses showed overall robust results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) increased when the number of patients to be treated with erlotinib increased, due to the high cost of erlotinib. Conclusion Treating advanced adenocarcinoma based on EGFR mutation status has beneficial effects and saves the cost compared to no testing strategy in South Korea. However, the cost-effectiveness of EGFR mutation testing was heavily affected by the cost-effectiveness of the targeted therapy. PMID:27483001

  17. Telomerase: central regulator of all of the hallmarks of cancer.

    PubMed

    Low, Kee Chung; Tergaonkar, Vinay

    2013-09-01

    The hallmarks of cancer described by Hanahan and Weinberg are properties that cancer cells must possess for successful transformation. It is believed that each of these hallmarks is independently driven. Although elongation of telomeres is thought to be the prime function of reactivated telomerase reverse transcriptase, this activity does not account for all its effects, such as increasing cell proliferation, resistance to apoptosis, and invasion. Recent studies suggest that the telomerase subunit telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has novel molecular functions including transcriptional regulation and metabolic reprogramming. We summarize these functions and discuss how they could directly regulate the various hallmarks of cancer. Finally, we suggest that therapeutics targeting noncanonical telomerase functions may work better than those that target its role in telomere extension.

  18. Comparison of cancer diagnoses between the US solid organ transplant registry and linked central cancer registries.

    PubMed

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Nogueira, Leticia M; Koch, Lori; Copeland, Glenn; Lynch, Charles F; Pawlish, Karen S; Finch, Jack L; Kahn, Amy R; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Segev, Dorry L; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Snyder, Jon J; Kasiske, Bertram L; Engels, Eric A

    2016-04-07

    US transplant centers are required to report cancers in transplant recipients to the transplant network. The accuracy and completeness of these data, collected in the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR), are unknown. We compared diagnoses in the SRTR and 15 linked cancer registries, for colorectal, liver, lung, breast, prostate, and kidney cancers, melanoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Among 187,384 transplants, 9323 cancers were documented in the SRTR or cancer registries. Only 36.8% of cancers were in both, with 47.5% and 15.7% of cases additionally documented solely in cancer registries or the SRTR, respectively. Agreement between the SRTR and cancer registries varied (kappa: 0.28 for liver cancer, 0.52-0.66 for lung, prostate, kidney, colorectum and breast cancers). Upon evaluation, some NHLs documented only in cancer registries were identified in the SRTR as another type of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Some SRTR-only cases were explained by miscoding (colorectal cancer instead of anal cancer, metastases as lung or liver cancers) or missed matches with cancer registries, partly due to out-migration from their catchment areas. Estimated sensitivity for identifying cancer was 52.5% for the SRTR and 84.3% for cancer registries. In conclusion, SRTR cancer data are substantially incomplete, limiting their usefulness for surveillance and research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Activity and Sitting Time in Cancer Survivors: 2009-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Hoon; Lee, Hyo

    2016-12-01

    Objectives: A physically active lifestyle is important for cancer survivors. Therefore, this study was conducted to 1) provide population-based estimates of the prevalence of physical activity and sitting time, and 2) their correlates in Korean cancer survivors. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed a cancer survivor subsample (N=1,482) from 2008-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), data selected with a complex sampling design. Overall and subgroup-specific prevalences of physical activity and sitting time were estimated. Correlates of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity ( MVPA) and sitting time were tested using age-groupspecific hierarchical multiple regression models. Results: Overall adherence rate to physical activity guidelines was 34.9% (95% CI=31.5-38.4). Age-group-specific adherence rates were 41.1% (95% CI=36.3-45.9) in adults (30-64 years old), and 25.3% (95% CI=21.0-25.3) in older adults (65 years or older). Adults spent 213.33 minutes (95% CI=172.4-254.3) per week on MVPA and 55.3 minutes (95% CI=36.4-64.6) on sitting time per day. In adults, sitting time was significantly associated with employed status (B=28.0, p=0.046), smoking (B=-47.4, p=0.020), and number of comorbidity conditions (B=-13, p=.037). MVPA was significantly associated with marital status (B=134.9, p<0.001), employment status (B=98.12, p=.046), and years since cancer diagnosis (B=104.7, p=0.015). Older adults spent 162.2 minutes (95% CI=119.5-204.8) per week on MVPA and 63.0 minutes (95% CI=45.0-89.5) on sitting time per day. Their significant correlates were sex (B= -45.2, p=0.014), smoking (B=-70.14, p<0.001), and years since cancer diagnosis (B=37.0, p=0.024). Age (B=5.8, p=0.042) and marital status (B=83.8, p=0.033) were also significantly associated with MVPA in older adults. Conclusion: A majority of Korean cancer survivors do not sufficiently participate in physical activity. In general, older, unhealthier, non-working, and

  20. Lung cancer screening with low-dose helical CT in Korea: experiences at the Samsung Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Chong, Semin; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Myung Jin; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Hojoong; Kwon, O Jung; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Rhee, Chong H

    2005-06-01

    To determine overall detection rates of lung cancer by low-dose CT (LDCT) screening and to compare histopathologic and imaging differences of detected cancers between high- and low-risk groups, this study included 6,406 asymptomatic Korean adults with >or=45 yr of age who underwent LDCT for lung cancer screening. All were classified into high- (>or=20 pack-year smoking; 3,353) and low-risk (3,053; <20 pack-yr smoking and non-smokers) groups. We compared CT findings of detected cancers and detection rates between high- and low-risk. At initial CT, 35% (2,255 of 6,406) had at least one or more non-calcified nodule. Lung cancer detection rates were 0.36% (23 of 6,406). Twenty-one non-small cell lung cancers appeared as solid (n=14) or ground-glass opacity (GGO) (n=7) nodules. Cancer likelihood was higher in GGO nodules than in solid nodules (p<0.01). Fifteen of 23 cancers occurred in high-risk group and 8 in low-risk group (p=0.215). Therefore, LDCT screening help detect early stage of lung cancer in asymptomatic Korean population with detection rate of 0.36% on a population basis and may be useful for discovering early lung cancer in low-risk group as well as in high-risk group.

  1. Cancer mortality in central-eastern Europe: facts behind the figures.

    PubMed

    Döbrossy, Lajos

    2002-06-01

    An epidemiological assessment of the status and trends of cancer mortality shows that Europe is still divided by the rate of cancer death. Overall, cancer mortality in Europe has been steadily decreasing since the early 1990s. However, when the data are broken down, the burden of cancer in the central-eastern European countries is substantial, and mortality has actually continued to increase. Differences in lifestyle and environmental exposure are the most likely causes, and these are inevitably linked to political, social, and economic inequalities. For the time being, improvements in the health of the population are not a high priority for the new democratic governments. Even if attempts at cancer prevention are eventually realised, a major cancer burden will persist for many decades to come.

  2. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    part of a three-PI team for this synergy grant, our goal is to: 1. To identify differentially expressed proteins and phosphoproteins in prostate cancer...be able to start analyzing the clinical serum/ plasma samples within the next three months and finish the global expression proteomics part of the...ABSTRACT 18 . NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a. REPORT U b. ABSTRACT U c. THIS PAGE U UU 5 19b

  3. The Role of Central Metabolism in Prostrate Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    6 Introduction Work from our laboratories and others suggests that the metabolites of dietary omega ~ 3 and ~6 polyunsaturated fatty acids ...tumorigenic ones. PCa cells also have elevated fatty acid synthase (FASN). FASN regulates the expression of a myriad of genes, including the PUFA ...efficacy of daily oral doses of purified fish oil omega ~3 fatty acid in prostate cancer patients scheduled to have a Radical Prostatectomy (RP). Through

  4. Correlation of breast cancer incidence with the number of motor vehicles and consumption of gasoline in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ha, Eunhee; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Kyung Hwa; Jang, Sungmi; Moon, Byung-In; Ha, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time (R2 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship (R2 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.

  5. Aspects of Health-Related Factors and Nutritional Care Needs by Survival Stage among Female Cancer Patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjoo; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study examined diet-related problems and needs associated with nutritional care according to survival stage in Korean female cancer survivors. Methods 186 outpatients (breast or gynecologic cancer survivors) recruited. Subjects were classified as (1) extended stage (ES, 2–5 years from diagnosis) and (2) long-term stage (LS, ≥5 years from diagnosis). Eating habits, changes in health related factors, nutritional needs, and quality of life were investigated. Results 43% of ES survivors had diet-related problems (p = .031); ES group reported dyspepsia and LS group reported anorexia/nausea as the major problem. Half of ES survivors had taste change, decreasing amount of intake, and reduced quality of life (p < .05). The LS group had a greater preference for sweet tastes than the ES group. According to their diagnosis, ES survivors with breast cancer gained weight (27.1%), whereas ES survivors with gynecologic cancer lost their body weight (34.5%) significantly. LS breast cancer patients showed great food preference for vegetables, whereas those with gynecologic cancer showed an increased preference for fish, meat and grain. Approximately 90% of survivors demanded nutritional care regarding restricted foods, preventing recurrence, particularly in ES survivors (p < .01). Moreover, main factors for nutritional care needs were body weight control for breast cancer and food environment for gynecologic cancer. Conclusion Survivors have different aspects of diet-related problems by survival stage as dyspepsia in ES and anorexia in LS. ES stage had changes in dietary patterns and their food consumption have decreased. Most of survivors have demanded nutritional care regardless of survival stage. These features of each stage should be considered to improve their health. PMID:27695041

  6. Workload and time management in central cancer registries: baseline data and implication for registry staffing.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Susan A; Mulvihill, Linda; Herrera, Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The Workload and Time Management Survey of Central Cancer Registries was conducted in 2011 to assess the amount of time spent on work activities usually performed by cancer registrars. A survey including 39 multi-item questions,together with a work activities data collection log, was sent by email to the central cancer registry (CCR) manager in each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Twenty-four central cancer registries (47%) responded to the survey.Results indicate that registries faced reductions in budgeted staffing from 2008-2009. The number of source records and total cases were important indicators of workload. Four core activities, including abstracting at the registry, visual editing,case consolidation, and resolving edit reports, accounted for about half of registry workload. We estimate an average of 12.4 full-time equivalents (FTEs) are required to perform all cancer registration activities tracked by the survey; however,estimates vary widely by registry size. These findings may be useful for registries as a benchmark for their own registry workload and time-management data and to develop staffing guidelines.

  7. Cancer in HIV-infected Persons from the Caribbean, Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Valeria I.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Cesar, Carina; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Wehbe, Firas; Cortés, Claudia P.; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Padgett, Denis; Shafaee, Maryam; Schechter, Mauro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bacon, Melanie; McGowan, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Masys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infected individuals have heightened cancer risk. With the advent of HAART, the frequency of some AIDS defining cancers (ADC) has decreased while certain non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are becoming more frequent. Cancers among HIV-infected individuals in Latin American and the Caribbean have not yet been carefully studied. Methods Cancer cases among the Caribbean, Central and South American network for HIV Research (CCASAnet) cohort were identified reviewing clinical records and preexisting databases. Results There were 406 cancers reported: 331 ADC (224 Kaposi´s sarcomas and 98 non Hodgkin lymphomas). Most frequent NADC (n=75) were Hodgkin lymphoma and skin cancers. Seventy-three percent of NADC and 45% of ADC were diagnosed >1 year after HIV diagnosis. 56% of ADC occurred before HAART start. Median time from HAART start until cancer diagnosis was 2.5 years for NADC and 0.5 years for ADC (p=<0.001). Within 3372 HAART starters, 158 were diagnosed with 165 cancers (82.4% ADC); 85 cases were previous to or concomitant with HAART initiation. Incidence of cancer after HAART initiation in 8080 person-years of follow-up was 7.2 per 1000 person-years (95%CI= 5.5–9.3) for ADC and 2.7 (95%CI= 1.8–4.1) for NADC; incidence was higher in the first two months, particularly for ADC (47.6). A pre-HAART ADC was a predictor of mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and CD4 at HAART initiation. Conclusions ADC were the most frequent cancers in this region and were often diagnosed close to HIV diagnosis and HAART start. Incidence of cancer was highest around HAART initiation. PMID:21239992

  8. Cancer Care in East and Central Harlem: Community Partnership Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jandorf, Lina; Freemantle, Hurdley; Sly, Jamilia; Ellison, Jennie; Wong, Carrie R.; Villagra, Cristina; Hong, Joseph; Kaleya, Sara; Poultney, Madrid; Villegas, Carmen; Brenner, Barbara; Bickell, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the largely African American and Hispanic communities of East and Central Harlem in New York City (NYC), health inequities are glaring. Mortality from cancer is 20–30 % higher than in Manhattan and 30–40 % higher than rates in the general population in NYC. Despite advances in risk assessment, early detection, treatment, and survivorship, individuals in Harlem and similar urban communities are not benefiting equally. Guided by community-based participatory research, this study serves as an important step in understanding cancer care needs and the range of factors that impact the disparate rates of cancer in East and Central Harlem. Forty individual interviews were conducted with community leaders and residents. Major themes included: need for appropriate supportive services; health care access and financial challenges; beliefs related to stigma, trust, and accountability; and the impact of the physical environment on health. Education was seen as a critical area of need and intervention. PMID:23108854

  9. A randomized, multicenter, phase III study of gemcitabine combined with capecitabine versus gemcitabine alone as first-line chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hee Seung; Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Youp; Bang, Seungmin; Park, Seung Woo; Kim, Ho Gak; Noh, Myung Hwan; Lee, Sang Hyub; Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kim, Chang Duck; Lee, Dong Ki; Cho, Kwang Bum; Cho, Chang Min; Moon, Jong Ho; Kim, Dong Uk; Kang, Dae Hwan; Cheon, Young Koog; Choi, Ho Soon; Kim, Tae Hyeon; Kim, Jae Kwang; Moon, Jieun; Shin, Hye Jung; Song, Si Young

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This phase III trial compared the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine plus capecitabine (GemCap) versus single-agent gemcitabine (Gem) in advanced pancreatic cancer as first-line chemotherapy. Methods: A total of 214 advanced pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled from 16 hospitals in South Korea between 2007 and 2011. Patients were randomly assigned to receive GemCap (oral capecitabine 1660 mg/m2 plus Gem 1000 mg/m2 by 30-minute intravenous infusion weekly for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week break every 4 weeks) or Gem (by 30-minute intravenous infusion weekly for 3 weeks every 4 weeks). Results: Median overall survival (OS) time, the primary end point, was 10.3 and 7.5 months in the GemCap and Gem arms, respectively (P = 0.06). Progression-free survival was 6.2 and 5.3 months in the GemCap and Gem arms, respectively (P = 0.08). GemCap significantly improved overall response rate compared with Gem alone (43.7% vs 17.6%; P = 0.001). Overall frequency of grade 3 or 4 toxicities was similar in each group. Neutropenia was the most frequent grade 3 or 4 toxicity in both groups. Conclusion: GemCap failed to improve OS at a statistically significant level compared to Gem treatment. This study showed a trend toward improved OS compared to Gem alone. GemCap and Gem both exhibited similar safety profiles. PMID:28072706

  10. Practice guidelines for management of uterine corpus cancer in Korea: a Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology Consensus Statement

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Dae Gy; Shin, So-Jin; Ju, Woong; Cho, Hanbyoul; Lee, Chulmin; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Bae, Duk-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines for gynecologic cancers have been developed by many organizations. Although these guidelines have much in common in terms of the practice of standard of care for uterine corpus cancer, practice guidelines that reflect the characteristics of patients and healthcare and insurance systems are needed for each country. The Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology (KSGO) published the first edition of practice guidelines for gynecologic cancer treatment in late 2006; the second edition was released in July 2010 as an evidence-based recommendation. The Guidelines Revision Committee was established in 2015 and decided to produce the third edition of the guidelines as an advanced form based on evidence-based medicine, considering up-to-date clinical trials and abundant qualified Korean data. These guidelines cover screening, surgery, adjuvant treatment, and advanced and recurrent disease with respect to endometrial carcinoma and uterine sarcoma. The committee members and many gynecologic oncologists derived key questions from the discussion, and a number of relevant scientific literatures were reviewed in advance. Recommendations for each specific question were developed by the consensus conference, and they are summarized here, together with other details. The objective of these practice guidelines is to establish standard policies on issues in clinical areas related to the management of uterine corpus cancer based on the findings in published papers to date and the consensus of experts as a KSGO Consensus Statement. PMID:27894165

  11. Prostate cancer incidence rates have started to decrease in central Italy.

    PubMed

    Crocetti, Emanuele; Ciatto, Stefano; Buzzoni, Carlotta; Zappa, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing has dramatically changed the epidemiology of prostate cancer. Growing incidence rates have been documented in almost all western countries following the increased usage of PSA screening. In the United States after a period of huge increase in incidence, rates have decreased to values lower than those of the pre-PSA era. Similar changes have been documented also in the area of the Tuscany Cancer Registry, central Italy, where prostate cancer incidence rates doubled from the early 1990s to 2003 and afterwards decreased. This is the first evidence, to our knowledge, of a decline in prostate cancer incidence in Italy following the screening-related increase.

  12. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Sankaranarayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    The dearth of reliable survival statistics from developing countries was very evident until the mid-1990s. This prompted the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to undertake a project that facilitated hands-on-training and thereby transfer of knowledge and technology on cancer survival analysis to a majority of researchers from the participating population-based cancer registries, which culminated in the publication of the first volume of the IARC scientific publication on Cancer Survival in Developing Countries in 1998. The present study is the second in the series with wider geographical coverage and is based on data from 27 registries in 14 countries in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America. The calendar period of registration of incident cases for the present study ranges between 1990 and 2001. Data on 564 606 cases of 1-56 cancer sites from different registries are reported. Data from eleven registries were utilized for eliciting survival trend and seventeen registries for reporting survival by clinical extent of disease. Besides chapters on every registry and general chapters on methodology, database and overview, the availability of online comparative statistics on cancer survival data by participating registries or cancer site in the form of tables or graphs is an added feature (available online at http://survcan.iarc.fr).

  13. Nation Building in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    opportunity to rebuild South Korea . He saw it as “something almost unique in history. It is the opportunity of an army in a foreign land to contribute...problems. The North Korean invasion in 1950 wedded South Korea to the United States and confronted the United States with the enormous task of...elections in Korea .8 After failing to achieve agreement to peninsula-wide elections, the United Nations sponsored elections in South

  14. Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in east, central and southern African countries.

    PubMed Central

    Chirenje, Z. M.; Rusakaniko, S.; Kirumbi, L.; Ngwalle, E. W.; Makuta-Tlebere, P.; Kaggwa, S.; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W.; Makoae, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors influencing cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in countries of East, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA). METHODS: Data were collected from randomly selected primary health care centres, district and provincial hospitals, and tertiary hospitals in each participating country. Health care workers were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. FINDINGS: Although 95% of institutions at all health care levels in ECSA countries had the basic infrastructure to carry out cervical cytology screening, only a small percentage of women were actually screened. Lack of policy guidelines, infrequent supply of basic materials, and a lack of suitable qualified staff were the most common reasons reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ECSA countries. In these, and other countries with low resources, suitable screening programmes should be established. PMID:11242819

  15. Safety and effectiveness of central venous catheterization in patients with cancer: prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Yun, Jina; Kim, Han Jo; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Kim, Se Hyung; Lee, Sang-Cheol; Bae, Sang Byung; Kim, Chan Kyu; Lee, Nam Su; Lee, Kyu Taek; Park, Seong Kyu; Won, Jong-Ho; Park, Hee Sook; Hong, Dae Sik

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of each type of central venous catheters (CVC) in patients with cancer. We prospectively enrolled patients with cancer who underwent catheterization involving a subclavian venous catheter (SVC), peripherally inserted central venous catheter (PICC), or chemo-port (CP) in our department. From March 2007 to March 2009, 116 patients underwent 179 episodes of catheterization. A SVC was inserted most frequently (46.4%). Fifty-four complications occurred (30.1%): infection in 23 cases, malpositioning or migration of the tip in 18 cases, thrombosis in eight cases, and bleeding in five cases. Malpositioning or migration of the tip occurred more frequently with a PICC (P<0.001); infection occurred more often with a tunneled catheter (P=0.028) and was observed more often in young patients (P=0.023). The catheter life span was longer for patients with solid cancer (P=0.002) than for those with hematologic cancer, with a CP (P<0.001) than a PICC or SVC, and for an indwelling catheter with image guidance (P=0.014) than a blind procedure. In conclusion, CP is an effective tool for long term use and the fixation of tip is important for the management of PICC.

  16. Outcomes for patients with papillary thyroid cancer who do not undergo prophylactic central neck dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, I. J.; Wang, L. Y.; Ganly, I.; Patel, S. G.; Morris, L. G.; Migliacci, J. C.; Tuttle, R. M.; Shah, J. P.; Shaha, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Background The role of prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) in the management of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is controversial. This report describes outcomes of an observational approach in patients without clinical evidence of nodal disease in PTC. Methods All patients who had surgery between 1986 and 2010 without CND for PTC were identified. All patients had careful clinical assessment of the central neck during preoperative and perioperative evaluation, with any suspicious nodal tissue excised for analysis. The cohort included patients in whom lymph nodes had been removed, but no patient had undergone a formal neck dissection. Recurrence-free survival (RFS), central neck RFS and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Of 1798 patients, 397 (22·1 per cent) were men, 1088 (60·5 per cent) were aged 45 years or more, and 539 (30·0 per cent) had pT3 or pT4 disease. Some 742 patients (41·3 per cent) received adjuvant treatment with radioactive iodine. At a median follow-up of 46 months the 5-year DSS rate was 100 per cent. Five-year RFS and central neck RFS rates were 96·6 and 99·1 per cent respectively. Conclusion Observation of the central neck is safe and should be recommended for all patients with PTC considered before and during surgery to be free of central neck metastasis. PMID:26511531

  17. Multiple venous thrombosis complicating central venous cannulation in a non cancer patient - a case report.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ce; Menkiti, Id; Desalu, I; Thomas, Mo

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheterization is a common procedure for critically ill patients. Like all procedures, it has its complications, one of which is thrombosis. Reports of thrombosis are commoner among cancer patients. We present a 37 year old non cancer patient who developed thrombi in both right and left internal jugular veins, 10 and 13 days respectively after insertion of central venous catheter. This was detected by ultrasound scans of the neck while attempting re-cannulation for parenteral feeding. She also had left lower limb deep venous thrombosis, confirmed by doppler scan, which was managed with low molecular weight heparin and warfarin. The patient was subsequently treated with streptokinase. A repeat scan of the internal jugular veins 4 days after thrombolysis revealed a reduction in size of the thrombi. Symptoms of deep venous thrombosis improved and she was transferred to the wards where she made remarkable improvement. This case illustrates the potential usefulness of ultrasound guided-central line insertion in patients who have had central venous lines inserted previously in order to detect thrombi.

  18. Long-Term Central Venous Catheter Use and Risk of Infection in Older Adults With Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Sepkowitz, Kent A.; Elkin, Elena B.; Pinheiro, Laura C.; Sima, Camelia S.; Son, Crystal H.; Atoria, Coral L.; Bach, Peter B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) are often used in patients with cancer to facilitate venous access to administer intravenous fluids and chemotherapy. CVCs can also be a source of bloodstream infections, although this risk is not well understood. We examined the impact of long-term CVC use on infection risk, independent of other risk factors such as chemotherapy, in a population-based cohort of patients with cancer. Patients and Methods We conducted a retrospective analysis using SEER-Medicare data for patients age > 65 years diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 with invasive colorectal, head and neck, lung, or pancreatic cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or invasive or noninvasive breast cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine the relationship between CVC use and infections, with CVC exposure as a time-dependent predictor. We used multivariable analysis and propensity score methods to control for patient characteristics. Results CVC exposure was associated with a significantly elevated infection risk, adjusting for demographic and disease characteristics. For patients with pancreatic cancer, risk of infections during the exposure period was three-fold greater (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 2.93; 95% CI, 2.58 to 3.33); for those with breast cancer, it was six-fold greater (AHR, 6.19; 95% CI, 5.42 to 7.07). Findings were similar when we accounted for propensity to receive a CVC and limited the cohort to individuals at high risk of infections. Conclusion Long-term CVC use was associated with an increased risk of infections for older adults with cancer. Careful assessment of the need for long-term CVCs and targeted strategies for reducing infections are critical to improving cancer care quality. PMID:24982458

  19. Minimizing the cancer-promotional activity of cox-2 as a central strategy in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis examining long-term mortality in subjects who participated in controlled studies evaluating the impact of daily aspirin on vascular risk, has concluded that aspirin confers substantial protection from cancer mortality. Remarkably, low-dose aspirin was as effective as higher-dose regimens; hence this protection may be achievable with minimal risk. There is reason to believe that this protection stems primarily from inhibition of cox-2 in pre-neoplastic lesions. Since safe aspirin regimens can only achieve a partial and transitory inhibition of cox-2, it may be feasible to complement the cancer-protective benefit of aspirin with other measures which decrease cox-2 expression or which limit the bioactivity of cox-2-derived PGE2. Oxidative stress boosts cox-2 expression by up-regulating activation of NF-kappaB and MAP kinases; NADPH oxidase activation may thus promote carcinogenesis by increasing cox-2 expression while also amplifying oxidant-mediated mutagenesis. A prospective cohort study has observed that relatively elevated serum bilirubin levels are associated with a marked reduction in subsequent cancer mortality; this may reflect bilirubin's physiological role as a potent inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. It may be feasible to mimic this protective effect by supplementing with spirulina, a rich source of a phycobilin which shares bilirubin's ability to inhibit NADPH oxidase. Ancillary antioxidant measures - phase 2 inducing phytochemicals, melatonin, N-acetylcysteine, and astaxanthin - may also aid cox-2 down-regulation. The cancer protection often associated with high-normal vitamin D status may be attributable, in part, to the ability of the activated vitamin D receptor to decrease cox-2 expression while promoting PGE2 catabolism and suppressing the expression of PGE2 receptors. Diets with a relatively low ratio of omega-6 to long-chain omega-3 fats may achieve cancer protection by antagonizing the production and bioactivity of PGE2. Growth

  20. The characteristics of drought occurrence in North Korea and its comparison with drought in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Ra; Oh, Su-Bin; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2015-07-01

    The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea over a period of 56 years (1952-2007) were analyzed by region, compared with those of South Korea, and graphed as a drought map for easy detection of the drought's history. To assess them, the Effective Drought Index (EDI), which was calculated from the daily precipitation data for 109 grids of the Korean Peninsula, was used. The daily precipitation data were extracted from the Asian Precipitation Highly Resolved Observational Data Integration towards Evaluation of Water Resources (APHRODITE). The characteristics of the drought occurrence in North Korea were summed up in the following five points. First, North Korea was divided into four drought sub-regions: the Northeastern region (G1), the Northern region (G2), the Central region (G3), and the Southern region (G4). Second, droughts occurred most frequently in G1 (28) and G4 (28 events) and least frequently in G3 (15 events). Third, in all sub-regions, short-term droughts lasting less than 100 days were the most frequent (53 % or higher) and the longest drought lasted 2,911 days (June 30, 1973 to June 20, 1981), which occurred in G3. Fourth, short-term droughts occurred mainly in spring, mid-term droughts (100-500 days) in spring and summer, and long-term droughts (over 500 days) in summer. Fifth, a dry period (monthly mean EDI <0) appeared in all sub-regions between 1973 and 1981 and between 1990 and 1993, and a strong negative precipitation anomaly appeared during each of these periods. When compared to the droughts in South Korea, those in North Korea were less frequent, but the mean duration was longer. Until 1979, droughts occurred almost at the same time in North Korea as South Korea, but beginning in 1980, the time differences between two regions became larger. Thus, the characteristics of the drought occurrence in North and South Korea differ.

  1. Acute High-Dose and Chronic Lifetime Exposure to Alcohol Consumption and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: T-CALOS Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Yunji; Lee, Kyu Eun; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Park, Young Joo; Chai, Young Jun; Kwon, Hyungju; Park, Do Joon; Cho, BeLong; Choi, Ho-Chun; Kang, Daehee; Park, Sue K.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the effects of acute high-dose and chronic lifetime exposure to alcohol and exposure patterns on the development of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Methods The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) included 2,258 DTC patients (449 men and 1,809 women) and 22,580 healthy participants (4,490 men and 18,090 women) who were individually matched by age, gender, and enrollment year. In-person interviews were conducted with a structured questionnaire to obtain epidemiologic data. Clinicopathologic features of the patients were obtained by chart reviews. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using conditional regression models. Results While light or moderate drinking behavior was related to a reduced risk of DTC, acute heavy alcohol consumption (151 g or more per event or on a single occasion) was associated with increased risks in men (OR = 2.22, 95%CI = 1.27–3.87) and women (OR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.52–8.58) compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of alcohol for 31 or more years was a significant risk factor for DTC for both men (31–40 years: OR = 1.58, 95%CI = 1.10–2.28; 41+ years: OR = 3.46, 95%CI = 2.06–5.80) and women (31–40 years: OR = 2.18, 95%CI = 1.62–2.92; 41+ years: OR = 2.71, 95%CI = 1.36–5.05) compared with never-drinkers. The consumption of a large amount of alcohol on a single occasion was also a significant risk factor, even after restricting DTC outcomes to tumor size, lymph node metastasis, extrathyroidal extension and TNM stage. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that the threshold effects of acute high-dose alcohol consumption and long-term alcohol consumption are linked to an increased risk of DTC. PMID:26985827

  2. Economic assessment of central cancer registry operations, Part III: Results from 5 programs.

    PubMed

    Tangka, Florence; Subramanian, Sujha; Beebe, Maggie Cole; Trebino, Diana; Michaud, Frances

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we report results from the cost analysis of 5 central cancer registries funded by the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). To estimate the true economic costs of operating a cancer registry, we used a cost-assessment tool (CAT) to collect data on all registry activities, not just those funded by the NPCR. Data were collected on actual, rather than budgeted, expenditures, including personnel, consultants, information technology (IT) support, and other factors influencing costs. Factors that can affect registry costs include the amount of consolidation from abstract to incident cases, the method of data reporting, the number of edits that must be performed manually versus electronically, and the amount of interstate data exchange required of a registry. Expenditures were allocated to specific surveillance and data enhancement and analysis activities. Our study confirmed that cost per case varies across registry activities. The cost of surveillance activities per case ranges from $24.79 to $95.78 while the cost of data enhancement and analysis registry activities per reported cancer case ranges from $2.91 to $9.32. Total cost per reported cancer case also varies, ranging from $30 to slightly more than $100, with a median of $45.84. Further research using data from all NPCR-funded registries is required to assess reasons for this variation. Information gained from such an assessment will improve efficiency in registry operations and provide data to better quantify the funding requirements for expanding registry activities.

  3. Overall and Central Adiposity and Breast Cancer Risk in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Alexandra J.; Nichols, Hazel B.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater body mass index (BMI), a measure of overall adiposity, is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The role of central adiposity, often measured by waist circumference, is less well understood especially among premenopausal women. We aimed to examine multiple measures of adiposity in relation to breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Methods 50,884 Sister Study cohort participants ages 35–74 were enrolled from 2003–2009. Inclusion criteria for the cohort included having a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Trained study personnel measured height, weight, waist and hip circumference during a home visit and study participants completed a detailed questionnaire. Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer risk associated with adiposity measurements, considering tumor subtype and menopausal status. Results In total, 2,009 breast cancers were diagnosed during follow-up (mean=5.4 years). Weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip-ratio were positively associated with overall breast cancer risk and HRs were greater among postmenopausal women, those with hormonally responsive tumors and non-current postmenopausal hormone users. In models that adjusted for BMI, waist circumference associations persisted among both postmenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.16, 95%CI 1.01, 1.35; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.54) and premenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19, 2.04; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 0.91, 1.87). Conclusions Findings from this large, prospective study with examiner-measured body size indicate that waist circumference is independently and positively associated with both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:26193782

  4. The Influence of Androgen Deprivation Therapy on Prostate Size and Voiding Symptoms in Prostate Cancer Patients in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) on total prostate volume and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods Between January 2007 and June 2014, 110 patients who received androgen deprivation treatment were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical parameters and urodynamic parameters along with changes at follow-up were analyzed. Factors such as reduction in prostate volume, changes in LUTS, and prostate volume tertiles were compared 1 year after ADT. Results After ADT, the total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) score decreased from 17.45 to 12.21 and the IPSS voiding subscore decreased from 9.16 to 6.24. Maximal uroflow rate increased from 8.62 to 11.50 mL/sec and residual urine also reduced significantly by 29.34 mL. Change in prostate size was more prominent (–51.14%) in the patients with less than 1 year of ADT (n=21) than those who had more than 1 year of treatment (n=89, –44.12%). The decrease in the IPSS voiding subscore was greater within 1 year of ADT than after 1 year of treatment (–4.10 vs. –2.65). The differences were more significant in the 30–50 g group (n=59) and >50 g group (n=11) than the <30 g group (n=40) of the IPSS voiding subscore improvement (–3.76 , –4.91 vs. –2.10), and maximal uroflow rate improvement (2.78, 2.90 vs 1.49). Conclusion ADT resulted in statistically significant clinical improvement in terms of prostate volume, urodynamic parameters, and LUTS for patients with prostate cancer when analyzed by ADT duration and prostate volume. PMID:28043112

  5. In Vivo Radiobiological Characterization of Proton Beam at the National Cancer Center in Korea: Effect of the Chk2 Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Soo; Choo, Dong Wan; Shin, Dongho; Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Motoyama, Noboru; De Coster, Blanche M.; Gueulette, John; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Ando, Koichi; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the presence or absence of CHK2 was estimated at the Korean National Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center (NCCPTC). Methods and Materials: The proton beam was fixed at 210 MeV with 6-cm spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) because this is expected to be the most frequently used clinical setting. X-rays were obtained using a 6-MV conventional linear accelerator. The RBE was estimated from the survival of jejunal crypt in C3H/He and Chk2{sup -/-} mice. Results: The estimated RBEs of the NCCPTC at the middle of the SOBP were 1.10 and 1.05 in the presence and absence of CHK2, respectively. The doses that reduced the number of regenerated crypt per jejunal circumference to 20 (D{sub 20}) in C3H/He mice were 14.8 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7-15.9) for X-rays and 13.5 Gy (95% CI, 14.5-15.5) for protons. By contrast, the doses of D{sub 20} in Chk2{sup -/-} mice were 15.7 Gy (95% CI, 15.0-16.4) and 14.9 Gy (95% CI, 14.0-15.8) for X-rays and protons, respectively. Conclusions: The RBE of the NCCPTC is clearly within the range of RBEs determined at other facilities and is consistent with the generic RBE value of 1.10 for 150- to 250-MeV beams. The mutation of Chk2 gave rise to radioresistance but exhibited similar RBE.

  6. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  7. Cancer survival in Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and Central America: database and attributes.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, R; Lucas, E; Sankaranarayanan, R

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-one registries in 17 countries submitted data for systematic and centralized scrutiny. Data on 564 606 cases of different cancers ranging 1-56 sites/types from 27 registries in 14 low-/medium-resource countries in Eastern and Western Africa, the Caribbean, Central America and four regions of Asia, registered during 1990-2001 (period varying for individual registries) were reported. The database for this survival study comprised data that were classified as mandatory and optional. Mandatory variables provided by all registries included case-ID, age at diagnosis, sex, incidence date, most valid basis of diagnosis, cancer site/type (ICD-10 codes C00-96), vital status at follow-up and corresponding date. Clinical extent of disease was prominent among the optional variables provided by 17 registries and analysed. The grouping of cancer sites for analysis was based on standard norms, and only categories with at least 25 cases were reported. Cases registered based on a death certificate only, cases lacking any follow-up after initial registration, or cases rejected based on validation checks were excluded from the survival analysis. An easy guide to contents in subsequent chapters, especially tables and graphs describing data quality indices, survival statistics and online dynamic functions, is provided.

  8. Standardizing central venous catheter care by using observations from patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Weingart, Saul N; Hsieh, Candace; Lane, Sharon; Cleary, Angela M

    2014-06-01

    To understand the vulnerability of patients with cancer to central line-associated bloodstream infections related to tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), patients were asked to describe their line care at home and in clinic and to characterize their knowledge and experience managing CVCs. Forty-five adult patients with cancer were recruited to participate. Patients were interviewed about the type of line, duration of use, and observations of variations in line care. They also were asked about differences between line care at home and in the clinic, precautions taken when bathing, and their education regarding line care. Demographic information and primary cancer diagnosis were taken from the patients' medical records. Patients with hematologic and gastrointestinal malignancies were heavily represented. The majority had tunneled catheters with subcutaneous implanted ports. Participants identified variations in practice among nurses who cared for them. Although many participants expressed confidence in their knowledge of line care, some were uncertain about what to do if the dressing became loose or wet, or how to recognize an infection. Patients seemed to be astute observers of their own care and offered insights into practice variation. Their observations show that CVC care practices should be standardized, and educational interventions should be created to address patients' knowledge deficits.

  9. Targeting the Central Pocket in Human Transcription Factor TEAD as a Potential Cancer Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Pobbati, Ajaybabu V.; Han, Xiao; Hung, Alvin W.; Weiguang, Seetoh; Huda, Nur; Chen, Guo-Ying; Kang, CongBao; Chia, Cheng San Brian; Luo, Xuelian; Hong, Wanjin; Poulsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The human TEAD family of transcription factors (TEAD1-4) is required for YAP-mediated transcription in the Hippo pathway. Hyperactivation of TEAD’s co-activator YAP contributes to tissue overgrowth and human cancers, suggesting that pharmacological interference of TEAD-YAP activity may be an effective strategy for anticancer therapy. Here we report the discovery of a central pocket in the YAP-binding domain (YBD) of TEAD that is targetable by small molecule inhibitors. Our X-ray crystallography studies reveal that flufenamic acid, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), binds to the central pocket of TEAD2 YBD. Our biochemical and functional analyses further demonstrate that binding of NSAIDs to TEAD inhibits TEAD-YAP-dependent transcription, cell migration and proliferation, indicating that the central pocket is important for TEAD function. Therefore, our studies discover a novel way of targeting TEAD transcription factors and set the stage for therapeutic development of specific TEAD-YAP inhibitors against human cancers. PMID:26592798

  10. Overview of Asbestos Issues in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required. PMID:19543418

  11. Overview of asbestos issues in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2009-06-01

    Asbestos is a carcinogen that causes diseases such as mesothelioma and lung cancer in humans. There was a sharp increase in the use of asbestos in Korea in the 1970s as Korea's economy developed rapidly, and asbestos was only recently banned from use. Despite the ban of its use, previously applied asbestos still causes many problems. A series of asbestos-related events that recently occurred in Korea have caused the general public to become concerned about asbestos. Therefore, it is necessary to take proper action to deal with asbestos-related events, such as mass outbreaks of mesothelioma among residents who lived near asbestos textile factories or asbestos mines. Although there have been no rapid increases in asbestos-related illnesses in Korea to date, such illnesses are expected to increase greatly due to the amount of asbestos used and long latency period. Decreasing the asbestos exposure level to levels as low as possible is the most important step in preventing asbestos-related illnesses in the next few decades. However, there is a lack of specialized facilities for the analysis of asbestos and experts to diagnose and treat asbestos-related illnesses in Korea; therefore, national-level concern and support are required.

  12. Use of Chinese herbal medicine therapies in comprehensive hospitals in central China: A parallel survey in cancer patients and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying

    2015-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.

  13. Prevention and treatment of thrombosis associated with central venous catheters in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Nagamallika; Streiff, Michael B

    2014-10-01

    Central venous catheters (CVC) play an essential role in the management of cancer patients. Venous thrombosis is a common complication of CVC. The incidence of CVC-associated venous thromboembolism (CVC-VTE) is 1.7 per 1000 catheter days. Risk factors for CVC-VTE include the patient's underlying cancer, a history of previous thrombotic events and the location and type of CVC. Anticoagulant prophylaxis is not effective for CVC-VTE. Anticoagulation alone is the preferred initial treatment for CVC-VTE. CVC removal may be considered in refractory cases or when anticoagulation is contraindicated. Thrombolytic therapy is reserved for patients with limb-threatening thrombosis or thrombosis unresponsive to conventional treatment. Anticoagulation should be continued for at least 3 months or as long as the CVC is present.

  14. Bronchial and arterial sleeve resection for centrally-located lung cancers

    PubMed Central

    D’Andrilli, Antonio; Venuta, Federico; Rendina, Erino Angelo

    2016-01-01

    The use of bronchial and arterial sleeve resections for the treatment of centrally-located lung cancers, when available, has become the option of choice in comparison with pneumonectomy (PN). Technical expertise, in particular in vascular reconstruction, and perioperative management improved over time allowing excellent short-term and long-term results. This is even truer if considering literature data from the main experiences published in the last years. These evidences have given to such lung sparing reconstructive procedures more and more acceptance among the surgical community. This article focuses on the main technical aspects and literature data regarding bronchovascular sleeve resections. PMID:27942409

  15. Distinct Characteristics of Small Cell Lung Cancer Correlate With Central or Peripheral Origin

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Eisaku; Motoi, Noriko; Ono, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Hironori; Ohyanagi, Fumiyoshi; Nishio, Makoto; Okumura, Sakae; Ichinose, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a type of lung cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation and a poor prognosis that is widely believed to arise in the central lung. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a peripheral marker of lung adenocarcinoma that is also highly expressed in SCLC. In this study, we examined whether SCLC is really a central-type tumor and the relationship between tumor location, TTF-1 expression and prognosis of SCLC. Ninety six SCLCs, diagnosed from biopsies or surgical materials, for which detailed computed tomography (CT) images were available, were collected consecutively from Japanese patients between 2004 and 2011. We examined the location of the primary tumor (central or peripheral) using thin-sliced CT, a TTF-1 immunohistochemical expression, and clinicopathology including prognosis. Of the 96 SCLCs, 74% (71/96) were of the peripheral type and found to have a significantly worse prognosis than central-type tumors. TTF-1 immunoreactivity was identified in 79 tumors (82%), 78% of which (62/79) were of the peripheral type and 22% of which were central. TTF-1 expression was significantly correlated with peripheral location (P = 0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that high TNM stages and the peripheral location were independent markers for poor survival. The majority of SCLCs were of the peripheral type. The peripheral-type SCLC expressed TTF-1 more frequently and had a poorer prognosis than central-type tumors did. Further analysis on original sites of SCLC, using molecular methodology, or based on another ethnicity, should be warranted. PMID:26705222

  16. Statistics of hematologic malignancies in Korea: incidence, prevalence and survival rates from 1999 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Eun-Hye; Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Byung-Kiu; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Background The nationwide statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea has not been reported yet. Methods The Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Korean Society of Hematology jointly investigated domestic incidence rates and prevalence of hematologic malignancies occurred between 1999 and 2008, and analyzed survival rates of patients who were diagnosed between 1993 and 2008. Data of hematologic malignancies from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korean National Cancer Incidence Data base. The crude incidence rates, age-specific incidence rates, age-standardized incidence rates, annual percentage change of incidence, and prevalence from 1999-2008 were calculated. Survival rates for patients diagnosed in 1993-2008 were estimated. Results In 2008, a total of 8,006 cases of hematologic malignancies were occurred, which comprised 4.5% of all malignancies. In all genders, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, myeloid leukemia, and multiple myeloma were most frequent diseases. In terms of age, ages between 60 and 69 were most prevalent. From 1999 to 2008, the age-standardized incidence rates increased from 10.2 to 13.7, and the annual percentage change was 3.9%. The 5-year survival rate increased from 38.2% during 1993-1995 to 55.2% during 2004-2008. As of January 2009, number of patients with 10-year prevalence was 33,130, and with 5- to 10-year prevalence was 10,515. Conclusion This is the first nationwide statistical report of hematologic malignancies in Korea. It could be used as the basic information to help investigate epidemiologic characteristics, evaluate progress during the past years, and establish future strategies for hematologic malignancies. Periodic statistical analysis of hematologic malignancies in Korea should be continued. PMID:22479275

  17. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  18. High incidence of esophageal cancer in central-western Brazil: a migrant effect?

    PubMed

    e Silva, Diego Rodrigues Mendonça; Curado, Maria-Paula; de Oliveira, José Carlos

    2013-05-01

    To determine the incidence and mortality rates of esophageal cancer in central-western Brazil: Goiânia, Brasília, Cuiabá, and Campo Grande, incidence data for Cuiabá (2000-2005) and Brasília (1999-2002) were obtained from the National Cancer Institute, and data from Goiânia (1995-2008) from the Population-Based Cancer Registry of Goiânia. Mortality data for the cities of central-western Brazil were obtained for the period 1980-2008 from the Ministry of Health. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated using the world population of Segi. Mortality trends were assessed with the Joinpoint Regression Program and a P value less than 0.05 was defined as significant. The highest incidence of esophageal cancer among men was in Cuiabá (16.0/100 000); the lowest was in Goiânia (6.5/100 000). Among women, the incidence rates were similar in Brasília and Cuiabá, but in Goiânia, the incidence declined. There was a significant increase in mortality among men in Cuiabá (2.4%, P=0.03) and Campo Grande (1.2%, P=0.05), and in women (1.6%, P=0.04) in Goiânia. Mortality by age group increased significantly in Campo Grande by 1.9% for men aged at least 50 years and in Goiânia by 2.7% among women aged at least 50 years; the mortality decreased in Goiânia by 2.2% for women aged less than 50 years. The incidence of esophageal cancer in Brasília and Cuiabá was similar to that of southern Brazil in some periods. There was an increase in mortality trends for men in Cuiabá and Campo Grande, and for women in Goiânia.

  19. Developmental therapeutics for patients with breast cancer and central nervous system metastasis: current landscape and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Costa, R; Carneiro, B A; Wainwright, D A; Santa-Maria, C A; Kumthekar, P; Chae, Y K; Gradishar, W J; Cristofanilli, M; Giles, F J

    2016-10-03

    Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of metastatic disease in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent advances in the biological understanding of breast cancer have facilitated an unprecedented increase of survival in a subset of patients presenting with metastatic breast cancer. Patients with HER2 positive (HER2+) or triple negative breast cancer are at highest risk of developing CNS metastasis, and typically experience a poor prognosis despite treatment with local and systemic therapies. Among the obstacles ahead in the realm of developmental therapeutics for breast cancer CNS metastasis is the improvement of our knowledge on its biological nuances and on the interaction of the blood brain barrier with new compounds. This manuscript reviews recent discoveries related to the underlying biology of breast cancer brain metastases, clinical progress to date and suggests rational approaches for investigational therapies.

  20. SU-E-E-16: The Application of Texture Analysis for Differentiation of Central Cancer From Atelectasis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M; Fan, T; Duan, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prospectively assess the potential utility of texture analysis for differentiation of central cancer from atelectasis. Methods: 0 consecutive central lung cancer patients who were referred for CT imaging and PET-CT were enrolled. Radiotherapy doctor delineate the tumor and atelectasis according to the fusion imaging based on CT image and PET-CT image. The texture parameters (such as energy, correlation, sum average, difference average, difference entropy), were obtained respectively to quantitatively discriminate tumor and atelectasis based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) Results: The texture analysis results showed that the parameters of correlation and sum average had an obviously statistical significance(P<0.05). Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that texture analysis may be useful for the differentiation of central lung cancer and atelectasis.

  1. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  2. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  3. Management of complications related to central venous catheters in cancer patients: an update.

    PubMed

    Linnemann, Birgit

    2014-04-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are important for the treatment of patients with cancer, especially in the perioperative and palliative care settings. These devices not only allow for the administration of chemotherapy, parenteral nutrition, and other intravenous therapies, but they may also improve the patients' quality of life by reducing the need for repeated peripheral venipunctures. Thrombotic and infectious complications are common, especially in the long-term use of CVCs. There are different types of thrombotic complications associated with CVCs, that is, a thrombotic occlusion of the catheter, a mural thrombus at the catheter tip and classical deep vein thrombosis, which occurs most frequently in the upper extremity where the majority of long-term catheters are inserted. Infections are common complications associated with CVCs. Patients with cancer who receive intensive chemotherapy and those patients who undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have a markedly increased risk for insertion site and bloodstream infections. In this review, the epidemiology and risk factors that predispose patients to CVC-related thrombosis and infection are discussed. The diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the published data and the current guidelines are summarized and data for establishing primary and secondary preventative strategies are provided.

  4. Charcoal tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence in the central compartment of the neck.

    PubMed

    Soprani, F; Bondi, F; Puccetti, M; Armaroli, V

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer can often require further surgical options. Reoperations may carry significant risk of surgical complications; additionally, as the anatomy is subverted, there is the possibility of leaving residual neoplasm. In order to avoid such problems during reoperation for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence, we have introduced the technique of preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of the lymphatic structure to be removed with a 4% solution of active charcoal. Using ultrasound guidance, the lesion is identified and 0.5-2 ml of colloidal charcoal is injected near the lesion. The extraction of the needle is accompanied by injection at constant pressure of other charcoal as to leave a trace of colouring along the path of the needle up to the skin. The preoperative injection was well tolerated in all cases. In the last 5 years, we have used this technique in 13 patients with suspected recurrence in the central compartment (all from papillary carcinomas). Postoperative ultrasound and histological examination confirmed the removal of the lesion in all patients; in one case, the lesion was a parathyroid cyst. Complications were observed in two of 13 (15.4%) cases (one transitory hypoparathyroidism, and one transitory vocal cord paresis). Considering our experience, charcoal tattoo localization can be considered a safe, low-cost technique that is extremely useful for facilitating surgical procedures, and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage.

  5. Epigenetic plasticity: A central regulator of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bedi, Upasana; Mishra, Vivek Kumar; Wasilewski, David; Scheel, Christina; Johnsen, Steven A.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor metastasis is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in most solid cancers. A growing body of evidence suggests that the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a central role during tumor metastasis and frequently imparts a stem cell-like phenotype and therapeutic resistance to tumor cells. The induction of EMT is accompanied by a dynamic reprogramming of the epigenome involving changes in DNA methylation and several post-translational histone modifications. These changes in turn promote the expression of mesenchymal genes or repress those associated with an epithelial phenotype. Importantly, in order for metastatic colonization and the formation of macrometastases to occur, tumor cells frequently undergo a reversal of EMT referred to as the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). Thus, a high degree of epigenetic plasticity is required in order to induce and reverse EMT during tumor progression. In this review, we describe various epigenetic regulatory mechanisms employed by tumor cells during EMT and elaborate on the importance of the histone code in controlling both the expression and activity of EMT-associated transcription factors. We propose that a more thorough understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms controlling EMT may provide new opportunities which may be harnessed for improved and individualized cancer therapy based on defined molecular mechanisms. PMID:24840099

  6. Decentralization of Educational Administration and Strengthening of Local Educational Planning in Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Il-hwan

    The decentralization of educational administration has been undertaken as a major reform effort in the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Current efforts at decentralization are only the most recent of numerous attempts to reduce what many observers agree is an excessive centralization of the nation's statewide administration for public affairs and…

  7. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  8. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  9. Central adiposity, obesity during early adulthood, and pancreatic cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Genkinger, J. M.; Kitahara, C. M.; Bernstein, L.; Berrington de Gonzalez, A.; Brotzman, M.; Elena, J. W.; Giles, G. G.; Hartge, P.; Singh, P. N.; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R. Z.; Weiderpass, E.; Adami, H.-O.; Anderson, K. E.; Beane-Freeman, L. E.; Buring, J. E.; Fraser, G. E.; Fuchs, C. S.; Gapstur, S. M.; Gaziano, J. M.; Helzlsouer, K. J.; Lacey, J. V.; Linet, M. S.; Liu, J. J.; Park, Y.; Peters, U.; Purdue, M. P.; Robien, K.; Schairer, C.; Sesso, H. D.; Visvanathan, K.; White, E.; Wolk, A.; Wolpin, B. M.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, A.; Jacobs, E. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI), a measure of obesity typically assessed in middle age or later, is known to be positively associated with pancreatic cancer. However, little evidence exists regarding the influence of central adiposity, a high BMI during early adulthood, and weight gain after early adulthood on pancreatic cancer risk. Design We conducted a pooled analysis of individual-level data from 20 prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute BMI and Mortality Cohort Consortium to examine the association of pancreatic cancer mortality with measures of central adiposity (e.g. waist circumference; n = 647 478; 1947 pancreatic cancer deaths), BMI during early adulthood (ages 18–21 years) and BMI change between early adulthood and cohort enrollment, mostly in middle age or later (n = 1 096 492; 3223 pancreatic cancer deaths). Multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results Higher waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02–1.17 per 0.1 increment) and waist circumference (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00–1.14 per 10 cm) were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer mortality, even when adjusted for BMI at baseline. BMI during early adulthood was associated with increased pancreatic cancer mortality (HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11–1.25 per 5 kg/m2), with increased risk observed in both overweight and obese individuals (compared with BMI of 21.0 to <23 kg/m2, HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.20–1.55 for BMI 25.0 < 27.5 kg/m2, HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.20–1.84 for BMI 27.5 to <30 kg/m2, HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.11–1.85 for BMI ≥30 kg/m2). BMI gain after early adulthood, adjusted for early adult BMI, was less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01–1.10 per 5 kg/m2). Conclusions Our results support an association between pancreatic cancer mortality and central obesity, independent of BMI, and also suggest that being overweight or obese

  10. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  11. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  12. The effect of raw vegetable and fruit intake on thyroid cancer risk among women: a case-control study in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Kirang; Tae, Kyung; Kong, Gu; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-14

    Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer among Korean women. However, there are few data on dietary factors related to thyroid cancer risk. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between raw vegetables and fruits intake and thyroid cancer in a case-control study. We included 111 histologically confirmed malignant thyroid cancer cases and 115 benign cases. Controls who did not have nodules in thyroid ultrasonography were matched to cases by age (± 2 years). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a quantitative FFQ with 121 items. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain OR and corresponding 95 % CI. The intake of total vegetables was not associated with malignant thyroid cancer, but inversely associated with benign cases. High raw vegetable intake was inversely associated with thyroid cancer risk both in malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·01 in both malignant and benign cases). Among fruits, persimmon intake had an inverse association with thyroid cancer risk in both malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·06 in malignant cases; P for trend = 0·01 in benign cases) and tangerine intake had an inverse association in malignant cases (P for trend = 0·03). The frequency of consumption of raw vegetables and persimmon also had a consistent inverse association in both malignant and benign cases. These results suggest that high consumption of raw vegetables, persimmons and tangerines may decrease thyroid cancer risk and help prevent early-stage thyroid cancer.

  13. Clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA mutations in a Central European gastric cancer cohort

    PubMed Central

    Röcken, Christoph; Behrens, Hans-Michael; Böger, Christine; Krüger, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Genomically stable gastric cancers (GCs) are enriched for the diffuse phenotype and hotspot mutations of RHOA. Here we aimed to validate the occurrence, phenotype and clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA mutant GCs in an independent Central European GC cohort consisting of 415 patients. The RHOA genotype (exon 2 and 3) was correlated with various genotypic, phenotypic and clinicopathological patient characteristics. Sixteen (3.9%) tumours had a RHOA mutation including four hitherto unreported mutations, that is, p.G17Efs*24, p.V24F, p.T37A and p.L69R. RHOA mutation was more prevalent in women (5.4% vs 2.8%), distal GCs (4.5% vs 2.4%), in poorly differentiated GCs (G3/G4; 4.8% vs 1.1%), T1/T2 tumours (6.2% vs 3.1%) and lacked distant metastases. Nine RHOA mutant GCs had a diffuse, four an intestinal, two an unclassified and one a mixed Laurén phenotype. KRAS and RHOA mutations were mutually exclusive. A single case showed both a RHOA and a PIK3CA mutation. No significant difference was found in the overall survival between RHOA mutant and wildtype GCs. Our study confirms the occurrence and clinicopathological characteristics of RHOA hotspot mutations in an independent patient cohort. However, we found no evidence for a prognostic or growth advantageous effect of RHOA mutations in GC. PMID:26251521

  14. Clinical outcomes of a cohort of patients with central nervous system metastases from thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Macedo, Daniel; Bugalho, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metastases to central nervous system (M1-CNS) are rarely reported in thyroid cancer (TC) patients. We aimed to characterize patients with M1-CNS from TC followed in our department. Methods Review of the medical records of 27 patients with TC-related M1-CNS. Results Mean age at TC diagnosis was 56.9 ± 19.1 years. Papillary TC (55.6%) was the commonest histological type, followed by poorly differentiated (18.5%), medullary (11.1%), follicular (7.4%) and Hürthle cell (7.4%) carcinomas. Angioinvasion and extrathyroidal extension were observed in a high number of patients. At M1-CNS diagnosis, other distant metastases were already present in 77.8% of the patients. Treatment directed to M1-CNS was offered to 20 (74%) patients: 1 was submitted to surgery, 18 to radiotherapy (either whole-brain radiotherapy or stereotaxic radiosurgery or both) and 4 to surgery and radiotherapy. Four patients received cytotoxic chemotherapy and one was submitted to 131I. Median survival since M1-CNS detection was 5.0 months. The only factor associated with better survival was surgery to brain metastases (P = 0.012). Conclusions The management of these patients is very challenging given the inexistence of effective treatments, except for brain surgery in selected cases. PMID:27856495

  15. Anti-angiogenetic therapies for central nervous system metastases from non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Buttigliero, Consuelo; Novello, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) metastases are common in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), occurring in 24% to 44% of patients in the course of their disease and confer significant morbidity and mortality. Systemic therapies have been deemed ineffective in brain metastases (BM) under the hypothesis that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits their delivery to the brain. Angiogenesis, which is mainly mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, is crucial for tumor survival, growth and invasion both in primary and metastatic brain lesions. Two major categories of agents have been developed to target this pathway: antibody-based agents and VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Clinical benefits have been shown with anti-angiogenetic therapies in the treatment of metastatic NSCLC. However, patients with CNS metastases were often excluded from trials with these agents, due to concerns about a potentially greater risk of cerebral haemorrhage and thromboembolic disease. Therefore, the overall efficacy and safety of angiogenetic agents in patients with BM from NSCLC are yet to be clarified. This paper aims to review available data about the efficacy and safety of anti-angiogenetic therapies for CNS metastases in NSCLC patients. PMID:28149756

  16. Filling the gap in central shielding: three-dimensional analysis of the EQD2 dose in radiotherapy for cervical cancer with the central shielding technique

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kato, Shingo; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide accurate dose distribution profiles of radiotherapy for cervical cancer when treated with the central shielding technique by analysing the composite 3D EQD2 dose distribution of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). On a phantom, four patterns of the combinations of whole pelvis irradiation (WP) (4 fields), pelvis irradiation with central shielding technique (CS) [anterior–posterior/posterior–anterior (AP-PA fields), shielding width of 3 or 4 cm] and ICBT using Point-A prescription were created: 30 Gy/15 fractions + 20 Gy/10 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (30 + 20 + 24)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 18 Gy/3 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 18)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 24)] and 45 Gy/25 fractions + 0 Gy + 28 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (45 + 0 + 28)]. The composite EQD2 dose distributions of the complete treatment were analysed. The Point-A dose of Plan (30 + 20 + 24), Plan (40 + 10 + 18), Plan (40 + 10 + 24) and Plan (45 + 0 + 28) were 78.0 Gy (CS 3 cm)/71.8 Gy (CS 4 cm), 72.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/69.0 Gy (CS 4 cm), 80.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/77.0 Gy (CS 4 cm) and 84.1 Gy, whereas it has been previously reported to be 62 Gy, 64 Gy, 72 Gy and 84 Gy, respectively. For all the treatment plans with CS, equivalent or wider coverage of 60 Gy (EQD2) was achieved in the right–left direction, while coverage in the anterior–posterior direction decreased in plans with CS. There were no irregularly ‘cold’ regions around the central target. The use of CS in radiotherapy for cervical cancer resulted in tumor coverage in the lateral direction with doses higher than the previously reported Point-A doses. PMID:26062811

  17. Filling the gap in central shielding: three-dimensional analysis of the EQD2 dose in radiotherapy for cervical cancer with the central shielding technique.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kato, Shingo; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to provide accurate dose distribution profiles of radiotherapy for cervical cancer when treated with the central shielding technique by analysing the composite 3D EQD2 dose distribution of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). On a phantom, four patterns of the combinations of whole pelvis irradiation (WP) (4 fields), pelvis irradiation with central shielding technique (CS) [anterior-posterior/posterior-anterior (AP-PA fields), shielding width of 3 or 4 cm] and ICBT using Point-A prescription were created: 30 Gy/15 fractions + 20 Gy/10 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (30 + 20 + 24)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 18 Gy/3 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 18)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 24)] and 45 Gy/25 fractions + 0 Gy + 28 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (45 + 0 + 28)]. The composite EQD2 dose distributions of the complete treatment were analysed. The Point-A dose of Plan (30 + 20 + 24), Plan (40 + 10 + 18), Plan (40 + 10 + 24) and Plan (45 + 0 + 28) were 78.0 Gy (CS 3 cm)/71.8 Gy (CS 4 cm), 72.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/69.0 Gy (CS 4 cm), 80.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/77.0 Gy (CS 4 cm) and 84.1 Gy, whereas it has been previously reported to be 62 Gy, 64 Gy, 72 Gy and 84 Gy, respectively. For all the treatment plans with CS, equivalent or wider coverage of 60 Gy (EQD2) was achieved in the right-left direction, while coverage in the anterior-posterior direction decreased in plans with CS. There were no irregularly 'cold' regions around the central target. The use of CS in radiotherapy for cervical cancer resulted in tumor coverage in the lateral direction with doses higher than the previously reported Point-A doses.

  18. East Asia: Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    contusions, concussions, fractured skulls , ruptured occipital bones, facial lacerations, injuries to eyes and noses, and damaged blood vessels in the... Alienation "The principal reason the military cannot preside over a civilian government is that we officers have a strong tendency of confusing...KOREA socially alienated classes that could be potentially rebel- lious. Chong reacted by inviting the principals of the nation’s leading high

  19. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  20. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Idowu, Ajibola; Olowookere, Samuel Anu; Fagbemi, Aderonke Tolulope; Ogunlaja, Olumuyiwa Ayotunde

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, p = 0.001), respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, p = 0.001), and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, p = 0.001). Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.01–0.28). Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them. PMID:26880916

  1. Identification of a pan-cancer oncogenic microRNA superfamily anchored by a central core seed motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Mark P.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Hartig, Sean M.; Reva, Boris; McLellan, Michael D.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Zack, Travis I.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Wheeler, David A.; Coarfa, Cristian; McGuire, Sean E.

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs modulate tumorigenesis through suppression of specific genes. As many tumour types rely on overlapping oncogenic pathways, a core set of microRNAs may exist, which consistently drives or suppresses tumorigenesis in many cancer types. Here we integrate The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pan-cancer data set with a microRNA target atlas composed of publicly available Argonaute Crosslinking Immunoprecipitation (AGO-CLIP) data to identify pan-tumour microRNA drivers of cancer. Through this analysis, we show a pan-cancer, coregulated oncogenic microRNA ‘superfamily’ consisting of the miR-17, miR-19, miR-130, miR-93, miR-18, miR-455 and miR-210 seed families, which cotargets critical tumour suppressors via a central GUGC core motif. We subsequently define mutations in microRNA target sites using the AGO-CLIP microRNA target atlas and TCGA exome-sequencing data. These combined analyses identify pan-cancer oncogenic cotargeting of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, TGFβ and p53 pathways by the miR-17-19-130 superfamily members.

  2. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  3. Profiles of School Administrators in South Korea: A Comparative Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Songmi; Kim, Eugene P.

    2005-01-01

    Research literature considering school administrators in South Korea is disappointingly sparse. A central focus of this article is to investigate vital descriptors of Korean school administrators, including demographic profiles, entry perspectives, pre-service and in-service training and career commitment. Secondarily, the findings are compared to…

  4. Critical Perspectives on Colonisation of the Art Curriculum in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jeong-Ae

    2009-01-01

    This article examines some characteristics of art education in Korea. It takes the form of a historical overview using a postcolonial lens. The findings were that the predominant Western aesthetic concepts and theories as central culture embodied in Korean art education as local culture are: (i) ideas of art as self-expression developed in Europe…

  5. Central nervous system metastasis secondary to colorectal cancer: a retrospective cohort study of 20 cases

    PubMed Central

    Mondaca, Sebastián; Hornig, Valentina; Munoz-Schuffenegger, Pablo; Acevedo, Francisco; Garrido, Marcelo; Nervi, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) secondary to colorectal cancer is infrequent and associated with a poor prognosis. Its treatment is extrapolated from metastases of other origins as the information available on this scenario is limited. The goal of this study is to assess the clinical characteristics of a series of patients and determine the results in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and global survival. Method The records of patients with CNS metastasis of colorectal origin who were treated in this facility between the years 2001 and 2016 were reviewed retrospectively. Results 20 patients with CNS lesions of this origin were identified. Of these, 45% were male and 55% were female (average age 65.5 years). The histology corresponded to tubular adenocarcinoma in 95% of cases. Around 85% of the patients showed a neurological deficit, and their recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classifications were 1 in 20%, 2 in 55%, and 3 in 25% of the cases studied. The treatments provided were: holocerebral radiotherapy (45%), stereotactic radiosurgery (25%), surgery followed by holocerebral radiotherapy (25%), and exclusively palliative care (5%). The PFS was 2.6 months from treatment of the CNS lesion, while the median survival was 3.8 months. The survival times for patients receiving different treatments were as follows: surgery plus holocerebral radiotherapy 16.2 months, stereotactic radiotherapy 12 months, and holocerebral radiotherapy 2.4 months (p = 0.003). Conclusion The prognosis for patients with metastasis of colorectal origin is poor. The patients treated with surgery or stereotactic radiotherapy can have a greater survival. PMID:28105076

  6. Comparison of lung asbestos fiber content in cancer subjects with healthy individuals with no known history of occupational asbestos exposure in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong Hee; Park, Jung Duck; Sakai, Kiyoshi; Hisanaga, Naomi; Chang, Hee Kyung; Lee, Yong Hwan; Kwon, Il Hoon; Choi, Byung Sun; Chung, Yong Hyun; Kim, Hyeon Yeong; Yang, Jung Sun; Cho, Myung Haing; Yu, Il Je

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of environmental asbestos exposure on the inducement of lung cancer, pulmonary asbestos and non-asbestos fiber content was determined in 36 normal Korean subjects and 38 lung cancer subjects with no known occupational history of asbestos exposure. Pulmonary asbestos fiber content was measured by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-dispersive x-ray analysis after applying a low-temperature ashing procedure. Chrysotile fibers were the major fiber type found in the lungs of the Korean subjects. The asbestos fiber concentrations found in the lungs of normal males (25) and females (11) were 0.26 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue and 0.16 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue, respectively. The asbestos concentrations found in the lungs of cancer subjects were 0.16 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue for 32 males and 0.44 x 10(6) fibers/g of dry lung tissue for 6 females. No statistical difference was found in pulmonary asbestos content between the normal and lung cancer subjects, whereas a statistical difference was noted between normal and lung cancer subjects with respect to lung non-asbestos content, indicating a potential role for non-asbestos fibers being associated with lung cancer.

  7. JPRS Report, East Asia. Korea: KULLOJA, No. 12, December 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-23

    JPRS-AKU-90-004 23 JULY 1990 ffSBBBl ■■■■■« L.%^^ W J’#’A FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No...QUALITY DJSPMJTED 3 East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 12, December 1989 JPRS-AKU-90-004 CONTENTS 23 JULY 1990 [This report is a translation of the table...of contents and selected articles from the monthly theoretical journal of the Central Committee of the Korean Workers Party, published in Pyongyang

  8. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  9. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  10. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Balekouzou, Augustin; Yin, Ping; Afewerky, Henok Kessete; Bekolo, Cavin; Pamatika, Christian Maucler; Nambei, Sylvain Wilfrid; Djeintote, Marceline; Doui Doumgba, Antoine; Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamont; Shu, Chang; Yin, Minghui; Fu, Zhen; Qing, Tingting; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Zhongyu; Koffi, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries; however, there is very little evidence of behavioral factors associated with breast cancer risk. This study was conducted to identify lifestyles as risk factors for breast cancer among Central African women. A case-control study was conducted with 174 cases confirmed histologically by the pathology unit of the National Laboratory and 348 age-matched controls. Data collection tools included a questionnaire with interviews and medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained by unconditional logistic regression. In total, 522 women were studied with a mean age of 45.8 (SD = 13.4) years. By unconditional logistic regression model, women with breast cancer were more likely to have attained illiterate and elementary education level [11.23 (95% CI, 4.65-27.14) and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.15-4.99)], married [2.09 (95% CI, 1.18-3.71)], positive family history [2.31 (95% CI, 1.36-3.91)], radiation exposure [8.21 (95% CI, 5.04-13.38)], consumption charcuterie [10.82 (95% CI, 2.39-48.90)], fresh fish consumption [4.26 (95% CI, 1.56-11.65)], groundnut consumption [6.46 (95% CI, 2.57-16.27)], soybean consumption [16.74 (95% CI, 8.03-39.84)], alcohol [2.53 (95% CI, 1.39-4.60)], habit of keeping money in bras[3.57 (95% CI, 2.24-5.69)], overweight [5.36 (95% CI, 4.46-24.57)] and obesity [3.11(95% CI, 2.39-20.42)]. However, decreased risk of breast cancer was associated with being employed [0.32 (95% CI, 0.19-0.56)], urban residence [0.16 (95% CI, 0.07-0.37)], groundnut oil consumption [0.05 (95% CI, 0.02-0.14)], wine consumption [0.16 (95% CI, 0.09-0.26)], non habit of keeping cell phone in bras [0.56 (95% CI, 0.35-0.89)] and physical activity [0.71(95% CI, 0.14-0.84)]. The study showed that little or no education, marriage, positive family history of cancer, radiation exposure, charcuterie, fresh fish

  11. Mitochondrial genomic comparison of Clonorchis sinensis from South Korea with other isolates of this species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Daxi; Young, Neil D; Koehler, Anson V; Tan, Patrick; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Korhonen, Pasi K; Gasser, Robin B

    2017-02-22

    Clonorchiasis is a neglected tropical disease that affects >35 million people mainly in China, Vietnam, South Korea and some parts of Russia. The disease-causing agent, Clonorchis sinensis, is a liver fluke of humans and other piscivorous animals, and has a complex aquatic life cycle involving snails and fish intermediate hosts. Chronic infection in humans causes liver disease and associated complications including malignant bile duct cancer. Central to control and to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of the specific identity of the causative agent as well as genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single species and that genetic variation within the species is limited, karyotypic variation within C. sinensis among China, Korea (2n=56) and Russian Far East (2n=14) suggests that this taxon might contain sibling species. Here, we assessed and applied a deep sequencing-bioinformatic approach to sequence and define a reference mitochondrial (mt) genome for a particular isolate of C. sinensis from Korea (Cs-k2), to confirm its specific identity, and compared this mt genome with homologous data sets available for this species. Comparative analyses revealed consistency in the number and structure of genes as well as in the lengths of protein-coding genes, and limited genetic variation among isolates of C. sinensis. Phylogenetic analyses of amino acid sequences predicted from mt genes showed that representatives of C. sinensis clustered together, with absolute nodal support, to the exclusion of other liver fluke representatives, but sub-structuring within C. sinensis was not well supported. The plan now is to proceed with the sequencing, assembly and annotation of a high quality draft nuclear genome of this defined isolate (Cs-k2) as a basis for a detailed investigation of molecular variation within C. sinensis from disparate

  12. Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

  13. Risk of leukaemia or cancer in the central nervous system among children living in an area with high indoor radon concentrations: results from a cohort study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Del Risco Kollerud, R; Blaasaas, K G; Claussen, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in assessing the relationship between exposure to radon at home and the risk of childhood cancer. Previous studies have produced conflicting results, probably because of limitations assessing radon exposure, too few cancer cases and poorly documented health statistics. Methods: We used a cohort approach of 0–15-year-old children to examine whether residential radon exposure was associated with childhood leukaemia and cancer in the central nervous system in the Oslo region. The study was based on Norwegian population registers and identified cancer cases from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The residence of every child was geo-coded and assigned a radon exposure. Results: In all, 712 674 children were followed from 1967 to 2009 from birth to date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration or 15 years of age. A total of 864 cancer cases were identified, 437 children got leukaemia and 427 got cancer in the central nervous system. Conclusions or interpretation: No association was found for childhood leukaemia. An elevated nonsignificant risk for cancer in the central nervous system was observed. This association should be interpreted with caution owing to the crude exposure assessment and possibilities of confounding. PMID:25117818

  14. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as...

  15. Vocational identity, positive affect, and career thoughts in a group of young adult central nervous system cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lange, Dustin D; Wong, Alex W K; Strauser, David R; Wagner, Stacia

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were as follows: (a) to compare levels of career thoughts and vocational identity between young adult childhood central nervous system (CNS) cancer survivors and noncancer peers and (b) to investigate the contribution of vocational identity and affect on career thoughts among cancer survivors. Participants included 45 young adult CNS cancer survivors and a comparison sample of 60 college students. Participants completed Career Thoughts Inventory, My Vocational Situation, and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data in this study. CNS cancer survivors had a higher level of decision-making confusion than the college students. Multiple regression analysis indicated that vocational identity and positive affect significantly predicted the career thoughts of CNS survivors. The differences in decision-making confusion suggest that young adult CNS survivors would benefit from interventions that focus on providing knowledge of how to make decisions, while increasing vocational identity and positive affect for this specific population could also be beneficial.

  16. Rupture of totally implantable central venous access devices (Intraports) in patients with cancer: report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Dimitrios K; Tsikkinis, Christoforos; Filippou, Georgios K; Nissiotis, Athanasios; Rizos, Spiros

    2004-01-01

    Background Totally implantable central venous access devices (intraports) are commonly used in cancer patients to administer chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition. Rupture of intraport is a rare complication. Patients and methods During 3 years period, a total of 245 intraports were placed in cancer patients for chemotherapy. Four of these cases (two colon cancer and one each of pancreas and breast cancer) had rupture of the intraport catheter, these forms the basis of present report. Results Mean time insitu for intraports was 164∀35 days. Median follow-up time was 290 days and total port time in situ was 40180 days. The incidence of port rupture was 1 per 10,000 port days. Three of the 4 cases were managed by successful removal of catheters. In two of these the catheter was removed under fluoroscopic control using femoral route, while in the third patient the catheter (partial rupture) was removed surgically. One of the catheters could not be removed and migrated to right ventricle on manipulations. Conclusion Port catheter rupture is a rare but dreaded complication associated with subcutaneous port catheter device placement for chemotherapy. In case of such an event the patient should be managed by an experienced vascular surgeon and interventional radiologist, as in most cases the ruptured catheter can be retrieved by non operative interventional measures. PMID:15494075

  17. Impact of the policy of expanding benefit coverage for cancer patients on catastrophic health expenditure across different income groups in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Kwon, Soonman

    2015-08-01

    To increase financial protection for catastrophic illness, South Korean government expanded the National Health Insurance (NHI) benefit coverage for cancer patients in September 2005. This paper investigated whether the policy has reduced inequality in catastrophic payments, defined as annual out-of-pocket (OOP) health payments exceeding 10% annual income, across different income groups. This study used the NHI claims data from 2002 to 2004 and 2006 to 2010. Triple difference estimator was employed to compare cancer patients as a treatment group with those with liver and cardio-cerebrovascular diseases as control groups and the low-income with the high-income groups. While catastrophic payments decreased in cancer patients compared with those of two diseases, they appeared to decrease more in the high-income than the low-income group. Considering that increased health care utilization and poor economic capacity may lead to a smaller reduction in catastrophic payments for the low-income than the high-income patients, the government needs to consider additional policy measures to increase financial protection for the poor.

  18. Does El Niño-Southern Oscillation affect the precipitation in Korea on seasonal time scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Woosuk; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Yoo, Hee-Dong

    2016-08-01

    A number of studies in the past two decades have attempted to find the relationship between the precipitation in Korea and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on various time scales. Comprehensive analyses of station precipitation data in Korea for the 61-year period, 1954-2014, in this study show that the effects of ENSO on the seasonal precipitation in Korea are practically negligible. The correlation between summer precipitation and ENSO is insignificant regardless of the intensity, type (e.g., eastern-Pacific or central-Pacific), and stage (e.g., developing, mature, or decaying) of ENSO. Somewhat meaningful correlation between ENSO and precipitation in Korea occurs only in the ENSO-developing fall. Because summer rainfall accounts for over half of the annual total and fall is a dry season in Korea, the overall effects of ENSO on precipitation in Korea are practically nonexistent.

  19. Effect of annual endoscopic screening on clinicopathologic characteristics and treatment modality of gastric cancer in a high-incidence region of Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Su Jin; Park, Min Jung; Kang, Seung Joo; Kang, Hae Yeon; Chung, Goh Eun; Kim, Sang Gyun; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2012-11-15

    We investigated risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) and effect of annual endoscopic screening on detection and treatment modality of GC. Asymptomatic adults who underwent upper endoscopy during health checkups at Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center were enrolled. We compared clinicopathologic characteristics of GC according to screening interval (repeated vs. infrequent, annual vs. biennial). After age- and sex-matching, relative risk was computed by hazard ratio (HR) using Cox proportional regression with multivariate adjustment. Of the 58,849 subjects who received screening endoscopy, 277 (0.47%) were found to have GC. Intestinal type comprised 55.4% (102/184) followed by diffuse type (n = 65, 35.3%). Age ≥ 50 years, family history and smoking independently increased the risk of GC for both types, whereas male gender [HR = 4.81, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.72-8.03] and intestinal metaplasia (IM) (HR = 10.87, 95% CI: 3.36-22.30) were significant predictors for intestinal type only. Proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) was 98.6% (71/72) in annual screening group and 80.7% (46/57) in biennial screening group (p < 0.01). In the former, tumor size was smaller (1.7 ± 1.3 vs. 2.3 ± 1.8 cm; p < 0.01] and proportion of intramucosal cancer was larger (75.0 vs. 56.1%; p = 0.04). Endoscopic resection was performed more frequently in annual screening group (56.9 vs. 33.3%; p = 0.02). IM along with male gender and older age was a strong risk factor for intestinal type GC. Annual screening group improved detection of early-stage and endoscopically treatable GC suggesting that intensive screening and surveillance may be useful for high-risk subpopulations with epidemiologic risk factors or premalignant lesions such as IM.

  20. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  1. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  2. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D.

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

  3. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  4. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  5. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  6. Outcomes, cost comparison, and patient satisfaction during long-term central venous access in cancer patients: Experience from a Tertiary Care Cancer Institute in South India

    PubMed Central

    Babu, K. Govind; Suresh Babu, M. C.; Lokanatha, D.; Bhat, Gita R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Prolonged treatment, frequent administration of chemotherapy, antibiotics and blood products in cancer patients requires long term venous access. Central venous catheters (CVC) inserted into the subclavian vein or internal jugular vein, peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICC) and chemoport (CP) are the commonly used central venous access devices (CVAD). Aim: This study was envisaged to review our experience of CVADs over a one year period and analyze the outcome with regard to catheter life, reasons for removal, complications, patient satisfaction and cost comparison between the CVAD types in the Indian setting. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, observational study carried out in a tertiary care cancer institute. Materials and Methods: 180 CVADs placed in patients with hematological malignancies and solid tumors from January 2014 to December 2014 were included. Statistical Analysis Used: Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U test. P <0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: 180 CVADs were placed in 160 patients. The median catheter indwelling period was 76 days (16 days to 313 days) for CVC, 59 days (20days – 313 days) for PICC and 137 days (70 days – 258 days) for CP. 66 out of 160 patients developed complications (41.2%). 108 complication events were noted in 66 patients. There were 40 episodes of CRBSI. Out of the 68 mechanical complications, 37 were encountered during insertion of the CVAD and 31 were during the catheter indwelling period. Out of 160 patients, 138 (86.25%) were satisfied with the CVAD. The cost incurred for CVC/PICC (INR 4,480) was lower than that for CP (INR 24,150) and it was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Our patients were highly satisfied with the CVAD. Conclusion: Use of CVC and PICC is a safe, reliable and cost saving way of administration of chemotherapy in developing countries. The incidence of complications and catheter loss was acceptable. Our

  7. Trends in the Use of Chemotherapy before and after Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Han; Seo, Ho Kyung; Shin, Hee Chul; Chang, Sung Ja; Yun, Sooin; Joo, Jungnam; Ku, Ja Hyeon; Kim, Hyung Suk; Jeon, Hwang Gyun; Jeong, Byong Chang; Jeong, In Gab; Kang, Seok Ho; Hong, Bumsik

    2015-08-01

    We investigated trends in perioperative chemotherapy use, and determined factors associated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) use in Korean patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). We recruited 1,324 patients who had MIBC without nodal invasion or metastases and had undergone radical cystectomies (RC) between 2003 and 2013. The study's cut-off time for AC was three months after surgery, and the study's timespan was divided into three periods based on NAC use, namely, 2003-2005, 2006-2009, and 2010-2013. Complete remission was defined as histologically confirmed T0N0M0 after RC. NAC and AC were administered to 7.3% and 18.1% of the patients, respectively. The median time interval between completing NAC and undergoing RC was 32 days and the mean number of cycles was 3.2. The median time interval between RC and AC was 43 days and the mean number of cycles was 4.1. Gemcitabine and cisplatin were most frequently used in combination for NAC (49.0%) and AC (74.9%). NAC use increased significantly from 4.6% between 2003 and 2005 to 8.4% between 2010 and 2013 (P < 0.05), but AC use did not increase. Only 1.9% of patients received NAC and AC. Complete remission after NAC was achieved in 12 patients (12.5%). Multivariable modeling revealed that an advanced age, the earliest time period analyzed, and clinical tumor stage ≤ cT2 bladder cancer were negatively associated with NAC use (P < 0.05). While NAC use has slowly increased over time, it remains an underutilized therapeutic approach in Korean clinical practice.

  8. Accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with contralateral central or mediastinal lung cancer relapse after pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abu Jawad, Jehad; Gkika, Eleni; Freitag, Lutz; Lübcke, Wolfgang; Welter, Stefan; Gauler, Thomas; Schuler, Martin; Eberhardt, Wilfried Ernst Erich; Stamatis, Georgios; Stuschke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment options are very limited for patients with lung cancer who experience contralateral central or mediastinal relapse following pneumonectomy. We present results of an accelerated salvage chemoradiotherapy regimen. Methods Patients with localized contralateral central intrapulmonary or mediastinal relapse after pneumonectomy were offered combined chemoradiotherapy including concurrent weekly cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and accelerated radiotherapy [accelerated fractionated (AF), 60 Gy, 8×2 Gy per week] to reduce time for repopulation. Based on 4D-CT-planning, patients were irradiated using multifield intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or helical tomotherapy. Results Between 10/2011 and 12/2012, seven patients were treated. Initial stages were IIB/IIIA/IIIB: 3/1/3; histopathological subtypes scc/adeno/large cell: 4/1/2. Tumour relapses were located in mediastinal nodal stations in five patients with endobronchial tumour in three patients. The remaining patients had contralateral central tumour relapses. All patients received 60 Gy (AF), six patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Median dose to the remaining contralateral lung, esophagus, and spinal cord was 6.8 (3.3-11.4), 8.0 (5.1-15.5), and 7.6 (2.8-31.2) Gy, respectively. With a median follow-up of 29 [17-32] months, no esophageal or pulmonary toxicity exceeding grade 2 [Common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTC-AE) v. 3] was observed. Median survival was 17.2 months, local in-field control at 12 months 80%. Only two local recurrences were observed, both in combination with out-field metastases. Conclusions This intensified accelerated chemoradiotherapy schedule was safely applicable and offers a curative chance in these pretreated frail lung cancer patients. PMID:25922702

  9. Seoul: Korea's high-tech hotbed.

    PubMed

    Rusoff, D

    1987-04-01

    Seoul, Korea, is in the throes of change--in the way its people live, in the jobs they do, and in the makeup of its populace. The city of Seoul proper houses 1 out of every 4 Koreans. Home to 95 of Korea's 100 largest trading companies and 42 of the 46 family-based industrial conglomerates--Seoul controls Korean commerce. Employment opportunities have kept pace with Seoul's rapidly growing labor supply resulting in low unemployment by developing country standards. Only 12.3% of Koreans now live below the poverty line, down from nearly 41% in 1962. The real per capita income in Seoul rose from a dismal $87 in 1962 to nearly $2000 in 1985. The completion of 2 commuter rail lines in 1974 accelerated the movement of people out of the city and into suburban areas, concentrating urban growth along the railway corridors. Population densities in the city's central wards make Seoul 1 of the world's most densely populated cities. Although Seoul's population is young--27.9% of the population was under age 15 in 1983-- it is becoming increasingly dominated by those of working age. Seoul is essentially a city of migrants; more than 1/2 of the city's grwoth since 1960 is attributable to in-migration. Although the trend is toward rising white-collar employment, Seoul is still a blue-collar town. Seoul's educational system is so highly regarded in Korea that families move to seoul just to enroll their children. Korean spending patterns are influenced greatly by the Korean penchant for higher education.

  10. Welding and lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Brennan, Paul; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Occupation as a welder has been associated with a 25%-40% increase in lung cancer risk. This study aims to elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium. The study included 2,197 male incident lung cancer cases and 2,295 controls from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2001. Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face interviews. Experts assessed exposure to 70 agents, and risk estimates were adjusted for smoking and occupational exposures. Occupation as a welder/flame cutter (prevalence controls: 3.7%) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.86) after adjustment for smoking and occupational exposures including asbestos. An odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.38) was found for welding fumes (prevalence controls: 22.8%), increasing to 1.38 for more than 25 exposure years (95% CI: 1.09, 1.75). A duration-response association was also observed for mild steel welding without chromium exposure. In this population, occupational exposure to welding fumes accounted for approximately 4% of lung cancer cases, to which both stainless and mild steel welding contributed equally. Given that welding remains a common task for many workers, exposure to welding fumes represents an important risk factor for lung cancer.

  11. Behavioral risk factors of breast cancer in Bangui of Central African Republic: A retrospective case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Balekouzou, Augustin; Yin, Ping; Afewerky, Henok Kessete; Bekolo, Cavin; Pamatika, Christian Maucler; Nambei, Sylvain Wilfrid; Djeintote, Marceline; Doui Doumgba, Antoine; Mossoro-Kpinde, Christian Diamont; Shu, Chang; Yin, Minghui; Fu, Zhen; Qing, Tingting; Yan, Mingming; Zhang, Jianyuan; Chen, Shaojun; Li, Hongyu; Xu, Zhongyu; Koffi, Boniface

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is recognized as a major public health problem in developing countries; however, there is very little evidence of behavioral factors associated with breast cancer risk. This study was conducted to identify lifestyles as risk factors for breast cancer among Central African women. A case-control study was conducted with 174 cases confirmed histologically by the pathology unit of the National Laboratory and 348 age-matched controls. Data collection tools included a questionnaire with interviews and medical records of patients. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. Odd ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were obtained by unconditional logistic regression. In total, 522 women were studied with a mean age of 45.8 (SD = 13.4) years. By unconditional logistic regression model, women with breast cancer were more likely to have attained illiterate and elementary education level [11.23 (95% CI, 4.65–27.14) and 2.40 (95% CI, 1.15–4.99)], married [2.09 (95% CI, 1.18–3.71)], positive family history [2.31 (95% CI, 1.36–3.91)], radiation exposure [8.21 (95% CI, 5.04–13.38)], consumption charcuterie [10.82 (95% CI, 2.39–48.90)], fresh fish consumption [4.26 (95% CI, 1.56–11.65)], groundnut consumption [6.46 (95% CI, 2.57–16.27)], soybean consumption [16.74 (95% CI, 8.03–39.84)], alcohol [2.53 (95% CI, 1.39–4.60)], habit of keeping money in bras[3.57 (95% CI, 2.24–5.69)], overweight [5.36 (95% CI, 4.46–24.57)] and obesity [3.11(95% CI, 2.39–20.42)]. However, decreased risk of breast cancer was associated with being employed [0.32 (95% CI, 0.19–0.56)], urban residence [0.16 (95% CI, 0.07–0.37)], groundnut oil consumption [0.05 (95% CI, 0.02–0.14)], wine consumption [0.16 (95% CI, 0.09–0.26)], non habit of keeping cell phone in bras [0.56 (95% CI, 0.35–0.89)] and physical activity [0.71(95% CI, 0.14–0.84)]. The study showed that little or no education, marriage, positive family history of cancer, radiation

  12. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.

  13. Venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients with central venous catheters for 5-FU infusion-based pharmacokinetic modulating chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Reigetsu; Yanagi, Hidenori; Noda, Masafumi; Ikeuchi, Hiroki; Nakano, Hiroki; Gega, Makoto; Tsukamoto, Kiyoshi; Oshima, Tsutomu; Inoue, Takashi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shoji, Yasutsugu; Sakaki, Takatoshi; Higasa, Satoshi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko; Yamamura, Takehira

    2005-04-01

    Colorectal cancer patients with central venous catheters (CVC) for pharmacokinetic modulating chemotherapy (PMC) have a substantial risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). PMC, designed as a hybrid of lower metronomic and higher shorter plasma 5-FU concentrations, has been clinically successful. To determine the effectiveness and safety of D-dimer tests and multidetector-row CT (MDCT) for diagnosis in cancer patients with suspected VTE, we carried out a clinical outcome study on PMC outpatients. Patients received a D-dimer test before and after commencing the PMC regimen. MDCT was performed additionally if the D-dimer test appeared positive or showed signs of VTE. When CT results were positive for thromboembolism, anticoagulation was started. The overall prevalence of VTE in PMC patients was 2.0% (7 of 350 patients). In this study, 34 out of 102 colorectal cancer patients gave a positive D-dimer test (33.3%). CT identified venous thrombi in 2 of the 102 patients (2.0%), mural thrombosis on catheterized veins in another 3 patients (2.9%), and endothelial hyperplasia on catheterized veins in 8 patients (7.8%). The catheters of these patients did not show any significant abnormalities. Patients with negative D-dimer tests showed no signs or symptoms of VTE. In colorectal cancer patients receiving continuous 5-FU infusion via CVC, a D-dimer test can be safely used as the primary diagnostic test for ruling out VTE. We suggest 7.0 microg/ml as the D-dimer cut-off value. Thromboprophylaxis should be considered in the patients showing values >7.0 microg/ml.

  14. Central role of Snail1 in the regulation of EMT and resistance in cancer: a target for therapeutic intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Snail1 is the founding member of the Snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors, which also includes Snail2 (Slug) and Snail3 (Smuc). The superfamily is involved in cell differentiation and survival, two processes central in cancer research. Encoded by the SNAI1 gene located on human chromosome 20q13.2, Snail1 is composed of 264 amino acids and usually acts as a transcriptional repressor. Phosphorylation and nuclear localization of Snail1, governed by PI3K and Wnt signaling pathways crosstalk, are critical in Snail1’s regulation. Snail1 has a pivotal role in the regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the process by which epithelial cells acquire a migratory, mesenchymal phenotype, as a result of its repression of E-cadherin. Snail1-induced EMT involves the loss of E-cadherin and claudins with concomitant upregulation of vimentin and fibronectin, among other biomarkers. While essential to normal developmental processes such as gastrulation, EMT is associated with metastasis, the cancer stem cell phenotype, and the regulation of chemo and immune resistance in cancer. Snail1 expression is a common sign of poor prognosis in metastatic cancer, and tumors with elevated Snail1 expression are disproportionately difficult to eradicate by current therapeutic treatments. The significance of Snail1 as a prognostic indicator, its involvement in the regulation of EMT and metastasis, and its roles in both drug and immune resistance point out that Snail1 is an attractive target for tumor growth inhibition and a target for sensitization to cytotoxic drugs. PMID:25084828

  15. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  16. Comparison of Effects Between Central and Peripheral Stage I Lung Cancer Using Image-Guided Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy via Helical Tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    He, Jian; Huang, Yan; Shi, Shiming; Hu, Yong; Zeng, Zhaochong

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is a common malignant tumor with high morbidity and mortality. Here we compared the effects and outcome between central and peripheral stage I lung cancer using image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy. From June 2011 to July 2013, a total of 33 patients with stage I lung cancer were enrolled. A total of 50 Gy in 10 fractions or 60 Gy in 10 fractions was delivered in the central arm (n = 18), while 50 Gy in 5 fractions in the peripheral arm (n = 15). Statistical analyses were performed using logistic regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier method. The mean follow-up time was 38.1 months. Three-month, 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall response rates were 66.7%, 83.3%, 61.1%, and 72.2% and 66.7%, 80%, 80%, and 80% in the central and peripheral arms, respectively. Three-year local control rates (94.4% vs 93.3%, P = .854), regional control rates (94.4% vs 86.7%, P = .412), and distant control rates (64.2% vs 61.7%, P = .509) had no differences between the central and the peripheral arms. Grade 2 radiation pneumonitis was observed in 6 of 18 patients in the central arm and in 1 of 15 patients in the peripheral arm (P = .92). Grade 2 radiation esophagitis was 5.7% in the central arm, while none occurred in the peripheral arm (P = .008). Five (15.1%) of all patients felt slight fatigue during radiotherapy. Other major complications were not observed. In conclusion, helical image-guided stereotactic body radiotherapy for central stage I lung cancer is safe and effective compared to peripheral stage I lung cancer.

  17. Trends in central nervous system tumor incidence relative to other common cancers in adults, adolescents, and children in the United States, 2000 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gittleman, Haley R; Ostrom, Quinn T; Rouse, Chaturia D; Dowling, Jacqueline A; de Blank, Peter M; Kruchko, Carol A; Elder, J Bradley; Rosenfeld, Steven S; Selman, Warren R; Sloan, Andrew E; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Time trends in cancer incidence rates (IR) are important to measure the changing burden of cancer on a population over time. The overall IR of cancer in the United States is declining. Although central nervous system tumors (CNST) are rare, they contribute disproportionately to mortality and morbidity. In this analysis, the authors examined trends in the incidence of the most common cancers and CNST between 2000 and 2010. METHODS The current analysis used data from the United States Cancer Statistics publication and the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States. Age-adjusted IR per 100,000 population with 95% confidence intervals and the annual percent change (APC) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for selected common cancers and CNST overall and by age, sex, race/ethnicity, selected histologies, and malignancy status. RESULTS In adults, there were significant decreases in colon (2000-2010: APC, −3.1), breast (2000-2010: APC, −0.8), lung (2000-2010: APC, −1.1), and prostate (2000-2010: APC, −2.4) cancer as well as malignant CNST (2008-2010: APC, −3.1), but a significant increase was noted in nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 2.7). In adolescents, there were significant increases in malignant CNST (2000-2008: APC, 1.0) and nonmalignant CNST (2004-2010: APC, 3.9). In children, there were significant increases in acute lymphocytic leukemia (2000-2010: APC, 1.0), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (2000-2010: APC, 0.6), and malignant CNST (2000-2010: APC, 0.6). CONCLUSIONS Surveillance of IR trends is an important way to measure the changing public health and economic burden of cancer. In the current study, there were significant decreases noted in the incidence of adult cancer, whereas adolescent and childhood cancer IR were either stable or increasing. Cancer 2015;121:102–112. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. Time trends in cancer incidence rates are important to

  18. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  19. PEPCK coordinates the regulation of central carbon metabolism to promote cancer cell growth

    PubMed Central

    Montal, Emily; Dewi, Ruby; Bhalla, Kavita; Ou, Lihui; Hwang, Bor Jang; Ropell, Ashley; Gordon, Chris; Liu, Wan-Ju; DeBerardinis, Ralph J.; Sudderth, Jessica; Twaddel, William; Boros, Lazlo; Shroyer, Kenneth; Duraisamy, Sekhar; Drapkin, Ronny; Powers, R. Scott; Rohde, Jason M.; Boxer, Matthew B.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Girnun, Geoffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Summary Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is well known for its role in gluconeogenesis. However, PEPCK is also a key regulator of TCA cycle flux. The TCA cycle integrates glucose, amino acid and lipid metabolism depending on cellular needs. In addition, biosynthetic pathways crucial to tumor growth require the TCA cycle for the processing of glucose and glutamine derived carbons. We show here an unexpected role for PEPCK in promoting cancer cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by increasing glucose and glutamine utilization toward anabolic metabolism. Unexpectedly, PEPCK also increased the synthesis of ribose from non-carbohydrate sources, such as glutamine, a phenomenon not previously described. Finally, we show that the effects of PEPCK on glucose metabolism and cell proliferation are in part mediated via activation of mTORC1. Taken together, these data demonstrate a role for PEPCK that links metabolic flux and anabolic pathways to cancer cell proliferation. PMID:26481663

  20. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  1. [Alpha lipoic acid and its antioxidant against cancer and diseases of central sensitization].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marisa; Mach, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El ácido alfa lipoico (ALA) puede controlar y limitar la cantidad de radicales libres, influyendo el desarrollo de patologías como el cáncer o las enfermedades de sensibilización central, aunque los mecanismos moleculares implicados en este proceso aún están dilucidándose. Objetivo: Reunir y contrastar información sobre las propiedades antioxidantes del ALA en la prevención y desarrollo de las patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Material y métodos: En este trabajo, se analizan más de 100 artículos publicados en los últimos 20 años que relacionan el consumo de ALA y la prevalencia y desarrollo de patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Los artículos han sido obtenidos en diferentes bases de datos (PubMed central, Web of Science, Elsevier Journal, Science Direct), e incluyen experimentos en células, animales y humanos. Las palabras clave utilizadas fueron: cáncer, enfermedades de sensibilización central, radicales libres, y ALA. Resultados y discusión: Se han reunido resultados de trabajos realizados in vitro y en animales de laboratorio en los que se pone de manifiesto el efecto del ALA en el control de la apoptosis celular de diferentes tipos de cánceres mediante un aumento de las especies reactivas de oxígeno, así como también el retardo en el crecimiento de las mismas. Aparte, se ha demostrado que la capacidad antioxidante del ALA y su potencial para regenerar otros antioxidantes es de gran importancia para tratar las patologías de sensibilización central. Conclusiones: El ALA ha demostrado un papel significativo como antioxidante y prooxidante en el cáncer y las patologías de sensibilización central, aunque son necesarias más investigaciones en humanos.

  2. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99... goods as described in this section to North Korea. (4) TSU for operation technology and software for lawfully exported commodities as set forth in § 740.13(a) and sales technology as set forth in § 740.13...

  3. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  4. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea...

  5. Evaluation of the impact of the cancer therapy everolimus on the central nervous system in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Martine; Le Joncour, Vadim; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Anouar, Youssef; Proust, François; Morin, Fabrice; Gandolfo, Pierrick; Joly, Florence; Hilber, Pascal; Castel, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Cancer and treatments may induce cognitive impairments in cancer patients, and the causal link between chemotherapy and cognitive dysfunctions was recently validated in animal models. New cancer targeted therapies have become widely used, and their impact on brain functions and quality of life needs to be explored. We evaluated the impact of everolimus, an anticancer agent targeting the mTOR pathway, on cognitive functions, cerebral metabolism, and hippocampal cell proliferation/vascular density in mice. Adult mice received everolimus daily for 2 weeks, and behavioral tests were performed from 1 week after the last treatment. Everolimus-treated mice displayed a marked reduction in weight gain from the last day of the treatment period. Ex vivo analysis showed altered cytochrome oxidase activity in selective cerebral regions involved in energy balance, food intake, reward, learning and memory modulation, sleep/wake cycle regulation, and arousal. Like chemotherapy, everolimus did not alter emotional reactivity, learning and memory performances, but in contrast to chemotherapy, did not affect behavioral flexibility or reactivity to novelty. In vivo hippocampal neural cell proliferation and vascular density were also unchanged after everolimus treatments. In conclusion, two weeks daily everolimus treatment at the clinical dose did not evoke alteration of cognitive performances evaluated in hippocampal- and prefrontal cortex-dependent tasks that would persist at one to four weeks after the end of the treatment completion. However, acute everolimus treatment caused selective CO modifications without altering the mTOR effector P70S6 kinase in cerebral regions involved in feeding behavior and/or the sleep/wake cycle, at least in part under control of the solitary nucleus and the parasubthalamic region of the hypothalamus. Thus, this area may represent a key target for everolimus-mediating peripheral modifications, which has been previously associated with symptoms such as

  6. Oncoplastic breast conserving surgery with nipple-areolar preservation for centrally located breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhao-Jun; Li, Xiu-Juan; Xu, Xin-Yu; Xia, Lei; Tang, Jin-Hai

    2014-01-01

    A compariosn was made of survival outcomes of oncoplastic breast conserving therapy (oBCT) with nipple- areolar (NAC) preservation in women with centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) undergoing modified radical mastectomy (MRM) in China in a matched retrospective cohort study. We used a database including patients who received oBCT (n=91) or MRM (n=182) from 2003 to 2013 in our hospital. Matching was conducted according to five variables: age at diagnosis, axillary lymph node status, hormone receptor status, human epidermal growth factor-like receptor 2 status (HER-2) and tumor stage. The match ratio was 1:2. Median follow-up times for the oBCT and MRM groups were 83 and 81 months, respectively. There were no significant differences in 87-month overall, local, or distant recurrence-free survival between patients with oBCT and MRM (89%vs.90%; 93%vs.95%; 91%vs.92%;). For appropriate breast cancer patients, oBCT for CLBC is oncologically safe, oncoplastic techniques improving cosmetic outcomes.

  7. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  8. A Central Role for Long Non-Coding RNA in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sheetal A.; Mitra, Anirban P.; Triche, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been shown to regulate important biological processes that support normal cellular functions. Aberrant regulation of these essential functions can promote tumor development. In this review, we underscore the importance of the regulatory role played by this distinct class of ncRNAs in cancer-associated pathways that govern mechanisms such as cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. We also highlight the possibility of using these unique RNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in malignancies. PMID:22363342

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and its genotype among 1336 invasive cervical cancer patients in Hunan province, central south China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqian; Wu, Baiping; Li, Junjun; Chen, Liyu

    2015-03-01

    Existing data on the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited in Hunan province, central south China. To evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection and its genotype among women with invasive cervical cancer in Hunan, a total of 1,336 patients were included in this study between July 2012 and June 2013. Eighteen high-risk and eight low-risk genotypes of HPV were detected by Luminex xMAP technology. The results show that HPV prevalence in invasive cervical cancer in Hunan was 75.7%. A single HPV infection was found in 82.3% of the HPV-positive samples, and 91.8% of the cases had high-risk HPV infection. The most common HPV type was HPV 16 (50.6%), followed by HPV 58 (12.4%), HPV 52 (10.9%), HPV 18 (7.3%), HPV 33 (5.5%), HPV 59 (4.2%), HPV 39 (4.0%), HPV 61 (3.4%), HPV 31 (3.3%), and HPV 56 (3.2%). A single infection with HPV 16 was detected in 42.5% of the samples, which was significantly more frequent than any other HPV type in this population. Dual-infection with HPV 16 and HPV 52 were relatively common. The available vaccines for HPV 16 and 18 are therefore expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the burden of cervical cancer in China, even though HPV 18 showed a lower frequency. In addition to HPV 16 and 18, other HPV types including 58, 52, and 33, should be targeted in the next generation HPV vaccines.

  10. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions.

    PubMed

    Binder, David C; Davis, Andrew A; Wainwright, Derek A

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies.

  11. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Binder, David C.; Davis, Andrew A.; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies. PMID:27057463

  12. Delivering kidney cancer care in rural Central and Southern Illinois: a telemedicine approach.

    PubMed

    Alanee, S; Dynda, D; LeVault, K; Mueller, G; Sadowski, D; Wilber, A; Jenkins, W D; Dynda, M

    2014-11-01

    There is a growing body of experience and research suggesting that telemedicine (video conferencing, smart phones and online patient portals) could be the solution to addressing gaps in the provision of specialised healthcare in rural areas. The proposed role of telemedicine in providing needed services in hard to reach areas is not new. The United States Telecommunication Act of 1996 provided the initial traction for telemedicine by removing important economic and legal obstacles regarding the use of technology in healthcare delivery. This initial ruling has been supplemented by the availability of federal funding to support efforts aimed at developing telemedicine in underserved areas. In this paper, we explore one aspect of disease disparity pertinent to rural Illinois (kidney cancer incidence and mortality) and describe how we are planning to use an existing telemedicine program at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (SIUSOM) to improve kidney cancer (Kca) care in rural Illinois. This represents an example of the possible role of telemedicine in addressing healthcare disparities in rural areas/communities and provides a description of general challenges and barriers to the implementation and maintenance of such systems.

  13. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR2F6 Is a Central Checkpoint for Cancer Immune Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hermann-Kleiter, Natascha; Klepsch, Victoria; Wallner, Stephanie; Siegmund, Kerstin; Klepsch, Sebastian; Tuzlak, Selma; Villunger, Andreas; Kaminski, Sandra; Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Christa; Gruber, Thomas; Wolf, Dominik; Baier, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Nr2f6 significantly improves survival in the murine transgenic TRAMP prostate cancer model. Furthermore, Nr2f6−/− mice spontaneously reject implanted tumors and develop host-protective immunological memory against tumor rechallenge. This is paralleled by increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and higher expression levels of interleukin 2 and interferon γ at the tumor site. Mechanistically, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-intrinsic NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of the NFAT/AP-1 complex on both the interleukin 2 and the interferon γ cytokine promoters, attenuating their transcriptional thresholds. Adoptive transfer of Nr2f6-deficient T cells into tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice is sufficient to delay tumor outgrowth. Altogether, this defines NR2F6 as an intracellular immune checkpoint in effector T cells, governing the amplitude of anti-cancer immunity. PMID:26387951

  14. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  15. A Study on the knowledge, perception and use of breast cancer screening methods and quality of care among women from central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Castillo, Andrea B.; Hernández-Valero, María A.; Hovick, Shelly R.; Campuzano-González, Martha Elva; Karam-Calderón, Miguel Angel; Bustamante-Montes, L. Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Studies on health behaviors have observed several barriers to breast cancer screening, including lack of breast cancer knowledge, distrust of health care providers, long waiting times to be screened or to receive screening results. We conducted a nested case-control study among a subsample of 200 women 21 years of age and older (100 cases, who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, and 100 controls, who were screened and found to be free of breast cancer), all residing in the Toluca metropolitan area in central Mexico. We examined how knowledge of breast cancer screening guidelines, perceptions of screening methods, and quality of health care influenced the use of breast cancer screening among study participants. Our study found that the most important factors associated with the decision to have breast cancer screenings was having a positive perception of the quality of care provided by the local health care centers, such as having competent clinic personnel, sufficient screening equipment, and reasonable waiting times to receive screening and to receive the screening results. Therefore, individual health care centers need to focus on the patients’ perception of the services received by optimizing the care provided, and in so doing increase the rates of early diagnosis, reduce the rate of mortality from breast cancer as well as its associated treatment costs. PMID:25182506

  16. A Study on the Knowledge, Perception, and Use of Breast Cancer Screening Methods and Quality of Care Among Women from Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Castillo, Andrea B; Hernández-Valero, María A; Hovick, Shelly R; Campuzano-González, Martha Elva; Karam-Calderón, Miguel Angel; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Studies on health behaviors have observed several barriers to breast cancer screening, including lack of breast cancer knowledge, distrust of health care providers, and long waiting times to be screened or to receive screening results. We conducted a nested case-control study among a subsample of 200 women 21 years of age and older [100 patients (cases)], who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, and 100 controls, who were screened and found to be free of breast cancer), all residing in the Toluca metropolitan area in central Mexico. We examined how knowledge of breast cancer screening guidelines, perceptions of screening methods, and quality of health care influenced the use of breast cancer screening among study participants. Our study found that the most important factor associated with the decision to have breast cancer screenings was having a positive perception of the quality of care provided by the local health care centers, such as having competent clinic personnel, sufficient screening equipment, and reasonable waiting times to receive screening and to receive the screening results. Therefore, individual health care centers need to focus on the patients' perception of the services received by optimizing the care provided and, in so doing, increase the rates of early diagnosis and reduce the rate of mortality from breast cancer as well as its associated treatment costs.

  17. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  18. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  19. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  20. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  1. Complications Associated With Use of Long-Term Central Venous Catheters Among Commercially Insured Women With Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lipitz-Snyderman, Allison; Ma, Qinli; Pollack, Michael F.; Barron, John; Elkin, Elena B.; Bach, Peter B.; Malin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite some advantages to their use, long-term central venous catheters (CVCs) are associated with complications for patients who require chemotherapy. Understanding of these risks in commercially insured populations is limited. This information can inform medical policies that ensure the appropriate use of venous access devices. This study's objectives were to assess the extent of variation in use of long-term CVCs in a cohort of commercially insured women with breast cancer, and to assess risks of associated complications. Methods: Retrospective cohort analysis was conducted using health insurance claims between January 2006 and October 2013. The cohort included commercially insured women age ≥ 18 years diagnosed with breast cancer who received infusion chemotherapy (N = 31,047). We conducted matched and case-mix adjusted Cox proportional hazard modeling to assess differences in bloodstream infections and thrombovascular complications between patients using long-term CVCs and those using temporary intravenous catheters. Results: Approximately two thirds of the cohort had a long-term CVC, although rates varied across regions (57% to 75%), health plans (65% to 70%), and insurance coverage (63% to 68%). After propensity score matching, the adjusted hazard ratio for infection was 2.70 (95% CI, 2.31 to 3.16) and thrombovascular complications, 2.61 (95% CI, 2.33 to 2.93) in patients with long-term CVCs compared with those with temporary intravenous catheters. Conclusion: Although long-term CVCs may have benefits, they are associated with increased morbidity. Regional and health plan variation in long-term CVC insertion suggests that some of their use reflects provider- or institution-driven variation in practice. Evidence-based guidelines and tools may help decrease discretionary use of long-term CVCs. PMID:26265170

  2. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Centrally and Superiorly Located Stage I or Isolated Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joe Y. Balter, Peter A.; Dong Lei; Yang Qiuan; Liao Zhongxing; Jeter, Melenda; Bucci, M. Kara; McAleer, Mary F.; Mehran, Reza J.; Roth, Jack A.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in centrally/superiorly located non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: We delivered SBRT to 27 patients, 13 with Stage I and 14 with isolated recurrent NSCLC. A central/superior location was defined as being within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, major vessels, esophagus, heart, trachea, pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body, but 1 cm away from the spinal canal. All patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography-based planning, and daily computed tomography-on-rail guided SBRT. The prescribed dose of 40 Gy (n = 7) to the planning target volume was escalated to 50 Gy (n = 20) in 4 consecutive days. Results: With a median follow-up of 17 months (range, 6-40 months), the crude local control at the treated site was 100% using 50 Gy. However, 3 of 7 patients had local recurrences when treated using 40 Gy. Of the patients with Stage I disease, 1 (7.7%) and 2 (15.4%) developed mediastinal lymph node metastasis and distant metastases, respectively. Of the patients with recurrent disease, 3 (21.4%) and 5 (35.7%) developed mediastinal lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, respectively. Four patients (28.6%) with recurrent disease but none with Stage I disease developed Grade 2 pneumonitis. Three patients (11.1%) developed Grade 2-3 dermatitis and chest wall pain. One patient developed brachial plexus neuropathy. No esophagitis was noted in any patient. Conclusions: Image-guided SBRT using 50 Gy delivered in four fractions is feasible and resulted in excellent local control.

  3. POLD1: Central mediator of DNA replication and repair, and implication in cancer and other pathologies.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Emmanuelle; Golemis, Erica A; Arora, Sanjeevani

    2016-09-15

    The evolutionarily conserved human polymerase delta (POLD1) gene encodes the large p125 subunit which provides the essential catalytic activities of polymerase δ (Polδ), mediated by 5'-3' DNA polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease moieties. POLD1 associates with three smaller subunits (POLD2, POLD3, POLD4), which together with Replication Factor C and Proliferating Nuclear Cell Antigen constitute the polymerase holoenzyme. Polδ function is essential for replication, with a primary role as the replicase for the lagging strand. Polδ also has an important proofreading ability conferred by the exonuclease activity, which is critical for ensuring replicative fidelity, but also serves to repair DNA lesions arising as a result of exposure to mutagens. Polδ has been shown to be important for multiple forms of DNA repair, including nucleotide excision repair, double strand break repair, base excision repair, and mismatch repair. A growing number of studies in the past decade have linked germline and sporadic mutations in POLD1 and the other subunits of Polδ with human pathologies. Mutations in Polδ in mice and humans lead to genomic instability, mutator phenotype and tumorigenesis. The advent of genome sequencing techniques has identified damaging mutations in the proofreading domain of POLD1 as the underlying cause of some inherited cancers, and suggested that mutations in POLD1 may influence therapeutic management. In addition, mutations in POLD1 have been identified in the developmental disorders of mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features and lipodystrophy and atypical Werner syndrome, while changes in expression or activity of POLD1 have been linked to senescence and aging. Intriguingly, some recent evidence suggests that POLD1 function may also be altered in diabetes. We provide an overview of critical Polδ activities in the context of these pathologic conditions.

  4. New Nuclear Emergency Prognosis system in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Ha; Jeong, Seung-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Kwan-Hee

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of assessment and prognosis system for nuclear emergency response in Korea, especially atmospheric dispersion model. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performs the regulation and radiological emergency preparedness of the nuclear facilities and radiation utilizations. Also, KINS has set up the "Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Plan" and the associated procedures such as an emergency response manual in consideration of the IAEA Safety Standards GS-R-2, GS-G-2.0, and GS-G-2.1. The Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Center (RETAC) organized in an emergency situation provides the technical advice on radiological emergency response. The "Atomic Computerized Technical Advisory System for nuclear emergency" (AtomCARE) has been developed to implement assessment and prognosis by RETAC. KINS developed Accident Dose Assessment and Monitoring (ADAMO) system in 2015 to reflect the lessons learned from Fukushima accident. It incorporates (1) the dose assessment on the entire Korean peninsula, Asia region, and global region, (2) multi-units accident assessment (3) applying new methodology of dose rate assessment and the source term estimation with inverse modeling, (4) dose assessment and monitoring with the environmental measurements result. The ADAMO is the renovated version of current FADAS of AtomCARE. The ADAMO increases the accuracy of the radioactive material dispersion with applying the LDAPS(Local Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 1.5 km) and RDAPS(Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 12km) of weather prediction data, and performing the data assimilation of automatic weather system (AWS) data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and data from the weather observation tower at NPP site. The prediction model of the radiological material dispersion is based on the set of the Lagrangian Particle model and Lagrangian Puff model. The dose estimation methodology

  5. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Mortality for Cancer and Chronic Diseases in Central Italy, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    D’Ippoliti, Daniela; Santelli, Enrica; De Sario, Manuela; Scortichini, Matteo; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Background In several volcanic areas of Italy, arsenic levels exceed European regulatory limits (10 μg/L in drinking water). There is still uncertainty about health risks from arsenic at low-medium doses (<100 μg/L). Objectives A large population-based study using an administrative cohort of residents in the Viterbo province (Central Italy), chronically exposed to low-medium arsenic levels via drinking water, was investigated to evaluate the effects of a lifetime exposure to arsenic on mortality from cancers and chronic diseases. Methods The study population consisted of 165,609 residents of 17 municipalities, followed from 1990 until 2010. Average individual arsenic exposure at the first residence (AsI) was estimated through a space-time modeling approach using residential history and arsenic concentrations from water supply. A time-dependent Cumulative Arsenic dose Indicator (CAI) was calculated, accounting for daily water intake and exposure duration. Mortality Hazard Ratios (HR) were estimated by gender for different diseases using Cox proportional models, adjusting for individual and area-level confounders. A flexible non-parametric approach was used to investigate dose-response relationships. Results Mean AsI exposure was 19.3 μg/L, and average exposure duration was 39.5 years. Associations of AsI and CAI indicators with several diseases were found, with greatest risks found for lung cancer in both sexes (HR = 2.61 males; HR = 2.09 females), myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease and COPD in males (HR = 2.94; HR = 2.44; HR = 2.54 respectively) and diabetes in females (HR = 2.56). For lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases dose-response relationship is modelled by piecewise linear functions revealing effects even for doses lower than 10 μg/L, and no threshold dose value was identified as safe for health. Conclusions Results provide new evidence for risk assessment of low-medium concentrations of arsenic and contribute to the ongoing debate

  6. Folate metabolism genes, vegetable intake and renal cancer risk in central Europe.

    PubMed

    Moore, Lee E; Hung, Rayjean; Karami, Sara; Boffetta, Paolo; Berndt, Sonya; Hsu, Charles C; Zaridze, David; Janout, Vladimir; Kollarova, Helen; Bencko, Vladmir; Navratilova, Marie; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N; Mates, Dana; Mukeria, Anush; Holcatova, Ivana; Yeager, Meredith; Chanock, Stephen; Garcia-Closas, Montse; Rothman, Nat; Chow, Wong-Ho; Brennan, Paul

    2008-04-15

    In a multicenter case-control study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) conducted in central and eastern Europe, we reported a strong inverse association with high vegetable intake and RCC risk. The odds ratio (OR) for high compared to the lowest tertile of vegetable intake was OR = 0.67; (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53-0.83; p-trend < 0.001). We hypothesized that variation in key folate metabolism genes may modify this association. Common variation in 5 folate metabolism genes (CBS: Ex9+33C > T (rs234706), Ex13 +41C > T (rs1801181), Ex18 -391 G > A (rs12613); MTHFR: A222V Ex5+79C > T (rs1801133), Ex8-62A > C (rs1801131); MTR: Ex26 20A > G (rs1805087), MTRR: Ex5+136 T > C (rs161870), and TYMS:IVS2-405 C > T (rs502396), Ex8+157 C > T (rs699517), Ex8+227 A > G (rs2790)) were analyzed among 1,097 RCC cases and 1,555 controls genotyped in this study. Having at least 1 variant T allele of MTHFR A222V was associated with higher RCC risk compared to those with 2 common (CC) alleles (OR = 1.44; 95% CI: 1.17-1.77; p = 0.001). After stratification by tertile of vegetable intake, the higher risk associated with the variant genotype was only observed in the low and medium tertiles (p-trend = 0.001), but not among those in the highest tertile (p-interaction = 0.22). The association remained robust after calculation of the false discovery rate (FDR = 0.05). Of the 3 TYMS SNPs examined, only the TYMS IVS2 -405 C (rs502396) variant was associated with a significantly lower risk compared to the common genotype (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.57-0.93). Vegetable intake modified the association between all 3 TYMS SNPs and RCC risk (p-interaction < 0.04 for all). In summary, these findings suggest that common variation in MTHFR and TYMS genes may be associated with RCC risk, particularly when vegetable intake is low.

  7. Health care strategy for ensuring work ability in an aging Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Soo Geun; Yoo, Cheol-In; Son, Junseok; Yim, Jun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Rhee, Kyung Young; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    The rapid aging trend in South Korea will cause a growing shortage of labor and decreasing quality of the labor force. The purpose of this commentary is to recommend a health care strategy to maintain and promote the work ability of employees in an aging Korea. Strategies to promote the work ability require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. First, the common goal should be the reinforcement of follow-up measure in general medical examinations and the promotion of healthy lifestyles for workers. Second, collaborating activities should be performed among the Worker's Health Center, the Health Promotion Center, and community health centers. In conclusion, health care strategies for ensuring the work ability in an aging Korea require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels.

  8. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    PubMed Central

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.; Holland, Kelsi B.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2009-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion of karyotypes whose interpretation was changed on central karyotype review. We compared the first four years during which central karyotype review was performed with a recent four-year period and found that the proportion of rejected samples decreased significantly for both AML and ALL. However, during the latter period, central karyotype reviews still found 8% of AML and 16% of ALL karyotypes inadequate. Among adequate cases, the karyotype was revised in 26% of both AML and ALL samples. Some revisions resulted in changing the patients’ assignment to particular World Health Organization diagnostic categories and/or moving patients from one prognostic group to another. Overall, when both data on rejection rates and data on karyotype revisions made in accepted cases were considered together, 32% of AML and 38% of ALL samples submitted were either rejected or revised on central karyotype review during the recent 4-year period. These data underscore the necessity of continued central karyotype review in multi-institutional cooperative group studies. PMID:18636143

  9. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    Second- 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...The White House, Roundtable Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea...2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the

  10. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-10

    and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. Korea’s nuclear programs and...the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 30 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan navy intercepted and

  11. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    News , December 1, 2012. U.S.- South Korea Relations Congressional Research Service 7 • China’s rising influence in ...entered into force and will be eliminated completely in the fifth year of the agreement. South Korea also agreed to allow U.S.-based car manufacturers to...sell in South Korea up to 25,000 cars per year per manufacturer as long as they met U.S. safety and environmental standards. This

  12. Serious fungal infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Ha, Y E; Denning, D W; Peck, K R

    2017-02-04

    Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers. Approximately 1 million people were estimated to be affected by fungal infections every year. The burdens of candidemia (4.12 per 100,000), cryptococcal meningitis (0.09 per 100,000), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (0.51 per 100,000) in South Korea were estimated to be comparable to those in other countries. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (22.4 per 100,000) was markedly high, probably due to the high burden of tuberculosis in Korea. The low burdens of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (56.9 per 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (75.1 per 100,000) warrant further study. Oral candidiasis (539 per 100,000) was estimated to affect a much larger population than noted in previous studies. Our work provides valuable insight on the epidemiology of fungal infections; however, additional studies are needed.

  13. Reflection on the Education Policy Orientation in Post-May 31 Reform in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Jae; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    For the last 70 years, since the establishment of the Republic of Korea, Korean education has achieved universal expansion of educational opportunity from elementary to secondary to higher education. Planning, centralized policy making, top-down implementation, and administrative control had been the standards of the first few decades of Korean…

  14. Internationalisation of Higher Education in South Korea: Reality, Rhetoric, and Disparity in Academic Culture and Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Terri

    2005-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is contradictions: the ways in which official agendas of internationalisation in higher education are disturbed by the principles of inclusion and exclusion in the local context of university academic culture. The case of South Korea shows how the national policies for the internationalisation of higher education…

  15. The United States-Republic of Korea Alliance: The Way Forward

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    Korea in order to deter an attack by the Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea. This paper examines the security alliance that exists between the...region: The Republic of Korea, the Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea, the Peoples ’ Republic of China, Japan and the Russian Federation. This paper...of Korea (ROK), Alliance, South Korea, North Korea, Democratic Peoples ’ Republic of Korea (DPRK), United States Forces Korea (USFK), Korea Command

  16. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed

  17. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  18. Korea in the 21st Century.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    Amsden, Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industralization (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989). 17 manage the absorption of North Korea by...is to use this new airport as a light industry and biotechnology hub with easy com- munications and transportation to and from China, Japan, Russia

  19. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  20. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  1. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  2. Recent Advances in Management of Laryngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Laryngeal cancers account for approximately 1.5% (1~2%) of the total cancers in Korea, and 30% of all head and neck cancers, not including thyroid cancer. Early laryngeal cancer is treated by operation, including transoral laser excision or radiotherapy. Advanced laryngeal cancer has been treated with mutilating operations, such as a total laryngectomy. However, a laryngeal preserving approach, which can improve the quality of life, has recently been tried with advanced laryngeal cancer. PMID:20396561

  3. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm] at p. 147. 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet...Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan

  4. Species identity of Phellinus linteus (sanghuang) extensively used as a medicinal mushroom in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Gu; Hyun, Min-Woo; Kim, Chang Sun; Jo, Jong Won; Cho, Jae-Han; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Kong, Won-Sik; Han, Sang-Kuk; Oh, Junsang; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Sanghuang is a medicinal mushroom that has gained particular attention in Korea. It has been extensively studied for the past few decades as a natural immune booster and cancer suppressor. Although the scientific name, Phellinus linteus, has been commonly used to refer to the sanghuang mushroom, the species identity of sanghuang has been called into question due to the ambiguity of its circumscription and the inadequacy of morphological distinctions within allied species. Because the species concept of sanghuang has been elucidated by recent molecular phylogenetic studies, it has become necessary to clarify the taxonomic positions of sanghuang strains extensively utilized in Korea. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 74 strains belonging to the P. linteus-baumii complex based on ITS nrDNA sequences. Parental stains of sanghuang varieties formally registered in the Korea Seed & Variety Service, including ASI 26046 (Corea sanghuang), 26114 (Boolro), and 26115 (HK 1-ho) were grouped with Sanghuangporus sanghuang instead of P. linteus in the inferred phylogeny.

  5. Efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy using oral fluorinated pyrimidines for curatively resected gastric cancer: a meta-analysis of centrally randomized controlled clinical trials in Japan.

    PubMed

    Oba, K; Morita, S; Tsuburaya, A; Kodera, Y; Kobayashi, M; Sakamoto, J

    2006-06-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy for gastric cancer has been extensively explored in Japan since the 1950s, and a combination of oral fluorinated pyrimidines (o-FP) and mitomycin C (MMC) has been mainly utilized for adjuvant chemotherapy. However, there is no sufficient evidence for the efficacy of adjuvant therapy. Therefore, we assessed the efficacy of o-FPs over surgery alone (control) by means of a meta-analysis of Japanese centrally randomized controlled clinical trials conducted between 1980 and 2005. For inclusion in this study, studies had to compare adjuvant chemotherapy for curatively resected gastric cancer with surgery alone, mainly targeting o-FP, and central randomization designed to comply with contemporary standards for clinical trials in Japan. For the 4 trials that met the eligibility criteria, the estimated hazard ratio was 0.73 (95%CI=0.60-0.89). Our findings show that in Japan adjuvant chemotherapy using o-FP for long-term maintenance therapy appears to be effective for gastric cancer patients after curative resection.

  6. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 30, 2007, the United States and the Republic of Korea...

  7. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  8. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  9. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  10. Trends in the incidence of primary liver cancer in Central Uganda, 1960–1980 and 1991–2005

    PubMed Central

    Ocama, P; Nambooze, S; Opio, C K; Shiels, M S; Wabinga, H R; Kirk, G D

    2009-01-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) incidence trends from Africa are unknown. Using Kampala Cancer Registry data from 1960 to 1980 and 1991 to 2005, we identified 771 PLCs. Although rates were stable among men, PLC incidence among women increased >50%. Investigations of viral hepatitis, aflatoxin, obesity, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may help to explain the increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). PMID:19174820

  11. [TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and gastric cancer risk: a case-control study in individuals from the central-western region of Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Cañas, Miryan; Morán, Yeinmy; Camargo, María Eugenia; Rivero, María Belén; Bohórquez, Adolfo; Villegas, Venus; Ramírez, Eddy; Rendón, Yanet; Suárez, Alfredo; Morales, Luis; Useche, Emerson; Salazar, Sandra; Zambrano, Amado; Ramírez, Alvaro; Valderrama, Elvis; Briceño, Zuly; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2009-06-01

    Codon 72 polymorphism of the tumor suppressor gene TP53 has been associated with a higher risk in the development of several types of cancer. The polymorphism results in a variant protein with either an arginine (CGC) or a proline residue (CCC). The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism with the risk of developing gastric cancer in a high-risk population from the central-western region of Venezuela. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded gastric adenocarcinoma biopsies (n=65) and endoscopic biopsies from chronic gastritis patients (n=87). TP53 codon 72 polymorphism was determined by PCR-RFLP from all samples. Patients with gastric cancer had a significantly higher frequency (P = 0.037) of the Arg allele than those with chronic gastritis. A logistic regression analysis suggested that Arg carrier individuals had a 4.6-fold higher risk (95% CI 1.0-21.3) of developing gastric cancer. An increment of the Arg/Arg genotype was observed in poor-differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma (OR: 3.1; 95% CI 1.0-9.2), and of the Arg/Pro genotype in well/moderate-differentiated adenocarcinoma samples (OR: 3.5; 95% CI 1.1-11.0), when comparing within the gastric cancer samples; and the last group also when contrasting it with chronic gastritis patients (OR: 2.4; 95% CI 1.1-5.2). The results of this study suggest that the carriage of the Arg allele could be associated with the development of gastric cancer in this Venezuelan population.

  12. Bronchoscopic management of critical central airway obstruction by thyroid cancer: Combination airway stenting using tracheal and inverted-Y carinal self-expanding metallic stents

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Karan; Shrestha, Prajowl; Garg, Rakesh; Hadda, Vijay; Mohan, Anant; Guleria, Randeep

    2017-01-01

    Central airway obstruction (CAO) can result from various benign and malignant etiologies. Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the most aggressive form of thyroid cancer. Rapid airway compromise is the main cause of death in ATC. We report a patient with ATC who presented with a large neck mass leading to CAO with long segment tracheal and right main bronchial compression and respiratory failure. Urgent Rigid Bronchoscopy was performed for airway stabilization and patient was managed with a combination airway stenting approach. A combination of self expanding, metallic, covered inverted Y and straight tracheal stents was used to stabilize the near complete airway structure. We herein highlight the role of therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy with airway stenting as an efficacious treatment modality for management of malignant CAO. PMID:28360477

  13. Functional analysis of [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake in glioblastoma cells: Influence of anti-cancer and central nervous system drugs.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Chiaki; Inazu, Masato; Saiki, Iwao; Yara, Miki; Hara, Naomi; Yamanaka, Tsuyoshi; Uchino, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET-CT) studies with (11)C- or (18)F-labeled choline derivatives are used for PET imaging in glioblastoma patients. However, the nature of the choline transport system in glioblastoma is poorly understood. In this study, we performed a functional characterization of [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake and sought to identify the transporters that mediate choline uptake in the human glioblastoma cell lines A-172 and U-251MG. In addition, we examined the influence of anti-cancer drugs and central nervous system drugs on the transport of [methyl-(3)H]choline. High- and low-affinity choline transport systems were present in A-172 cells, U-251MG cells and astrocytes, and these were Na(+)-independent and pH-dependent. Cell viability in A-172 cells was not affected by choline deficiency. However, cell viability in U-251MG cells was significantly inhibited by choline deficiency. Both A-172 and U-251MG cells have two different choline transporters, choline transporter-like protein 1 (CTL1) and CTL2. In A-172 cells, CTL1 is predominantly expressed, whereas in U-251MG cells, CTL2 is predominantly expressed. Treatment with anti-cancer drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and vincristine influenced [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake in U-251MG cells, but not A-172 cells. Central nervous system drugs such as imipramine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, reboxetine, citalopram and donepezil did not affect cell viability or [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake. The data presented here suggest that CTL1 and CTL2 are functionally expressed in A-172 and U-251MG cells and are responsible for [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake that relies on a directed H(+) gradient as a driving force. Furthermore, while anti-cancer drugs altered [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake, central nervous system drugs did not affect [methyl-(3)H]choline uptake.

  14. Cervical cancer and pap smear awareness and utilization of pap smear test among Federal civil servants in North Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A; Ibeh, Joy N; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18-65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services.

  15. Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Awareness and Utilization of Pap Smear Test among Federal Civil Servants in North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Hyacinth I.; Adekeye, Oluwatoyosi A.; Ibeh, Joy N.; Osoba, Tolulope

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women in developing countries. A key factor linked to the relatively high levels of cervical cancer in these populations is the lack of awareness and access to preventive methods. This study aimed to determine the level of awareness of cervical cancer and Papanicolaou test (Pap smear test) and factors associated with the utilization of Pap test among female civil servants in Jos. Data was obtained from female workers (n = 388) aged 18–65 years in a Nigerian Federal establishment. Participants were randomly approached and instructed to complete validated questionnaires. Data was analyzed using Chi-square, t-tests and logistic regression analysis to determine if there was an association between variables and identify any predictors of awareness and utilization of the Pap test. Cervical cancer and Pap smear test awareness was 50.9% and 38.6% respectively, with the media as the major source of information. Pap smear test utilization rate was 10.2%, with routine antenatal care (ANC) as the major reason for getting screened. Personal barriers to screening include the lack of awareness, and belief that cervical cancer is not preventable. Opportunistic screening, mass media campaigns and ANC education were suggested as ways of improving awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services. PMID:23049708

  16. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  17. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  18. Chemical exposures and central nervous system cancers: a case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Tankersley, W.G.; Fry, S.A.

    1988-01-01

    In a nested case-control study of workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities, we evaluated the possible association of primary CNS cancers with occupational exposure to chemicals. Seventy-two white male and 17 white female workers who, according to the information on death certificates, died of primary CNS cancers were identified as cases. For each case, four controls were matched on race, sex, facility at which initially employed (cohort), year of birth, and year of hire. Each job title/department combination was subjectively evaluated for potential exposure to each of 26 chemicals or chemical groups. Statistically significant associations were not found between CNS cancer deaths and any of the 26 chemicals. An increased risk of CNS cancer occurrence was observed among subjects employed for more than 20 yr (OR = 7.0, 95% CI = 1.2,41.1, cases = 9).

  19. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  20. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  1. Antiviral treatment of influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2015-06-01

    Antiviral therapy has an important role in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. At present, two classes of antiviral agents, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, are available for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza in Korea. Because of the widespread resistance against adamantanes, neuraminidase inhibitors are mainly used. Because each country has a unique epidemiology of influenza, the proper use of antiviral agents should be determined based on local data. Decisions on the clinical practice in the treatment of influenza in South Korea are guided by the local surveillance data, practice guidelines, health insurance system and the resistance patterns of the circulating influenza viruses. This review highlights the role of antiviral agents in the treatment and outcome of influenza in Korea by providing comprehensive information of their clinical usage in Korea.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  3. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society.

  4. Negotiations with North Korea: Lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallucci, Robert L.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, I summarize the events leading to the negotiation of the Agreed Framework with North Korea. I also highlight the threats that result from the current situation, and some of the technical issues relevant to understanding events.

  5. Sites of Distant Relapse and Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: High Incidence of Central Nervous System Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Claus, Elizabeth; Sohl, Jessica; Razzak, Abdul R.; Arnaout, Amal; Winer, Eric P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the outcomes of patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancers, including the risk and clinical consequences of central nervous system (CNS) relapse. Patients and Methods Using pharmacy and pathology records, a study group of 116 patients treated for metastatic triple negative breast cancer at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute from January 2000 to June 2006 was identified. Results The median survival from time of metastatic diagnosis was 13.3 months. Sixteen patients (14%) were diagnosed with CNS involvement at the time of initial metastatic diagnosis; overall, 46% of patients were diagnosed with CNS metastases prior to death. Median survival after a diagnosis of CNS metastasis was 4.9 months. The age and race-adjusted rate of death for patients whose first presentation included a CNS metastasis was 3.4 times (95%CI:1.9, 6.1) that of patients without a CNS lesion at first metastatic presentation. Of 53 patients who developed brain metastases, only 3 patients were judged to have stable or responsive systemic disease in the face of progressive CNS disease at the last follow up prior to death. Conclusion Triple negative breast cancer is associated with poor survival after recurrence. CNS relapse is common, but death as a direct consequence of CNS progression in the setting of controlled systemic disease is uncommon. Thus, it does not appear that the high rate of CNS involvement is due to a sanctuary effect, but rather to the lack of effective therapies in general for this aggressive subtype of breast cancer. New treatment strategies are needed. PMID:18833576

  6. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    led Trans- Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement negotiations. Strategic Cooperation and the U.S.-ROK Alliance Dealing with North Korea...78.49 yrs.; North Korea = 69.2 yrs.) Infant Mortality: 4.01 deaths/1,000 live births (U.S. = 6.00) Fertility Rate: 1.24 children born/woman...its “interest” in joining the twelve-nation Trans- Pacific Partnership (TPP) free trade agreement 3

  7. US Military Presence in a Unified Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    profiles/ap_mp_05.cfm ; Internet; accessed 11 March 2003; and World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York...New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 108, 771, 799, 801, 843. 15 Han Woo-Keun, The History of Korea (Seoul, Korea: The Eul-Yoo Publishing Company...January 2003. 37 World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York, New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 218. 38

  8. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: The Koreas Published and Distributed by the Armed Forces Pest Management Board Information... Ecology Profile: The Koreas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...presumed to be higher in the absence of sophisticated programs to suppress vectors or limit disease transmission. Disease Vector Ecology Profiles

  9. An overview of biotechnology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi; Hahm; Rhee; Han

    1999-03-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, Korea has invested heavily in biotechnology research and development, with the aim of becoming a leading nation in this field. It is important to understand the historical progress of this development in order to appreciate the current state of biotechology in Korea. However, it is equally important to know what research is currently being planned and carried out, and by whom.

  10. Neodymium yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser resection significantly improves quality of life in patients with malignant central airway obstruction due to lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Zaric, B; Kovacevic, T; Stojsic, V; Sarcev, T; Kocic, M; Urosevic, M; Kalem, D; Perin, B

    2015-07-01

    Neodymium yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Nd : YAG) laser resection is one of the mostly used interventional pulmonology techniques for urgent desobstruction of malignant central airway obstruction (CAO). The major aim of this trial was to evaluate potential influence of Nd : YAG laser resection on overall quality of life (QoL) in patients with central lung cancer. Patients with malignant CAO scheduled for Nd : YAG laser resection were prospectively recruited in the trial. All patients were given European Organization for Research and Treatment, Quality of Life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-30 v.3) before the procedure and approximately 2 weeks after the treatment. There were 37 male and 10 female patients, average age 54 ± 10 years. Most common tumour type was adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 51% of patients. Majority of patients were diagnosed in stage IIIB (53.2%) and stage IV (25.5%). Most common Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1 (72.3%). Nd : YAG laser resection significantly improved (P<0.0001) QoL and overall health according to EORTC QLQ-30. However, in some of the questions dealing with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, family life, social activities and financial situation, we did not observe statistically significant improvement. Nd : YAG laser resection of malignant CAO significantly improves QoL and overall health in patients with lung cancer.

  11. Origin of microseism observed in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.; You, S.; Rhie, J.

    2009-12-01

    Ambient seismic noise has been widely used for imaging crustal structure as an alternative passive source, even where traditional seismic imaging is not possible due to low seismicity. Long before the sensational applications of seismic noise, the origin of the noise has already been studied to understand its nature and characteristics for several decades. In this study, we investigate the origin of microseism observed in South Korea. Annual spectrograms in the microseismic frequency range up to 0.4 Hz show coherent peaks at about 0.2 Hz in the winter, which is at the frequency band of the double-frequency microseism. However, the primary microseism is only rarely observed in South Korea when the Pacific typhoon is close to the Southern Sea of Korea. Polarization analysis and noise cross correlation indicate that the energy of the double-frequency microseism comes dominantly from the east of the Korean Peninsula. Comparison of the results from the operational wave model of the Korea Meteorological Administration and seismic data shows a strong correlation of spectral amplitude of seismic data with the significant wave heights and periods of ocean waves, implying that the primary and the double-frequency microseism observed in South Korea are generated at the Southern Sea of Korea and at nearby shorelines of the east coast of Japan, respectively.

  12. Spent fuel management status perspectives in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Kim, B.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Concomitant with steadily increasing nuclear power program in Korea, a national radioactive waste management program has been in initial implementation stage for several years. In late 1990, however, a serious confrontation was witnessed at Anmyon area where residents expressed strong opposition against any possibility to consider that site as a potential candidate for waste disposal by the Authority. As far as spent fuel management is concerned, an interim storage policy was adopted by Korean Atomic Energy Commission. A decision to build a centralized wet storage facility was made followed by a conceptual design. Due to the incident at Anmyon site, the public has became more concerned about radioactive wastes management. Parallel efforts are being made to ameliorate public acceptance in regard to radioactive waste management and in particular to spent fuel management. There are substantial uncertainties, however, whether any site could be found given that precarious mood has been prevailing against radioactive wastes throughout the world. In the meantime waiting for successful siting, various research and development for future perspectives are in order. Of particular importance in such endeavor is to provide technological impetus for future perspectives as well as public acceptance through safety demonstrations of certain viable technology alternatives. The dry storage option, for instance, is acclaimed for intrinsic safety and lower cost as prospective alternative. Combined with rod consolidation, dry storage technologies which have not extensively applied in the past, could be considered as a technological basis for longer term management of spent fuel. Conscious of such global trend, some appropriate programs in preparation for such perspectives have been launched by KAERI.

  13. 77 FR 75975 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... International Trade Administration Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Final Affirmative... the Republic of Korea (Korea). For information on the estimated subsidy rates, see the ``Suspension of... Washers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination...

  14. 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25918260

  15. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of central nervous system metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: the present and the future

    PubMed Central

    Proto, Claudia; Imbimbo, Martina; Gallucci, Rosaria; Brissa, Angela; Signorelli, Diego; Vitali, Milena; Macerelli, Marianna; Corrao, Giulia; Ganzinelli, Monica; Greco, Francesca Gabriella; Garassino, Marina Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Brain metastases (BM) complicate clinical evolution of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in approximately 25–40% of cases, adversely influencing quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). Systemic therapy remains the standard strategy for metastatic disease. Nevertheless, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes central nervous system (CNS) a sanctuary site. To date, the combination of chemotherapy with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), surgery and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) represents the most used treatment for patients (pts) with intracranial involvement. However, due to their clinical conditions, many pts are not able to undergo local treatments. Targeted therapies directed against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, achieved important improvements in EGFR mutated NSCLC with favorable toxicity profile. Although their role is not well defined, the reported objective response rate (ORR) and the good tolerance make EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) an interesting valid alternative for NSCLC pts with BM, especially for those harboring EGFR mutations. Furthermore, new-generation TKIs, such as osimertinib and rociletinib, have already shown important activity on intracranial disease and several trials are still ongoing to evaluate their efficacy. In this review we want to highlight literature data about the use and the effectiveness of EGFR-TKIs in pts with BM from NSCLC. PMID:28149752

  16. Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of central nervous system metastases from non-small cell lung cancer: the present and the future.

    PubMed

    Proto, Claudia; Imbimbo, Martina; Gallucci, Rosaria; Brissa, Angela; Signorelli, Diego; Vitali, Milena; Macerelli, Marianna; Corrao, Giulia; Ganzinelli, Monica; Greco, Francesca Gabriella; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Lo Russo, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Lung cancer is one of the major causes of cancer related mortality worldwide. Brain metastases (BM) complicate clinical evolution of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in approximately 25-40% of cases, adversely influencing quality of life (QoL) and overall survival (OS). Systemic therapy remains the standard strategy for metastatic disease. Nevertheless, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) makes central nervous system (CNS) a sanctuary site. To date, the combination of chemotherapy with whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT), surgery and/or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) represents the most used treatment for patients (pts) with intracranial involvement. However, due to their clinical conditions, many pts are not able to undergo local treatments. Targeted therapies directed against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), such as gefitinib, erlotinib and afatinib, achieved important improvements in EGFR mutated NSCLC with favorable toxicity profile. Although their role is not well defined, the reported objective response rate (ORR) and the good tolerance make EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) an interesting valid alternative for NSCLC pts with BM, especially for those harboring EGFR mutations. Furthermore, new-generation TKIs, such as osimertinib and rociletinib, have already shown important activity on intracranial disease and several trials are still ongoing to evaluate their efficacy. In this review we want to highlight literature data about the use and the effectiveness of EGFR-TKIs in pts with BM from NSCLC.

  17. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea... application for standard design certification of the APR1400 Standard Plant Design. The APR1400 stands for... advanced design features to enhance plant safety, economical efficiency, and convenience of operation...

  18. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  19. Is social support associated with improved clinical outcomes in geriatric lung cancer patients? Observations from North Central Cancer Treatment Group Studies N9921 and N0222

    PubMed Central

    Jatoi, Aminah; Hillman, Shauna L; Ziegler, Katie L Allen; Stella, Philip J; Soori, Gamini S; Rowland, Kendrith M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Social support is defined as a network of family/friends who provide practical and emotional help. A sizable literature describes a direct relationship between social support and improved cancer clinical outcomes. This study explored the extent of social support and its potential association with survival and adverse events in geriatric lung cancer patients. Methods: One hundred thirteen patients, who were aged 65 years or older, had incurable cancer, and were enrolled in one of two chemotherapy trials, completed the Lubben Social Network Scale, a validated instrument that measures social support. All were followed for survival and chemotherapy-related adverse events. Results: The median age (range) of the cohort was 74 years (65–91), and performance scores of 0, 1, or 2 were observed in 29%, 55%, and 16%, respectively. Forty-two percent were women. This cohort had a high level of social support: 81% reported they “always” had someone to take them to medical appointments. However, there were no gender-based differences in social support and no associations between social support and either survival or adverse events. Conclusion: In this cohort of geriatric lung cancer patients – all of whom were treated during a clinical trial – there was a high level of social support. However, there were no gender-based differences in extent of social support, and the latter did not predict clinical outcomes. PMID:21188124

  20. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  1. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  2. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  3. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 5%–10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:26187060

  4. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer.

  5. Azimuth Check: An Analysis of Military Transformation in the Republic of Korea-is it Sufficient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    Rhee. In 1979, the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) Director Kim Jae-Gyu assassinated President Park Chung- Hee . Prime Minister Choi Kyu...Future of the North Korea’s Kim Jong Il Regime, (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2008), 25. 2...Soviet Union established a pro-Communist government under the rule of Kim Il-Sung. The Soviets quickly established their occupation of Korea in the

  6. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk

    2013-07-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed.

  7. The Diabetes Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems, and has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. According to data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), about 2.7 million Koreans (8.0%) aged 30 years or older had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2013. The prevalence of T2DM increased with age and rose from 5.6% in 2006 to 8.0% in 2013. Using data based on The Health Screening Service of the NHIS, 25% of Korean adults were reported to have prediabetes in 2013. The prevalence of an impaired fasting glucose tended to increase over time from 21.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013. Even though nationwide health screening has been regularly conducted as a public service, the proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes was still reported to be on the higher side in the latest study. Based on the results of these epidemic studies, further actions will be needed to effectively implement lifestyle changes on a social level and increase measures for the early detection of diabetes to stem the tide of the epidemic. PMID:27586447

  8. North Korea. A Climatological Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    2-13 Foehns ......................................... 2-13 Boras .................................... ..... 2-13 Gap...coast in winter. Foehns form along the northeast coast during winter and downwind of central mountain ranges when conditions are favorable. 2-13

  9. Spatiotemporal and Spatial Threshold Models for Relating UV Exposures and Skin Cancer in the Central United States

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, Laura A.; Hoffbeck, Richard W.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Carlin, Bradley P.

    2009-01-01

    The exact mechanisms relating exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and elevated risk of skin cancer remain the subject of debate. For example, there is disagreement on whether the main risk factor is duration of the exposure, its intensity, or some combination of both. There is also uncertainty regarding the form of the dose-response curve, with many authors believing only exposures exceeding a given (but unknown) threshold are important. In this paper we explore methods to estimate such thresholds using hierarchical spatial logistic models based on a sample of a cohort of x-ray technologists for whom we have self-reports of time spent in the sun and numbers of blistering sunburns in childhood. A preliminary goal is to explore the temporal pattern of UV exposure and its gradient. Changes here would imply that identical exposure self-reports from different calendar years may correspond to differing cancer risks. PMID:20161236

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Control Strategies in Central America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Niëns, Laurens M.; Zelle, Sten G.; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F. H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50–70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40–70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  11. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Niëns, Laurens M; Zelle, Sten G; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F H

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  12. Korea-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-28

    foodgrains. South Korea followed a conciliation policy toward North Korea under the administrations of Kim Dae-jung and Roh Moo-hyun; but the...market. The regime has spent little of several billion dollars in foreign exchange earnings since 1998 to import food or medicines . The regime has...within North Korea. Key principles of this conciliation policy have been: the extension of South Korean economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea, the

  13. Strategic Partners: South Korea and the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    South Korea’s economic growth, has fallen off, forcing South Korea into new mar- kets. In 1984, the construction industry received a...are in - cluded in the calculation. Since the 1970s, South Korea and the United States have begun a new stage of extensive economic contact, although...The Japanese Outlook 78 The Korean Peninsula’s Future 80 6. US INTERESTS AND OPTIONS IN SOUTH KOREA 83 Carter Administration Korean Policy 83

  14. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  15. State of the art of chemotherapy for the treatment of central nervous system metastases from non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Di Noia, Vincenzo; D’Argento, Ettore; Modena, Alessandra; Gori, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without molecular drivers. Despite a low penetration of central nervous system (CNS), chemotherapy drugs demonstrated encouraging activity against CNS metastases from NSCLC. Based on the available data, chemotherapy should be considered as an important part of the multidisciplinary treatment of CNS metastases. Particularly, platinum-based regimens represent the most active combinations and pemetrexed is associated with a meaningful clinical benefit for patients with non-squamous histology. How to integrate chemotherapy and radiotherapy for newly diagnosed brain metastases (BMs) is still debated. Although flawed by some limitations, the available evidence suggests a role for upfront chemotherapy for the treatment of NSCLC patients with synchronous, asymptomatic BMs, thus allowing a delay of radiotherapy. Despite the introduction of modern and more effective chemotherapy, however, the prognosis of NSCLC patients with CNS metastases remains poor, especially for those with progressive BMs or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LC). PMID:28149755

  16. Whole-brain radiotherapy and high-dose methylprednisolone for elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma: Results of North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) 96-73-51

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N.; Ballman, Karla V.; Brown, Paul B.; O'Neill, Brian Patrick . E-mail: boneill@mayo.edu

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, toxicity, and survival of whole-brain radiotherapy-treated (WBRT) and high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP)-treated in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods and Materials: Patients with PCNSL who were 70 years and older received 1 g of methylprednisolone daily for 5 days, 30 days after WBRT. Patients then received 1 g of methylprednisolone every 28 days until progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) at 6 months. Results were compared with those in patients on the previous North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) trial who received pre-WBRT cytoxan, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and high-dose cytarabine (CHOP-WBRT). A planned interim analysis was performed. The current regimen would be considered inactive if survival was not improved from patients treated with CHOP-WBRT. Results: Nineteen patients were accrued between 1998 and 2003. Median age was 76 years. Interim analysis revealed a 6-month survival of 33%, resulting in closure of the trial. Toxicity, OS, and event-free survival (EFS) were similar to those in patients more than 70 years of age who received CHOP-WBRT. The subgroup of patients who received HDMP had longer OS (12.1 vs. 7.0 months, p = 0.76) and EFS (11.7 vs. 4.0 months, p = 0.04) compared with the CHOP-WBRT patients alive 60 days after the start of treatment. Conclusions: Patients on-study long enough to receive HDMP had prolongation of OS and EFS compared to patients receiving CHOP-WBRT. Although the numbers of patients are too small for statistical conclusions, the HDMP regimen deserves further study.

  17. Superior success rate of intracavitary electrocardiogram guidance for peripherally inserted central catheter placement in patients with cancer: A randomized open-label controlled multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Aifeng; Feng, Yuling; Wu, Xiancui; Yang, Yiqun; Chen, Ping; Qiu, Zhenzhu; Qi, Jing; Chen, Chuanying; Wei, Jia; Qin, Minyi; Kong, Weiwei; Chen, Xiangyu; Xu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Background Intracavitary electrocardiogram (IC ECG) guidance emerges as a new technique for peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) placement and demonstrates many potential advantages in recent observational studies. Aims To determine whether IC ECG-guided PICCs provide more accurate positioning of catheter tips compared to conventional anatomical landmarks in patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Methods In this multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02409589), a total of 1,007 adult patients were assigned to receive either IC ECG guidance (n = 500) or anatomical landmark guidance (n = 507) for PICC positioning. The confirmative catheter tip positioning x-ray data were centrally interpreted by independent radiologists. All reported analyses in the overall population were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Analyses of pre-specified subgroups and a selected large subpopulation were conducted to explore consistency and accuracy. Results In the IC ECG-guided group, the first-attempt success rate was 89.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86.5% to 91.9%), which was significantly higher than 77.4% (95% CI, 73.7% to 81.0%) in the anatomical landmark group (P < 0.0001). This trend of superiority of IC ECG guidance was consistently noted in almost all prespecified patient subgroups and two selected large subpopulations, even when using optimal target rates for measurement. In contrast, the superiority nearly disappeared when PICCs were used via the left instead of right arms (interaction P-value = 0.021). No catheter-related adverse events were reported during the PICC intra-procedures in either group. Conclusions Our findings indicated that the IC ECG-guided method had a more favorable positioning accuracy versus traditional anatomical landmarks for PICC placement in adult patients with cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Furthermore, there were no significant safety concerns reported for catheterization using

  18. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... the United States is materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power transformers... power transformers from Korea were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of section 733(b) of the...

  19. 76 FR 54790 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings 8504.23.00 and 8504.90.95 of the... of large power transformers from Korea. Accordingly, effective July 14, 2011, the...

  20. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  1. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  2. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  3. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  4. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  5. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  6. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing... the United States is materially retarded, by reason of subsidized imports from Korea and less-than-fair-value imports from Korea and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading...

  7. 77 FR 9700 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... materially injured by reason of imports from Korea of large residential washers that are alleged to be sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Government of Korea....

  8. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1...)) (the Act), that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Korea... subsidized by the Government of Korea and sold in the United States at less than fair value (LTFV)....

  9. 15 CFR 742.19 - Anti-terrorism: North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: North Korea. 742.19...-CCL BASED CONTROLS § 742.19 Anti-terrorism: North Korea. (a) License Requirements. (1) All items on... anti-terrorism reasons require a license for export or reexport to North Korea. This includes all...

  10. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  11. Tidal Power Exploitation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Jae Cheon

    The highest tides in South Korea are found along the northwest coast between latitudes 36-38 degrees and the number of possible sites for tidal range power barrages to create tidal basins is great due to irregular coastlines with numerous bays. At present Lake Sihwa tidal power plant is completed. The plant is consisted of 10 bulb type turbines with 8 sluice gates. The installed capacity of turbines and generators is 254MW and annual energy output expected is about 552.7 GWh taking flood flow generation scheme. Three other TPP projects are being progressed at Garolim Bay (20 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Kangwha (28 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Incheon (44 or 48 turbines with 30 MW capacity) and project features will be outlined here. The introduction of tidal barrages into four major TPP projects along the Kyeonggi bay will render wide range of potential impacts. Preliminary attempts were performed to quantify these impacts using 2 D hydrodynamic model demonstrating the changes in tidal amplitude and phase under mean tidal condition, associated changes in residual circulation (indicator for SPM and pollutant dispersion), bottom stress (indicator for bedload movement), and tidal front (positional indicator for bio-productivity) in both shelf scale and local context. Tidal regime modeling system for ocean tides in the seas bordering the Korean Peninsula is designed to cover an area that is broad in scope and size, yet provide a high degree of resolution in strong tidal current region including off southwestern tip of the Peninsula (Uldolmok , Jangjuk, Wando-Hoenggan), Daebang Sudo (Channel) and Kyeonggi Bay. With this simulation system, real tidal time simulation of extended springneap cycles was performed to estimate spatial distribution of tidal current power potentials in terms of power density, energy density and then extrapolated annual energy density.

  12. Measurement of health-related quality of life in survivors of cancer in childhood in Central America: feasibility, reliability, and validity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ligia; Talsma, Danielle; Baez, Fulgencio; Bonilla, Miguel; Moreno, Belgica; Ah-Chu, Maria; Pena, Armando; Furlong, William; Barr, Ronald D

    2006-06-01

    Cancer is the commonest cause of disease-related death in children over 5 years of age in various parts of Latin America, but the survival rates are improving. This study assessed the health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of more than 200 survivors of cancer in childhood in the countries of a Central American consortium devoted to pediatric hematology-oncology. Patients' self-reports and parental proxy assessments were collected using interviewer-administered Spanish-language questionnaires, and physicians provided assessments using self-complete questionnaires, based on the complementary Health Utilities Index (HUI) Mark 2 (HUI2) and Mark 3 (HUI3) health status classification systems. Inter-rater agreement, measured by intra-class correlation (ICC), was fair to moderate (0.340.60) for all 3 pairs of assessors for readily assessable attributes: HUI2 sensation, HUI3 vision, HUI3 hearing, and HUI3 ambulation. Less than 40% of the patients reported being in perfect health. More than 20% reported being in health states with HRQL scores corresponding to moderate or severe disability, notably in the attributes of emotion and cognition. The results reflect a common profile in survivors of cancer in childhood, including those from industrialized societies. This study illustrates the feasibility of collecting reliable and valid information on HRQL in the developing country context, raising the prospect that such information could be used to influence clinical practice.

  13. Incidence and risk of central nervous system metastases as site of first recurrence in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer treated with adjuvant trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Olson, E. M.; Abdel-Rasoul, M.; Maly, J.; Wu, C. S.; Lin, N. U.; Shapiro, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Central nervous system (CNS) disease as the site of first relapse after exposure to adjuvant trastuzumab has been reported. We carried out comprehensive meta-analysis to determine the risk of CNS metastases as the first site of recurrence in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who received adjuvant trastuzumab. Methods Eligible studies include randomized trials of adjuvant trastuzumab administered for 1 year to patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who reported CNS metastases as first site of disease recurrence. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the incidence, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fixed-effects inverse variance and random-effects models. Results A total of 9020 patients were included. The incidence of CNS metastases as first site of disease recurrence in HER2-positive patients receiving adjuvant trastuzumab was 2.56% (95% CI 2.07% to 3.01%) compared with 1.94% (95% CI 1.54% to 2.38%) in HER2-positive patients who did not receive adjuvant trastuzumab. The RR of the CNS as first site of relapse in trastuzumab-treated patients was 1.35 (95% CI 1.02–1.78, P = 0.038) compared with control arms without trastuzumab therapy. The ratio of CNS metastases to total number of recurrence events was 16.94% (95% CI 10.85% to 24.07%) and 8.33% (95% CI 6.49% to 10.86%) for the trastuzumab-treated and control groups, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found based on trastuzumab schedule or median follow-up time. No evidence of publication bias was observed. Conclusions Adjuvant trastuzumab is associated with a significant increased risk of CNS metastases as the site of first recurrence in HER2-positive breast cancer patients. PMID:23463626

  14. Genomic Analysis Reveals That Immune Function Genes Are Strongly Linked to Clinical Outcome in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 Adjuvant Trastuzumab Trial

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Edith A.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Ballman, Karla V.; Anderson, S. Keith; Asmann, Yan W.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Tenner, Kathleen S.; Jen, Jin; Fan, Jian-Bing; Geiger, Xochiquetzal J.; McCullough, Ann E.; Chen, Beiyun; Jenkins, Robert B.; Sledge, George W.; Winer, Eric P.; Gralow, Julie R.; Reinholz, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a genomic signature that predicts benefit from trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer. Patients and Methods DASL technology was used to quantify mRNA in samples from 1,282 patients enrolled onto the Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Women With Breast Cancer (North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 [NCCTG-N9831]) adjuvant trastuzumab trial. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for significant clinicopathologic risk factors, were used to determine the association of each gene with relapse-free survival (RFS) for 433 patients who received chemotherapy alone (arm A) and 849 patients who received chemotherapy plus trastuzumab (arms B and C). Network and pathway analyses were used to identify key biologic processes linked to RFS. The signature was built by using a voting scheme. Results Network and functional ontology analyses suggested that increased RFS was linked to a subset of immune function genes. A voting scheme model was used to define immune gene enrichment based on the expression of any nine or more of 14 immune function genes at or above the 0.40 quantile for the population. This model was used to identify immune gene–enriched tumors in arm A and arms B and C. Immune gene enrichment was linked to increased RFS in arms B and C (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.55; P < .001), whereas arm B and C patients who did not exhibit immune gene enrichment did not benefit from trastuzumab (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.28; P = .53). Enriched immune function gene expression as defined by our predictive signature was not associated with increased RFS in arm A (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.37; P = .64). Conclusion Increased expression of a subset of immune function genes may provide a means of predicting benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. PMID:25605861

  15. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  16. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-22

    humanitarian aid. Sources: Kim Myong Chol, “Kim Jong-il shifts to plan B,” Asia Tiimes, May 21, 2009, Online edition. “North Korea begins ‘Plan C...Asia Times, October 14, 2009, Online edition. Zhang Lianqui, “There is a Dangerous Component in the ‘Warm Winter’ of the DPRK Nuclear Issue, Huanqiu...Boycott Six-Party Talks ,” The Wall Street Journal, April 14, 2009, Online version. 7 Denis D. Gray, “North Korea turns to air smuggling,” Associated

  17. History of Research on Pharmacopuncture in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Yoon-Young; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study introduces the history and types of Korean pharmacopuncture and reports trends of research on Korean pharmacopuncture. Methods: Pharmacopuncture studies were searched from the first year of each search engine to 2014 by using seven domestic and foreign search databases. Selected studies were divided into the history of pharmacopuncture, kinds and features of pharmacopuncture, research types, and experimental and clinic studies and were then classified by year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease, and topic. Results: Pharmacopuncture can be classified into four large groups: meridian field pharmacopuncture (MFP), eight-principles pharmacopuncture (EPP), animal-based pharmacopuncture (ABP) and mountain- ginseng pharmacopuncture, which is a single-co mpound pharmacopuncture (SCP). The largest numbers of studies were reported from 1997 to 2006, after which the numbers decreased until 2014. Of experimental studies, 51.9%, 18.7%. 14.3%, 9% and 3.4% were on SCP, ABP, MFP, formula pharmacopuncture (FP), and EPP, respectively. Of clinical studies, 54.7%, 15.3%. 14.9% 10.0% and 1.5% were on ABP, MFP, EPP, SCP, and FP (1.5%), respectively. Among clinical studies, case reports and case series accounted for 76.5%, followed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 16.4%) and non-RCT (13.9%). Musculoskeletal diseases, toxicity and safety tests, anti-cancer effects, and nervous system diseases were mainly treated in experimental studies while musculoskeletal diseases, nervous system diseases, toxicity and safety tests, and autonomic nerve function tests were addressed in clinical studies. Bee venom (BV) was the most frequently-used pharmacopuncture in mechanism studies. Pharmacopuncture was mainly used to treat musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture and studies of it have made great progress in Korea. Studies on BV pharmacopuncture and musculoskeletal diseases accounted for most of the studies reported during the review period

  18. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9–14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9–14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants’ pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P < 0.001). Our study showed that, as the level of education rose, the proportion of mothers with negative attitudes toward vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea. PMID:27914142

  19. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Two kinds of lymphocytes can attack and kill cancer cells: T-cells and B-cells. Immunotherapy aims to boost the ability of the T-cell and B-cell lymphocytes to kill cancer. This kind of therapy can also be used ...

  20. A patient previously treated with ALK inhibitors for central nervous system lesions from ALK rearranged lung cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Jumpei; Okuma, Yusuke; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are now preferentially treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, patients treated with ALK inhibitors end up with acquired resistance. Case presentation We present a patient with recurrent ALK-rearranged NSCLC that developed multiple brain metastases and meningitis carcinomatosa after sequential treatment with several lines of cytotoxic chemotherapy, crizotinib, and alectinib. After the patient underwent retreatment with crizotinib as salvage therapy because of poor performance status, the intracranial metastatic foci and meningeal thickening were shrank within 1 week. Conclusion Our experience with this case suggests that alectinib may restore sensitivity to crizotinib or amplified pathway such as MET which bestowed alectinib resistance was inhibited with crizotinib. PMID:27785052

  1. The Growing Relationship Between South Korea and China: Consequences for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    This change has accelerated the growth of both of their already booming economies . Beyond that, it has helped propel Beijing into a pivotal role of...South Korea and China normalized relations in 1992. This change has accelerated the growth of both of their already booming economies . Beyond that...and South Korea will provide an opportunity for Pyongyang to improve its economy , thereby strengthening its standing and legitimacy internationally

  2. The National 3-D Geospatial Information Web-Based Service of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. T.; Kim, C. W.; Kang, I. G.

    2013-09-01

    3D geospatial information systems should provide efficient spatial analysis tools and able to use all capabilities of the third dimension, and a visualization. Currently, many human activities make steps toward the third dimension like land use, urban and landscape planning, cadastre, environmental monitoring, transportation monitoring, real estate market, military applications, etc. To reflect this trend, the Korean government has been started to construct the 3D geospatial data and service platform. Since the geospatial information was introduced in Korea, the construction of geospatial information (3D geospatial information, digital maps, aerial photographs, ortho photographs, etc.) has been led by the central government. The purpose of this study is to introduce the Korean government-lead 3D geospatial information web-based service for the people who interested in this industry and we would like to introduce not only the present conditions of constructed 3D geospatial data but methodologies and applications of 3D geospatial information. About 15% (about 3,278.74 km2) of the total urban area's 3D geospatial data have been constructed by the national geographic information institute (NGII) of Korea from 2005 to 2012. Especially in six metropolitan cities and Dokdo (island belongs to Korea) on level of detail (LOD) 4 which is photo-realistic textured 3D models including corresponding ortho photographs were constructed in 2012. In this paper, we represented web-based 3D map service system composition and infrastructure and comparison of V-world with Google Earth service will be presented. We also represented Open API based service cases and discussed about the protection of location privacy when we construct 3D indoor building models. In order to prevent an invasion of privacy, we processed image blurring, elimination and camouflage. The importance of public-private cooperation and advanced geospatial information policy is emphasized in Korea. Thus, the progress of

  3. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN KOREA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE POPULATION OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA WAS 27,184,000 IN 1963. AGRICULTURAL AND INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION, ADVERSELY AFFECTED BY THE KOREAN WAR, HAS RECEIVED EMPHASIS THROUGH EXPORT PROMOTION, TAX REFORM, AND A STABILIZATION PROGRAM. A 6-YEAR FREE COMPULSORY EDUCATION IS SUPPLEMENTED BY "CIVIC SCHOOLS" AND "HIGHER CIVIC SCHOOLS"…

  4. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  5. Security Cooperation and Deterrence in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-23

    5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) School of Advanced Military Studies 250 Gibbon Ave. Ft...Soviet Union’s 53 Finley, The US Military Experience 1871-1982, 42. 54 Ibid., 43-44. 55 Ibid., 6. 56 Alan R. Millett, The War for Korea, 1950-1951

  6. Korea targets leadership role in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Korea has transformed itself over the last 50 years from a nation based primarily on agriculture to a hi-tech industrial powerhouse. But now the country is seeing the importance of investing in fundamental science too, as Matin Durrani reports.

  7. Telecommunications and Data Communication in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahn, Moon-Suk

    All facilities of the Ministry of Communications of Korea, which monopolizes telecommunications services in the country, are listed and described. Both domestic facilities, including long-distance telephone and telegraph circuits, and international connections are included. Computer facilities are also listed. The nation's regulatory policies are…

  8. [Gregarines from South Korea (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Théodoridés, J; Desportes, I; Jolivet, P

    1976-01-01

    Study of 14 species of Gregarines from terrestrial arthropods (Myriapoda and Insecta) of south Korea. Some of them (Ramicephalus ozakii, Gregarina monoducta, Hoplorhynchus ozakii, Stylocephalus bahli) are typically asiatic whereas the others were already described from identical or similar european hosts.

  9. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  10. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  11. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  12. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...] [Pages 67912-67918] [FR Doc No: 2010-27829] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control...

  13. Incidence of hip fractures in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Soo; Koo, Bo Kyeong; Lee, Eun Jung; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Myoung Hee; Shin, Kun Hong; Ha, Yong Chan; Cho, Nam Han; Shin, Chan Soo

    2008-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health problem in both Western and Asian populations. Because the aged population in Korea is increasing, the number of osteoporotic fractures is thought to be also increasing. However, there has been no nationwide analysis of osteoporotic fractures in Korea. We analyzed the incidence and cost of hip fracture from 2001 to 2004 by using data from the Health Insurance Review Agency, Korea. In the over 50 years age group, the number of hip fractures in women increased from 250.9/100,000 persons in 2001 to 262.8/100,000 in 2004, a 4.7% increase. However, that in men decreased from 162.8/100,000 in 2001 to 137.5/100,000 in 2004, a 15.5% decrease. Direct medical care costs of hip fracture increased from $62,707,697 in 2001 to $65,200,035 in 2004, and the proportional cost of hip fractures in the national medical costs increased by 4.5% over 4 years (from 0.200% in 2001 to 0.209% in 2004). On analysis of the population-based data obtained from the whole country from 2001 to 2004, the incidence rate of hip fractures in women, not in men, and its cost have increased in Korea. The gender distribution of hip fractures underlines the need for aggressive intervention in osteoporosis in elderly women.

  14. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  15. Spotlight on nano-theranostics in South Korea: applications in diagnostics and treatment of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangwha; Kim, Jongsung; Bark, Chung Wung; Lee, Bonghee; Ju, Heongkyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, TaeYoung; Kim, Moon Il; Ko, Young Tag; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Yun, Kyu-Sik; Yoon, Young Soo; An, Seong Soo A; Hulme, John

    2015-01-01

    From the synergistic integration and the multidisciplinary strengths of the BioNano Sensor Research Center, Gachon Bionano Research Institute, and Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, researchers, students, and faculties at Gachon University in collaboration with other institutions in Korea, Australia, France, America, and Japan have come together to produce a special issue on the diverse applications of nano-theranostics in nanomedicine. This special issue will showcase new research conducted by various scientific groups in Gyonggi-do and Songdo/Incheon, South Korea. The objectives of this special issue are as follows: 1) to bring together and demonstrate some of the latest research results in the field, 2) to introduce new multifunctional nanomaterials and their applications in imaging and detection methods, and 3) to stimulate collaborative interdisciplinary research at both national and international levels in nanomedicine. PMID:26345737

  16. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... weaken. Talk with family, friends, or a support group about your feelings. Work with your health care providers throughout your treatment. Helping yourself can make you feel more in control. Support Groups The diagnosis and treatment of cancer often causes ...

  17. 76 FR 76146 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Postponement of... transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea... petitioners to the Department, entitled ``Large Power Transformers from the Republic of Korea--...

  18. Interdecadal variation of Korea affecting tropical cyclone intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed a time series of average central pressure of tropical cyclone (TC) that affected Korea in summer season from 1965 to 2012. To determine whether climate regime shift exists in this time series, statistical change-point analysis was applied to this time series. The result showed that significant climate regime shift existed in 1989, that is, TC intensity from 1965 to 1988 (6588) was weaker than that from 1989 to 2012 (8912). Therefore, an average difference between former and latter periods was analyzed to study large-scale environments, which caused such difference. While TC genesis frequency showed a tendency that TCs in the 6588 period were originated from the northwest quadrant in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, TCs in the 8912 period were originated from the southeast quadrant. Thus, it was judged that TCs in the 6588 were generated at a higher latitude followed by moving to Korea, so their strength was weaker than those of TCs of 8912 due to lack of time to acquire sufficient energy from the sea. For TC passage frequency, TCs in the 6588 period showed a tendency to move a short distance from the sea far away from the southeast in Japan to the sea far away from the northeast in Japan or toward the East China Sea. On the other hand, TCs in the 8912 period moved a longer distance from the sea far away from the Philippines via Japan to the eastern sea of Kamchatka Peninsular or toward the east region in China. As such, an average difference of intensity between the former period and the latter period over the 500-hPa streamline was analyzed to determine why the intensity of TCs in the 6588 period was weaker than that of TCs in the 8912 period. As a result, anomalous cold northerlies from anomalous cyclones based on the northern territory of Japan were predominant, while these anomalous flows were originated from the tropical and subtropical western Pacific followed by moving to Korea, thereby affecting the weakening of the TC

  19. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  20. International Partnerships for Clinical Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CGH co-sponsors the 2015 International Symposium on Cancer Clinical Trials and related meetings held in partnership with the Japanese National Cancer Center (JNCC) and Embassies of France, Korea, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US) in Tokyo on May 14 - 15, 2015.

  1. Assessment of Long-Term Rectal Function in Patients Who Received Pelvic Radiotherapy: A Pooled North Central Cancer Treatment Group Trial Analysis, N09C1

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lindsay C.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Neben-Wittich, Michelle A.; Wender, Donald B.; Behrens, Robert J.; Kozelsky, Timothy F.; Loprinzi, Charles L.; Haddock, Michael G.; Martenson, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Pelvic radiotherapy (PRT) is known to adversely affect bowel function (BF) and patient well-being. This study characterized long-term BF and evaluated quality of life (QOL) in patients receiving PRT. Methods Data from 252 patients were compiled from 2 North Central Cancer Treatment Group prospective studies, which included assessment of BF and QOL by the BF questionnaire (BFQ) and Uniscale QOL at baseline and 12 and 24 months after completion of radiotherapy. BFQ scores (sum of symptoms), Uniscale results, adverse-event incidence, and baseline demographic data were compared via t test, χ2, Fisher exact, Wilcoxon, and correlation methodologies. Results The total BFQ score was higher than baseline at 12 and 24 months (P<.001). More patients had 5 or more symptoms at 12 months (13%) and 24 months (10%) than at baseline (2%). Symptoms occurring in greater than 20% of patients at 12 and 24 months were clustering, stool-gas confusion, and urgency. Factors associated with worse BF were female sex, rectal or gynecologic primary tumors, prior anterior resection of the rectum, and 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy. Patients experiencing grade 2 or higher acute toxicity had worse 24-month BF (P values, <.001-.02). Uniscale QOL was not significantly different from baseline at 12 or 24 months, despite worse BFQ scores. Conclusions PRT was associated with worse long-term BF. Worse BFQ score was not associated with poorer QOL. Further research to characterize the subset of patients at risk of significant decline in BF is warranted. PMID:23748483

  2. German Cancer Society Neuro-Oncology Working Group NOA-03 multicenter trial of single-agent high-dose methotrexate for primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Herrlinger, Ulrich; Schabet, Martin; Brugger, Wolfram; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Küker, Wilhelm; Deckert, Martina; Engel, Corinna; Schmeck-Lindenau, Hans-Jürgen; Mergenthaler, Hans-Günther; Krauseneck, Peter; Benöhr, Christian; Meisner, Christoph; Wiestler, Otmar D; Dichgans, Johannes; Kanz, Lothar; Bamberg, Michael; Weller, Michael

    2002-02-01

    The prospective multicenter NOA-03 trial, conducted by the Neuro-Oncology Working Group (NOA) of the German Cancer Society, was initiated to define the feasibility and efficacy of single-agent high-dose methotrexate therapy without concomitant radiotherapy in immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma. Thirty-seven patients (median age, 60 years) received 179 biweekly courses of 8 g/m2 methotrexate. Response was assessed after 3 and 6 courses. We had planned to enter 105 patients into the trial. Since fewer than the projected 18 of 37 patients achieved a complete response after an intermediate analysis, the trial was closed. In intention-to-treat analysis, 11 of 37 patients (29.7%) achieved complete response, whereas 14 of 37 patients (37.8%) were found to have progressive disease. The median relapse-free survival among complete response patients was 13.7 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that corticosteroid application during the first methotrexate course was associated with complete response. The regimen was well tolerated, but, unlike previously reported results, the activity of high-dose methotrexate was only moderate.

  3. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  4. Regional and Detailed Survey for Radon Activities in Soil-Gas and Groundwater in the Okchon Zone, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, H.-K.; Chon, H.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The Okchon zone in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched in potentially toxic elements including uranium which is parent nuclide for radon gas. For the purpose of radon radioactivity risk assessment, making the map of radon risk grade from Okchon zone, regional and detailed field surveys were carried out during 3 years. The study area is located in the central part of Korea, called the Okchon zone (about 5,100 km2), which occur in a 80km wide, northeast-trending belt that extends across the Korean Peninsula. The Okchon zone is underlain by metasedimentary rocks of unknown age that are composed mainly of black slate, phyllite, shale, and limestone. The three research areas (defined as Boeun, Chungju, and Nonsan) for detailed survey were selected from the results of regional survey. Results of detailed radon survey indicated a wide range of radon activities for soil-gases (148-1,843 pCi/L) and ground waters (23-5,540 pCi/L). About 15 percent of soil-gas samples exceeded 1,000 pCi/L and 84 percent of ground water samples exceeded the MCL (maximum contaminant level) of drinking water, 300 pCi/L, which proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. For detailed survey, radon activities of soil-gas and ground water were classified as bedrock geology, based on 1/50,000 geological map and field research. For soil-gas measurements, mean values of radon activity from black slate-shale (789 pCi/L) were highest among the other base rocks. And for groundwater measurements, mean value of radon activities were decreased in the order of granite (1,345 pCi/L) > black shale-slate (915 pCi/L) > metasediments (617 pCi/L). Result of indoor radon measurement from detailed survey areas showed that about 50% of houses exceeded the indoor guideline, 4 pCi/L. For the radon risk assessment in indoor environment showed that probability of lung cancer risk from the houses located on the granite base rock (3.0×10-2) was highest among the other

  5. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-06-30

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species.

  6. North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-24

    42 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 43...Print Media, August 30, 3007. 46 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune...attempts in late 2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers

  7. ROK Military Policy Recommendations Toward North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    though the South Korean Navy won the battle in the Yellow Sea, Kim Dae-Jung fired the fleet commander, Admiral Park Jung- seung , because North Korea...during the administration of President Kim Dae-jung and continued for 10 years through the Roh Moo-hyun Administration. This unilateral policy was based...changed during the administration of President Kim Dae-jung and continued for 10 years through the Roh Moo-hyun Administration. This unilateral policy

  8. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls.

  9. China and North Korea: A Peculiar Relationship

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    prevent North Korea from provoking a war. 80 “Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ...Singapores-Lee-calls-NKoreans- psychopathic ---WikiLeaks. 44 Before continuing, let us clarify the term “collapse.” As Samuel Kim states, “The...Singapore’s Lee calls N. Koreans ‘ psychopathic ’—WikiLeaks,” Agence France-Press, November 30, 2010. Accessed January 12, 2011. http

  10. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  11. U.S.- South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-28

    2015 joint statement on North Korea says, “The United States will continue to strongly support [President Park’s] vision of a peacefully unified Korean...around the year 2020 . 51 The city of Dongducheon, where those soldiers are based, has protested this decision and withdrawn some cooperation with the...munitions, and ISR (intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance) assets. Reportedly, the Opcon transfer may not occur until 2020 or later. 67

  12. North Korea: Economic Leverage and Policy Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-04

    plan B,” Asia Tiimes, May 21, 2009, Online edition. 2 The extent that Pyongyang has...Mother Jones, Vol. 28, No. 3, May 1, 2003. p. 52. 42 Food and Agriculture Organization. Food Security Statistics. Online at http://www.fao.org...for Military.” People’s Daily Online , April 12, 2005. 64 Asia: The deal that wasn’t; North Korea. The Economist. London: September 24, 2005. p. 81

  13. Criminal Sovereignty: Understanding North Korea’s Illicit International Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    authorities in Myanmar who believed that local insurgent groups were intent on trading heroin for the arms.21 North Korea has also used its diplomatic...represent another strategic dimension of threats emanating from North Korea . While most of the world is focused on the country’s nuclear weapons and...incident, groups in Myanmar do not earn their profits from street sales, but from the middleman that has been, in certain instances, North Korea . Acting

  14. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    members on a state visit to Rangoon, Burma . In 1987 North Korea shot down a Korean Air Lines commercial flight.9 Besides the North Korean threat, South...arrivals of North Korean defectors ................................................37 Figure 4. Anti-terrorism-related organizations in Korea after 9.11...study will determine whether current Korean anti-terrorism programs effectively address all terrorist threats, including threats from North Korea

  15. Korea-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-25

    Bush Administration in 2008 committed 500,000 tons of foodgrains.. South Korea followed a conciliation policy toward North Korea under the...dollars in foreign exchange earnings since 1998 to import food or medicines . The regime has not adopted agricultural reforms similar to those of... conciliation policy were: the extension of South Korean economic and humanitarian aid to North Korea, the promotion of North-South economic relations

  16. United States National Interests in the Republic of Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    South Korea by the United States. 41 During the war, the United Nations set up the Civilian Relief Agency to provide medicine, food , and shelter to...Japanese coast. Their mission was to escort and protect vessels carrying food , oil and other resources to Japan along two sea lanes, one connecting...Sales credits to South Korea for FY 87 to $230 mlllion.l II Security Assistance to the Republic of Korea has been instrumental in perserving peace In the

  17. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-30

    between 30 and 50 kilograms, enough for five to eight atomic weapons. After North Korea tested a nuclear device in October 2006, the six party talks...the plutonium reprocessing plant produced enough weapons grade plutonium for the production of several atomic bombs. North Korea tested an atomic...produces and tests atomic bombs, and the locations where North Korea stores plutonium and atomic bombs. The declaration also reportedly contains no

  18. Military Armistice in Korea: A Case Study for Strategic Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiation the questions of the withdrawal of all foreign forces from Korea , the peaceful settlement of the Korean question, etc.5 Both sides did meet in...invasion]."𔃺 The Republic of Korea faced an insurgency and guerilla warfare that followed the Maoist model and culminated in the North Korean Army...the United States through a proxy. 12 . The first year of the war saw four major shifts in momentum. First, the DPRK (or North Korea ) thrust its Korean

  19. The Chinese Intervention in Korea: An Analysis of Warning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-19

    precepts to Korea as early as 1936 when he wrote, "If the Koreans wish to break away from the claims of Japanese [read American] imperi- alism, we will... Korea . Both actions .Vcre preceded by the White Paper and Secretary of State Dean Acheson’s public statements that delineated an American defensive ...predictably denounced the American action in Korea , but did so in a manner that indicated little concern over Korean events. What shocked and incensed

  20. Defense Industry and Its Impacts on Economic Growth in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    is likely in Korea . Some argue that the Korean economy would have developed much faster without the burden of the defense spending. We could have...industry to the civilian industry in Korea . The intent of this study is to determine how much impact and influence the Korean defense industry has had...in Korea based on 1987 data. Dr. Dong J. Hwang studied the future of the Korean defense industry. But none of these authors studied the defense

  1. The Future of United States Forces in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-22

    Kwak, The Reduction of US Forces in Korea in the Inter- Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990, pp... Korean Peace Process: The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis, Vol. II No. 2 Winter 1990. 11. Levin, Norman D., and Richard L. Sneider, " Korea in...group with 500 officers and enlisted personnel. After the Korean war broke out in June 1950, the United States sent its troops to Korea in July under

  2. Log-centric Airbase-opening Strategies in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    is becoming politically less viable.”4 In the Korean theater of operations (KTO), Republic of Korea (ROK) and U.S. plan- ners, from Combined Forces...in the Korean War. —Lieutenant General Walton H. Walker, Commander, 8th U.S. Army, Korea , 19501 South Korean military members participate with U.S...pallet buildup and cargo loading Supplies are loaded onto Korean C–130 at Hickam Air Base, Hawaii Republic of Korea air force security advisor speaks

  3. The Ecology of Medical Care in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Soo; Choi, Yong Jun

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the ecology of medical care in Korea. Using the yearly data of 2012 derived from the Korea Health Panel, we estimated the numbers of people per 1,000 residents aged 18 and over who had any health problem and/or any medical care at a variety of care settings, such as clinics, hospitals, and tertiary hospitals, in an average month. There was a total of 11,518 persons in the study population. While the number of those who had any health problem in an average month was estimated to be 939 per 1,000 persons, the estimated numbers of ambulatory care users were 333 at clinics, 101 at hospital outpatient departments, 35 at tertiary hospital outpatient departments, and 38 for Korean Oriental medical providers. The number of people who used emergency care at least once was 7 per 1,000 persons in an average month. The numbers of people hospitalized in clinics and hospitals were 3 and 8, respectively, while 3 persons were admitted to tertiary hospitals. There was a gap between the number of people experiencing any health problem and that of those having any medical care, and primary care comprised a large share of people's medical care experiences. It was noteworthy that more patients received ambulatory care at tertiary hospitals in Korea than in other countries. We hope that discussion about care delivery system reform and further studies will be encouraged.

  4. Prevalence of primary immunodeficiency in Korea.

    PubMed

    Rhim, Jung Woo; Kim, Kyung Hyo; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Bong Seong; Kim, Jung Soo; Kim, Chang Hwi; Kim, Hwang Min; Park, Hee Ju; Pai, Ki Soo; Son, Byong Kwan; Shin, Kyung Sue; Oh, Moo Young; Woo, Young Jong; Yoo, Young; Lee, Kun Soo; Lee, Kyung Yil; Lee, Chong Guk; Lee, Joon Sung; Chung, Eun Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Hahn, Youn Soo; Park, Hyun Young; Kim, Joong Gon

    2012-07-01

    This study represents the first epidemiological study based on the national registry of primary immunodeficiencies (PID) in Korea. Patient data were collected from 23 major hospitals. A total of 152 patients with PID (under 19 yr of age), who were observed from 2001 to 2005, have been entered in this registry. The period prevalence of PID in Korea in 2005 is 11.25 per million children. The following frequencies were found: antibody deficiencies, 53.3% (n = 81), phagocytic disorders, 28.9% (n = 44); combined immunodeficiencies, 13.2% (n = 20); and T cell deficiencies, 4.6% (n = 7). Congenital agammaglobulinemia (n = 21) and selective IgA deficiency (n = 21) were the most frequently reported antibody deficiency. Other reported deficiencies were common variable immunodeficiencies (n = 16), X-linked agammaglobulinemia (n = 15), IgG subclass deficiency (n = 4). Phagocytic disorder was mostly chronic granulomatous disease. A small number of patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome, and severe combined immunodeficiency were also registered. Overall, the most common first manifestation was pneumonia. This study provides data that permit a more accurate estimation PID patients in Korea.

  5. Study of Genes and Environment in Patients With Cancer in East Anglia, Trent, or West Midlands Regions of the United Kingdom

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-23

    Bladder Cancer; Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Esophageal Cancer; Intraocular Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Lymphoma; Melanoma (Skin); Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter

  6. [Diagnosis and treatment guidelines for Helicobacter pylori infection in Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Jae J; Choe, Yon Ho; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jin Il; Chung, In-Sik

    2009-11-01

    Eleven years has passed since the guideline of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research group for H. pylori infection was produced in 1998. During this period the research for H. pylori has much progressed that H. pylori is now regarded as the major cause of gastric cancer. The seroprevalence of H. pylori in Korea was found to be decreased especially below the age of 40s and in the area of Seoul-Gyeonggi province, and annual reinfection rate of H. pylori has decreased up to 2.94%. In the aspect of diagnostic tests of H. pylori the biopsy is recommended in the body instead of antrum in the subjects with atrophic gastritis and/or intestinal metaplasia for the modified Giemsa staining or Warthin Starry silver staining. The urea breath test is the test of choice to confirm eradication when follow-up endoscopy is not necessary. Definite indication for H. pylori eradication is early gastric cancer in addition to the previous indications of peptic ulcer including scar and Marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MALT type). Treatment is also recommended for the relatives of gastric cancer patient, unexplained iron deficiency anemia, and chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. One or two week treatment of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) based triple therapy consisting of one PPI and two antibiotics, clarithromycin and amoxicillin, is recommended as the first line treatment regimen. In the case of treatment failure, one or two weeks of quadruple therapy (PPI+metronidazole+tetracycline+bismuth) is recommended. Herein, Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research proposes a diagnostic and treatment guideline based on currently available evidence.

  7. Horizontal deformation in South Korea from permanent GPS network data, 2000-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdy, A. M.; Park, P.-H.; Lim, H.-C.

    2005-02-01

    Analysis of continuous GPS data 2000-2003 at 50 stations of the Korean GPS Network (KGN) suggests that the southern part of the Korean peninsula is tectonically more stable than other regions in the Eastern Asia. The average velocity was ~1.5 mm/yr and the average overall strain rate was around -0.3 × 10-9str/yr. The obtained velocity field indicates the presence of anticlockwise rotation of the whole region with respect to Daejeon station (DAEJ), in the central part of South Korea. It also showed that KM-OB (Kyonggi Massif and the Okchon Basin) and YM-TB (Yeongnam Massif and Taebaeksan Basin) have left-lateral shearing movements. Both movements were confirmed by the deformation analysis of the KGN horizontal velocity field using the infinitesimal plate theory. The results show that South Korea moves toward the WNW direction with a velocity of 0.9 mm/yr with a slow anticlockwise rotation. The strain field in South Korea indicates the existence of both compression and tension. The compression and extension axes have WSW-EWE and NNW-SSE directions, respectively.

  8. Behavior of Eupcheon fault Using Fault Monitoring Data in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Hwang, J.; Park, D.; Choi, W.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1960s, the Fault Monitoring System(FMS) was adopted in several countries including U.S., Japan and Taiwan, where fault movement related with tectonics have occurred frequently. In Korea, only the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. - Central Research Institute (KHNP-CRI) has been managing FMS. The first FMS of South Korea had been installed to monitor the Eupcheon fault located in Gyeoungju city from 2009. The system is equipped with in-situ measuring units including strainmeter, creepmeter, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), seismometer, and groundwater level meter. This paper presents the behavior of the Eupcheon fault based on the monitored data from EFMS in 2012. These data reveal that the earthquakes near Eupcheon fault did not lead to considerable changes in underground stress and displacement as the data in 2011. The creepmeter is sensitive to the temperature so that the data from the creepmeter showed the seasonal variation. The GNSS and strainmeter data have influenced by the tides. For this reason, it is required to employ a calibration system considering the external parameters such as tides and temperature variations. The KHNP-CRI is currently developing technical systems for data correction and analysis to predict the long-term behavior characteristics of Eupcheon fault. It is expected that the enhanced monitoring system contributes significantly in geo-tectonic safety assessment of nuclear plants and other critical facilities related to the national security.

  9. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Gregory N.; Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C.; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Camidge, D. Ross

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  10. Treatment patterns, clinical outcomes and health care costs associated with her2-positive breast cancer with central nervous system metastases: a French multicentre observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The population of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC) who develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases is growing. Treatment strategies in this population are highly diverse. The objective of the study was to assess health care costs for the management of HER2 positive BC with CNS metastases. Methods This multicentre, retrospective, observational study was conducted on HER2-positive BC patients diagnosed with CNS metastases between 2006 and 2008. Data were extracted from patient medical records to estimate health care resource use. A partitioned estimator was used to adjust censoring costs by use of the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate. Results 218 patients were included and costs were estimated for 200 patients. The median time to detection of CNS metastases was 37.6 months. The first metastatic event involved the CNS in 39 patients, and this was the unique first metastatic site in 31 of these patients. Two years following diagnosis of CNS metastases, 70.3% of patients had died. The mean per capita cost of HER2-positive BC with CNS metastases in the first year following diagnosis was €35,735 [95% CI: 31,716-39,898]. The proportion of costs attributed to expensive drugs and those arising from hospitalisation were in the same range. Conclusion A range of individualised disease management strategies are used in HER2-positive BC patients with CNS metastases and the treatments used in the first months following diagnosis are expensive. The understanding of cost drivers may help optimise healthcare expenditure and inform the development of appropriate prevention policies. PMID:24176086

  11. Screening for ALK abnormalities in central nervous system metastases of non-small-cell lung cancer: ALK abnormalities in CNS metastases of NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Nicoś, Marcin; Jarosz, Bożena; Krawczyk, Paweł; Wojas-Krawczyk, Kamila; Kucharczyk, Tomasz; Sawicki, Marek; Pankowski, Juliusz; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-11-23

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement was reported in 3-7% of primary non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its presence is commonly associated with adenocarcinoma (AD) type and non-smoking history. ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as crizotinib, alectinib and ceritinib showed efficiency in patients with primary NSCLC harboring ALK gene rearrangement. Moreover, response to ALK TKIs was observed in central nervous system (CNS) metastatic lesions of NSCLC. However, there are no reports concerning the frequency of ALK rearrangement in CNS metastases. We assessed the frequency of ALK abnormalities in 145 formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from CNS metastases of NSCLC using immunohistochemical (IHC) automated staining (BenchMark GX, Ventana, USA) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique (Abbot Molecular, USA). The studied group was heterogeneous in terms of histopathology and smoking status. ALK abnormalities were detected in 4.8% (7/145) of CNS metastases. ALK abnormalities were observed in six AD (7.5%; 6/80) and in single patients with adenosuqamous lung carcinoma. Analysis of clinical and demographic factors indicated that expression of abnormal ALK was significantly more frequently observed (p=0.0002; χ(2) =16.783) in former-smokers. Comparison of IHC and FISH results showed some discrepancies, which were caused by unspecific staining of macrophages and glial/nerve cells, which constitute the background of CNS tissues. Our results indicate high frequency of ALK gene rearrangement in CNS metastatic sites of NSCLC that are in line with prior studies concerning evaluation of the presence of ALK abnormalities in such patients. However, we showed that assessment of ALK by IHC and FISH methods in CNS tissues require additional standardizations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Subclavian Vein Versus Arm Vein for Totally Implantable Central Venous Port for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Retrospective Comparative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akahane, Akio Sone, Miyuki; Ehara, Shigeru; Kato, Kenichi; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare central venous ports (CVP) from two different routes of venous access-the subclavian vein and arm vein-in terms of safety for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods: Patients with HNC who underwent image-guided implantations of CVPs were retrospectively evaluated. All CVPs were implanted under local anesthesia. Primary outcome measurements were rates and types of adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes included technical success and rate and reason of CVP removal. Results: A total of 162 patients (subclavian port group, 47; arm port group, 115) were included in this study. Technical success was achieved in all patients. The median follow-up period was 94 (range, 1-891) days. Two patients in the subclavian port group experienced periprocedural complications. Postprocedural AEs were observed in 8.5 and 22.6% of the subclavian port and arm port group patients, respectively (P = 0.044). Phlebitis and system occlusions were observed only in the arm port group. The rate of infection was not significantly different between the two groups. The CVP was removed in 34 and 39.1% of the subclavian port and arm port patients, respectively. Conclusions: Both subclavian and arm CVPs are feasible in patients with HNC. AEs were more frequent in the arm port group; thus, the arm port is not recommended as the first choice for patients with HNC. However, further experience is needed to improve the placement technique and the maintenance of CVPs and a prospective analysis is warranted.

  13. Impact of lymph node metastases identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer: potential role of BRAFV600E mutation in defining CND.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Ali S; Xing, Mingzhao

    2013-02-01

    The impact of metastasized cervical lymph nodes (CLN) identified on central neck dissection (CND) on the recurrence/persistence of papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) and the extent of CND needed to reduce recurrence/persistence have not been firmly established. To assess the impact of CLN metastasis and BRAF mutation on the recurrence/persistence of PTC and the potential of BRAF mutation in assisting CND. Analyses of 379 consecutive patients with PTC who underwent thyroidectomy with (n=243) or without CND (n=136) at a tertiary-care academic hospital during the period 2001-2010 for their clinicopathological outcomes and BRAF mutation status. Increasingly aggressive tumor characteristics were found as the extent of CND was advanced following conventional risk criteria from non-CND to limited CND to formal CND. Disease recurrence/persistence rate also sharply rose from 4.7% to 15.7% and 40.5% in these CND settings respectively (P<0.0001). CLN metastasis rate rose from 18.0 to 77.3% from limited CND to formal CND (P<0.0001). An increasing rate of BRAF mutation was also found from less to more extensive CND. A strong association of CLN metastasis and BRAF mutation with disease recurrence/persistence was revealed on Kaplan-Meier analysis and BRAF mutation strongly predicted CLN metastasis. CLN metastases found on CND are closely associated with disease recurrence/persistence of PTC, which are both strongly predicted by BRAF mutation. Current selection of PTC patients for CND is appropriate but higher extent of the procedure, once selected, is needed to reduce disease recurrence, which may be defined by combination use of preoperative BRAF mutation testing and conventional risk factors of PTC.

  14. Ambient PM2.5-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Changhua County, central Taiwan: Seasonal variation, source apportionment and cancer risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Chiang, Hung-Che; Hsu, Chin-Yu; Yang, Tzu-Ting; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Mu-Jean; Chen, Nai-Tzu; Wu, Yuh-Shen

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates PM2.5-bound PAHs for rural sites (Dacheng and Fangyuan) positioned close to heavy air-polluting industries in Changhua County, central Taiwan. A total of 113 PM2.5 samples with 22 PAHs collected from 2014 to 2015 were analyzed, and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) and diagnostic ratios of PAHs were applied to quantify potential PAH sources. The influences of local and regional sources were also explored using the conditional probability function (CPF) and potential source contribution function (PSCF) with PMF-modeled results, respectively. Annual mean concentrations of total PAHs were 2.91 ± 1.34 and 3.04 ± 1.40 ng/m(3) for Dacheng and Fangyuan, respectively, and their corresponding BaPeq were measured at 0.534 ± 0.255 and 0.563 ± 0.273 ng/m(3) in concentration. Seasonal variations with higher PAHs found for the winter than for the spring and summer were observed for both sites. The lifetime excess cancer risk (ECR) from inhalation exposure to PAHs was recorded as 4.7 × 10(-5) overall. Potential sources of PM2.5-bound PAHs include unburned petroleum and traffic emissions (42%), steel industry and coal combustion (31%), and petroleum and oil burning (27%), and unburned petroleum and traffic emission could contribute the highest ECR (2.4 × 10(-5)). The CPF results show that directional apportionment patterns were consistent with the actual locations of local PAH sources. The PSCF results indicate that mainly northeastern regions of China have contributed elevated PM2.5-bound PAHs from long-range transports.

  15. Differential diagnosis of prostate cancer and noncancerous tissue in the peripheral zone and central gland using the quantitative parameters of DCE-MRI

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Shi, Changzheng; Zhao, Lianping; Zhou, Quan; Luo, Liangping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Ktrans, Kep, and Ve values in the differential diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) and noncancerous tissue in the peripheral zone (PZ) and central gland (CG). Methods: A search was conducted of the PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases from January 2000 to October 2015 using the search terms “prostate cancer,” “ dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE),” “magnetic resonance imaging,” “Ktrans,” “Kep,” and “Ve.” Studies were selected and included according to strict eligibility criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare Ktrans, Kep, and Ve values between PCa and noncancerous tissue. Results: Fourteen studies representing 484 patients highly suspicious for prostate adenocarcinoma were selected for the meta-analysis. We found that Ktrans values measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) were significantly higher in PCa tissue than in noncancerous tissue in the PZ (SMD 1.57, 95% CI 0.98–2.16; z = 5.21, P <0.00001) and CG (SMD 1.19, 95% CI 0.46–1.91; z = 3.21, P = 0.001). Kep values measured by DCE-MRI were significantly higher in PCa than in noncancerous tissue in the PZ (SMD 1.41, 95% CI 0.92–1.91; z = 5.59, P < 0.00001) and CG (SMD 1.57, 95% CI 0.69–2.46; z = 3.49, P = 0.0005). Ve values generated by DCE-MRI were slightly higher in PCa than in noncancerous tissue in the PZ (SMD 0.72, 95% CI 0.17–1.27; z = 2.58, P = 0.010), but sensitivity analysis found that the Ve value was unstable for differentiation between PCa and noncancerous PZ tissue. However, there was no significant difference in the Ve value between PCa and noncancerous CG tissue (SMD −0.29, 95% CI −1.18, 0.59; z = 0.65, P = 0.51). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis shows that Ktrans and Kep were the most

  16. Sexual Violence among Men in the Military in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young

    2007-01-01

    This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…

  17. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to... contained in USITC Publication 4254 (August 2011), entitled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film from...

  18. The Beginnings of Modern Education in Korea, 1883-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Korea opened up to foreign intercourse in 1876, when the country concluded its first international treaty with Japan. Similar treaties with European and American nations followed during the 1880s. The period until 1910, when Korea was annexed to the Japanese Empire, saw manifold attempts to reform as well as resistance to these reforms. Against…

  19. Promoting E-Learning for Human Resource Development in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    In Korea, e-learning is becoming increasingly prevalent and spreading into various aspects of human resources development. Korea's Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOEHRD) and Ministry of Labor (MOL) have been especially active in establishing the legal basis and institutional framework to make e-learning a reality.…

  20. Japanese Higher Education Policy in Korea (1910-1945).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2002-01-01

    Examines the impact of Japanese nationalistic thought on the administrative systems and structures of colonial and modern higher education in Korea and analyzes Japanese educational policy in Korea in the colonial period (1910-1945). Identifies beneficial and negative impacts of the Japanese colonial education system. (SLD)

  1. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  2. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  3. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  4. Motivations and Experiences of Expatriate Educators in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of native English instructors at the Gyeonggi-do Institute for Foreign Language Education (GIFLE) in South Korea. A literature review of issues regarding expatriate educators is included. The guiding questions for this study include why these instructors chose to become educators, move to South Korea, and…

  5. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  6. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  7. U.S. Regional Strategy for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    9 O PPO RTUN ITIES...will stress South Korea’s ability to absorb them into their society and economy over the long-run. ECONOMIC INSTABILITY The North Korean economy is in...enormous costs of absorbing the broken economy of the North.40 When contrasted with German reunification, the economy and infrastructure of North Korea are

  8. Today and Yesterday in Early Childhood Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    Early childhood education has always been considered important in Korea, with the education of the child valued highly, regardless of the parent's educational background or socioeconomic status. The main social facility for early childhood education outside home in Korea is called "Yoo Chee Won," which means kindergarten. This paper…

  9. A Survey of Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sun Hyun; Kim, Mi-Sook; Jang, Won Il; Kay, Chul-Seung; Kim, Woochul; Kim, Eun Seog; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Jin Hee; Yang, Kwang Mo; Lee, Kyu Chan; Chang, A Ram; Jo, Sunmi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the current status of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in Korea. A nationwide survey was conducted by the Korean Stereotactic Radiosurgery Group of the Korean Society for Radiation Oncology (KROG 13-13). Materials and Methods SBRT was defined as radiotherapy with delivery of a high dose of radiation to an extracranial lesion in ≤ 4 fractions. A 16-questionnaire survey was sent by e-mail to the chief of radiation oncology at 85 institutions in June 2013. Results All institutions (100%) responded to this survey. Of these, 38 institutions (45%) have used SBRT and 47 institutions (55%) have not used SBRT. Regarding the treatment site, the lung (92%) and liver (76%) were the two most common sites. The most common schedules were 60 Gy/4 fractions for non-small cell lung cancer, 48 Gy/4 fractions for lung metastases, 60 Gy/3 fractions for hepatocellular carcinoma, and 45 Gy/3 fractions or 40 Gy/4 fractions for liver metastases. Four-dimensional computed tomography (CT) was the most common method for planning CT (74%). During planning CT, the most common method of immobilization was the use of an alpha cradle/vacuum-lock (42%). Conclusion Based on this survey, conduct of further prospective studies will be needed in order to determine the appropriate prescribed doses and to standardize the practice of SBRT. PMID:25578057

  10. Epidemiology of Biliary Atresia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is the major cause of cholestasis and the leading indication for liver transplantation (LT). However, the incidence of BA in Korea has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and clinical outcomes of BA in Korea. We used the Korean universal health insurance database and extracted data regarding BA patients younger than 18 years of age admitted between 2011 and 2015. The incidence of BA was calculated by dividing the number of BA patients by the number of live births. Two hundred forty infants were newly diagnosed with BA. A total of 963 BA patients younger than 18 years of age were followed up for 5 years. The overall incidence of BA was 1.06 cases per 10,000 live births. The incidence of BA was 1.4 times higher for female patients than for male patients. Additionally, significant seasonal variation was observed; in particular, the incidence of BA was 2 times higher from June through August than from December through February. Congenital anomalies were found in 38 of 240 patients (15.8%). Congenital heart diseases were major associated congenital anomalies (6.3%). Several complications developed during the study period, including cholangitis (24.0%), varix (6.2%), and gastrointestinal bleeding (4.4%). Three hundred and one of the 963 BA patients under 18 years of age (31.3%) received LT for BA. The incidence of BA is higher in Korea than that in Western countries. We also report significant gender-associated differences and seasonal variation with respect to the incidence of BA. PMID:28244293

  11. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending.

  12. The history of dental hygiene in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Mann, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This historical narrative highlights the origin and development of the dental hygiene profession in South Korea. The legacy of early American missionaries to Korea includes profound and long-lasting contributions in medicine, education and theology. Many of Korea's top universities today have their roots in the missionary schools of the late nineteenth century, including Yonsei University, home of the first dental hygiene program in Korea. From Yonsei in Seoul, the dental hygiene profession spread throughout the country, includingtheAmerican missionary-based program in Kwangju in 1977. Contributions included clinical and didactic education, as well as professional leadership and development. American dental missionaries developed the profession of dental hygiene in Korea, and provided guidance to Korean dentists and hygienists for its growth and expansion.

  13. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-07-07

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time.

  14. Women Soldiers in Korea: Troop Viewpoints

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    27. Recreation/Education Services6-Satisfaction Score Analisis 121 29. Women-in Co--mba Attitude Sore Anaysis 123 28. then i Comy Atitude ,Scii Anaysis... data with respect to some known aspects of soldiering in Korea ard women in the Army;.,and (2) to explore for some newunderstanding of the problem areas...dbsents and suggetiohs: The write-in data is not the focus of this report. That information was reviewed, summarized and presented, to the comma nd-for

  15. North Korea: Back on the Terrorism List?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-29

    2007. 46 See http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm at p. 147. 47 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5. 52 Japanese...several North Korean attempts in late 2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti

  16. Radiologic Diagnosis of Asbestosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Yookyung; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis. PMID:27587956

  17. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  18. Processing Marine Gravity Data Around Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y.; Chang, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea currently 4 research ships are under operating in Korea, after the first research vessel equipped shipborne gravity meter was introduced in 1990s. These are Onnuri(launch 1991) of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute), Haeyang2000(launch 1996), Badaro1(launch 2002) of NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute) and Tamhae2(launch 1997) of KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). Those of research vessel, Haeyang2000 have observed marine gravity data over 150,000 points each year from year 1996 to year 2003. Haeyang2000, about 2,500 tons, is unable to operate onshore so NORI has constructed another 600 tons research ship Badaro1 that has observed marine gravity data onshore since year 2002. Haeyang2000 finished observing marine gravity data offshore within Korean territorial waters until year 2003. Currently Badaro1 is observing marine gravity data onshore. These shipborne gravity data will be very useful and important on geodesy and geophysics research also those data can make a contribution to developing these studies. In this study NORI's shipbrne gravity data from 1996 to 2007 has been processed for fundamental data to compute Korean precise geoid. Marine gravity processing steps as followed. 1. Check the time sequence, latitude and longitude position, etc. of shipborne gravity data 2. Arrangement of the tide level below the pier and meter drift correction of each cruise. 3. Elimination of turning points. 4. The time lag correction. 5. Computation of RV's velocities, Heading angles and the Eötvös correction. 6. Kalman filtering of GPS navigation data using cross-over points. 7. Cross-over correction using least square adjustment. About 2,058,000 points have been processed with NORI's marine gravity data from 1996 to 2007 in this study. The distribution of free-air anomalies was -41.0 mgal to 136.0 mgal(mean 8.90mgal) within Korean territorial waters. The free-air anomalies processed with the marine gravity data are

  19. Radiating columnar joints in Gyeongju, Korea as a educational site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Jang, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gyeongju is located in the central eastern part of South Korea. There are various directional columnar joint sets in Tertiary trachytic basalt formation along the shore. In particular, rare radiating columnar joints occur in this area. Columnar joints are parallel, prismatic columns that are formed as a result of contraction during the rapid cooling of lava flow, forming a three dimensional fracture network. In general, the radius and direction of the rock column represent the cooling rate and surface respectively. Radiating direction of columns here indicates that dome- or lobe-shaped lava was cooled from its surface to the core during the viscous lava flow. The fact that the trachytic textures of plagioclase laths are indistinct suggests that the radiating columnar joints are equivalent to the frontal end of the lava lobes. This area is currently has a shore trail course, which is being developed into a picturesque educational park. There are corresponding information boards on the trail near each type of columnar joints to explain not only the forming process and geological mechanisms but the importance of nature conservation to visitors, especially students. A variety of educational materials and educational programs linked to regular school curriculum are also being developed.

  20. Health development experience in North and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Ahn, Y S; Lee, S G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in health status between South Koreans and North Koreans and to identify factors responsible for the remarkable improvements in the health status of South Koreans. In order to examine the causes of the difference in health level, the health indices and their determinants of two Koreas were analyzed in time order. As of the year 2000, the average life expectancy at birth is 71.0 years for men and 78.6 years for women in South Korea, which is longer than that of North Korea by 8.1 for men and 11.2 for women. Infant mortality rate in 1998 was 9.0 per 1,000 live births in South Korea and 54.0 in North Korea. Since being liberated from Japanese ruling in 1945, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth under democracy and a market economy system. On the other hand, North Korea has maintained a socialistic system. North Korea has suffered from economic crisis since the 1990s. From this point it could be said that economic status is the major factor for the differences in health level between the two Koreas. Economic status not only directly influences health level but also indirectly affects it through influences on nutrition, hygiene, health resources, and other intervening factors. The South Korean government has concentrated its limited resources on public health activities such as tuberculosis control, family planning (FP), and maternal and child health (MCH) programmes whereas the private sector has taken charge of constructing the health delivery system including health facilities and human resources. In order to solve the problem, which might occur in the private-oriented medical care system, the South Korean government has introduced the national health insurance programme and enforced regulation policies. Many developing countries which are suffering from poverty and disease, can learn from the experience of Korea that had suffered from similar problems up to the early 1970s.

  1. Forecasting Cause-Specific Mortality in Korea up to Year 2032.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jae-Won; Son, Mia

    2016-08-01

    Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer's disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies.

  2. Exercise Intervention in Targeting Adiposity and Inflammation With Movement to Improve Prognosis in Breast Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-03-21

    Cancer Survivor; Central Obesity; Estrogen Receptor Positive; Postmenopausal; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage III Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  7. New species of Rhorus Förster, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Ctenopelmatinae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kasparyan, D R; Choi, Jin-Kyung; Lee, Jong-Wook

    2016-08-31

    A new ichneumonid-species Rhorus koreensis sp. nov. is described from South Korea. Monoblastus jinjuensis Lee et Cha, 1993 described from South Korea is transferred to Rhorus (new combination). Only Rh. takagii (Uchida, 1931) is recorded previously from South Korea. Rhorus nigritarsis (Hedwig, 1956) is recorded for the first time from South Korea. A key to the four South Korean species are provided.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-42 - Peppers from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-42 Section... Peppers from the Republic of Korea. Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum) from the Republic of Korea... Republic of Korea in insect-proof greenhouses approved by and registered with the National Plant...

  9. 76 FR 49439 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of... power transformers (``large power transformers'') from the Republic of Korea (``Korea''), filed in... Transformers from the Republic of Korea, filed on July 14, 2011 (``the Petition''). On July 20, 2011,...

  10. 77 FR 17410 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ... International Trade Administration Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea...-freezers (bottom mount refrigerators) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). For information on the estimated... Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Negative Countervailing Duty Determination...

  11. 77 FR 53177 - Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... International Trade Administration Large Power Transformers From the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Order... antidumping duty order on large power transformers from the Republic of Korea (Korea). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION... in the antidumping duty investigation of large power transformers from Korea. See Large...

  12. 78 FR 11154 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Countervailing Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Countervailing Duty... residential washers (washers) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). DATES: Effective Date: February 15, 2013... its final determination in the countervailing duty investigation of washers from Korea.\\1\\ On...

  13. 31 CFR 500.563 - Transactions incident to travel to and within North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and within North Korea. 500.563 Section 500.563 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Transactions incident to travel to and within North Korea. (a) All transactions of persons subject to U.S... Korea and to maintenance within North Korea are authorized. This authorization extends to...

  14. 77 FR 4279 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... programs, see Korea CVD Initiation Checklist. Respondent Selection The petition identifies three Korean... International Trade Administration Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of... residential washers (washing machines) from the Republic of Korea (Korea) filed in proper form by...

  15. 78 FR 11148 - Large Residential Washers From Mexico and the Republic of Korea: Antidumping Duty Orders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... International Trade Administration Large Residential Washers From Mexico and the Republic of Korea: Antidumping... washers (washers) from Mexico and the Republic of Korea (Korea). DATES: Effective Date: February 15, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brian Smith (Mexico) or David Goldberger (Korea), AD/CVD...

  16. Human papillomavirus prevalence and type-distribution, cervical cancer screening practices and current status of vaccination implementation in Russian Federation, the Western countries of the former Soviet Union, Caucasus region and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Rogovskaya, Svetlana I; Shabalova, Irina P; Mikheeva, Irina V; Minkina, Galina N; Podzolkova, Nataly M; Shipulina, Olga Y; Sultanov, Said N; Kosenko, Iren A; Brotons, Maria; Buttmann, Nina; Dartell, Myassa; Arbyn, Marc; Syrjänen, Stina; Poljak, Mario

    2013-12-31

    Limited data are available on the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its associated diseases in the Russian Federation, the Western Countries of the former Soviet Union (Belarus, Republic of Moldova, Ukraine), the Caucasus region and Central Asia (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan). Both the incidence and mortality rate of cervical cancer are higher in these countries than in most Western European countries. In this article, we review available data on HPV prevalence and type distribution in women with normal cytology, women from the general population, cervical precancerous lesions and cervical cancer, as well as data on national policies of cervical cancer screening and HPV vaccination initiatives in these countries. Based on scarce data from the 12 countries, the high-risk HPV (hrHPV) prevalence among 5226 women with normal cytology ranged from 0.0% to 48.4%. In women with low-grade cervical lesions, the hrHPV prevalence among 1062 women varied from 29.2% to 100%. HrHPV infection in 565 women with high-grade cervical lesions ranged from 77.2% to 100% and in 464 invasive cervical cancer samples from 89.8% to 100%. HPV16 was the most commonly detected hrHPV genotype in all categories. As the HPV genotype distribution in cervical diseases seems to be similar to that found in Western Europe the implementation of HPV testing in screening programs might be beneficial. Opportunistic screening programs, the lack of efficient call-recall systems, low coverage, and the absence of quality assured cytology with centralized screening registry are major reasons for low success rates of cervical cancer programs in many of the countries. Finally, HPV vaccination is currently not widely implemented in most of the twelve countries mainly due to pricing, availability, and limited awareness among public and health care providers. Country-specific research, organized nationwide screening programs, registries and well

  17. The political economy of energy-corporate-urban integration in South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1991-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the institutional basis of the political economy of South Korea and its integration into the global order. Through an investigation of the rise of technological (especially energy), corporate and urban networks under military/state direction, the analysis documents and explains why and how the contemporary South Korean political economy was formed and demonstrates that recent material progress actually leaves the country in a state of dependent development with environmental degradation and social inequality as necessary, even functional, characteristics of this progress. The central thesis of this study is that the rise to power of what I term a centralized, technicized regime (or CTR) has placed the civil society of South Korea in fundamental conflict with the prevailing institutional conditions of national political and economic order. The interconnected network of energy, corporate and urban systems that have formed since the late 19th century serves as the institutional foundation for South Korea's political economy. This network arranges the society and its resources in a definite political-economic structure that at once gives rise to certain social problems such as inequality, environmental degradation and alienation, the society's search for answers to these problems. Building new energy, industrial and spatial structures compatible with political and economic democracy, cannot be driven by technocratic considerations and the rationalizing norms of conformity and compliance, but by the politically creative energies of a people who place social ends before instrumental means in deciding the shape and structure of the society. A crucial failure of mainstream social thought and practice has been the diversion of creative energies from the development of a critical evaluation of the society's energy-corporate-urban integration. Political conflict will continue because the aims of the CTR and civic society are opposed.

  18. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Incheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ban, S.; Lee, C.; Yi, S.; Zoh, K.

    2011-12-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Incheon, Korea, every third day from Jun 2009 to may 2010 and analyzed their chemical species. In this study, we investigated the source of PM2.5 using Positive Matrix Factorization(PMF), the source area from Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Conditional Probability Function(CPF), and characterized source variation among episode, non-episode, yellow sand events. Incheon, study site, is located at the mid-western tip of the Korean Peninsula with a population of 2.6 million people and area of 1029.4 km2, respectively. As a transportation hub, the city also holds the importance of meteological/geological aspect affecting the air quality of capital region, in that is prevailing westerlies zone and a air passageway from China to Japan passing through seoul, korea. In the study, the Four channel based on Annular Denuder System(ADS) were used for sample collection(URG co, USA). The filter samples were analyzed with respect to species type such as ion group, metal, and OC/EC compound using ion chromatography, ICP/MS, and NIOSH TOT method, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration was 43ug/m3 that is almost three times higher than the US NAAQS annual PM2.5 standard of 15ug/m3. Nine PM2.5 sources were resolved from PMF analysis that provided reasonable source profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate(26.4%), secondary sulfate(17.3%), gasoline(16.4%), and residual oil combustion(13.5%), with lesser contributions from biomass burning (7.5%), road dust(6.9%), soil (5.5%), coal fire powerplant (4.0%), and free sea salt(2.4%). CPF results identified possible local source directions such as motor vehicles, free sea salt. PSCF results indicated that likely pollution areas increased secondary particle concentrations(sulfate and nitrate) in Incheon to be the major industrial areas in China

  19. North Korea: The next nuclear nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.S.; Smith, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    The crisis in the Persian Gulf has reawakened concerns over the spread of nuclear arms. Even before its invasion of Kuwait, Iraq's history of aggression and support for international terrorism triggered fears in Washington that its acquisition of nuclear weapons might damage international stability and US interests far more than the emergence of India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa as de facto nuclear powers. Thus, when the Gulf War began on January 16, Iraq's nuclear sites were among the first attacked by allied air strikes. Unfortunately, Iraq has not been the only hostile proliferator looming on the horizon. North Korea, which has been no less dedicated than Iraq to the use of violence to advance its expansionist goals, has also tenaciously pursued a nuclear-weapons capability. Moreover, the North Korean program is considerably closer to bearing fruit than the Iraqi effort. And although North Korea, like Iraq, has signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, unlike Iraq it has refused to conclude the safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency that the treaty requires.

  20. South Korea's renewed focus on space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Nearly 1000 years before European scientists David Fabricius and Galileo Galilei made historic observations of sunspots, royal astronomers in Korea were recording their observations of blemishes on the Sun. Sunspot records appeared as early as 640 C.E. in Korea [Yang et al., 1998], and records with statistically significant populations of data have been available since 1105 C.E. during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). The records are quite meticulous. For example, one entry dated 1151 in the annals of the Goryeo dynasty says, "There is a black spot in the sun as large as an egg" (Goryeo-Sa, 1451). At that time, sunspots were categorized according to size: plum, egg, peach, or pear. In Goryeo-Sa, various celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, comets, novae, meteors, etc., were also recorded. Along with sunspots, aurorae were carefully described in several Korean chronicles, including Goryeo-Sa. Descriptions of aurorae, commonly referred to as "red energy," include their color, shape, motion, and distribution. For example, a description written in 1770 reads, "It spread across the sky like a piece of silk cloth and then dispersed" [Chanjipcheong, 1908; Park, 2008]. Applying a power spectrum analysis technique to all sunspot and aurora records during the Goryeo dynasty, Yang et al. [1998] and Lee et al. [2005] have shown 10.5-year and 97-year cycles for the sunspot records and 10-year and 87-year cycles for the aurora records.

  1. The treatment of tuberculosis in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seung, K J; Bai, G H; Kim, S J; Lew, W J; Park, S K; Kim, J Y

    2003-10-01

    South Korea's complex system of tuberculosis control has never been fully described. The prevalence of tuberculosis has dropped dramatically since 1965, partly because of farsighted governmental policy that provided low-cost, accessible tuberculosis treatment to the entire population. Within the tuberculosis control system, public and private sector entities provide a wide variety of treatment options. The National Tuberculosis Program focuses on improving cure rates for new cases, while the private sector has taken more of a role in the treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis and other types of complicated cases. There has been a decrease in drug-resistant tuberculosis since 1980 for multiple reasons, including increased cure rates from the introduction of rifampin-based regimens, improved nutrition and living standards, and the treatment of drug-resistant cases in the private sector. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis, however, still poses a significant threat to public health. The limited outcomes data that exist in South Korea for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment suggest that cure rates are low and failure and abandonment rates are high. New public health measures are needed to improve the control of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

  2. Phase II Evaluation of Gefitinib in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Grade 4 Astrocytoma: Mayo/North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study N0074

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Joon H.; Ballman, Karla V.; Wu Wenting; Giannini, Caterina; Krauss, J.C.; Buckner, Jan C.; James, C.D.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Behrens, Robert J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Dakhill, Shaker R.; Jaeckle, Kurt A.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represents one of the most frequent gene alterations in glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, we evaluated gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, in the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed GBM. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight patients (96 evaluable) were accrued between May 18, 2001, and August 2, 2002. All were newly diagnosed GBM patients who were clinically and radiographically stable/improved after radiation treatment (enrollment within 5 weeks of radiation completion). No prior chemotherapy was permitted. EGFR amplification/mutation, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, was not required for treatment with gefitinib but was studied when tissues were available. Gefitinib was administered at 500 mg each day; for patients receiving dexamethasone or enzyme-inducing (CYP3A4) agents, dose was escalated to a maximum of 1,000 mg QD. Treatment cycles were repeated at 4-week intervals with brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-week intervals. Results: Overall survival (OS; calculated from time of initial surgery) at 1 year (primary end point) with gefitinib was 54.2%, which was not statistically different compared with that of historical control population (48.9%, data from three previous Phase III North Central Cancer Treatment Group studies of newly diagnosed GBM patients). Progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 year post-RT (16.7%) was also not significantly different to that of historical controls (30.3%). Clinical outcome was not affected by EGFR status (amplification or vIII mutation). Fatigue (41%), rash (62%), and loose stools (58%) constituted the most frequent adverse events, the majority of these being limited to Grade 1/2. Of note, the occurrence of drug-related adverse effects, such as loose stools was associated with improved OS. Conclusions: In our evaluation of nearly 100 patients with newly diagnosed GBM, treatment with adjuvant

  3. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) in Northeastern Asia and population substructure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Park, Sun-Kyung; Obolenskaya, Ekaterina V; Dokuchaev, Nikolay E; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Li; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Choi, Tae-Young; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang

    2008-12-31

    Twenty-five chipmunk species occur in the world, of which only the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus, inhabits Asia. To investigate mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of the Siberian chipmunk in northeastern Asia, we examined mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (1140 bp) from 3 countries. Analyses of 41 individuals from South Korea and 33 individuals from Russia and northeast China resulted in 37 haplotypes and 27 haplotypes, respectively. There were no shared haplotypes between South Korea and Russia--northeast China. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis showed 2 major maternal lineages for haplotypes, referred to as the S and R lineages. Haplotype grouping in each cluster was nearly coincident with its geographic affinity. In particular, 3 distinct groups were found that mostly clustered in the northern, central and southern parts of South Korea. Nucleotide diversity of the S lineage was twice that of lineage R. The divergence between S and R lineages was estimated to be 2.98-0.98 Myr. During the ice age, there may have been at least 2 refuges in South Korea and Russia--northeast China. The sequence variation between the S and R lineages was 11.3% (K2P), which is indicative of specific recognition in rodents. These results suggest that T. sibiricus from South Korea could be considered a separate species. However, additional information, such as details of distribution, nuclear genes data or morphology, is required to strengthen this hypothesis.

  4. The clinicopathologic differences of central lymph node metastasis in predicting lateral lymph node metastasis and prognosis in papillary thyroid cancer associated with or without Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Youzhi; Zheng, Ke; Zhang, Huihao; Chen, Ling; Xue, Jiajie; Ding, Mingji; Wu, Kunlin; Wang, Zongcai; Kong, Lingjun; Chen, Xiangjin

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the difference of central lymph node metastases (LNM) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) associated with or without Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) in predicting lateral node metastasis. A retrospective case control study was performed. Patients (1276) with PTC who underwent a total or near-total thyroidectomy with at least one lymph node dissection in our institution were retrospectively reviewed. All patients were divided into two groups (HT-group and non-HT group) according to the pathological diagnosis. In HT-group, the incidence of both central and lateral LNM was lower compared with non-HT group. The average of central metastatic lymph node radio (LNR) was also lower than that in Non-HT group. The multivariate analysis showed that the number of metastatic central LNs (HT ≥ 4, Non-HT ≥ 2) and the central LNR (HT ≥ 0.4, Non-HT ≥ 0.6) were independently associated with lateral LNM. Patients with HT need larger primary tumor size, more positive central LN and higher LNR to predict the presence of lateral LNM. HT may protect against central and lateral LNM in PTC. The number of positive central LNs and central LNR in PTC could be used to determine the presence of lateral LNM and inform postoperative follow-up.

  5. [Cerebral paragonimiasis and Bo Sung Sim's hemispherectomy in Korea in 1950s-1960s].

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Miyagawa, Takuya; Hong, Jeonghwa; Kim, Ockjoo

    2011-06-30

    This paper deals with cerebral paragonimiasis and cerebral hemispherectomy conducted as a treatment of cerebral paragonimiasis by Bo Sung Sim in Korea in 1950s-1960s. He demonstrated that cerebral hemispherectomy could be used for unilateral diffuse cerebral paragonimiasis. Sim learned cerebral hemispherectomy from Dr. L. A. French. at the University of Minnesota from 1955 to 1957 in America. The authors argues that Bo Sung Sim's introduction of cerebral hemispherectomy to Korea was not a simple application of an advanced medical technology, but a complicated and active process in that Sim used the technique to intervene intractable complications from cerebral paragonimiasis such as generalized convulsions, spastic hemiplegia and mental deterioration. Bo Sung Sim, one of the neurosurgeons of the first generation in Korea, was trained in neurology, neuropathology, neuroradiology and animal experiments as well as in neurosurgery at the University of Minnesota. After returning to Korea, Sim faced parasitic diseases, one of the most serious public health problems at that time, which were far different from what he learned in America. As a neurosurgeon, Sim tackled with parasitic diseases of the central nervous system with various diagnostics and therapeutics. In 1950s, more than one million populations suffered from pulmonary paragonimiasis acquired by eating raw crabs or by feeding juice of crushed crayfish for the treatment of measles in Korea. About 26.6 percent of people with paragonimiasis had cerebral paragonimiasis. Before bithionol therapy was introduced in 1962, neurosurgery was the only available treatment to control increased intracranial pressures, intractable epilepsy, paralysis and mental deterioration. Between 1958 to 1962, Bo Sung Sim operated on 24 patients of cerebral paragonimiasis. In two of them, he performed cerebral hemispherectomy to control intractable convulsions when he found diffuse cerebral paragonimiasis and cerebral atrophy at the

  6. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  7. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  8. JPRS Report, East Asia, Korea: Kulloja, No. 10, October 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fatherland’s Reunification Reality and Must change Its Policy on Korea 00000000 Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean 00000000 Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean No 10, Oct 89...STATEMENT A Approved for public reiecse; Distribution Unlimited East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 10, October 1989 IXHC QUÄLET* INSPECTED $ 󈨥SOS7? /3<g...East Asia Korea : KULLOJA No 10, October 1989 JPRS-AKU-90-002 CONTENTS 11 APRIL 1990 [This report is a translation of the table of contents and

  9. JPRS Report, East Asia, Korea: Kulloja, No. 9, September 1986.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-24

    EENINSUIA INTO A NUCLEAR-FREE PEACE ZONE IS AN URGENT TASK FOR PEACE IN KOREA AND THE WORLD Pyongyang KULLOJA in Korean No 9, Sep 86 pp 72-76...aggressive military bases of the U.S. imperialists from South Korea by turning the Korean peninsula into a nuclear-free peace zone can we eliminate all...safeguarding peace and security in Korea and the world. This is because the Korean peninsula has been transformed into a zone in which the greatest

  10. What North Korea wants. [North Korean nuclear policy

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P. )

    1993-12-01

    In this article the author draws upon his experiences from his four trips to North Korea, during which he discussed nuclear issues with North Korean leaders, to help explain part of the North Korean reasoning behind its threats to withdraw from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and its gyrating nuclear policies. In essence, the author believes that North Korean nuclear policy is a result of Kim Jong Il's attempt to maintain the loyalty and obeisance of the elite. The article describes the political and economic factors which lead to North Korea's confrontation with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and then discusses North Korea's immediate nuclear strategy.

  11. A centrally generated primary care physician audit report does not improve colonoscopy uptake after a positive result on a fecal occult blood test in Ontario’s ColonCancerCheck program

    PubMed Central

    Stock, D.; Rabeneck, L.; Baxter, N.N.; Paszat, L.F.; Sutradhar, R.; Yun, L.; Tinmouth, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Timely follow-up of fecal occult blood screening with colonoscopy is essential for achieving colorectal cancer mortality reduction. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of centrally generated, physician-targeted audit and feedback to improve colonoscopy uptake after a positive fecal occult blood test (fobt) result within Ontario’s population-wide ColonCancerCheck Program. Methods This prospective cohort study used data sets from Ontario’s ColonCancerCheck Program (2008–2011) that were linked to provincial administrative health databases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the effect of centralized, physician-targeted audit and feedback on colonoscopy uptake in an Ontario-wide fobt-positive cohort. Results A mailed physician audit and feedback report identifying individuals outstanding for colonoscopy for 3 or more months after a positive fobt result did not increase the likelihood of colonoscopy uptake (hazard ratio: 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.79 to 1.13). Duration of positive fobt status was strongly inversely associated with the hazard of follow-up colonoscopy (p for linear trend: <0.001). Conclusions In a large population-wide setting, centralized tracking in the form of physician-targeted mailed audit and feedback reports does not improve colonoscopy uptake for screening participants with a positive fobt result outstanding for 3 or more months. Mailed physician-targeted screening audit and feedback reports alone are unlikely to improve compliance with follow-up colonoscopy in Ontario. Other interventions such as physician audits or automatic referrals, demonstrated to be effective in other jurisdictions, might be warranted. PMID:28270725

  12. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Sandaly O. S.; Pacheco, Fabio J.; Zapata, Gimena M. J.; Garcia, Julieta M. E.; Previale, Carlos A.; Cura, Héctor E.; Craig, Winston J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  13. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-07-09

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  14. Predictive value and clinical utility of centrally assessed ER, PgR, and Ki-67 to select adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer: TEXT and SOFT trials.

    PubMed

    Regan, Meredith M; Pagani, Olivia; Francis, Prudence A; Fleming, Gini F; Walley, Barbara A; Kammler, Roswitha; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Russo, Leila; Szőke, János; Doimi, Franco; Villani, Laura; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Sessa, Fausto; Peg Cámara, Vicente; Rodríguez Peralto, José Luis; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Colleoni, Marco; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N; Coates, Alan S; Gelber, Richard D; Viale, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    The SOFT and TEXT randomized phase III trials investigated adjuvant endocrine therapies for premenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) early breast cancer. We investigated the prognostic and predictive value of centrally assessed levels of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and Ki-67 expression in women with HER2-negative disease. Of 5707 women enrolled, 4115 with HER2-negative (HR+/HER2-) disease had ER, PgR, and Ki-67 centrally assessed by immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer-free interval (BCFI) was defined from randomization to first invasive local, regional, or distant recurrence or contralateral breast cancer. The prognostic and predictive values of ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression levels were assessed using Cox modeling and STEPP methodology. In this HR+/HER2- population, the median ER, PgR, and Ki-67 expressions were 95, 90, and 18 % immunostained cells. As most patients had strongly ER-positive tumors, the predictive value of ER levels could not be investigated. Lower PgR and higher Ki-67 expression were associated with reduced BCFI. There was no consistent evidence of heterogeneity of the relative treatment effects according to PgR or Ki-67 expression levels, though there was a greater 5-year absolute benefit of exemestane + ovarian function suppression (OFS) versus tamoxifen with or without OFS at lower levels of PgR and higher levels of Ki-67. Women with poor prognostic features of low PgR and/or high Ki-67 have greater absolute benefit from exemestane + OFS versus tamoxifen + OFS or tamoxifen alone, but individually PgR and Ki-67 are of limited predictive value for selecting adjuvant endocrine therapy for premenopausal women with HR+/HER2- early breast cancer.

  15. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  16. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  17. Home Mechanical Ventilation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choi, Won Ah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To survey the use of invasive and noninvasive home mechanical ventilation (HMV) methods in South Korea from the perspective of physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R). Materials and Methods For 413 users of HMV, retrospective reviews of PM&R interventions and survey of HMV methods employed from Mar 2000 to Dec 2009. Results Of the 413 users, the majority of whom with progressive neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) (n=358), 284 patients initially used noninvasive mechanical ventilation (NIV), while 63 others who were using tracheostomy mechanical ventilation switched to NIV as part of their rehabilitation. The NMD patients began HMV at an earlier age (34.9±20.3 yrs), and used for longer (14.7±7.5) hours than patients with non-neuromuscular causes of respiratory impairment. Conclusion Noninvasive management was preferred over invasive ones, and transition to the former was a result of PM&R interventions. PMID:25323913

  18. Characterization of norovirus infections in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sanghun; Jung, Jihun; Oh, Seah; Jung, Hyowon; Oh, Younghee; Cho, Seokju; Cho, Seogju; Cho, Sungja; Park, Hyongsug; Jo, Namsook; Bae, Kyungwon; Choi, Sungmin; Kim, Bogsoon; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Jung, Haesook; Cheon, Doosung; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2012-10-01

    The present study has determined the detection rate of norovirus (NoV) with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in hospitalized children and describes the molecular epidemiology of NoV circulating in Seoul, Korea. Six hundred and eighty-three (9.8%) of samples were positive for NoV. Of these, the NoV GII genogroup was the most commonly found, with a prevalence of 96.2% (683 of 710). Only 27 samples were positive for the NoV GI genogroup. Ten kinds of GI genotype (GI/1, GI/2, GI/3, GI/4, GI/5, GI/6, GI/7, GI/9, GI/12, and GI/13) and eight kinds of GII genotype (GII/2, GII/3, GII/4, GII/8, GII/14, GII/15, GII/16, and GII/17) were identified in children with AGE during the years 2008-2011.

  19. Technology transfer to a developing nation, Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, C. A.; Uccetta, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental project is reported which was undertaken. to determine if selected types of technology developed for the aerospace program during the past decade are relevant to specific industrial problems of a developing nation and to test whether a structured program could facilitate the transfer of relevant technologies. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology and the IIT Research Institute were selected as the active transfer agents to participate in the program. The pilot project was based upon the approach to the transfer of domestic technology developed by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and utilized the extensive data and technical resources available through the Space Agency and its contractors. This pilot project has helped to clarify some aspects of the international technology transfer process and to upgrade Korean technological capabilities.

  20. New enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Dózsa-Farkas, Klára; Felföldi, Tamás; Hong, Yong

    2015-08-21

    We give descriptions of five new enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea: Henlea magnaampullacea sp. n., Fridericia sphaerica sp. n., F. cusanicaformis sp. n., F. granulocyta sp. n. and Mesenchytraeus calyx sp. n., with morphological and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, nuclear histone 3 genes and nuclear ribosomal ITS region sequences) data. In total, 19 enchytraeid species belonging to seven genera have been found in the studied woodland and agronomical soil samples. Apart from the five new species, three further species are new for the Korean enchytraeid fauna, Enchytraeus christenseni, E. dichaetus, and Achaeta cf. brevivasa. Molecular taxonomical analyses show that the Korean species resembling H. ventriculosa is not identical with the European species, furthermore sequence analysis of individuals morphologically identified as F. seoraksani indicate the possibility of species-complexity and the presence of cryptic species.

  1. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Joon

    2004-01-01

    Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are widely distributed in fresh water, soil and dust throughout the world, and cause meningoencephalitis or keratoconjunctivitis in humans and other mammals. Korean isolates, namely, Naegleria sp. YM-1 and Acanthamoeba sp. YM-2, YM-3, YM-4, YM-5, YM-6 and YM-7, were collected from sewage, water puddles, a storage reservoir, the gills of a fresh water fish, and by corneal washing. These isolates were categorized into three groups based on the mortalities of infected mice namely, highly virulent (YM-4), moderately virulent (YM-2, YM-5 and YM-7) and nonpathogenic (YM-3). In addition, a new species of Acanthamoeba was isolated from a freshwater fish in Korea and tentatively named Korean isolate YM-4. The morphologic characters of its cysts were similar to those of A. culbertsoni and A. royreba, which were previously designated as Acanthamoeba group III. Based on experimentally infected mouse mortality, Acanthamoeba YM-4 was highly virulent. The isoenzymes profile of Acanthamoeba YM-4 was similar to that of A. royreba. Moreover, an anti-Acanthamoeba YM-4 monoclonal antibody reacted only with Acanthamoeba YM-4, and not with A. culbertsoni. Random amplified polymorphic DNA marker analysis and RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA and of a 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA, placed Acanthamoeba YM-4 in a separate cluster based on phylogenic distances. Thus Acanthamoeba YM-4 was identified as a new species, and assigned Acanthamoeba sohi. Up to the year 2002 in Korea, two clinical cases were found to be infected with Acanthamoeba spp. These patients died of meningoencephalitis. In addition, one case of Acanthamoeba pneumonia with an immunodeficient status was reported and Acanthamoeba was detected in several cases of chronic relapsing corneal ulcer, chronic conjunctivitis, and keratitis. PMID:15381859

  2. Shanghanlun in Korea, 1610-1945

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Korean physicians of traditional medicine have utilized Zhang Ji’s 張 機 (150–219 CE) Shanghanlun 傷寒論 (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, just Treatise hereafter) from the 17th century to the early twentieth century. As one of the two most influential pillars of Chinese medicine, the Treatise, with its clinical implications, has inspired many scholars and practitioners in their pursuit of medical innovation. What, then, have been the Korean motivations in referring to the Treatise over the past few centuries? What does the Korean utilization and modification of the Chinese classic tell us about the desires, limits, and possibilities of pursuing medical innovations in Korea? By examining the ways in which major pre-modern Korean texts employed the Treatise, this article primarily aims to reveal patterns of (re)arranging the Treatise that formed an indigenous style of medicine. Under the growing sense of nationalist concern and colonial contestation in the early twentieth century, the Korean compilation of the Treatise began to depart from the earlier interpretations. A range of nationalist rhetoric and editorial designs reflect the Korean urgency in seeking resources to compete with Western medicine. The postcolonial consumption of the Treatise also reflects Korean strategies in navigating medical references from outside to meet their social and clinical agendas. The changing pattern of textual and professional utilization of the Treatise exemplifies how a significant Chinese text continues to be a living tradition in Korea by expanding the targeted audience and satisfying local demands. PMID:26778942

  3. Experiences with constructed wetland systems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngchul, Kim; Gilson, Hwang; Jin-Woo, Lee; Je-Chul, Park; Dong-Sup, Kim; Min-Gi, Kang; in-Soung, Chang

    2006-10-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance. Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands’ safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  4. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ho-Joon; Im, Kyung-il

    2004-09-01

    Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are widely distributed in fresh water, soil and dust throughout the world, and cause meningoencephalitis or keratoconjunctivitis in humans and other mammals. Korean isolates, namely, Naegleria sp. YM-1 and Acanthamoeba sp. YM-2, YM-3, YM-4, YM-5, YM-6 and YM-7, were collected from sewage, water puddles, a storage reservoir, the gills of a fresh water fish, and by corneal washing. These isolates were categorized into three groups based on the mortalities of infected mice namely, highly virulent (YM-4), moderately virulent (YM-2, YM-5 and YM-7) and nonpathogenic (YM-3). In addition, a new species of Acanthamoeba was isolated from a freshwater fish in Korea and tentatively named Korean isolate YM-4. The morphologic characters of its cysts were similar to those of A. culbertsoni and A. royreba, which were previously designated as Acanthamoeba group III. Based on experimentally infected mouse mortality, Acanthamoeba YM-4 was highly virulent. The isoenzymes profile of Acanthamoeba YM-4 was similar to that of A. royreba. Moreover, an anti-Acanthamoeba YM-4 monoclonal antibody reacted only with Acanthamoeba YM-4, and not with A. culbertsoni. Random amplified polymorphic DNA marker analysis and RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA and of a 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA, placed Acanthamoeba YM-4 in a separate cluster based on phylogenic distances. Thus Acanthamoeba YM-4 was identified as a new species, and assigned Acanthamoeba sohi. Up to the year 2002 in Korea, two clinical cases were found to be infected with Acanthamoeba spp. These patients died of meningoencephalitis. In addition, one case of Acanthamoeba pneumonia with an immunodeficient status was reported and Acanthamoeba was detected in several cases of chronic relapsing corneal ulcer, chronic conjunctivitis, and keratitis.

  5. 77 FR 15943 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...This rule amends the Customs and Border Protection (CBP) regulations on an interim basis to implement the preferential tariff treatment and other customs-related provisions of the United States- Korea Free Trade...

  6. Verification of NOx emission inventories over North Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Morino, Yu; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the top-down NOx emissions estimated from satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities over North Korea from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. Also, a bottom-up NOx emission inventory from REAS 1.1 from 1980 to 2005 was analyzed with several statistics. REAS 1.1 was in good agreement with the top-down approach for both trend and amount. The characteristics of NOx emissions in North Korea were quite different from other developed countries including South Korea. In North Korea, emissions from industry sector was the highest followed by transportation sector in the 1980s. However, after 1990, the NOx emissions from other sector, mainly agriculture, became the 2nd highest. Also, no emission centers such as urban areas or industrial areas were distinctively observed. Finally, the monthly NOx emissions were high during the warm season.

  7. 76 FR 8770 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade... full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET)...

  8. 31 CFR 500.328 - Status of those portions of Korea under control of the government of the Republic of Korea; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Status of those portions of Korea under control of the government of the Republic of Korea; and of the diplomatic and consular... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.328 Status of those portions of Korea under...

  9. Antibacterial effects of minerals from ores indigenous to Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Seul Ki; Lee, Chang Won; Lee, Mi Young

    2009-01-01

    We tested the antibacterial properties of a mix of minerals consisting mainly of sericite, talc, and halloysite from Korea. The preparation showed clear growth inhibition of the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus, S. epidermidis, and Bacillus cereus, as well as the anaerobic bacterium Propionibacterium acnes. These results indicate that this preparation, made from ore minerals indigenous to Korea, could be used to develop new antibacterial reagents.

  10. Sources of Anti-Americanism in South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES (FAR EAST, SOUTHEAST ASIA, PACIFIC) from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE... whales ” China and Japan. South Korea may be the fuse for an unprecedented shift in balance of power in the region. The implications for regional...South Korea. Therefore, historical study of the anti-Americanism is crucial to understand the sources of the increase in anti-Americanism. Chapter II

  11. United States’ Engagement Strategy for North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    counter view supports economic engagement with North Korea, like South Korea’s now defunct “ Sunshine Policy.” Economic engagement strategies are...Korean territorial waters in August 2003. Both governments dismissed these incidents and continued on the sunshine path. In 2003, North Korea...as General Secretary of the Korean Workers Party. The post of President was eternal , but Kim Jong-il also became the Chairman of the National

  12. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons Development and Diplomacy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-27

    tested a plutonium nuclear device in October 2006. U.S. officials have cited evidence that North Korea also operates a secret highly enriched...with Iran and Syria aimed at producing nuclear weapons. On May 25, 2009, North Korea announced that it had conducted a second nuclear test . On April...Korea’s Nuclear Test and Withdrawal from the Six Party Talks..........................................1 Bush Administration-North Korean Agreements

  13. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  14. Korea: U.S.-Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-16

    wounded in the Korean War (1950-53). The United States agreed to defend South Korea from external aggression in the 1954 Mutual Defense Treaty. The... Korean Relations — Issues for Congress Updated June 16, 2005 Larry A. Niksch Foreign Affairs, Defense , and Trade Division Report Documentation Page...A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Korea : U.S.- Korean Relations -- Issues for Congress 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  15. U.S. Nonproliferation Policy Towards North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t U.S. NONPROLIFERATION POLICY TOWARDS NORTH KOREA BY COLONEL STEVEN L. ROHLENA United States Army...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The United States policy for dealing with a nuclear North Korea has been a combination of containment, deterrence, and...program and proliferating this technology, as well as missile technology, to numerous countries not friendly to the United States . In order to stop

  16. Educational Inequality in Obesity-Related Mortality in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02–2.19) to 6.50 (6.19–6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79–2.10) to 3.25 (3.05–3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. PMID:28145639

  17. Educational Inequality in Obesity-Related Mortality in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hyun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ko, Hyeonyoung; Song, Yun Mi

    2017-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity has been increasing worldwide, which raises concerns about the disease burden associated with obesity. Socioeconomic status (SES) has been suggested to be associated with obesity and obesity related diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the time trend in socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality over the last decade in Korean population. We evaluated the influence of education level, as an indicator of SES, on obesity-related mortality using death data from the Cause of Death Statistics and the Korean Population and Housing Census databases. The rate ratio of the mortality of people at the lowest education level as compared with those at the highest education level (relative index of inequality [RII]) was estimated using Poisson regression analysis. Between 2001 and 2011, RII (95% confidence interval) for overall obesity-related disease mortality increased from 2.10 (2.02-2.19) to 6.50 (6.19-6.82) in men, and from 1.94 (1.79-2.10) to 3.25 (3.05-3.45) in women, respectively. Cause-specifically, the same trend in RII was found for cardiovascular mortality and mortality from diabetes mellitus, whereas the RII of mortality from obesity-related cancers in men did not show the similar trend. Subgroup analysis stratified by age revealed that the RII of obesity-related mortality was much higher in younger people than in older people. In conclusion, there has been persistent socioeconomic inequality in obesity-related mortality in Korea, which was more evident in younger people than in older people and has been deepened over the last decade especially for cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  18. [The ginseng growing district, taxation and trade in ancient Korea].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jeong-Pil; Yeo, In-Sok

    2004-12-01

    The very first record of ginseng in the Korean peninsula dates back to early 6th century A.D., with its concentration in Chinese sources. Regardless of the fact that the Korean ginseng was introduced to China before th birth of CHrist, there is no writing about it for 500 years. This is because the Chinese substituted Korean ginseng for the Chinese one, which was cultivated around the Shangdang Area. The ginseng, however, is greatly influenced by natural environment and its native area bing Manchurian and the Korean peninsula. It is believed that ginseng range from the northern mountains of Pyongando and Hamkyongdo provincnes to the southern Taebaek and Sobaek mountains in Korea. Especially the area of Madasan(Baekdusan?) mountain was well-known for ginseng-growing district. The ginseng taxation of the Three Kingdoms period seems to have gone through certain changes along the development stages of the ancient state. The first taxation stage is estimated to be in the form of a tribute. Afterwards, as the governing power of central government was gradually strengthened in the subjugated places, there was a major replacement from tributary form to actual goods levy. The actual areas of such tributary collection is unknown, but the Sejongshilok Chiriji (geographical records of Sejong chronicles) of the early Choson ear indicates 113 prefectures and countries as those which submit ginseng to the central government. These administrations provide permissible clues to the historic background of ginseng-taxed regions of the Three Kingdoms. The ginseng trade also is estimated to have flourished in ancient Korea through the Han commanderies of China. However, the writings of Korean ginseng trade is non-existent until 6th century A.D.. Such phenomenon can be attributed to few reasons. First, the Chinese took little interest in Korean ginseng as they believed they had their own native ginseng in China. Second, same ignorance resulted from its inflowing but new feature. Third

  19. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  20. Prevalence and Genetic Characteristics of Meatborne Listeria monocytogenes Isolates from Livestock Farms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyemin; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Ha, Jimyeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Choi, Yukyung; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes on livestock farms in Korea and determine their serotypes and genetic correlations. Twenty-five livestock farms in Korea (central: 15, south west: 7, south east: 3) were visited 2-3 times, and 2,018 samples (feces: 677, soil: 680, silage: 647, sludge: 14) were collected. Samples were enriched in LEB (Listeria enrichment broth) and Fraser broth media, and then plated on Palcam agar. The isolates were identified by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Then, the serotypes, presence of virulence genes (actA, inlA, inlB, plcB, and hlyA), and antibiotic resistance were determined. Genetic correlations among the isolates were evaluated by analyzing the restriction digest pattern with AscI. Of the 2,018 samples, only 3 (0.15%) soil samples (FI-1-FI-3) from 1 farm in the south east region were positive for L. monocytogenes. Based on biochemical tests and multiplex PCR, the serotype of the isolates were 4ab (FI-1 and FI-3) and 3a (FI-2), which are not common in foodborne L. monocytogenes. The 3a serotype isolate was positive for all tested virulence genes, whereas the 4ab serotype isolates were only positive for hlyA, actA, and inlA. The isolates were resistant to all 12 tested antibiotics, especially FI-3. The genetic correlations among the isolates were 100% for those of the same serotype and 26.3% for those of different serotypes. These results indicate that the prevalence of L. monocytogenes on livestock farms in Korea is low; however, the isolates are pathogenic and antibiotic resistant. PMID:28115889

  1. Analysis of Sequence Variation and Risk Association of Human Papillomavirus 52 Variants Circulating in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youn Jin; Ki, Eun Young; Zhang, Chuqing; Ho, Wendy C. S.; Lee, Sung-Jong; Jeong, Min Jin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human papillomavirus (HPV) 52 is a carcinogenic, high-risk genotype frequently detected in cervical cancer cases from East Asia, including Korea. Materials and Methods Sequences of HPV52 detected in 91 cervical samples collected from women attending Seoul St. Mary’s Hospital were analyzed. HPV52 genomic sequences were obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based sequencing and analyzed using Seq-Scape software, and phylogenetic trees were constructed using MEGA6 software. Results Of the 91 cervical samples, 40 were normal, 22 were low-grade lesions, 21 were high-grade lesions and 7 were squamous cell carcinomas. Four HPV52 variant lineages (A, B, C and D) were identified. Lineage B was the most frequently detected lineage, followed by lineage C. By analyzing the two most frequently detected lineages (B and C), we found that distinct variations existed in each lineage. We also found that a lineage B-specific mutation K93R (A379G) was associated with an increased risk of cervical neoplasia. Conclusions To our knowledge, we are the first to reveal the predominance of the HPV52 lineages, B and C, in Korea. We also found these lineages harbored distinct genetic alterations that may affect oncogenicity. Our findings increase our understanding on the heterogeneity of HPV52 variants, and may be useful for the development of new diagnostic assays and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:27977741

  2. Ethno-entomological observations from North Korea (officially known as the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In terms of scientific activities generally and ethnobiological pursuits in particular, North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, is an almost blank entity on the quilt of global research. During a sabbatical semester at Pyongyang University of Science and Technology the author used this opportunity to gather some information on the uses of insect and other terrestrial arthropods as human food and components of traditional healing methods in that country. Despite the widely publicised shortcomings in the supply of food stuffs to the population of North Korea, insects are not generally seen as a source of food worthy of exploitation. However, the therapeutic use of insects, centipedes and scorpions to treat illnesses as diverse as the common cold, skin rashes, constipation, dysentery, nervous prostration, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, tetanus, and various forms of cancer is apparently still popular. The arthropods used therapeutically are credited with anti-inflammatory, immunological and other health-promoting effects, because they are said to contain hormones, steroids, lipids and plant-derived alkaloids, all of which capable of exerting their effects on the human body. PMID:23324196

  3. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995–2009: analysis of individual data for 25 676 887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2)

    PubMed Central

    Allemani, Claudia; Weir, Hannah K; Carreira, Helena; Harewood, Rhea; Spika, Devon; Wang, Xiao-Si; Bannon, Finian; Ahn, Jane V; Johnson, Christopher J; Bonaventure, Audrey; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Stiller, Charles; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Chen, Wan-Qing; Ogunbiyi, Olufemi J; Rachet, Bernard; Soeberg, Matthew J; You, Hui; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Storm, Hans; Tucker, Thomas C; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Methods Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15–99 years) and 75 000 children (age 0–14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995–2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Findings 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005–09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15–19% in North America, and as low as 7–9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10–20% between 1995–99 and 2005–09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer

  4. Changes in the organ procurement system in South Korea: effects on brain-dead donor numbers.

    PubMed

    Lee, S D; Kim, J H

    2009-11-01

    In Korea, the Organ Transplantation Act came into effect in 2000, establishing the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) with centralized authority for organ procurement as well as for approval of donors and recipients to ensure fair organ allocation. However, the number of brain-dead donors decreased sharply, and the organ allocation system proved inefficient. The government revised the Organ Transplantation Act in August 2002, introducing an incentive system. If a transplantation hospital formed a Committee for Brain Death Evaluation and a Hospital Organ Procurement Organization, it could receive a kidney from a brain dead-donor as an incentive to foster organ procurement regardless of the KONOS wait list. The government also launched a pilot brain-dead donor registry program to strengthen Hospital Organ Procurement Organization activity. If local hospitals collaborated with specialized hospitals in organ procurement, local hospitals obtained financial incentives. But because the organ shortage problem has not been resolved, the government has proposed four initiatives: first, broadening the incentive system, which makes it possible to give each specialized hospital a choice of one of eight organs from each donor as an incentive; second, development of an Independent Organ Procurement Organization; third introduction of an opt-out system; and last, improvement of the Committee for Brain Death Evaluation system. It is uncertain which initiatives will be adopted, but changes in organ procurement systems are nonetheless considered a key to solve the organ shortage problem in Korea.

  5. South Korea's low fertility raises European-style issues.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1991-10-01

    A demographic revolution has taken place in South Korea as evidenced by the marked decline in total fertility rate (TFR) from 6 in 1960 to the 1987 level of 1.6. South Korea holds the record for low fertility among developing countries, with women in South Korea averaging fewer children in their lifetimes than do women in Europe. The 1987 TFR for South Korea was even less than that of Sweden, Norway, and France. Emphasizing high initial rates of contraceptive use, family planning (FP) has been a strong component of South Korea's 5-year plans since 1962. Strong governmental support backed the efforts of a large group of FP workers who provided free contraceptives from private physicians. High discontinuation rates resulted, however, and the abortion rate has soared to equal the number of live births. Albeit a developing nation, South Korea now faces the challenges of below replacement fertility more typical of more developed countries. Current fertility levels indicate population increase to approximately 50 million by 2020, followed by a slow decline. While reducing pressure on limited resources, population decline and demographic aging will also demand allocation of a higher proportion of government funds to medical care, and potentially threaten South Korea's competitiveness in the world labor market. Having effected decreases in population growth and fertility, the government reduced the annual sterilization target in 1986 from 300,000 to 60,000 by 1991, and will increasingly turn to the private sector and national health insurance for service provision to all but the poor. A 2-child family norm may be promoted, FP programs expanded to the unmarried and legislation developed to eliminate the preference for sons. Delivery systems may also be reorganized to encourage continued use of contraceptive methods.

  6. Source contributions to carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Jaein I.; Park, Rokjin J.; Woo, Jung-Hun; Han, Young-Ji; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2011-02-01

    We estimated the source contributions to carbonaceous aerosol concentration in Korea on the basis of Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) anthropogenic emissions and satellite-derived biomass burning emissions by using a nested version of GEOS-Chem with a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.667° for the period March 2006-February 2007. First, we evaluated the model by comparing the simulated and observed aerosol concentrations at East Asia Network (EANET) sites and at a site in Korea. The results indicate that the model reproduces the variability and magnitudes of the observed SO 42-, NO 3-, and NH 4+ concentrations in Korea and those of the observed PM 10 concentrations in East Asia. However, the organic carbon (OC) and black carbon (BC) aerosol concentrations estimated by the model are lower than those observed in Korea by a factor of 2, especially in winter. This underestimation is likely due to extremely low domestic anthropogenic emissions and lack in seasonal variation. Source adjustments using a simple fitting and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) monthly allocation factors for seasonal variation yield significantly improved model results ( R2 increased from 0.58 to 0.84), which can then be used to estimate the source contributions to the OC and BC concentrations in Korea. We found that domestic anthropogenic emissions are the most important factors, contributing 74% (9% from fossil fuels and 65% from biofuels) and 78% (42% from fossil fuels and 36% from biofuels) to the OC and BC concentrations, respectively, on an annual mean basis in Korea. The trans-boundary transport of Chinese sources is another important factor, contributing 13% and 20% to the OC and BC concentrations, respectively. The contributions of wildfires and biogenic sources to the annual mean carbonaceous aerosol concentration in Korea are relatively small (4% and 6%, respectively).

  7. Background monitoring and long-range transport of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Oh, S N; Cho, H M; Park, M K; Kim, K R; Elkins, J W

    2001-07-01

    The background concentrations of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 were monitored to assess their impact on stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming from September 1995 to March 1999 at Kosan, Korea, located at eastern margin of the Asian Continent. The concentrations of atmospheric CFC-11 at Kosan have decreased slightly, at a rate of -2.5 pptv yr(-1), over the period in response to the Montreal Protocol. The CFC-12 mixing ratio at Kosan continues to increase in the atmosphere at a rate of 5.7 pptv yr(-1) despite international regulations, because of its extreme atmosphere persistence. Recent trends of these two chlorofluorocarbons at Kosan, Korea were concordant with those of the northern hemispheric background monitored unit at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The maximum seasonal mean mixing ratios of CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, Korea, were 270 +/- 4 pptv in the spring and 538 +/- 9 pptv in the winter, and the corresponding seasonal minima were 267 +/- 7 and 529 +/- 12 pptv. This occurred in the summer and was due to southeasterly winds from the northwestern Pacific Ocean. By performing a three-day isentropic backward trajectory analysis, it was shown that air masses at Kosan, and with the exception of summer, mainly originated from central and northern China. In particular, the mixing ratios of these two contaminant species are closely related with their air mass trajectories.

  8. Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeerae; Park, Jinju; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries.

  9. The Central Role of Meaning in Adjustment to the Loss of a Child to Cancer: Implications for the Development of Meaning-Centered Grief Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Breitbart, William

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review describes research on meaning and meaning-making in parents who lost a child to cancer, suggesting the need for a meaning-centered therapeutic approach to improve their sense of meaning, purpose, and identity and to help with management of prolonged grief symptoms. Recent findings Several studies have demonstrated that parents bereaved by cancer experience unique meaning related challenges associated with the caregiving and illness experience, including struggles with making sense of their loss, benefit-finding, their sense of identity and purpose, disconnection from sources of meaning, and sustaining a sense of meaning in their child’s life. Meaning-Centered Grief Therapy, adapted from Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy, directly addresses these issues, highlighting the choices parents have in how they face their pain, how they honor their child and his/her living legacy, the story they create, and how they live their lives. Summary Given the important role that meaning plays in adjustment to the loss of a child to cancer, a meaning-focused approach such as Meaning-Centered Grief Therapy, may help improve parents’ sense of meaning and grief symptoms. It seems particularly appropriate for parents who lost a child to cancer because it does not pathologize their struggles and directly targets issues they frequently face. PMID:25588204

  10. CO2, energy and economy interactions: A multisectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium model for Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yoonyoung

    While vast resources have been invested in the development of computational models for cost-benefit analysis for the "whole world" or for the largest economies (e.g. United States, Japan, Germany), the remainder have been thrown together into one model for the "rest of the world." This study presents a multi-sectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea. This research evaluates the impacts of controlling COsb2 emissions using a multisectoral CGE model. This CGE economy-energy-environment model analyzes and quantifies the interactions between COsb2, energy and economy. This study examines interactions and influences of key environmental policy components: applied economic instruments, emission targets, and environmental tax revenue recycling methods. The most cost-effective economic instrument is the carbon tax. The economic effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic variables (in particular, economic growth), sectoral production, and the energy market. This study considers several aspects of various COsb2 control policies, such as the basic variables in the economy: capital stock and net foreign debt. The results indicate emissions might be stabilized in Korea at the expense of economic growth and with dramatic sectoral allocation effects. Carbon dioxide emissions stabilization could be achieved to the tune of a 600 trillion won loss over a 20 year period (1990-2010). The average annual real GDP would decrease by 2.10% over the simulation period compared to the 5.87% increase in the Business-as-Usual. This model satisfies an immediate need for a policy simulation model for Korea and provides the basic framework for similar economies. It is critical to keep the central economic question at the forefront of any discussion regarding environmental protection. How much will reform cost, and what does the economy stand to gain and lose? Without this model, the policy makers might resort to hesitation or even blind speculation. With

  11. The stratosphere-troposphere exchange of ozone and aerosols over Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Lee, H. W.; Park, J. K.; Moon, Y. S.

    Vertical profiles of ozone, partial pressure, and meteorological parameter are obtained from ozonesondes and rawinsondes launched at Pohang (36.03°N, 129.40°E) in Korea. Stratosphere-troposphere exchanges (STE) of ozone and aerosols associated with the upper trough/surface high pressure system have been analyzed by TOMS data, and reanalyzed data of NCEP/NCAR and meteorological mesoscale model such as potential temperature, geopotential height, potential vorticity, and ageostrophic and vertical wind velocity. The secondary ozone peak in the upper troposphere over Pohang corresponded to the central axis of the jet stream near the tropopause, and then an enhancement of ozone in the upper troposphere was observed when the jet stream with a cut-off low was located over Korea. The maximum flux of ozone by STE over Korea occurs in wintertime and springtime. It was estimated that the downward fluxes observed in winter and spring for the period of 5 yr (1995-1998) at Pohang were the source of -7.72×10 7 ozone molecules/cm 2 s between 100 and 300 hPa, and 5.72×10 7 ozone molecules/cm 2 s between 300 and 500 hPa. The annual average flux during the period also was presented as a decrease of 3×10 7 ozone molecules/cm 2 s between 100 and 500 hPa. It indicates that ozone flux is decreasing in the lower stratosphere and increasing in the troposphere. The gradients of potential temperature and isentropic potential vorticity near the upper troposphere in east Asia sloped steeply like the frontal zone between the polar and the subtropical jet core. Therefore, it was regarded that ozone and aerosols of the upper level over east Asia penetrated into the lower level or the ground over Korea because of the downstream due to tropopause folding near the jet streams and the sinking of surface high pressure. In particular, yellow-sand occurring in springtime in east Asia was determined by the distribution of weather systems associated with STE. The results of observation and modeling

  12. The Prevalence of Marfan Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Marfan syndrome (MFS) in Korean adults. Data were collected from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea from 2006 through 2013. The data consisted of primary diagnoses related to MFS (Q87.4) diagnosed according to the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The age-standardized prevalence of MFS in adults was calculated using the estimated Korean population in 2010 as a reference. Overall, the prevalence of MFS was 0.90 per 100,000 persons in 2006 and 2.27 in 2013. For males in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 2.61 in overall and 4.32 in 15–19 years-old. For females in 2013, the prevalence per 100,000 persons was 1.92 in overall and 3.02 in 10–14 years-old. In conclusion, currently, the age-standardized overall prevalence of MFS was 2.27 persons per 100,000 persons. And the overall age-standardized prevalence of MFS increased between 2006 and 2013 especially in 15–19 years-old males and 10–14 years-old females. PMID:28244281

  13. Hypertension in Korea: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Jones, D W; Kim, S J; Hong, Y P

    1994-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypertension (HTN) and its risk factors, we performed a population-based national cross-sectional blood pressure (BP) survey in Korea in 1990. Through cluster sampling, we selected for study individuals older than 30 years of age in 190 of 154,082 districts. Among 25,567 eligible individuals, 21,242 subjects had measurements of BP and body mass index (BMI) and underwent a standard interview. BP was recorded as the mean of two measurements on a standard mercury manometer. The prevalence of HTN varied widely by area of residence. Overall prevalence was 19.8% for HTN defined as BP > or = 140/90 mm Hg or subject on medication, and 12.4% for BP > or = 160/95 mm Hg or subject on medication. Correlates for HTN identified by logistic regression analysis included positive family history of HTN (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2,), age (10 years); OR = 1.9), alcohol intake (500 cc; OR = 1.4), urban location (versus rural; OR = 1.3), and BMI (1 BMI unit; OR = 1.2). [Am J Prev Med 1994;10:200-4

  14. Seismicity of microearthquakes around Gyeongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula which is located in an intraplate area is known as seismically inactive region. However there were unusual several offshore earthquakes occurred around the southwestern Korean Peninsula in 2013. In addition, a small earthquake (Ml 3.5) occurred on 23 September 2014 around Gyeongju close to a nuclear power plant and many people felt a shock of the earthquake. Concerns over the safety of nuclear power plants were rising and therefore seismicity in this region was investigated. There were 61 earthquakes with local magnitude (Ml) greater than 1.7 occurred around Gyeongju since 1994 by KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) catalog. These events were relocated and calculated focal mechanisms. Also, I analyzed using continuous waveform data within 7 days before and after the mainshock recorded at HDB station with the epicentral distance of about 9 km, to find smaller events of the 2014 Gyeongju earthquake. 84 foreshocks and 108 aftershocks were identified and I located events with a minimum of 5 phases (4 P and 1 S). According to the relocated results, I may classify seismicity roughly into two groups. One group is aligned along right-hand side of the Ulsan Fault and the other is located near by the Bomunho. 13 quakes occurred from 1999 to 2003 close by artificial lake called Bomunho created in the late 1970s may be triggered microearthquakes by artificial water reservoirs but further research is needed to find causes of the events.

  15. HIV-1 Transmission Networks Across South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Mi Young; Wertheim, Joel O; Kim, Woo Joo; Kim, Shin-Woo; Lee, Jin Soo; Ann, Hea Won; Jeon, Yongduk; Ahn, Jin Young; Song, Je Eun; Oh, Dong Hyun; Kim, Yong Chan; Kim, Eun Jin; Jung, In Young; Kim, Moo Hyun; Jeong, Wooyoung; Jeong, Su Jin; Ku, Nam Su; Kim, June Myung; Smith, Davey M; Choi, Jun Yong

    2017-03-27

    Molecular epidemiology can help clarify the properties and dynamics of HIV-1 transmission networks in both global and regional scales. We studied 143 HIV-1-infected individuals recruited from four medical centers of three cities in South Korea between April 2013 and May 2014. HIV-1 env V3 sequence data were generated (337-793 bp) and analyzed using a pairwise distance-based clustering approach to infer putative transmission networks. Participants whose viruses were ≤2.0% divergent according to Tamura-Nei 93 genetic distance were defined as clustering. We collected demographic, risk, and clinical data and analyzed these data in relation to clustering. Among 143 participants, we identified nine putative transmission clusters of different sizes (range 2-4 participants). The reported risk factor of participants were concordant in only one network involving two participants, that is, both individuals reported homosexual sex as their risk factor. The participants in the other eight networks did not report concordant risk factors, although they were phylogenetically linked. About half of the participants refused to report their risk factor. Overall, molecular epidemiology provides more information to understand local transmission networks and the risks associated with these networks.

  16. Entomopathogenicity of Simplicillium lanosoniveum Isolated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Yeol; Lee, Sehee; Kong, Hyun Gi

    2014-01-01

    Fruiting bodies similar to those of the ascomycete fungi Podostroma cornu-damae and Cordyceps militaris were collected from Mt. Seunghak in Busan, Korea on August 21, 2012. The fruiting bodies were cylindrical, with tapered ends and golden red in color. The fruiting bodies contained abundant conidiophores bearing single-celled conidia, but no perithecia or asci. Pure culture of the fungal isolates was obtained through single-spore isolation. Analyses of morphological characteristics, including conidia shape, and phylogenetic traits, using internal transcribed spacer sequences, showed that these isolates belonged to the species Simplicillium lanosoniveum. Although this fungal species is known to be mycoparasitic, the isolates obtained in this study were unable to infect fungi. However, silkworms (Bombyx mori) inoculated with the fungal isolates died during the larval or pupal stages, as has been shown for the strongly entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. This study is the first report of the entomopathogenicity of S. lanosoniveum and indicates its potential for use in biological control of insects. PMID:25606002

  17. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea.

  18. Characterization of Anthropogenic Magnetic Particles in Asian Dust Using Magnetic Measurements and Electron Microscope Observations in Seoul, Korea: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Park, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations have been performed for Asian dust samples in Seoul, Korea, and desert-sand and loess samples in source regions in China to identify pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation. Asian dust samples in Seoul have been collected during four Asian dust events occurred in March 19 and 23, April 9, 2002, and April 12, 2003. Desert-sand samples from Khorchin, Lanzhou and Tengel regions, and loess samples from Chifeng region were also collected for comparison during March 2-9, 2003. χLF, ARM and SIRM values (magnetic concentration parameters) of Asian dust in Seoul showed 2~288, 2~61 and 2 ~251 times, respectively, higher than those of desert-sand and loess in source regions. This result indicates that Asian dust originated from source regions in China experienced significant influx of magnetic particles during transportation to Seoul, Korea. These magnetic particles added in Asian dust can be recognized as ferrimagnetic minerals (e.g., magnetite and maghemite) based on IRM acquisition patterns and S-ratio values. During the electron microscopic observations for magnetic particles in Asian dust, iron-oxide spherules accompanied by carbon were frequently observed, implying that magnetic contaminants in Asian dust might be originated from fossil fuel combustions. Air- mass backward trajectories during four Asian dust events showed that the air-mass, transporting Asian dust, was originated from the central China and passed through the industrialized eastern China and western Korea on its way to Seoul. Therefore, it can be interpreted that Asian dust in Seoul was highly polluted by anthropogenic magnetic particles originated from industrialized regions in China and Korea. The present study reveals the pollution of Asian dust by anthropogenic particulates during transportation, and suggests that magnetic measurements associated with electron microscopic observations can be used as an

  19. Virulence of ’Entamoeba histolytica’ According to the Strains in Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    During the years of 1969 to 1973, an investigation on the virulence of Entamoeba histolytica strains in Korea was carried out in series. Samples were...pathogenic strain of Entamoeba histolytica was recognized in Korea. (Modified author abstract)

  20. 77 FR 39319 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... resources, conservation and protection of biodiversity, and strengthening of environmental law enforcement... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental Cooperation... the first United States--Korea Environmental Cooperation Work Program. SUMMARY: The Department...

  1. 78 FR 51802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Silla: Korea's Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom,'' imported...

  2. Central venous catheter - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... flushing Peripherally inserted central catheter - flushing Sterile technique Surgical wound care - open Review Date 9/17/2016 Updated by: Debra G. Wechter, MD, FACS, general surgery practice specializing in breast cancer, Virginia Mason Medical Center, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, ...

  3. Joint use of eclipse records in China, Japan and Korea for the study of the earth's paleorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhisen

    It has become a new field to use the ancient records of astronomical phenomena for studying the secular change of the earth's rotation. China is very rich in ancient astronomical observations, to which much attention has been given recently. But the continuum of the observational series is affected critically by gaps with lengths of over half a century ( TABLE 1). Note: The numbers in brackets refer to the available records of the central eclipse in Japan and Korea. China, Japan and Korea are close neighbours, either adjacent to each other, or separated by a sea, and have a long history of contact and exchange in culture and science. Their ancient astronomies are similar in many aspects, and their astronomical records may be regarded as a unit. Japan and Korea have also accumulated a wealth of ancient records in astronomy, including 232 time observations from AD 840 to 1639 and 149 records of central eclipses from AD 61 to 862 ( TABLE 2). However, they have not been utilized in this field. The author has especially analyzed the records of the central eclipse and eclipse time of these three countries, compared their respective merits and shortcomings, and concluded that their joint use may compose a valuable record series for the study of the earth's rotation. This work could change the situation of neglect of the ancient records of east Asia in this field. From TABLE 3 it may be seen that the united series of records are more excellent than any others. The ancient records of astronomical phenomena may also be used to study the evolution of the Earth-Moon system and to test the theoritical predictions of general relativity. The author has completed the analyses of the records of eclipse time, equinox time and the central eclipse, and points out that China, Japan and Korea have the potential for studying this subject. Our hope is laid on the new development of archaeology of remote ages and inscriptions on hones of the Shang Dynasty, and on interdisciplinary

  4. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.

  5. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  6. Strategy development for the implementation of telenursing in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Eun Kyoung; Park, Hyeoun-Ae

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of telenursing, to analyze the issues that should be considered for the development of telenursing in the future, and to provide efficient strategies for the implementation of telenursing in Korea. The authors used the Delphi survey method and a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats analysis. A total of 30 experts and specialists in the field of nursing informatics and telemedicine contributed to a three-round Delphi survey. The results of the study suggest that telenursing can potentially be implemented in Korea. However, to implement telenursing in Korea, it is necessary to identify telenursing specialties, to construct an infrastructure within which telenursing can function, to develop a business model, and to integrate strategies with government plans to develop the e-health industry. The issues that emerged as important requirements for the successful introduction of telenursing were classified as systematic, economic, societal, or technical. Issues such as driving force, target market, and expense sharing were examined in detail from both ideal and realistic points of view. The results of this study will enable health professionals to appreciate the feasibility of implementing telenursing in Korea. In addition, the study suggests that telenursing could be used efficiently in a variety of environments as a practical strategy to improve healthcare in Korea.

  7. South Korea--U.S. Economic Relations: Cooperation, Friction, and Future Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    Major U.S. exports to South Korea include semiconductors, machinery (particularly semiconductor production machinery), aircraft, agricultural products ...and beef. South Korea is among United States’ largest markets for agricultural products and beef. South Korea at a Glance C Head of State: President...result of the reforms, South Korea has opened its doors to foreign investors, ushering in billions of dollars of foreign portfolio and foreign direct

  8. A treatment planning comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator–based stereotactic body radiotherapy for central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Merna, Catherine; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Cao, Minsong; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kishan, Amar U.; Michailian, Argin; Lamb, James; Sheng, Ke; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael L.; Lee, Percy

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-{sup 60}Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)–based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-{sup 60}Co system for a prescription dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R{sub 100} values were calculated as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V{sub 100}) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans were performed using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3 cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4 cc). Of the tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R{sub 100} values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-{sup 60}Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while improving

  9. A treatment planning comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator-based stereotactic body radiotherapy for central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Merna, Catherine; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Cao, Minsong; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kishan, Amar U; Michailian, Argin; Lamb, James; Sheng, Ke; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael L; Lee, Percy

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-(60)Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-(60)Co system for a prescription dose of 50Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R100 values were calculated as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V100) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were performed using Student׳s t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4cc). Of the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R100 values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-(60)Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while improving normal tissue sparing, which warrants further

  10. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  11. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  12. Detection of Anaplasma sp. in Korean Native Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) on Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Sung; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular pathogens that can cause tick-borne diseases in mammalian hosts. To date, very few studies of their occurrence in Korean native goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) have been reported. In the present study, we investigated Anaplasma infection of Korean native goats on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and performed phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results showed that Anaplasma infection was found mostly in adult female goats. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the 7 sequences identified in Korean native goats could belong to Anaplasma sp. and were distinct from A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. The results indicated that the sequences identified to belong to Anaplasma were closely related to sequences isolated from goats in China and were clustered within the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Anaplasma sp. infection in Korean native goats. PMID:26797447

  13. Bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Jae-Myung; Jang, Yunho; Lee, Kyunghyun; Baek, Kanghyun; Lee, Boram; Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Ryoo, Soyoon; Bae, You-Chan; Choi, Eun-Jin; So, ByungJae

    2015-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis has a wide range of hosts including cattle and humans, but its incidence in otters is very rare. Our report describes a case of bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). A deceased female otter ~2-3 years of age that was raised in an aquarium was submitted to the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (Anyang, Republic of Korea) for autopsy in June 2013. Following gross pathological examination, many white nodules were observed in the lungs and mesentery. The nodules showed central necrosis infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Acid-fast bacteria were detected in the necrotic foci, but no fungi were observed. Molecular analysis led to the detection of M. bovis, which is identified in otters in some European countries such as Spain and France.

  14. Detection of Anaplasma sp. in Korean Native Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Sung; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-12-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular pathogens that can cause tick-borne diseases in mammalian hosts. To date, very few studies of their occurrence in Korean native goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) have been reported. In the present study, we investigated Anaplasma infection of Korean native goats on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and performed phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results showed that Anaplasma infection was found mostly in adult female goats. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the 7 sequences identified in Korean native goats could belong to Anaplasma sp. and were distinct from A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. The results indicated that the sequences identified to belong to Anaplasma were closely related to sequences isolated from goats in China and were clustered within the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Anaplasma sp. infection in Korean native goats.

  15. 31 CFR 500.584 - Energy sector projects in North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy sector projects in North Korea... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.584 Energy sector projects in North Korea... energy sector projects in North Korea in connection with that country's transition to light-water...

  16. 19 CFR 10.1034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Korea. 10.1034 Section 10.1034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.1034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 21, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant...

  18. 19 CFR 10.1034 - Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Korea. 10.1034 Section 10.1034 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Goods Returned After Repair Or Alteration § 10.1034 Goods re-entered after repair or alteration in Korea. (a) General. This section sets forth the rules which apply...

  19. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 23, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-37 - Grapes from the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grapes from the Republic of Korea. 319.56-37 Section... Grapes from the Republic of Korea. Grapes (Vitis spp.) may be imported into the United States from the Republic of Korea only under the following conditions and in accordance with all other...