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Sample records for korea central cancer

  1. Occupational respiratory cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed. PMID:21258597

  2. Changing trends in colorectal cancer in the Republic of Korea: contrast with Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Minjoo; Kim, Nicholas; Nam, Byungho; Joo, Jungnam; Ki, Moran

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has a high worldwide incidence. Japan, a country that is geographically and culturally similar to the Republic of Korea (here after Korea), has recently reported a decreasing trend in the incidence of colorectal cancer. However, Korea had the highest incidence of colorectal cancer among Asian countries in 2012. Our aim was to observe the changing trends in incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in Korea and to compare them to those in Japan. Incidence data were collected from the Korean Central Cancer Registry and mortality data were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service. Incidence and mortality data on colorectal cancer in Japan were acquired from the National Cancer Center in Japan. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were determined based on Segi’s world population. Screening data from both countries were collected from the national cancer center in each country. In Korea, the age-standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes was 20.9 to 38.0 per 100,000 from 1999 to 2012 and the rate in males increased more dramatically than in females. In addition, the increase between 2002 and 2012 was first observed in the age group over 40. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer has been more constant over recent years than in Korea. The age-standardized mortality rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes in Korea was 8.5 to 9.3 per 100,000 from 2000 to 2013, and the trend in mortality was constant during this period. In Japan, the mortality rate decreased slightly during the same period. Crude screening rates were increased overall in both Korea and Japan during the period studied. Since the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased in Korea, the control of this cancer is an important public health issue. As Japan has achieved a reduction in colorectal cancer, adjustment of Korea’s current systems for screening and treatment of colorectal cancer according to those of Japan may contribute to

  3. Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyeon Jin; Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Yoon, Ju Young; Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Park, Byung Kiu; Shin, Hee Young; Won, Young-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose An epidemiologic study of childhood cancer would provide useful information on cancer etiology and development of management guidelines. Materials and Methods Data from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database were used to examine the incidence and survival of cancer in patients aged 0-14 years. Patients were grouped according to the International Classification of Childhood Cancer, 3rd edition. Age-specific and age-standardized incidences per million and estimated annual percentage change (APC) were calculated by sex and age. Five-year relative survival was calculated for four periods from 1993 to 2011. Results The study comprised 15,113 patients with malignant neoplasms. Age-standardized incidence rates for all cancers were 134.9 per million children in 1999-2011 and 144.0 and 124.9 per million for males and females, respectively (M/F ratio, 1.2; p < 0.05). The highest incidences were observed for ‘leukemias, myeloproliferative diseases, and myelodysplastic diseases’ (group I) (46.4), ‘central nervous system neoplasms’ (group III) (18.3), and ‘lymphomas and reticuloendothelial neoplasms’ (group II) (13.4). Age-standardized incidence increased from 117.9 in 1999 to 155.3 in 2011, with an APC of 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.1 to 2.7). There was a significant increase of APC in ‘neuroblastoma and other peripheral nervous cell tumors’ (group IV) (5.6%) and ‘other malignant epithelial neoplasms and malignant melanomas’ (group XI) (5.6%). The 5-year relative survival rate for all childhood cancers improved significantly from 56.2% (1993-1995) to 78.2% (2007-2011) (males, 56.7% to 77.7%; females, 55.5% to 78.8%). Conclusion This study provides reliable information on incidence and survival trends for childhood cancer in Korea. PMID:26790965

  4. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the current cancer burden in Korea, cancer incidence and mortality were projected for the year 2011. Materials and Methods The cancer incidence data from 1999-2008 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and the cancer mortality data from 1993-2009 were obtained from the Korea National Statistics Office. Cancer incident cases and rates in 2011 were projected from fitting a linear regression model on observed age-specific cancer incidence rates against observed years, then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. For cancer mortality, a similar procedure was applied for projection except that a Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend significantly changed. Results A total of 216,809 new cancer cases and 71,036 cancer deaths are projected to occur in Korea in 2011. For all sites combined, the crude incidence rates are projected to be 437.9 and 420.5 and the age-standardized incidence rates are projected to be 336.5 and 279.7 per 100,000 for men and women, respectively. Conclusion Cancer has become an important public health concern in Korea, and as Korea becomes an aged society, the cancer burden will continue to increase. PMID:21509158

  5. Standardized Thyroid Cancer Mortality in Korea between 1985 and 2010

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun Mi; Jang, Eun Kyung; Kwon, Hyemi; Jeon, Min Ji; Kim, Won Gu; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of thyroid cancer has increased very rapidly in Korea. However, there is no published report focusing on thyroid cancer mortality in Korea. In this study, we aimed to evaluate standardized thyroid cancer mortality using data from Statistics Korea (the Statistical Office of Korea). Methods Population and mortality data from 1985 to 2010 were obtained from Statistics Korea. Age-standardized rates of thyroid cancer mortality were calculated according to the standard population of Korea, as well as World Health Organization (WHO) standard population and International Cancer Survival Standard (ICSS) population weights. Results The crude thyroid cancer mortality rate increased from 0.1 to 0.7 per 100,000 between 1985 and 2010. The pattern was the same for both sexes. The age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) for thyroid cancer for Korean resident registration population increased from 0.19 to 0.67 between 1985 and 2000. However, it decreased slightly, from 0.67 to 0.55, between 2000 and 2010. When mortality was adjusted using the WHO standard population and ICSS population weights, the ASMR similarly increased until 2000, and then decreased between 2000 and 2010. Conclusion Thyroid cancer mortality increased until 2000 in Korea. It started to decrease from 2000. PMID:25559576

  6. Cancer control activities in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Keun-Young

    2008-05-01

    South Korea has a population of 47.3 million. The whole population is covered by a mandatory social insurance system (the National Health Insurance Program) that is financed through the contributions paid by the insured and their employers. Cancer has been the leading cause of death in Korea since 1983. About 130 000 people develop cancer annually with 66 000 deaths in 2006. Cancer patients' 5-year survival rates between 1998 and 2002 were 37.8 and 57.0% for men and women, respectively. The five leading primary cancer sites were stomach, lung, liver, colon and rectum, and bladder among males, whereas the most common cancers were stomach, breast, colon and rectum, uterine cervix and lung among females. With the rapidly aging population, reducing cancer burden at the national level has become one of the major political issues in Korea. The government formulated its first 10-year plan for cancer control in 1996. In 2000, the National Cancer Center was created and the Cancer Control Division was set up within the Ministry of Health and Welfare. The Cancer Control Act was legislated in 2003. Korea's major national cancer control programs are anti-smoking campaigns, hepatitis B virus vaccination, cancer registration and networking, promotion of R&D activities for cancer control, education and training for cancer control and prevention, operation of the national cancer information center, operation of the mass screening program for five common cancers, management of cancer patients at home, financial support for cancer patients and designation of regional cancer centers. PMID:18407932

  7. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Young

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%–56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%. PMID:27064578

  8. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  9. Cancer Prevalence among Physicians in Korea: A Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Lin; Park, Hae Jin; Sim, Yun Hye; Choi, Eun Young; Shim, Kyung Won; Lee, Sang Wha; Lee, Hong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little research regarding whether working as a physician affects cancer risk. Moreover, there is no research on cancer prevalence among physicians in Korea. This study utilized the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database to determine whether the prevalence of cancer among physicians differs from the prevalence of cancer within the general population. Methods We analyzed the medical records of a representative sample of 382 doctors who underwent a health examination between 2010 and 2013 at a health examination center in a Ewha Womans University Medical Center.Cancer incidence was measured as cases that were eventually diagnosed as cancer according to a biopsy. Results We collected medical records from 382 physicians (mean age, 51.9±8.1 years) and calculated the standardized prevalence ratios compared to the general population. Thirty physicians (9 male and 21 female) were identified as having cancer. Physicians had a significantly higher prevalence of cancer compared to the general population.Cancer prevalence in male physicians was found to be 2.47 times higher than the prevalence expected within the general population (P=0.006). Among female physicians, cancer prevalence was 3.94 times higher than that in the general population (P<0.001). Conclusion This study revealed that physicians had a higher prevalence of cancer compared to the general population in Korea, which suggests that there may be a problem present in the health care of physicians. Changes to the working environment of physicians will be needed to reduce the high prevalence of cancer among physicians. PMID:27073607

  10. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required.

  11. Occupational Lung Cancer Surveillance in South Korea, 2006-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Ryu, Jeong-Seon; Won, Jong Uk; Moon, Jai Dong; Kim, Young-Chul; Koh, Sang Baek; Yong, Suk Joong; Kim, Soo Geun; Park, Jae Yong; Kim, Inah; Kim, Jung Il; Kim, Jung Won; Lee, Eui-cheol; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Kang, Dong Mug; Hong, Yun-Chul

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The lung cancer mortality in Korea has increased remarkably during the last 20 years, and has been the first leading cause of cancer-related deaths since 2000. The aim of the current study was to examine the time trends of occupational lung cancer and carcinogens exposure during the period 2006-2009 in South Korea, by assessing the proportion of occupational burden. Methods We defined occupational lung cancer for surveillance, and developed a reporting protocol and reporting website for the surveillance of occupational lung cancer. The study patients were chosen from 9 participating university hospitals in the following 7 areas: Seoul, Incheon, Wonju, Daejeon, Daegu, Busan, and Gwangju. Results The combined proportion of definite and probable occupational lung cancer among all lung cancers investigated in this study was 10.0%, 8.6%, 10.7%, and 15.8% in the years 2006 to 2009, respectively, with an average of 11.7% over the four-year study period. The main carcinogens were asbestos, crystalline silica, radon, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diesel exhaust particles, chromium, and nickel. Conclusion We estimated that about 11.7% of the incident lung cancer was preventable. This reveals the potential to considerably reduce lung cancer by intervention in occupational fields. PMID:22953173

  12. Cancer Morbidity of Foundry Workers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Won, Jong-Uk; Park, Robert M.

    2010-01-01

    Foundry workers are potentially exposed to a number of carcinogens. This study was conducted to describe the cancer incidence associated with employment in small-sized Korean iron foundries and to compare those findings to the Korean population. Cancer morbidity in 208 Korean foundries was analyzed using the Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) and Standardized Rate Ratio (SRR). Overall cancer morbidity in foundry workers (SIR=1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.01-1.21) was significantly higher than that of Korean general population. Lung cancer (SIR=1.45, 95%CI=1.11-1.87) and lymphohematopoietcic cancer (SIR=1.58, 95%CI=1.00-2.37) in production workers were significantly high compared to Korean general population. Stomach cancer in fettling (SRR=2.10, 95%CI=1.10-4.01) and lung cancer in molding (SRR=3.06, 95%CI=1.22-7.64) and in fettling (SRR=2.63, 95%CI=1.01-6.84) were there significant elevations compared to office workers. In this study, statistically significant excess lung cancer was observed in production workers comparing to Korean general population and office workers. Also, cancer morbidity of overall cancer, lung cancer and stomach cancer was significantly increased with duration of employment at ten and more years comparing to Korean general population. These findings suggest in causal association between exposure to carcinogens during foundry work and cancer morbidity. PMID:21165287

  13. Cancer Statistics in Korea: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Prevalence in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Joo Young; Park, Eun-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This paper overviews the nationwide cancer statistics including incidence, mortality, survival and prevalence, and their trends in Korea based on the year 2008 cancer incidence data. Materials and Methods Incidence data from 1993 to 2008 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and the vital status was followed through December 31, 2009. Mortality data from 1983 to 2008 were obtained from the Korea National Statistics Office. Crude rates and age-standardized rates for incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival were calculated. Results There were 178,816 cancer cases and 68,912 cancer deaths observed during year 2008 and 724,663 10-year cancer prevalent cases as of January 1, 2009 in Korea. The incidence rate for all cancer combined showed an annual increase of 3.1% from 1999 to 2008. Conclusion With significantly increasing cancer incidence, Korea faces a large cancer burden and efficient cancer control programs are essential. PMID:21509157

  14. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  15. Cancer Mortality Projections in Korea up to 2032.

    PubMed

    Son, Mia; Yun, Jae-Won

    2016-06-01

    Predicting cancer mortality is important to estimate the needs of cancer-related services and to prevent cancer. Despite its significance, a long-term future projection of cancer mortality has not been conducted; therefore, our objective was to estimate future cancer mortality in Korea by cancer site through 2032. The specially designed Nordpred software was used to estimate cancer mortality. The cancer death data from 1983 to 2012 and the population projection data from 1983 to 2032 were obtained from the Korean National Statistics Office. Based on our analysis, age-standardized rates with the world standard population of all cancer deaths were estimated to decline from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (men: -39.8%, women: -33.1%). However, the crude rates are predicted to rise (men: 29.8%, women: 24.4%), and the overall number of the cancer deaths is also estimated to increase (men: 35.5%, women: 32.3%). Several cancer deaths are projected to increase (lung, liver and gallbladder, colon and rectum, pancreas and leukemia in both sexes; prostate cancer in men; and breast and ovarian cancer in women), whereas other cancer deaths are expected to decrease (stomach, esophagus and larynx in both sexes and cervical cancer in women). The largest contribution to increasing cancer deaths is due to the aging of the Korean population. In conclusion, a strategy for primary prevention, early detection, and early treatment to cope with the rapidly increasing death of cancer due to population aging is urgently required. PMID:27247498

  16. Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kyung Ja; Khang, Shin Kwang; Lee, Seung Sook; Koh, Jae Soo; Chung, Jin Haeng; Lee, Yong Sik; Shim, Yoon Sang

    2002-01-01

    Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) constitute 3.5-4% of all malignancies. Since the majority of cases are squamous cell carcinomas which are related with epidemiologic factors, a different pattern of UADT cancer might be present between the Western and Asian populations. We performed a pathology based statistical study on UADT cancers in Korean patients. Cases from Korea Cancer Center Hospital, from January 1, 1988 through December 31, 1998, were subjected to the study. Among 2,842 cases, epithelial malignancies accounted for 87.8%, with squamous cell carcinoma as the major type (76.5%). The larynx was the most commonly affected site (26%), followed by the oral cavity (25.1%), oropharynx (13%), nasopharynx (9%), hypopharynx (8.4%), paranasal sinuses (6.4%), nasal cavity (6%) and salivary glands (6.1%). The percentage of squamous cell carcinoma was highest (98.7%) at the hypopharynx, and lowest at the nasal cavity (42.3%), which showed the most diverse tumor entities. Korean patients with UADT cancers presented with a higher incidence of non-epidermoid malignancy including sarcoma (1.5%) and malignant melanoma (1.4%), and a higher frequency of involvement of the sinonasal tract, compared with the Western patients. PMID:11850583

  17. Socioeconomic Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates of CRC are higher among lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. We investigated the association between different indicators of SES and CRC screening rates in Korea. The eligible study population included males and females aged 50 to 74 years who participated in a nationwide cross-sectional survey (2010–2012). The “compliance with recommendation” category was applicable to participants who had undergone a fecal occult blood test (FOBT), double-contrast barium enema, or colonoscopy within 1, 5, or 10 years, respectively. In total, 6221 subjects (51.4% female, 55.6% aged 50 years) were included in the final analysis. Lower household income was significantly negatively related to compliance with screening recommendations (P for trend < 0.01) and marginally significantly related to noncompliance with recommendations (P for trend = 0.07). Older age and poor self-reported health were associated with the screening rate using the FOBT; male sex, older age, higher household income, having supplemental insurance, family history of cancer, and poor self-reported health were associated with a higher screening rate using colonoscopy. Lower household income was associated with a higher screening rate using the FOBT and with a lower screening rate using colonoscopy. To increase the rate of CRC screening using colonoscopy, efforts should be made toward improving the education and promotion of screening to the low household income target population. PMID:26426605

  18. Gastric Cancer Screening in Korea: Report on the National Cancer Screening Program in 2008

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Sook; Oh, Dong Kwan; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) began in 1999. The objective of this report is to evaluate the results of the NCSP in 2008 and provide essential evidence associated with the gastric cancer screening program in Korea. Materials and Methods Data was obtained from the National Cancer Screening Information System; participation rates in gastric cancer screening were calculated. According to screening modalities, recall rates were estimated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The target population of the gastric cancer screening program in 2008 was 7,132,820 Korean men and women aged 40 and over, 2,076,544 of whom underwent upper endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series as screening tools (participation rate, 29.1%). Disparities in participation rates were observed relating to gender and health insurance type. Overall, recall rates of upper endoscopy and UGI series were 3.1% (95% CI, 3.0 to 3.1) and 33.3% (95% CI, 33.3 to 33.4), respectively. Conclusion According to our research, efforts to facilitate participation and to reduce disparities in gastric cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed. These results will provide essential data for evidence-based strategies in gastric cancer control in Korea. PMID:21811423

  19. Cancer screenee cohort study of the National Cancer Center in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The Cancer Screenee Cohort Study was first established in 2002 by the National Cancer Center in South Korea to investigate all possible risk factors related to cancers and to expand biological specimen banking for the development of effective methodologies for cancer detection, diagnosis, and prevention. As of July in 2014, total 41,105 participants were enrolled in this cohort. Data were collected via questionnaire, clinical examination, cancer screening, and biological specimen testing including blood, urine, and exfoliated cervical cells. The highest incidence was found to be thyroid cancer, according to a nested case-control study that was linked to the National Cancer Registry information as of December 31, 2011. Case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies have been published using these data since 2009. Diet and nutrition was the most published topic, followed by genetics, hepatitis B virus and liver cancer screening, methodologies, physical activity, obesity, metabolic syndrome, smoking and alcohol consumption, and blood type. Evidence from the Cancer Screenee Cohort Study is highly anticipated to reduce the burden of cancer in the Korean population and aid in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of cancer. PMID:25119453

  20. Middle Holocene environmental change in central Korea and its linkage to summer and winter monsoon changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jaesoo; Yang, Dong-Yoon; Lee, Jin-Young; Hong, Sei-Sun; Um, In Kwon

    2015-07-01

    To trace the surficial responses of lowlands to past climate change, we investigated δ13C in total organic carbon (TOC), C/N ratios, magnetic susceptibility (MS), and silicon (Si) intensity (directly proportional to concentration) in wetland sediments collected from the Gimpo area of central Korea, covering 6600-4600 cal yr BP. Two organic layers with high TOC%, negatively depleted δ13CTOC values (- 27 to - 29‰), low MS values, and low Si intensities were found at 6200-5900 and 5200-4800 cal yr BP, respectively. These middle Holocene wet periods corresponded to relatively intensified summer monsoon and solar activity periods. The intervening dry period (5900-5200 cal yr BP) with high MS, high Si, and low TOC% corresponded to an intensified dust-activity interval and stronger winter monsoon. This multi-centennial climatic fluctuation of wet periods (6200-5900 cal yr BP and 5200-4800 cal yr BP) and an intervening dry period (5900-5200 cal yr BP) in central Korea was more synchronous with climate change in the arid inner part of China than with that in South China, suggesting possible strong high-latitude-driven climatic influences (e.g., North Atlantic cooling events) during the middle Holocene.

  1. Risk Factors and Control Strategies for the Rapidly Rising Rate of Breast Cancer in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sue K.; Kim, Yeonju; Kang, Daehee; Jung, En-Joo

    2011-01-01

    Due to the aging population and tremendous changes in life style over the past decades, cancer has been the leading cause of death in Korea. The incidence rate of breast cancer is the second highest in Korea, and it has shown an annual increase of 6.8% for the past 6 years. The major risk factors of breast cancer in Korean women are as follows: Early menarche, late menopause, late full-term pregnancy (FTP), and low numbers of FTP. Height and body mass index increased the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women only. There are ethnic variations in breast cancer due to the differences in genetic susceptibility or exposure to etiologic agent. With the epidemiological evidences on the possibility of further increase of breast cancer in Korea, the Korean Government began implementing the National Cancer Screening Program against breast cancer in 2002. Five-year survival rates for female breast cancer have improved significantly from 78.0% in early 1993-1995 to 90.0% in 2004-2008. This data indicate that improvement of the survival rate may be partially due to the early diagnosis of breast cancer as well as the increased public awareness about the significance of early detection and organized cancer screening program. The current primary prevention programs are geared towards strengthening national prevention campaigns. In accordance with the improvement in 5-year survival rate, the overall cancer mortality has started to decrease. However, breast cancer death rate and incidence rates are still increasing, which need further organized effort by the Korean Government. PMID:21847401

  2. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Perceived Health Beliefs among Immigrant Women in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Se Kyung; Lee, Jeonghui; Choi, Min-Young; Jung, Seung Pil; Kim, Min Kook; Kim, Sangmin; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recently, through international marriage, immigrant women have rapidly increased throughout Korea. This study was performed to identify health beliefs and practices related to breast cancer screening in immigrant women in Korea. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between March and July 2012, and study population included immigrant females from six other Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Japan, Mongolia, Vietnam, and the Philippines). We surveyed 197 women and categorized them into four groups according to home countries. The questionnaire consisted of 55 items, including demographic and socioeconomic factors, breast cancer-related knowledge regarding risk factors and symptoms, beliefs and attitudes towards health and breast cancer, perceived susceptibility, barriers, and benefits of screening. Results Japanese participants were significantly older and had resided in Korea for more years than other country-of-origin groups (all p<0.001), and showed higher screening rates without statistical significance (p=0.392). In multivariate analysis, country of origin showed a significant correlation with knowledge (p=0.001), positive beliefs (p=0.002), and perceived benefits (p=0.025) of breast cancer screening. The group with the lowest household income showed a significantly lower score of perceived benefits (p=0.022). Through analysis to identify factors affecting participation in screening mammography, we found that education level (p=0.009), occupation status (p=0.006), and Korean language fluency (p=0.002) were independent predictors for screening behavior. Conclusion This study identified conditions related to breast cancer screening knowledge, perception, and behavior of immigrant women in Korea. The results reflect the need for increased social aids to remove barriers to medical services and more educational programs to facilitate higher rates of screening. PMID:25320627

  3. Factors associated with compliance with recommendations for liver cancer screening in Korea: a nationwide survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Shin, Ji-Yeon; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the factors associated with compliance with recommendations regarding liver cancer screening intervals and methods among individuals at high-risk for liver cancer in the Republic of Korea. We used data from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV), a representative cross-sectional nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2009. The liver cancer screening rate and factors associated with compliance with recommended screening intervals (6 months) and methods (both abdominal ultrasonography and serum alpha-fetoprotein testing) among individuals at high risk for liver cancer such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers were investigated. Out of 24,871 KNHANES IV participants, 604 HBV carriers aged ≥ 20 years were included in our analysis. 39.6% of our study sample reported attending liver cancer screening at least once in their lifetime, 12.3% had attended within the previous 6 months, and 14.6% were screened using both recommended methods. Older age was associated with increased compliance with screening intervals (P-trend 0.011) and methods (40-49 year: OR = 3.25, 95% CI: 1.62-6.51; 50-59 years: OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.44-6.66; 60-69 years: OR = 3.17, 95% CI: 1.28-7.82). Unawareness of HBV infection status was negatively related to compliance with screening intervals and methods (OR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.17-0.53; OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.26-0.79). Female sex (OR = 0.45, 95% CI: 0.25-0.78), lower household income (P-trend 0.011), and routine and manual occupations (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97) were associated with decreased compliance with screening methods. The liver cancer screening rate among high-risk individuals is much less suboptimal. Considering that those unaware of their HBV infection status got regular and complete liver cancer screening much less often, efforts should be made not only to decrease sociodemographic disparities, but also to better identify the high-risk population.

  4. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25995680

  5. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea practice guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC.

  6. Allometry and biomass of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) in central Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Y; Hwang, J W; Kim, Z S; Lee, W K; Kim, J S

    2001-07-01

    Aboveground tree biomass of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.) was determined for a natural forest of Korean pine and mixed deciduous trees and seven age classes of plantation forests in central Korea. Regression analyses of the dry weights of stem wood, stem bark, branches, and needles versus diameter at breast height were used to calculate regression equations of the form of log Y = a + b log X. Biomass of Korean pine in the mixed forest was 118 Mg ha(-1), and biomass in the plantations was linearly related to stand age, ranging from 52.3 Mg ha(-1) in 11 to 20-year-old stands to 317.9 Mg ha(-1) in 71 to 80-year-old stands. The proportions of stem wood and stem bark in the total aboveground biomass decreased with stand age while those of branch and needle increased. Specific leaf area of Korean pine ranging from 35.2 to 52.1 cm2 g(-1) was significantly different among crown positions and needle ages; in general, lower crown position and current needles had the greatest surface area per unit dry weight.

  7. Ambient particulate matter in a central urban area of Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Vellingiri, Kowsalya; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ma, Chang-Jin; Kang, Chang-Hee; Lee, Jin-Hong; Kim, Ik-Soo; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored at a central urban area of Yongsan (YS), Seoul, Korea during 2013. The daily average concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 fractions, were 26.6±12.6 and 45.0±20.4 μg m(-3), respectively. The observed PM2.5 concentration slightly exceeded the annual standard value (25 μg m(-3)) set by the Korean Ministry of Environment (KMOE), while that of PM10 was slightly lower than its guideline value (50 μg m(-3)). Comparison of the monthly mean values (μg m(-3)) of both PM fractions showed maximum concentrations in January (PM2.5: 36.9 and PM10: 59.7) and minimum concentrations in September (PM10: 28.1) and October (PM2.5: 14.9). The existence of strong correlations between the concentrations of PM and some gaseous pollutants (e.g., CO, SO2, and NOx) indicated the commonality of contributing source processes, such as traffic and industrial emissions. The results of a back-trajectory (BT) analysis also suggests that the PM pollution in the study area is likely to have been affected by many sources such as Asian dust, volcanic emissions, and industrial activities in the surrounding countries (China, Russia, and Japan).

  8. Estimates of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risk from Food Intake in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Ha, Wi-Ho; Seo, Songwon; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (131)I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food). Cancer risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated committed effective dose and the detriment adjusted nominal risk coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The lifetime committed effective doses from the daily diet are ranged 2.957-3.710 mSv. Excess lifetime cancer risks are 14.4-18.1, 0.4-0.5, and 1.8-2.3 per 100,000 for all solid cancers combined, thyroid cancer, and leukemia, respectively.

  9. Estimates of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risk from Food Intake in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 131I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food). Cancer risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated committed effective dose and the detriment adjusted nominal risk coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The lifetime committed effective doses from the daily diet are ranged 2.957-3.710 mSv. Excess lifetime cancer risks are 14.4-18.1, 0.4-0.5, and 1.8-2.3 per 100,000 for all solid cancers combined, thyroid cancer, and leukemia, respectively. PMID:26770031

  10. Estimates of Radiation Doses and Cancer Risk from Food Intake in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Kyeong; Ha, Wi-Ho; Seo, Songwon; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae-Jung; Kim, Hyoung-Soo; Hwang, Myung-Sil; Choi, Hoon; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate internal radiation doses and lifetime cancer risk from food ingestion. Radiation doses from food intake were calculated using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the measured radioactivity of (134)Cs, (137)Cs, and (131)I from the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in Korea. Total number of measured data was 8,496 (3,643 for agricultural products, 644 for livestock products, 43 for milk products, 3,193 for marine products, and 973 for processed food). Cancer risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated committed effective dose and the detriment adjusted nominal risk coefficients recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection. The lifetime committed effective doses from the daily diet are ranged 2.957-3.710 mSv. Excess lifetime cancer risks are 14.4-18.1, 0.4-0.5, and 1.8-2.3 per 100,000 for all solid cancers combined, thyroid cancer, and leukemia, respectively. PMID:26770031

  11. Thinning intensity influences on soil microbial and inorganic nitrogen in Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Li, G.; Yun, H. M.; Han, S. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, C.; Lee, S. T.; Son, Y.

    2015-12-01

    With growing considerations for sustainable forest management, examining thinning effects on forest ecosystems becomes one of the principal research focuses. Soil microbial biomass and inorganic nitrogen (N) have, particularly, received increasing attentions, as they are the relevant indices for N availability in forests. Here, we investigated the influences of thinning on soil microbial biomass N (MBN) and inorganic N (NH4+ and NO3-) in two Pinus densiflora forests, central Korea. The thinning from below with different intensities based on stand density (site 1: control, 20%, and 30% thinning; site 2: control, 39%, and 74% thinning) was applied in 2008, and MBN, NH4+, and NO3- at 0-10 cm depth were measured seven years after thinning. The MBN, NH4+, and NO3- concentrations (mg kg-1) of the site 1 were 69.8, 9.8, and 6.3 in the control, 94.6, 9.3, and 4.0 in the 20% thinning plot, and 97.2, 8.4, and 5.2 in the 30% thinning plot, respectively. On the other hand, those of the site 2 were 34.5, 5.4, and 6.3 in the control, 37.3, 4.7, and 7.8 in the 39% thinning plot, and 44.4, 4.4, and 9.2 in the 74% thinning plot, respectively. The MBN of the thinning plots tended to be higher compared to those of the controls, although the analysis of variance reported the significant difference only for the MBN in the site 1 (P<0.05). This might be attributed to the incorporation of organic matter from the introduced thinning residues and from the increased understory vegetation following thinning. However, no significant difference was found for the NH4+ and NO3- (P>0.05). The results of the present study show that the application of thinning could differently affect MBN and inorganic N; accordingly, this difference might alter N availability of the study sites. This study was supported by Forest Practice Research Center, Korea Forest Research Institute.

  12. Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose South Korea has the highest incidence rate of thyroid cancer in the world, and the incidence rate continues to increase. The aim of this study was to determine the age-period-cohort effects on the incidence of thyroid cancer in Korea. Materials and Methods Using the Korean National Cancer registry database, age-standardized incidence rates and annual percent changes (APCs) in thyroid cancer according to sex and histologic type were analyzed between 1997 and 2011. Age-period-cohort models were applied using an intrinsic estimator method according to sex. Results In both men and women, the incidence of thyroid cancer showed a sharp increase from 1997 through 2011. Among the histologic types, papillary carcinoma showed the greatest increase, with APCs of 25.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22.7% to 27.5%) in men and 23.7% (95% CI, 21.9% to 25.5%) in women, whereas anaplastic carcinoma did not show a significant increase in either sex. An increase in overall thyroid cancer incidence over time was observed in all birth cohorts. An age-period-cohort model indicated a steeply increasing period effect, which increased prominently from 1997 to 2011 in both men and women. The age effect showed an inverted U-shaped trend. The cohort effect tended to show a slight increase or remain constant from 1952 to 1977, followed by a decrease. Conclusion The period effect can explain the sharp increase in thyroid cancer incidence, strongly suggesting the role of thyroid screening. PMID:25672579

  13. Dietary Inflammatory Index and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Young Ae; Lee, Jeonghee; Oh, Jae Hwan; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    The role of diet-associated inflammation in colorectal cancer is of interest. Accordingly, we aimed to examine whether the dietary inflammatory index (DII) was associated with the risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study conducted in Korea. The DII was based on dietary intake, which was determined by a 106-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire completed by 923 colorectal cancer cases and 1846 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odd ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were conducted by the anatomical site of the cancer, sex, and other risk factors. Higher DII scores were associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer (OR (95% CI) = 2.16 (1.71, 2.73) for highest vs. lowest tertile). The magnitude differed by anatomical site and sex. This association was slightly weaker in subjects with proximal colon cancer (1.68 (1.08, 2.61)) and was stronger in women (2.50 (1.64, 3.82)). Additionally, stronger associations were observed in subjects who were older than 50 years (p for interaction = 0.004) and engaged in physical activity (p for interaction < 0.001). Results from this study suggest that diet-associated inflammation may increase the risk of colorectal cancer, and this effect may differ by certain factors, such as anatomical site, age, sex, and lifestyle. PMID:27483316

  14. Awareness of cervical cancer prevention among mothers of adolescent daughters in Korea: qualitative research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Won; Kim, Duck Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Korean adolescent girls are unprepared for cervical cancer prevention due to the lack of a mandatory policy regarding human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination and school health education regarding cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to determine how aware mothers are about cervical cancer prevention in their adolescent daughters, with a view to developing strategies for expanding primary cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls through the mothers’ involvement. Design A qualitative design was employed. Nine mothers with adolescent daughters participated in this study and were interviewed using open-ended questions. The themes were extracted by content analysis. Setting A general living area in Seoul, South Korea. Participants The snowball method was used to select mothers. Results Five themes emerged. In general, the mothers’ awareness of cervical cancer was not clear, and they exhibited a lack of awareness of the importance of having a regular Papanicolaou screening test. The mothers recognised that they were role models for their daughters, and realised and accepted the necessity of educating their daughters regarding cervical cancer; however, they perceived barriers related to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters. The mothers recommended enforcing sex education in schools and the provision of financial support for HPV vaccination. Conclusions The mothers’ awareness and preparedness with respect to the prevention of cervical cancer in their adolescent daughters were low and inadequate. Mothers should be informed and motivated to play a role in the education of their daughters regarding cervical cancer prevention. Strategies for disseminating information regarding early cervical cancer prevention for adolescent girls are recommended by communicating with both the girls and their mothers and providing them with education regarding cervical cancer prevention. PMID:25976761

  15. Isoflavone and Soyfood Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Aesun; Lee, Jeonghee; Lee, Jeeyoo; Park, Moon Sung; Park, Ji Won; Park, Sung Chan; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Jeongseon

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess the relationship between dietary soyfood and isoflavone intake and colorectal cancer risk in a case-control study. A total of 901 colorectal cancer cases and 2669 controls were recruited at the National Cancer Center, Korea. A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire was used to assess the usual dietary habits, and the isoflavone intake level was estimated from five soyfood items. A high intake of total soy products, legumes, and sprouts was associated with a reduced risk for colorectal cancer in men and women, although the middle quartiles of intake of total soy products were associated with an elevated risk. In contrast, a high intake of fermented soy paste was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal cancer in men. The groups with the highest intake quartiles of isoflavones showed a decreased risk for colorectal cancer compared to their counterparts with the lowest intake quartiles in men (odds ratio (OR): 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51–0.89) and women (OR: 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43–0.99). The reduced risk for the highest intake groups persisted for distal colon cancer in men and rectal cancer in women. The association between soyfood intake and colorectal cancer risk was more prominent among post-menopausal women than pre-menopausal women. In conclusion, a high intake of total soy products or dietary isoflavones was associated with a reduced risk for overall colorectal cancer, and the association may be more relevant to distal colon or rectal cancers. PMID:26575841

  16. Gastric Cancer Screening Uptake Trends in Korea: Results for the National Cancer Screening Program From 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of

  17. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Waymire, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  18. Review of carcinogenicity of asbestos and proposal of approval standards of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos in Korea.

    PubMed

    Im, Sanghyuk; Youn, Kan-Woo; Shin, Donghee; Lee, Myeoung-Jun; Choi, Sang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Carcinogenicity of asbestos has been well established for decades and it has similar approval standards in most advanced countries based on a number of studies and international meetings. However, Korea has been lagging behind such international standards. In this study, we proposed the approval standards of an occupational cancer due to asbestos through intensive review on the Helsinki Criteria, post-Helsinki studies, job exposure matrix (JEM) based on the analysis of domestic reports and recognized occupational lung cancer cases in Korea. The main contents of proposed approval standards are as follows; ① In recognizing an asbestos-induced lung cancer, diagnosis of asbestosis should be based on CT. In addition, initial findings of asbestosis on CT should be considered. ② High Exposure industries and occupations to asbestos should be also taken into account in Korea ③ An expert's determination is warranted in case of a worker who has been concurrently exposed to other carcinogens, even if the asbestos exposure duration is less than 10 years. ④ Determination of a larynx cancer due to asbestos exposure has the same approval standards with an asbestos-induced lung cancer. However, for an ovarian cancer, an expert's judgment is necessary even if asbestosis, pleural plaque or pleural thickening and high concentration asbestos exposure are confirmed. ⑤ Cigarette smoking status or the extent should not affect determination of an occupational cancer caused by asbestos as smoking and asbestos have a synergistic effect in causing a lung cancer and they are involved in carcinogenesis in a complicated manner.

  19. Performance of Screening Mammography: A Report of the Alliance for Breast Cancer Screening in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Hye; Kim, Keum Won; Kim, Young Joong; Shin, Dong-Rock; Park, Young Mi; Lim, Hyo Soon; Park, Jeong Seon; Kim, Hye-Won; Kim, You Me; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the diagnostic accuracy and trend in screening mammography in Korea. Materials and Methods We retrospectively linked the information from hospitals participating in the Alliance of Breast Cancer Screening in Korea (ABCS-K) and the database of the National Cancer Screening Program. We calculated performance indicators, including the recall rate, cancer detection rate (CDR), positive predictive value (PPV), sensitivity, specificity, false-positive rate (FPR), and interval cancer rate (ICR). Changes in the performance indicators were calculated as the annual percent change with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results We enrolled 128756 cases from 10 hospitals from 2005 to 2010. The recall rate was 19.1% with a downward trend over time (-12.1% per year; 95% CI, -15.9 to -8.2). The CDR was 2.69 per 1000 examinations, without a significant trend. The PPV was 1.4% with an upward trend (20.8% per year; 95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7). The sensitivity was 86.5% without a significant trend, whereas the specificity was 81.1% with an upward trend (3.3% per year; 95% CI, 2.1 to 4.5). The FPR was 18.9% with a downward trend (-12.4% per year; 95% CI, -16.2 to -8.4). The ICR was 0.5 per 1000 negative examinations without a significant trend. There were institutional variations in the diagnostic accuracy and trend except for the CDR, sensitivity, and ICR. Conclusion The sensitivity and CDR of screening mammography in the ABCS-K from 2005 to 2010 were compatible with those for Western women. The recall rate, PPV and specificity, however, were suboptimal, although they showed significant improvements over this period. A further analysis is required to explain institutional variations. PMID:27390540

  20. Risks of Lung Cancer due to Radon Exposure among the Regions of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye Ah; Lee, Won Kyung; Lim, Dohee; Park, Su Hyun; Baik, Sun Jung; Kong, Kyoung Ae; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Park, Hyesook

    2015-05-01

    Radon is likely the second most common cause of lung cancer after smoking. We estimated the lung cancer risk due to radon using common risk models. Based on national radon survey data, we estimated the population-attributable fraction (PAF) and the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to radon. The exposure-age duration (EAD) and exposure-age concentration (EAC) models were used. The regional average indoor radon concentration was 37.5 95 Bq/m(3). The PAF for lung cancer was 8.3% (European Pooling Study model), 13.5% in males and 20.4% in females by EAD model, and 19.5% in males and 28.2% in females by EAC model. Due to differences in smoking by gender, the PAF of radon-induced lung cancer deaths was higher in females. In the Republic of Korea, the risk of radon is not widely recognized. Thus, information about radon health risks is important and efforts are needed to decrease the associated health problems.

  1. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Gastric Cancer in Korea: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the context of the global decrease in mortality due to gastric cancer, previous studies have reported that the effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on the incidence of gastric cancer varies among regions. This systematic review was conducted to investigate H. pylori as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Korea, where the incidence of gastric cancer is among the highest in the world. Methods: A search strategy was established to identify articles published in Korean as well as in English. Ultimately, we included observational studies conducted among Korean patients that designed with an age-matched and sex-matched control group that reported the odds ratio associated with H. pylori. Gastric cancer cases were subdivided into overall (OGC), cardia (CGC), non-cardia (NGC), early (EGC), advanced, intestinal (IGC), and diffuse forms of gastric cancer. Summary odds ratios (SORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the meta-analysis using a random-effect model. Results: Eleven case-control studies were ultimately selected. H. pylori was associated with an SOR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29 to 2.54) for OGC. Additionally, statistically significant risks were observed for CGC, NGC, EGC, and IGC. Conclusions: Chronic H. pylori infection was found to raise the risk of gastric cancer among Koreans, with the highest risk observed for CGC and EGC (SOR=2.88 for both). Follow-up clinical epidemiologic studies are needed to assess the effects of current treatments aimed at eradicating H. pylori infections. PMID:27499162

  2. Socioeconomic Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Korea: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates of CRC are higher among lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. We investigated the association between different indicators of SES and CRC screening rates in Korea. The eligible study population included males and females aged 50 to 74 years who participated in a nationwide cross-sectional survey (2010-2012). The "compliance with recommendation" category was applicable to participants who had undergone a fecal occult blood test (FOBT), double-contrast barium enema, or colonoscopy within 1, 5, or 10 years, respectively. In total, 6221 subjects (51.4% female, 55.6% aged 50 years) were included in the final analysis. Lower household income was significantly negatively related to compliance with screening recommendations (P for trend < 0.01) and marginally significantly related to noncompliance with recommendations (P for trend = 0.07). Older age and poor self-reported health were associated with the screening rate using the FOBT; male sex, older age, higher household income, having supplemental insurance, family history of cancer, and poor self-reported health were associated with a higher screening rate using colonoscopy. Lower household income was associated with a higher screening rate using the FOBT and with a lower screening rate using colonoscopy. To increase the rate of CRC screening using colonoscopy, efforts should be made toward improving the education and promotion of screening to the low household income target population.

  3. Socioeconomic Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Korea: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Hahm, Myung-Il; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cancer worldwide. The incidence and mortality rates of CRC are higher among lower socioeconomic status (SES) populations. We investigated the association between different indicators of SES and CRC screening rates in Korea. The eligible study population included males and females aged 50 to 74 years who participated in a nationwide cross-sectional survey (2010-2012). The "compliance with recommendation" category was applicable to participants who had undergone a fecal occult blood test (FOBT), double-contrast barium enema, or colonoscopy within 1, 5, or 10 years, respectively. In total, 6221 subjects (51.4% female, 55.6% aged 50 years) were included in the final analysis. Lower household income was significantly negatively related to compliance with screening recommendations (P for trend < 0.01) and marginally significantly related to noncompliance with recommendations (P for trend = 0.07). Older age and poor self-reported health were associated with the screening rate using the FOBT; male sex, older age, higher household income, having supplemental insurance, family history of cancer, and poor self-reported health were associated with a higher screening rate using colonoscopy. Lower household income was associated with a higher screening rate using the FOBT and with a lower screening rate using colonoscopy. To increase the rate of CRC screening using colonoscopy, efforts should be made toward improving the education and promotion of screening to the low household income target population. PMID:26426605

  4. Cancer risk in diagnostic radiation workers in Korea from 1996–2002.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Ha, Mina; Lee, Won Jin; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Jeong, Meeseon; Jin, Young-Woo; Kim, Hyeog Ju; Lee, Kwang-Yong; Lee, Jung-Eun; Kang, Jong-Won; Kim, Heon

    2013-01-14

    This study was aimed to examine the association between the effective radiation dose of diagnostic radiation workers in Korea and their risk for cancer. A total of 36,394 diagnostic radiation workers (159,189 person-years) were included in this study; the effective dose and cancer incidence were analyzed between the period 1996 and 2002. Median (range) follow-up time was 5.5 (0.04-7) years in males and 3.75 (0.04-7) years in females. Cancer risk related to the average annual effective dose and exposure to more than 5 mSv of annual radiation dose were calculated by the Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for occupation and age at the last follow-up. The standardized incidence ratio of cancer in radiation workers showed strong healthy worker effects in both male and female workers. The relative risk of all cancers from exposure of the average annual effective dose in the highest quartile (upper 75% or more of radiation dose) was 2.14 in male workers (95% CI: 1.48-3.10, p-trend: <0.0001) and 4.43 in female workers (95% CI: 2.17-9.04, p-trend: <0.0001), compared to those in the lower three quartiles of radiation exposure dose (less than upper 75% of radiation dose). Cancer risks of the brain (HR: 17.38, 95% CI: 1.05-287.8, p-trend: 0.04) and thyroid (HR: 3.88, 95% CI: 1.09-13.75, p-trend: 0.01) in female workers were significantly higher in the highest quartile group of radiation exposure compared to those in the lower three quartiles, and the risk of colon and rectum cancers in male workers showed a significantly increasing trend according to the increase of the average annual radiation dose (HR: 2.37, 95% CI: 0.99-5.67, p-trend: 0.02). The relative risk of leukemia in male workers and that of brain cancer in female workers were significantly higher in the group of people who had been exposed to more than 5 mSv/year than those exposed to less than 5 mSv/year (HR: 11.75, 95% CI: 1.08-128.20; HR: 63.11, 95% CI: 3.70-1,075.00, respectively). Although the present study

  5. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shim, Minsun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Keeho

    2016-08-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  6. News Portrayal of Cancer: Content Analysis of Threat and Efficacy by Cancer Type and Comparison with Incidence and Mortality in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    How the news media cover cancer may have profound significance for cancer prevention and control; however, little is known about the actual content of cancer news coverage in Korea. This research thus aimed to examine news portrayal of specific cancer types with respect to threat and efficacy, and to investigate whether news portrayal corresponds to actual cancer statistics. A content analysis of 1,138 cancer news stories was conducted, using a representative sample from 23 news outlets (television, newspapers, and other news media) in Korea over a 5-year period from 2008 to 2012. Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Results suggest that threat was most prominent in news stories on pancreatic cancer (with 87% of the articles containing threat information with specific details), followed by liver (80%) and lung cancers (70%), and least in stomach cancer (41%). Efficacy information with details was conveyed most often in articles on colorectal (54%), skin (54%), and liver (50%) cancers, and least in thyroid cancer (17%). In terms of discrepancies between news portrayal and actual statistics, the threat of pancreatic and liver cancers was overreported, whereas the threat of stomach and prostate cancers was underreported. Efficacy information regarding cervical and colorectal cancers was overrepresented in the news relative to cancer statistics; efficacy of lung and thyroid cancers was underreported. Findings provide important implications for medical professionals to understand news information about particular cancers as a basis for public (mis)perception, and to communicate effectively about cancer risk with the public and patients. PMID:27478333

  7. Economic evaluation of eribulin as second-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Majethia, Unnati; Breeze, Janis L; Kontoudis, Ilias; Park, Jeongae

    2016-01-01

    Background Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly for those patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative tumor. Similar to the rest of the world, treatment options are limited in South Korea following first-line chemotherapy with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of eribulin in South Korean patients with HER2-negative MBC who have progressed after usage of at least one chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced disease (second-line therapy). Methods A partition survival model was developed from the perspective of the South Korean health care system. The economic impact of introducing eribulin as second-line therapy for HER2-negative MBC was compared to that of capecitabine and vinorelbine. The analysis estimated incremental cost per life-year (LY), that is, cost-effectiveness, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), that is, cost-utility, of eribulin for management of HER2-negative MBC in South Korea. The model accounted for overall survival, progression-free survival, drug costs, grade 3/4 adverse events, and health care utilization. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to identify uncertainty in the results of the economic evaluation. Results Second-line eribulin was associated with greater benefits in terms of LY and QALY, compared to capecitabine and vinorelbine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was ₩10.5M (approximately USD 9,200) per LY, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was ₩17M (approximately USD 14,800) per QALY in the basecase analysis. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from ₩12M (USD 10,461) to ₩27M (USD 23,538) per QALY in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, >99% of the simulations were below ₩50M (USD 42,300), and the lower and upper 95% confidence intervals were ₩3M (USD 2,600) and ₩24M (USD 20,900) per QALY

  8. Economic evaluation of eribulin as second-line treatment for metastatic breast cancer in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Gabriel; Majethia, Unnati; Breeze, Janis L; Kontoudis, Ilias; Park, Jeongae

    2016-01-01

    Background Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is associated with poor prognosis, particularly for those patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2)-negative tumor. Similar to the rest of the world, treatment options are limited in South Korea following first-line chemotherapy with anthracyclines and/or taxanes. This study examined the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of eribulin in South Korean patients with HER2-negative MBC who have progressed after usage of at least one chemotherapeutic regimen for advanced disease (second-line therapy). Methods A partition survival model was developed from the perspective of the South Korean health care system. The economic impact of introducing eribulin as second-line therapy for HER2-negative MBC was compared to that of capecitabine and vinorelbine. The analysis estimated incremental cost per life-year (LY), that is, cost-effectiveness, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY), that is, cost-utility, of eribulin for management of HER2-negative MBC in South Korea. The model accounted for overall survival, progression-free survival, drug costs, grade 3/4 adverse events, and health care utilization. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to identify uncertainty in the results of the economic evaluation. Results Second-line eribulin was associated with greater benefits in terms of LY and QALY, compared to capecitabine and vinorelbine. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was ₩10.5M (approximately USD 9,200) per LY, and the incremental cost-utility ratio was ₩17M (approximately USD 14,800) per QALY in the basecase analysis. The incremental cost-utility ratio ranged from ₩12M (USD 10,461) to ₩27M (USD 23,538) per QALY in the deterministic sensitivity analysis. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, >99% of the simulations were below ₩50M (USD 42,300), and the lower and upper 95% confidence intervals were ₩3M (USD 2,600) and ₩24M (USD 20,900) per QALY

  9. Prevalence of Precancerous Conditions and Gastric Cancer Based upon the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea for 7 Years, Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ji Hyuk; Lim, Yun Jeong; Kang, Jung Hyun; Yang, Jae Nam; Shin, Seung Min; Choi, Jae Hyeuk; Lee, Jin Ho

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Gastric cancer is the second most prevalent cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Korea. The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) has implemented esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) biennially for all Koreans starting in their 40s. This study was conducted to estimate the clinical relevance of NCSP through identifying the prevalence of gastric disease, including cancer. Materials and Methods. Data from 40,821 subjects who received the screening EGD in the single center for 7 years were retrospectively investigated. Results. The overall prevalence of nonatrophic/atrophic/metaplastic gastritis, peptic ulcer, adenoma, early gastric cancer (EGC), and advanced gastric cancer (AGC) was 44.28%, 27.97%, 14.95%, 0.59%, 0.43%, 0.21%, and 0.09%, respectively. The prevalence of metaplastic gastritis, peptic ulcer, adenoma, EGC, and AGC was significantly higher in men than in women. The prevalence of preneoplastic/neoplastic disease significantly increased with age. Judged from the ratio of EGC to AGC, the proportion of EGC made up to 70% of all cancers. Conclusions. Screening endoscopy starting for people in their 40s should be strongly recommended for the elderly. Through the NCSP, the early detection of gastric cancer might contribute to the decreased mortality rate due to gastric cancer in Korea. PMID:25642244

  10. How Much Progress Has Been Made in Minimally Invasive Surgery for Gastric Cancer in Korea?: A Viewpoint From Korean Prospective Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Sung-Heun; Kim, Min-Chan

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer is the most common cancer in Korea. Because the incidence of gastric cancer is still high even with early detection and because of developments in surgical instruments and technological advances, minimally invasive surgery has rapidly become an accepted treatment for gastric cancer in Korea. Many Korean gastric surgeons have contributed to the rapid adaptation of minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer: not only the Korean Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study (KLASS) group, but also other expert surgeons after the 2000s. Thanks to their vigorous efforts involving active learning, education, workshops, academic communications, and international communications with active laparoscopic gastric surgeons in Korea, numerous results and well-designed large-scale clinical studies have been published or are actively ongoing, thus increasing its wide acceptance as an option for gastric cancer. Now, Korea has become one of the leading countries using minimally invasive surgery for the treatment of gastric cancer. This review article will summarize the current status and issues, as well as the clinical trials that have finished or are ongoing, regarding minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer in Korea. PMID:25526443

  11. Protocol of a Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS): a prospective, clinical and epidemiological study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Eun; Park, Young Joo; Cho, Belong; Hwang, Yunji; Choi, June Young; Kim, Su-jin; Choi, Hoonsung; Choi, Ho-Chun; An, Ah Reum; Park, Do Joon; Park, Sue K; Youn, Yeo-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Thyroid cancer incidence in Korea is the highest in the world and has recently increased steeply. However, factors contributing to this sudden increase have not been fully elucidated, and few studies have explored the postoperative prognosis. The Thyroid Cancer Longitudinal Study (T-CALOS) was initiated with three aims: (1) to identify factors predicting quality of life, recurrence, and incidence of other diseases after thyroid cancer treatments; (2) to investigate environmental exposure to radiation, toxicants and molecular factors in relation to tumour aggressiveness; and (3) to evaluate gene–environment interactions that increase thyroid cancer in comparison with healthy participants from a pool of nationwide population-based healthy examinees. Methods and analysis T-CALOS enrols patients with incident thyroid cancer from three general hospitals, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital and National Medical Center, Korea. The study is an ongoing project expecting to investigate 5000 patients with thyroid cancer up until 2017. Healthy examinees with a normal thyroid confirmed by sonography have been enrolled at the Healthy Examination Center at Seoul National University Hospital. We are also performing individual matching using two nationwide databases that are open to the public. Follow-up information is obtained at patients’ clinical visits and by linkage to the national database. For statistical analysis, we will use conditional logistic regression models and a Cox proportional hazard regression model. A number of stratifications and sensitivity analyses will be performed to confirm the results. Ethics and dissemination Based on a large sample size, a prospective study design, comprehensive data collection and biobank, T-CALOS has been independently peer-reviewed and approved by the three hospitals and two funding sources (National Research Foundation of Korea and Korean Foundation for Cancer Research

  12. The prevalence of BRCA mutations among familial breast cancer patients in Korea: results of the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer study.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Ah; Kim, Sung-Won; Kang, Eunyoung; Park, Sue K; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Lee, Min Hyuk; Nam, Seok-Jin; Han, Wonshik; Bae, Young Tae; Kim, Hyun-Ah; Cho, Young Up; Chang, Myung Chul; Paik, Nam Sun; Hwang, Ki-Tae; Kim, Sei Joong; Noh, Dong-Young; Choi, Doo Ho; Noh, Woo-Chul; Kim, Lee Su; Kim, Ku Sang; Suh, Young Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Jung, Yongsik; Moon, Byung-In; Yang, Jung-Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Yom, Cha Kyong; Kim, Sung Yong; Lee, Hyde; Jung, Sung Hoo

    2013-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of BRCA1/2 mutations among familial breast cancer (BC) patients in Korea. We analyzed 775 familial BC patients who were enrolled in the Korean Hereditary Breast Cancer (KOHBRA) study and treated at 36 institutions between May 2007 and May 2010. Patients with familial BC were defined as BC patients with family histories of BC or ovarian cancer (OC) in any relatives. All probands received genetic counseling and BRCA genetic testing was performed after obtaining informed consent. The mean age of BC diagnosis was 43.6 years. The numbers of probands with family histories of BC only and OC only were 682 and 93, respectively. The overall prevalence of the BRCA mutation among familial BC patients was 21.7 % (BRCA1 9.3 % and BRCA2 12.4 %). Subgroup analyses observed prevalences of the BRCA mutation as follows: 19.6 % among patients with BC family history only (BRCA1 7.6 % and BRCA2 12.0 %) and 36.6 % among patients with OC family history only (BRCA1 21.5 % and BRCA2 15.1 %). Most of the subgroups satisfied the 10 % probability criteria to undergo BRCA testing. However, the prevalence of the BRCA mutations among subgroups that had 2 BC patients in a family with both age at diagnosis of more than 50 years old did not reach the 10 % criteria (4.1 %). Korean familial BC patients are good candidates for BRCA testing even when they have family histories of single breast cancers. However, proband age at diagnosis should be carefully considered when selecting patients for testing.

  13. Supergene vermiculitization of phlogopite and biotite in ultramafic and mafic rocks, central Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, H.S.; Song, Y.; Lee, S.Y.

    1994-12-31

    An X-ray diffraction study of vermiculitized micas in ultramafic and mafic intrusive rocks from Cheongyang, Korea, shows the following weathering sequence: mica to ordered mica/vermiculite interstratification to vermiculite. Electron microprobe analyses show the general trends of K leaching and Ca enrichment with increased weathering. The vermiculitization of phlogopite from ultramafic rocks proceeds by means of a continuous decrease in Al-for-Si tetrahedral substitutions and a progressive increase in Al-for-(Fe{sup 2+} + Mg) octahedral substitutions in the early stage of weathering.these substitutions occur to compensate for the excess of negative charge in the mica-like layer, in agreement with currently accepted vermiculitization mechanisms. They change to a slight increase of Al-for-Si tetrahedral substitutions in the late stage of the vermiculitization of phlogopite, owing to the oxidation of Fe despite its low content. However, the behavior of Fe in the late stage of the transformation of biotite into vermiculite is significantly different; that is, Fe increases substantially. The reason for this Fe increase in the late stage remains unresolved. Recalculations of the structural formulas on the basis of several assumptions indicate that the oxidation of Fe is necessary for the vermiculite derived from biotite to form the reasonable structural formulas.

  14. Results of Colorectal Cancer Screening of the National Cancer Screening Program in Korea, 2008

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung Im; Han, Mi Ah; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Sun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the current situation of national colorectal cancer screening by analyzing participation rates, positive rates of screening methods and screening rate of secondary screening tests in colorectal screening of the national cancer screening program in 2008. Materials and Methods With database about target population and screened individuals of the national cancer screening program, the results of target population and participants of colorectal cancer screening in 2008 were analyzed. Among adults aged over 50 years of medical aid and beneficiaries of national health insurance paying lower 50% premiums in the total subscribers, 4,640,365 were target population of colorectal cancer screening and the data of 984,915 undergoing fecal occult blood test (FOBT) as a primary screening were analyzed. Results The colorectal cancer screening rate was 21.2% and the rates of national health insurance subscribers, females and the elderly aged 60-64 years were higher than those of others. The recipients with a positive result in FOBT recorded approximately 7.5%. Medical aid beneficiaries (7.9%), males (8.8%) and seniors aged over 75 years (9.1%) showed higher positive rates than the average one. Out of the FOBT positive recipients, 43.0% took a secondary screening and the rate undergoing colonoscopy (31.4%) was higher than that of doing double-contrast barium enema test (11.6%). Conclusion Colorectal cancer screening rate of medical aid beneficiaries and people paying lower 50% premiums among national health insurance subscribers, was different according to demographic characters (gender, age and types of health insurance). This finding meant that screening for the vulnerable needed to be encouraged by considering socio-demographic characters. Additionally, more efforts were necessary to increase the secondary screening rate of people with a positive result in primary one. PMID:21253320

  15. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals.

  16. The causality between smoking and lung cancer among groups and individuals: addressing issues in tobacco litigation in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Khang, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses issues on the causality between smoking and lung cancer, which have been raised during the tobacco litigation in South Korea. It should be recognized that the explanatory ability of risk factor(s) for inter-individual variations in disease occurrence is different from the causal contribution of the risk factor(s) to disease occurrence. The affected subjects of the tobacco litigation in South Korea are lung cancer patients with a history of cigarette smoking. Thus, the attributable fraction of the exposed rather than the population attributable fraction should be used in the tobacco litigation regarding the causal contribution of smoking to lung cancer. Scientific evidence for the causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer is based on studies of individuals and groups, studies in animals and humans, studies that are observational or experimental, studies in laboratories and communities, and studies in both underdeveloped and developed countries. The scientific evidence collected is applicable to both groups and individuals. The probability of causation, which is calculated based on the attributable fraction for the association between smoking and lung cancer, could be utilized as evidence to prove causality in individuals. PMID:26137845

  17. Non-cancer diseases of Korean atomic bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Ju, Young-Su; Jhun, Hyung-Joon; Kim, Jung-Bum; Kim, Jin-Kook

    2006-06-01

    Many Koreans, in addition to Japanese, were killed or injured by the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945. Our study examined noncancer diseases of Korean A-bomb survivors in residence at Hapcheon, Republic of Korea and evaluated whether they had significantly higher prevalence of noncancer diseases than non-exposed people. We evaluated a number of tests, including anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hepatitis B surface antigen, and urinalysis, of survivors (n=223) and controls (n=372). Univariate analysis revealed significantly lower fasting glucose and creatinine, and higher diastolic blood pressure, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and blood urea nitrogen levels in the survivors than in the controls. The calculation of crude prevalence ratios (PRs) revealed that A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00-1.35) and chronic liver disease (2.20; 1.59-3.06) than controls. After adjusting for covariates (age, sex, body mass index, marital status, education, alcohol consumption, and smoking), A-bomb survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension (1.24; 1.06-1.44), chronic liver disease (2.07; 1.51-2.84), and hypercholesterolemia (1.79; 1.11-2.90) than controls. This study suggests that A-bomb exposure is associated with a higher prevalence of non-cancer diseases in Korean survivors.

  18. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population.

  19. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599

  20. Establishing the Origin of Elevated Uranium Concentrations in Groundwater near the Central Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt, Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, S H; Hwang, J; Lee, J Y; Hyun, S P; Bae, B K; Park, Y

    2013-01-01

    We examined the origin of the U-enriched groundwater in Daejeon, near the Ogcheon U zone in Korea. For this study, groundwater ionic species and C, S, and Sr isotopic compositions were analyzed. The U-enriched groundwater occurred only in the Daejeon granite region, while all the groundwater in the Ogcheon Supergroup showed very low U concentrations. In the granite region, the pedospheric or atmospheric origin of dissolved C and S means that the aquifer has been well connected to the oxidized surface environment. The Sr/Sr ratios indicated a lithospheric origin of Sr. Groundwater isotopic compositions in the Ogcheon belt varied greatly, indicating their complex sources. In this region, dissolved C originated from graphite-rich slate and limestone. The broad range of δS suggested that the composite sources included atmospheric SO for most groundwater, lithogenic SO for mine drainage and quarry water, and anthropogenic SO for polluted groundwater. This study indicates that the U-enriched groundwater is not related to the present U ores in the Ogcheon belt but is genetically associated with the granite body itself. The varying but considerable U contents within the granite body can be present as isolated groups. We infer that locally high U contents in the Daejeon granite might inherently be due to assimilation of the Ogcheon U-mineralized zone into granitic melt during the Mesozoic; however, the pH and Eh conditions except aquifer geology were very important factors in developing highly enriched U groundwater in the Daejeon granite region. Thermodynamic modeling highlights the importance of dissolved Ca and (bi-)carbonate in U geochemistry. PMID:23673746

  1. Establishing the Origin of Elevated Uranium Concentrations in Groundwater near the Central Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt, Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, S H; Hwang, J; Lee, J Y; Hyun, S P; Bae, B K; Park, Y

    2013-01-01

    We examined the origin of the U-enriched groundwater in Daejeon, near the Ogcheon U zone in Korea. For this study, groundwater ionic species and C, S, and Sr isotopic compositions were analyzed. The U-enriched groundwater occurred only in the Daejeon granite region, while all the groundwater in the Ogcheon Supergroup showed very low U concentrations. In the granite region, the pedospheric or atmospheric origin of dissolved C and S means that the aquifer has been well connected to the oxidized surface environment. The Sr/Sr ratios indicated a lithospheric origin of Sr. Groundwater isotopic compositions in the Ogcheon belt varied greatly, indicating their complex sources. In this region, dissolved C originated from graphite-rich slate and limestone. The broad range of δS suggested that the composite sources included atmospheric SO for most groundwater, lithogenic SO for mine drainage and quarry water, and anthropogenic SO for polluted groundwater. This study indicates that the U-enriched groundwater is not related to the present U ores in the Ogcheon belt but is genetically associated with the granite body itself. The varying but considerable U contents within the granite body can be present as isolated groups. We infer that locally high U contents in the Daejeon granite might inherently be due to assimilation of the Ogcheon U-mineralized zone into granitic melt during the Mesozoic; however, the pH and Eh conditions except aquifer geology were very important factors in developing highly enriched U groundwater in the Daejeon granite region. Thermodynamic modeling highlights the importance of dissolved Ca and (bi-)carbonate in U geochemistry.

  2. Central Role of RET in Thyroid Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Massimo; Carlomagno, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    RET (rearranged during transfection) is a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the development of neural crest derived cell lineages, kidney, and male germ cells. Different human cancers, including papillary and medullary thyroid carcinomas, lung adenocarcinomas, and myeloproliferative disorders display gain-of-function mutations in RET. Accordingly, RET protein has become a promising molecular target for cancer treatment. PMID:24296167

  3. Metagenomic assessment of the microbial diversity in ground pork products from markets in the North Central Region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok-Kyung; Baker, Christopher A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community in ground pork using molecular approaches. Forty six ground pork products were purchased from local stores in the north central area of South Korea. Aerobic plate counts varied 4.23 ± 5.14 × 10(5) CFU/g with the range between 5.00 × 10(3) and 1.85 × 10(6) CFU/g for ground pork samples. Four ground meat samples were further processed for metagenomic analysis. Pseudomonas species was the most relative abundant with a wide range occurring (1.72 to 77.7%) as part of the microbial genera in ground pork. Bacteria such as Carnobacterium, Yersinia, Photobacterium were also identified in ground pork. Despite the prominence of certain genera across all samples there was still extensive microbial diversity among ground pork products that originated from different slaughter houses and were processed in different markets. Such diversity indicates that designing interventions to extend shelf life may be hampered by the extensive variability in the microbial consortia associated with pork products. However, this diversity may be useful for developing microbial traceability signatures unique to a slaughter house or a particular market.

  4. Metagenomic assessment of the microbial diversity in ground pork products from markets in the North Central Region of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ok-Kyung; Baker, Christopher A; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Si Hong; Ricke, Steven C

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the microbial community in ground pork using molecular approaches. Forty six ground pork products were purchased from local stores in the north central area of South Korea. Aerobic plate counts varied 4.23 ± 5.14 × 10(5) CFU/g with the range between 5.00 × 10(3) and 1.85 × 10(6) CFU/g for ground pork samples. Four ground meat samples were further processed for metagenomic analysis. Pseudomonas species was the most relative abundant with a wide range occurring (1.72 to 77.7%) as part of the microbial genera in ground pork. Bacteria such as Carnobacterium, Yersinia, Photobacterium were also identified in ground pork. Despite the prominence of certain genera across all samples there was still extensive microbial diversity among ground pork products that originated from different slaughter houses and were processed in different markets. Such diversity indicates that designing interventions to extend shelf life may be hampered by the extensive variability in the microbial consortia associated with pork products. However, this diversity may be useful for developing microbial traceability signatures unique to a slaughter house or a particular market. PMID:27192496

  5. New Cancer Prevention and Control Central Institutional Review Board Established | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) Initiative announced the establishment of the Cancer Prevention and Control (CPC) CIRB January 14, extending the benefits of centralized review to investigators participating in clinical trials sponsored by the Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP). |

  6. A morphometric analysis of maxillary central incisor on the basis of facial appearance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Ji-Eun; Yang, Hong-So

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to identify a more esthetic width-to-length ratio by analyzing maxillary central incisor of Korean adult population. Information regarding tooth ratio in the Korean population may be useful to clinicians when restoring anterior teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 40 men and 40 women were included in this study. The NON-MEDIA group included 40 non-celebrities, who were healthy and 25 to 39 years old, with normal dentofacial appearance. The MEDIA group consisted of 40 celebrities selected only on the basis of their soft-tissue facial appearance. The facial photographs of 40 celebrities were collected from the Internet websites. The width and length of the maxillary central incisor were measured using Adobe Photoshop® 7.0, a software for analysis, measurement and edition of photographs. Data were analyzed statistically using the Independent t-test at 5% statistical significance level. RESULTS The mean ratio for the MEDIA group was 0.77, whereas that of the NON-MEDIA group was 0.88. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant. No significant gender differences were found in the width-to-length ratio in MEDIA group. In NON-MEDIA group, however, there were significant differences between female and male. CONCLUSION After analyzing maxillary anterior teeth of Korean adults, our results were in accordance with the general Western standards of esthetics. A dentist restoring the natural look and beauty of teeth will have to consider those standards. PMID:22439095

  7. Large genomic rearrangement of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in familial breast cancer patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Ja Young; Cho, Dae-Yeon; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Choi, Su-Youn; Shin, Inkyung; Park, Hyun Gyu; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Yu, Jong Han; Ko, Beom Seok; Ku, Bo Kyung; Son, Byung Ho

    2014-06-01

    We screened large genomic rearrangements of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes in Korean, familial breast cancer patients. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay was used to identify BRCA1 and BRCA2 genomic rearrangements in 226 Korean familial breast cancer patients with risk factors for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, who previously tested negative for point mutations in the two genes. We identified only one large deletion (c.4186-1593_4676-1465del) in BRCA1. No large rearrangements were found in BRCA2. Our result indicates that large genomic rearrangement in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes does not seem like a major determinant of breast cancer susceptibility in the Korean population. A large-scale study needs to validate our result in Korea.

  8. Knowledge, Practices, and Perceived Barriers Regarding Cancer Pain Management Among Physicians and Nurses In Korea: A Nationwide Multicenter Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Kim, Yeol; Kong, Kyung Ae; Kim, Dae Hyun; Choi, Jin Young; Nam, Eun Jeong; Choi, Jin Young; Koh, Sujin; Hwang, Kwan Ok; Baek, Sun Kyung; Park, Eun Jung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Medical professionals’ practices and knowledge regarding cancer pain management have often been cited as inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge, practices and perceived barriers regarding cancer pain management among physicians and nurses in Korea. Methods A nationwide questionnaire survey was administered to physicians and nurses involved in the care of cancer patients. Questionnaire items covered pain assessment and documentation practices, knowledge regarding cancer pain management, the perceived barriers to cancer pain control, and processes perceived as the major causes of delay in opioid administration. Results A total of 333 questionnaires (149 physicians and 284 nurses) were analyzed. Nurses performed pain assessment and documentation more regularly than physicians did. Although physicians had better knowledge of pain management than did nurses, both groups lacked knowledge regarding the side effects and pharmacology of opioids. Physicians working in the palliative care ward and nurses who had received pain management education obtained higher scores on knowledge. Physicians perceived patients’ reluctance to take opioids as a barrier to pain control, more so than did nurses, while nurses perceived patients’ tendency to under-report of pain as a barrier, more so than did physicians. Physicians and nurses held different perceptions regarding major cause of delay during opioid administration. Conclusions There were differences between physicians and nurses in knowledge and practices for cancer pain management. An effective educational strategy for cancer pain management is needed in order to improve medical professionals’ knowledge and clinical practices. PMID:25144641

  9. [Central cancer of the lung in MR image].

    PubMed

    Gamova, E V; Nudnov, N V

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the authors' own material based on the data of chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 48 patients with verified central cancer of the lung. The algorithm of chest MRI optimized by the authors is presented. The MRI signs of lung cancer in exo- and peribronchial forms of cancer are systematized. The MRI semiotics of chest structural damages are given in the extent of a tumor when progressing, and a metastatic lesion. The MRI signs of complications of this disease are specified.

  10. Imaging of cancer therapy-induced central nervous system toxicity.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Jörg; Klein, Joshua P

    2014-02-01

    Cancer therapy, including radiation and chemotherapy, can be associated with harmful effects to the central nervous system. Recognition of classical neurotoxic syndromes is critical to appropriately guide and optimize patient management. As a result of cancer therapy-induced toxicity, patients may present with acute, subacute, and chronic neurologic symptoms that can be misinterpreted as tumor recurrence, infection, or paraneoplastic syndromes. In this review the advantages and limitations of various neuroimaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography, frequently used in patients with cancer who present with diverse neurotoxic syndromes, are highlighted. PMID:24287388

  11. Gastric cancer screening uptake trends in Korea: results for the National Cancer Screening Program from 2002 to 2011: a prospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-02-01

    Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of endoscopy

  12. Estimated amount of 24-hour urine sodium excretion is positively correlated with stomach and breast cancer prevalence in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong Chul; Koo, Ho Seok; Oh, Se Won; Kim, Suhnggwon; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the association between the prevalence of cancer, particularly stomach cancer, and the amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion estimated from spot urine specimens. The study included 19,083 subjects who took part in the Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2009 and 2011. The total amount of urine sodium excreted in a 24-hr period was estimated by using two equations based on the values for spot urine sodium and creatinine. In subjects who had an estimated 24-hr urine sodium excretion of more than two standard deviations above the mean (group 2), the prevalence of stomach cancer was higher than in subjects with lower 24-hr sodium excretion (group 1). By using the Tanaka equation to estimate it, the prevalence of stomach cancer was 0.6% (114/18,331) in group 1, whereas it was 1.6% (9/568) in group 2 (P=0.006). By using the Korean equation, the prevalence was 0.6% (115/18,392) in group 1, and 1.6% in group 2 (8/507) (P=0.010). By using the Tanaka equation, breast cancer in women is more prevalent in group 2 (1.9%, 6/324) than group 1 (0.8%, 78/9,985, P=0.039). Higher salt intake, as defined by the estimated amount of 24-hr urine sodium excretion, is positively correlated with a higher prevalence of stomach or breast cancer in the Korean population.

  13. Cost of treatment for breast cancer in central Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Hoang Lan, Nguyen; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Stewart, John Frederick; Tung, Nguyen Dinh; Coyte, Peter C.

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, cases of breast cancer have been on the rise in Vietnam. To date, there has been no study on the financial burden of the disease. This study estimates the direct medical cost of a 5-year treatment course for women with primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. Methods Retrospective patient-level data from medical records at the Hue Central Hospital between 2001 and 2006 were analyzed. Cost analysis was conducted from the health care payers’ perspective. Various direct medical cost categories were computed for a 5-year treatment course for patients with breast cancer. Costs, in US dollars, discounted at a 3% rate, were converted to 2010 after adjusting for inflation. For each cost category, the mean, standard deviation, median, and cost range were estimated. Median regression was used to investigate the relationship between costs and the stage, age at diagnosis, and the health insurance coverage of the patients. Results The total direct medical cost for a 5-year treatment course for breast cancer in central Vietnam was estimated at $975 per patient (range: $11.7–$3,955). The initial treatment cost, particularly the cost of chemotherapy, was found to account for the greatest proportion of total costs (64.9%). Among the patient characteristics studied, stage at diagnosis was significantly associated with total treatment costs. Patients at later stages of breast cancer did not differ significantly in their total costs from those at earlier stages however, but their survival time was much shorter. The absence of health insurance was the main factor limiting service uptake. Conclusion From the health care payers’ perspective, the Government subsidization of public hospital charges lowered the direct medical costs of a 5-year treatment course for primary breast cancer in central Vietnam. However, the long treatment course was significantly influenced by out-of-pocket payments for patients without health insurance. PMID:23394855

  14. Reconstruction of the Ogcheon Rift Basin and Pre-Cenozoic Tectonic Evolution of the Central Ogcheon Belt, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    The pre-Cenozoic tectonic structures of the Central Ogcheon Belt, Korea, were formed at least through five times of tectonic phases [D* Gyemyeongsan phase of Neoproterozoic˜Middle Permian, D1 Ogcheon-Cheongsan phase (Songnim orogeny) of Late Permian˜Middle Triassic, D2 Honam phase (Daebo orogeny) of Early˜Late Jurassic, D3 Cheongmari phase of Early Cretaceous, D4 Geumgang phase before Late Cretaceous] and three times of metamorphism [M1 medium-pressure type metamorphism of Late Permian, M2 contact metamorphism of Middle Jurassic, M3 retrograde metamorphism of Early Cretaceous]. The D* tectonic phase is marked by the rifting of the original Gyeonggi Massif into North Gyeonggi Massif (NGM: present Gyeonggi Massif) and South Gyeonggi Massif (SGM: Bakdallyeong and Busan gneiss complexes). Its associated bimodal type volcano-plutonism occurred at least four times, two times at Neoproterozoic, a Early Paleozoic, a Late Paleozoic ages. The lower (quartzose psammitic, pelitic, calcareous and basic rocks) and upper (conglomerate and pelitic rocks and acidic rocks) units of Ogcheon Supergroup (OSG) were deposited in the Ogcheon rift basin (ORB) during Early and Late Paleozoic times, respectively. The D1 phase is characterized by the coupling of NGM and SGM with closing of ORB and the M1 metamorphism of OSG at its earlier phase, and by the coupling of South China block (Gyeonggi Massif and Ogcheon Zone) and North China block (Yeongnam Massif and Taebaksan Zone) and Cheongsan dextral strike-slip shearing and formation of Middle Triassic Dadong basin in its later phase. The D2 is marked by Honam dextral strike-slip shearing and the M2 metamorphism of OSG by the intrusion of Daebo granitoids at the inter-tectonic phase. The D3 is by NNE-trending sinistral strike-slip shearing and the M3 retrograde metamorphism of OSG. The D4 occurred along Geumgang fault, and formed a giant-scale Geumgang drag fold intruded by Late Cretaceous acidic dykes.

  15. Decentralization in Educational Governance and Its Challenges in Korea: Focused on Policy Conflicts between Central and Local Government in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cha, Sung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization of educational governance is characterized by the recent education reform in Korea. With the election of progressive superintendents and local council members, educational policy conflicts have often occurred and deepened in the process of decision-making and implementation of policies such as School Violence Prevention, National…

  16. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines Compared with Other Guidelines and Remaining Issues.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Joong-Won; Lee, Jeong Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed "washout" in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis.

  17. Noninvasive Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Elaboration on Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guidelines Compared with Other Guidelines and Remaining Issues

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Park, Joong-Won

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed based on characteristic findings of arterial-phase enhancement and portal/delayed "washout" in cirrhotic patients. Several countries and major academic societies have proposed varying specific diagnostic criteria for HCC, largely reflecting the variable HCC prevalence in different regions and ethnic groups, as well as different practice patterns. In 2014, a new version of Korean practice guidelines for management of HCC was released by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC). According to the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, if the typical hallmark of HCC (i.e., hypervascularity in the arterial phase with washout in the portal or 3 min-delayed phases) is identified in a nodule ≥ 1 cm in diameter on either dynamic CT, dynamic MRI, or MRI using hepatocyte-specific contrast agent in high-risk groups, a diagnosis of HCC is established. In addition, the KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines provide criteria to diagnose HCC for subcentimeter hepatic nodules according to imaging findings and tumor marker, which has not been addressed in other guidelines such as Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and European Association for the Study of the Liver. In this review, we briefly review the new HCC diagnostic criteria endorsed by the 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea practice guidelines, in comparison with other recent guidelines; we furthermore address several remaining issues in noninvasive diagnosis of HCC, including prerequisite of sonographic demonstration of nodules, discrepancy between transitional phase and delayed phase, and implementation of ancillary features for HCC diagnosis. PMID:26798212

  18. Impact of supplementary private health insurance on stomach cancer care in Korea: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Wook; Jung, Kee-Taig; Kim, Sung; Bae, Jae-Moon; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won; Lee, Jun Ho; Noh, Jae-Hyung; Sohn, Tae-Sung; Yun, Young Ho

    2009-01-01

    Background Korea achieved universal health insurance coverage in only 12 years; however, insufficient government funding has resulted in high out-of-pocket payments and, in turn, a demand for supplementary private health insurance (PHI). Supplementary PHI provides a fixed amount of benefits in the event of critical illness (e.g., cancer or stroke), surgery, or hospitalization. In this study, we tried to identify factors that influence the decision to purchase supplementary PHI and investigate the impacts of PHI on various aspects of cancer care. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 391 patients with gastric cancer, we collected data on demographic and clinical variables, coverage by PHI at the time of diagnosis, and patients' cancer care experiences from surgery databases and patient questionnaires. Two separate multivariate logistic regression models were used 1) to determine whether various sociodemographic and clinical variables influence the purchase of supplementary PHI, and 2) to determine if there is a difference in various outcome measures between individuals with and without PHI. Results We studied 187 subjects (49.6%) who were covered under PHI at the time of diagnosis. Subjects who purchased PHI tended to be younger (aOR = 5.01, 95% C.I. = 2.05 – 12.24), and more educated (aOR = 2.67, 95% C.I. = 1.04 – 6.86). Supplementary PHI coverage was significantly associated with financial independence (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI = 1.19 – 3.61), but not with other aspects of cancer care, such as access to healthcare, quality of care, communication and patient autonomy. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that supplementary PHI neither serves as a safety net for vulnerable patients nor improves cancer care experience, except for maintaining the financial independence of beneficiaries. PMID:19643032

  19. Occupation and renal cell cancer in Central and Eastern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Julia E; Charbotel, Barbara; Moore, Lee E; Karami, Sara; Zaridze, David G; Matveev, Vsevolod; Janout, Vladimir; Kollárová, Helena; Foretova, Lenka; Bencko, Vladimir; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Dana; Ferro, Gilles; Chow, Wong-Ho; Rothman, Nathaniel; Stewart, Patricia; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Objective Central and Eastern Europe has among the highest rates of renal cell cancer worldwide. Few studies have been conducted in these areas to investigate the possible role of occupational exposures in renal cell cancer etiology. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of renal cell cancer with employment in specific occupations and industries. Methods From 1999–2003, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study in seven areas of the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania and Russia. A detailed occupational history was collected from renal cell cancer cases and controls, together with information on potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of cancer risk were calculated for having ever been employed in selected jobs and industries, with follow-up analyses examining duration of employment. Results A total of 992 histologically confirmed incident renal cell cancer cases and 1,465 controls were included in the analysis. An increased risk of renal cell cancer was observed for workers in agricultural labor and animal husbandry (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.05, 1.93), particularly among women employed as general farm workers (OR=2.73, 95% CI 1.05, 7.13). Risk gradients for agricultural work increased with longer employment. An overall increased risk of renal cell cancer was seen among architects and engineers (OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.35, 2.65), and mechanical engineers (OR=1.71, 95% CI 1.03, 2.84). Conclusions Our data suggest an association between renal cell cancer and agricultural work, particularly among female workers. PMID:19737732

  20. Laser irradiation for central-type lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Kai

    1993-03-01

    Based on laser irradiation experiments on isolated lung specimens of animals done in 1989, 8 patients with central type lung cancer were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation via fiberoptic bronchoscope from January 1990 to August 1991 in our hospital. The patients recruited were all diagnosed by fiberoptic bronchoscopy and histology as having central type bronchopulmonary cancer without distal metastasis. All patients were male with a mean age of 64 (range 57 - 72). Of 8 patients, 4 had squamous cell carcinoma, 3 adenocarcinoma, and 1 undifferentiated small cell carcinoma, all being stage TUM 3. After laser treatment, 6 cases had a result of significant response and 2 had minor response. Among 6 cases of atelectasis, 4 were completely cured or partially improved and 4 recovered from their hemoptysis. The subjective symptoms in all cases remitted. A combined chemotherapy was carried out accompanying laser therapy for all, 6 of whom had a shrink of focus over 25%. Six cases were re-examined with fiberoptic bronchoscopy, showing a distinct reduction of the tumor. Four cases expectorated black charring tissues and residual tumorous tissues persistently as an outcome. Two typical cases are reported, the characteristics, indications, techniques, and side effects of laser therapy are analyzed and factors affecting efficacy discussed, indicating that the technique has such advantages as easy operation, accurate orientation, and safe outcome. The procedure is really an effective one for treating central type lung cancer in intermediate or late stage.

  1. Influenza vaccination and associated factors among Korean cancer survivors : a cross-sectional analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min; Lee, Kiheon; Lee, Ju Hyun; Park, Joo-Sung

    2014-08-01

    Influenza vaccination is important for cancer survivors, a population with impaired immunity. This study was designed to assess influenza vaccination patterns among Korean cancer survivors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires from 943 cancer survivors and 41,233 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (2007-2011). We identified the adjusted influenza vaccination rates and assessed factors associated with influenza vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted influenza vaccination rate than the general population. The rates for influenza vaccination in specific cancer types such as stomach, hepatic, colon, and lung cancers were significantly higher than non-cancer survivors. Among all cancer survivors, those with chronic diseases, elderly subjects, and rural dwellers were more likely to receive influenza vaccination; those with cervical cancer were less likely to receive influenza vaccination. Cancer survivors were more likely to receive influenza vaccinations than non-cancer survivors, but this was not true for particular groups, especially younger cancer survivors. Cancer survivors represent a sharply growing population; therefore, immunization against influenza among cancer survivors should be concerned as their significant preventative healthcare services.

  2. Clinicopathologic Features and Long-Term Outcomes of Elderly Breast Cancer Patients: Experiences at a Single Institution in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Kyung; Ham, Jun Soo; Byeon, Seonggyu; Yoo, Kwai Han; Jung, Ki Sun; Song, Haa-Na; Cho, Jinhyun; Lee, Ji Yun; Lim, Sung Hee; Kim, Hae Su; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Jeong Eon; Kim, Seok Won; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Se Kyung; Bae, Soo Youn; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young-Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the tumor characteristics and long-term clinical outcomes of adjuvant treatments after surgery with a curative aim for patients with breast cancer who are 65 years and older. Materials and Methods Patients with breast cancer who underwent curative surgery from 2000 to 2009 were analyzed (n=4,388). Tumor characteristics and survival outcome were compared by dividing the patients into two age groups (< 65 and ≥ 65 years old). The Kaplan-Meier method was used for comparison of survival rates by log-rank test, and a Cox regression model was used to examine the effect of variables. Results Among 4,388 patients with invasive breast cancer, 317 patients (7.2%) were 65 years or older and the median age of all patients was 47 years (range, 18 to 91 years). Tumor characteristics were similar between the two age groups, but the older patients were treated less often with adjuvant treatments. During a median follow-up period of 122 months, recurrence-free survival (RFS) was equivalent for patients 65 years and older compared to younger patients, but significantly worse in overall survival (OS) and breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS) (5-year OS, 94.3% vs. 90.5%; p < 0.001 and 5-year BCSS, 94.7% vs. 91.8%; p=0.031). In the multivariate model, age ≥ 65 years old was identified as an independent risk factor for OS and RFS. Conclusion Elderly breast cancer appeared to have worse outcomes with very low prevalence in Korea, despite similar tumor characteristics. More active adjuvant therapies would have a role for aggressive subtypes for fit, elderly patients. PMID:26987392

  3. Cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Berkhof, Johannes; Bogaards, Johannes A; Demirel, Erhan; Diaz, Mireia; Sharma, Monisha; Kim, Jane J

    2013-12-31

    We studied the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer prevention strategies in the Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia (CEECA) region. The cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 vaccination of 12 year-old girls was calculated for 28 countries, under the assumption that vaccination prevents 70% of all cervical cancer cases and that cervical cancer and all-cause mortality rates are stable without vaccination. At three-dose vaccination costs of I$ 100 per vaccinated girl (currency 2005 international dollars), HPV16/18 vaccination was very cost-effective in 25 out of 28 countries using the country's gross domestic product (GDP) per capita as cost-effectiveness threshold (criterion by World Health Organization). A three-dose vaccination cost of I$ 100 is within the current range of vaccine costs in European immunization programs, and therefore our results indicate that HPV vaccination may be good value for money. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of cervical cancer screening combined with vaccination, we calibrated a published simulation model to HPV genotype data collected in Slovenia, Poland, and Georgia. The screening interval was varied at 3, 6, and 10 years starting at age 25 or 30 and ending at age 60. In Slovenia and Poland, combined vaccination and 10-yearly HPV (DNA) screening (vaccination coverage 70%, screening coverage per round 70%) was very cost-effective when the cost of three-dose vaccination was I$ 100 per vaccinated girl. More intensive screening was very cost-effective when the screening coverage per round was 30% or 50%. In Georgia, 10-yearly Pap screening was very cost-effective in unvaccinated women. Vaccination combined with 10-yearly HPV screening was likely to be cost-effective if the three-dose vaccination cost was I$ 50 per vaccinated girl. To conclude, cervical cancer prevention strategies utilizing both HPV16/18 vaccination and HPV screening are very cost-effective in countries with sufficient resources. In low

  4. Metabolic profiling of breast cancer: Differences in central metabolism between subtypes of breast cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Willmann, Lucas; Schlimpert, Manuel; Halbach, Sebastian; Erbes, Thalia; Stickeler, Elmar; Kammerer, Bernd

    2015-09-01

    Although the concept of aerobic glycolysis in cancer was already reported in the 1930s by Otto Warburg, the understanding of metabolic pathways remains challenging especially due to the heterogeneity of cancer. In consideration of four different time points (1, 2, 4, and 7 days of incubation), GC-MS profiling of metabolites was performed on cell extracts and supernatants of breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231, -453, BT-474) with different sub classification and the breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A. To the exclusion of trypsinization, direct methanolic extraction, cell scraping and cell disruption was executed to obtain central metabolites. Major differences in biochemical pathways have been observed in the breast cancer cell lines compared to the breast epithelial cell line, as well as between the breast cancer cell lines themselves. Characteristics of breast cancer subtypes could be correlated to their individual metabolic profiles. PLS-DA revealed the discrimination of breast cancer cell lines from MCF-10A based on elevated amino acid levels. The observed metabolic signatures have great potential as biomarker for breast cancer as well as an improved understanding of subtype specific phenomenons of breast cancer. PMID:26218769

  5. Associations of smoking with overall obesity, and central obesity: a cross-sectional study from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2013)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The association between smoking and obesity is a significant public health concern. Both are preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disease and a range of other conditions. However, despite numerous previous studies, no consensus has emerged regarding the effect of smoking on obesity. We therefore carried out a novel study evaluating the relationship between smoking and obesity. METHODS: A total of 5,254 subjects aged 19 years or older drawn from the 2010-2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were included in this cross-sectional study. Smoking was examined both in terms of smoking status and the quantity of cigarettes smoked by current smokers. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association between smoking and obesity. Overall obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2, and central obesity was defined as a waist circumference ≥90 cm for males and ≥85 cm for females. We adjusted for the possible confounding effects of age, sex, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and the presence of hypertension or diabetes. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference in central obesity according to smoking status was identified. Current smokers were more likely to be centrally obese than never-smokers (adjusted odds ratio,1.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.67). However, no significant association was found between smoking and obesity defined by BMI. Moreover, among current smokers, no statistically significant association was found between the daily amount of smoking and obesity or central obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was positively associated with central obesity. Current smokers should be acquainted that they may be more prone to central obesity. PMID:27221478

  6. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  7. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  8. Investigation of the bovine leukemia virus proviral DNA in human leukemias and lung cancers in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jehoon; Kim, Yonggoo; Kang, Chang Suk; Cho, Dae Hyun; Shin, Dong Hwan; Yum, Young Na; Oh, Jae Ho; Kim, Sheen Hee; Hwang, Myung Sil; Lim, Chul Joo; Yang, Ki Hwa; Han, Kyungja

    2005-08-01

    The bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. This study investigated the presence of the BLV in leukemia (179 acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 292 acute myeloid leukemia and 46 chronic myelogenous leukemia cases) and 162 lung cancer patients (139 adenocarcinoma, 23 squamous cell carcinoma) to determine if the BLV is a causative organism of leukemia and lung cancer in Koreans. A BLV infection was confirmed in human cells by PCR using a BLV-8 primer combination. All 517 cases of human leukemia and 162 lung cancer were negative for a PCR of the BLV proviral DNA. In conclusion, although meat has been imported from BLV endemic areas, the BLV infection does not appear to be the cause of human leukemia or lung cancer in Koreans. These results can be used as a control for further studies on the BLV in Koreans. PMID:16100451

  9. Time to follow up after an abnormal finding in organized gastric cancer screening in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prognosis for an abnormal medical finding is affected by both early detection and adherence to the presecribed schedule for follow-up examinations. In this study, we examined the time to follow up after an abnormal finding and determined the risk factors related to delays in follow up in a population-based screening program. Methods The study population consisted of patients who were newly diagnosed with gastric cancer through a gastric cancer screening program sponsored by the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2005. Due to the skewed nature of the distribution of time to follow up, medians and interquartile ranges (IQR) are presented, and we analyzed the number of days preceding the follow-up time as a binary variable (≤90 days or >90 days). We used logistic regression analyses to evaluate the risk factors for a long delay. Results The median number of days to follow-up initiation after an abnormal finding was 11 (IQR 7–27); 13.9% of the patients with gastric cancer obtained their follow-up evaluation more than 90 days. Age, type of health insurance, screening method, and screening results were risk factors for delays in follow up. Conclusions This study examined delays from the time of the discovery of an abnormal finding to time of the follow-up evaluation. Because inadequate follow up of abnormal exam results undermines the potential benefits of cancer screening, it is important to organize services that minimize delays between cancer screening and treatment. PMID:22963347

  10. Observation of fine particle concentration and its chemical characteristics in central region of Korea during KORUS-AQ pre-campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Y.; Lee, M.; Hwang, T.; Hong, Y.; Hong, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Region super site is one of the 6 super sites operated in Korean peninsula by Ministry of Environment Korea and monitor air quality of central district of Korea continuously and intensively. Located 160km south of Seoul, this site represents an urban site surrounded by residential, commercial area and an 8-lane road cross section which is one of the most crowed main roads in this area. This site also plays a significant role especially in tracing air pollutants flowing through the West Sea from China. During Korus-AQ(Korea-US Air Quality Study) pre-campaign conducted from 18th May to 12th June, PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentration using BAM1020 (MetOne), PM2.5bounded ion concentration using AIM (URG), metal concentrations using XRF (Cooper), organic and elemental carbon contents using SOCEC (Sunset), light scattering coefficient using Nephelometer (TSI) and meteorological parameters were continuously measured at this super site. PM2.5 and PM10 average concentrations were 31 and 49 ug/m3 with 0.63 fine to course ratio, which were relatively lower than those of annual average concentration of 2014 (39 and 58 ug/m3, respectively). The chemical composition of PM2.5 were determined as ion(46%), TC(37%), CM(2%), TM(0.1%) and unknown(15%). The average concentration of organic and elemental carbon were 5.6 and 1.8 ug/m3 which were similar lever to average of 2014 (5.9 ug/m3, 1.71 ug/m3, respectively). And the metal concentration including Pb(12.5 ng/m3), Fe(151.7 ng/m3), Ca(26.2 ng/m3), Ti(5.2 ng/m3), Cd(4.1 ng/m3) were significantly lower than those of 2014(31.4 ng/m3, 242.1 ng/m3, 167.9 ng/m3, 13.0 ng/m3, 8.3 ng/m3, respectively). However, the average concentration of sulfate was 6.3 ug/m3 which was 43% higher than that of 2014 (4.4 ug/m3). Overall aerosol and its component's concentrations except for secondary sulfate have been decreased since it was late spring and early summer in Korea during pre-campaign and usually in this season aerosol level is

  11. Breast Cancer Metastasis to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Robert J.; Palmieri, Diane C.; Bronder, Julie L.; Stark, Andreas M.; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2005-01-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in ∼10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  12. Breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Weil, Robert J; Palmieri, Diane C; Bronder, Julie L; Stark, Andreas M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2005-10-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in approximately 10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  13. Preference elicitation approach for measuring the willingness to pay for liver cancer treatment in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Donghun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The Korean government has expanded the coverage of the national insurance scheme for four major diseases: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and rare diseases. This policy may have a detrimental effect on the budget of the national health insurance agency. Like taxes, national insurance premiums are levied on the basis of the income or wealth of the insured. Methods Using a preference elicitation method, we attempted to estimate how much people are willing to pay for insurance premiums that would expand their coverage for liver cancer treatment. Results We calculated the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) through the marginal rate of substitution between the two attributes of the insurance premium and the total annual treatment cost by adopting conditional logit and mixed logit models. Conclusions The effects of various other terms that could interact with socioeconomic status were also estimated, such as gender, income level, educational attainment, age, employment status, and marital status. The estimated MWTP values of the monthly insurance premium for liver cancer treatment range from 4,130 KRW to 9,090 KRW. PMID:26523270

  14. Psychological Status and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    It is important to assess psychological distress after a diagnosis for cancer survivors, a population with a high risk for psychological distress. The aim of this study is to assess psychological distress among cancer survivors and to clarify the associated factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires administered to 1,163 cancer survivors and 49,243 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We identified the adjusted rates for psychological distress and assessed factors associated with this kind of distress using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted rate of psychological distress than the general population. The current depressive symptom rate for cancer survivors was 16.69%, and the adjusted rate for history of depression in cancer survivors was 15.61%. The adjusted rate for higher level of stress was 25.51% in cancer survivors. Among the cancer survivors, younger subjects, female subjects, and those with limited social support were more prone to psychological distress. In addition, current smokers or risky drinkers, those with chronic diseases, and those with a poor self-perception of their health status were also identified as a high-risk group for psychological distress. As the number of cancer survivors has increased, the importance of assessing psychological distress after a cancer diagnosis should be emphasized among all cancer survivors. Further, psychological supportive care interventions for cancer survivors are needed to improve the survival rate and improve their quality of life. PMID:27366010

  15. Psychological Status and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min

    2016-07-01

    It is important to assess psychological distress after a diagnosis for cancer survivors, a population with a high risk for psychological distress. The aim of this study is to assess psychological distress among cancer survivors and to clarify the associated factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires administered to 1,163 cancer survivors and 49,243 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We identified the adjusted rates for psychological distress and assessed factors associated with this kind of distress using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted rate of psychological distress than the general population. The current depressive symptom rate for cancer survivors was 16.69%, and the adjusted rate for history of depression in cancer survivors was 15.61%. The adjusted rate for higher level of stress was 25.51% in cancer survivors. Among the cancer survivors, younger subjects, female subjects, and those with limited social support were more prone to psychological distress. In addition, current smokers or risky drinkers, those with chronic diseases, and those with a poor self-perception of their health status were also identified as a high-risk group for psychological distress. As the number of cancer survivors has increased, the importance of assessing psychological distress after a cancer diagnosis should be emphasized among all cancer survivors. Further, psychological supportive care interventions for cancer survivors are needed to improve the survival rate and improve their quality of life.

  16. Psychological Status and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min

    2016-07-01

    It is important to assess psychological distress after a diagnosis for cancer survivors, a population with a high risk for psychological distress. The aim of this study is to assess psychological distress among cancer survivors and to clarify the associated factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires administered to 1,163 cancer survivors and 49,243 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We identified the adjusted rates for psychological distress and assessed factors associated with this kind of distress using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted rate of psychological distress than the general population. The current depressive symptom rate for cancer survivors was 16.69%, and the adjusted rate for history of depression in cancer survivors was 15.61%. The adjusted rate for higher level of stress was 25.51% in cancer survivors. Among the cancer survivors, younger subjects, female subjects, and those with limited social support were more prone to psychological distress. In addition, current smokers or risky drinkers, those with chronic diseases, and those with a poor self-perception of their health status were also identified as a high-risk group for psychological distress. As the number of cancer survivors has increased, the importance of assessing psychological distress after a cancer diagnosis should be emphasized among all cancer survivors. Further, psychological supportive care interventions for cancer survivors are needed to improve the survival rate and improve their quality of life. PMID:27366010

  17. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among Bereaved Family Members of Cancer Patients in Korea: A Nation-Wide Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jho, Hyun Jung; Choi, Jin Young; Kwak, Kiu Sang; Chang, Yoon Jung; Ahn, Eun Mi; Park, Eun Jung; Paek, Soo Jin; Kim, Kyoung Mee; Kim, Soo Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Bereaved family members of cancer patient are at risk of having psychological problems such as anxiety and depression. However, prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among this population have not been explored in Korea.We conducted a nation-wide cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 3522 bereaved family members of cancer patients who died at 44 hospice palliative care unit (HPCU) in Korea in 2012. The questionnaire comprised the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Good Death Inventory (GDI). Deceased patient's age, sex, primary site of cancer, duration of stay at HPCU, awareness of terminal status, bereaved family member's age, sex, and relation to the deceased were collected from Korean Terminal Cancer Patients Information System.1121 returned questionnaires were analyzed (response rate, 31.8%). Using a cut-off value of 8 for HADS subscale, the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms was 48.0% and 57.6%, respectively. Mean scores for HADS-A and HADS-D were 7.88 ± 4.87 and 8.91 ± 4.82, respectively. Among the bereaved, older age, being a spouse to the deceased, family members of younger patient, and negative score for a few GDI items were significantly associated with an increased risk of having anxiety or depressive symptoms in the multivariate logistic analysis.In conclusion, we noted the high prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms among the bereaved of cancer patients and identified associated factors for these psychological morbidities. Systematic efforts are needed to improve the mental health of the bereaved family members of cancer patients. PMID:27258497

  18. Oral Bisphosphonates and Upper Gastrointestinal Cancer Risks in Asians with Osteoporosis: A Nested Case-Control Study Using National Retrospective Cohort Sample Data from Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun-Ja; Suh, Hae Sun; Park, Ji-Won; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonate can irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa and increase the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer. The relatively high prevalence of upper gastrointestinal cancers and the widespread use of bisphosphonate in Korea call for further investigation. We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the risk of esophageal or gastric cancer after exposure to oral bisphosphonates in Korean patients with osteoporosis. Methods We used the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database of Korea from 2002 to 2013. Among osteoporotic patients (>40 years), cases were defined as incident diagnosis of esophageal or gastric cancer between 2006 and 2013. For each case, four controls were matched for age, sex, and income level by type of insurance. We categorized bisphosphonate use as non-user, recent user, past user, and past and recent user, depending on prescription in two periods (1 to 2 years and 2 to 4 years prior to the index date). We also assessed the duration of bisphosphonate use by measuring cumulative duration of exposure (CDE). To examine the association between oral bisphosphonates and esophageal or gastric cancer, we estimated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using conditional logistic regression analysis, adjusting for concomitant diseases. Results A total of 1,708 cases and 6,832 controls were identified. The aORs (95% CIs) of recent, past, and continuous bisphosphonate use compared to non-users were 1.18 (0.93–1.51), 1.04 (0.83–1.29), and 1.25 (0.95–1.58)), respectively. In addition, no significant association was observed by CDE, even when different outcome definitions were applied. Conclusions This study did not prove an increased risk of esophageal or gastric cancer risk associated with bisphosphonate use, with respect to both risk windows and duration of exposure, in an Asian population-based, real-world setting. PMID:26937968

  19. [Differential magnetic resonance diagnosis of central lung cancer and acute pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Gamova, E V; Nudnov, N V

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyzes the authors' own data of chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 86 patients with verified central lung cancer and acute pneumonia. The MRI signs of lung cancer are systematized in exo-, endo-, and peribronchial forms of growth. The additional capacities of contrast enhancement are analyzed. The MRI semiotics of acute pneumonia has been developed. The differential diagnostic criteria for recognizing central lung cancer and acute pneumonia have been also elaborated.

  20. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-21

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean=35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets. PMID:19524319

  1. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-01

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean = 35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  2. Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in a shallow alluvial aquifer around oxbow lakes (Osong area, central Korea).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Yun, Seong-Taek; Choi, Byoung-Young; Chae, Gi-Tak; Joo, Yongsung; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyoung-Soo

    2009-07-21

    Hydrochemical and multivariate statistical interpretations of 16 physicochemical parameters of 45 groundwater samples from a riverside alluvial aquifer underneath an agricultural area in Osong, central Korea, were performed in this study to understand the spatial controls of nitrate concentrations in terms of biogeochemical processes occurring near oxbow lakes within a fluvial plain. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater showed a large variability from 0.1 to 190.6 mg/L (mean=35.0 mg/L) with significantly lower values near oxbow lakes. The evaluation of hydrochemical data indicated that the groundwater chemistry (especially, degree of nitrate contamination) is mainly controlled by two competing processes: 1) agricultural contamination and 2) redox processes. In addition, results of factorial kriging, consisting of two steps (i.e., co-regionalization and factor analysis), reliably showed a spatial control of the concentrations of nitrate and other redox-sensitive species; in particular, significant denitrification was observed restrictedly near oxbow lakes. The results of this study indicate that sub-oxic conditions in an alluvial groundwater system are developed geologically and geochemically in and near oxbow lakes, which can effectively enhance the natural attenuation of nitrate before the groundwater discharges to nearby streams. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in groundwater study as a supplementary tool for interpretation of complex hydrochemical data sets.

  3. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment.

  4. Survivor Centrality Among Breast Cancer Survivors: Implications for Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which 10-year breast cancer survivors integrated cancer into their self-concept (i.e., survivor centrality), identify predictors of survivor centrality, and determine the relation of survivor centrality to well-being. Methods Breast cancer survivors (n = 240) were interviewed 10 years following the initial diagnosis. They completed measures of survivor centrality, illness valence (i.e., positive or negative views of illness), and well-being (positive and negative affect, mental and physical functioning, psychological distress, benefit-finding). Results There were few predictors of the kinds of women who were more likely to integrate breast cancer into their self-concepts, but survivor centrality was related to engaging in behaviors that suggested survivorship was relevant to women’s daily lives, such as becoming involved in breast cancer activities. Survivor centrality was related to three markers of negative psychological well-being: more negative affect, poorer mental functioning, and greater psychological distress. However, in the case of negative affect and psychological distress, this relation was moderated by illness valence, such that survivor centrality was only related to negative psychological well-being when the illness was viewed in less positive terms. Conclusions Women vary in the extent to which they define themselves in terms of the breast cancer experience. Survivor centrality in and of itself is not always indicative of adjustment to disease. When women have a more negative view of being a breast cancer survivor, survivor centrality is more likely to signify potential problems. PMID:20878844

  5. The descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer in Central America and comparison with United States Hispanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Juan E.; Delgado Hurtado, Juan J.; Domínguez, Ricardo L.; de Cuéllar, Marisabel Valdez; Cruz, Carlos Balmore; Morgan, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the U.S. Methods Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based and hospital-based registries. U.S. data was obtained from the NCI-SEER registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985–2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. Results In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two-thirds of cases were male, 20.5% were under age 55, and 58.5% were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n=7,871), 57.8% were male, and 28.9% were under age 55. Among the U.S. Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n=1,210), 50.3% of cases were male, and 38.1% were under age 55. Noncardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3%), among U.S. Hispanics (80.2%), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3%). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6%), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among U.S. Hispanics (54.0%). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7%), and U.S. Hispanics (69.5%), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50% of cases. Conclusions A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and U.S. Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing U.S. Hispanic population. PMID:25412859

  6. Spatio-temporal variations of optical properties of aerosols in East Asia measured by MODIS and relation to the ground-based mass concentrations observed in central Korea during 2001˜2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Chung, Yong-Seung; Kim, Joon-Tae

    2014-02-01

    Long-term variations and trends of atmospheric aerosols in the East Asian region were analyzed by using aerosol optical depth (AOD or τ), and ångström exponent (AE or α) obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) from 2001 to 2010. The increased emission of anthropogenic fine aerosols in east China resulted in the high AOD in this region during summer. The steady increasing emission of anthropogenic fine aerosols caused an increasing trend of AOD in east China, and the large-scale transport of sandstorms and smoke plume caused by forest fires affected intense inter-annual variations of AOD in the East Asian region. While in the central part of South Korea, located in the lee side of the East Asian continent, AE tended to rise to a level higher than in east China, the ground-based mass concentrations continued to decline. A noticeable decrease of PM10 mass concentration in spring and winter in central Korea is most likely attributable to decreases in sandstorms in the source region of East Asia. However, the ratio of PM2.5 mass concentration to PM10 increases overall with a high level in summer. Aerosol types were classified into dust, smoke plume, and sulphate by using satellite data over Cheongwon in central Korea. The columnar AOD, with different aerosol types, was compared with the ground-based mass concentrations at Cheongwon, and the relatively high level of the correlations presented between PM2.5 and AOD produced in sulphate. Growth and increases of fine hygroscopic aerosols generated as gas-to-particle conversion particularly in summer contribute to increases of columnar AOD in the East Asian region.

  7. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-12-04

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors.

  8. Secular Trends of Breast Cancer in China, South Korea, Japan and the United States: Application of the Age-Period-Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenkun; Bao, Junzhe; Yu, Chuanhua; Wang, Jinyao; Li, Chunhui

    2015-01-01

    To describe the temporal trends of breast cancer mortality in East Asia and to better understand the causes of these trends, we analyzed the independent effects of chronological age, time period and birth cohort on breast cancer mortality trends using age-period-cohort (APC) analysis. We chose three main countries in East Asia, namely China, South Korea, and Japan, which have reported death status to the WHO Mortality Database, and used the United States as a comparison population. Our study shows that in general, breast cancer mortality rates in females increased in all three East Asian countries throughout the study period. By APC analysis, we confirmed that there is, in fact, a difference in age-specific mortality rate patterns between the Eastern and the Western countries, which is presumably caused by the two-disease model. While the cause of the decrease from approximately the 1950s generation is still in question, we believe that increasing general awareness and improvements in the health-care system have made a significant contribution to it. Although the age and cohort effects are relatively strong, the period effect may be a more critical factor in the mortality trend, mainly reflecting the increase in exposures to carcinogens and behavioral risk factors. PMID:26690183

  9. Management of cancer survivors in clinical and public health perspectives: current status and future challenges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Cho, BeLong; Kim, So Young; Jung, Je Hyuck; Park, Jong Hyock

    2013-05-01

    The number of cancer survivors is increasing dramatically. Many cancer survivors face lifetime risks associated with their cancer therapy, with a significant proportion at risk for serious morbidity and premature mortality. Concerns regarding the long-term physical, psychosocial, and economic effects of cancer treatment on cancer survivors and their families are increasingly being recognized and addressed by public and private sector. This article summarizes economic burden of cancer survivors, main post-treatment health problems including secondary primary cancer and comorbidities, health behaviors such as smoking, exercise and physical activity, nutrition, and psychosocial problems. Faced with various health and psychosocial problems specific to this population, several healthcare and policy models are being suggested to address these issues, including 'shared care model' and 'integrative supportive care service delivery system for cancer survivors'. More effort is needed to make the cancer survivorship agenda a reality, attended by a wide variety of stakeholders including researchers, patients, providers, and policy makers. PMID:23678254

  10. Prognosis of Cervical Cancer in the Era of Concurrent Chemoradiation from National Database in Korea: A Comparison between Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Yun; Kim, Young Tae; Kim, Sunghoon; Lee, Boram; Lim, Myong Cheol; Kim, Jae-Weon; Won, Young-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In 1999, the National Cancer Institute issued a clinical advisory strongly touting the advantage of cisplatin-based chemoradiation (CCRT) for cervical cancer patients requiring radiation for their treatment. This study aimed to compare survival outcomes of cervical squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma before and after the advent of CCRT. Data were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database for patients who were diagnosed with cervical cancers between 1993 and 2012. We compared survival according to histologic subtypes in cervical cancer patients diagnosed before (1993–1997), during (1998–2002), and after (2003–2012) the introduction of CCRT. A total of 80,766 patients were identified, including 64,531 (79.9%) women with squamous cell carcinomas and 7,265 (9.0%) with adenocarcinoma. With the introduction of CCRT, survival trends gradually increased in patients of both histologic subtypes with regional tumors. However, survival was significantly higher in squamous cell carcinoma than in adenocarcinoma patients regardless of treatment modalities (surgery alone, P < 0.001; surgery followed by CCRT, P < 0.001; or primary CCRT, P = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that adenocarcinoma was an independent negative prognostic factor for survival regardless of the time period (before CCRT, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.49; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.37–1.62; after introduction of CCRT, HR = 1.40; 95% CI, 1.30–1.50). Although the survival of adenocarcinoma has improved after the introduction of CCRT, adenocarcinoma is still associated with worse overall survival compared to squamous cell carcinoma in the era of CCRT. PMID:26660311

  11. Cancer metabolism as a central driving force of glioma pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Masui, Kenta; Cavenee, Webster K; Mischel, Paul S

    2016-07-01

    The recent identification of distinct genetic and epigenetic features in each glioma entity is leading to a multilayered, integrated diagnostic approach combining histologic features with molecular genetic information. Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathways are key oncogenic events in diffuse gliomas, including lower grade (grade II and III) gliomas (LGG) and the highly lethal brain tumor glioblastoma (GBM), respectively, where they reprogram the epigenome, transcriptome, and metabolome to drive tumor growth. However, the mechanisms by which these genetic aberrations are translated into the aggressive nature of gliomas through metabolic reprogramming have just begun to be unraveled. The intricate interactions between the oncogenic signaling and cancer metabolism have also been recently demonstrated. Here, we describe a set of recent discoveries on cancer metabolism driven by IDH mutation and mutations in RTK pathways, highlighting the integration of genetic mutations, metabolic reprogramming, and epigenetic shifts, potentially providing new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:27295313

  12. [Venous thrombosis associated with central venous catheter use in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Rey, Leticia; Fernández Pérez, Isaura; Barbagelata López, Cristina; Rivera Gallego, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The use of central venous catheters for various applications (administration of chemotherapy, blood products and others) in patients with cancer is increasingly frequent. The association between thrombosis and catheter use has been fully established but aspects such as its causes, diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment have not. We describe a case of thrombosis in a patient with cancer treated with chemotherapy who carried a central venous catheter. We also perform a review of the risk factors, the role of the prophylaxis and the treatment. PMID:25771092

  13. Special Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung

    The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…

  14. Economic Evaluation of Companion Diagnostic Testing for EGFR Mutations and First-Line Targeted Therapy in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Eun-A; Bae, Eunmi; Lim, Jaeok; Shin, Young Kee; Choi, Sang-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background As targeted therapy becomes increasingly important, diagnostic techniques for identifying targeted biomarkers have also become an emerging issue. The study aims to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of treating patients as guided by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status compared with a no-testing strategy that is the current clinical practice in South Korea. Methods A cost-utility analysis was conducted to compare an EGFR mutation testing strategy with a no-testing strategy from the Korean healthcare payer’s perspective. The study population consisted of patients with stage 3b and 4 lung adenocarcinoma. A decision tree model was employed to select the appropriate treatment regimen according to the results of EGFR mutation testing and a Markov model was constructed to simulate disease progression of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. The length of a Markov cycle was one month, and the time horizon was five years (60 cycles). Results In the base case analysis, the testing strategy was a dominant option. Quality-adjusted life-years gained (QALYs) were 0.556 and 0.635, and total costs were $23,952 USD and $23,334 USD in the no-testing and testing strategy respectively. The sensitivity analyses showed overall robust results. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) increased when the number of patients to be treated with erlotinib increased, due to the high cost of erlotinib. Conclusion Treating advanced adenocarcinoma based on EGFR mutation status has beneficial effects and saves the cost compared to no testing strategy in South Korea. However, the cost-effectiveness of EGFR mutation testing was heavily affected by the cost-effectiveness of the targeted therapy. PMID:27483001

  15. Combined Effects of Smoking and Bilirubin Levels on the Risk of Lung Cancer in Korea: The Severance Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jung-eun; Kimm, Heejin; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer. Bilirubin, an antioxidant, is inversely associated with the risk of diseases related to oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the influence of smoking and bilirubin levels on the risk of lung cancer in the Severance cohort study. Methods This study included 68,676 Korean who received a health examination at Severance Health Promotion Center from 1994 to 2004. Serum bilirubin measurements within normal range were divided into tertiles whereas smoking states were divided as never-smokers, former smokers and current smokers. A diagnosis of lung cancer was coded as occurring based on the report from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards model. Results At the end of the study period, 240 patients (men: 181, women: 59) developed lung cancer. Compared to those with bilirubin levels ≥1.0 mg/dL, HRs (95% CI) for lung cancer were 2.8 (1.8–4.2) for subjects having bilirubin levels from 0.2 to 0.7 mg/dL in men. When we stratified our analysis by smoking status, bilirubin consistently showed a protective effect on the risk of lung cancer on both never- and current smokers. Current smokers having bilirubin levels from 0.2 to 0.7 mg/dL had a risk of lung cancer by 6.0-fold higher than never-smokers with bilirubin levels ≥1.0 mg/dL in men. Conclusion In this large prospective study, higher baseline bilirubin level in the normal range was associated with low risk of lung cancer. Smoking and low bilirubin levels were cumulatively associated with a higher risk of lung cancer. PMID:25100210

  16. Cancer in HIV-infected Persons from the Caribbean, Central and South America

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Valeria I.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Cesar, Carina; Krolewiecki, Alejandro; Wehbe, Firas; Cortés, Claudia P.; Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Padgett, Denis; Shafaee, Maryam; Schechter, Mauro; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Bacon, Melanie; McGowan, Catherine; Cahn, Pedro; Masys, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background HIV infected individuals have heightened cancer risk. With the advent of HAART, the frequency of some AIDS defining cancers (ADC) has decreased while certain non-AIDS defining cancers (NADC) are becoming more frequent. Cancers among HIV-infected individuals in Latin American and the Caribbean have not yet been carefully studied. Methods Cancer cases among the Caribbean, Central and South American network for HIV Research (CCASAnet) cohort were identified reviewing clinical records and preexisting databases. Results There were 406 cancers reported: 331 ADC (224 Kaposi´s sarcomas and 98 non Hodgkin lymphomas). Most frequent NADC (n=75) were Hodgkin lymphoma and skin cancers. Seventy-three percent of NADC and 45% of ADC were diagnosed >1 year after HIV diagnosis. 56% of ADC occurred before HAART start. Median time from HAART start until cancer diagnosis was 2.5 years for NADC and 0.5 years for ADC (p=<0.001). Within 3372 HAART starters, 158 were diagnosed with 165 cancers (82.4% ADC); 85 cases were previous to or concomitant with HAART initiation. Incidence of cancer after HAART initiation in 8080 person-years of follow-up was 7.2 per 1000 person-years (95%CI= 5.5–9.3) for ADC and 2.7 (95%CI= 1.8–4.1) for NADC; incidence was higher in the first two months, particularly for ADC (47.6). A pre-HAART ADC was a predictor of mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and CD4 at HAART initiation. Conclusions ADC were the most frequent cancers in this region and were often diagnosed close to HIV diagnosis and HAART start. Incidence of cancer was highest around HAART initiation. PMID:21239992

  17. Cancer Care in East and Central Harlem: Community Partnership Needs Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Jandorf, Lina; Freemantle, Hurdley; Sly, Jamilia; Ellison, Jennie; Wong, Carrie R.; Villagra, Cristina; Hong, Joseph; Kaleya, Sara; Poultney, Madrid; Villegas, Carmen; Brenner, Barbara; Bickell, Nina

    2015-01-01

    In the largely African American and Hispanic communities of East and Central Harlem in New York City (NYC), health inequities are glaring. Mortality from cancer is 20–30 % higher than in Manhattan and 30–40 % higher than rates in the general population in NYC. Despite advances in risk assessment, early detection, treatment, and survivorship, individuals in Harlem and similar urban communities are not benefiting equally. Guided by community-based participatory research, this study serves as an important step in understanding cancer care needs and the range of factors that impact the disparate rates of cancer in East and Central Harlem. Forty individual interviews were conducted with community leaders and residents. Major themes included: need for appropriate supportive services; health care access and financial challenges; beliefs related to stigma, trust, and accountability; and the impact of the physical environment on health. Education was seen as a critical area of need and intervention. PMID:23108854

  18. Correlation of breast cancer incidence with the number of motor vehicles and consumption of gasoline in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Shin, Aesun; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Ha, Eunhee; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Park, Kyung Hwa; Jang, Sungmi; Moon, Byung-In; Ha, Mina

    2014-01-01

    While several reproductive and lifestyle-related factors are already well-known as established risk factors for breast cancer, environmental factors have attracted attention only recently. The objective of the current study was to assess the association between the breast cancer incidences in females, the mortality rate and the number of motor vehicles on the one side and the consumption of gasoline which could work as a major source of air pollution at the other side. The breast cancer incidences and the mortality trends were compared with various indices of westernization like dietary patterns or industrialization with 10 years lag of time. Geographical variations with 10, 15 and 20 years lag of time were assessed between the breast cancer incidence in 2010 and the number of motor vehicles as well as the consumption of gasoline. The upward trend of motor vehicle numbers proved to be comparable to those of breast cancer incidence and mortality. However, the consumption of gasoline started to decrease since the mid-1990s. The geographic distribution of motor vehicle numbers and gasoline consumption in 1990 is in a positive correlation with the breast cancer incidence rates in 2010 and the 20-year lag time (R2 0.379 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.345 with consumption of gasoline). In a linear relationship between the breast cancer incidences in 2010 and the log transformed number of motor vehicles, the log transformed consumption of gasoline in 2000 also showed a positive relationship (R2 0.367 with the number of motor vehicles and 0.329 with consumption of gasoline). The results of the current study indicate that there may be a positive relation between the number of vehicles, gasoline consumption and the incidence of breast cancer from the aspects of long-term trends and geographical variation.

  19. Aspects of Health-Related Factors and Nutritional Care Needs by Survival Stage among Female Cancer Patients in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Eunjoo; Lim, Hyunjung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study examined diet-related problems and needs associated with nutritional care according to survival stage in Korean female cancer survivors. Methods 186 outpatients (breast or gynecologic cancer survivors) recruited. Subjects were classified as (1) extended stage (ES, 2–5 years from diagnosis) and (2) long-term stage (LS, ≥5 years from diagnosis). Eating habits, changes in health related factors, nutritional needs, and quality of life were investigated. Results 43% of ES survivors had diet-related problems (p = .031); ES group reported dyspepsia and LS group reported anorexia/nausea as the major problem. Half of ES survivors had taste change, decreasing amount of intake, and reduced quality of life (p < .05). The LS group had a greater preference for sweet tastes than the ES group. According to their diagnosis, ES survivors with breast cancer gained weight (27.1%), whereas ES survivors with gynecologic cancer lost their body weight (34.5%) significantly. LS breast cancer patients showed great food preference for vegetables, whereas those with gynecologic cancer showed an increased preference for fish, meat and grain. Approximately 90% of survivors demanded nutritional care regarding restricted foods, preventing recurrence, particularly in ES survivors (p < .01). Moreover, main factors for nutritional care needs were body weight control for breast cancer and food environment for gynecologic cancer. Conclusion Survivors have different aspects of diet-related problems by survival stage as dyspepsia in ES and anorexia in LS. ES stage had changes in dietary patterns and their food consumption have decreased. Most of survivors have demanded nutritional care regardless of survival stage. These features of each stage should be considered to improve their health. PMID:27695041

  20. One-Year Experience Managing a Cancer Survivorship Clinic Using a Shared-Care Model for Gastric Cancer Survivors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Given the rapid growth of the population of cancer survivors, increased attention has been paid to their health problems. Although gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, empirical evidence of survivorship care is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the health care status of gastric cancer survivors and to report the experience of using the shared-care model during a one-year experience at the cancer survivorship clinic in Seoul National University Hospital. This is a descriptive, single-center study of 250 long-term gastric cancer survivors who were referred to the survivorship clinic. The status of their health behaviors, comorbid conditions, secondary cancer screenings, and survivorship care status were investigated through questionnaires and examining the medical records. Among the survivors, 7.2% were current smokers, 8.8% were at-risk drinkers, and 32.4% were physically inactive. Among the patients who did not know their bone density status, the majority were in the osteopenic (37.1%) or osteoporotic range (24.1%). Screening among the eligible population within the recommended time intervals were 76.3% for colorectal cancer, but only 13.6% for lung cancer. All of the survivors were provided with counseling and medical management at the survivorship clinic, as appropriate. In conclusion, Long-term gastric cancer survivors have various unmet needs. Shared-care through survivorship clinics can be an effective solution for providing comprehensive care to cancer survivors. PMID:27247493

  1. One-Year Experience Managing a Cancer Survivorship Clinic Using a Shared-Care Model for Gastric Cancer Survivors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyejin; Son, Ki Young; Kim, Warrick Junsuk; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk Joon; Cho, Belong; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-06-01

    Given the rapid growth of the population of cancer survivors, increased attention has been paid to their health problems. Although gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, empirical evidence of survivorship care is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the health care status of gastric cancer survivors and to report the experience of using the shared-care model during a one-year experience at the cancer survivorship clinic in Seoul National University Hospital. This is a descriptive, single-center study of 250 long-term gastric cancer survivors who were referred to the survivorship clinic. The status of their health behaviors, comorbid conditions, secondary cancer screenings, and survivorship care status were investigated through questionnaires and examining the medical records. Among the survivors, 7.2% were current smokers, 8.8% were at-risk drinkers, and 32.4% were physically inactive. Among the patients who did not know their bone density status, the majority were in the osteopenic (37.1%) or osteoporotic range (24.1%). Screening among the eligible population within the recommended time intervals were 76.3% for colorectal cancer, but only 13.6% for lung cancer. All of the survivors were provided with counseling and medical management at the survivorship clinic, as appropriate. In conclusion, Long-term gastric cancer survivors have various unmet needs. Shared-care through survivorship clinics can be an effective solution for providing comprehensive care to cancer survivors.

  2. AMOR: a proposed cooperative effort to improve outcomes of childhood cancer in Central America.

    PubMed

    Antillon, Federico; Baez, Fulgencio L; Barr, Ronald; Barrantes Zamorra, Jose C; Carrasco, Ligia Fu; Moreno, Belgica; Bonilla, Miguel M; Tognoni, Gianni; Valsecch, Maria G; Howard, Scott; Ribeiro, Raul C; Masera, Giuseppe

    2005-08-01

    The dramatic reduction of pediatric cancer mortality rates has been one of the greatest accomplishments of contemporary medicine. About 80% of children with cancer are now expected to be cured by current therapies. However, most of the world's children have no access to cancer treatment. The translation of effective pediatric cancer therapies to impoverished regions of the world presents an enormous challenge to the health care profession. Over the past 20 years, efforts have been under way to extend adequate cancer treatment to an increasing number of children in developing countries. These initiatives, collectively designated "twinning programs," consist essentially of a partnership between a pediatric cancer unit in a developing country and a group of health care providers in the developed world. Here we review the twinning programs that have been implemented in Central America, discuss their impact on the development of local resources and the outcome of childhood cancer, and propose a collaborative research initiative aimed at improving the international dissemination of progress in pediatric hematology-oncology.

  3. Cancer stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Pilkington, G J

    2005-12-01

    Malignant tumours intrinsic to the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most difficult of neoplasms to treat effectively. The major biological features of these tumours that preclude successful therapy include their cellular heterogeneity, which renders them highly resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the propensity of the component tumour cells to invade, diffusely, the contiguous nervous tissues. The tumours are classified according to perceived cell of origin, gliomas being the most common generic group. In the 1970s transplacental administration of the potent neurocarcinogen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), enabled investigation of the sequential development of brain and spinal neoplasms by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The significance of the primitive cells of the subependymal plate in cellular origin and evolution of a variety of glial tumours was thereby established. Since then, the development of new cell culture methods, including the in vitro growth of neurospheres and multicellular tumour spheroids, and new antigenic markers of stem cells and glial/neuronal cell precursor cells, including nestin, Mushashi-1 and CD133, have led to a reappraisal of the histological classification and origins of CNS tumours. Moreover, neural stem cells may also provide new vectors in exciting novel therapeutic strategies for these tumours. In addition to the gliomas, stem cells may have been identified in paediatric tumours including cerebellar medulloblastoma, thought to be of external granule cell neuronal derivation. Interestingly, while the stem cell marker CD133 is expressed in these primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs), the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuronal/glial 2 (NG2), which appears to denote increased proliferative, but reduced migratory activity in adult gliomas, is rarely expressed. This is in contrast to the situation in the histologically similar supratentorial PNETs. A possible functional 'switch' between

  4. Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Indications and Extent of Central Neck Dissection—Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Calò, Pietro Giorgio; Boi, Francesco; Baghino, Germana; Nicolosi, Angelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the rate of metastases in the central neck compartment and examine the morbidity and rate of recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with or without a central neck dissection. Two hundred and fifteen patients undergoing total thyroidectomy with preoperative diagnosis of differentiated thyroid cancer, in the absence of suspicious nodes, were divided in two groups: those who underwent a thyroidectomy only (group A; n = 169) and those who also received a central neck dissection (group B; n = 46). Five cases (2.32%) of nodal recurrence were observed: 3 in group A and 2 in group B. Tumor histology was associated with a risk of recurrence: Hürthle cell-variant and tall cell-variant carcinomas were associated with a high risk of recurrence. Multifocality and extrathyroidal invasion also presented a higher risk, while smaller tumors were at lower risk. The results of this study suggest that prophylactic central neck dissection should be reserved for high-risk patients only. A wider use of immunocytochemical and genetic markers to improve preoperative diagnosis and the development of methods for the intraoperative identification of metastatic lymph nodes will be useful in the future for the improved selection of patients for central neck dissections. PMID:24282633

  5. The clinical utilization of radiation therapy in Korea between 2009 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jin-Kyu; Kim, Mi-Sook; Jang, Won-Il; Seo, Young Seok; Kim, Hee Jin; Cho, Chul Koo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Paik, Eun Kyung; Cha, Yu Jin; Song, Hyun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to estimate the clinical utilization of radiation therapy (RT) in Korea between 2009 and 2013. Materials and Methods: We analyzed open claims data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service. The subjects were patients who had diagnostic codes C00-C97 or D00-D48 according to the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, with procedure codes indicating RT treatment. Results: The total number of patients who received RT in 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2013 were 45,571, 49,593, 54,671, 59,172, and 61,485, respectively. Among them, the total numbers of male and female patients were 20,780/24,791 in 2009, 22,711/26,882 in 2010, 24,872/29,799 in 2011, 27,101/32,071 in 2012, and 27,941/33,544 in 2013. The five cancers that were most frequently treated with RT between 2009 and 2012 were breast, lung, colorectal, liver, and uterine cervical cancers. However, the fifth most common cancer treated with RT that replaced uterine cervical cancer in 2013 was prostate cancer. The three leading types of cancer among the male patients were lung, colorectal, and liver cancers, whereas in female patients, they were breast, uterine cervical, and lung cancers. The type of cancer most commonly treated by RT was cancer of the central nervous system in patients aged 20 years or less, breast cancer in patients aged 30–50 years, and lung cancer in patients aged 60 years or more. Conclusion: Data from this study provided the clinical utilization of RT in Korea between 2009 and 2013. PMID:27381419

  6. Research recruitment through US central cancer registries: balancing privacy and scientific issues.

    PubMed

    Beskow, Laura M; Sandler, Robert S; Weinberger, Morris

    2006-11-01

    Cancer registries are a valuable resource for recruiting participants for public health-oriented research, although such recruitment raises potentially competing concerns about patient privacy and participant accrual. We surveyed US central cancer registries about their policies for research contact with patients, and results showed substantial variation. The strategy used most frequently (37.5% of those that allowed patient contact), which was among the least restrictive, was for investigators to notify patients' physicians and then contact patients with an opt-out approach. The most restrictive strategy was for registry staff to obtain physician permission and contact patients with an opt-in approach. Population-based studies enhance cancer control efforts, and registry policies can affect researchers' ability to conduct such studies. Further discussion about balanced recruitment approaches that protect patient privacy and encourage beneficial research is needed.

  7. Situation analysis for cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in east, central and southern African countries.

    PubMed Central

    Chirenje, Z. M.; Rusakaniko, S.; Kirumbi, L.; Ngwalle, E. W.; Makuta-Tlebere, P.; Kaggwa, S.; Mpanju-Shumbusho, W.; Makoae, L.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors influencing cervical cancer diagnosis and treatment in countries of East, Central and Southern Africa (ECSA). METHODS: Data were collected from randomly selected primary health care centres, district and provincial hospitals, and tertiary hospitals in each participating country. Health care workers were interviewed, using a questionnaire; the facilities for screening, diagnosing, and treating cervical cancer in each institution were recorded, using a previously designed checklist. FINDINGS: Although 95% of institutions at all health care levels in ECSA countries had the basic infrastructure to carry out cervical cytology screening, only a small percentage of women were actually screened. Lack of policy guidelines, infrequent supply of basic materials, and a lack of suitable qualified staff were the most common reasons reported. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that there is an urgent need for more investment in the diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer in ECSA countries. In these, and other countries with low resources, suitable screening programmes should be established. PMID:11242819

  8. Complete mesocolic excision and central vascular ligation for colon cancer: Principle, anatomy, surgical technique, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Kyu; Kim, Young Wan; Han, Yoon Dae; Cho, Min Soo; Hur, Hyuk; Min, Byung Soh; Lee, Kang Young

    2016-09-01

    Classic colon cancer surgery refers to a wide resection of the tumor-bearing segment and the lymphatics draining along the named artery. The concept of TME has been applied to colon cancer and complete mesocolic excision (CME) in conjuction with central vascular ligation (CVL) has been introduced as the surgical treatment for colon cancer. Here, we discuss appropriate CME procedure with regard to the oncologic backgrounds, essential components, applied anatomy, laparoscopic technique, short-term, and oncologic outcomes. The introduction of CME has improved oncologic outcomes greatly in patients with colon cancer. The improved outcomes with CME can be attributed to underlying sound oncologic principles such as dissection through the proper plane of mesocolic excision, central vascular ligation, and sufficient length of proximal and distal margins. Thereby, CME technique can achieve en bloc removal of the diseased lesion with the increased amount of the colonic mesentery even though the length of for both bowel and mesentery resection remains a matter of debate. CME is a technically demanding operation thus, comprehensive understanding of the applied vascular anatomy is essential for successful CME. Favorable outcomes of open CME have been replicated with a laparoscopic approach. In future perspective, incorporating a structured education program on minimally invasive (laparoscopy or robot) CME would be beneficial. PMID:27566031

  9. Overall and Central Adiposity and Breast Cancer Risk in the Sister Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Alexandra J.; Nichols, Hazel B.; Bradshaw, Patrick T.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Greater body mass index (BMI), a measure of overall adiposity, is associated with higher risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. The role of central adiposity, often measured by waist circumference, is less well understood especially among premenopausal women. We aimed to examine multiple measures of adiposity in relation to breast cancer in a prospective cohort study. Methods 50,884 Sister Study cohort participants ages 35–74 were enrolled from 2003–2009. Inclusion criteria for the cohort included having a sister previously diagnosed with breast cancer. Trained study personnel measured height, weight, waist and hip circumference during a home visit and study participants completed a detailed questionnaire. Using Cox regression, we estimated multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for breast cancer risk associated with adiposity measurements, considering tumor subtype and menopausal status. Results In total, 2,009 breast cancers were diagnosed during follow-up (mean=5.4 years). Weight, BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip-ratio were positively associated with overall breast cancer risk and HRs were greater among postmenopausal women, those with hormonally responsive tumors and non-current postmenopausal hormone users. In models that adjusted for BMI, waist circumference associations persisted among both postmenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.16, 95%CI 1.01, 1.35; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10, 1.54) and premenopausal women (81–88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.56, 95%CI 1.19, 2.04; >88cm vs ≤80cm, HR=1.30, 95% CI 0.91, 1.87). Conclusions Findings from this large, prospective study with examiner-measured body size indicate that waist circumference is independently and positively associated with both premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:26193782

  10. Use of Chinese herbal medicine therapies in comprehensive hospitals in central China: A parallel survey in cancer patients and clinicians.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Qiao, Ting-ting; Ding, Hao; Li, Chen-xi; Zheng, Hui-ling; Chen, Xiao-ling; Hu, Shao-ming; Yu, Shi-ying

    2015-12-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM), as the largest application category of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely accepted among cancer patients in China. Herbal slice (HS) and Chinese patent drug (CPD) are commonly used CHM in China. This study aimed to investigate the utilization of CHM among clinicians and cancer patients in central China. Five hundred and twenty-five patients and 165 clinicians in 35 comprehensive hospitals in central China were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire that was designed to evaluate the use of CHM. The results showed that 90.74% clinicians and 72.24% cancer patients used CHM during cancer treatment. The educational backgrounds of the clinicians and the age, education level, annual income, and cancer stage of the cancer patients were related to use of CHM. More than 90% clinicians and cancer patients had used CPD. Comparatively, the percentage of HS use was 10% lower than that of CPD use among clinicians and cancer patients. More clinicians preferred to use CHM after surgery than cancer patients did (20.41% vs. 5.37%). Enhancing physical fitness and improving performance status were regarded as the most potential effect of CHM on cancer treatment (85.71% among clinicians and 94.07% among cancer patients), in comparison with directly killing tumor cells (24.49% among clinicians and 31.36% among patients). As for refusal reasons, imprecise efficacy was the unanimous (100%) reason for clinicians' rejection of CHM, and 95.58% patients objected to using CHM also for this reason. Furthermore, the side effects of CHM were more concerned by clinicians than by patients (33.33% vs. 15.81%). In conclusion, our survey revealed that CHM was popularly accepted by clinicians and cancer patients in central China. The reasons of use and rejection of CHM were different between clinicians and cancer patients.

  11. In Vivo Radiobiological Characterization of Proton Beam at the National Cancer Center in Korea: Effect of the Chk2 Mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sang Soo; Choo, Dong Wan; Shin, Dongho; Baek, Hye Jung; Kim, Tae Hyun; Motoyama, Noboru; De Coster, Blanche M.; Gueulette, John; Furusawa, Yoshiya; Ando, Koichi; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the presence or absence of CHK2 was estimated at the Korean National Cancer Center Proton Therapy Center (NCCPTC). Methods and Materials: The proton beam was fixed at 210 MeV with 6-cm spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) because this is expected to be the most frequently used clinical setting. X-rays were obtained using a 6-MV conventional linear accelerator. The RBE was estimated from the survival of jejunal crypt in C3H/He and Chk2{sup -/-} mice. Results: The estimated RBEs of the NCCPTC at the middle of the SOBP were 1.10 and 1.05 in the presence and absence of CHK2, respectively. The doses that reduced the number of regenerated crypt per jejunal circumference to 20 (D{sub 20}) in C3H/He mice were 14.8 Gy (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7-15.9) for X-rays and 13.5 Gy (95% CI, 14.5-15.5) for protons. By contrast, the doses of D{sub 20} in Chk2{sup -/-} mice were 15.7 Gy (95% CI, 15.0-16.4) and 14.9 Gy (95% CI, 14.0-15.8) for X-rays and protons, respectively. Conclusions: The RBE of the NCCPTC is clearly within the range of RBEs determined at other facilities and is consistent with the generic RBE value of 1.10 for 150- to 250-MeV beams. The mutation of Chk2 gave rise to radioresistance but exhibited similar RBE.

  12. Molecular determinants of lung cancer metastasis to the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Whitsett, Timothy G.; Inge, Landon J.; Dhruv, Harshil D.; Cheung, Philip Y.; Weiss, Glen J.; Bremner, Ross M.; Winkles, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The propensity for metastasis to the central nervous system (CNS) is a major clinical hurdle contributing to the low five-year survival rate of advanced disease. CNS metastases significantly outnumber primary brain tumors and carry a dismal prognosis in part due to the inability of therapeutic agents to cross the blood brain barrier. Standard treatment using radiation has been largely ineffective in improving mortality, suggesting the need for new agents targeting the critical metastatic drivers. The genetic and molecular events governing CNS metastasis from the lung are poorly understood at this time. This review highlights genetic events associated with CNS dissemination from the lung and molecular mechanisms associated with CNS metastasis. In vivo model systems that faithfully recapitulate escape from the lung and colonization of the CNS are described as tools for understanding the metastatic phenotype and for testing new therapeutic agents. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of lung cancer metastasis to the CNS is needed to elucidate novel therapeutic avenues towards the improvement of the mortality associated with advanced stage lung cancer. PMID:25806243

  13. Oncoplastic breast surgery for centrally located breast cancer: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinaka, Heiji; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Hirata, Munetsugu; Nakajo, Akihiro; Arima, Hideo; Okumura, Hiroshi; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Ishigami, Sumiya; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Oncoplastic breast surgery (OBS), which combines the concepts of oncologic and plastic surgery, is becoming more common worldwide. We herein report the results of OBS in Japanese patients with centrally located breast cancer (CLBC) and Paget’s disease. We performed OBS combining partial mastectomy and immediate volume replacement on patients with non-ptotic and/or small breasts, and volume reduction surgery for patients with ptotic breasts, as reported in Western countries. Japanese encounters are described in this report as a case series. PMID:25083497

  14. Distinct Characteristics of Small Cell Lung Cancer Correlate With Central or Peripheral Origin

    PubMed Central

    Miyauchi, Eisaku; Motoi, Noriko; Ono, Hiroshi; Ninomiya, Hironori; Ohyanagi, Fumiyoshi; Nishio, Makoto; Okumura, Sakae; Ichinose, Masakazu; Ishikawa, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a type of lung cancer with neuroendocrine differentiation and a poor prognosis that is widely believed to arise in the central lung. Thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) is a peripheral marker of lung adenocarcinoma that is also highly expressed in SCLC. In this study, we examined whether SCLC is really a central-type tumor and the relationship between tumor location, TTF-1 expression and prognosis of SCLC. Ninety six SCLCs, diagnosed from biopsies or surgical materials, for which detailed computed tomography (CT) images were available, were collected consecutively from Japanese patients between 2004 and 2011. We examined the location of the primary tumor (central or peripheral) using thin-sliced CT, a TTF-1 immunohistochemical expression, and clinicopathology including prognosis. Of the 96 SCLCs, 74% (71/96) were of the peripheral type and found to have a significantly worse prognosis than central-type tumors. TTF-1 immunoreactivity was identified in 79 tumors (82%), 78% of which (62/79) were of the peripheral type and 22% of which were central. TTF-1 expression was significantly correlated with peripheral location (P = 0.030). Multivariate analysis revealed that high TNM stages and the peripheral location were independent markers for poor survival. The majority of SCLCs were of the peripheral type. The peripheral-type SCLC expressed TTF-1 more frequently and had a poorer prognosis than central-type tumors did. Further analysis on original sites of SCLC, using molecular methodology, or based on another ethnicity, should be warranted. PMID:26705222

  15. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  16. A Comparison of a Centralized Versus De-Centralized Recruitment Schema in Two Community-Based Participatory Research Studies for Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Swann Arp; Heiney, Sue P.; Brandt, Heather M.; Wirth, Michael D.; Khan, Samira; Johnson, Hiluv; Davis, Lisa; Wineglass, Cassandra M.; Warren-Jones, Tatiana Y.; Felder, Tisha M.; Drayton, Ruby F.; Davis, Briana; Farr, Deeonna E.; Hébert, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of community-based participatory research (CBPR) approaches is increasing with the goal of making more meaningful and impactful advances in eliminating cancer-related health disparities. While many reports have espoused its advantages, few investigations have focused on comparing CBPR-oriented recruitment and retention. Consequently, the purpose of this analysis was to report and compare two different CBPR approaches in two cancer prevention studies. We utilized frequencies and chi-squared tests to compare and contrast subject recruitment and retention for two studies that incorporated a randomized, controlled intervention design of a dietary and physical activity intervention among African Americans. One study utilized a de-centralized approach to recruitment in which primary responsibility for recruitment was assigned to the general AA community of various church partners whereas the other incorporated a centralized approach to recruitment in which a single lay community individual was hired as research personnel to lead recruitment and intervention delivery. Both studies performed equally well for both recruitment and retention (75 and 88% recruitment rates and 71 and 66% retention rates) far exceeding those rates traditionally cited for cancer clinical trials (~5%). The de-centralized approach to retention appeared to result in statistically greater retention for the control participants compared to the centralized approach (77 vs 51%, P<0.01). Consequently, both CBPR approaches appeared to greatly enhance recruitment and retention rates of AA populations. We further note lessons learned and challenges to consider for future research opportunities. PMID:25086566

  17. English Teaching Profile: Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English instruction in Korea is outlined. The role of English in Korea as a whole, English instruction within the educational system, language teacher training, textbook use, educational administration, educational development and planning, English instruction outside of the educational system, British and American support…

  18. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  19. The Relationship between Centralization of Care and Geographic Barriers to Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Martin F.; Wisnivesky, Juan; Le, Valerie H.; Sarpel, Umut; Stensland, Kristian D.; Oh, William K.; Galsky, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Centralization of cystectomy treatment for bladder cancer, while associated with improved outcomes, may impose geographic barriers to care. However, whether this effect may be counterbalanced by an increased number of high volume centers has not previously been explored. Objective: To characterize changes in geographic disparities to high volume cystectomy centers over time. Methods: Data on all inpatient admissions for cystectomy in New York State (NYS) from 1997–2011 was obtained from the Department of Health. Using these data, we classified hospitals according to cystectomy volume and measured patient distance traveled to a cystectomy center. Population weights, from the US Census, were used to describe changes in minimum travel distance to high- or very high-volume (HV/VHV) facilities across the NYS population. Results: Bladder cancer patients underwent cystectomies at 195 hospitals during the study period. In 1997–2001, eleven HV/VHV facilities accounted for 37.5% of all cystectomies, while sixteen HV/VHV hospitals accounted for 71.5% of all procedures during 2007–2011. Median distance traveled by cystectomy patients to all hospitals increased from 9.6 to 14.4 miles in 1997–2001 to 2007–2011, respectively. In the same time span, the median travel distance for the NYS population to a HV/VHV center decreased by 1.9 and 9.4 miles at the median and 75th percentile, respectively. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate a complicated relationship between centralization and geographic access. While centralization has led to a decrease in overall access to cystectomy facilities, the process simultaneously improved access to high volume centers. PMID:27500199

  20. A comprehensive review of clinical nurse specialist-led peripherally inserted central catheter placement in Korea: 4101 cases in a tertiary hospital.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Yun; Kim, Hyun Lim

    2015-01-01

    Peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are expected to be convenient and reliable venous access devices. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical nurse specialist (CNS)-led PICC placement and to describe its growth in a tertiary hospital. A computerized database identified 3508 patients who had PICCs placed between November 2001 and June 2010. One thousand, eight hundred ninety-eight of the 4101 PICCs were available for complete follow-up, and 791 of 1898 PICCs were still in place. The mean dwell time of 1898 PICCs was 27.4 days (1∼422 days). Most PICCs were removed after the completion of infusion therapy; the remainder were removed following death, occlusion, suspected infection, or phlebitis, or were removed by the patient. The study found that CNS-led PICC placement for infusion therapies was effective and safe with relatively low complication rates and that CNSs played important roles in the increased use of PICCs.

  1. SU-E-E-16: The Application of Texture Analysis for Differentiation of Central Cancer From Atelectasis

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, M; Fan, T; Duan, J

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Prospectively assess the potential utility of texture analysis for differentiation of central cancer from atelectasis. Methods: 0 consecutive central lung cancer patients who were referred for CT imaging and PET-CT were enrolled. Radiotherapy doctor delineate the tumor and atelectasis according to the fusion imaging based on CT image and PET-CT image. The texture parameters (such as energy, correlation, sum average, difference average, difference entropy), were obtained respectively to quantitatively discriminate tumor and atelectasis based on gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) Results: The texture analysis results showed that the parameters of correlation and sum average had an obviously statistical significance(P<0.05). Conclusion: the results of this study indicate that texture analysis may be useful for the differentiation of central lung cancer and atelectasis.

  2. Perineal talc exposure and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the Central Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Mills, Paul K; Riordan, Deborah G; Cress, Rosemary D; Young, Heather A

    2004-11-10

    Perineal talc use has been suggested as a possible risk factor for ovarian cancer based on its structural similarity to asbestos, a known human carcinogen. A population-based epidemiologic case-control study of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) was conducted in 22 counties of Central California that comprise the reporting area for 2 regional cancer registries. Telephone interviews were conducted with 256 cases diagnosed in the years 2000-2001 and 1,122 controls frequency-matched on age and ethnicity. The interview obtained information on demographic factors, menstrual and reproductive experience, exogenous hormone use, surgical history and family history of cancer. Questions on perineal talc use included frequency of use, duration of use and specific years when talc was used. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived from unconditional logistic regression. The OR for ever use of talc was 1.37 (CI = 1.02-1.85) compared to never users. However, no dose response association was found. Tubal ligation (TL) modified the effect of talc on EOC such that women with TL had an OR of 0.88 (CI = 0.46-1.68) associated with perineal talc use, whereas women with no TL had an OR of 1.54 (CI = 1.10-2.16). Talc use and EOC risk was highest in women with serous invasive tumors (OR = 1.77; CI = 1.12-2.81). This study provides some support for the hypothesis that perineal talc use is associated with an increased risk of EOC.

  3. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  4. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  5. Defining central themes in breast cancer biology by differential proteomics: conserved regulation of cell spreading and focal adhesion kinase.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Nicholas W; Sun, Mai; Hood, Brian L; Flint, Melanie S; Conrads, Thomas P

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer is a highly heterogeneous disease, an observation that underscores the importance of elucidating conserved molecular characteristics, such as gene and protein expression, across breast cancer cell types toward providing a greater understanding of context-specific features central to this disease. Motivated by the goal of defining central biological themes across breast cancer cell subtypes, we conducted a global proteomic analysis of three breast cancer cell lines, MCF7, SK-BR-3, and MDA-MB-231, and compared these to a model of nontransformed mammary cells (MCF10A). Our results demonstrate modulation of proteins localized to the extracellular matrix, plasma membrane, and nucleus, along with coordinate decreases in proteins that regulate "cell spreading," a cellular event previously shown to be dysregulated in transformed cells. Protein interaction network analysis revealed the clustering of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a fundamental regulator of cell spreading, with several proteins identified as mutually, differentially abundant across breast cancer cell lines that impact expression and activity of FAK, such as neprilysin and keratin 19. These analyses provide insights into conservation of protein expression across breast cancer cell subtypes, a subset of which warrants further investigation for their roles in the regulation of cell spreading and FAK in breast cancer.

  6. Charcoal tattoo localization for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence in the central compartment of the neck.

    PubMed

    Soprani, F; Bondi, F; Puccetti, M; Armaroli, V

    2012-04-01

    Recurrence of differentiated thyroid cancer can often require further surgical options. Reoperations may carry significant risk of surgical complications; additionally, as the anatomy is subverted, there is the possibility of leaving residual neoplasm. In order to avoid such problems during reoperation for differentiated thyroid cancer recurrence, we have introduced the technique of preoperative ultrasound-guided tattooing localization of the lymphatic structure to be removed with a 4% solution of active charcoal. Using ultrasound guidance, the lesion is identified and 0.5-2 ml of colloidal charcoal is injected near the lesion. The extraction of the needle is accompanied by injection at constant pressure of other charcoal as to leave a trace of colouring along the path of the needle up to the skin. The preoperative injection was well tolerated in all cases. In the last 5 years, we have used this technique in 13 patients with suspected recurrence in the central compartment (all from papillary carcinomas). Postoperative ultrasound and histological examination confirmed the removal of the lesion in all patients; in one case, the lesion was a parathyroid cyst. Complications were observed in two of 13 (15.4%) cases (one transitory hypoparathyroidism, and one transitory vocal cord paresis). Considering our experience, charcoal tattoo localization can be considered a safe, low-cost technique that is extremely useful for facilitating surgical procedures, and reduces the risk of iatrogenic damage.

  7. China and Korea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

  8. Trends in Radical Prostatectomy: Centralization, Robotics, and Access to Urologic Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Stitzenberg, Karyn B.; Wong, Yu-Ning; Nielsen, Matthew E.; Egleston, Brian L.; Uzzo, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    Background Robotic surgery has been widely adopted for radical prostatectomy. We hypothesize that this change is rapidly shifting procedures away from hospitals that do not offer robotics and consequently increasing patient travel. Methods A population-based observational study of all prostatectomies for cancer in NY, NJ, and PA from 2000–2009 was performed using hospital discharge data. Hospital procedure volume was defined as the number of prostatectomies performed for cancer in a given year. Straight-line travel distance to treating hospital was calculated for each case. Hospitals were contacted to determine year of acquisition of first robot. Results From 2000–2009, the total number of prostatectomies performed annually increased substantially. The increase occurred almost entirely at the very high volume centers (≥106 prostatectomies/year). The number of hospitals performing prostatectomy fell 37% from 2000–2009. By 2009, the 9% (21/244) of hospitals that had very high volume performed 57% of all prostatectomies, and the 35% (86/244) of hospitals with a robot performed 85% of all prostatectomies. Median travel increased 54% from 2000–2009, p<0.001. The proportion of patients traveling ≥15 miles increased from 24% to 40%, p<0.001. Conclusions Over the past decade, the number of radical prostatectomies performed has risen substantially. These procedures have been increasingly centralized at high volume centers, leading to longer patient travel distances. Few prostatectomies are now performed at hospitals that do not offer robotic surgery. Future work should focus on the impact of these trends on cancer control, functional outcomes, access to care and cost. PMID:21717436

  9. Brain and central nervous system cancer incidence in navarre (Spain), 1973-2008 and projections for 2014.

    PubMed

    Etxeberria, J; Román, E San; Burgui, R; Guevara, M; Moreno-Iribas, C; Urbina, M J; Ardanaz, E

    2015-01-01

    Different studies have pointed out Navarre as one of the regions of Spain with the highest incidence rates of brain and other central nervous system (CNS) cancer. Trend analysis for cancer incidence rates for long periods of time, might help determining risk factors as well as, assessing prevention actions involved in this disease. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence of brain and CNS cancer using data from the population-based cancer registry of Navarre, (Spain) during the period 1973-2008 and provide forecast figures up to-2014. Crude and age-standardized (world population) incidence rates of brain cancer per 100,000 person-years were calculated by the direct method separately by gender, area (Pamplona and others), and age-groups. Penalized splines for smoothing rates in the temporal dimensions were applied in order to estimate and forecast cancer incidence rates. Age-adjusted incidence rates showed an increase over the study and forecast periods in both sexes more marked in women than in men. Higher incidence rates were observed in men compared with women but the differences became smaller with time. The increase was due to the rise of rates in the oldest age groups since the rates for younger age groups remained stable or decreased over time. As the entire aetiology of brain and other CNS cancer is not still clear, keep promoting healthful lifestyles for cancer primary prevention among the whole population is necessary.

  10. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  11. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  12. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  13. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  14. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  15. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  16. Costs and Benefits of the National Cancer Institute Central Institutional Review Board

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Todd H.; Murray, Christine; Goldberg, Jacquelyn; Adler, Jeanne M.; Abrams, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In 2001, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) formed the Central Institutional Review Board (CIRB) to conduct a single human subjects review for its multisite phase III oncology trials. The goal of this study was to assess whether NCI's CIRB was associated with lower effort, time, and cost in processing adult phase III oncology trials. Methods We conducted an observational study and compared sites affiliated with the NCI CIRB to unaffiliated sites that used their local IRB for review. Oncology research staff and IRB staff were surveyed to understand effort and timing. Response rates were 60% and 42%, respectively. Analysis of these survey data yielded information on effort, timing, and costs. We combined these data with CIRB operational data to determine the net savings of the CIRB using a societal perspective. Results CIRB affiliation was associated with faster reviews (33.9 calendar days faster on average), and 6.1 fewer hours of research staff effort. CIRB affiliation was associated with a savings of $717 per initial review. The estimated cost of running the CIRB was $161,000 per month. The CIRB yielded a net cost of approximately $55,000 per month from a societal perspective. Whether the CIRB results in higher or lower quality reviews was not assessed because there is no standard definition of review quality. Conclusion The CIRB was associated with decreases in investigator and IRB staff effort and faster protocol reviews, although savings would be higher if institutions used the CIRB as intended. PMID:19841324

  17. The effect of raw vegetable and fruit intake on thyroid cancer risk among women: a case-control study in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Kyoung; Kim, Kirang; Tae, Kyung; Kong, Gu; Kim, Mi Kyung

    2013-01-14

    Thyroid cancer is the most common cancer among Korean women. However, there are few data on dietary factors related to thyroid cancer risk. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between raw vegetables and fruits intake and thyroid cancer in a case-control study. We included 111 histologically confirmed malignant thyroid cancer cases and 115 benign cases. Controls who did not have nodules in thyroid ultrasonography were matched to cases by age (± 2 years). Food and nutrient intakes were estimated using a quantitative FFQ with 121 items. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to obtain OR and corresponding 95 % CI. The intake of total vegetables was not associated with malignant thyroid cancer, but inversely associated with benign cases. High raw vegetable intake was inversely associated with thyroid cancer risk both in malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·01 in both malignant and benign cases). Among fruits, persimmon intake had an inverse association with thyroid cancer risk in both malignant and benign cases (P for trend = 0·06 in malignant cases; P for trend = 0·01 in benign cases) and tangerine intake had an inverse association in malignant cases (P for trend = 0·03). The frequency of consumption of raw vegetables and persimmon also had a consistent inverse association in both malignant and benign cases. These results suggest that high consumption of raw vegetables, persimmons and tangerines may decrease thyroid cancer risk and help prevent early-stage thyroid cancer.

  18. Central venous catheters for infusion therapy in gastrointestinal cancer. A comparative study of tunnelled centrally placed catheters and peripherally inserted central catheters.

    PubMed

    Snelling, R; Jones, G; Figueredo, A; Major, P

    2001-01-01

    Protracted venous infusion of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is a common treatment for patients with gastrointestinal malignancy. A central venous access device is required for safe and effective drug delivery. This study uses a survival analysis to compare the useful life and treatment completion success of tunelled centrally placed catheters (TCPCs) and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). It also describes complications found with both devices. Data on insertion, complications, and removal of TCPCs and PICCs were collected on standardized forms, prospectively for initial PICCs and retrospectively for initial TCPCs. Survival of indwelling catheters was similar for both devices for the first 120 days, but after that TCPC survival was statistically better than that of PICCs (P = 0.051). Complications occurred in 61% of patients with TCPCs and 67% of patients with PICCs. The authors conclude that PICCs provide less invasive, more cost-effective, and easier to schedule central venous access for 5-FU infusion; however, their advantage over TCPCs decreases significantly in treatments lasting more than 120 days.

  19. Lessons from French National Guidelines on the treatment of venous thrombosis and central venous catheter thrombosis in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Farge, Dominique; Durant, Cecile; Villiers, Stéphane; Long, Anne; Mahr, Alfred; Marty, Michel; Debourdeau, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Increased prevalence of Venous thromboembolism (VTE), as defined by deep-vein thrombosis (DVT), central venous catheter (CVC) related thrombosis or pulmonary embolism (PE) in cancer patients has become a major therapeutic issue. Considering the epidemiology and each national recommendations on the treatment of VTE in cancer patients, we analysed guidelines implementation in clinical practice. Thrombosis is the second-leading cause of death in cancer patients and cancer is a major risk factor of VTE, due to activation of coagulation, use of long-term CVC, the thrombogenic effects of chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic drugs. Three pivotal trials (CANTHANOX, LITE and CLOT) and several meta-analysis led to recommend the long term (3 to 6 months) use of LMWH during for treating VTE in cancer patients with a high level of evidence. The Italian Association of Medical Oncology (AIOM), the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN), the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), the French "Institut National du Cancer" (INCa), the European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCCP) have published specific guidelines for health care providers regarding the prevention and treatment of cancer-associated VTE. Critical appraisal of these guidelines, difficulties in implementation of prophylaxis regimen, tolerance and cost effectiveness of long term use of LMWH may account for large heterogenity in daily clinical practice. Homogenization of these guidelines in international consensus using an adapted independent methodological approach followed by educational and active implementation strategies at each national level would be very valuable to improve the care of VTE in cancer patients. PMID:20433988

  20. Identification of genes in ulcerative colitis associated colorectal cancer based on centrality analysis of co-expression network.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Li, C; Ji, W

    2015-01-01

    PreviousColorectal cancer (CRC) is a well-recognized complication of Ulcerative colitis (UC) and patients with UC have a higher incidence of CRC than the general population. Early detection and mechanism of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is still challenging. The aim of present study is to identify genes associated with CAC by centrality analysis of co-expression networks. Co-expression networks of CRC and UC were constructed by empirical Bayes approach based on top 200 gene signatures which identified by the model of genome-wide relative significance and genome-wide global significance across multiple datasets. Centrality of degree, stress centrality, betweenness centrality and closeness centrality of co-expression networks were selected to explore hub genes presented in CRC and UC. Validation of mRNA expression in CRC patients was conducted by real-time quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Pathway analysis was conducted based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. We found 21 common genes, such as SLC4A4 and AQP8, both existed in CRC and UC top 200 genes. By accessing centralities analyses of co-expression networks, HPGD and AQP8 were common hub genes in CRC and UC, and various centralities analyses of the same gene were not consistent. Patients with alteration of AQP8 have significantly reduced the survival rate according to real-time qPCR results. Our study displayed genes associated with CAC (AQP8 and HPGD), and they might be reliable biomarkers for early detection and therapies of CAC. PMID:26278145

  1. Filling the gap in central shielding: three-dimensional analysis of the EQD2 dose in radiotherapy for cervical cancer with the central shielding technique

    PubMed Central

    Tamaki, Tomoaki; Ohno, Tatsuya; Noda, Shin-ei; Kato, Shingo; Nakano, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide accurate dose distribution profiles of radiotherapy for cervical cancer when treated with the central shielding technique by analysing the composite 3D EQD2 dose distribution of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plus intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). On a phantom, four patterns of the combinations of whole pelvis irradiation (WP) (4 fields), pelvis irradiation with central shielding technique (CS) [anterior–posterior/posterior–anterior (AP-PA fields), shielding width of 3 or 4 cm] and ICBT using Point-A prescription were created: 30 Gy/15 fractions + 20 Gy/10 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (30 + 20 + 24)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 18 Gy/3 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 18)], 40 Gy/20 fractions + 10 Gy/5 fractions + 24 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (40 + 10 + 24)] and 45 Gy/25 fractions + 0 Gy + 28 Gy/4 fractions [Plan (45 + 0 + 28)]. The composite EQD2 dose distributions of the complete treatment were analysed. The Point-A dose of Plan (30 + 20 + 24), Plan (40 + 10 + 18), Plan (40 + 10 + 24) and Plan (45 + 0 + 28) were 78.0 Gy (CS 3 cm)/71.8 Gy (CS 4 cm), 72.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/69.0 Gy (CS 4 cm), 80.1 Gy (CS 3 cm)/77.0 Gy (CS 4 cm) and 84.1 Gy, whereas it has been previously reported to be 62 Gy, 64 Gy, 72 Gy and 84 Gy, respectively. For all the treatment plans with CS, equivalent or wider coverage of 60 Gy (EQD2) was achieved in the right–left direction, while coverage in the anterior–posterior direction decreased in plans with CS. There were no irregularly ‘cold’ regions around the central target. The use of CS in radiotherapy for cervical cancer resulted in tumor coverage in the lateral direction with doses higher than the previously reported Point-A doses. PMID:26062811

  2. Peripherally-inserted central catheter-related fungemia due to hansenula polymorpha in a patient with pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Garbati, Musa Abubakar

    2012-10-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha, used mainly as an industrial agent in the production of pharmaceuticals, has rarely been reported to cause disease. The case of a 47-year old Pilipino male with pancreatic cancer presented here is the second reported in the literature. Major risk factors for this infection included underlying malignancy, abdominal surgery and the use of a peripherally-inserted central catheter for total parenteral nutrition. He was successfully treated with a two-week's course of voriconazole. PMID:23326083

  3. Identification of a pan-cancer oncogenic microRNA superfamily anchored by a central core seed motif

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Mark P.; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Hartig, Sean M.; Reva, Boris; McLellan, Michael D.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Ding, Li; Zack, Travis I.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Wheeler, David A.; Coarfa, Cristian; McGuire, Sean E.

    2013-11-01

    MicroRNAs modulate tumorigenesis through suppression of specific genes. As many tumour types rely on overlapping oncogenic pathways, a core set of microRNAs may exist, which consistently drives or suppresses tumorigenesis in many cancer types. Here we integrate The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) pan-cancer data set with a microRNA target atlas composed of publicly available Argonaute Crosslinking Immunoprecipitation (AGO-CLIP) data to identify pan-tumour microRNA drivers of cancer. Through this analysis, we show a pan-cancer, coregulated oncogenic microRNA ‘superfamily’ consisting of the miR-17, miR-19, miR-130, miR-93, miR-18, miR-455 and miR-210 seed families, which cotargets critical tumour suppressors via a central GUGC core motif. We subsequently define mutations in microRNA target sites using the AGO-CLIP microRNA target atlas and TCGA exome-sequencing data. These combined analyses identify pan-cancer oncogenic cotargeting of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase, TGFβ and p53 pathways by the miR-17-19-130 superfamily members.

  4. Parent-School Partnership Formation through the School Council in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Anna

    2004-01-01

    Official involvement of parents in school education has been very limited until recently within the highly centralized educational administration and school management system in Korea. But, the educational reform in 1995 has brought fundamental changes in educational administration and school management system of Korea. The main approach of the…

  5. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  6. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  7. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor environments.…

  8. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  9. Stereotactic ablative radiotherapy for centrally located early stage non-small-cell lung cancer: what we have learned.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joe Y; Bezjak, Andrea; Mornex, Françoise

    2015-04-01

    Image-guided stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR; also called stereotactic body radiotherapy or radiosurgery) has become a standard treatment for medically inoperable peripherally located stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and can achieve local control rates in excess of 90%. However, the role of SABR for centrally located lesions remains controversial because of concerns about the potential for severe toxic effects. When cutting-edge technologies and knowledge-based optimization of SABR planning that considers both target coverage and normal tissue sparing are used, some patients with central lesions can be safely and effectively cured of early stage NSCLC. However, delivery of ablative doses of radiation to critical structures such as bronchial tree, esophagus, major vessels, heart, and the brachial plexus/phrenic nerve could produce severe, potentially lethal toxic effects. Here, we address the current understanding of indications, dose regimens, planning optimization, and normal tissue dose-volume constraints for using SABR to treat central NSCLC.

  10. A risk of breast cancer in women - carriers of constitutional CHEK2 gene mutations, originating from the North - Central Poland

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Germline mutations of the CHEK2 gene have been reported to be associated with breast cancer. In this study, we analyzed the association of CHEK2 mutations with the risk of development of breast cancer in women of North-Central Poland. Methods 420 women with breast cancer and 435 controls were tested for three protein truncating (IVS2 + 1G > A, 1100delC, del5395) and one missense (I157T) CHEK2 mutation. IVS2 + 1G > A and I157T mutations were identified by RFLP-PCR, 1100delC variant was analyzed using an ASO-PCR and del5395 mutation by multiplex-PCR. The statistical tests: the odds ratio (OR) and Fisher’s exact test were used. Results In 33 out of 420 (7.9%) women consecutively diagnosed with breast cancer, we detected one of four analyzed CHEK2 mutations: I157T, 1100delC, IVS2 + 1G > A or del5395. Together they were not associated with the increased risk of breast cancer (North-Central control group: OR = 1.6, p = 0.124; the general Polish population: OR = 1.4, p = 0.109). This association was only seen for IVS2 + 1G > A mutation (OR = 3.0; p = 0.039). One of the three truncating CHEK2 mutations (IVS2 + 1G > A, 1100delC, del5395) was present in 9 of 420 women diagnosed with breast cancer (2.1%) and in 4 of 121 women (3.3%) with a history of breast cancer in a first- and/or second- degree relatives. Together they were associated with the increased risk of disease in these groups, compared to the general Polish population (OR = 2.1, p = 0.053 and OR = 3.2; p = 0.044, respectively). I157T mutation was detected in 25 of 420 women diagnosed with breast cancer (6.0%) and in 8 of 121 women (6.6%) with a history of breast cancer in first- and/or second- degree relatives. The prevalance of I157T mutation was 4.1% (18/435) in North-Central control group and 4.8% (265/5.496) in the general Polish population. However it was not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer

  11. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer: a treatment option for patients ineligible for surgical resection

    PubMed Central

    Moghissi, Keyvan; Dixon, Kate; Thorpe, James Andrew Charles; Stringer, Mark; Oxtoby, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To review the Yorkshire Laser Centre experience with bronchoscopic photodynamic therapy (PDT) in early central lung cancer in subjects not eligible for surgery and to discuss diagnostic problems and the indications for PDT in such cases. Methods Of 200 patients undergoing bronchoscopic PDT, 21 had early central lung cancer and were entered into a prospective study. Patients underwent standard investigations including white light bronchoscopy in all and autofluorescence bronchoscopy in 12 of the most recent cases. Indications for bronchoscopic PDT were recurrence/metachronous endobronchial lesions following previous treatment with curative intent in 10 patients (11 lesions), ineligibility for surgery because of poor cardiorespiratory function in 8 patients (9 lesions) and declined consent to operation in 3 patients. PDT consisted of intravenous administration of Photofrin 2 mg/kg followed by bronchoscopic illumination 24–48 h later. Results 29 treatments were performed in 21 patients (23 lesions). There was no procedure‐related or 30 day mortality. One patient developed mild skin photosensitivity. All patients expressed satisfaction with the treatment and had a complete response of variable duration. Six patients died at 3–103 months (mean 39.3), three of which were not as a result of cancer. Fifteen patients were alive at 12–82 months. Conclusion Bronchoscopic PDT in early central lung cancer can achieve long disease‐free survival and should be considered as a treatment option in those ineligible for resection. Autofluorescence bronchoscopy is a valuable complementary investigation for identification of synchronous lesions and accurate illumination in bronchoscopic PDT. PMID:17090572

  12. Understanding aging in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, G; Eun, K

    1995-12-01

    "This study discusses demographic trends, sociocultural characteristics, and policy choices of aging in [South] Korea.... Although the proportion of the elderly was not so high as to worry about aging before 1990, it is projected that one in eight Koreans will be aged 65 or more in 2020. Because the care for the elderly is mostly expected to be provided by each family, not by the state or Korean society, the role of the family is pivotal in coping with [the] aging problem.... Although adult children currently understand that their aged parents need assistance and support from them, they want to solve the issue of support for the elderly in a way different from the traditional.... This paper examines how the changing attitude toward the old is reflected in family life in terms of living arrangement and physical contacts. This paper also describes and discusses the current situation of various welfare policies on the elderly in Korea."

  13. Welcome to Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah

    2009-04-01

    Distinguished Guests and Speakers, Ladies and Gentlemen! On behalf of the Local Organizing Committee, it is my great privilege to welcome all of you to the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. Actually, it is quite timely that this Conference is held here in Seoul, Korea, just eight months after our President Lee Myung-bak was inaugurated, because our new President has placed great emphasis on science and technology, particularly basic research.

  14. Risk of leukaemia or cancer in the central nervous system among children living in an area with high indoor radon concentrations: results from a cohort study in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Del Risco Kollerud, R; Blaasaas, K G; Claussen, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past few years, there has been growing interest in assessing the relationship between exposure to radon at home and the risk of childhood cancer. Previous studies have produced conflicting results, probably because of limitations assessing radon exposure, too few cancer cases and poorly documented health statistics. Methods: We used a cohort approach of 0–15-year-old children to examine whether residential radon exposure was associated with childhood leukaemia and cancer in the central nervous system in the Oslo region. The study was based on Norwegian population registers and identified cancer cases from The Cancer Registry of Norway. The residence of every child was geo-coded and assigned a radon exposure. Results: In all, 712 674 children were followed from 1967 to 2009 from birth to date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration or 15 years of age. A total of 864 cancer cases were identified, 437 children got leukaemia and 427 got cancer in the central nervous system. Conclusions or interpretation: No association was found for childhood leukaemia. An elevated nonsignificant risk for cancer in the central nervous system was observed. This association should be interpreted with caution owing to the crude exposure assessment and possibilities of confounding. PMID:25117818

  15. Critical Perspectives on Colonisation of the Art Curriculum in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jeong-Ae

    2009-01-01

    This article examines some characteristics of art education in Korea. It takes the form of a historical overview using a postcolonial lens. The findings were that the predominant Western aesthetic concepts and theories as central culture embodied in Korean art education as local culture are: (i) ideas of art as self-expression developed in Europe…

  16. Rupture of totally implantable central venous access devices (Intraports) in patients with cancer: report of four cases

    PubMed Central

    Filippou, Dimitrios K; Tsikkinis, Christoforos; Filippou, Georgios K; Nissiotis, Athanasios; Rizos, Spiros

    2004-01-01

    Background Totally implantable central venous access devices (intraports) are commonly used in cancer patients to administer chemotherapy or parenteral nutrition. Rupture of intraport is a rare complication. Patients and methods During 3 years period, a total of 245 intraports were placed in cancer patients for chemotherapy. Four of these cases (two colon cancer and one each of pancreas and breast cancer) had rupture of the intraport catheter, these forms the basis of present report. Results Mean time insitu for intraports was 164∀35 days. Median follow-up time was 290 days and total port time in situ was 40180 days. The incidence of port rupture was 1 per 10,000 port days. Three of the 4 cases were managed by successful removal of catheters. In two of these the catheter was removed under fluoroscopic control using femoral route, while in the third patient the catheter (partial rupture) was removed surgically. One of the catheters could not be removed and migrated to right ventricle on manipulations. Conclusion Port catheter rupture is a rare but dreaded complication associated with subcutaneous port catheter device placement for chemotherapy. In case of such an event the patient should be managed by an experienced vascular surgeon and interventional radiologist, as in most cases the ruptured catheter can be retrieved by non operative interventional measures. PMID:15494075

  17. Economic burden of smoking in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H; Kim, H; Park, T; Jee, S; Nam, C; Park, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To support tobacco control policies in Korea by providing the estimated annual economic burden attributed to cigarette smoking. Methods: The following two different approaches were used to estimate the cost: "disease specific" and "all causes". In the disease specific approach, we focused on estimating direct and indirect costs involved in treatments of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases, and cancer as a result of smoking, by using an epidemiologic approach—the population attributable risk (PAR). To compute PAR, the relative risks of smoking in terms of physician visits, hospital admission, and death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. In the all causes approach, we examined the differences in direct and indirect costs between smokers and non-smokers for all conditions and types of disease. The major data source was the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation cohort study, which had complete records of smoking status as of 1992 for 115 682 male and 67 932 female insured workers. Results: By the disease specific approach, the estimated costs attributable to smoking in 1998 in Korea ranged from US$2269.42 million ($4.89 million per 100 000 population; 0.59% of gross domestic product (GDP)) to $2956.75 million ($6.37 million; 0.78% of GDP). The all causes approach yielded a minimum cost of $3154.75 million ($6.79 million; 0.82% GDP) and a maximum of $4580.25 million ($9.86 million; 1.19% GDP). Conclusion: The study confirms that smoking places a substantial economic burden on Korean society. In light of this, our study provides evidence for a strong need to develop a national policy to effectively control tobacco consumption in Korea. PMID:12612360

  18. Breast cancer patients in Libya: Comparison with European and central African patients

    PubMed Central

    BODER, JAMELA MOSTAFA E.; ELMABROUK ABDALLA, FATHI B.; ELFAGEIH, MOHAMED AHMED; ABUSAA, ABUAGELA; BUHMEIDA, ABDELBASET; COLLAN, YRJÖ

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the incidence of breast cancer in Libya and described the clinicopathological and demographic features. These features were then compared with corresponding data from patients from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Finland). The study consisted of 234 patients with breast carcinoma, admitted to the African Oncology Institute in Sabratha, Libya, during the years 2002–2006. The pathological features were collected from pathology reports, patient histories from hospital files and the Sabratha Cancer Registry. The demographic differences between the Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations were prominent. The mean age of breast cancer patients in Libya was 46 years which was almost identical to that of Nigeria, but much lower than that of Finland. The Libyan breast cancer incidence was evaluated as 18.8 per 100,000 female individuals. This incidence was markedly higher in Finland, but was also high in Nigeria. Libyan and Nigerian breast cancer is predominantly of premenopausal type and exhibits unfavorable characteristics such as high histological grade and stage, large tumor size and frequent lymph node metastases. However, the histological types and histopathological risk features show similar importance regarding survival as European breast cancer cases. Survival in Libya ranks between the rates of survival in Nigeria (lowest) and Finland (highest). In conclusion, in Libya and other African countries, premenopausal breast cancer is more common than postmenopausal breast cancer. However, the opposite is true for Europe. Population differences may be involved, as suggested by the known variation, in the distribution of genetic markers in these populations. Different types of environmental impacts, however, cannot be excluded. PMID:22866085

  19. Breast cancer patients in Libya: Comparison with European and central African patients.

    PubMed

    Boder, Jamela Mostafa E; Elmabrouk Abdalla, Fathi B; Elfageih, Mohamed Ahmed; Abusaa, Abuagela; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Collan, Yrjö

    2011-03-01

    The present study evaluated the incidence of breast cancer in Libya and described the clinicopathological and demographic features. These features were then compared with corresponding data from patients from sub-Saharan Africa (Nigeria) and Europe (Finland). The study consisted of 234 patients with breast carcinoma, admitted to the African Oncology Institute in Sabratha, Libya, during the years 2002-2006. The pathological features were collected from pathology reports, patient histories from hospital files and the Sabratha Cancer Registry. The demographic differences between the Libyan, Nigerian and Finnish populations were prominent. The mean age of breast cancer patients in Libya was 46 years which was almost identical to that of Nigeria, but much lower than that of Finland. The Libyan breast cancer incidence was evaluated as 18.8 per 100,000 female individuals. This incidence was markedly higher in Finland, but was also high in Nigeria. Libyan and Nigerian breast cancer is predominantly of premenopausal type and exhibits unfavorable characteristics such as high histological grade and stage, large tumor size and frequent lymph node metastases. However, the histological types and histopathological risk features show similar importance regarding survival as European breast cancer cases. Survival in Libya ranks between the rates of survival in Nigeria (lowest) and Finland (highest). In conclusion, in Libya and other African countries, premenopausal breast cancer is more common than postmenopausal breast cancer. However, the opposite is true for Europe. Population differences may be involved, as suggested by the known variation, in the distribution of genetic markers in these populations. Different types of environmental impacts, however, cannot be excluded.

  20. Attribution to Heterogeneous Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Subtypes Based on Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Receptor Expression in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Sung, Ho Kyung; Ahn, Choonghyun; Hwang, Yunji; Jang, Jieun; Lee, Juyeon; Kim, Heewon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Sohee; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee; Park, Sue K

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a heterogeneous risk assessment of breast cancer based on the hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) calculating the risks and population-based attributable fractions (PAFs) for modifiable and nonmodifiable factors.Using matched case-control study design from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study and the national prevalence of exposure, the risks and PAFs for modifiable and nonmodifiable factors were estimated for total breast cancers and subtypes.The attribution to modifiable factors was different for each subtype (luminal A, PAF = 61.4% [95% confidence interval, CI = 54.3%-69.8%]; luminal B, 21.4% [95% CI = 18.6-24.9%]; HER2-overexpression, 59.4% [95% CI = 47.8%-74.3%], and triple negative tumors [TNs], 27.1% [95% CI = 22.9%-32.4%)], and the attribution to the modifiable factors for the luminal A and HER2-overexpression subtypes was higher than that of the luminal B and TN subtypes (P heterogeneity  ≤  0.001). The contribution of modifiable reproductive factors to luminal A type in premenopausal women was higher than that of the other subtypes (18.2% for luminal A; 3.1%, 8.1%, and -3.1% for luminal B, HER2-overexpression, and TN subtypes, respectively; P heterogeneity  ≤  0.001). Physical activity had the highest impact preventing 32.6% of luminal A, 14.5% of luminal B, 38.0% of HER2-overexpression, and 26.9% of TN subtypes (P heterogeneity = 0.014). Total reproductive factors were also heterogeneously attributed to each breast cancer subtype (luminal A, 65.4%; luminal B, 24.1%; HER2-overexpression, 57.9%, and TN subtypes, -3.1%; P heterogeneity  ≤  0.001).Each pathological subtype of breast cancer by HRs and HER2 status may be associated with heterogeneous risk factors and their attributable risk, suggesting a different etiology. The luminal B and TN subtypes seemed to be less preventable despite intervention for alleged risk factors, even though physical activity had a high

  1. Attribution to Heterogeneous Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Subtypes Based on Hormone Receptor and Human Epidermal Growth Factor 2 Receptor Expression in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Sung, Ho Kyung; Ahn, Choonghyun; Hwang, Yunji; Jang, Jieun; Lee, Juyeon; Kim, Heewon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Park, Sohee; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee; Park, Sue K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We conducted a heterogeneous risk assessment of breast cancer based on the hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) calculating the risks and population-based attributable fractions (PAFs) for modifiable and nonmodifiable factors. Using matched case–control study design from the Seoul Breast Cancer Study and the national prevalence of exposure, the risks and PAFs for modifiable and nonmodifiable factors were estimated for total breast cancers and subtypes. The attribution to modifiable factors was different for each subtype (luminal A, PAF = 61.4% [95% confidence interval, CI = 54.3%–69.8%]; luminal B, 21.4% [95% CI = 18.6–24.9%]; HER2-overexpression, 59.4% [95% CI = 47.8%–74.3%], and triple negative tumors [TNs], 27.1% [95% CI = 22.9%–32.4%)], and the attribution to the modifiable factors for the luminal A and HER2-overexpression subtypes was higher than that of the luminal B and TN subtypes (P heterogeneity ≤ 0.001). The contribution of modifiable reproductive factors to luminal A type in premenopausal women was higher than that of the other subtypes (18.2% for luminal A; 3.1%, 8.1%, and −3.1% for luminal B, HER2-overexpression, and TN subtypes, respectively; P heterogeneity ≤ 0.001). Physical activity had the highest impact preventing 32.6% of luminal A, 14.5% of luminal B, 38.0% of HER2-overexpression, and 26.9% of TN subtypes (P heterogeneity = 0.014). Total reproductive factors were also heterogeneously attributed to each breast cancer subtype (luminal A, 65.4%; luminal B, 24.1%; HER2-overexpression, 57.9%, and TN subtypes, −3.1%; P heterogeneity ≤ 0.001). Each pathological subtype of breast cancer by HRs and HER2 status may be associated with heterogeneous risk factors and their attributable risk, suggesting a different etiology. The luminal B and TN subtypes seemed to be less preventable despite intervention for alleged risk factors, even though physical

  2. Elementary Teacher Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas C.

    This monograph describes elementary teacher education in South Korea and aspects of Korean society that have contributed to the uniqueness of this educative process. Within the context of comparative education, the essay introduces the cultural, social, and institutional attributes of Korea; discusses specifics of the educative process as a…

  3. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  4. Evaluation of North American Association of Central Cancer Registries’ (NAACCR) Data for Use in Population-Based Cancer Survival Studies

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Mariotto, Angela B.; Turner, Donna; Wilson, Reda J.; Nishri, Diane; Ward, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Follow-up procedures vary among cancer registries in North America. US registries are funded by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program and/or the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR). SEER registries ascertain vital status and date of last contact to meet follow-up standards. NPCR and Canadian registries primarily conduct linkages with local and national death records to ascertain deaths. Data on patients diagnosed between 2002 through 2006 and followed through 2007 were obtained from 51 registries. Registries that met follow-up standards or, at a minimum, conducted linkages with local and national death records had comparable age-standardized five-year survival estimates (all sites and races combined): 63.9% SEER, 63.1% NPCR, and 62.6% Canada. Estimates varied by cancer site. Survival data from registries using different follow-up procedures are comparable if death ascertainment is complete and all nondeceased patients are presumed to be alive to the end of the study period. PMID:25417233

  5. The effect of extension of benefit coverage for cancer patients on health care utilization across different income groups in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sujin; Kwon, Soonman

    2014-06-01

    To provide financial protection against catastrophic illness, the Korean government expanded the National Health Insurance (NHI) benefit coverage for cancer patients in 2005. This paper examined whether the policy improved the income-related equality in health care utilization. This study analyzed the extent to which the policy improved income-related equality in outpatient visits, inpatient days, and inpatient and outpatient care expenditure based on triple difference estimator. Using nationwide claims data of the NHI from 2002 to 2004 and from 2006 to 2010, we compared cancer patients as a treatment group with liver disease as a control group and low-income group with the highest-income group. The results showed that the extension of NHI benefits coverage led to an increase in the utilization of outpatient services across all income groups, but with a greater increase for the low-income groups, among cancer patients. Moreover, the policy led to a less decrease in the utilization of inpatient services for the low-income group while it decreased across all income groups. Our finding suggests that the extension of NHI benefits coverage improved the income-related equality in health care utilization.

  6. Occupational exposure and laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer risk in central and eastern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Shangina, O.; Brennan, P.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Mates, D.; Fabianova, E.; Fletcher, T.; Mannetje, A.; Boffetta, P.; Zaridze, D.

    2006-08-15

    A multicenter case-control study was conducted during 1999-2002 in four European countries (Poland, Romania, Russia, and Slovakia) to evaluate the role of occupational exposures in risk of laryngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer. Male cancer cases (34 hypopharyngeal, 316 laryngeal) with full data on occupational history and nonoccupational factors were compared with 728 hospital controls for occupational exposure to 73 suspected carcinogens. Occupational history was evaluated by industrial hygienists blinded to case/control status. Elevated risks for over exposure to coal dust were found for both hypopharyngeal (odds ratio (OR) = 4.19, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.18, 14.89) and laryngeal (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.94, 3.47) cancer, with clear dose-response patterns. Inclusion of a 20-year lag in the analysis strengthened these associations. Hypopharyngeal cancer risk was also significantly associated with exposure to mild steel dust (OR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.39, 6.64) and iron compounds and fumes (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.29, 5.84), without clear dose-response relations. Laryngeal cancer was significantly associated with exposure to hard-alloys dust (OR = 2.23, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.57) and chlorinated solvents (OR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 4.61), without dose-response relations. A possible link between high formaldehyde exposure and laryngeal cancer was suggested. These data indicate that occupational exposure to coal dust may play a role in laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Other possible relations need further evaluation.

  7. Perceptions of Prophylactic Mastectomy in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Han Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasingly, prophylactic mastectomy has been evaluated as a treatment of breast cancer. Hereditary breast cancer now accounts for approximately 5%–10% of all cases of breast cancer, meaning that the widespread implementation of prophylactic mastectomy may significantly reduce the occurrence of breast cancer. However, prophylactic mastectomy is rarely performed in Korea. Therefore, in this study, we assessed Koreans' attitudes toward and awareness of preventive mastectomy. Methods This was a prospective study of a cohort of patients attending outpatient clinics and their relatives. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires assessing sex, age, educational level, knowledge of breast cancer, understanding of prophylactic mastectomy, attitudes toward prophylactic mastectomy, and reasons for choosing prophylactic mastectomy. Results Sixty-five patients were included. Most patients (36.9%) were between 40 and 49 years of age and 58.4% were college graduates. Only six respondents (9%) understood prophylactic mastectomy, and 17 respondents (27%) stated that they would agree to undergo prophylactic mastectomy if necessary. Reasons given for refusing prophylactic mastectomy included aesthetic concerns (38%), the perception that it would not cure the disease (26%), possible surgical complications (24%), and financial cost (6%). Conclusions In this study, most of the respondents showed a poor knowledge of prophylactic mastectomy. Ultimately, it will be necessary to establish medical guidelines for patients with a high risk of breast cancer, with the objective of providing accurate information and proper treatment at hospitals. PMID:26848446

  8. Tobacco control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiljun; Kim, Dae Soon; Park, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seon Kui

    2004-01-01

    The Tobacco Business Act and the National Health Promotion Act coexist in Korea, causing conflicts. While the Tobacco Business Act mainly emphasizes the state's financial and economic aspects by describing the operation and control of tobacco business, the National Health Promotion Act states the measures on warnings on the harmful effects of tobacco, prohibition of advertising, and sales limitation for the public's health. In addition to these legal problems, it is not acceptable to continue the Tobacco Business Act, which is completely opposite to the establishment of active social welfare policies for the quality improvement of people's lives. The Tobacco Business Act, whose objective is tobacco business promotion, should be abolished to meet and follow such a desire for health, international trend, and WHO (World Health Organization) FCTC (Framework Convention on Tobacco Control). It would be most proper to ratify the FCTC and abolish the Tobacco Business Act. Also, revision of the National Health Promotion Act is necessary to secure the enforcement and implementation of FCTC in Korea.

  9. Cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy for peritoneal carcinomatosis of colorectal cancer: 2-year follow-up results at a single institution in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Min Hyeong; Suh, Jung Wook; Yun, Jeong Seok; Namgung, Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine 2-year follow-up results of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) for peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal cancer. Methods We performed 54 cases of CRS and IPC in 53 patients with PC of colorectal cancer from December 2011 to December 2013. We collected data prospectively and analyzed the grade of PC, morbidity and mortality, and short-term follow-up (median, 10 months; range, 2–47 months) results. Results Mean peritoneal cancer index (PCI) was 15 (range, 1–35), and complete cytoreduction was possible in 35 patients (64.8%). Complications occurred in 25 patients (46.3%) and mortality occurred in 4 patients (7.4%). Excluding the 4 mortalities, 17 patients out of 49 patients (31.5%) were alive at the time of the last follow-up and the overall median survival was 10.3 months. Patients with complete cytoreduction had a median survival of 22.6 months, which was significantly longer than the median survival of 3.5 months for patients without complete cytoreduction (P < 0.001). PCI grade, CCR grade, cell type, and postoperative chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors by univariate analysis. Positive independent prognostic factors by multivariate analysis included PCI grade and postoperative chemotherapy. Conclusion CRS and IPC increased the survival of patients with low PCI and postoperative systemic chemotherapy was mandatory. However, this combined therapeutic approach showed high rate of complications and mortality. Therefore, this aggressive treatment should be performed in only selected patients by considering the general condition of the patient and the extent of PC. PMID:27757392

  10. Accelerated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy for patients with contralateral central or mediastinal lung cancer relapse after pneumonectomy

    PubMed Central

    Abu Jawad, Jehad; Gkika, Eleni; Freitag, Lutz; Lübcke, Wolfgang; Welter, Stefan; Gauler, Thomas; Schuler, Martin; Eberhardt, Wilfried Ernst Erich; Stamatis, Georgios; Stuschke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment options are very limited for patients with lung cancer who experience contralateral central or mediastinal relapse following pneumonectomy. We present results of an accelerated salvage chemoradiotherapy regimen. Methods Patients with localized contralateral central intrapulmonary or mediastinal relapse after pneumonectomy were offered combined chemoradiotherapy including concurrent weekly cisplatin (25 mg/m2) and accelerated radiotherapy [accelerated fractionated (AF), 60 Gy, 8×2 Gy per week] to reduce time for repopulation. Based on 4D-CT-planning, patients were irradiated using multifield intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or helical tomotherapy. Results Between 10/2011 and 12/2012, seven patients were treated. Initial stages were IIB/IIIA/IIIB: 3/1/3; histopathological subtypes scc/adeno/large cell: 4/1/2. Tumour relapses were located in mediastinal nodal stations in five patients with endobronchial tumour in three patients. The remaining patients had contralateral central tumour relapses. All patients received 60 Gy (AF), six patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Median dose to the remaining contralateral lung, esophagus, and spinal cord was 6.8 (3.3-11.4), 8.0 (5.1-15.5), and 7.6 (2.8-31.2) Gy, respectively. With a median follow-up of 29 [17-32] months, no esophageal or pulmonary toxicity exceeding grade 2 [Common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTC-AE) v. 3] was observed. Median survival was 17.2 months, local in-field control at 12 months 80%. Only two local recurrences were observed, both in combination with out-field metastases. Conclusions This intensified accelerated chemoradiotherapy schedule was safely applicable and offers a curative chance in these pretreated frail lung cancer patients. PMID:25922702

  11. Proposal of new expanded selection criteria using total tumor size and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emission tomography/computed tomography for living donor liver transplantation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: The National Cancer Center Korea criteria

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Duk; Lee, Bora; Kim, Seong Hoon; Joo, Jungnam; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Young-Kyu; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To expand the living donor liver transplantation (LT) pool of eligible patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using new morphological and biological criteria. METHODS: Patients with HCC who underwent living donor LT (LDLT) from March 2005 to May 2013 at the National Cancer Center Korea (NCCK) were enrolled. We performed the 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) before LDLT. Overall and disease-free survival analysis was done in patients to evaluate the usefulness of new NCCK criteria using PET/CT and total tumor size (10 cm). RESULTS: We enrolled a total of 280 patients who pathologically confirmed to have HCC and performed the PET/CT before transplantation. Among them, 164 (58.6%) patients fulfilled the NCCK criteria and 132 patients (47.1%) met the Milan criteria. Five-year overall and disease-free survival rates for patients who fulfilled the NCCK criteria showed 85.2% and 84.0%, respectively, and were significantly higher than those beyond the NCCK criteria (60.2% and 44.4%, respectively; P < 0.001). The correlation analysis between preoperative imaging tests and pathologic reports using Cohen’s Kappa demonstrated the better results in the NCCK criteria than those in the Milan criteria (0.850 vs 0.583). The comparison of disease-free analysis among the NCCK, Milan, and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria using the receiver operating characteristics curves revealed the similar area under the curve value criteria (NCCK vs Milan, P = 0.484; NCCK vs UCSF, P = 0.189 at 5-years). CONCLUSION: The NCCK criteria using hybrid concept of both morphological and biological parameters showed an excellent agreement between preoperative imaging and pathological results, and favorable survival outcomes. These new criteria might select the optimal patients with HCC waiting LDLT and expand the selection pool. PMID:27358787

  12. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as...

  13. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as...

  14. Welding and lung cancer in Central and Eastern Europe and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    't Mannetje, Andrea; Brennan, Paul; Zaridze, David; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Rudnai, Peter; Lissowska, Jolanta; Fabiánová, Eleonóra; Cassidy, Adrian; Mates, Dana; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Fevotte, Joelle; Fletcher, Tony; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Occupation as a welder has been associated with a 25%-40% increase in lung cancer risk. This study aims to elucidate to what extent confounding by smoking and asbestos drives this association and to evaluate the role of welding-related exposures such as chromium. The study included 2,197 male incident lung cancer cases and 2,295 controls from Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, and the United Kingdom from 1998 to 2001. Information on risk factors was collected through face-to-face interviews. Experts assessed exposure to 70 agents, and risk estimates were adjusted for smoking and occupational exposures. Occupation as a welder/flame cutter (prevalence controls: 3.7%) was associated with an odds ratio of 1.36 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.86) after adjustment for smoking and occupational exposures including asbestos. An odds ratio of 1.18 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.38) was found for welding fumes (prevalence controls: 22.8%), increasing to 1.38 for more than 25 exposure years (95% CI: 1.09, 1.75). A duration-response association was also observed for mild steel welding without chromium exposure. In this population, occupational exposure to welding fumes accounted for approximately 4% of lung cancer cases, to which both stainless and mild steel welding contributed equally. Given that welding remains a common task for many workers, exposure to welding fumes represents an important risk factor for lung cancer.

  15. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation-Positive Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer in the Real-World Setting in Central Europe: The INSIGHT Study.

    PubMed

    Ramlau, Rodryg; Cufer, Tanja; Berzinec, Peter; Dziadziuszko, Rafal; Olszewski, Włodzimierz; Popper, Helmut; Bajcic, Paolo; Dušek, Ladislav; Zbozinkova, Zuzana; Pirker, Robert

    2015-09-01

    The ImplementatioN of perSonalized medicine In NSCLC in Central Europe: EGFR testing, Histopathology, and clinical feaTures (INSIGHT) observational study assessed both implementation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing and treatment of patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a real-world setting in Central Europe. A total of 1785 patients from 14 cancer centers of six Central European countries were enrolled. EGFR mutations were detected in tumors of 13.8% of the patients. More than 70% of patients with advanced EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC received EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors as first-line therapy. The INSIGHT study demonstrated the establishment of EGFR mutation testing, a mutation rate consistent with other Caucasian patients populations, and adherence to current guidelines regarding treatment of patients with EGFR mutation-positive tumors in Central Europe.

  16. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas.

  17. High prevalence of breast cancer in light polluted areas in urban and rural regions of South Korea: An ecologic study on the treatment prevalence of female cancers based on National Health Insurance data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Eunil; Lee, Hyo Sun; Kim, Mari; Park, Man Sik

    2015-06-01

    It has been reported that excessive artificial light at night (ALAN) could harm human health since it disturbs the natural bio-rhythm and sleep. Such conditions can lead to various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we have evaluated the association between ALAN and prevalence rates of cancer in females on a regional basis, after adjusting for other risk factors, including obesity, smoking, alcohol consumption rates and PM10 levels. The prevalence rates for breast cancer were found to be significantly associated with ALAN in urban and rural areas. Furthermore, no association was found with ALAN in female lung, liver, cervical, gastric and colon cancer. Despite the limitations of performing ecological studies, this report suggests that ALAN might be a risk factor for breast cancer, even in rural areas. PMID:25955405

  18. Does El Niño-Southern Oscillation affect the precipitation in Korea on seasonal time scales?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Chang-Hoi; Choi, Woosuk; Kim, Jinwon; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Yoo, Hee-Dong

    2016-08-01

    A number of studies in the past two decades have attempted to find the relationship between the precipitation in Korea and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on various time scales. Comprehensive analyses of station precipitation data in Korea for the 61-year period, 1954-2014, in this study show that the effects of ENSO on the seasonal precipitation in Korea are practically negligible. The correlation between summer precipitation and ENSO is insignificant regardless of the intensity, type (e.g., eastern-Pacific or central-Pacific), and stage (e.g., developing, mature, or decaying) of ENSO. Somewhat meaningful correlation between ENSO and precipitation in Korea occurs only in the ENSO-developing fall. Because summer rainfall accounts for over half of the annual total and fall is a dry season in Korea, the overall effects of ENSO on precipitation in Korea are practically nonexistent.

  19. [Formation of medical education in North Korea: 1945-1948].

    PubMed

    Heo, Yun-Jung; Cho, Young-Soo

    2014-08-01

    This study focuses on the formation of medical education in North Korea from 1945 to 1948 in terms of the centralization of medical education, and on the process and significance of the systemization of medical education. Doctors of the past trained under the Japanese colonial system lived and worked as liberalists. More than half of these doctors who were in North Korea defected to South Korea after the country was liberated. Thus the North Korean regime faced the urgent task of cultivating new doctors who would 'serve the state and people.' Since the autumn of 1945, right after national liberation, Local People's Committees organized and implemented medical education autonomously. Following the establishment of the Provisional People's Committee of North Korea, democratic reform was launched, leading to the centralized administration of education. Consequently, medical educational institutions were realigned, with some elevated to medical colleges and others shut down. The North Korean state criticised the liberalistic attitude of doctors and the bureaucratic style of health administration, and tried to reform their political consciousness through political inculcation programs. The state also grant doctors living and housing privileges, which show its endeavor to build 'state medicine'. By 1947, a medical education system was established in which the education administration was put in charge of training new doctors while the health administration was put in charge of nurturing and retraining health workers. In this way, the state was the principal agent that actively established a centralized administrative system in the process of the formation of medical education in North Korea following national liberation. Another agent was deeply involved in this process - the faculty that was directly in charge of educating the new doctors. Studying the medical faculty remains another research task for the future. By exploring how the knowledge, generational experience

  20. [Alpha lipoic acid and its antioxidant against cancer and diseases of central sensitization].

    PubMed

    Durand, Marisa; Mach, Núria

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El ácido alfa lipoico (ALA) puede controlar y limitar la cantidad de radicales libres, influyendo el desarrollo de patologías como el cáncer o las enfermedades de sensibilización central, aunque los mecanismos moleculares implicados en este proceso aún están dilucidándose. Objetivo: Reunir y contrastar información sobre las propiedades antioxidantes del ALA en la prevención y desarrollo de las patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Material y métodos: En este trabajo, se analizan más de 100 artículos publicados en los últimos 20 años que relacionan el consumo de ALA y la prevalencia y desarrollo de patologías relacionadas con el estrés oxidativo. Los artículos han sido obtenidos en diferentes bases de datos (PubMed central, Web of Science, Elsevier Journal, Science Direct), e incluyen experimentos en células, animales y humanos. Las palabras clave utilizadas fueron: cáncer, enfermedades de sensibilización central, radicales libres, y ALA. Resultados y discusión: Se han reunido resultados de trabajos realizados in vitro y en animales de laboratorio en los que se pone de manifiesto el efecto del ALA en el control de la apoptosis celular de diferentes tipos de cánceres mediante un aumento de las especies reactivas de oxígeno, así como también el retardo en el crecimiento de las mismas. Aparte, se ha demostrado que la capacidad antioxidante del ALA y su potencial para regenerar otros antioxidantes es de gran importancia para tratar las patologías de sensibilización central. Conclusiones: El ALA ha demostrado un papel significativo como antioxidante y prooxidante en el cáncer y las patologías de sensibilización central, aunque son necesarias más investigaciones en humanos.

  1. Isolation and identification of Aspergillus section fumigati strains from arable soil in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Beom; Kim, Dae-Ho; Park, In-Cheol; Samson, Robert A; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2010-03-01

    63 strains of Aspergillus section Fumigati were isolated from 17 samples of arable soil in a central province of Korea. Based on the results of genotypic and phenotypic analyses, they were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus, A. lentulus, Neosartorya coreana, N. fennelliae, N. fischeri, N. glabra, N. hiratsukae, N. laciniosa, N. pseudofischeri, N. quadricincta, N. spinosa and N. udagawae. Among these, N. fennelliae, N. hiratsukae, N. quadricincta, and N. udagawae had not been previously recorded in Korea. The diversity of Aspergillus section Fumigati species from arable soil in Korea is also addressed.

  2. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  3. Is prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia in the transition/central zone a true precursor of cancer? A long-term retrospective study in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Harvei, S.; Skjørten, F. J.; Robsahm, T. E.; Berner, A.; Tretli, S.

    1998-01-01

    Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) has been considered as a precursor of prostatic cancer. Few reports have dealt with the long-term follow-up of PIN lesions, and there is still a lack of proof that PIN is a true premalignant lesion. The objective of this study was to evaluate PIN in the transition/central zone as a marker for subsequent development of prostatic cancer. The PIN status of tissue specimens from 789 men without prostate cancer was determined in 508 transurethral resections and 281 transvesical prostatic enucleations. All slides were reviewed blind and independently by two pathologists. The patients were followed for an average of 11 years, and the incidence of subsequent cancer and cause-specific survival were analysed. Thirty-six cases of clinical prostatic cancer occurred among the cohort of 789 men through follow-up. No association between the presence of PIN in the transition/central zone and subsequent cancer development was found. There was also no difference in survival related to PIN status among the subsequent cancer patients. PMID:9662249

  4. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  5. Central nervous system (CNS) cancer in children and young people in the European Union and its involvements with socio-economic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Llopis-González, Agustín; Alcaide Capilla, Teresa; Chenlo Alonso, Unai; Rubio-López, Nuria; Alegre-Martinez, Antoni; Morales Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-12-15

    Malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the leading cause of death by cancer in children and the second commonest pediatric cancer type. Despite several decades of epidemiologic research, the etiology of childhood CNS tumors is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and therapeutic ionizing radiation are thought to account for 5-10% of childhood cancer, but the etiology of other cases remains unknown. Nongenetic causes, like environmental agents, are thought to explain them. However, as very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The biggest difference between cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are none could be the number of relevant studies. This study, which covers the 1980-2011 period, identified links between CNS cancer evolution and the socio-economic and environmental indicators in the same space and time limits in the European Union.

  6. Central nervous system (CNS) cancer in children and young people in the European Union and its involvements with socio-economic and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Llopis-González, Agustín; Alcaide Capilla, Teresa; Chenlo Alonso, Unai; Rubio-López, Nuria; Alegre-Martinez, Antoni; Morales Suárez-Varela, María

    2015-12-15

    Malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the leading cause of death by cancer in children and the second commonest pediatric cancer type. Despite several decades of epidemiologic research, the etiology of childhood CNS tumors is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and therapeutic ionizing radiation are thought to account for 5-10% of childhood cancer, but the etiology of other cases remains unknown. Nongenetic causes, like environmental agents, are thought to explain them. However, as very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The biggest difference between cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are none could be the number of relevant studies. This study, which covers the 1980-2011 period, identified links between CNS cancer evolution and the socio-economic and environmental indicators in the same space and time limits in the European Union. PMID:26671105

  7. Identifying the Factors Causing Delayed Presentation of Cancer Patients to a Government Medical College of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Yogi, Veenita; Ghori, Hameed Uzzafar; Singh, Om Prakash; Peepre, Karan; Yadav, Suresh; Mohare, Chaitlal

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of cancer is increasing throughout the world. One of the prime aims of its management is early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. Factors causing delay to either of these goals should be identified and rectified. Aim To identify the factors causing delayed initial diagnosis and subsequent management in patients presenting to the Oncology department. Materials and Methods Three hundred proven cancer patients were prospectively evaluated for the pattern of presentation to the outpatient Department of Radiation Oncology of a Government Medical College (MC) in Central India. Results The mean age of presentation was 51.05 years (range 7 months-77 years). The number of male patients was 168 while females were 132. The duration of symptoms ranged from 20 days to 3 years. The number of patients with little/no education presented mainly in advanced stages as compared to their educated counterpart and this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001). The number of patients presenting directly to the department was 108, those diagnosed outside and referred to us was 84 while those diagnosed and received some form of oncologic treatment outside and referred thereafter was 108. The difference in the primary delay between patients presenting directly to the MC versus those diagnosed outside was significant (p=0.0126). The mean duration of starting definitive treatment after presentation to the outpatient was 4.68 days (range 0-22 days) and was very significantly (p< 0.001) less than the secondary delays caused to the other two subsets of patients. Conclusion Factors causing delayed presentation are both patient and system related. It is imperative to educate the common people regarding the early signs and symptoms of cancer. At the same time, the system needs to overhaul its efficiency to avoid secondary delays that adversely affect the treatment outcome. An upgradation of the existing oncology facilities in the public sector can achieve this

  8. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and its genotype among 1336 invasive cervical cancer patients in Hunan province, central south China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Linqian; Wu, Baiping; Li, Junjun; Chen, Liyu

    2015-03-01

    Existing data on the genotype distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) are limited in Hunan province, central south China. To evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection and its genotype among women with invasive cervical cancer in Hunan, a total of 1,336 patients were included in this study between July 2012 and June 2013. Eighteen high-risk and eight low-risk genotypes of HPV were detected by Luminex xMAP technology. The results show that HPV prevalence in invasive cervical cancer in Hunan was 75.7%. A single HPV infection was found in 82.3% of the HPV-positive samples, and 91.8% of the cases had high-risk HPV infection. The most common HPV type was HPV 16 (50.6%), followed by HPV 58 (12.4%), HPV 52 (10.9%), HPV 18 (7.3%), HPV 33 (5.5%), HPV 59 (4.2%), HPV 39 (4.0%), HPV 61 (3.4%), HPV 31 (3.3%), and HPV 56 (3.2%). A single infection with HPV 16 was detected in 42.5% of the samples, which was significantly more frequent than any other HPV type in this population. Dual-infection with HPV 16 and HPV 52 were relatively common. The available vaccines for HPV 16 and 18 are therefore expected to have a substantial impact on reducing the burden of cervical cancer in China, even though HPV 18 showed a lower frequency. In addition to HPV 16 and 18, other HPV types including 58, 52, and 33, should be targeted in the next generation HPV vaccines.

  9. mTOR activation is a biomarker and a central pathway to autoimmune disorders, cancer, obesity, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Perl, Andras

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase that plays pivotal roles in integrating growth signals on a cellular level. To support proliferation and survival under stress, two interacting complexes that harbor mTOR, mTORC1 and mTORC2, promote the transcription of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis, enhance protein translation, and inhibit autophagy. While rapamycin was originally developed as an inhibitor of T cell proliferation for preventing organ transplant rejection, its molecular target, mTOR, has been subsequently identified as a central regulator of metabolic cues that drive lineage specification in the immune system. Owing to oxidative stress, the activation of mTORC1 has emerged as a central pathway for the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. Paradoxically, mTORC1 has been also identified as a mediator of the Warburg effect that allows cell survival under hypoxia. Rapamycin and new classes of mTOR inhibitors are being developed to block not only transplant rejection and autoimmunity but also to treat obesity and various forms of cancer. Through preventing these diseases, personalized mTOR blockade holds promise to extend life span. PMID:25907074

  10. mTOR activation is a biomarker and a central pathway to autoimmune disorders, cancer, obesity, and aging.

    PubMed

    Perl, Andras

    2015-06-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine kinase, which plays pivotal roles in integrating growth signals on a cellular level. To support proliferation and survival under stress, two interacting complexes that harbor mTOR, mTORC1 and mTORC2, promote the transcription of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism and lipogenesis, enhance protein translation, and inhibit autophagy. Although rapamycin was originally developed as an inhibitor of T cell proliferation for preventing organ transplant rejection, its molecular target, mTOR, has been subsequently identified as a central regulator of metabolic cues that drive lineage specification in the immune system. Owing to oxidative stress, the activation of mTORC1 has emerged as a central pathway for the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and other autoimmune diseases. Paradoxically, mTORC1 has also been identified as a mediator of the Warburg effect that allows cell survival under hypoxia. Rapamycin and new classes of mTOR inhibitors are being developed to block not only transplant rejection and autoimmunity but also to treat obesity and various forms of cancer. Through preventing these diseases, personalized mTOR blockade holds promise to extend life span.

  11. The Nuclear Orphan Receptor NR2F6 Is a Central Checkpoint for Cancer Immune Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Hermann-Kleiter, Natascha; Klepsch, Victoria; Wallner, Stephanie; Siegmund, Kerstin; Klepsch, Sebastian; Tuzlak, Selma; Villunger, Andreas; Kaminski, Sandra; Pfeifhofer-Obermair, Christa; Gruber, Thomas; Wolf, Dominik; Baier, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Summary Nuclear receptor subfamily 2, group F, member 6 (NR2F6) is an orphan member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Here, we show that genetic ablation of Nr2f6 significantly improves survival in the murine transgenic TRAMP prostate cancer model. Furthermore, Nr2f6−/− mice spontaneously reject implanted tumors and develop host-protective immunological memory against tumor rechallenge. This is paralleled by increased frequencies of both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and higher expression levels of interleukin 2 and interferon γ at the tumor site. Mechanistically, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell-intrinsic NR2F6 acts as a direct repressor of the NFAT/AP-1 complex on both the interleukin 2 and the interferon γ cytokine promoters, attenuating their transcriptional thresholds. Adoptive transfer of Nr2f6-deficient T cells into tumor-bearing immunocompetent mice is sufficient to delay tumor outgrowth. Altogether, this defines NR2F6 as an intracellular immune checkpoint in effector T cells, governing the amplitude of anti-cancer immunity. PMID:26387951

  12. Delivering kidney cancer care in rural Central and Southern Illinois: a telemedicine approach.

    PubMed

    Alanee, S; Dynda, D; LeVault, K; Mueller, G; Sadowski, D; Wilber, A; Jenkins, W D; Dynda, M

    2014-11-01

    There is a growing body of experience and research suggesting that telemedicine (video conferencing, smart phones and online patient portals) could be the solution to addressing gaps in the provision of specialised healthcare in rural areas. The proposed role of telemedicine in providing needed services in hard to reach areas is not new. The United States Telecommunication Act of 1996 provided the initial traction for telemedicine by removing important economic and legal obstacles regarding the use of technology in healthcare delivery. This initial ruling has been supplemented by the availability of federal funding to support efforts aimed at developing telemedicine in underserved areas. In this paper, we explore one aspect of disease disparity pertinent to rural Illinois (kidney cancer incidence and mortality) and describe how we are planning to use an existing telemedicine program at Southern Illinois University School of Medicine (SIUSOM) to improve kidney cancer (Kca) care in rural Illinois. This represents an example of the possible role of telemedicine in addressing healthcare disparities in rural areas/communities and provides a description of general challenges and barriers to the implementation and maintenance of such systems.

  13. Proliferative Activity in Libyan Breast Cancer with Comparison to European and Central African Patients

    PubMed Central

    Boder, Jamela; Abdalla, Fathi; Elfagieh, Mohamed; Collan, Yrjö

    2013-01-01

    Background. We evaluated the relation of proliferative indices with clinicopathological features and prognosis in breast cancer (BC) of Libyan female patients. The data were compared with corresponding results in Finland and Nigeria. Patients and Methods. Histological samples of breast cancer from 130 patients were retrospectively studied. Mitotic activity index (MAI) and standardized mitotic index (SMI) were estimated. Results. There were statistically significant correlations between the proliferative indices and most clinicopathological features, with the strongest association observed for histological grade (P = 0.01 for SMI and P = 0.003 for MAI). The proliferative differences between Libyan, Nigerian, and Finnish population were prominent. The mean values of SMI and MAI in Libyan BC patients were 32.1 mitotic figures per square millimeter and 27.3 mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields, respectively. This is clearly lower than those in Nigeria but much higher than those in Finland. The differences between countries are seen in whole material and are also present in subgroups. The results indicated that mitotic activities can be reliable prognostic indicators in Libyan BCs, as they were among Finnish and Nigerian females. Univariate and multivariate analyses found at cut-offs of 19 and 44 mitosis/mm2 of SMI were the most significant prognostic factors. Conclusions. Proliferative indices with careful estimation of the MAI and SMI could be applied as quantitative criteria for Libyan BC to separate the patients into good, moderate, and bad prognosis groups. PMID:24106717

  14. Immunotherapy for cancer in the central nervous system: Current and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Binder, David C.; Davis, Andrew A.; Wainwright, Derek A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and still remains incurable. Although immunotherapeutic vaccination against GBM has demonstrated immune-stimulating activity with some promising survival benefits, tumor relapse is common, highlighting the need for additional and/or combinatorial approaches. Recently, antibodies targeting immune checkpoints were demonstrated to generate impressive clinical responses against advanced melanoma and other malignancies, in addition to showing potential for enhancing vaccination and radiotherapy (RT). Here, we summarize the current knowledge of central nervous system (CNS) immunosuppression, evaluate past and current immunotherapeutic trials and discuss promising future immunotherapeutic directions to treat CNS-localized malignancies. PMID:27057463

  15. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  16. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. Teaching about Korea--In Wando and Worland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Tim; Bellis, David

    2000-01-01

    Stresses three reasons for teaching about Korea and its people in the United States: (1) Korea's potential assistance in solving environmental issues; (2) the role of Korea in promoting world peace; and (3) the economic potential of Korea. Discusses resources for teaching about Korea and provides an appendix with Internet sites on Korea. (CMK)

  18. A Study on the knowledge, perception and use of breast cancer screening methods and quality of care among women from central Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Castillo, Andrea B.; Hernández-Valero, María A.; Hovick, Shelly R.; Campuzano-González, Martha Elva; Karam-Calderón, Miguel Angel; Bustamante-Montes, L. Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Studies on health behaviors have observed several barriers to breast cancer screening, including lack of breast cancer knowledge, distrust of health care providers, long waiting times to be screened or to receive screening results. We conducted a nested case-control study among a subsample of 200 women 21 years of age and older (100 cases, who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, and 100 controls, who were screened and found to be free of breast cancer), all residing in the Toluca metropolitan area in central Mexico. We examined how knowledge of breast cancer screening guidelines, perceptions of screening methods, and quality of health care influenced the use of breast cancer screening among study participants. Our study found that the most important factors associated with the decision to have breast cancer screenings was having a positive perception of the quality of care provided by the local health care centers, such as having competent clinic personnel, sufficient screening equipment, and reasonable waiting times to receive screening and to receive the screening results. Therefore, individual health care centers need to focus on the patients’ perception of the services received by optimizing the care provided, and in so doing increase the rates of early diagnosis, reduce the rate of mortality from breast cancer as well as its associated treatment costs. PMID:25182506

  19. A Study on the Knowledge, Perception, and Use of Breast Cancer Screening Methods and Quality of Care Among Women from Central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Castillo, Andrea B; Hernández-Valero, María A; Hovick, Shelly R; Campuzano-González, Martha Elva; Karam-Calderón, Miguel Angel; Bustamante-Montes, L Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Studies on health behaviors have observed several barriers to breast cancer screening, including lack of breast cancer knowledge, distrust of health care providers, and long waiting times to be screened or to receive screening results. We conducted a nested case-control study among a subsample of 200 women 21 years of age and older [100 patients (cases)], who had been diagnosed with breast cancer, and 100 controls, who were screened and found to be free of breast cancer), all residing in the Toluca metropolitan area in central Mexico. We examined how knowledge of breast cancer screening guidelines, perceptions of screening methods, and quality of health care influenced the use of breast cancer screening among study participants. Our study found that the most important factor associated with the decision to have breast cancer screenings was having a positive perception of the quality of care provided by the local health care centers, such as having competent clinic personnel, sufficient screening equipment, and reasonable waiting times to receive screening and to receive the screening results. Therefore, individual health care centers need to focus on the patients' perception of the services received by optimizing the care provided and, in so doing, increase the rates of early diagnosis and reduce the rate of mortality from breast cancer as well as its associated treatment costs.

  20. Examining breast cancer screening barriers among Central American and Mexican immigrant women: fatalistic beliefs or structural factors?

    PubMed

    De Jesus, Maria; Miller, Eva B

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have examined "cancer fatalism" (the belief that cancer is predetermined, beyond individual control, and necessarily fatal) as a major barrier to breast cancer screening among Latinas. The authors examine perceptions of breast cancer, its causes, and experiences with screening among Salvadoran, Guatemalan, Mexican, and Bolivian immigrant women in Washington, DC. Two salient themes emerged: (a) perceptions of breast cancer causes and breast cancer screening; and (b) structural factors are the real barriers to breast cancer screening. Findings demonstrate participants' awareness and motivation to get screened and elucidate structural barriers that are obscured by the discourse of fatalism and hinder breast cancer screening.

  1. Two chemists in two Koreas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2005-03-01

    Taikyu Ree (1902-92) and Seung Ki Li (1905-96) were the most famous and influential scientists in twentieth-century Korea. Trained at Kyoto Imperial University during the Japanese occupation period (1910-45), both followed parallel career paths until 1945 but after that year those paths began to diverge. In 1948 Taikyu Ree moved to the University of Utah where he ran an informal graduate programme to train Korea chemists during the 1950s and 1960s. He became a model scholar in pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. In 1950 Seung Ki Li moved to North Korea where he succeeded in industrialising a new synthetic fibre from polyvinyl alcohol. He became a popular hero who demonstrated the utility of science. His success also helped Kim Il Sung, North Korea dictator, to consolidate his political ideology of Self-Reliance. Despite their different career patterns in very different circumstances, they shared something common; apolitical views and commitment to their work. An investigation of the careers of these two chemists illustrates the interwoven scientific, ideological and economic developments of South and North Korea during the second half of the twentieth century. PMID:16308924

  2. Mental health services and R&D in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Sang-Uk; Soh, Minah; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Hyunjin; Jang, Jung Won; Lim, Hee Young; Jeon, Mina; Park, Jong-Ik; Choi, SungKu; Ha, Kyooseob

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has asserted that mental illness is the greatest overriding burden of disease in the majority of developed countries, and that the socioeconomic burden of mental disease will exceed that of cancer and cardiovascular disorders in the future. The life-time prevalence rate for mental disorders in Korea is reported at 27.6 %, which means three out of 10 adults experience mental disorders more than once throughout their lifetime. Korea's suicide rate has remained the highest among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations for 10 consecutive years, with 29.1 people out of every 100,000 having committed suicide. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study on the mental health services and the Research and Development (R&D) status in Korea is hard to find. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the mental health services and the R&D status in Korea, and examines their shortcomings and future direction. The paper discusses the mental health service system, budget and human resources, followed by the mental health R&D system and budget. And, by a comparison with other OECD countries, the areas for improvement are discussed and based on that, a future direction is suggested. This paper proposes three measures to realize mid and long-term mental health promotion services and to realize improvements in mental health R&D at the national level: first, establish a national mental health system; second, forecast demand for mental health; and third, secure and develop mental health professionals.

  3. Mental health services and R&D in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Sungwon; Lee, Sang-Uk; Soh, Minah; Ryu, Vin; Kim, Hyunjin; Jang, Jung Won; Lim, Hee Young; Jeon, Mina; Park, Jong-Ik; Choi, SungKu; Ha, Kyooseob

    2016-01-01

    World Health Organization has asserted that mental illness is the greatest overriding burden of disease in the majority of developed countries, and that the socioeconomic burden of mental disease will exceed that of cancer and cardiovascular disorders in the future. The life-time prevalence rate for mental disorders in Korea is reported at 27.6 %, which means three out of 10 adults experience mental disorders more than once throughout their lifetime. Korea's suicide rate has remained the highest among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) nations for 10 consecutive years, with 29.1 people out of every 100,000 having committed suicide. Nevertheless, a comprehensive study on the mental health services and the Research and Development (R&D) status in Korea is hard to find. Against this backdrop, this paper examines the mental health services and the R&D status in Korea, and examines their shortcomings and future direction. The paper discusses the mental health service system, budget and human resources, followed by the mental health R&D system and budget. And, by a comparison with other OECD countries, the areas for improvement are discussed and based on that, a future direction is suggested. This paper proposes three measures to realize mid and long-term mental health promotion services and to realize improvements in mental health R&D at the national level: first, establish a national mental health system; second, forecast demand for mental health; and third, secure and develop mental health professionals. PMID:27257434

  4. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...) Applications to export or reexport humanitarian items (e.g., blankets, basic footwear, heating oil, and...

  5. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy in Centrally and Superiorly Located Stage I or Isolated Recurrent Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Joe Y. Balter, Peter A.; Dong Lei; Yang Qiuan; Liao Zhongxing; Jeter, Melenda; Bucci, M. Kara; McAleer, Mary F.; Mehran, Reza J.; Roth, Jack A.; Komaki, Ritsuko

    2008-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of image-guided stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) in centrally/superiorly located non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods: We delivered SBRT to 27 patients, 13 with Stage I and 14 with isolated recurrent NSCLC. A central/superior location was defined as being within 2 cm of the bronchial tree, major vessels, esophagus, heart, trachea, pericardium, brachial plexus, or vertebral body, but 1 cm away from the spinal canal. All patients underwent four-dimensional computed tomography-based planning, and daily computed tomography-on-rail guided SBRT. The prescribed dose of 40 Gy (n = 7) to the planning target volume was escalated to 50 Gy (n = 20) in 4 consecutive days. Results: With a median follow-up of 17 months (range, 6-40 months), the crude local control at the treated site was 100% using 50 Gy. However, 3 of 7 patients had local recurrences when treated using 40 Gy. Of the patients with Stage I disease, 1 (7.7%) and 2 (15.4%) developed mediastinal lymph node metastasis and distant metastases, respectively. Of the patients with recurrent disease, 3 (21.4%) and 5 (35.7%) developed mediastinal lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis, respectively. Four patients (28.6%) with recurrent disease but none with Stage I disease developed Grade 2 pneumonitis. Three patients (11.1%) developed Grade 2-3 dermatitis and chest wall pain. One patient developed brachial plexus neuropathy. No esophagitis was noted in any patient. Conclusions: Image-guided SBRT using 50 Gy delivered in four fractions is feasible and resulted in excellent local control.

  6. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  7. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive... Control published the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''),...

  8. Arsenic in Drinking Water and Mortality for Cancer and Chronic Diseases in Central Italy, 1990-2010

    PubMed Central

    D’Ippoliti, Daniela; Santelli, Enrica; De Sario, Manuela; Scortichini, Matteo; Davoli, Marina; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Background In several volcanic areas of Italy, arsenic levels exceed European regulatory limits (10 μg/L in drinking water). There is still uncertainty about health risks from arsenic at low-medium doses (<100 μg/L). Objectives A large population-based study using an administrative cohort of residents in the Viterbo province (Central Italy), chronically exposed to low-medium arsenic levels via drinking water, was investigated to evaluate the effects of a lifetime exposure to arsenic on mortality from cancers and chronic diseases. Methods The study population consisted of 165,609 residents of 17 municipalities, followed from 1990 until 2010. Average individual arsenic exposure at the first residence (AsI) was estimated through a space-time modeling approach using residential history and arsenic concentrations from water supply. A time-dependent Cumulative Arsenic dose Indicator (CAI) was calculated, accounting for daily water intake and exposure duration. Mortality Hazard Ratios (HR) were estimated by gender for different diseases using Cox proportional models, adjusting for individual and area-level confounders. A flexible non-parametric approach was used to investigate dose-response relationships. Results Mean AsI exposure was 19.3 μg/L, and average exposure duration was 39.5 years. Associations of AsI and CAI indicators with several diseases were found, with greatest risks found for lung cancer in both sexes (HR = 2.61 males; HR = 2.09 females), myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease and COPD in males (HR = 2.94; HR = 2.44; HR = 2.54 respectively) and diabetes in females (HR = 2.56). For lung cancer and cardiovascular diseases dose-response relationship is modelled by piecewise linear functions revealing effects even for doses lower than 10 μg/L, and no threshold dose value was identified as safe for health. Conclusions Results provide new evidence for risk assessment of low-medium concentrations of arsenic and contribute to the ongoing debate

  9. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  10. [Research Progress of EGFR-TKI Therapy for Patients with Central Nervous System 
Metastases from Non-small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinghua; Xin, Tao

    2016-08-20

    Approximately half of all patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) develop central nervous system metastases during the course of their disease which indicate poor prognosis. A part of NSCLC patients demonstrates activating epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutations who represent effectiveness and well tolerance of EGFR-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) therapy. Although the systemic efficacy of targeted agents is established, the efficacy of central nervous system (CNS) metastases is not as well characterized. In this article, we review recent data on the use of EGFR inhibitors for treatment of patients with NSCLC and CNS metastases. PMID:27561797

  11. Central review of cytogenetics is necessary for cooperative group correlative and clinical studies of adult acute leukemia: The Cancer and Leukemia Group B experience

    PubMed Central

    Mrózek, Krzysztof; Carroll, Andrew J.; Maharry, Kati; Rao, Kathleen W.; Patil, Shivanand R.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Watson, Michael S.; Arthur, Diane C.; Tantravahi, Ramana; Heerema, Nyla A.; Koduru, Prasad R. K.; Block, AnneMarie W.; Qumsiyeh, Mazin B.; Edwards, Colin G.; Sterling, Lisa J.; Holland, Kelsi B.; Bloomfield, Clara D.

    2009-01-01

    The Cancer and Leukemia Group B has performed central review of karyotypes submitted by institutional cytogenetics laboratories from patients with acute myeloid (AML) and acute lymphoblastic (ALL) leukemia since 1986. We assessed the role of central karyotype review in maintaining accurate, high quality cytogenetic data for clinical and translational studies using two criteria: the proportion of karyotypes rejected (i.e. inadequate), and, among accepted (i.e. adequate) cases, the proportion of karyotypes whose interpretation was changed on central karyotype review. We compared the first four years during which central karyotype review was performed with a recent four-year period and found that the proportion of rejected samples decreased significantly for both AML and ALL. However, during the latter period, central karyotype reviews still found 8% of AML and 16% of ALL karyotypes inadequate. Among adequate cases, the karyotype was revised in 26% of both AML and ALL samples. Some revisions resulted in changing the patients’ assignment to particular World Health Organization diagnostic categories and/or moving patients from one prognostic group to another. Overall, when both data on rejection rates and data on karyotype revisions made in accepted cases were considered together, 32% of AML and 38% of ALL samples submitted were either rejected or revised on central karyotype review during the recent 4-year period. These data underscore the necessity of continued central karyotype review in multi-institutional cooperative group studies. PMID:18636143

  12. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  13. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  14. Fuel Safety Activities in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Auh, Geun-Sun; Shin, A.D.; Lee, J.S.; Woo, S.W.; Ryu, Y.H.; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, S.K.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2007-07-01

    The current regulatory requirements for fuel performance were based on earlier test data of fresh or low burnup Zircaloy fuels of less than 40 GWD/MTU. Most countries have not changed the current regulatory requirements even if they are actively investigating the high burnup and new cladding alloy effects. Korea agrees with commonly accepted international consensus that although there are technical issues requiring resolutions, these issues do not constitute immediate safety concerns. The high burnup fuel reactor performance experiences of Korea do not show any major problems even if there have been some burnup related fuel failures which are described in the paper. KINS has recommended the industry to have lower fuel failure rates than 1-2 per 50,000 fuel rods. A research project of High Burnup Fuel Safety Tests and Evaluations has started in 2002 under a joint cooperation of KAERI/KNFC/KEPRI and KINS to obtain performance results of high burnup fuel and to develop evaluation technologies of high burnup fuel safety issues. From 1998, KINS has closely monitored and actively participated in international activities such as OECD/NEA CABRI Water Loop Program to reflect on regulatory requirements if needed. KINS will closely monitor the high burnup fuel performances of Korea to strength the regulatory activities if needed. The research activities in Korea including of LOCA and RIA being performed at KAERI with active supports of the industry are summarized in the paper. (authors)

  15. Democratic Citizenship Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eoh, Myung-Ha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of democratic citizenship education in Korea. Highlights the forces enhancing democratic citizenship education especially the role of the nongovernmental organizations and the Korean Educational Developmental Institute. Considers the various forces inhibiting democratic citizenship education, such as corruption in the…

  16. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  17. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  18. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  19. Characterisation of the triple negative breast cancer phenotype associated with the development of central nervous system metastases

    PubMed Central

    Laimito, Katerin Rojas; Gámez-Pozo, Angelo; Sepúlveda, Juan; Manso, Luis; López-Vacas, Rocío; Pascual, Tomás; Fresno Vara, Juan A; Ciruelos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Aims Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour in women, representing 20–30% of all malignancies, and continues to be the leading cause of cancer deaths among European women. Triple-negative (TN) BC biological aggressiveness is associated with a higher dissemination rate, with central nervous system (CNS) metastases common. This study aims to elucidate the association between gene expression profiles of PTGS2, HBEGF and ST6GALNAC5 and the development of CNS metastases in TNBC. Methods This is a case-controlled retrospective study comparing patients (pts) with CNS metastases versus patients without them after adjuvant treatment. The selection of the samples was performed including 30 samples in both case and control groups. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were retrieved from the Hospital 12 de Octubre Biobank. Five 10 µm sections from each FFPE sample were deparaffinised with xylene and washed with ethanol, and the RNA was then extracted with the RecoverAll Kit (Ambion). Gene expression was assessed using TaqMan assays. Results A total of 53 patients were included in the study. The average age was 55 years (range 25–85). About 47 patients (88.67%) had ductal histology and presented high grade (III) tumours (40 patients; 75.47%). Eight women in the case group presented first distant recurrence in the CNS (34.80%), local recurrence (three patients, 13.04%), lungs (two patients; 8.7%), bone (one patient; 4.34%) and other locations (seven patients; 30.38%). In the control group, first distant recurrence occurred locally (six patients; 46.1%), in bone (two patients; 15.4%), lungs (one patient; 7.7%) and other sites (four patients; 23.1%). RNA was successfully obtained from 53 out of 60 samples. PTGS2, HBEGF, and ST6GALNAC5 expression values were not related to metastasis location. Conclusion TN tumours frequently metastasise to the visceral organs, particularly lungs and brain, and are less common in bone. The literature suggests that expression of

  20. [Long-term evolution of a patient diagnosed of small lung cancer with extension to the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Barrado Los Arcos, M; Rico Osés, M; Errasti Viader, M; Campo Vargas, M; Zelaya Huerta, M V; Martínez López, E

    Cell lung cancer is the principal cause of cancer death in men and women. We report the case of a man diagnosed with small cell lung cancer, metastatic from the outset. The disease is stable at present, forty-seven months from dia-gnosis, after receiving different treatment modalities. PMID:27599956

  1. New Nuclear Emergency Prognosis system in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Ha; Jeong, Seung-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Kwan-Hee

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of assessment and prognosis system for nuclear emergency response in Korea, especially atmospheric dispersion model. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performs the regulation and radiological emergency preparedness of the nuclear facilities and radiation utilizations. Also, KINS has set up the "Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Plan" and the associated procedures such as an emergency response manual in consideration of the IAEA Safety Standards GS-R-2, GS-G-2.0, and GS-G-2.1. The Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Center (RETAC) organized in an emergency situation provides the technical advice on radiological emergency response. The "Atomic Computerized Technical Advisory System for nuclear emergency" (AtomCARE) has been developed to implement assessment and prognosis by RETAC. KINS developed Accident Dose Assessment and Monitoring (ADAMO) system in 2015 to reflect the lessons learned from Fukushima accident. It incorporates (1) the dose assessment on the entire Korean peninsula, Asia region, and global region, (2) multi-units accident assessment (3) applying new methodology of dose rate assessment and the source term estimation with inverse modeling, (4) dose assessment and monitoring with the environmental measurements result. The ADAMO is the renovated version of current FADAS of AtomCARE. The ADAMO increases the accuracy of the radioactive material dispersion with applying the LDAPS(Local Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 1.5 km) and RDAPS(Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 12km) of weather prediction data, and performing the data assimilation of automatic weather system (AWS) data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and data from the weather observation tower at NPP site. The prediction model of the radiological material dispersion is based on the set of the Lagrangian Particle model and Lagrangian Puff model. The dose estimation methodology

  2. Health care strategy for ensuring work ability in an aging Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Kim, Soo Geun; Yoo, Cheol-In; Son, Junseok; Yim, Jun; Kim, Dae-Seong; Rhee, Kyung Young; Kim, Yangho

    2016-01-01

    The rapid aging trend in South Korea will cause a growing shortage of labor and decreasing quality of the labor force. The purpose of this commentary is to recommend a health care strategy to maintain and promote the work ability of employees in an aging Korea. Strategies to promote the work ability require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. First, the common goal should be the reinforcement of follow-up measure in general medical examinations and the promotion of healthy lifestyles for workers. Second, collaborating activities should be performed among the Worker's Health Center, the Health Promotion Center, and community health centers. In conclusion, health care strategies for ensuring the work ability in an aging Korea require the collaboration of governmental agencies at the central and local levels. PMID:27610236

  3. Convergent structural alterations define SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeler as a central tumor suppressive complex in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shain, A Hunter; Giacomini, Craig P; Matsukuma, Karen; Karikari, Collins A; Bashyam, Murali D; Hidalgo, Manuel; Maitra, Anirban; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2012-01-31

    Defining the molecular genetic alterations underlying pancreatic cancer may provide unique therapeutic insight for this deadly disease. Toward this goal, we report here an integrative DNA microarray and sequencing-based analysis of pancreatic cancer genomes. Notable among the alterations newly identified, genomic deletions, mutations, and rearrangements recurrently targeted genes encoding components of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, including all three putative DNA binding subunits (ARID1A, ARID1B, and PBRM1) and both enzymatic subunits (SMARCA2 and SMARCA4). Whereas alterations of each individual SWI/SNF subunit occurred at modest-frequency, as mutational "hills" in the genomic landscape, together they affected at least one-third of all pancreatic cancers, defining SWI/SNF as a major mutational "mountain." Consistent with a tumor-suppressive role, re-expression of SMARCA4 in SMARCA4-deficient pancreatic cancer cell lines reduced cell growth and promoted senescence, whereas its overexpression in a SWI/SNF-intact line had no such effect. In addition, expression profiling analyses revealed that SWI/SNF likely antagonizes Polycomb repressive complex 2, implicating this as one possible mechanism of tumor suppression. Our findings reveal SWI/SNF to be a central tumor suppressive complex in pancreatic cancer.

  4. Medical therapeutic itineraries of women with breast cancer diagnosis affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tejada-Tayabas, Luz María; Salcedo, Liseth Amell; Espino, Joel Monárrez

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to describe the medical itineraries followed by breast cancer women affiliated to the People's Health Insurance in San Luis Potosí, central Mexico. We used an ethnographic approach based on oral histories of 12 women diagnosed with breast cancer in the year prior to the first meeting. Two face-to-face sessions per participant lasting 60 minutes each were conducted followed by a telephone interview. Content and diachronic analyses were used. Three main itineraries were identified: (1) diagnostic process, (2) final diagnosis to treatment, and (3) cancer control and relapse. Findings suggested that infrastructure and human resources to adequately screen and timely diagnose breast cancer were scant and insufficiently trained, respectively. Deferral of medical assessment was related with lack of information about breast cancer consequences, with women being afraid of a positive result, and with economic constraints. The current screening program needs to be redesigned to prevent diagnostic delays, as these seem to explain the high frequency of advanced stages reported at the time of diagnosis.

  5. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). Korea does not maintain official statistical records for occupational psychiatric disorders, but several studies have estimated the number of occupational psychiatric disorders using the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL, formerly KLWC) database. The major compensated occupational psychiatric disorders in Korea were "personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, damage, and dysfunction", "other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical diseases", "reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders", and "depressive episodes". The most common work-related psychiatric disorders, excluding accidents, were "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders" followed by "mood disorders". PMID:21258596

  6. Medical waste management in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong-Chul; Lee, Cargro; Yoon, Oh-Sub; Kim, Hwidong

    2006-07-01

    The management of medical waste is of great importance due to its potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In the past medical waste was often mixed with municipal solid waste and disposed of in residential waste landfills or improper treatment facilities (e.g. inadequately controlled incinerators) in Korea. In recent years, many efforts have been made by environmental regulatory agencies and waste generators to better manage the waste from healthcare facilities. This paper presents an overview of the current management practices of medical waste in Korea. Information regarding generation, composition, segregation, transportation, and disposal of medical wastes is provided and discussed. Medical waste incineration is identified as the most preferred disposal method and will be the only available treatment option in late 2005. Faced with increased regulations over toxic air emissions (e.g. dioxins and furans), all existing small incineration facilities that do not have air pollution control devices will cease operation in the next few years. Large-scale medical waste incinerators would be responsible for the treatment of medical waste generated by most healthcare facilities in Korea. It is important to point out that there is a great potential to emit air toxic pollutants from such incinerators if improperly operated and managed, because medical waste typically contains a variety of plastic materials such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Waste minimization and recycling, control of toxic air emissions at medical waste incinerators, and alternative treatment methods to incineration are regarded to be the major challenges in the future.

  7. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and...

  8. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your life Being exposed to chemicals that can cause cancer Being at risk for skin cancer Depending on ... than nonsmokers. Other forms of tobacco can also cause cancer, such as cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff. If ...

  9. Reflection on the Education Policy Orientation in Post-May 31 Reform in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chong Jae; Kim, Yong

    2016-01-01

    For the last 70 years, since the establishment of the Republic of Korea, Korean education has achieved universal expansion of educational opportunity from elementary to secondary to higher education. Planning, centralized policy making, top-down implementation, and administrative control had been the standards of the first few decades of Korean…

  10. Trends in the incidence of primary liver cancer in Central Uganda, 1960–1980 and 1991–2005

    PubMed Central

    Ocama, P; Nambooze, S; Opio, C K; Shiels, M S; Wabinga, H R; Kirk, G D

    2009-01-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) incidence trends from Africa are unknown. Using Kampala Cancer Registry data from 1960 to 1980 and 1991 to 2005, we identified 771 PLCs. Although rates were stable among men, PLC incidence among women increased >50%. Investigations of viral hepatitis, aflatoxin, obesity, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may help to explain the increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). PMID:19174820

  11. Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Yong-Sik; Cho, Jeong-Seon

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami Run-up Heights at Imwon Port, Korea Yong-Sik Cho and Jeong-Seon Cho Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Hanyang University 222 Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula has been attacked frequently by a number of tsunamis causing severe damages during this century. Among them, 1983 Central East Sea and 1993 Hokkaido Tsunami events were recorded as the most devastating events in Korea. More recently, the Great East Japan Tsunami had also attacked the Korean Peninsula. The Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula is the terminal place where tsunamis climb up inland after it generated along the western coast of Japan. The central part of the coast, in special, is worried as a tsunami danger zone because much tsunami energy is concentrated on by a topographic condition of this region. Recently, several coastal facilities including harbors and breakwaters are built and operated along the Eastern Coast of the Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, several nuclear power plants are already operating and several more units are now under construction. Residents who lived alongside the coast want free from unexpected danger, so the tsunami hazard mitigation becomes an important issue of coastal problems in Korea. Through the historical tsunami events, the Imwon Port is known as the place where most severe damage occurred, especially in 1983. An effective and economic way for the tsunami hazard mitigation planning is to construct inundation maps along the coast vulnerable to tsunami flooding. These maps should be built based on the historical tsunami events and the projected scenarios. For this purpose, an accurate estimation of tsunami run-up height and inundation process through the numerical model is needed. As a first step to tsunami mitigation program, the maximum run-up heights at the Imwon Port are computed and compared with field observed data. For this, tsunami run-up heights in this region were filed

  12. New Record of Lecanora muralis (Lichenized Fungus) in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xin Li; Han, Keon Seon; Lee, You Mi; Koh, Young Jin

    2007-01-01

    Lecanora muralis was found on the rock along coastal line during the field trip in Jeju island in 2006. Thallus crustose, placodioid, closely adnate, forming orbicular patches; upper surface grayish green, glossy; central lobes areolate, marginal parts plane, edges thin pruinose; lower surface ecorticate; apothecia sessile, lecanorine type, exciple dense and intact when young, and disc plane, but when mature, exciple laciniate, disc protrudent, yellowish brown to orange, 0.5~1.5 mm in diameter; ascospores ellipsoid, simple, colorless, 12.5~15.0 × 5.0~7.5 µm. Usnic acid and zeorin contained in thallus. This is the first record of this species in South Korea. PMID:24015068

  13. A fuzzy logic controller based approach to model the switching mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic pathway in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Abhijit; Paul, Debjyoti; De, Rajat K

    2016-07-19

    Dynamics of large nonlinear complex systems, like metabolic networks, depend on several parameters. A metabolic pathway may switch to another pathway in accordance with the current state of parameters in both normal and cancer cells. Here, most of the parameter values are unknown to us. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has been developed here for the purpose of modeling metabolic networks by approximating the reasons for the behaviour of a system and applying expert knowledge to track switching between metabolic pathways. The simulation results can track the switching between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) in normal cells. Unlike normal cells, pyruvate kinase (M2 isoform) (PKM2) switches alternatively between its two oligomeric forms, i.e. an active tetramer and a relatively low activity dimer, in cancer cells. Besides, there is a coordination among PKM2 switching and enzymes catalyzing PPP. These phenomena help cancer cells to maintain their high energy demand and macromolecular synthesis. However, the reduction of initial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a very low concentration, decreasing initial glucose uptake, destroying coordination between glycolysis and PPP, and replacement of PKM2 by its relatively inactive oligomeric form (dimer) or inhibition of the translation of PKM2 may destabilize the mutated control mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic (CCM) pathway in cancer cells. The performance of the model is compared appropriately with some existing ones. PMID:27225801

  14. A fuzzy logic controller based approach to model the switching mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic pathway in normal and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Abhijit; Paul, Debjyoti; De, Rajat K

    2016-07-19

    Dynamics of large nonlinear complex systems, like metabolic networks, depend on several parameters. A metabolic pathway may switch to another pathway in accordance with the current state of parameters in both normal and cancer cells. Here, most of the parameter values are unknown to us. A fuzzy logic controller (FLC) has been developed here for the purpose of modeling metabolic networks by approximating the reasons for the behaviour of a system and applying expert knowledge to track switching between metabolic pathways. The simulation results can track the switching between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, as well as glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) in normal cells. Unlike normal cells, pyruvate kinase (M2 isoform) (PKM2) switches alternatively between its two oligomeric forms, i.e. an active tetramer and a relatively low activity dimer, in cancer cells. Besides, there is a coordination among PKM2 switching and enzymes catalyzing PPP. These phenomena help cancer cells to maintain their high energy demand and macromolecular synthesis. However, the reduction of initial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to a very low concentration, decreasing initial glucose uptake, destroying coordination between glycolysis and PPP, and replacement of PKM2 by its relatively inactive oligomeric form (dimer) or inhibition of the translation of PKM2 may destabilize the mutated control mechanism of the mammalian central carbon metabolic (CCM) pathway in cancer cells. The performance of the model is compared appropriately with some existing ones.

  15. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  16. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  17. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  18. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  19. Species identity of Phellinus linteus (sanghuang) extensively used as a medicinal mushroom in Korea.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-Gu; Hyun, Min-Woo; Kim, Chang Sun; Jo, Jong Won; Cho, Jae-Han; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Kong, Won-Sik; Han, Sang-Kuk; Oh, Junsang; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2016-04-01

    Sanghuang is a medicinal mushroom that has gained particular attention in Korea. It has been extensively studied for the past few decades as a natural immune booster and cancer suppressor. Although the scientific name, Phellinus linteus, has been commonly used to refer to the sanghuang mushroom, the species identity of sanghuang has been called into question due to the ambiguity of its circumscription and the inadequacy of morphological distinctions within allied species. Because the species concept of sanghuang has been elucidated by recent molecular phylogenetic studies, it has become necessary to clarify the taxonomic positions of sanghuang strains extensively utilized in Korea. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of 74 strains belonging to the P. linteus-baumii complex based on ITS nrDNA sequences. Parental stains of sanghuang varieties formally registered in the Korea Seed & Variety Service, including ASI 26046 (Corea sanghuang), 26114 (Boolro), and 26115 (HK 1-ho) were grouped with Sanghuangporus sanghuang instead of P. linteus in the inferred phylogeny.

  20. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  1. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  2. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  3. Prevalence of the BLM nonsense mutation, p.Q548X, in ovarian cancer patients from Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Natalia; Togo, Alexandr V; Ratajska, Magdalena; Kluźniak, Wojtek; Takhirova, Zalina; Tarp, Theresa; Prokofyeva, Darya; Bermisheva, Marina; Yanus, Grigoriy A; Gorodnova, Tatiana V; Sokolenko, Anna P; Kuźniacka, Alina; Podolak, Amira; Stukan, Maciej; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Gronwald, Jacek; Vasilevska, Danuta; Rudaitis, Vilius; Runnebaum, Ingo B; Dürst, Matthias; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Antonenkova, Natalia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Limon, Janusz; Lubinski, Jan; Cybulski, Cezary; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Dörk, Thilo

    2015-03-01

    A nonsense mutation, p.Q548X, in the BLM gene has recently been associated with an increased risk for breast cancer. In the present work, we investigated the prevalence of this Slavic founder mutation in 2,561 ovarian cancer cases from Russia, Belarus, Poland, Lithuania or Germany and compared its frequency with 6,205 ethnically matched healthy female controls. The p.Q548X allele was present in nine ovarian cancer patients of Slavic ancestry (0.5 %; including one case with concurrent BRCA1 mutation). The mutation was not significantly more frequent in cases than in controls (Mantel-Haenszel OR 1.14, 95 % CI 0.49; 2.67). Ovarian tumours in p.Q548X carriers were mainly of the serous subtype, and there was little evidence for an early age at diagnosis or pronounced family history of cancer. These findings indicate that the BLM p.Q548X mutation is not a strong risk factor for ovarian cancer. PMID:25182961

  4. Centralized databases available for describing primary brain tumor incidence, survival, and treatment: Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results; and National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, F. G.; McCarthy, B. J.; Berger, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of three databases--the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) database; the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database; and the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB)--containing information on primary brain tumors are discussed. The recently developed population-based CBTRUS database comprises incidence data on all primary brain tumors from 11 collaborating state registries; however, follow-up data are not available. SEER, the population-based gold standard for cancer data, collects incidence and follow-up data on malignant brain tumors only. While not population-based, the NCDB identifies newly diagnosed cases and conducts follow-up on all primary brain tumors from hospitals accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The NCDB is the largest of the three databases and also contains more complete information regarding treatment of these tumors than either the SEER or CBTRUS databases. Additional strengths and limitations of each of these are described, and their judicious use for supporting research, education, and health care planning is encouraged. PMID:11554389

  5. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  6. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  7. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  8. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  9. Korea tidal power and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W. O.; van Walsum, E.

    A study evaluating the tidal power potential on the west coast of Korea is presented. The tidal power plant concept applied to all sites features prefabricated caissons from which the powerhouse and the sluice sections of the plant are built up. In the screening process, all 13 potential sites were compared on the basis of a single basin and single effect schemes operated to produce the maximum amount of energy. The four sites identified as having potential for development (the inner Asan Bay, the outer Asan Bay, the Incheon Bay, and the Garorim Bay) are economically evaluated. It is noted that harbor development and land reclamation can proceed in conjunction with tidal power development.

  10. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  11. Moving target: Korea`s nuclear proliferation potential. Working paper No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P.

    1992-10-01

    In early 1992, the nuclear issue was moving so fast in Korea that it bewildered many analysts accustomed to the `glacial` pace of North-South Korean politics since 1953. Korea may spawn a new geopolitical axiom: the longer and harder the freeze, the faster the thaw. This essay seeks to clarify the medium-run trends and possible outcomes that are consistent with this rapidly moving mosaic of events. My purpose is to evaluate the potential for a peaceful resolution of the nuclear dilemma in Korea. First, I outline the basis of Western concern over North Korea`s nuclear activities, and describe the stances taken by the various parties to the Korean conflict on the issue. Next, I analyse the threats emanating from some quarters in Seoul and Washington of attacking North Korea`s nuclear sites-and possible North Korean reprisals. Third, I examine the idea of `challenge inspections` of North Korea`s nuclear program - an alternative that is also discounted as unrealistic. Finally, I sketch a range of possible outcomes of the current impasse, starting with the most optimistic and ending with the most pessimistic (arguably the least likely). None of the key variables underlying these scenarios - the dominant world views in Seoul and Washington, the emphasis on military versus economic power, the ability of the two North Korean elites to achieve mutual understanding - are predetermined. These alternative nuclear futures therefore represent stark choices for, and political challenges to, all parties to the Korean conflict.

  12. Spatiotemporal and Spatial Threshold Models for Relating UV Exposures and Skin Cancer in the Central United States.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Laura A; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Alexander, Bruce H; Carlin, Bradley P

    2009-06-15

    The exact mechanisms relating exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and elevated risk of skin cancer remain the subject of debate. For example, there is disagreement on whether the main risk factor is duration of the exposure, its intensity, or some combination of both. There is also uncertainty regarding the form of the dose-response curve, with many authors believing only exposures exceeding a given (but unknown) threshold are important. In this paper we explore methods to estimate such thresholds using hierarchical spatial logistic models based on a sample of a cohort of x-ray technologists for whom we have self-reports of time spent in the sun and numbers of blistering sunburns in childhood. A preliminary goal is to explore the temporal pattern of UV exposure and its gradient. Changes here would imply that identical exposure self-reports from different calendar years may correspond to differing cancer risks. PMID:20161236

  13. Spatiotemporal and Spatial Threshold Models for Relating UV Exposures and Skin Cancer in the Central United States.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Laura A; Hoffbeck, Richard W; Alexander, Bruce H; Carlin, Bradley P

    2009-06-15

    The exact mechanisms relating exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and elevated risk of skin cancer remain the subject of debate. For example, there is disagreement on whether the main risk factor is duration of the exposure, its intensity, or some combination of both. There is also uncertainty regarding the form of the dose-response curve, with many authors believing only exposures exceeding a given (but unknown) threshold are important. In this paper we explore methods to estimate such thresholds using hierarchical spatial logistic models based on a sample of a cohort of x-ray technologists for whom we have self-reports of time spent in the sun and numbers of blistering sunburns in childhood. A preliminary goal is to explore the temporal pattern of UV exposure and its gradient. Changes here would imply that identical exposure self-reports from different calendar years may correspond to differing cancer risks.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  15. Antiviral treatment of influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2015-06-01

    Antiviral therapy has an important role in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. At present, two classes of antiviral agents, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, are available for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza in Korea. Because of the widespread resistance against adamantanes, neuraminidase inhibitors are mainly used. Because each country has a unique epidemiology of influenza, the proper use of antiviral agents should be determined based on local data. Decisions on the clinical practice in the treatment of influenza in South Korea are guided by the local surveillance data, practice guidelines, health insurance system and the resistance patterns of the circulating influenza viruses. This review highlights the role of antiviral agents in the treatment and outcome of influenza in Korea by providing comprehensive information of their clinical usage in Korea.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. PMID:25441425

  17. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society.

  18. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer control strategies in Central America: the cases of Costa Rica and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Niëns, Laurens M; Zelle, Sten G; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F H

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50-70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40-70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Breast Cancer Control Strategies in Central America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Niëns, Laurens M.; Zelle, Sten G.; Gutiérrez-Delgado, Cristina; Rivera Peña, Gustavo; Hidalgo Balarezo, Blanca Rosa; Rodriguez Steller, Erick; Rutten, Frans F. H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the most cost-effective policy options to support and improve breast cancer control in Costa Rica and Mexico. Total costs and effects of breast cancer interventions were estimated using the health care perspective and WHO-CHOICE methodology. Effects were measured in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted. Costs were assessed in 2009 United States Dollars (US$). To the extent available, analyses were based on locally obtained data. In Costa Rica, the current strategy of treating breast cancer in stages I to IV at a 80% coverage level seems to be the most cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of US$4,739 per DALY averted. At a coverage level of 95%, biennial clinical breast examination (CBE) screening could improve Costa Rica's population health twofold, and can still be considered very cost-effective (ICER US$5,964/DALY). For Mexico, our results indicate that at 95% coverage a mass-media awareness raising program (MAR) could be the most cost-effective (ICER US$5,021/DALY). If more resources are available in Mexico, biennial mammography screening for women 50–70 yrs (ICER US$12,718/DALY), adding trastuzumab (ICER US$13,994/DALY) or screening women 40–70 yrs biennially plus trastuzumab (ICER US$17,115/DALY) are less cost-effective options. We recommend both Costa Rica and Mexico to engage in MAR, CBE or mammography screening programs, depending on their budget. The results of this study should be interpreted with caution however, as the evidence on the intervention effectiveness is uncertain. Also, these programs require several organizational, budgetary and human resources, and the accessibility of breast cancer diagnostic, referral, treatment and palliative care facilities should be improved simultaneously. A gradual implementation of early detection programs should give the respective Ministries of Health the time to negotiate the required budget, train the required human resources and understand possible

  20. Neurocognitive Outcomes and School Performance in Solid Tumor Cancer Survivors Lacking Therapy to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Mohrmann, Caroline; Henry, Jennifer; Hauff, Marnie; Hayashi, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    School performance in patients who have received therapy for childhood cancers has been studied in depth. Risk factors have historically included cranial radiation, intrathecal chemotherapy, and high doses of chemotherapy, including methotrexate and cytarabine. Leukemia and brain tumor survivors who receive such therapy have been the primary focus of this area of investigation. Extracranial solid tumor cancer patients lacking such risk factors have historically been expected to have normal school performance. We examined the medical records of 58 young pediatric extracranial solid tumor patients who lacked CNS-directed therapy or other known risk factors for cognitive impairment to evaluate the incidence of reported difficulties or abnormalities in neuropsychological testing. Thirty-one percent of patients were found to have at least one reported difficulty or abnormality. Of note, 34% of patients with Wilms tumor possessed difficulties compared to 23% of patients with other extracranial solid tumors. Extracranial solid tumor cancer survivors without known risk factors for school performance difficulties appear to have a higher incidence of problems than expected. PMID:25867598

  1. A Pediatric Case of Thelaziasis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Chung Hyuk; Ko, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jung Hyun; Choi, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Wook; Ahn, Sang Ki; Ahn, Myoung Hee; Choi, Kyong Eun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we intended to report a clinical pediatric case of thelaziasis in Korea. In addition, we briefly reviewed the literature on pediatric cases of thelaziasis in Korea. In the present case, 3 whitish, thread-like eye-worms were detected in a 6-year-old-boy living in an urban area and contracted an ocular infection known as thelaziasis incidentally during ecological agritainment. This is the first report of pediatric thelaziasis in Seoul after 1995. PMID:27417087

  2. [Cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  3. Central Asian Students' Adjustment Experiences at a "Globalized" Korean University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jinsook; Kim, Yejin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the academic and cultural experiences of undergraduate Central Asian students at a university in Ulsan, South Korea. The study was designed to examine the experiences of Central Asian students both in their adjustment to academic work, and to the cultural environment created by the internationalization policy of the…

  4. Clinical-scale selection and viral transduction of human naïve and central memory CD8+ T cells for adoptive cell therapy of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Casati, Anna; Varghaei-Nahvi, Azam; Feldman, Steven Alexander; Assenmacher, Mario; Rosenberg, Steven Aaron; Dudley, Mark Edward; Scheffold, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express tumor-specific antigen receptors is a potent strategy to treat cancer patients. T lymphocyte subsets, such as naïve or central memory T cells, selected in vitro prior to genetic engineering have been extensively investigated in preclinical mouse models, where they demonstrated improved therapeutic efficacy. However, so far, this is challenging to realize in the clinical setting, since good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures for complex cell sorting and genetic manipulation are limited. To be able to directly compare the immunological attributes and therapeutic efficacy of naïve (T(N)) and central memory (T(CM)) CD8(+) T cells, we investigated clinical-scale procedures for their parallel selection and in vitro manipulation. We also evaluated currently available GMP-grade reagents for stimulation of T cell subsets, including a new type of anti-CD3/anti-CD28 nanomatrix. An optimized protocol was established for the isolation of both CD8(+) T(N) cells (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(+)) and CD8(+) T(CM) (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(-)) from a single patient. The highly enriched T cell subsets can be efficiently transduced and expanded to large cell numbers, sufficient for clinical applications and equivalent to or better than current cell and gene therapy approaches with unselected lymphocyte populations. The GMP protocols for selection of T(N) and T(CM) we reported here will be the basis for clinical trials analyzing safety, in vivo persistence and clinical efficacy in cancer patients and will help to generate a more reliable and efficacious cellular product.

  5. Clinical-scale selection and viral transduction of human naïve and central memory CD8+ T cells for adoptive cell therapy of cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Casati, Anna; Varghaei-Nahvi, Azam; Feldman, Steven Alexander; Assenmacher, Mario; Rosenberg, Steven Aaron; Dudley, Mark Edward; Scheffold, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The adoptive transfer of lymphocytes genetically engineered to express tumor-specific antigen receptors is a potent strategy to treat cancer patients. T lymphocyte subsets, such as naïve or central memory T cells, selected in vitro prior to genetic engineering have been extensively investigated in preclinical mouse models, where they demonstrated improved therapeutic efficacy. However, so far, this is challenging to realize in the clinical setting, since good manufacturing practices (GMP) procedures for complex cell sorting and genetic manipulation are limited. To be able to directly compare the immunological attributes and therapeutic efficacy of naïve (T(N)) and central memory (T(CM)) CD8(+) T cells, we investigated clinical-scale procedures for their parallel selection and in vitro manipulation. We also evaluated currently available GMP-grade reagents for stimulation of T cell subsets, including a new type of anti-CD3/anti-CD28 nanomatrix. An optimized protocol was established for the isolation of both CD8(+) T(N) cells (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(+)) and CD8(+) T(CM) (CD4(-)CD62L(+)CD45RA(-)) from a single patient. The highly enriched T cell subsets can be efficiently transduced and expanded to large cell numbers, sufficient for clinical applications and equivalent to or better than current cell and gene therapy approaches with unselected lymphocyte populations. The GMP protocols for selection of T(N) and T(CM) we reported here will be the basis for clinical trials analyzing safety, in vivo persistence and clinical efficacy in cancer patients and will help to generate a more reliable and efficacious cellular product. PMID:23903715

  6. 2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the new guideline presented herein was developed on the basis of recent evidence and expert opinions. The primary targets of this guideline are patients with suspicious or newly diagnosed HCC. This guideline provides recommendations for the initial treatment of patients with newly diagnosed HCC. PMID:25918260

  7. Whole-brain radiotherapy and high-dose methylprednisolone for elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma: Results of North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) 96-73-51

    SciTech Connect

    Laack, Nadia N.; Ballman, Karla V.; Brown, Paul B.; O'Neill, Brian Patrick . E-mail: boneill@mayo.edu

    2006-08-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, toxicity, and survival of whole-brain radiotherapy-treated (WBRT) and high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP)-treated in elderly patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods and Materials: Patients with PCNSL who were 70 years and older received 1 g of methylprednisolone daily for 5 days, 30 days after WBRT. Patients then received 1 g of methylprednisolone every 28 days until progression. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) at 6 months. Results were compared with those in patients on the previous North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) trial who received pre-WBRT cytoxan, adriamycin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) and high-dose cytarabine (CHOP-WBRT). A planned interim analysis was performed. The current regimen would be considered inactive if survival was not improved from patients treated with CHOP-WBRT. Results: Nineteen patients were accrued between 1998 and 2003. Median age was 76 years. Interim analysis revealed a 6-month survival of 33%, resulting in closure of the trial. Toxicity, OS, and event-free survival (EFS) were similar to those in patients more than 70 years of age who received CHOP-WBRT. The subgroup of patients who received HDMP had longer OS (12.1 vs. 7.0 months, p = 0.76) and EFS (11.7 vs. 4.0 months, p = 0.04) compared with the CHOP-WBRT patients alive 60 days after the start of treatment. Conclusions: Patients on-study long enough to receive HDMP had prolongation of OS and EFS compared to patients receiving CHOP-WBRT. Although the numbers of patients are too small for statistical conclusions, the HDMP regimen deserves further study.

  8. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer.

  9. Comprehensive spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 deleterious mutations in breast cancer in Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Ava; Shin, Vivian Y; Ho, John C W; Kang, Eunyoung; Nakamura, Seigo; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Lee, Ann S G; Sng, Jen-Hwei; Ginsburg, Ophira M; Kurian, Allison W; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Siu, Man-Ting; Law, Fian B F; Chan, Tsun-Leung; Narod, Steven A; Ford, James M; Ma, Edmond S K; Kim, Sung-Won

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 5%-10% of breast cancers are due to genetic predisposition caused by germline mutations; the most commonly tested genes are BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Some mutations are unique to one family and others are recurrent; the spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations varies depending on the geographical origins, populations or ethnic groups. In this review, we compiled data from 11 participating Asian countries (Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam), and from ethnic Asians residing in Canada and the USA. We have additionally conducted a literature review to include other Asian countries mainly in Central and Western Asia. We present the current pathogenic mutation spectrum of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes in patients with breast cancer in various Asian populations. Understanding BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in Asians will help provide better risk assessment and clinical management of breast cancer. PMID:26187060

  10. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  11. Genomic Analysis Reveals That Immune Function Genes Are Strongly Linked to Clinical Outcome in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 Adjuvant Trastuzumab Trial

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Edith A.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Ballman, Karla V.; Anderson, S. Keith; Asmann, Yan W.; Kalari, Krishna R.; Eckel-Passow, Jeanette E.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Tenner, Kathleen S.; Jen, Jin; Fan, Jian-Bing; Geiger, Xochiquetzal J.; McCullough, Ann E.; Chen, Beiyun; Jenkins, Robert B.; Sledge, George W.; Winer, Eric P.; Gralow, Julie R.; Reinholz, Monica M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To develop a genomic signature that predicts benefit from trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–positive breast cancer. Patients and Methods DASL technology was used to quantify mRNA in samples from 1,282 patients enrolled onto the Combination Chemotherapy With or Without Trastuzumab in Treating Women With Breast Cancer (North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 [NCCTG-N9831]) adjuvant trastuzumab trial. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for significant clinicopathologic risk factors, were used to determine the association of each gene with relapse-free survival (RFS) for 433 patients who received chemotherapy alone (arm A) and 849 patients who received chemotherapy plus trastuzumab (arms B and C). Network and pathway analyses were used to identify key biologic processes linked to RFS. The signature was built by using a voting scheme. Results Network and functional ontology analyses suggested that increased RFS was linked to a subset of immune function genes. A voting scheme model was used to define immune gene enrichment based on the expression of any nine or more of 14 immune function genes at or above the 0.40 quantile for the population. This model was used to identify immune gene–enriched tumors in arm A and arms B and C. Immune gene enrichment was linked to increased RFS in arms B and C (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.55; P < .001), whereas arm B and C patients who did not exhibit immune gene enrichment did not benefit from trastuzumab (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.28; P = .53). Enriched immune function gene expression as defined by our predictive signature was not associated with increased RFS in arm A (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.37; P = .64). Conclusion Increased expression of a subset of immune function genes may provide a means of predicting benefit from adjuvant trastuzumab. PMID:25605861

  12. On the sandstorms and associated airborne dustfall episodes observed at Cheongwon in Korea in 2005.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Sung; Chung, Yong Seung

    2010-06-01

    Sandstorms in the desert and loess regions of north-northwestern China and Mongolia, as well as the associated dustfall episodes in the Korean Peninsula, were monitored between January and December 2005. Composite color images were made on the basis of data received directly from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer, and the distribution and transport of dust clouds were analyzed. The ground concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 and visibility during dustfall episodes (where the PM10 concentration exceeds 190 mug m(-3) for at least 2 h) were also analyzed at Cheongwon, in central South Korea, which lies in the leeward direction from the origin of sandstorms. Fewer strong sandstorms occurred in the places of origin in 2005, mainly because of the snow cover with moderate high and low pressure systems in the place of dust origin. The weather patterns explain why there were fewer dustfall episodes in Korea in 2005 than in the period between 1997 and 2004. A total of seven dustfall episodes were monitored in Korea in 2005 and they covered a period of 11 days. In the summer of 2005, sandstorms occurred less frequently in the source region due to high humidity and weaker winds; as a result, there were no dustfall episodes in Korea. When the sandstorms at the source headed directly to Korea without passing through any large cities or industrial areas of China, the PM2.5 concentrations were up to 20% of the PM10 concentrations. However, when the sandstorms headed to Korea via the industrial areas of eastern China, where they pick up anthropogenic air pollutants, the PM2.5 concentrations were at least 25% of the PM10 concentrations. In five of the cases that were observed and analyzed in 2005, the PM10 concentrations of the sand dust that originated in the deserts were 190 mug m(-3) or less, which is below the level of a dustfall episode.

  13. Role of prophylactic central compartment lymph node dissection in clinically N0 differentiated thyroid cancer patients: analysis of risk factors and review of modern trends.

    PubMed

    Conzo, Giovanni; Tartaglia, Ernesto; Avenia, Nicola; Calò, Pier Giorgio; de Bellis, Annamaria; Esposito, Katherine; Gambardella, Claudio; Iorio, Sergio; Pasquali, Daniela; Santini, Luigi; Sinisi, Maria Antonia; Sinisi, Antonio Agostino; Testini, Mario; Polistena, Andrea; Bellastella, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    In the last years, especially thanks to a large diffusion of ultrasound-guided FNBs, a surprising increased incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), "small" tumors and microcarcinomas have been reported in the international series. This led endocrinologists and surgeons to search for "tailored" and "less aggressive" therapeutic protocols avoiding risky morbidity and useless "overtreatment". Considering the most recent guidelines of referral endocrine societies, we analyzed the role of routine or so-called prophylactic central compartment lymph node dissection (RCLD), also considering its benefits and risks. Literature data showed that the debate is still open and the surgeons are divided between proponents and opponents of its use. Even if lymph node metastases are commonly observed, and in up to 90% of DTC cases micrometastases are reported, the impact of lymphatic involvement on long-term survival is subject to intensive research and the best indications of lymph node dissection are still controversial. Identification of prognostic factors for central compartment metastases could assist surgeons in determining whether to perform RLCD. Considering available evidence, a general agreement to definitely reserve RCLD to "high-risk" cases was observed. More clinical researches, in order to identify risk factors of meaningful predictive power and prospective long-term randomized trials, should be useful to validate this selective approach. PMID:27185169

  14. Proton Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Clinically Challenging Cases of Centrally and Superiorly Located Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Register, Steven P.; Zhang Xiaodong; Mohan, Radhe; Chang, Joe Y.

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: To minimize toxicity while maintaining tumor coverage with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for centrally or superiorly located stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we investigated passive-scattering proton therapy (PSPT) and intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). Methods and Materials: Fifteen patients with centrally or superiorly located (within 2 cm of critical structures) stage I NSCLC were treated clinically with three-dimensional photon SBRT (50 Gy in 4 fractions). The photon SBRT plan was compared with the PSPT and IMPT plans. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) was defined as the dose that exceeded the dose--volume constraints in the critical structures. Results: Only 6 photon plans satisfied the >95% planning target volume (PTV) coverage and MTD constraints, compared to 12 PSPT plans (p = 0.009) and 14 IMPT plans (p = 0.001). Compared with the photon SBRT plans, the PSPT and IMPT plans significantly reduced the mean total lung dose from 5.4 Gy to 3.5 Gy (p < 0.001) and 2.8 Gy (p < 0.001) and reduced the total lung volume receiving 5 Gy, 10 Gy, and 20 Gy (p < 0.001). When the PTV was within 2 cm of the critical structures, the PSPT and IMPT plans significantly reduced the mean maximal dose to the aorta, brachial plexus, heart, pulmonary vessels, and spinal cord. Conclusions: For centrally or superiorly located stage I NSCLC, proton therapy, particularly IMPT, delivered ablative doses to the target volume and significantly reduced doses to the surrounding normal tissues compared with photon SBRT.

  15. Whose History? An Analysis of the Korean War in History Textbooks from the United States, South Korea, Japan, and China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Lin; Zhao, Yali; Ogawa, Masato; Hoge, John; Kim, Bok Young

    2009-01-01

    This article examines how recent history textbooks from the United States, Japan, China, and South Korea present the Korean War. The comparative analysis focuses on four areas: the causes of the Korean War, American involvement in the war, Chinese involvement in the war, and the results of the war. Analysis of the central story lines reveals that…

  16. Educational utilization of outstanding spherulitic rhyolite occurred in Cheongsong, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Y. D.; Woo, H.

    2015-12-01

    Cheongsong is located in the central eastern area of South Korea. Unique spherulitic rhyolites occur in this region as dykes formed about 48 to 50 million years ago. Composed of quartz and feldspar these spherulitic rhyolites show various flowerlike shapes, such as chrysanthemum, dandelion, rose, carnation, sunflower, dahlia and so on, so they are called 'flower stones'. The spherulite indicates that it was undercooled caused by very fast cooling at a shallow depth near the surface and the variety of shapes resulted from the difference of crystallizing conditions. According to the condition, minerals start to crystallize homogeneously or heterogeneously and develop as rounded or fibrous shapes, representing beautiful patterns when combined. These spherulitic structures are very rare not only in Korea but also globally, being valuable for research and preservation because of their rarity, beauty and diversity. Cheongsong therefore applies to the UGG (UNESCO Global Geopark) in an attempt to popularize the flower stones and use them as education materials which can also be incorporated in other valuable sites. The exhibition center provides diverse types of flower stones in which visitors could learn about rhyolitic volcanism, crystallization and spherulite and can experience the process of changing a rough stone into a flower stone. A geotrail course has also been created, showing each type of flower stone on the outcrop and providing educational programs about geological mechanisms of the stones with a trained guide.

  17. The Diabetes Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems, and has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. According to data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), about 2.7 million Koreans (8.0%) aged 30 years or older had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2013. The prevalence of T2DM increased with age and rose from 5.6% in 2006 to 8.0% in 2013. Using data based on The Health Screening Service of the NHIS, 25% of Korean adults were reported to have prediabetes in 2013. The prevalence of an impaired fasting glucose tended to increase over time from 21.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013. Even though nationwide health screening has been regularly conducted as a public service, the proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes was still reported to be on the higher side in the latest study. Based on the results of these epidemic studies, further actions will be needed to effectively implement lifestyle changes on a social level and increase measures for the early detection of diabetes to stem the tide of the epidemic. PMID:27586447

  18. A patient previously treated with ALK inhibitors for central nervous system lesions from ALK rearranged lung cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Jumpei; Okuma, Yusuke; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-rearranged non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are now preferentially treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, patients treated with ALK inhibitors end up with acquired resistance. Case presentation We present a patient with recurrent ALK-rearranged NSCLC that developed multiple brain metastases and meningitis carcinomatosa after sequential treatment with several lines of cytotoxic chemotherapy, crizotinib, and alectinib. After the patient underwent retreatment with crizotinib as salvage therapy because of poor performance status, the intracranial metastatic foci and meningeal thickening were shrank within 1 week. Conclusion Our experience with this case suggests that alectinib may restore sensitivity to crizotinib or amplified pathway such as MET which bestowed alectinib resistance was inhibited with crizotinib. PMID:27785052

  19. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies

    PubMed Central

    Pasta, Vittorio; D’Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing—along with the removal of the NAC—is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  20. Oncoplastic central quadrantectomies.

    PubMed

    Pasta, Vittorio; D'Orazi, Valerio; Merola, Raffaele; Frusone, Federico; Amabile, Maria Ida; De Luca, Alessandro; Buè, Rosanna; Monti, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Tumors localized in the central quadrant (centrally located breast tumors) have always represented a challenge for the surgeon because of the critical aesthetical matters related to the nipple-areola complex (NAC). Many years of experience with breast cancer patients treated by using various oncoplastic techniques, has allowed us to develop the modified hemibatwing for the treatment of central breast tumors, where the NAC is involved. Modified hemibatwing-along with the removal of the NAC-is a useful oncoplastic technique and it represents an ideal option for the treatment of central tumors because it assures oncological safety, a reduced surgical timetable and greater aesthetical results. PMID:27563564

  1. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  2. Asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Choi, Sang-Jun; Kang, Daehee

    2009-01-01

    Although importation of asbestos to Korea has decreased, there are growing concerns of its hazardous effects. This paper describes the use and occupational exposure to asbestos, and the incidence and mortality of malignant mesotheliomas in Korea. Asbestos raw material imports from other countries peaked between 1990 and 1995, but importation of asbestos-containing and -processed materials has steadily increased until now. A comprehensive exposure survey was conducted in Korea between 1995 and 2006. The average airborne asbestos concentration was lower than from other countries and steadily decreased during the study period. The number of malignant mesothelioma cases in Korea was 48 in 1998, 39 in 1999, 45 in 2000, 38 in 2001, and 46 in 2002. There were 334 deaths due to malignant mesothelioma and an average of 30.4 deaths per year between 1996 and 2006. The number of deaths attributed to malignant mesothelioma ranged from 16 cases in 1999 to 57 cases in 2006. The magnitude of asbestos-related health problems in Korea has been underestimated due to under-diagnosis, incomplete reports, and shorter duration of exposure. A nationwide surveillance system for asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma should therefore be implemented.

  3. Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight Minimizing your exposure to radiation and toxic chemicals Not smoking or chewing tobacco Reducing sun exposure, especially if you burn easily Cancer screenings, such as mammography and breast ...

  4. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  5. Performance of universal health insurance: lessons from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sangho; Shin, Jaeun

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the maturity of the South Korean healthcare system in comparison with those of the 30 countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and to provide a foundation to evaluate the performance of the South Korean healthcare system. Using OECD Health Data 2005, we evaluated the performance of the healthcare system of the 30 industrialized countries. The evaluation focused on three dimensions that have remained central to healthcare debates internationally for years: access, cost and outcomes. Although South Korea has successfully implemented its universal health insurance scheme in a very short period of time and possesses highly advanced medical technologies, we found that South Koreans incurred more out-of-pocket expenditures on healthcare. Health outcomes were of relatively low quality compared with those of other OECD countries, but compared relatively well with the four countries (Greece, New Zealand, Portugal and Spain) with similar per capita gross domestic product (GDP).

  6. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  7. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  8. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  9. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  10. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (56 FR..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (65 FR 11984... issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (70 FR 61118)....

  11. History of Research on Pharmacopuncture in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Yoon-Young; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study introduces the history and types of Korean pharmacopuncture and reports trends of research on Korean pharmacopuncture. Methods: Pharmacopuncture studies were searched from the first year of each search engine to 2014 by using seven domestic and foreign search databases. Selected studies were divided into the history of pharmacopuncture, kinds and features of pharmacopuncture, research types, and experimental and clinic studies and were then classified by year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease, and topic. Results: Pharmacopuncture can be classified into four large groups: meridian field pharmacopuncture (MFP), eight-principles pharmacopuncture (EPP), animal-based pharmacopuncture (ABP) and mountain- ginseng pharmacopuncture, which is a single-co mpound pharmacopuncture (SCP). The largest numbers of studies were reported from 1997 to 2006, after which the numbers decreased until 2014. Of experimental studies, 51.9%, 18.7%. 14.3%, 9% and 3.4% were on SCP, ABP, MFP, formula pharmacopuncture (FP), and EPP, respectively. Of clinical studies, 54.7%, 15.3%. 14.9% 10.0% and 1.5% were on ABP, MFP, EPP, SCP, and FP (1.5%), respectively. Among clinical studies, case reports and case series accounted for 76.5%, followed by randomized controlled trials (RCTs, 16.4%) and non-RCT (13.9%). Musculoskeletal diseases, toxicity and safety tests, anti-cancer effects, and nervous system diseases were mainly treated in experimental studies while musculoskeletal diseases, nervous system diseases, toxicity and safety tests, and autonomic nerve function tests were addressed in clinical studies. Bee venom (BV) was the most frequently-used pharmacopuncture in mechanism studies. Pharmacopuncture was mainly used to treat musculoskeletal diseases. Conclusion: Pharmacopuncture and studies of it have made great progress in Korea. Studies on BV pharmacopuncture and musculoskeletal diseases accounted for most of the studies reported during the review period

  12. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  13. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    PubMed Central

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  14. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  15. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  16. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  17. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(2): 61-67] PMID:25441425

  18. Korea targets leadership role in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Korea has transformed itself over the last 50 years from a nation based primarily on agriculture to a hi-tech industrial powerhouse. But now the country is seeing the importance of investing in fundamental science too, as Matin Durrani reports.

  19. Genetic diversity of Lycoris endemic to Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive taxonomic relationships among Lycoris Herb. (Amaryllidaceae) taxa native to Korea have not been analyzed previously. This study was carried out to investigate the hybrid origin, genetic diversity, and relationships of Lycoris taxa (L. flavescens, L. uydoensis, L. chejuensis, L. chinensis ...

  20. [[Prevalence of induced abortion in Korea

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Lee, S; Bae, H

    1989-07-01

    The authors analyze recent trends in the prevalence of induced abortions in South Korea. They attempt to determine motivations for abortion, examine its side effects, and investigate the impact of induced abortions on infertility. The focus is on creating recommendations for population policy and maternal and child health care. Data are from the 1988 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  1. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  2. Collaborative Reasoning in China and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Ting; Anderson, Richard C.; Kim, Il-Hee; Li, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Students at two sites in China and one site in Korea engaged in Collaborative Reasoning, an approach to discussion that requires self-management, free participation, and critical thinking. The discontinuity between the usual adult-dominated discourse of Chinese and Korean homes and classrooms and the expected discourse of Collaborative Reasoning…

  3. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  4. Country Profiles, The Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dae Woo; And Others

    A profile of the Republic of Korea is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  5. The National 3-D Geospatial Information Web-Based Service of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. T.; Kim, C. W.; Kang, I. G.

    2013-09-01

    3D geospatial information systems should provide efficient spatial analysis tools and able to use all capabilities of the third dimension, and a visualization. Currently, many human activities make steps toward the third dimension like land use, urban and landscape planning, cadastre, environmental monitoring, transportation monitoring, real estate market, military applications, etc. To reflect this trend, the Korean government has been started to construct the 3D geospatial data and service platform. Since the geospatial information was introduced in Korea, the construction of geospatial information (3D geospatial information, digital maps, aerial photographs, ortho photographs, etc.) has been led by the central government. The purpose of this study is to introduce the Korean government-lead 3D geospatial information web-based service for the people who interested in this industry and we would like to introduce not only the present conditions of constructed 3D geospatial data but methodologies and applications of 3D geospatial information. About 15% (about 3,278.74 km2) of the total urban area's 3D geospatial data have been constructed by the national geographic information institute (NGII) of Korea from 2005 to 2012. Especially in six metropolitan cities and Dokdo (island belongs to Korea) on level of detail (LOD) 4 which is photo-realistic textured 3D models including corresponding ortho photographs were constructed in 2012. In this paper, we represented web-based 3D map service system composition and infrastructure and comparison of V-world with Google Earth service will be presented. We also represented Open API based service cases and discussed about the protection of location privacy when we construct 3D indoor building models. In order to prevent an invasion of privacy, we processed image blurring, elimination and camouflage. The importance of public-private cooperation and advanced geospatial information policy is emphasized in Korea. Thus, the progress of

  6. [Hundred years' psychiatry in Korea (1899-1999)].

    PubMed

    Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    The western medical knowledges of the human anatomy and physiology including knowledges of central nervous system have probably been introduced into Korea by Prince Sohyŏn Seja in 1645. The authentic education for the western medicine at the governmental and private medical schools, however, originated from 1899 and the education of mental disease was included in curriculum of Tai-Han-uiwon, the governmental medical school before 1910. In 1913 the first department of psychiatry (Department of Mental Disease) was established at the Chongdokbu-uiwon, the clinic of the Japanese colonial government, the former Korean governmental hospital which has later developed to the Kyŏngs ŏng Imperial University Hospital. On the other hand, there was in Severance Hospital Medical College, one Australian missionary psychiatrist McLaren, who has served at Paton Memorial Hospital in Jinju, Korea from 1911, taught neurology and psychiatry from 1913 at Severance Hospital Medical College, established psychiatry ward in 1923 at the Hospital, conducted the ward in humanistic way until 1940. It was the German psychiatry which the Japanese psychiatrists have brought to the Korean peninsula and it remained as major trends of psychiatry in Korea during the Japanese occupation between 1911 and 1945. The academic levels of Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University in psychiatry as well as the quality of mental care seemed to be almost equivocal to the psychiatry in Japan. However, psychiatrists scope of social psychiatric issues and of the research interests seemed to be somewhat narrow. Due to the political discrimination for the Korean students, the Koreans had less opportunity for the promotion at the university than Japanese residents in Korea. In 1945, after the end of the Pacific War only about 11 Korean psychiatrists were left in Korea, who organized Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Seoul National University (former Department of Neurology and

  7. Spotlight on nano-theranostics in South Korea: applications in diagnostics and treatment of diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangwha; Kim, Jongsung; Bark, Chung Wung; Lee, Bonghee; Ju, Heongkyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, TaeYoung; Kim, Moon Il; Ko, Young Tag; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Yun, Kyu-Sik; Yoon, Young Soo; An, Seong Soo A; Hulme, John

    2015-01-01

    From the synergistic integration and the multidisciplinary strengths of the BioNano Sensor Research Center, Gachon Bionano Research Institute, and Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, researchers, students, and faculties at Gachon University in collaboration with other institutions in Korea, Australia, France, America, and Japan have come together to produce a special issue on the diverse applications of nano-theranostics in nanomedicine. This special issue will showcase new research conducted by various scientific groups in Gyonggi-do and Songdo/Incheon, South Korea. The objectives of this special issue are as follows: 1) to bring together and demonstrate some of the latest research results in the field, 2) to introduce new multifunctional nanomaterials and their applications in imaging and detection methods, and 3) to stimulate collaborative interdisciplinary research at both national and international levels in nanomedicine.

  8. Spotlight on nano-theranostics in South Korea: applications in diagnostics and treatment of diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sangwha; Kim, Jongsung; Bark, Chung Wung; Lee, Bonghee; Ju, Heongkyu; Kang, Se Chan; Kim, TaeYoung; Kim, Moon Il; Ko, Young Tag; Nam, Jeong-Seok; Yoon, Hyon Hee; Yun, Kyu-Sik; Yoon, Young Soo; An, Seong Soo A; Hulme, John

    2015-01-01

    From the synergistic integration and the multidisciplinary strengths of the BioNano Sensor Research Center, Gachon Bionano Research Institute, and Lee Gil Ya Cancer and Diabetes Institute, researchers, students, and faculties at Gachon University in collaboration with other institutions in Korea, Australia, France, America, and Japan have come together to produce a special issue on the diverse applications of nano-theranostics in nanomedicine. This special issue will showcase new research conducted by various scientific groups in Gyonggi-do and Songdo/Incheon, South Korea. The objectives of this special issue are as follows: 1) to bring together and demonstrate some of the latest research results in the field, 2) to introduce new multifunctional nanomaterials and their applications in imaging and detection methods, and 3) to stimulate collaborative interdisciplinary research at both national and international levels in nanomedicine. PMID:26345737

  9. Study of Genes and Environment in Patients With Cancer in East Anglia, Trent, or West Midlands Regions of the United Kingdom

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-08-23

    Bladder Cancer; Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Esophageal Cancer; Intraocular Melanoma; Kidney Cancer; Lymphoma; Melanoma (Skin); Pancreatic Cancer; Transitional Cell Cancer of the Renal Pelvis and Ureter

  10. Development of the nowcasting system for the XVII Asiad at Korea Meteorological Administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Juwon; Jang, Taekyu; Hwang, Seung On; Park, Yunho; Kim, Yoonjae; Park, Seonjoo; Joo, Sangwon; Noh, Hae Mi

    2014-05-01

    The XVII Asiad, known as the 2014 Asian game, is the largest sporting event in Asia. It will be held in Incheon, South Korea from September 19 to October 4, with 437 events in 36 sports. To support this game, Korea Meteorological Administration developed Incheon Data Assimilation and Prediction System (IDAPS) for nowcasting and very short range forecasts. The domain is centered at Incheon city and covers the central region of the Korean peninsula and adjacent seas. It repeats analysis and forecast processes with 1 hour cycling interval. IDAPS has approximately 1 km horizontal resolution with 324 x 360 grids and 70 vertical layers. Three dimensional variational data assimilation is applied to assimilate AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, rain rate, and radar products. The details of IDAPS and the experiment results will be given during the conference.

  11. Interdecadal variation of Korea affecting tropical cyclone intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yu-Mi; Kang, Sung-Dae; Kim, Hae-Dong

    2015-05-01

    This study analyzed a time series of average central pressure of tropical cyclone (TC) that affected Korea in summer season from 1965 to 2012. To determine whether climate regime shift exists in this time series, statistical change-point analysis was applied to this time series. The result showed that significant climate regime shift existed in 1989, that is, TC intensity from 1965 to 1988 (6588) was weaker than that from 1989 to 2012 (8912). Therefore, an average difference between former and latter periods was analyzed to study large-scale environments, which caused such difference. While TC genesis frequency showed a tendency that TCs in the 6588 period were originated from the northwest quadrant in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, TCs in the 8912 period were originated from the southeast quadrant. Thus, it was judged that TCs in the 6588 were generated at a higher latitude followed by moving to Korea, so their strength was weaker than those of TCs of 8912 due to lack of time to acquire sufficient energy from the sea. For TC passage frequency, TCs in the 6588 period showed a tendency to move a short distance from the sea far away from the southeast in Japan to the sea far away from the northeast in Japan or toward the East China Sea. On the other hand, TCs in the 8912 period moved a longer distance from the sea far away from the Philippines via Japan to the eastern sea of Kamchatka Peninsular or toward the east region in China. As such, an average difference of intensity between the former period and the latter period over the 500-hPa streamline was analyzed to determine why the intensity of TCs in the 6588 period was weaker than that of TCs in the 8912 period. As a result, anomalous cold northerlies from anomalous cyclones based on the northern territory of Japan were predominant, while these anomalous flows were originated from the tropical and subtropical western Pacific followed by moving to Korea, thereby affecting the weakening of the TC

  12. Factors associated with concordant estrogen receptor expression at diagnosis and centralized re-assay in a Danish population-based breast cancer study

    PubMed Central

    Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P.; Hellberg, Ylva; Lauridsen, Kristina L.; Ahern, Thomas P.; Garne, Jens Peter; Rosenberg, Carol; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Lash, Timothy L.; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Estrogen receptor (ER) expression predicts tamoxifen response, which halves the risk of breast cancer recurrence. We examined clinical factors associated with concordance between ER expression at diagnosis and centralized re-assay, and the association of concordance with breast cancer recurrence. Materials and Methods We used immunohistochemistry to assess ER expression on archived fixed, paraffin-embedded breast carcinoma tissue excised from women aged 35–69 years, diagnosed 1985–2001 in Jutland, Denmark. We calculated the percentage agreement, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of ER status at diagnosis and re-assay. We used logistic regression to investigate factors associated with concordance, and its association with recurrence (odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (95%CI)). Results ER was re-assayed in 91% of patients (n=1530). Concordance was better in ER+ than ER− tumors (PPV=94% versus NPV=75%). Factors associated with concordance included menopausal status, tumor size, surgical procedure, diagnostic period, lymph node status and time to recurrence. ER+ women at diagnosis who re-assayed ER+ were less likely to have recurrent disease (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.28, 0.86) than those who re-assayed ER−. In originally ER− women, concordance was not associated with recurrence (OR=0.97, 95% CI=0.66, 1.42). Conclusions Several clinical factors were associated with ER assay concordance. Some women were ineffectively treated with tamoxifen, or required but did not receive tamoxifen. We observed almost exactly the protective effect of endocrine therapy among tamoxifen-treated ER+ women whose tumors expressed the ER on re-assay, compared with those ER− on re-assay. Diagnostic pathology results for ER+ tumors appear a valid and useful resource for research studies. However, those for ER− tumors have lower validity. Study-specific considerations regarding the aims, diagnostic period, and consequences

  13. Safety and efficacy of the combination of T-DM1 with radiotherapy of the central nervous system in a patient with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer: case study and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Giuliano Santos; Rovere, Rodrigo Kraft; Dias, Stéphanie Mereniuk Kappel; Chong, Fernando Henrique; Morais, Mayara dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 35% of patients with confirmed HER2 breast cancer progress to metastases of the central nervous system (CNS). Total cerebral radiotherapy is considered as standard treatment for these cases; however, studies have shown that some chemotherapy drugs can be used during radiotherapy without significantly increasing its toxicity. In this article, we report the case of a patient with HER2-positive breast cancer who showed isolated progression of the illness in the CNS, which was observed during the treatment period using T-DM1 concomitantly with radiotherapy of the CNS without apparent toxicity of the combination and keeping the illness controlled. Through a review of the literature on the use of radiotherapy and chemotherapy with T-DM1 for the treatment of cerebral metastases in HER2-positive breast cancer, we describe the efficacy and tolerance of the concomitant application of these treatments. PMID:26557884

  14. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Gregory N.; Weickhardt, Andrew J.; Scheier, Benjamin; Doebele, Robert C.; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Camidge, D. Ross

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival.

  15. Subclavian Vein Versus Arm Vein for Totally Implantable Central Venous Port for Patients with Head and Neck Cancer: A Retrospective Comparative Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Akahane, Akio Sone, Miyuki; Ehara, Shigeru; Kato, Kenichi; Tanaka, Ryoichi; Nakasato, Tatsuhiko

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to compare central venous ports (CVP) from two different routes of venous access-the subclavian vein and arm vein-in terms of safety for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC). Methods: Patients with HNC who underwent image-guided implantations of CVPs were retrospectively evaluated. All CVPs were implanted under local anesthesia. Primary outcome measurements were rates and types of adverse events (AEs). Secondary outcomes included technical success and rate and reason of CVP removal. Results: A total of 162 patients (subclavian port group, 47; arm port group, 115) were included in this study. Technical success was achieved in all patients. The median follow-up period was 94 (range, 1-891) days. Two patients in the subclavian port group experienced periprocedural complications. Postprocedural AEs were observed in 8.5 and 22.6% of the subclavian port and arm port group patients, respectively (P = 0.044). Phlebitis and system occlusions were observed only in the arm port group. The rate of infection was not significantly different between the two groups. The CVP was removed in 34 and 39.1% of the subclavian port and arm port patients, respectively. Conclusions: Both subclavian and arm CVPs are feasible in patients with HNC. AEs were more frequent in the arm port group; thus, the arm port is not recommended as the first choice for patients with HNC. However, further experience is needed to improve the placement technique and the maintenance of CVPs and a prospective analysis is warranted.

  16. Treatment patterns, clinical outcomes and health care costs associated with her2-positive breast cancer with central nervous system metastases: a French multicentre observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The population of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC) who develop central nervous system (CNS) metastases is growing. Treatment strategies in this population are highly diverse. The objective of the study was to assess health care costs for the management of HER2 positive BC with CNS metastases. Methods This multicentre, retrospective, observational study was conducted on HER2-positive BC patients diagnosed with CNS metastases between 2006 and 2008. Data were extracted from patient medical records to estimate health care resource use. A partitioned estimator was used to adjust censoring costs by use of the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate. Results 218 patients were included and costs were estimated for 200 patients. The median time to detection of CNS metastases was 37.6 months. The first metastatic event involved the CNS in 39 patients, and this was the unique first metastatic site in 31 of these patients. Two years following diagnosis of CNS metastases, 70.3% of patients had died. The mean per capita cost of HER2-positive BC with CNS metastases in the first year following diagnosis was €35,735 [95% CI: 31,716-39,898]. The proportion of costs attributed to expensive drugs and those arising from hospitalisation were in the same range. Conclusion A range of individualised disease management strategies are used in HER2-positive BC patients with CNS metastases and the treatments used in the first months following diagnosis are expensive. The understanding of cost drivers may help optimise healthcare expenditure and inform the development of appropriate prevention policies. PMID:24176086

  17. Prophylaxis of human hydrophobia in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang Ree

    2014-09-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system.

  18. Regional and Detailed Survey for Radon Activities in Soil-Gas and Groundwater in the Okchon Zone, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, H.-K.; Chon, H.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The Okchon zone in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched in potentially toxic elements including uranium which is parent nuclide for radon gas. For the purpose of radon radioactivity risk assessment, making the map of radon risk grade from Okchon zone, regional and detailed field surveys were carried out during 3 years. The study area is located in the central part of Korea, called the Okchon zone (about 5,100 km2), which occur in a 80km wide, northeast-trending belt that extends across the Korean Peninsula. The Okchon zone is underlain by metasedimentary rocks of unknown age that are composed mainly of black slate, phyllite, shale, and limestone. The three research areas (defined as Boeun, Chungju, and Nonsan) for detailed survey were selected from the results of regional survey. Results of detailed radon survey indicated a wide range of radon activities for soil-gases (148-1,843 pCi/L) and ground waters (23-5,540 pCi/L). About 15 percent of soil-gas samples exceeded 1,000 pCi/L and 84 percent of ground water samples exceeded the MCL (maximum contaminant level) of drinking water, 300 pCi/L, which proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. For detailed survey, radon activities of soil-gas and ground water were classified as bedrock geology, based on 1/50,000 geological map and field research. For soil-gas measurements, mean values of radon activity from black slate-shale (789 pCi/L) were highest among the other base rocks. And for groundwater measurements, mean value of radon activities were decreased in the order of granite (1,345 pCi/L) > black shale-slate (915 pCi/L) > metasediments (617 pCi/L). Result of indoor radon measurement from detailed survey areas showed that about 50% of houses exceeded the indoor guideline, 4 pCi/L. For the radon risk assessment in indoor environment showed that probability of lung cancer risk from the houses located on the granite base rock (3.0×10-2) was highest among the other

  19. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  20. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  1. Epidemiology of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seon-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Won; Hong, Hyon-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a disease entity defined as persistent pain after the acute pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves. It is associated with impaired daily activities, resulting in reduced quality of life. General epidemiological data on PHN is necessary for the effective management. However, data on the epidemiology of PHN in Korea is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of PHN in the general population. We used population-based medical data for 51,448,491 subscribers to the Health Insurance Service in the year of 2013 to analyze of PHN epidemiology in Korea, such as the incidence, regional distribution, seasonal variation, and healthcare resource utilization. Total number of patients and medical cost on PHN were analyzed from 2009 to 2013. Findings indicate that the incidence of PHN in Korea was 2.5 per 1000 person-years, which was strongly correlated with age and sex. There were no differences in seasonal variation or regional distribution. The medical cost increased steadily over the study period. When admitted to general hospitals, patients with PHN were mainly managed in the dermatology and anesthesiology departments. The incidence and prevalence rates of PHN in Koreans appear to be considerably higher compared to those in western populations, while the sex and age predisposition was similar. Considering that the pain associated with PHN can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life resulting in a medicosocial economic burden, anesthesiology physicians have an important role in primary care in Korea. Future research on the cost-effectiveness of the management of PHN is needed. PMID:27057902

  2. Green Chemistry at the present in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Kyu; Park, Hyeon-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the great contribution made by chemical substances to the development of modern civilization, their indiscriminate use has caused various kinds of damage to the global environment and human beings. Accordingly, the major developed countries and international society have tried to ensure the safe use of chemicals and a reduction in the use of hazardous chemicals through the establishment of the United Nations Environment Programme and various international agreements. In this reason, we tried to introduce about Green Chemistry progress at the present in worldwide and Korea. Methods We checked and analyzed relative journals, reports using keyword as like Green Chemistry, alternative chemicals, eco-friendly etc. and major country’s government homepage search. Results Green Chemistry theory, which argues for the reduction or removal of harmfulness in chemicals throughout their entire life-cycle, has been spreading, and major developed countries, such as the US and Denmark, have developed and operate programs to provide reliable chemical information to help replace hazardous chemicals. Korea has also been conducting studies as like eco-innovation project. Through this project the “Alternative Chemical Search program,” has been developed, distributed, and operated since 2011 to provide reliable information to small and medium-sized businesses that have difficulties collecting information to ensure conformity to international regulations. The program provides information that includes the regulations of major countries and Korea, information on 340 alternative chemicals, 70 application cases, and 1:1 consulting. Conclusions The Alternative Chemical Search program is expected to contribute to the establishment of response systems for regulation of Korean small and medium-sized businesses, and it also will be used to provide basic data for Korean hazardous chemical regulation, together with the Act on the Registration and Evaluation, etc. of

  3. Metalimnobia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Metalimnobia Matsumura, 1911 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Metalimnobia (Metalimnobia) channpayna new species, is described and figured, M. (M.) bifasciata (Schrank, 1781), M. (M.) quadrinotata (Meigen, 1818) and M. (M.) zetterstedti (Tjeder, 1968) are listed for the first time in Korea, new information for previously known species, M. (M.) quadrimaculata (Linnaeus, 1760) is added. Identification key for all Korean Metalimnobia species is given. Wings, male and female terminalia are illustrated for all species. PMID:27395675

  4. 77 FR 33181 - Large Residential Washers From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Affirmative Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Washers From the Republic of Korea: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 4279 (January... Korea: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigation, 77 FR 13559... Korea: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination, 77 FR 17410 (March 26, 2012)...

  5. Anti-cancer effects of traditional Korean wild vegetables in complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyun-Mok; Yu, Kwang-Won; Cho, Sung-Dae; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kwon, Ki Han

    2016-02-01

    This research study explored the anti-cancer effects of natural materials in South Korea. Although South Korea has a long history of traditional medicine, many natural materials of South Korea have not yet been introduced to the rest of the world because of language barriers and inconsistent study conditions. In the past 3 years, 56 papers introducing 56 natural materials, which have anti-cancer effects, have been published by scientists in South Korea. Further, these studies have introduced five kinds of natural materials presented in research papers that were written in Korean and are therefore virtually unknown overseas. The anti-cancer effects were confirmed by 2-3 cancer markers in the majority of the studies, with the most common targets being breast cancer cells and gastric cancer cells. These cancers have the greatest incidence in South Korea. The natural materials studied not only exhibit anti-cancer activity but also display anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-diabetic activities. They have not yet been used for the direct treatment of disease but have potential as medicinal materials for alternative and complementary medicine for the treatment of many modern diseases. Many natural materials of South Korea are already known all over the world, and with this study, we hope to further future research to learn more about these natural medicines. PMID:26860801

  6. Anti-cancer effects of traditional Korean wild vegetables in complementary and alternative medicine.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyun-Mok; Yu, Kwang-Won; Cho, Sung-Dae; Cheong, Sun Hee; Kwon, Ki Han

    2016-02-01

    This research study explored the anti-cancer effects of natural materials in South Korea. Although South Korea has a long history of traditional medicine, many natural materials of South Korea have not yet been introduced to the rest of the world because of language barriers and inconsistent study conditions. In the past 3 years, 56 papers introducing 56 natural materials, which have anti-cancer effects, have been published by scientists in South Korea. Further, these studies have introduced five kinds of natural materials presented in research papers that were written in Korean and are therefore virtually unknown overseas. The anti-cancer effects were confirmed by 2-3 cancer markers in the majority of the studies, with the most common targets being breast cancer cells and gastric cancer cells. These cancers have the greatest incidence in South Korea. The natural materials studied not only exhibit anti-cancer activity but also display anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative stress, and anti-diabetic activities. They have not yet been used for the direct treatment of disease but have potential as medicinal materials for alternative and complementary medicine for the treatment of many modern diseases. Many natural materials of South Korea are already known all over the world, and with this study, we hope to further future research to learn more about these natural medicines.

  7. Impact of PTEN Protein Expression on Benefit From Adjuvant Trastuzumab in Early-Stage Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Positive Breast Cancer in the North Central Cancer Treatment Group N9831 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Edith A.; Dueck, Amylou C.; McCullough, Ann E.; Chen, Beiyun; Geiger, Xochiquetzal J.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Lingle, Wilma L.; Davidson, Nancy E.; Martino, Silvana; Kaufman, Peter A.; Kutteh, Leila A.; Sledge, George W.; Harris, Lyndsay N.; Gralow, Julie R.; Reinholz, Monica M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It has been suggested that PTEN, a negative regulator of PI3K/AKT signaling, is involved in tumor sensitivity to trastuzumab. We investigated the association between tumor PTEN protein expression and disease-free survival (DFS) of patients randomly assigned to receive chemotherapy alone (arm A) or chemotherapy with sequential (arm B) or concurrent trastuzumab (arm C) in the phase III early-stage human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) –positive trial—North Central Cancer Treatment Group (NCCTG) N9831. Patients and Methods The intensity and percentage of invasive cells with cytoplasmic PTEN staining were determined in tissue microarray sections containing three cores per block (n = 1,286) or in whole tissue sections (WS; n = 516) by using standard immunohistochemistry (138G6 monoclonal antibody). Tumors were considered positive for PTEN (PTEN-positive) if any core or WS had any invasive cells with ≥ 1+ staining. Median follow-up was 6.0 years. Results Of 1,802 patients included in this analysis (of 3,505 patients registered to N9831), 1,342 (74%) had PTEN-positive tumors. PTEN positivity was associated with hormone receptor negativity (χ2 P < .001) and nodal positivity (χ2 P = .04). PTEN did not have an impact on DFS within the various arms. Comparing DFS of arm C to arm A, patients with PTEN-positive and PTEN-negative tumors had hazard ratios (HRs) of 0.65 (P = .003) and 0.47 (P = .005), respectively (interaction P = .16). For arm B versus arm A, patients with PTEN-positive and PTEN-negative tumors had HRs of 0.70 (P = .009) and 0.85 (P = .44), respectively (interaction P = .47). Conclusion In contrast to selected preclinical and limited clinical studies suggesting a decrease in trastuzumab sensitivity in patients with PTEN-negative tumors, our data show benefit of adjuvant trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer, independent of tumor PTEN status. PMID:23650412

  8. On the sandstorms and associated airborne dustfall episodes observed at Cheongwon in Korea in 2005

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yong Seung

    2009-01-01

    Sandstorms in the desert and loess regions of north-northwestern China and Mongolia, as well as the associated dustfall episodes in the Korean Peninsula, were monitored between January and December 2005. Composite color images were made on the basis of data received directly from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer, and the distribution and transport of dust clouds were analyzed. The ground concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 and visibility during dustfall episodes (where the PM10 concentration exceeds 190 μg m−3 for at least 2 h) were also analyzed at Cheongwon, in central South Korea, which lies in the leeward direction from the origin of sandstorms. Fewer strong sandstorms occurred in the places of origin in 2005, mainly because of the snow cover with moderate high and low pressure systems in the place of dust origin. The weather patterns explain why there were fewer dustfall episodes in Korea in 2005 than in the period between 1997 and 2004. A total of seven dustfall episodes were monitored in Korea in 2005 and they covered a period of 11 days. In the summer of 2005, sandstorms occurred less frequently in the source region due to high humidity and weaker winds; as a result, there were no dustfall episodes in Korea. When the sandstorms at the source headed directly to Korea without passing through any large cities or industrial areas of China, the PM2.5 concentrations were up to 20% of the PM10 concentrations. However, when the sandstorms headed to Korea via the industrial areas of eastern China, where they pick up anthropogenic air pollutants, the PM2.5 concentrations were at least 25% of the PM10 concentrations. In five of the cases that were observed and analyzed in 2005, the PM10 concentrations of the sand dust that originated in the deserts were 190 μg m−3 or less, which is below the level of a dustfall episode. PMID:20495600

  9. Behavior of Eupcheon fault Using Fault Monitoring Data in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, S.; Hwang, J.; Park, D.; Choi, W.; Chang, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1960s, the Fault Monitoring System(FMS) was adopted in several countries including U.S., Japan and Taiwan, where fault movement related with tectonics have occurred frequently. In Korea, only the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co. Ltd. - Central Research Institute (KHNP-CRI) has been managing FMS. The first FMS of South Korea had been installed to monitor the Eupcheon fault located in Gyeoungju city from 2009. The system is equipped with in-situ measuring units including strainmeter, creepmeter, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), seismometer, and groundwater level meter. This paper presents the behavior of the Eupcheon fault based on the monitored data from EFMS in 2012. These data reveal that the earthquakes near Eupcheon fault did not lead to considerable changes in underground stress and displacement as the data in 2011. The creepmeter is sensitive to the temperature so that the data from the creepmeter showed the seasonal variation. The GNSS and strainmeter data have influenced by the tides. For this reason, it is required to employ a calibration system considering the external parameters such as tides and temperature variations. The KHNP-CRI is currently developing technical systems for data correction and analysis to predict the long-term behavior characteristics of Eupcheon fault. It is expected that the enhanced monitoring system contributes significantly in geo-tectonic safety assessment of nuclear plants and other critical facilities related to the national security.

  10. Estimation of the Transportation Risks for the Spent Fuel in Korea for Various Transportation Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Jongtae, Jeong; Cho, D.K.; Choi, H.J.; Choi, J.W.

    2008-07-01

    According to the long term management strategy for spent fuels in Korea, they will be transported from the spent fuel pools in each nuclear power plant to the central interim storage facility (CISF) which is to start operation in 2016. Therefore, we have to determine the safe and economical logistics for the transportation of these spent fuels by considering their transportation risks and costs. In this study, we developed four transportation scenarios by considering the type of transportation casks and transport means in order to suggest safe and economical transportation logistics for the spent fuels in Korea. Also, we estimated and compared the transportation risks for these four transportation scenarios. From the results of this study, we found that these four transportation scenarios for spent fuels have a very low radiological risk activity with a manageable safety and health consequences. The results of this study can be used as basic data for the development of safe and economical logistics for a transportation of the spent fuels in Korea by considering the transportation costs for the four scenarios which will be needed in the near future. (authors)

  11. Phase II Evaluation of Gefitinib in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Grade 4 Astrocytoma: Mayo/North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study N0074

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Joon H.; Ballman, Karla V.; Wu Wenting; Giannini, Caterina; Krauss, J.C.; Buckner, Jan C.; James, C.D.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Behrens, Robert J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Schaefer, Paul L.; Dakhill, Shaker R.; Jaeckle, Kurt A.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: Amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene represents one of the most frequent gene alterations in glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, we evaluated gefitinib, a potent EGFR inhibitor, in the treatment of adults with newly diagnosed GBM. Methods and Materials: Ninety-eight patients (96 evaluable) were accrued between May 18, 2001, and August 2, 2002. All were newly diagnosed GBM patients who were clinically and radiographically stable/improved after radiation treatment (enrollment within 5 weeks of radiation completion). No prior chemotherapy was permitted. EGFR amplification/mutation, as assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, was not required for treatment with gefitinib but was studied when tissues were available. Gefitinib was administered at 500 mg each day; for patients receiving dexamethasone or enzyme-inducing (CYP3A4) agents, dose was escalated to a maximum of 1,000 mg QD. Treatment cycles were repeated at 4-week intervals with brain magnetic resonance imaging at 8-week intervals. Results: Overall survival (OS; calculated from time of initial surgery) at 1 year (primary end point) with gefitinib was 54.2%, which was not statistically different compared with that of historical control population (48.9%, data from three previous Phase III North Central Cancer Treatment Group studies of newly diagnosed GBM patients). Progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 year post-RT (16.7%) was also not significantly different to that of historical controls (30.3%). Clinical outcome was not affected by EGFR status (amplification or vIII mutation). Fatigue (41%), rash (62%), and loose stools (58%) constituted the most frequent adverse events, the majority of these being limited to Grade 1/2. Of note, the occurrence of drug-related adverse effects, such as loose stools was associated with improved OS. Conclusions: In our evaluation of nearly 100 patients with newly diagnosed GBM, treatment with adjuvant

  12. Investigation of the Role of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (Bcrp/Abcg2) on Pharmacokinetics and Central Nervous System Penetration of Abacavir and Zidovudine in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Nagdeep; Shaik, Naveed; Pan, Guoyu; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Mukai, Chisato; Kitagaki, Shinji; Miyakoshi, Naoki; Elmquist, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Many anti-human immunodeficiency virus 1 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors have low central nervous system (CNS) distribution due in part to active efflux transport at the blood-brain barrier. We have previously shown that zidovudine (AZT) and abacavir (ABC) are in vitro substrates for the efflux transport protein breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) 1. We evaluated the influence of Bcrp1 on plasma pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of zidovudine and abacavir in wild-type and Bcrp1-deficient (Bcrp1−/−) FVB mice. There was no difference in either area under the concentration-time profiles for plasma (AUCplasma) or brain (AUCbrain) for zidovudine between the wild-type and Bcrp1−/− mice. The AUCplasma of abacavir was 20% lower in the Bcrp1−/− mice, whereas the AUCbrain was 20% greater. This difference resulted in a 1.5-fold increase in abacavir brain exposure in the Bcrp1−/− mice. The effect of selective and nonselective transport inhibitors on the ABC brain/plasma ratio at a single time point was evaluated. 3-(6-Isobutyl-9-methoxy-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydropyrazino[1′,2′:1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-propionicacid tert-butyl ester (Ko143), N[4[2-(6, 7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]phenyl]-5-methoxy-9-oxo-10H-acridine-4-carboxamide (GF120918), probenecid, and Pluronic P85 increased abacavir plasma concentrations in the wild-type mice. Abacavir plasma concentrations in Bcrp1−/− mice were increased by (R)-4-((1aR,6R,10bS)-1,2-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo(a,e)cyclopropa(c)cycloheptan-6-yl)-α-((5-quinoloyloxy)methyl)-1-piperazineethanol trihydrochloride (LY335979), GF120918, and probenecid, but not by Ko143. Brain/plasma concentration ratios in both the wild-type and Bcrp1−/− mice were increased by the P-glycoprotein inhibitors LY335979 and GF120918, but not by BCRP-selective inhibitors. These data indicate that deletion of Bcrp1 has little influence on the pharmacokinetics or brain

  13. School Expansion in North Korea and South Korea: Two Systems, Two Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Hyangkue

    2001-01-01

    Examines differences in the public-policy objectives and financing of school expansion efforts in North and South Korea. Institutionalizing credentialism and reliance on financing private education dominates South Korean school expansion, while the financing of public schools and greater government control of education dominates North Korean…

  14. Adjuvant Paclitaxel Plus Carboplatin Compared With Observation in Stage IB Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: CALGB 9633 With the Cancer and Leukemia Group B, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group Study Groups

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Gary M.; Herndon, James E.; Maddaus, Michael A.; Johnstone, David W.; Johnson, Elizabeth A.; Harpole, David H.; Gillenwater, Heidi H.; Watson, Dorothy M.; Sugarbaker, David J.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Vokes, Everett E.; Green, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Adjuvant chemotherapy for resected non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now accepted on the basis of several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that demonstrated improved survival. Although there is strong evidence that adjuvant chemotherapy is effective in stages II and IIIA NSCLC, its utility in stage IB disease is unclear. This report provides a mature analysis of Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9633, the only RCT designed specifically for stage IB NSCLC. Patients and Methods Within 4 to 8 weeks of resection, patients were randomly assigned to adjuvant chemotherapy or observation. Eligible patients had pathologically confirmed T2N0 NSCLC and had undergone lobectomy or pneumonectomy. Chemotherapy consisted of paclitaxel 200 mg/m2 intravenously over 3 hours and carboplatin at an area under the curve dose of 6 mg/mL per minute intravenously over 45 to 60 minutes every 3 weeks for four cycles. The primary end point was overall survival. Results Three hundred-forty-four patients were randomly assigned. Median follow-up was 74 months. Groups were well-balanced with regard to demographics, histology, and extent of surgery. Grades 3 to 4 neutropenia were the predominant toxicity; there were no treatment-related deaths. Survival was not significantly different (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; CI, 0.64 to 1.08; P = .12). However, exploratory analysis demonstrated a significant survival difference in favor of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients who had tumors ≥ 4 cm in diameter (HR, 0.69; CI, 0.48 to 0.99; P = .043). Conclusion Because a significant survival advantage was not observed across the entire cohort, adjuvant chemotherapy should not be considered standard care in stage IB NSCLC. Given the magnitude of observed survival differences, CALGB 9633 was underpowered to detect small but clinically meaningful improvements. A statistically significant survival advantage for patients who had tumors ≥ 4 cm supports consideration of adjuvant paclitaxel

  15. Sexual Violence among Men in the Military in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Insook; Lee, Dong-Ok; Kim, Elli; Kim, Hyun-Young

    2007-01-01

    This research is about sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. The authors investigated the frequencies, causes, and circumstances surrounding sexual violence and looked for characteristic features of sexual violence among men in the military in South Korea. They found a high frequency of physical sexual violence and a high level…

  16. An Ecological Understanding of Youth Suicide in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Seung-yeon; Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews risk factors for youth suicide in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea), based on the ecological systems theory. Although youth suicide is a major concern for Korean society, understanding of this phenomenon has been limited since most of the empirical studies address personal characteristics without much consideration…

  17. Integrating Standardization into Engineering Education: The Case of Forerunner Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Dong Geun; de Vries, Henk J.

    2013-01-01

    The Republic of Korea is a forerunner in integrating the topic of standardization into engineering education at the academic level. This study investigates developments and evolutions in the planning and operating of the University Education Promotion on Standardization (UEPS) in Korea. This paper examines why the Korean government initiated the…

  18. 76 FR 54790 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ..., and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register of July 20, 2011 (76 FR 43343). The conference... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... Korea of large power transformers, provided for in subheadings 8504.23.00 and 8504.90.95 of...

  19. 77 FR 52758 - Large Power Transformers From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of March 21, 2012 (77 FR 16559). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Large Power Transformers From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... the United States is materially injured, by reason of imports from Korea of large power...

  20. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  1. Motivations and Experiences of Expatriate Educators in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Nicolette

    2009-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of native English instructors at the Gyeonggi-do Institute for Foreign Language Education (GIFLE) in South Korea. A literature review of issues regarding expatriate educators is included. The guiding questions for this study include why these instructors chose to become educators, move to South Korea, and…

  2. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  3. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing...-fair-value imports from Korea and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading...

  4. Today and Yesterday in Early Childhood Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    Early childhood education has always been considered important in Korea, with the education of the child valued highly, regardless of the parent's educational background or socioeconomic status. The main social facility for early childhood education outside home in Korea is called "Yoo Chee Won," which means kindergarten. This paper describes the…

  5. The Beginnings of Modern Education in Korea, 1883-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dittrich, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Korea opened up to foreign intercourse in 1876, when the country concluded its first international treaty with Japan. Similar treaties with European and American nations followed during the 1880s. The period until 1910, when Korea was annexed to the Japanese Empire, saw manifold attempts to reform as well as resistance to these reforms. Against…

  6. Globalization and Higher Education: A South Korea Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine globalization and higher education from a perspective of South Korea. First, the paper reviews the concepts of globalization and internationalization. Second, the author describes a historical synopsis regarding internationalization and higher education in South Korea. Third, Korean government policies on…

  7. Three New Records of Lichen Genus Rhizocarpon from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Yogesh; Koh, Young Jin

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes three new records of lichen genus Rhizocarpon (R. alpicola, R. grande and R. lavatum) from South Korea. Brief taxonomic description and comments are provided for the new records. An artificial key is also provided for known species of this genus in South Korea. PMID:23956659

  8. 75 FR 38158 - Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... institution ] established by the government of the Republic of Korea (the ``Korean Government'') requests an...-owned policy finance institution established by the Korean Government on October 28, 2009, pursuant to the Korea Finance Corporation Act (the ``KoFC Act''). The Korean Government established Applicant...

  9. 76 FR 54791 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film from Korea would not be likely to lead to... Procedure (19 CFR 207.2(f)). Background The Commission instituted this review on September 1, 2010 (75...

  10. 76 FR 8770 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Polyethylene Terephthalate (Pet) Film From Korea AGENCY: United States International Trade... full five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film... whether revocation of the antidumping order on PET film from Korea would be likely to lead to...

  11. The Two Koreas. Foreign Policy Association Headline Series, No. 269.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    One in a series of booklets whose purpose is to stimulate greater and more effective understanding of world affairs among Americans, this seven-chapter report examines the political, economic, and anomalous positions of North and South Korea in the international system. "Traditional Legacies" traces the historical development of the two Koreas.…

  12. Promoting E-Learning for Human Resource Development in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Soo-Kyoung

    In Korea, e-learning is becoming increasingly prevalent and spreading into various aspects of human resources development. Korea's Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOEHRD) and Ministry of Labor (MOL) have been especially active in establishing the legal basis and institutional framework to make e-learning a reality.…

  13. Varicella and varicella vaccination in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sung Hee; Choi, Eun Hwa; Shin, Seon Hee; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Chang, Jin Keun; Choi, Kyong Min; Hur, Jae Kyun; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Jae Youn; Chung, Eun Hee; Lee, Soo Young; Park, Su Eun; Cha, Sungho; Kim, Kwang-Nam; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Nam Hee; Jo, Dae Sun; Choi, Bo Youl; Kim, Shin Ah

    2014-05-01

    With continuing occurrence of varicella despite increasing vaccine coverage for the past 20 years, a case-based study, a case-control study, and an immunogenicity and safety study were conducted to address the impact of varicella vaccination in South Korea. Varicella patients under the age of 16 years were enrolled for the case-based study. For the case-control study, varicella patients between 12 months and 15 years of age were enrolled with one control matched for each patient. For the immunogenicity and safety study, otherwise healthy children from 12 to 24 months old were immunized with Suduvax (Green Cross, South Korea). Fluorescent antibody to membrane antigen (FAMA) varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antibody was measured before and 6 weeks after immunization. In the case-based study, the median age of the patients was 4 years. Among 152 patients between 1 and 15 years of age, 139 children received varicella vaccine and all had breakthrough infections. Clinical courses were not ameliorated in vaccinated patients, but more vaccinated patients received outpatient rather than inpatient care. In the case-control study, the adjusted overall effectiveness of varicella vaccination was 54%. In the immunogenicity and safety study, the seroconversion rate and geometric mean titer for FAMA antibody were 76.67% and 5.31. Even with increasing varicella vaccine uptake, we illustrate no upward age shift in the peak incidence, a high proportion of breakthrough disease, almost no amelioration in disease presentation by vaccination, and insufficient immunogenicity of domestic varicella vaccine. There is need to improve the varicella vaccine used in South Korea.

  14. Korea Community Health Survey Data Profiles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Wha; Ko, Yun Sil; Kim, Yoo Jin; Sung, Kyoung Mi; Kim, Hyo Jin; Choi, Hyung Yun; Sung, Changhyun; Jeong, Eunkyeong

    2015-06-01

    In 2008, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiated the first nationwide survey, Korea Community Health Survey (KCHS), to provide data that could be used to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate community health promotion and disease prevention programs. This community-based cross-sectional survey has been conducted by 253 community health centers, 35 community universities, and 1500 interviewers. The KCHS standardized questionnaire was developed jointly by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention staff, a working group of health indicators standardization subcommittee, and 16 metropolitan cities and provinces with 253 regional sites. The questionnaire covers a variety of topics related to health behaviors and prevention, which is used to assess the prevalence of personal health practices and behaviors related to the leading causes of disease, including smoking, alcohol use, drinking and driving, high blood pressure control, physical activity, weight control, quality of life (European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, European Quality of Life-Visual Analogue Scale, Korean Instrumental Activities of Daily Living ), medical service, accident, injury, etc. The KCHS was administered by trained interviewers, and the quality control of the KCHS was improved by the introduction of a computer-assisted personal interview in 2010. The KCHS data allow a direct comparison of the differences of health issues among provinces. Furthermore, the provinces can use these data for their own cost-effective health interventions to improve health promotion and disease prevention. For users and researchers throughout the world, microdata (in the form of SAS files) and analytic guidelines can be downloaded from the KCHS website (http://KCHS.cdc.go.kr/) in Korean. PMID:26430619

  15. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Sandaly O. S.; Pacheco, Fabio J.; Zapata, Gimena M. J.; Garcia, Julieta M. E.; Previale, Carlos A.; Cura, Héctor E.; Craig, Winston J.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  16. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001). After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer), cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  17. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  18. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom; Ahn, Kyu Joong

    2015-12-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  19. Radiologic Diagnosis of Asbestosis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Yookyung; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis. PMID:27587956

  20. Radiologic Diagnosis of Asbestosis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Yoon Ki; Kim, Jeung Sook; Kim, Yookyung; Kim, Yoon Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Asbestosis is the most important change noted in the lung parenchyma after environmental and occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. It is characterized by diffuse interstitial pulmonary fibrosis. In Korea, the incidence of asbestosis will continue to increase for many years to come and the government enacted the Asbestos Damage Relief Law in 2011 to provide compensation to those suffering from asbestos-related diseases. Radiologic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis of asbestosis, and radiologists play a key role in this process. Therefore, it is important for radiologists to be aware of the various imaging features of asbestosis. PMID:27587956

  1. [Family changes and policy issues in Korea].

    PubMed

    Chung, K

    1997-01-01

    "This study attempted to identify the changes that Korean families have undergone and to consider the policies that are needed to adapt to such changes by examining 43 individual indicators of the family sphere suggested in Korea's Social Indicator Classification." Aspects considered include declining family size due to the increase in one-person households; delayed marriage and childbirth; improved economic status of families; increasing numbers of elderly-only, female-headed, and teen-headed households; and female labor force participation. (EXCERPT)

  2. Rhipidia crane flies (Diptera: Limoniidae) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Podenas, Sigitas; Byun, Hye-Woo; Kim, Sam-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Korean species of the crane fly genus Rhipidia Meigen, 1818 (Diptera: Limoniidae), are taxonomically revised. Rhipidia (Rhipidia) serena, new species, is described and figured. Rhipidia (R.) longa Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014, R. (R.) maculata Meigen, 1818 and R. (R.) sejuga Zhang, Li, Yang, 2014 are recorded for the first time in Korea. Previously known species, Rhipidia (R.) septentrionis Alexander, 1913 is redescribed and illustrated. Identification key for all Korean Rhipidia species is given. Most antennae, wings, male and female terminalia of all species are illustrated for the first time. PMID:27395731

  3. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.-B.; Hopke, P. K.; Yi, S.-M.

    2009-07-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Seoul, Korea, every third day from March 2003 to December 2006 and analyzed for their chemical constituents. Sources were identified using positive matrix factorization (PMF). A total of 393 samples were obtained during the sampling period, and 20 chemical species were measured. Nine PM2.5 source categories were identified providing physically realistic profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major contributors of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate (20.9%), secondary sulfate (20.5%), gasoline-fueled vehicles (17.2%), and biomass burning (12.1%), with lesser contributions from diesel emissions (8.1%), soil (7.4%), industry (6.7%), road salt and two-stroke vehicles (5.1%), and aged sea salt (2.2%). PM2.5 levels in Seoul were influenced by both local urban activities and regional-scale transport. Conditional probability function (CPF) results identified possible source directions of local sources such as motor vehicles (gasoline and diesel), industry, and road salt. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) results showed that possible source areas contributing to the elevated secondary particle concentrations (sulfate and nitrate) in Seoul to be the major industrial areas in China.

  4. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Seoul, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, J.-B.; Hopke, P. K.; Yi, S.-M.

    2008-12-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Seoul, Korea, every third day from March 2003 to December 2006 and analyzed for their chemical constituents. Sources were identified using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF). A total of 393 samples were obtained during the sampling period, and 20 chemical species were measured. Nine PM2.5 sources were identified providing physically realistic profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate (20%), secondary sulfate (20%), gasoline-fueled vehicles (17%), and biomass burning (12%), with lesser contributions from diesel emissions (8%), soil (7%), industry (6%), road salt and two-stroke engine (5%), and aged sea salt (2%). PM2.5 levels in Seoul were influenced by both local urban activities and regional-scale transport. Conditional Probability Function (CPF) results identified possible source directions of local sources such as motor vehicles (gasoline and diesel), industry, and road salt. Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) results showed that possible source areas contributing to the elevated secondary particle concentrations (sulfate and nitrate) in Seoul to be the major industrial areas in China.

  5. Radiating columnar joints in Gyeongju, Korea as a educational site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Jang, Y. D.

    2015-12-01

    Gyeongju is located in the central eastern part of South Korea. There are various directional columnar joint sets in Tertiary trachytic basalt formation along the shore. In particular, rare radiating columnar joints occur in this area. Columnar joints are parallel, prismatic columns that are formed as a result of contraction during the rapid cooling of lava flow, forming a three dimensional fracture network. In general, the radius and direction of the rock column represent the cooling rate and surface respectively. Radiating direction of columns here indicates that dome- or lobe-shaped lava was cooled from its surface to the core during the viscous lava flow. The fact that the trachytic textures of plagioclase laths are indistinct suggests that the radiating columnar joints are equivalent to the frontal end of the lava lobes. This area is currently has a shore trail course, which is being developed into a picturesque educational park. There are corresponding information boards on the trail near each type of columnar joints to explain not only the forming process and geological mechanisms but the importance of nature conservation to visitors, especially students. A variety of educational materials and educational programs linked to regular school curriculum are also being developed.

  6. Korea: balancing economic growth and social protection for older adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-06-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system. As these factors evolve in coming years, social spending in Korea is likely to rise toward the OECD average. Sustaining economic growth requires policies to mitigate the impact of rapid population aging by providing social protection for the elderly population. Korea confronts difficult challenges in balancing economic growth and social protection for the elderly population, whereas also ensuring efficiency in social spending.

  7. Forecasting Cause-Specific Mortality in Korea up to Year 2032.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jae-Won; Son, Mia

    2016-08-01

    Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer's disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies. PMID:27478326

  8. Forecasting Cause-Specific Mortality in Korea up to Year 2032.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jae-Won; Son, Mia

    2016-08-01

    Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer's disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies.

  9. Forecasting Cause-Specific Mortality in Korea up to Year 2032

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting cause-specific mortality can help estimate the future burden of diseases and provide a clue for preventing diseases. Our objective was to forecast the mortality for causes of death in the future (2013-2032) based on the past trends (1983-2012) in Korea. The death data consisted of 12 major causes of death from 1983 to 2012 and the population data consisted of the observed and estimated populations (1983-2032) in Korea. The modified age-period-cohort model with an R-based program, nordpred software, was used to forecast future mortality. Although the age-standardized rates for the world standard population for both sexes are expected to decrease from 2008-2012 to 2028-2032 (males: -31.4%, females: -32.3%), the crude rates are expected to increase (males: 46.3%, females: 33.4%). The total number of deaths is also estimated to increase (males: 52.7%, females: 41.9%). Additionally, the largest contribution to the overall change in deaths was the change in the age structures. Several causes of death are projected to increase in both sexes (cancer, suicide, heart diseases, pneumonia and Alzheimer’s disease), while others are projected to decrease (cerebrovascular diseases, liver diseases, diabetes mellitus, traffic accidents, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and pulmonary tuberculosis). Cancer is expected to be the highest cause of death for both the 2008-2012 and 2028-2032 time periods in Korea. To reduce the disease burden, projections of the future cause-specific mortality should be used as fundamental data for developing public health policies. PMID:27478326

  10. Health development experience in North and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H J; Ahn, Y S; Lee, S G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the difference in health status between South Koreans and North Koreans and to identify factors responsible for the remarkable improvements in the health status of South Koreans. In order to examine the causes of the difference in health level, the health indices and their determinants of two Koreas were analyzed in time order. As of the year 2000, the average life expectancy at birth is 71.0 years for men and 78.6 years for women in South Korea, which is longer than that of North Korea by 8.1 for men and 11.2 for women. Infant mortality rate in 1998 was 9.0 per 1,000 live births in South Korea and 54.0 in North Korea. Since being liberated from Japanese ruling in 1945, South Korea has achieved remarkable economic growth under democracy and a market economy system. On the other hand, North Korea has maintained a socialistic system. North Korea has suffered from economic crisis since the 1990s. From this point it could be said that economic status is the major factor for the differences in health level between the two Koreas. Economic status not only directly influences health level but also indirectly affects it through influences on nutrition, hygiene, health resources, and other intervening factors. The South Korean government has concentrated its limited resources on public health activities such as tuberculosis control, family planning (FP), and maternal and child health (MCH) programmes whereas the private sector has taken charge of constructing the health delivery system including health facilities and human resources. In order to solve the problem, which might occur in the private-oriented medical care system, the South Korean government has introduced the national health insurance programme and enforced regulation policies. Many developing countries which are suffering from poverty and disease, can learn from the experience of Korea that had suffered from similar problems up to the early 1970s.

  11. South Korea's renewed focus on space weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Byung-Ho

    2011-10-01

    Nearly 1000 years before European scientists David Fabricius and Galileo Galilei made historic observations of sunspots, royal astronomers in Korea were recording their observations of blemishes on the Sun. Sunspot records appeared as early as 640 C.E. in Korea [Yang et al., 1998], and records with statistically significant populations of data have been available since 1105 C.E. during the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392). The records are quite meticulous. For example, one entry dated 1151 in the annals of the Goryeo dynasty says, "There is a black spot in the sun as large as an egg" (Goryeo-Sa, 1451). At that time, sunspots were categorized according to size: plum, egg, peach, or pear. In Goryeo-Sa, various celestial phenomena such as solar eclipses, comets, novae, meteors, etc., were also recorded. Along with sunspots, aurorae were carefully described in several Korean chronicles, including Goryeo-Sa. Descriptions of aurorae, commonly referred to as "red energy," include their color, shape, motion, and distribution. For example, a description written in 1770 reads, "It spread across the sky like a piece of silk cloth and then dispersed" [Chanjipcheong, 1908; Park, 2008]. Applying a power spectrum analysis technique to all sunspot and aurora records during the Goryeo dynasty, Yang et al. [1998] and Lee et al. [2005] have shown 10.5-year and 97-year cycles for the sunspot records and 10-year and 87-year cycles for the aurora records.

  12. Preferences for Advance Directives in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Sun; Lee, Won-Hee; Cheon, JooYoung; Lee, Jung-Eun; Yeo, KiSun; Lee, JuHee

    2012-01-01

    Background. The goal of advance directives is to help patients retain their dignity and autonomy by making their own decisions regarding end-stage medical treatment. The purpose of this study was to examine preferences of advance directives among general population in Korea. Method. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was performed from October 2007 to June 2008 in Seoul, Korea. A total of 336 city-dwelling adults self-administered the questionnaire and returned it via mail. Data analyses were conducted using SPSS 17.0. Results. Subjects reported the need for healthcare providers' detailed explanations and recommendations regarding end-of-life care. When there is no hope of recovery and death is imminent, most subjects did not want to receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation nor an IV or tube feeding. However, most of the subjects wanted pain management care. Conclusions. The present study showed that many Korean people have an interest in advance directives. The results show that the autonomy and dignity of patient have increased in importance. To provide better end-of-life care, there is a need to educate patients on the definition and intent of an advance directive. Additional proactive communication between patients and their caregivers should be educated to healthcare providers. PMID:22229087

  13. North Korea: The next nuclear nightmare

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, L.S.; Smith, J.R.

    1991-03-01

    The crisis in the Persian Gulf has reawakened concerns over the spread of nuclear arms. Even before its invasion of Kuwait, Iraq's history of aggression and support for international terrorism triggered fears in Washington that its acquisition of nuclear weapons might damage international stability and US interests far more than the emergence of India, Israel, Pakistan, and South Africa as de facto nuclear powers. Thus, when the Gulf War began on January 16, Iraq's nuclear sites were among the first attacked by allied air strikes. Unfortunately, Iraq has not been the only hostile proliferator looming on the horizon. North Korea, which has been no less dedicated than Iraq to the use of violence to advance its expansionist goals, has also tenaciously pursued a nuclear-weapons capability. Moreover, the North Korean program is considerably closer to bearing fruit than the Iraqi effort. And although North Korea, like Iraq, has signed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, unlike Iraq it has refused to conclude the safeguards agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency that the treaty requires.

  14. Source apportionment of PM2.5 in Incheon, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, J.; Ban, S.; Lee, C.; Yi, S.; Zoh, K.

    2011-12-01

    PM2.5 samples were collected at a centrally located urban monitoring site in Incheon, Korea, every third day from Jun 2009 to may 2010 and analyzed their chemical species. In this study, we investigated the source of PM2.5 using Positive Matrix Factorization(PMF), the source area from Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) and Conditional Probability Function(CPF), and characterized source variation among episode, non-episode, yellow sand events. Incheon, study site, is located at the mid-western tip of the Korean Peninsula with a population of 2.6 million people and area of 1029.4 km2, respectively. As a transportation hub, the city also holds the importance of meteological/geological aspect affecting the air quality of capital region, in that is prevailing westerlies zone and a air passageway from China to Japan passing through seoul, korea. In the study, the Four channel based on Annular Denuder System(ADS) were used for sample collection(URG co, USA). The filter samples were analyzed with respect to species type such as ion group, metal, and OC/EC compound using ion chromatography, ICP/MS, and NIOSH TOT method, respectively. The PM2.5 concentration was 43ug/m3 that is almost three times higher than the US NAAQS annual PM2.5 standard of 15ug/m3. Nine PM2.5 sources were resolved from PMF analysis that provided reasonable source profiles and interesting insights into the source contributions to the ambient mass concentrations. The major sources of PM2.5 were secondary nitrate(26.4%), secondary sulfate(17.3%), gasoline(16.4%), and residual oil combustion(13.5%), with lesser contributions from biomass burning (7.5%), road dust(6.9%), soil (5.5%), coal fire powerplant (4.0%), and free sea salt(2.4%). CPF results identified possible local source directions such as motor vehicles, free sea salt. PSCF results indicated that likely pollution areas increased secondary particle concentrations(sulfate and nitrate) in Incheon to be the major industrial areas in China

  15. The political economy of energy-corporate-urban integration in South Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.

    1991-01-01

    This study seeks to explain the institutional basis of the political economy of South Korea and its integration into the global order. Through an investigation of the rise of technological (especially energy), corporate and urban networks under military/state direction, the analysis documents and explains why and how the contemporary South Korean political economy was formed and demonstrates that recent material progress actually leaves the country in a state of dependent development with environmental degradation and social inequality as necessary, even functional, characteristics of this progress. The central thesis of this study is that the rise to power of what I term a centralized, technicized regime (or CTR) has placed the civil society of South Korea in fundamental conflict with the prevailing institutional conditions of national political and economic order. The interconnected network of energy, corporate and urban systems that have formed since the late 19th century serves as the institutional foundation for South Korea's political economy. This network arranges the society and its resources in a definite political-economic structure that at once gives rise to certain social problems such as inequality, environmental degradation and alienation, the society's search for answers to these problems. Building new energy, industrial and spatial structures compatible with political and economic democracy, cannot be driven by technocratic considerations and the rationalizing norms of conformity and compliance, but by the politically creative energies of a people who place social ends before instrumental means in deciding the shape and structure of the society. A crucial failure of mainstream social thought and practice has been the diversion of creative energies from the development of a critical evaluation of the society's energy-corporate-urban integration. Political conflict will continue because the aims of the CTR and civic society are opposed.

  16. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of Siberian chipmunk (Tamias sibiricus) in Northeastern Asia and population substructure in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mu-Yeong; Lissovsky, Andrey A; Park, Sun-Kyung; Obolenskaya, Ekaterina V; Dokuchaev, Nikolay E; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Yu, Li; Kim, Young-Jun; Voloshina, Inna; Myslenkov, Alexander; Choi, Tae-Young; Min, Mi-Sook; Lee, Hang

    2008-12-31

    Twenty-five chipmunk species occur in the world, of which only the Siberian chipmunk, Tamias sibiricus, inhabits Asia. To investigate mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence variations and population structure of the Siberian chipmunk in northeastern Asia, we examined mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences (1140 bp) from 3 countries. Analyses of 41 individuals from South Korea and 33 individuals from Russia and northeast China resulted in 37 haplotypes and 27 haplotypes, respectively. There were no shared haplotypes between South Korea and Russia--northeast China. Phylogenetic trees and network analysis showed 2 major maternal lineages for haplotypes, referred to as the S and R lineages. Haplotype grouping in each cluster was nearly coincident with its geographic affinity. In particular, 3 distinct groups were found that mostly clustered in the northern, central and southern parts of South Korea. Nucleotide diversity of the S lineage was twice that of lineage R. The divergence between S and R lineages was estimated to be 2.98-0.98 Myr. During the ice age, there may have been at least 2 refuges in South Korea and Russia--northeast China. The sequence variation between the S and R lineages was 11.3% (K2P), which is indicative of specific recognition in rodents. These results suggest that T. sibiricus from South Korea could be considered a separate species. However, additional information, such as details of distribution, nuclear genes data or morphology, is required to strengthen this hypothesis.

  17. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  18. Reverse brain drain in South Korea: state-led model.

    PubMed

    Yoon, B L

    1992-01-01

    Korea's reverse brain drain (RBD) has been an organized government effort, rather than a spontaneous social phenomenon, in that various policies and the political support of President Park, Chung-Hee were instrumental in laying the groundwork for its success. Particular features of Korea's RBD policies are the creation of a conducive domestic environment (i.e., government-sponsored strategic R & D institution-building, legal, and administrative reforms), and importantly, the empowerment of returnees (via, i.e., exceptionally good maternal benefits, guarantees of research autonomy). President Park played the cardinal role in empowering repatriates at the expense of his own civil bureaucracy, and his capacity for such patronage derived from Korea's bureaucratic-authoritarian political system. Returning scientists and engineers directly benefitted from this political system as well as Park's personal guardianship. For Park, empowerment of returning "brains" was necessary to accomplish his national industrialization plan, thereby enhancing his political legitimacy in domestic politics. An alliance with the R & D cadre was functionally necessary to successfully consolidate strong presidential power, and politically nonthreatening due to the particular form of "pact of domination" in Korea's power structure. RBD in Korea will continue in the near future given Korea's drive for high technology, and the remarkable expansion of local industrial and educational sectors. Korea's future RBD, however, needs to pay closer attention to the following 4 problems: research autonomy; equality issues; skill-based repatriation of technicians and engineers rather than Ph.Ds; and subsidies to small and medium industry for RBD. PMID:12285392

  19. [Cerebral paragonimiasis and Bo Sung Sim's hemispherectomy in Korea in 1950s-1960s].

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Miyagawa, Takuya; Hong, Jeonghwa; Kim, Ockjoo

    2011-06-30

    This paper deals with cerebral paragonimiasis and cerebral hemispherectomy conducted as a treatment of cerebral paragonimiasis by Bo Sung Sim in Korea in 1950s-1960s. He demonstrated that cerebral hemispherectomy could be used for unilateral diffuse cerebral paragonimiasis. Sim learned cerebral hemispherectomy from Dr. L. A. French. at the University of Minnesota from 1955 to 1957 in America. The authors argues that Bo Sung Sim's introduction of cerebral hemispherectomy to Korea was not a simple application of an advanced medical technology, but a complicated and active process in that Sim used the technique to intervene intractable complications from cerebral paragonimiasis such as generalized convulsions, spastic hemiplegia and mental deterioration. Bo Sung Sim, one of the neurosurgeons of the first generation in Korea, was trained in neurology, neuropathology, neuroradiology and animal experiments as well as in neurosurgery at the University of Minnesota. After returning to Korea, Sim faced parasitic diseases, one of the most serious public health problems at that time, which were far different from what he learned in America. As a neurosurgeon, Sim tackled with parasitic diseases of the central nervous system with various diagnostics and therapeutics. In 1950s, more than one million populations suffered from pulmonary paragonimiasis acquired by eating raw crabs or by feeding juice of crushed crayfish for the treatment of measles in Korea. About 26.6 percent of people with paragonimiasis had cerebral paragonimiasis. Before bithionol therapy was introduced in 1962, neurosurgery was the only available treatment to control increased intracranial pressures, intractable epilepsy, paralysis and mental deterioration. Between 1958 to 1962, Bo Sung Sim operated on 24 patients of cerebral paragonimiasis. In two of them, he performed cerebral hemispherectomy to control intractable convulsions when he found diffuse cerebral paragonimiasis and cerebral atrophy at the

  20. [Hundred years' psychiatry in Korea (1899-1999)].

    PubMed

    Rhi, B Y

    1999-01-01

    The western medical knowledges of the human anatomy and physiology including knowledges of central nervous system have probably been introduced into Korea by Prince Sohyŏn Seja in 1645. The authentic education for the western medicine at the governmental and private medical schools, however, originated from 1899 and the education of mental disease was included in curriculum of Tai-Han-uiwon, the governmental medical school before 1910. In 1913 the first department of psychiatry (Department of Mental Disease) was established at the Chongdokbu-uiwon, the clinic of the Japanese colonial government, the former Korean governmental hospital which has later developed to the Kyŏngs ŏng Imperial University Hospital. On the other hand, there was in Severance Hospital Medical College, one Australian missionary psychiatrist McLaren, who has served at Paton Memorial Hospital in Jinju, Korea from 1911, taught neurology and psychiatry from 1913 at Severance Hospital Medical College, established psychiatry ward in 1923 at the Hospital, conducted the ward in humanistic way until 1940. It was the German psychiatry which the Japanese psychiatrists have brought to the Korean peninsula and it remained as major trends of psychiatry in Korea during the Japanese occupation between 1911 and 1945. The academic levels of Kyŏngsŏng Imperial University in psychiatry as well as the quality of mental care seemed to be almost equivocal to the psychiatry in Japan. However, psychiatrists scope of social psychiatric issues and of the research interests seemed to be somewhat narrow. Due to the political discrimination for the Korean students, the Koreans had less opportunity for the promotion at the university than Japanese residents in Korea. In 1945, after the end of the Pacific War only about 11 Korean psychiatrists were left in Korea, who organized Korean Neuropsychiatric Association. The Department of Neuropsychiatry of Seoul National University (former Department of Neurology and

  1. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes. PMID:26657137

  2. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  3. Empowerment for Healthy Cities and communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Eun Woo; Dhakal, Sarita

    2014-10-01

    The Healthy Cities project started in 1998 in Korea. Around the world, public health and healthy cities are becoming bigger and bigger priorities. Capacity mapping is an important tool for improving a country's health status. This study aims to review the initiation of the Korean "Healthy City" project. Korea follows a bottom-up approach for the development of Healthy City policies and has implemented plans accordingly. Korea has created a unique program through Healthy Cities; it has developed a Healthy City act, indicators for evaluating the program, a health impact assessment program, an award system, and a domestic networking system.

  4. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Ki, Moran; Sung, Nackmoon

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes.

  5. Empowerment for Healthy Cities and communities in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Ji Young; Nam, Eun Woo; Dhakal, Sarita

    2014-10-01

    The Healthy Cities project started in 1998 in Korea. Around the world, public health and healthy cities are becoming bigger and bigger priorities. Capacity mapping is an important tool for improving a country's health status. This study aims to review the initiation of the Korean "Healthy City" project. Korea follows a bottom-up approach for the development of Healthy City policies and has implemented plans accordingly. Korea has created a unique program through Healthy Cities; it has developed a Healthy City act, indicators for evaluating the program, a health impact assessment program, an award system, and a domestic networking system. PMID:25216789

  6. Evidence of Toxoplasma gondii exposure among horses in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Sang-Eun; Seo, Min-Goo; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Cho, Gil-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Kwak, Dongmi; Lee, Won-Ja

    2014-12-01

    The present study investigated the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies by ELISA in horses reared in Korea. Serum samples were collected from 2009 through 2013 from 816 horses reared in Korea. Analysis was performed using a commercial toxoplasmosis ELISA kit to detect anti-T. gondii antibodies. Overall, 24 out of 816 horses (2.9%) were seropositive for T. gondii. The result was analyzed by age, gender, breed and region. Significant differences were observed according to breed and region (P<0.05). This is the first nationwide serological investigation of T. gondii in horses reared in Korea. The study results reveal that T. gondii occurs nationwide in Korean horses.

  7. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  8. How to Improve the Quality of Screening Endoscopy in Korea: National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yu Kyung

    2016-01-01

    In Korea, gastric cancer screening, either esophagogastroduodenoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS), is performed biennially for adults aged 40 years or older. Screening endoscopy has been shown to be associated with localized cancer detection and better than UGIS. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting cancer is not satisfactory. The National Endoscopy Quality Improvement (QI) program was initiated in 2009 to enhance the quality of medical institutions and improve the effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy developed quality standards through a broad systematic review of other endoscopic quality guidelines and discussions with experts. The standards comprise five domains: qualifications of endoscopists, endoscopic unit facilities and equipment, endoscopic procedure, endoscopy outcomes, and endoscopic reprocessing. After 5 years of the QI program, feedback surveys showed that the perception of QI and endoscopic practice improved substantially in all domains of quality, but the quality standards need to be revised. How to avoid missing cancer in endoscopic procedures in daily practice was reviewed, which can be applied to the mass screening endoscopy. To improve the quality and effectiveness of NCSP, key performance indicators, acceptable quality standards, regular audit, and appropriate reimbursement are necessary. PMID:27484810

  9. How to Improve the Quality of Screening Endoscopy in Korea: National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yu Kyung

    2016-07-01

    In Korea, gastric cancer screening, either esophagogastroduodenoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS), is performed biennially for adults aged 40 years or older. Screening endoscopy has been shown to be associated with localized cancer detection and better than UGIS. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting cancer is not satisfactory. The National Endoscopy Quality Improvement (QI) program was initiated in 2009 to enhance the quality of medical institutions and improve the effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy developed quality standards through a broad systematic review of other endoscopic quality guidelines and discussions with experts. The standards comprise five domains: qualifications of endoscopists, endoscopic unit facilities and equipment, endoscopic procedure, endoscopy outcomes, and endoscopic reprocessing. After 5 years of the QI program, feedback surveys showed that the perception of QI and endoscopic practice improved substantially in all domains of quality, but the quality standards need to be revised. How to avoid missing cancer in endoscopic procedures in daily practice was reviewed, which can be applied to the mass screening endoscopy. To improve the quality and effectiveness of NCSP, key performance indicators, acceptable quality standards, regular audit, and appropriate reimbursement are necessary. PMID:27484810

  10. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  11. New enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea.

    PubMed

    Dózsa-Farkas, Klára; Felföldi, Tamás; Hong, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We give descriptions of five new enchytraeid species (Enchytraeidae, Oligochaeta) from Korea: Henlea magnaampullacea sp. n., Fridericia sphaerica sp. n., F. cusanicaformis sp. n., F. granulocyta sp. n. and Mesenchytraeus calyx sp. n., with morphological and molecular (mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, nuclear histone 3 genes and nuclear ribosomal ITS region sequences) data. In total, 19 enchytraeid species belonging to seven genera have been found in the studied woodland and agronomical soil samples. Apart from the five new species, three further species are new for the Korean enchytraeid fauna, Enchytraeus christenseni, E. dichaetus, and Achaeta cf. brevivasa. Molecular taxonomical analyses show that the Korean species resembling H. ventriculosa is not identical with the European species, furthermore sequence analysis of individuals morphologically identified as F. seoraksani indicate the possibility of species-complexity and the presence of cryptic species. PMID:26623764

  12. Critical Care In Korea: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae-Man; Kwak, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Gee Young

    2015-01-01

    Critical (or intensive) care medicine (CCM) is a branch of medicine concerned with the care of patients with potentially reversible life-threatening conditions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that adequate staffing is of crucial importance for patient outcome. Adequate staffing also showed favorable cost-effectiveness in terms of ICU stay, decreased use of resources, and lower re-admission rates. The current status of CCM of our contry is not comparable to that of advanced countries. The global pandemic episodes in the past decade showed that our society is not well prepared for severe illnesses or mass casualty. To improve CCM in Korea, reimbursement of the government must be amended such that referral hospitals can hire sufficient number of qualified intensivists and nurses. For the government to address these urgent issues, public awareness of the role of CCM is also required. PMID:26538995

  13. Critical Care In Korea: Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae-Man; Kwak, Sang-Hyun; Suh, Gee Young; Koh, Younsuck

    2015-11-01

    Critical (or intensive) care medicine (CCM) is a branch of medicine concerned with the care of patients with potentially reversible life-threatening conditions. Numerous studies have demonstrated that adequate staffing is of crucial importance for patient outcome. Adequate staffing also showed favorable cost-effectiveness in terms of ICU stay, decreased use of resources, and lower re-admission rates. The current status of CCM of our country is not comparable to that of advanced countries. The global pandemic episodes in the past decade showed that our society is not well prepared for severe illnesses or mass casualty. To improve CCM in Korea, reimbursement of the government must be amended such that referral hospitals can hire sufficient number of qualified intensivists and nurses. For the government to address these urgent issues, public awareness of the role of CCM is also required.

  14. A study of elder abuse in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jinjoo; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Martins, Diane; Kim, Heegul

    2006-02-01

    This study investigates the state of elder abuse in Korea, and its related factors in a population-based survey. A total of 15,230 persons were interviewed at their homes in 1999. The rate of old people who experienced any one category of abuse was 6.3%, and emotional abuse was the most frequent while physical abuse was least prevalent. The experience of abuse seemed to be associated with personal characteristics such as age, gender, educational level, and economic dependency as well as the physical and mental health status. In addition, family characteristics such as the type of household, the family's economic level, and the quality of family relations were found to be associated with the presence of abuse. PMID:15913631

  15. Technology transfer to a developing nation, Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, C. A.; Uccetta, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental project is reported which was undertaken. to determine if selected types of technology developed for the aerospace program during the past decade are relevant to specific industrial problems of a developing nation and to test whether a structured program could facilitate the transfer of relevant technologies. The Korea Institute of Science and Technology and the IIT Research Institute were selected as the active transfer agents to participate in the program. The pilot project was based upon the approach to the transfer of domestic technology developed by the NASA Technology Utilization Division and utilized the extensive data and technical resources available through the Space Agency and its contractors. This pilot project has helped to clarify some aspects of the international technology transfer process and to upgrade Korean technological capabilities.

  16. Intertidal meiofauna of Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Olga N.; Trebukhova, Yulia A.

    2011-03-01

    For the first time, the structure of the meiobenthos community and marine nematodes in particular was investigated in the different intertidal zones of Jeju Island (South Sea of Korea). A relationship was found between the density of meiobenthic communities and the type of the bottom sediment. In addition, in the silty sediments, nematodes were dominant, while in the sandy sediments harpacticoids and ostracods were dominant groups. Sixty eight species belonging to 60 genera and 19 families of nematodes were found in the whole area. Four different nematode taxocenosis were distinguished using a cluster analysis. Dominant feeding groups were omnivores (2B) and epistratum-feeders (2A). The highest number of non-selective deposit-feeders (1B) was detected in the lagoon with the bottom silty sediments.

  17. Shanghanlun in Korea, 1610-1945

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soyoung

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how Korean physicians of traditional medicine have utilized Zhang Ji’s 張 機 (150–219 CE) Shanghanlun 傷寒論 (Treatise on Cold Damage Disorders, just Treatise hereafter) from the 17th century to the early twentieth century. As one of the two most influential pillars of Chinese medicine, the Treatise, with its clinical implications, has inspired many scholars and practitioners in their pursuit of medical innovation. What, then, have been the Korean motivations in referring to the Treatise over the past few centuries? What does the Korean utilization and modification of the Chinese classic tell us about the desires, limits, and possibilities of pursuing medical innovations in Korea? By examining the ways in which major pre-modern Korean texts employed the Treatise, this article primarily aims to reveal patterns of (re)arranging the Treatise that formed an indigenous style of medicine. Under the growing sense of nationalist concern and colonial contestation in the early twentieth century, the Korean compilation of the Treatise began to depart from the earlier interpretations. A range of nationalist rhetoric and editorial designs reflect the Korean urgency in seeking resources to compete with Western medicine. The postcolonial consumption of the Treatise also reflects Korean strategies in navigating medical references from outside to meet their social and clinical agendas. The changing pattern of textual and professional utilization of the Treatise exemplifies how a significant Chinese text continues to be a living tradition in Korea by expanding the targeted audience and satisfying local demands. PMID:26778942

  18. Experiences with constructed wetland systems in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youngchul, Kim; Gilson, Hwang; Jin-Woo, Lee; Je-Chul, Park; Dong-Sup, Kim; Min-Gi, Kang; in-Soung, Chang

    2006-10-01

    In spite of the low temperature during the winter season and the high land environment, the wetland treatment system is gaining popularity in Korea because of its lower construction cost and simplicity in operation and maintenance. Many different types of wetland treatment systems have been built during the last 10 years, among which the free water surface wetland has been predominant. Most of the large-scale systems are government projects for improving the water quality of the streams flowing into the estuary dikes and reservoirs. The covering plants used in this system are different in different areas but cattails and reeds or their combinations are common. Constructed wetlands in Korea can be characterized by their shallow depths and short hydraulic residence times. There is no established flow pattern and configuration rules for constructing wetlands, but many efforts have been made with a view to improving their ecological function. Flow control is the most difficult problem in designing a riverbed or riparian wetland. There have been scores of flow rate control devices developed for wetlands, but none of them guarantee wetlands’ safety against flooding. In earlier wetland construction, the building materials were mainly soil. Recently, strong and durable building materials such as rocks, gravel beds, concrete and steel are used at vulnerable places to protect them from erosion. Our investigation indicated that the wetland system would be an appropriate technology because it is not only cheaper to construct, but also requires less maintenance work. However, we suffer from the reduced effectiveness in performance during the winter. We need to evaluate the partial treatment accomplished during 6 to 7 months per year.

  19. Pathogenic free-living amoebae in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ho-Joon

    2004-01-01

    Acanthamoeba and Naegleria are widely distributed in fresh water, soil and dust throughout the world, and cause meningoencephalitis or keratoconjunctivitis in humans and other mammals. Korean isolates, namely, Naegleria sp. YM-1 and Acanthamoeba sp. YM-2, YM-3, YM-4, YM-5, YM-6 and YM-7, were collected from sewage, water puddles, a storage reservoir, the gills of a fresh water fish, and by corneal washing. These isolates were categorized into three groups based on the mortalities of infected mice namely, highly virulent (YM-4), moderately virulent (YM-2, YM-5 and YM-7) and nonpathogenic (YM-3). In addition, a new species of Acanthamoeba was isolated from a freshwater fish in Korea and tentatively named Korean isolate YM-4. The morphologic characters of its cysts were similar to those of A. culbertsoni and A. royreba, which were previously designated as Acanthamoeba group III. Based on experimentally infected mouse mortality, Acanthamoeba YM-4 was highly virulent. The isoenzymes profile of Acanthamoeba YM-4 was similar to that of A. royreba. Moreover, an anti-Acanthamoeba YM-4 monoclonal antibody reacted only with Acanthamoeba YM-4, and not with A. culbertsoni. Random amplified polymorphic DNA marker analysis and RFLP analysis of mitochondrial DNA and of a 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA, placed Acanthamoeba YM-4 in a separate cluster based on phylogenic distances. Thus Acanthamoeba YM-4 was identified as a new species, and assigned Acanthamoeba sohi. Up to the year 2002 in Korea, two clinical cases were found to be infected with Acanthamoeba spp. These patients died of meningoencephalitis. In addition, one case of Acanthamoeba pneumonia with an immunodeficient status was reported and Acanthamoeba was detected in several cases of chronic relapsing corneal ulcer, chronic conjunctivitis, and keratitis. PMID:15381859

  20. The Central Role of Meaning in Adjustment to the Loss of a Child to Cancer: Implications for the Development of Meaning-Centered Grief Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Breitbart, William

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review This review describes research on meaning and meaning-making in parents who lost a child to cancer, suggesting the need for a meaning-centered therapeutic approach to improve their sense of meaning, purpose, and identity and to help with management of prolonged grief symptoms. Recent findings Several studies have demonstrated that parents bereaved by cancer experience unique meaning related challenges associated with the caregiving and illness experience, including struggles with making sense of their loss, benefit-finding, their sense of identity and purpose, disconnection from sources of meaning, and sustaining a sense of meaning in their child’s life. Meaning-Centered Grief Therapy, adapted from Meaning-Centered Psychotherapy, directly addresses these issues, highlighting the choices parents have in how they face their pain, how they honor their child and his/her living legacy, the story they create, and how they live their lives. Summary Given the important role that meaning plays in adjustment to the loss of a child to cancer, a meaning-focused approach such as Meaning-Centered Grief Therapy, may help improve parents’ sense of meaning and grief symptoms. It seems particularly appropriate for parents who lost a child to cancer because it does not pathologize their struggles and directly targets issues they frequently face. PMID:25588204

  1. Electromagnetic fields and health effects--epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2004-01-01

    This epidemiologic investigation comprised separate studies of the risk of cancer, cause-specific mortality rates, risks for neurodegenerative diseases, and the risk of arrhythmia-related heart disease among employees exposed to extremely low-frequency (50-Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) in the Danish utility industry. All the employees in this industry were followed-up in several registers. The risk of disease was analyzed in relation to occupational exposure to EMF, latency, and duration of employment. A specific job-exposure matrix was developed and validated by comparison with direct measurements of EMF during a workday. Linkage with the Danish Cancer Register did not identify increased risks for the cancers suggested a priori to be associated with exposure to EMF, including leukemia, brain tumors, and breast cancer. Significantly increased risks for lung cancer and mesothelioma were identified for workers highly exposed to asbestos. Linkage with the National Mortality Register revealed a significantly increased overall mortality rate from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), with an increasing trend with duration of employment and EMF exposure. In addition, a significantly increased mortality rate from electric accidents was observed. It was hypothesized that the observation of increased mortality from ALS was associated with exposure to EMF or electric shocks. No increased mortality rate from cardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease was observed. Linkage with the National Hospital Register also revealed an increased risk of ALS and, thereby confirmed the finding of an increased mortality rate for this disease in the previous study. Linkage of the cohort with the Multiple Sclerosis Register revealed an increased risk of multiple sclerosis, which was not, however, significant. Linkage with the Pacemaker Register showed no increased risk of severe arrhythmia-related heart disease. The second part of the study included the establishment of a large, nationwide

  2. Verification of NOx emission inventories over North Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Na Kyung; Kim, Yong Pyo; Morino, Yu; Kurokawa, Jun-ichi; Ohara, Toshimasa

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the top-down NOx emissions estimated from satellite observations of NO2 vertical column densities over North Korea from 1996 to 2009 were analyzed. Also, a bottom-up NOx emission inventory from REAS 1.1 from 1980 to 2005 was analyzed with several statistics. REAS 1.1 was in good agreement with the top-down approach for both trend and amount. The characteristics of NOx emissions in North Korea were quite different from other developed countries including South Korea. In North Korea, emissions from industry sector was the highest followed by transportation sector in the 1980s. However, after 1990, the NOx emissions from other sector, mainly agriculture, became the 2nd highest. Also, no emission centers such as urban areas or industrial areas were distinctively observed. Finally, the monthly NOx emissions were high during the warm season.

  3. Cutaneous Lymphoma in Korea: A Nationwide Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Soo; Suh, Kee Suck; Lee, Dong-Youn; Cho, Kwang Hyun; Oh, Sang Ho; Kim, Soo-Chan; Lee, Seok-Jong; Shin, Dong Hoon; Yoon, Tae Young; Won, Young Ho; Kim, You Chan

    2016-05-01

    The epidemiological and clinicopathological features of cutaneous lymphoma may vary by geographical area. However, only a few large-scale epidemiological studies of cutaneous lymphoma have been performed, mainly in the USA and Europe. This aim of this study was to determine the recent characteristics of cutaneous lymphoma in Korea according to the WHO/EORTC classification. A total of 422 patients with newly diagnosed cutaneous lymphoma from January 2009 to December 2013 comprising 293 cases of mature T-cell and natural killer (NK)-cell lymphoma and 39 cases of mature B-cell lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence of mature B-cell lymphoma was lower in Korea than in Europe and the USA. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was more prevalent in Korea than in Western countries. The incidence of extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type was higher in Korea than in Western countries and Japan. PMID:26560051

  4. Cladonia peziziformis (Lichenized Ascomycota, Cladoniaceae) New to Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Hyun; Lee, You Mi; Bae, Funny; Koh, Young Jin; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2008-09-01

    Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J.R. Laundon was collected from Baega mountain, Jeonnam Province, Korea in 2008. It is characterized by short and slender podetia with verruculose surface, split along the sides. Apothecia large, pale brown, always growing on the top of the podetia. Primary squamules shell-like, thick, and convex. Fumarprotocetraric acid contained in thallus. This is the first record of this species in Korea. PMID:23997624

  5. Health care reform in South Korea: success or failure?

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Chan

    2003-01-01

    South Korea is one of the world's most rapidly industrializing countries. Along with industrialization has come universal health insurance. Within the span of 12 years, South Korea went from private voluntary health insurance to government-mandated universal coverage. Since 1997, with the intervention of the International Monetary Fund, Korean national health insurance (NHI) has experienced deficits and disruption. However, there are lessons to be drawn for the United States from the Korean NHI experience.

  6. Foodborne illness outbreaks in Korea and Japan studied retrospectively.

    PubMed

    Lee, W C; Lee, M J; Kim, J S; Park, S Y

    2001-06-01

    The average prevalence of reported foodborne illness from 1981 to 1995 was 2.44 per 100,000 population in Korea, and 28.01 in Japan. The mean case fatality rate in Korea was 0.74% and in Japan, 0.03%. When both prevalence and case fatality rates in Korea and Japan were compared during the same period, the prevalence in Japan was much higher than that in Korea. However, the case fatality rate of patients in Korea was much higher than that in Japan. The distribution of monthly and seasonal patterns of foodborne illness outbreaks strongly indicate the outbreaks may be associated with climatic conditions, frequencies of national holidays, and vacation seasons. Comparison study indicates that the foodborne illness outbreaks in Korea most frequently involved homemade foods (47% of the total cases); in Japan, restaurants accounted for 31.3%. Foodborne illness cases of bacterial origin in Korea were 59.3% of the total and included Salmonella spp. (20.7%). Vibrio (17.4%), Staphylococcus (9.7%), pathogenic Escherichia coli (2.4%), and other species (9.1%); in Japan, 72.8% of the total cases and the majority of the bacterial foodborne illness was caused by Vibrio (32.3%), Staphylococcus (15.9%), Salmonella (14.2%), pathogenic E. coli (3.0%), and other species (7.2%). In conclusion, the outbreaks of foodborne illness in Korea and Japan may be mainly caused by improper food handling, and their occurrences may be differentiated according to food sources. PMID:11403148

  7. Cladonia peziziformis (Lichenized Ascomycota, Cladoniaceae) New to Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin Yu; Hur, Hyun; Lee, You Mi; Bae, Funny; Koh, Young Jin

    2008-01-01

    Cladonia peziziformis (With.) J.R. Laundon was collected from Baega mountain, Jeonnam Province, Korea in 2008. It is characterized by short and slender podetia with verruculose surface, split along the sides. Apothecia large, pale brown, always growing on the top of the podetia. Primary squamules shell-like, thick, and convex. Fumarprotocetraric acid contained in thallus. This is the first record of this species in Korea. PMID:23997624

  8. 31 CFR 500.328 - Status of those portions of Korea under control of the government of the Republic of Korea; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Status of those portions of Korea under control of the government of the Republic of Korea; and of the diplomatic and consular... ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 500.328 Status of those portions of Korea under...

  9. Vaginal cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Vaginal cancer; Cancer - vagina; Tumor - vaginal ... Most vaginal cancers occur when another cancer, such as cervical or endometrial cancer , spreads. This is called secondary vaginal cancer. Cancer ...

  10. Human Papillomavirus Prevalence and Type Distribution Among 968 Women in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    So, Kyeong A; Hong, Jin Hwa; Lee, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Geographic variation in the prevalence of carcinogenic types and human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype distribution is closely associated with the impact of HPV prophylactic vaccines. We determined the prevalence and distribution of HPV genotypes among healthy women in Korea. Methods: This study included 968 healthy women who were examined at a health promotion center of the Korea University Guro Hospital between January and June 2013. Each participant had a Pap test and a HPV DNA test using the Anyplex™ II HPV 28 Detection system, which detects 19 high-risk HPVs (HR HPVs) and 9 low-risk HPVs (LR HPVs). Women with abnormal cytology and/or positivity for HR HPVs were referred to colposcopic biopsy. Results: Overall HR HPV prevalence based on the assay was 33.7%. Among them, 225 women had single infection and 101 women had multiple infection. The most frequently occurring HR HPV types were 53 (6.5%), 52 (6.1%), 58 (4.8%), 16 (4.5%), and 68 (4.2%). The most frequently occurring LR HPV types were 54 (5.4%), 70 (3.8%), 42 (3.6%), 61 (3.4%), and 44 (3.1%). The prevalence of HPV 16 was highest (17.6%) among women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and HPV 16 was strongly associated with a diagnosis of CIN2/3 (odds ratio = 20.5; 95% confidence interval: 3.9–107.1; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: HPV 53, 52, 58, 16, and 68 were common HR HPV types among healthy Korean women. HPV16 was the most common type in high-grade CIN lesions, as shown in most studies worldwide. The results might be useful information for cervical cancer prevention in South Korea. PMID:27390739

  11. Combination Chemotherapy Plus Amifostine in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-02-06

    Bladder Cancer; Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Lung Cancer; Ovarian Cancer; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Global surveillance of cancer survival 1995–2009: analysis of individual data for 25 676 887 patients from 279 population-based registries in 67 countries (CONCORD-2)

    PubMed Central

    Allemani, Claudia; Weir, Hannah K; Carreira, Helena; Harewood, Rhea; Spika, Devon; Wang, Xiao-Si; Bannon, Finian; Ahn, Jane V; Johnson, Christopher J; Bonaventure, Audrey; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Stiller, Charles; Silva, Gulnar Azevedo e; Chen, Wan-Qing; Ogunbiyi, Olufemi J; Rachet, Bernard; Soeberg, Matthew J; You, Hui; Matsuda, Tomohiro; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Storm, Hans; Tucker, Thomas C; Coleman, Michel P

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. Methods Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15–99 years) and 75 000 children (age 0–14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995–2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. Findings 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005–09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15–19% in North America, and as low as 7–9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10–20% between 1995–99 and 2005–09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer

  13. Epidemiological evidences on overdiagnosis of prostate and kidney cancers in Korean

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prostate specific antigen test is widely used as the main method of screening prostate cancer in Korea. Additionally, the use of ultrasound sonography may lead to overdiagnosis of kidney cancer as well as thyroid cancer. This study aimed to highlight epidemiological evidences regarding overdiagnosis of prostate and kidney cancers in Korean. METHODS: The annual trends of national incidence and mortality of prostate and kidney cancers provided by the Korean Statistical Information Service were evaluated. RESULTS: The rate of increase in the incidence of prostate and kidney cancer was 6 and 5 times higher than that of mortality between 2000 and 2011, respectively. Additionally, the age group showing the highest incidence in prostate cancer shifted from 85 years and older to 75-79 years. CONCLUSIONS: This evidence suggests that prostate and kidney cancers are overdiagnosed in Korea. Further research in this area, using national cancer registry databases, should be encouraged to prevent overdiagnosis. PMID:25773442

  14. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with serrated adenoma and malignant polyp: a case report and a literature review of 13 cronkhite-Canada syndrome cases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, So Hee; Cho, Jin Woong; Kim, Ji Woong; Kim, Joong Keun; Park, Moon Sik; Lee, Na Eun; Lee, Jae Un; Lee, Young Jae

    2013-05-01

    Cronkhite-Canada syndrome (CCS) is a rare nonfamilial polyposis syndrome characterized by epithelial disturbances both in the gastrointestinal tract and in the epidermis. The pathologic finding of the polyp is usually a hamartomatous polyp of the juvenile type; however, the possibility of serrated adenoma associated malignant neoplasm was reported in some Japanese cases. Up till now in South Korea, 13 CCS cases have been reported, but there was no case accompanied by the colon cancer. We report the first case of CCS associated with malignant colon polyp and serrated adenoma in Korea. A 72-year-old male patient who complained of diarrhea and weight loss was presented with both hands and feet nail dystrophy, hyperpigmentation, and alopecia. Endoscopic examination showed numerous hamartomatous polyps from the stomach to the colon. The pathologic results confirmed colon cancer and serrated adenoma. Helicobacter pylori eradication and prednisolone was used. Thus, the authors report this case along with a literature review.

  15. A treatment planning comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator-based stereotactic body radiotherapy for central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Merna, Catherine; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M; Cao, Minsong; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kishan, Amar U; Michailian, Argin; Lamb, James; Sheng, Ke; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael L; Lee, Percy

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-(60)Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)-based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non-small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-(60)Co system for a prescription dose of 50Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R100 values were calculated as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V100) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were performed using Student׳s t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4cc). Of the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R100 values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-(60)Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-(60)Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while improving normal tissue sparing, which warrants further

  16. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea.

  17. [Japan's Oriental medicine policy in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Park, Yunjae

    2008-06-01

    During its colonization of Korea, the Japanese Empire used the Western medicine as a tool for advertising its advanced culture. However, the medical workforce available in Korea was insufficient. The Rule for Uisaeng (Oriental medicine practitioner) was an ordinance decreed in 1913 with a purpose of supplementing the medical workforce. As the Oriental medicine practitioners became official medical workforce, the Japanese Empire could mobilize them in a hygienic administration such as prevention of epidemics. The Uisaengs also tried to adapt themselves to the colonial environment by studying Western medicines. However, the distrust of the Japanese Empire in Oriental medicine continued until 1920s. Manchurian Incident in 1931 brought a change. As the relationship with China aggravated, the provision of medical herb became unstable and the Japanese Empire began to encourage using Oriental medical herb following the Movement for Improving Rural Region Economy. An attempt of the Japanese Empire to utilize the medical herb resulted in a plan to make the Oriental medical herb officinal. The goal was to organize and standardize the Oriental medical herb through a research by the Medical Herb Investigation Committee. However, the medical herb on the table was the one verified by the Western medicine. That is, it was not a traditional medical herb that uses the original theory of Oriental medicine. There was a minority opinion arguing that they should study the Oriental medicine itself. However, that argument was also based on the theory and principles of the Western medicine. Even though an attempt to make full use of Uisaengs expanded as the war continued, the major medical workforce that the Japanese Empire relied on was those trained in Western medicine. In other words, the Japanese Empire did not give a full credit to the Oriental medicine during the colonial era. During the colonization, Japanese Empire used Oriental medicine under the nominal reason of lack of medical

  18. Ethno-entomological observations from North Korea (officially known as the “Democratic People’s Republic of Korea”)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In terms of scientific activities generally and ethnobiological pursuits in particular, North Korea, officially known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, is an almost blank entity on the quilt of global research. During a sabbatical semester at Pyongyang University of Science and Technology the author used this opportunity to gather some information on the uses of insect and other terrestrial arthropods as human food and components of traditional healing methods in that country. Despite the widely publicised shortcomings in the supply of food stuffs to the population of North Korea, insects are not generally seen as a source of food worthy of exploitation. However, the therapeutic use of insects, centipedes and scorpions to treat illnesses as diverse as the common cold, skin rashes, constipation, dysentery, nervous prostration, whooping cough, osteomyelitis, tetanus, and various forms of cancer is apparently still popular. The arthropods used therapeutically are credited with anti-inflammatory, immunological and other health-promoting effects, because they are said to contain hormones, steroids, lipids and plant-derived alkaloids, all of which capable of exerting their effects on the human body. PMID:23324196

  19. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells have a central role in attenuated Listeria monocytogenes-based immunotherapy against metastatic breast cancer in young and old mice

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, D; Jahangir, A; Quispe-Tintaya, W; Einstein, M H; Gravekamp, C

    2013-01-01

    Background: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are present in large numbers in blood of mice and humans with cancer, and they strongly inhibit T-cell and natural killer (NK) cell responses, at young and old age. We found that a highly attenuated bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Listeriaat)-infected MDSC and altered the immune-suppressing function of MDSC. Methods: Young (3 months) and old (18 months) BALB/cByJ mice with metastatic breast cancer (4T1 model) were immunised with Listeriaat semi-therapeutically (once before and twice after tumour development), and analysed for growth of metastases and primary tumour, in relation to MDSC-, CD8 T-cell and NK cell responses. Results: We found that Listeriaat-infected MDSC, which delivered Listeriaat predominantly to the microenvironment of metastases and primary tumours, where they spread from MDSC into tumour cells (infected tumour cells will ultimately become a target for Listeria-activated immune cells). Immunotherapy with Listeriaat significantly reduced the population of MDSC in blood and primary tumours, and converted a remaining subpopulation of MDSC into an immune-stimulating phenotype producing IL-12, in correlation with significantly improved T-cell and NK cell responses to Listeriaat at both ages. This was accompanied with a dramatic reduction in the number of metastases and tumour growth at young and old age. Conclusions: Although preclinical studies show that immunotherapy is less effective at old than at young age, our study demonstrates that Listeriaat-based immunotherapy can be equally effective against metastatic breast cancer at both young and old age by targeting MDSC. PMID:23640395

  20. South Korea's low fertility raises European-style issues.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1991-10-01

    A demographic revolution has taken place in South Korea as evidenced by the marked decline in total fertility rate (TFR) from 6 in 1960 to the 1987 level of 1.6. South Korea holds the record for low fertility among developing countries, with women in South Korea averaging fewer children in their lifetimes than do women in Europe. The 1987 TFR for South Korea was even less than that of Sweden, Norway, and France. Emphasizing high initial rates of contraceptive use, family planning (FP) has been a strong component of South Korea's 5-year plans since 1962. Strong governmental support backed the efforts of a large group of FP workers who provided free contraceptives from private physicians. High discontinuation rates resulted, however, and the abortion rate has soared to equal the number of live births. Albeit a developing nation, South Korea now faces the challenges of below replacement fertility more typical of more developed countries. Current fertility levels indicate population increase to approximately 50 million by 2020, followed by a slow decline. While reducing pressure on limited resources, population decline and demographic aging will also demand allocation of a higher proportion of government funds to medical care, and potentially threaten South Korea's competitiveness in the world labor market. Having effected decreases in population growth and fertility, the government reduced the annual sterilization target in 1986 from 300,000 to 60,000 by 1991, and will increasingly turn to the private sector and national health insurance for service provision to all but the poor. A 2-child family norm may be promoted, FP programs expanded to the unmarried and legislation developed to eliminate the preference for sons. Delivery systems may also be reorganized to encourage continued use of contraceptive methods.

  1. Quitline Activity in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, E Hwa; Lim, Min Kyung; Oh, Jin-Kyoung; Ki, In Ha; Shin, Sang-Hwa; Jeong, Bo Yoon

    2016-01-01

    To reduce tobacco use and related harm in Korea, telephone based cessation services (Quitlines) began full operation to provide regular behavioral counseling for smoking cessation in 2006. After registration in the cessation program, at least 21 calls per year are given to each client to help quit and encourage maintenance. Tailored programs for males, females, and adolescent smokers have been offered taking into account smokers' characteristics and smoking behavior. Mailing self-help quit packs and e-mail and SMS services are allowable as additional services.A total of 23,201 smokers were registered on the Quitline program from 2006 to 2014. In 2014, an average of 13,343 calls per month have been received by 28 coaches, the 1 year abstinence rate of clients is 26%, and clients' satisfaction rate is 81.6%. After introduction of the call system in 2007, client convenience and effective operations have been achieved with high technology support of a computer-based telephone system. Systematic education and evaluation programs for quit coaches have contributed to quality assurance of the services. Currently, research into development of new programs and evaluation of Quitline performance is being undertaken. A Comprehensive Multi-channel Cessation Center (CMCC) has been suggested and is now planned as a next step in the national program for smoking cessation. PMID:27108747

  2. Seismicity of microearthquakes around Gyeongju, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, I.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Peninsula which is located in an intraplate area is known as seismically inactive region. However there were unusual several offshore earthquakes occurred around the southwestern Korean Peninsula in 2013. In addition, a small earthquake (Ml 3.5) occurred on 23 September 2014 around Gyeongju close to a nuclear power plant and many people felt a shock of the earthquake. Concerns over the safety of nuclear power plants were rising and therefore seismicity in this region was investigated. There were 61 earthquakes with local magnitude (Ml) greater than 1.7 occurred around Gyeongju since 1994 by KIGAM (Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources) catalog. These events were relocated and calculated focal mechanisms. Also, I analyzed using continuous waveform data within 7 days before and after the mainshock recorded at HDB station with the epicentral distance of about 9 km, to find smaller events of the 2014 Gyeongju earthquake. 84 foreshocks and 108 aftershocks were identified and I located events with a minimum of 5 phases (4 P and 1 S). According to the relocated results, I may classify seismicity roughly into two groups. One group is aligned along right-hand side of the Ulsan Fault and the other is located near by the Bomunho. 13 quakes occurred from 1999 to 2003 close by artificial lake called Bomunho created in the late 1970s may be triggered microearthquakes by artificial water reservoirs but further research is needed to find causes of the events.

  3. Economic Burden of Schizophrenia in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sung Man; Cho, Seong-Jin; Jeon, Hong Jin; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Jong-Ik

    2008-01-01

    This study estimates the treated prevalence of schizophrenia and the annual costs associated with the illness in Korea in 2005, from a societal perspective. Annual direct healthcare costs associated with schizophrenia were estimated from National Health Insurance and Medical Aid records. Annual direct non-healthcare costs were estimated for incarceration, transport, community mental health centers, and institutions related to schizophrenia. Annual indirect costs were estimated for the following components of productivity loss due to illness: unemployment, reduced productivity, premature mortality, and caregivers' productivity loss using a human capital approach based on market wages. All costs were adjusted to 2005 levels using the healthcare component of the Consumer Price Index. The treated prevalence of schizophrenia in 2005 was 0.4% of the Korean population. The overall cost of schizophrenia was estimated to be $ 3,174.8 million (3,251.0 billion Won), which included a direct healthcare cost of $ 418.7 million (428.6 billion Won). Total direct non-healthcare costs were estimated to be $ 121 million (123.9 billion Won), and total indirect costs were estimated at $ 2,635.1 million (2,698.3 billion Won). Unemployment was identified as the largest component of overall cost. These findings demonstrate that schizophrenia is not rare, and that represents a substantial economic burden. PMID:18436996

  4. Background monitoring and long-range transport of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Oh, S N; Cho, H M; Park, M K; Kim, K R; Elkins, J W

    2001-07-01

    The background concentrations of atmospheric CFC-11 and CFC-12 were monitored to assess their impact on stratospheric ozone depletion and global warming from September 1995 to March 1999 at Kosan, Korea, located at eastern margin of the Asian Continent. The concentrations of atmospheric CFC-11 at Kosan have decreased slightly, at a rate of -2.5 pptv yr(-1), over the period in response to the Montreal Protocol. The CFC-12 mixing ratio at Kosan continues to increase in the atmosphere at a rate of 5.7 pptv yr(-1) despite international regulations, because of its extreme atmosphere persistence. Recent trends of these two chlorofluorocarbons at Kosan, Korea were concordant with those of the northern hemispheric background monitored unit at Mauna Loa, Hawaii. The maximum seasonal mean mixing ratios of CFC-11 and CFC-12 at Kosan, Korea, were 270 +/- 4 pptv in the spring and 538 +/- 9 pptv in the winter, and the corresponding seasonal minima were 267 +/- 7 and 529 +/- 12 pptv. This occurred in the summer and was due to southeasterly winds from the northwestern Pacific Ocean. By performing a three-day isentropic backward trajectory analysis, it was shown that air masses at Kosan, and with the exception of summer, mainly originated from central and northern China. In particular, the mixing ratios of these two contaminant species are closely related with their air mass trajectories. PMID:11516020

  5. CO2, energy and economy interactions: A multisectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium model for Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yoonyoung

    While vast resources have been invested in the development of computational models for cost-benefit analysis for the "whole world" or for the largest economies (e.g. United States, Japan, Germany), the remainder have been thrown together into one model for the "rest of the world." This study presents a multi-sectoral, dynamic, computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for Korea. This research evaluates the impacts of controlling COsb2 emissions using a multisectoral CGE model. This CGE economy-energy-environment model analyzes and quantifies the interactions between COsb2, energy and economy. This study examines interactions and influences of key environmental policy components: applied economic instruments, emission targets, and environmental tax revenue recycling methods. The most cost-effective economic instrument is the carbon tax. The economic effects discussed include impacts on main macroeconomic variables (in particular, economic growth), sectoral production, and the energy market. This study considers several aspects of various COsb2 control policies, such as the basic variables in the economy: capital stock and net foreign debt. The results indicate emissions might be stabilized in Korea at the expense of economic growth and with dramatic sectoral allocation effects. Carbon dioxide emissions stabilization could be achieved to the tune of a 600 trillion won loss over a 20 year period (1990-2010). The average annual real GDP would decrease by 2.10% over the simulation period compared to the 5.87% increase in the Business-as-Usual. This model satisfies an immediate need for a policy simulation model for Korea and provides the basic framework for similar economies. It is critical to keep the central economic question at the forefront of any discussion regarding environmental protection. How much will reform cost, and what does the economy stand to gain and lose? Without this model, the policy makers might resort to hesitation or even blind speculation. With

  6. Prognostic and Predictive Value of Centrally Reviewed Ki-67 Labeling Index in Postmenopausal Women With Endocrine-Responsive Breast Cancer: Results From Breast International Group Trial 1-98 Comparing Adjuvant Tamoxifen With Letrozole

    PubMed Central

    Viale, Giuseppe; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Regan, Meredith M.; Coates, Alan S.; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Maiorano, Eugenio; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Braye, Stephen G.; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Neven, Patrick; Orosz, Zsolt; Olszewski, Wojciech P.; Knox, Fiona; Thürlimann, Beat; Price, Karen N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Gelber, Richard D.; Gusterson, Barry A.; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of Ki-67 labeling index (LI) in a trial comparing letrozole (Let) with tamoxifen (Tam) as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Patients and Methods Breast International Group (BIG) trial 1-98 randomly assigned 8,010 patients to four treatment arms comparing Let and Tam with sequences of each agent. Of 4,922 patients randomly assigned to receive 5 years of monotherapy with either agent, 2,685 had primary tumor material available for central pathology assessment of Ki-67 LI by immunohistochemistry and had tumors confirmed to express estrogen receptors after central review. The prognostic and predictive value of centrally measured Ki-67 LI on disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed among these patients using proportional hazards modeling, with Ki-67 LI values dichotomized at the median value of 11%. Results Higher values of Ki-67 LI were associated with adverse prognostic factors and with worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR; high:low] = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.3). The magnitude of the treatment benefit for Let versus Tam was greater among patients with high tumor Ki-67 LI (HR [Let:Tam] = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.72) than among patients with low tumor Ki-67 LI (HR [Let:Tam] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.15; interaction P = .09). Conclusion Ki-67 LI is confirmed as a prognostic factor in this study. High Ki-67 LI levels may identify a patient group that particularly benefits from initial Let adjuvant therapy. PMID:18981464

  7. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Han

    2015-01-01

    After the Korean War (1950–1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea’s population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world. PMID:26485188

  8. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  9. 78 FR 51802 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Silla: Korea's Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Silla: Korea's Golden Kingdom,'' imported...

  10. 76 FR 52313 - Bottom Mount Combination Refrigerator-Freezers From the Republic of Korea and Mexico...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Republic of Korea and Mexico: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Investigations, 76 FR 23281 (April 26, 2011...: Henry Almond (Republic of Korea) (202) 482-0049 or David Goldberger (Mexico) (202) 482-4136;...

  11. Temporal variation of optimal UV exposure time over Korea: risks and benefits of surface UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. G.; Koo, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Solar UV radiation in a wavelength range between 280 to 400 nm has both positive and negative influences on human body. Surface UV radiation is the main natural source of vitamin D, providing the promotion of bone and musculoskeletal health and reducing the risk of a number of cancers and other medical conditions. However, overexposure to surface UV radiation is significantly related with the majority of skin cancer, in addition other negative health effects such as sunburn, skin aging, and some forms of eye cataracts. Therefore, it is important to estimate the optimal UV exposure time, representing a balance between reducing negative health effects and maximizing sufficient vitamin D production. Previous studies calculated erythemal UV and vitamin-D UV from the measured and modelled spectral irradiances, respectively, by weighting CIE Erythema and Vitamin D3 generation functions (Kazantzidis et al., 2009; Fioletov et al., 2010). In particular, McKenzie et al. (2009) suggested the algorithm to estimate vitamin-D production UV from erythemal UV (or UV index) and determined the optimum conditions of UV exposure based on skin type Ⅱ according to the Fitzpatrick (1988). Recently, there are various demands for risks and benefits of surface UV radiation on public health over Korea, thus it is necessary to estimate optimal UV exposure time suitable to skin type of East Asians. This study examined the relationship between erythemally weighted UV (UVEry) and vitamin D weighted UV (UVVitD) over Korea during 2004-2012. The temporal variations of the ratio (UVVitD/UVEry) were also analyzed and the ratio as a function of UV index was applied in estimating the optimal UV exposure time. In summer with high surface UV radiation, short exposure time leaded to sufficient vitamin D and erythema and vice versa in winter. Thus, the balancing time in winter was enough to maximize UV benefits and minimize UV risks.

  12. Bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Jae-Myung; Jang, Yunho; Lee, Kyunghyun; Baek, Kanghyun; Lee, Boram; Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Ryoo, Soyoon; Bae, You-Chan; Choi, Eun-Jin; So, ByungJae

    2015-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis has a wide range of hosts including cattle and humans, but its incidence in otters is very rare. Our report describes a case of bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). A deceased female otter ~2-3 years of age that was raised in an aquarium was submitted to the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (Anyang, Republic of Korea) for autopsy in June 2013. Following gross pathological examination, many white nodules were observed in the lungs and mesentery. The nodules showed central necrosis infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Acid-fast bacteria were detected in the necrotic foci, but no fungi were observed. Molecular analysis led to the detection of M. bovis, which is identified in otters in some European countries such as Spain and France.

  13. Detection of Anaplasma sp. in Korean Native Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    PubMed

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Sung; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-12-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular pathogens that can cause tick-borne diseases in mammalian hosts. To date, very few studies of their occurrence in Korean native goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) have been reported. In the present study, we investigated Anaplasma infection of Korean native goats on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and performed phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results showed that Anaplasma infection was found mostly in adult female goats. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the 7 sequences identified in Korean native goats could belong to Anaplasma sp. and were distinct from A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. The results indicated that the sequences identified to belong to Anaplasma were closely related to sequences isolated from goats in China and were clustered within the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Anaplasma sp. infection in Korean native goats.

  14. Bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea) in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyunkyoung; Kim, Jae-Myung; Jang, Yunho; Lee, Kyunghyun; Baek, Kanghyun; Lee, Boram; Kim, Ha-Young; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Ryoo, Soyoon; Bae, You-Chan; Choi, Eun-Jin; So, ByungJae

    2015-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis has a wide range of hosts including cattle and humans, but its incidence in otters is very rare. Our report describes a case of bovine tuberculosis in an Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea). A deceased female otter ~2-3 years of age that was raised in an aquarium was submitted to the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency (Anyang, Republic of Korea) for autopsy in June 2013. Following gross pathological examination, many white nodules were observed in the lungs and mesentery. The nodules showed central necrosis infiltrated with lymphocytes and macrophages and surrounded by fibrous tissue. Acid-fast bacteria were detected in the necrotic foci, but no fungi were observed. Molecular analysis led to the detection of M. bovis, which is identified in otters in some European countries such as Spain and France. PMID:26289719

  15. Economic Considerations of Nuclear Desalination in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Man-Ki, Lee; Seung-Su, Kim

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) desalination plant in Korea through DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program). SMART is mainly designed for the dual purpose of producing water and electricity with the total capacity of 100 MWe which 10 MWe is used for water production and the remains for the electric generation. SMART desalination plant using MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) process is in the stage of the commercial development and its cost information is also being accumulated. In this circumstances, the economic assessment of nuclear desalination by SMART and the effect of water(or electric) supply price to the regional economy is meaningful to the policy maker. This study is focused on the case study analysis about the economics of SMART desalination plant and the meanings of the case study result. This study is composed of two parts. One is prepared to survey the methodology regarding cost allocation between electricity and water in DEEP and the other is for the economic assessment of SMART. The cost allocation methods that have been proposed or used can be classified into two main groups, one is the cost prorating method and the other is the credit method. The cost of an product item in the dual-purpose plant can be determined differently depending on the costing methods adopted. When it comes to applying credit method adopted in this thesis, the production cost of water depends on what kind of the power cost will be chosen in calculating the power credit. This study also analyses the changes of nuclear desalination economics according to the changes of the important factors such as fossil fuel price. I wish that this study can afford to give an insight to the policy maker about SMART desalination plant. (authors)

  16. Successful control of lymphatic filariasis in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2009-12-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  17. Bioethics education of nursing curriculum in Korea: a national study.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kwisoon; Kang, Youngmi; Lee, Woon-Yong

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the current profile of bioethics education in the nursing curriculum as perceived by nursing students and faculty in Korea. A convenience sampling method was used for recruiting 1223 undergraduate nursing students and 140 nursing faculty in Korea. Experience of Bioethics Education, Quality of Bioethics Education, and Demand for Bioethics Education Scales were developed. The Experience of Bioethics Education Scale showed that the nursing curriculum in Korea does not provide adequate bioethics education. The Quality of Bioethics Education Scale revealed that the topics of human nature and human rights were relatively well taught compared to other topics. The Demand for Bioethics Education Scale determined that the majority of the participants believed that bioethics education should be a major requirement in the nursing curriculum. The findings of this study suggest that bioethics should be systemically incorporated into nursing courses, clinical practice during the program, and during continuing education.

  18. Pathotypes of Bacterial Spot Pathogen Infecting Capsicum Peppers in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Khin Pa Pa; Siddique, Muhammad Irfan; Mo, Hwang-Sung; Yoo, Hee Ju; Byeon, Si-Eun; Jegal, Yoonhyuk; Mekuriaw, Alebel A.; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of bacterial spot pathogen (Xanthomonas spp.) collected from six provinces of Korea were tested for the identification of their pathotypes and determination of their distribution throughout Korea in an effort to genetically manage the disease. Near isogenic lines of Early Calwonder (Capsicum annuum) pepper plants carrying Bs1, Bs2 and Bs3, and PI235047 (C. pubescens) were used as differential hosts. Race P1 was found to be predominant, followed by race P7, and races P3 and P8 were also observed. This is the first report of races P7 and P8 in Korea. The races P7 and P8 were differentiated from the former races P1 and P3, respectively, on the basis of their ability to elicit hypersensitive reactions to PI235047. PMID:26674555

  19. Overview of the burden of diseases in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yo Han; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Young Ae; Yeom, Ji Won; Oh, In-Hwan

    2013-05-01

    This article evaluates the overall current disease burden of North Korea through the recent databases of international organizations. It is notable that North Korea as a nation is exhibiting a relatively low burden from deaths and that there is greater burden from deaths caused by non-communicable diseases than from those caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition. However, the absolute magnitude of problems from communicable diseases like TB and from child malnutrition, which will increase the disease burden in the future, remains great. North Korea, which needs to handle both communicable and nutritional conditions, and non-communicable diseases, whose burden is ever more increasing in the nation, can now be understood as a country with the 'double-burden' of disease.

  20. The First Imported Case Infected with Chikungunya Virus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Chikungunya is caused by an arbovirus transmitted by Aedes mosquito vector. With the increase of habitat of mosquito by global warming and frequent international travel and interchange, chikungunya reemerged and showed global distribution recently. Until now there has not been reported any case infected with chikungunya virus in Korea. A 23-year-old man has been the Republic of the Philippines for 1 week, and visited our emergency center due to fever and back pain. Chikungunya viral infection was diagnosed by specific IgM for chickungunya virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayin Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. His clinical course was self limited. We introduce the first imported case infected with chikungunya virus in Korea. PMID:25844264

  1. Successful Control of Lymphatic Filariasis in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kong, Yoon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Jong-Soo; Chai, Jong-Yil; Lee, Joo-Shil; Lee, Jong-Koo

    2009-01-01

    A successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the Republic of Korea is briefly reviewed. Filariasis in the Republic of Korea was exclusively caused by infection with Brugia malayi. Over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. Mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had been made them free from microfilaremia and contributed to significant decrease of the microfilarial density in previously endemic areas. Significant decrease of microfilaria positive cases in an area influenced eventually to the endemicity of filariasis in the relevant locality. Together with remarkable economic growth followed by improvement of environmental and personal hygiene and living standards, the factors stated above have contributed to blocking the transmission cycle of B. malayi and led to disappearance of this mosquito-borne ancient disease in the Republic of Korea. PMID:19967079

  2. Variations in Spike Glycoprotein Gene of MERS-CoV, South Korea, 2015.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Won; Kim, You-Jin; Park, Sung Han; Yun, Mi-Ran; Yang, Jeong-Sun; Kang, Hae Ji; Han, Young Woo; Lee, Han Saem; Kim, Heui Man; Kim, Hak; Kim, A-Reum; Heo, Deok Rim; Kim, Su Jin; Jeon, Jun Ho; Park, Deokbum; Kim, Joo Ae; Cheong, Hyang-Min; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Kisoon; Kim, Sung Soon

    2016-01-01

    An outbreak of nosocomial infections with Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus occurred in South Korea in May 2015. Spike glycoprotein genes of virus strains from South Korea were closely related to those of strains from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. However, virus strains from South Korea showed strain-specific variations.

  3. The 7th Japan-Korea chemical biology symposium: chemical biology of natural bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ramesh Prasad; Kwon, Ho Jeong; Ahn, Jong Seog; Osada, Hiroyuki; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-05-16

    Natural bioactive molecules possess supreme chemical diversity and drug-like properties and are an important source for drug lead compounds. At the seventh Japan-Korea Chemical Biology Symposium at Jeju Island, Korea, chemical biologists from Korea and Japan highlighted the remarkable features of natural products and their significance.

  4. 78 FR 145 - Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Suggestions for Environmental Cooperation Pursuant to the United States-Korea Environmental Cooperation... the 2013-2014 United States-Korea Work Program for Environmental Cooperation. SUMMARY: The Department... Program implementing the U.S.-Korea Environmental Cooperation Agreement (ECA), signed on January 23,...

  5. Globalization and Native English Speakers in English Programme in Korea (EPIK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2009-01-01

    This study demonstrates how English Programme in Korea (EPIK) is an example of Korea's active response to the globalization process through which Korea not only accommodates external demands but also strategically pursues national interests through equipping its citizens with a command of English. EPIK, affiliated with the Korean Ministry of…

  6. 31 CFR 500.584 - Energy sector projects in North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Energy sector projects in North Korea... Licenses, Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 500.584 Energy sector projects in North Korea... energy sector projects in North Korea in connection with that country's transition to light-water...

  7. 76 FR 22289 - Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to North Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Respect to North Korea #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 76... 13570 of April 18, 2011 Prohibiting Certain Transactions With Respect to North Korea By the authority... States, directly or indirectly, of any goods, services, or technology from North Korea is prohibited....

  8. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 18, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 21, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant...

  10. The Analysis on the Length and Content Changes on Secondary Mathematics Textbooks in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hoyun

    2010-01-01

    North Korea is one of the most closed nations in the world. It is difficult to access information about their education system. North Korea's economic system was reorganized on July 1, 2002, as well as the education system. This change has impacted North Korea's mathematics education. With limited information on North Korean mathematics textbooks,…

  11. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 14, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... necessary to maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been...

  12. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to North Korea Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of June 23, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to North Korea On June 26, 2008, by Executive Order 13466... maintain certain restrictions with respect to North Korea that would otherwise have been lifted pursuant...

  13. 31 CFR 500.580 - Authorization of U.S. dollar clearing transactions involving North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transactions involving North Korea. 500.580 Section 500.580 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... Authorization of U.S. dollar clearing transactions involving North Korea. Banking institutions organized under... North Korea or a national thereof has an interest. Persons subject to U.S. jurisdiction who...

  14. 31 CFR 500.602 - Reporting of claims of U.S. nationals against North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... North Korea or any North Korean government entity. (b) Who must report. A report must be submitted by each U.S. national having a claim outstanding against the Government of North Korea or any North Korean...) Definition of the Government of North Korea; North Korean government entity. For purposes of this section:...

  15. 76 FR 57715 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Revocation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea, 56 FR 25669 (June 5, 1991). On September 1... film from the Republic of Korea. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 75 FR 53664... reasonably foreseeable time. See Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea, 76 FR 54791 (September...

  16. Korea's Attempts to Eliminate Chinese Characters and the Implications for Romanizing Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannas, William C.

    1995-01-01

    Examines Korea's experience with abandoning Chinese characters for an all-phonetic script. Despite efforts to replace characters with "all-hangul" in South Korea, reform opponents reinstated Chinese characters. In North Korea, a similar reform was also rescinded. Certain "linguistic" problems need to be solved for the reform to be successful. (35…

  17. Cluster analysis of Landslide Vulnerable region on an urban Area in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yonghee; Lee, Sangeun; Kim, Myoungsoo; Baek, Jongrak

    2016-04-01

    Mountain areas occupy about 65% of the territory in South Korea. Due to the rapid population growth and urbanization, many cities suffer from the limitation in space, and hence the commercial buildings, educational facilities, and housing settlement areas continue to stretch until the bottom of the mountain. In result, residents become more and more vulnerable to landslides and debris flow. This led to the central government to perceiving the need for strengthening regulations relevant to urban planning. In order to consider risks due to landslides and debris flow in the stage of urban planning, present authors suggested the strategies, including: first, selecting priority areas necessary to manage landslide-related disasters strictly; second, establishing the integrated management system useful to offer technical assistances to persons in charge of urban planning in the areas; third, promoting disaster awareness programs with those persons along with the central government. As the first attempt, this study mainly discusses the GIS-application procedures in which authors selected the priority areas, which are summarized: 1. Collect the landslide historical data for the period 1999 - 2012 when the disasters particularly threatened the whole country. 2. Define the areas with the one-kilometer radius around the landslide occurrence places. 3. Exclude the areas where population is less than 100 persons per 1 km2. 4. Exclude the areas where mountains with Grade I or II of landslide risk (announced by the Korea Forest Service) go below a certain portion of the area. 5. Carry out the cluster analysis with the remaining areas 6. Classify the types at the standpoint of landslide disaster risk management. Through the procedures, this study obtained a total of 86 priority areas, which were also classified into 24 areas - Type A (high population exposure and mid landslide occurrence likelihood) -, 25 areas - Type B (mid population exposure and high landslide occurrence

  18. Arsenic Concentrations and Speciation in Shellfishes from Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, C.; Yoon, H.

    2005-12-01

    Speciation of arsenic has received significant attention over the past 20 years in both mechanistic and exposure assessment research. Because the toxicity of arsenic is related to its oxidation state and its chemical forms, the determination of the total arsenic contents in a sample is not adequate to allow its impact on living organisms to be estimated. The inorganic arsenic species, arsenite (As3+) and arsenate (As5+), have been classified as carcinogenic and the methylated forms, monomethyl arsonic acid (MMA) and dimethyl arsinic acid (DMA) have recently been identified as cancer promoters. The highly methylated compounds like as arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) are considered to be nontoxic. Although organisms in marine environment contain high amounts of total arsenic (ppm level), it is not usually present as inorganic arsenic or simple methylated forms well known as one of the toxic species. Arsenobetaine is the dominant species in marine animals and arsenosugars are most abundant in marine algae. This study aims to clarify those arsenic species present in the whole body of eleven different shellfishes from Korea. And those arsenic species were separated and measured by characterization using high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) coupled system. The separation of arsenic species was achieved on anion exchange column and cation exchange column using phosphate and pyridine eluent, respectively. The ultrasonic extraction was employed for extraction of arsenic from whole body of shellfishes. The method was validated by analyzing three certified reference materials (DORM-2, TORT-2, 1566b). Total arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.1 mg/kg dry mass to 21.7 mg/kg dry mass. Most marine shellfishes contained higher arsenobetaine and arsenocholine with the exception of two shellfishes living in river. The lower amounts of inorganic arsenic species were also found in the some sample extracts

  19. Radioecological studies in Korea atomic energy research institute, KAERI.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong-Ho; Lim, Kwang-Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong-Kwon; Han, Moon-Hee

    2011-07-01

    Regarding the assessment of the terrestrial food chain dose to man, radioecology may be the field that is focused on the transfer of radionuclides from environmental media to food crops. In Korea, the environmental transfer of radionuclides to staple food crops have been investigated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for the last 25 y mainly through radiotracer experiments in greenhouses. As a result, several hundreds of parameter values for the prediction of the radionuclide transfer have been produced. Many of them appear in two recent publications of International Atomic Energy Agency. This paper outlines the KAERI's past radioecological work and introduces the ongoing research and future plans. PMID:21525043

  20. Lichen Mycota in South Korea: The Genus Usnea

    PubMed Central

    Jayalal, Udeni; Joshi, Santosh; Oh, Soon-Ok; Koh, Young Jin; Crişan, Florin

    2013-01-01

    Usnea Adans. is a somewhat rare lichen in South Korea, and, in nearly two decades, no detailed taxonomic or revisionary study has been conducted. This study was based on the specimens deposited in the lichen herbarium at the Korean Lichen Research Institute, and the samples were identified using information obtained from recent literature. In this study, a total of eight species of Usnea, including one new record, Usnea hakonensis Asahina, are documented. Detailed descriptions of each species with their morphological, anatomical, and chemical characteristics are provided. A key to all known Usnea species in South Korea is also presented. PMID:24198666

  1. [[A study on sex ratio variation in Korea

    PubMed

    Baeg, K S; Lee, S B

    1989-12-01

    "The purpose of this study is to find out the trend of sex ratio variation in [the Republic of] Korea. The data...were derived from the government publications including the Population and Housing Census Reports covering the period of 1960-1985 and the Korea Urbanic Year Book, 1985. The major findings of the study are summarized as follows: The average sex ratio in all age groups is 100.17-101.44 from 1960 through 1980. Sex ratio imbalance was most severe in 1960 due to the Korean War." Sex ratios are compared among urban and rural areas and for industrialized and agricultural areas. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  2. Persistent organochlorines in 13 shark species from offshore and coastal waters of Korea: Species-specific accumulation and contributing factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun-Kyung; Jeong, Yunsun; Lee, Sunggyu; Jeong, Woochang; Choy, Eun-Jung; Kang, Chang-Keun; Lee, Won-Chan; Kim, Sang-Jo; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2015-05-01

    Data on persistent organochlorines (OCs) in sharks are scarce. Concentrations of OCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the muscle tissue of 13 shark species (n=105) collected from offshore (Indian and Pacific Oceans) and coastal waters of Korea, to investigate species-specific accumulation of OCs and to assess the potential health risks associated with consumption of shark meat. Overall OC concentrations were highly variable not only among species but also within the same species of shark. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, hexachlorobenzene, and heptachlor in all shark species ranged from cancer risk for all the OCs were below one, whereas the hazard ratios of lifetime cancer risks of PCBs and DDTs exceeded one, implying potential carcinogenic effects in the general population in Korea. This is the first report to document the occurrence of OCs in sharks from Korea.

  3. High-Dose Hypofractionated Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Is Safe and Effective for Central and Peripheral Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a 12-Year Experience at Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, David A.; Cheek, Gregory; Zaheer, Salman; Wallen, Jason; Mirshahidi, Hamid; Katerelos, Ari; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: We update our previous reports on the use of hypofractionated proton beam radiation therapy for early-stage lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had biopsy-proven non-small cell carcinoma of the lung and were medically inoperable or refused surgery. Clinical workup required staging of T1 or T2, N0, M0. Subjects received hypofractionated proton beam therapy to the primary tumor only. The dose delivered was sequentially escalated from 51 to 60 Gy, then to 70 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Endpoints included toxicity, pulmonary function, overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and local control (LC). Results: One hundred eleven subjects were analyzed for treatment outcomes. The patient population had the following average characteristics; age 73.2 years, tumor size 3.6 cm, and 1.33 L forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The entire group showed improved OS with increasing dose level (51, 60, and 70 Gy) with a 4-year OS of 18%, 32%, and 51%, respectively (P=.006). Peripheral T1 tumors exhibited LC of 96%, DSS of 88%, and OS of 60% at 4 years. Patients with T2 tumors showed a trend toward improved LC and survival with the 70-Gy dose level. On multivariate analysis, larger tumor size was strongly associated with increased local recurrence and decreased survival. Central versus peripheral location did not correlate with any outcome measures. Clinical radiation pneumonitis was not found to be a significant complication, and no patient required steroid therapy after treatment for radiation pneumonitis. Pulmonary function was well maintained 1 year after treatment. Conclusions: High-dose hypofractionated proton therapy achieves excellent outcomes for lung carcinomas that are peripherally or centrally located. The 70-Gy regimen has been adopted as standard therapy for T1 tumors at our institution. Larger T2 tumors show a trend toward improved outcomes with higher doses, suggesting that better results could be seen with

  4. Comparative epidemiological features of Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea, China (Taiwan) and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Reisaku; Kim, Kyong Ho

    1969-01-01

    The epidemiology of Japanese encephalitis in the Republic of Korea from 1949 to 1966 is described and comparisons are made with the situations in Japan and China (Taiwan). Some similarities and some differences are noted. Recent epidemics in Korea coincided with those in southern Japan but the annual fluctuations were more distinct in Korea. The disease mainly affected children in Korea and, in contrast to the situation in Japan, persons in the older age-groups were rarely affected. The authors also discuss the geographical pathology of Japanese encephalitis in Korea. PMID:4308334

  5. The "halo effect" in Korea: change in practice patterns since the introduction of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ee-Rah; Jeong, Wooju; Park, Sung Yul; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2009-03-01

    Acquisition of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, USA) has enabled robot-assisted surgery to become an acceptable alternative to open radical prostatectomy (ORP). Implementation of robotics at a single institution in Korea induced a gradual increase in the number of performances of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) to surgically treat localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the impact of robotic instrumentation on practice patterns among urologists and explain the change in value in ORP and RALP-the standard treatment and the new approach or innovation of robotic technology. The overall number of prostatectomies has increased over time because the number of RALPs has grown drastically whereas the number of OPRs did not decrease during the period of evaluation. Our experience emphasizes the potential of RALP to become the gold standard in the treatment of localized prostate cancer in various parts of the world.

  6. The "halo effect" in Korea: change in practice patterns since the introduction of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ee-Rah; Jeong, Wooju; Park, Sung Yul; Ham, Won Sik; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon; Rha, Koon Ho

    2009-03-01

    Acquisition of the da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountain View, USA) has enabled robot-assisted surgery to become an acceptable alternative to open radical prostatectomy (ORP). Implementation of robotics at a single institution in Korea induced a gradual increase in the number of performances of robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALP) to surgically treat localized prostate cancer. We analyzed the impact of robotic instrumentation on practice patterns among urologists and explain the change in value in ORP and RALP-the standard treatment and the new approach or innovation of robotic technology. The overall number of prostatectomies has increased over time because the number of RALPs has grown drastically whereas the number of OPRs did not decrease during the period of evaluation. Our experience emphasizes the potential of RALP to become the gold standard in the treatment of localized prostate cancer in various parts of the world. PMID:27628456

  7. 76 FR 78614 - Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... International Trade Administration Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan... welded ASTM A-312 stainless steel pipe from South Korea (Korea) and Taiwan would likely lead to.... See Welded ASTM A-312 Stainless Steel Pipe From South Korea and Taiwan: Final Results of...

  8. 77 FR 25141 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea: Extension of Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... International Trade Administration Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Germany and South Korea... Germany and South Korea (Korea), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended (the Act...-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products from Germany and South Korea: Adequacy Redetermination...

  9. 31 CFR 500.585 - Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. 500.585 Section 500.585 Money and Finance: Treasury... § 500.585 Payments for services rendered by North Korea to United States aircraft authorized. Payments to North Korea of charges for services rendered by the Government of North Korea in connection...

  10. 75 FR 70901 - Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... International Trade Administration Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip From the Republic of Korea... polyethylene terephthalate film, sheet and strip (PET film) from the Republic of Korea (Korea). See Polyethylene Terephthalate Film, Sheet, and Strip from the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results...

  11. Does Zinc Sulfate Prevent Therapy-Induced Taste Alterations in Head and Neck Cancer Patients? Results of Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial from the North Central Cancer Treatment Group (N01C4)

    SciTech Connect

    Halyard, Michele Y.; Jatoi, Aminah . E-mail: Jatoi.aminah@mayo.edu; Sloan, Jeff A.; Bearden, James D.; Vora, Sujay A.; Atherton, Pamela J.; Perez, Edith A.; Soori, Gammi; Zalduendo, Anthony C.; Zhu, Angela; Stella, Philip J.; Loprinzi, Charles L.

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: Taste alterations (dysgeusia) are well described in head and neck cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy (RT). Anecdotal observations and pilot studies have suggested zinc may mitigate these symptoms. This multi-institutional, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to provide definitive evidence of this mineral's palliative efficacy. Methods and Materials: A total of 169 evaluable patients were randomly assigned to zinc sulfate 45 mg orally three times daily vs. placebo. Treatment was to be given throughout RT and for 1 month after. All patients were scheduled to receive {>=}2,000 cGy of external beam RT to {>=}30% of the oral cavity, were able to take oral medication, and had no oral thrush at study entry. Changes in taste were assessed using the previously validated Wickham questionnaire. Results: At baseline, the groups were comparable in age, gender, and planned radiation dose (<6,000 vs. {>=}6,000 cGy). Overall, 61 zinc-treated (73%) and 71 placebo-exposed (84%) patients described taste alterations during the first 2 months (p = 0.16). The median interval to taste alterations was 2.3 vs. 1.6 weeks in the zinc-treated and placebo-exposed patients, respectively (p = 0.09). The reported taste alterations included the absence of any taste (16%), bitter taste (8%), salty taste (5%), sour taste (4%), sweet taste (5%), and the presence of a metallic taste (10%), as well as other descriptions provided by a write in response (81%). Zinc sulfate did not favorably affect the interval to taste recovery. Conclusion: Zinc sulfate, as prescribed in this trial, did not prevent taste alterations in cancer patients who were undergoing RT to the oral pharynx.

  12. International Physics Olympiad Competition 2004 in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strawson, Robert; Lovett, David

    2005-02-01

    A British team attended the 35th International Physics Olympiad in South Korea. In the competition, a team of five, along with candidates from over 70 other nations, answered five-hour theoretical and experimental papers. In addition the candidates, together with their leaders and observers, were able to attend an extensive scientific, cultural and social programme.

  13. English, Tracking, and Neoliberalization of Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byean, Hyera

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon the experiences and dilemmas of the author, a middle school English teacher in South Korea, this article illuminates the ways in which neoliberal reforms in education intersect with English, and how such links have entailed the class-based polarization of education in Korean society. Given the prominent role that English plays in…

  14. Reconceptualizing Kindergarten Education in South Korea: A Postcolonial Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Kyung Eun

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the relevance of postcolonialism in early childhood education, with special reference to the kindergarten education system of South Korea. Most of the research on Korean kindergarten education has conceptualized it as preparing children for their later schooling and helping them learn the moral and social values most desired…

  15. Stakeholders' Views of South Korea's Higher Education Internationalization Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Young Ha; Palmer, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the stakeholders' perceptions of South Korea's higher education internationalization policy. Based on the research framework that defines four policy values--propriety, effectiveness, diversity, and engagement, the convergence model was employed with a concurrent mixed method sampling strategy to analyze the stakeholders'…

  16. Inclusion in South Korea: The Current Situation and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwon, Hyunsoo

    2005-01-01

    Inclusion has occupied the centre of attention in education in many countries for the past few decades, and it is the same in South Korea. Although most researchers and educators agree that inclusion is necessary for equal educational opportunities and social participation of students with disabilities, there are debates about the most effective…

  17. Academic and Research Programs in Exercise Science, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; SONG, WOOK

    2009-01-01

    We appreciate the opportunity to review academic curriculum and current research focus of Exercise Science programs in South Korea. The information of this paper was collected by several different methods, including e-mail and phone interviews, and a discussion with Korean professors who attended the 2009 ACSM annual conference. It was agreed that exercise science programming in South Korea has improved over the last 60 years since being implemented. One of distinguishable achievement is that exercise science programs after the 1980’s has been expanded to several different directions. It does not only produce physical education teachers but also attributes more to research, sports medicine, sports, leisure and recreation. Therefore, it has produced various jobs in exercise-related fields. Some of exercise science departments do not require teacher preparation course work in their curriculum which allows students to focus more on their specialty. Secondly, we believe we South Korea has caught up with advanced countries in terms of research quality. Many Korean researchers have recently published and presented their investigations in international journals and conferences. The quality and quantity of these studies introduced to international societies indicate that Exercise Science programs in South Korea is continuing to develop and plays an important part in the world. PMID:27182314

  18. The University Reform in Korea: A Deregulation To Be Deregulated?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Bong Gun

    This paper explores the current situation of universities in Korea in an era of reform. University reform was initiated by the government in the 1980s and brought to the universities in the 1990s. In the interval, there have been many social, economic, and political changes in Korean society. The current approach to university reform in Korea…

  19. Confucian Family Values and Childless Couples in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Sungeun; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2008-01-01

    The Korean family has long met Confucian values by producing children to maintain and support the paternal family line, but in South Korea's transition to a low birth rate, an increasing number of couples have remained childless. Have Confucian family values been abandoned? In this study, 103 young single South Koreans wrote protocols describing…

  20. Five New Wood Decay Fungi (Polyporales and Hymenochaetales) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Kyu; Park, Jae Young; Park, Myung Soo; Lee, Hyun; Cho, Hae Jin; Eimes, John A.; Kim, Changmu

    2016-01-01

    The wood decay fungi are a diverse taxonomic group that plays a pivotal role in forest carbon cycling. Wood decay fungi use various enzymatic pathways to digest dead or living wood in order to obtain carbon and other nutrients and these enzymatic systems have been exploited for both industrial and medical applications. Over 600 wood decay fungi species have been described in Korea; however, the recent application of molecular markers has dramatically altered the taxonomy of many of these wood decay fungi at both the genus and species levels. By combining molecular methods, specifically sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, with traditional morphological characters, this study identified five new species records for Korea in five genera: Aurantiporus, Favolus, Neofavolus, Loweomyces, and Hymenochaetopsis. Three of these genera (Aurantiporus, Favolus, and Loweomyces) were previously unknown in Korea. The relatively simple morphology of the wood decay fungi often leads to ambiguous taxonomic assignment. Therefore, molecular markers are a necessary component of any taxonomic or evolutionary study of wood decay fungi. Our study highlights the need for a more robust and multifaceted approach in investigating new wood decay fungi in Korea. PMID:27790065