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Sample records for korea current conditions

  1. Typology and conditions of migrant workers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, S D

    1996-01-01

    "After presenting the three major types of migrant workers currently in South Korea--professional employees, technical trainees and illegal workers--this article examines the role of contractors and other middle-men to expose the possibility of ¿intermediary exploitation'. The results of such exploitation are illustrated in the living and working conditions of foreign workers."

  2. Current Issues Concerning Korea’s Anti-Terrorism Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-10

    members on a state visit to Rangoon, Burma . In 1987 North Korea shot down a Korean Air Lines commercial flight.9 Besides the North Korean threat, South...arrivals of North Korean defectors ................................................37 Figure 4. Anti-terrorism-related organizations in Korea after 9.11...study will determine whether current Korean anti-terrorism programs effectively address all terrorist threats, including threats from North Korea

  3. The current situation of treatment systems for alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jee Wook; Lee, Boung Chul; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Choi, Ihn-Geun

    2013-02-01

    Alcoholism is becoming one of the most serious issues in Korea. The purpose of this review article was to understand the present status of the treatment system for alcoholism in Korea compared to the United States and to suggest its developmental direction in Korea. Current modalities of alcoholism treatment in Korea including withdrawal treatment, pharmacotherapy, and psychosocial treatment are available according to Korean evidence-based treatment guidelines. Benzodiazepines and supportive care including vitamin and nutritional support are mainly used to treat alcohol withdrawal in Korea. Naltrexone and acamprosate are the drugs of first choice to treat chronic alcoholism. Psychosocial treatment methods such as individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, cognitive behavior therapy, cue exposure therapy, 12-step facilitation therapy, self-help group therapy, and community-based treatment have been carried out to treat chronic alcoholism in Korea. However, current alcohol treatment system in Korea is not integrative compared to that in the United States. To establish the treatment system, it is important to set up an independent governmental administration on alcohol abuse, to secure experts on alcoholism, and to conduct outpatient alcoholism treatment programs and facilities in an open system including some form of continuing care.

  4. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  5. Current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Sinn, Dong Hyun; Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Yoon Jun; Choi, Moon Seok

    2017-09-01

    Viral hepatitis is one of major global health challenges with increasing disease burden worldwide. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infections are major causes of chronic liver diseases. They can lead to cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death in significant portion of affected people. Transmission of hepatitis B virus can be blocked by vaccination. Progression of hepatitis B virus-related liver diseases can be prevented by long-term viral suppression with effective drugs. Although vaccine for hepatitis C virus is currently unavailable, hepatitis C virus infection can be eradicated by oral direct antiviral agents. To eliminate viral hepatitis, World Health Organization (WHO) has urged countries to develop national goals and targets through reducing 90% of new infections and providing universal access to key treatment services up to 80%. This can lead to 65% reduction of viral hepatitis-related mortality. Here, we discuss some key features of viral hepatitis, strategies to control viral hepatitis suggested by WHO, and current status and strategies for viral hepatitis control in South Korea. To achieve the goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 in South Korea, an independent 'viral hepatitis sector' in Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) needs to be established to organize and execute comprehensive strategy for the management of viral hepatitis in South Korea.

  6. Health Inequalities Policy in Korea: Current Status and Future Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-il

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible. PMID:22661869

  7. Health inequalities policy in Korea: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Khang, Young-Ho; Lee, Sang-il

    2012-05-01

    In recent years, health inequalities have become an important public health concern and the subject of both research and policy attention in Korea. Government reports, as well as many epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that a wide range of health outcomes and health-related behaviors are socioeconomically patterned, and that the magnitude of health inequalities is even increasing. However, except for the revised Health Plan 2010 targets for health equity, few government policies have explicitly addressed health inequalities. Although a number of economic and social policies may have had an impact on health inequalities, such impact has scarcely been evaluated. In this review, we describe the current status of research and policy on health inequalities in Korea. We also suggest future challenges of approaches and policies to reduce health inequalities and highlight the active and intensive engagement of many policy sectors and good evidence for interventions that will make meaningful reduction of health inequalities possible.

  8. Current status of water reuse systems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Noh, S; Kwon, I; Yang, H M; Choi, H L; Kim, H

    2004-01-01

    In Korea, the current water resources will fall short by 2.6 billion tons to meet the 38 billion ton water demand in the year 2020. To overcome the future water shortage, it is desirable to minimize water consumption and to reuse treated wastewater. There are a total of 99 on-site water-recycling systems in the country. The potential capacity of the 99 systems is 429 thousands tons/day, which is 3.6% of the total service water. Compared to other industrialized countries, the number of the water recycling systems in Korea is extremely small. This is mainly due to the following reasons. First, in Korea, any building with more than 60,000 m2 of total floor space is required to install a water reuse system by law. However, only less than 0.5% of the total buildings have more than 10,000 m2. Therefore, the regulation is ineffective and merely nominal. Second, service water is supplied at low charge (0.20 US-dollar/m3 water). The inexpensive service water often discourages people to recycle treated wastewater. Third, people still think recycled water is not clean enough and can cause diseases. Therefore, they should be informed that a well-maintained recycling system does not fail to produce water with high quality.

  9. Current status and strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eileen L; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woong; Kim, Ji Hoon

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus is one of the most frequent causes of foodborne infection, which is closely associated with sanitary conditions and hygienic practices. The clinical spectrum of acute hepatitis A is wide, ranging from mild case without any noticeable symptoms to severe case with acute liver failure leading to mortality. The severity and outcome are highly correlated with age at infection. In developing countries, most people are infected in early childhood without significant symptom. Ironically, in area where sanitary condition has improved rapidly, adults who do not have immunity for viral hepatitis A (VH-A) in early childhood is accumulating. Adults without immunity are exposed to risks of symptomatic disease and large outbreaks in society. In Korea, where hygiene has improved rapidly, acute hepatitis A is a significant health burden that needs to be managed with nationwide health policy. The incidence of symptomatic VH-A has increased since 2000 and peaked in 2009. Korea has designated hepatitis A as a group 1 nationally notifiable infectious disease in 2001. Since 2001, mandatory surveillance system has been established to detect every single case of acute hepatitis A. Universal, nationwide vaccination program for newborns was introduced in 2015. In this review, we will present the current epidemiologic status of viral hepatitis A, and evaluate the effectiveness of the current nationwide strategies for the control of viral hepatitis A in Korea. Furthermore, we presented some action proposals that can help eliminate viral hepatitis A, which is a significant health burden in Korea.

  10. [History and current issues of anesthesia in Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Woon; Higa, Yuki; Higa, Kazuo

    2010-11-01

    We report the history and current issues of anesthesia in Korea. Korean medical doctors have to take 1-year internship and 4-year residency to be qualified to take the national examination for a board-certified anesthesiologist. The national examination began in 1963, and there were 3,050 board-certified anesthesiologists as of 2006. The calculated patients who were managed by a board-certified anesthesiologist were 5.8 patients a day. The Korean government adopted nurse-anesthetists in 1973 because of shortage of board-certified anesthesiologists. The Korean Society of Anesthesiologists is now demanding its amendment.

  11. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyung-Doo; Chang, Won-Pyo

    1997-07-01

    In Korea, the current uses of thermal hydraulic codes are categorized into 3 areas. The first application is in designing both nuclear fuel and NSSS. The codes have usually been introduced based on the technology transfer programs agreed between KAERI and the foreign vendors. Another area is in the supporting of the plant operations and licensing by the utility. The third category is research purposes. In this area assessments and some applications to the safety issue resolutions are major activities using the best estimate thermal hydraulic codes such as RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE2. Recently KEPCO plans to couple thermal hydraulic codes with a neutronics code for the design of the evolutionary type reactor by 2004. KAERI also plans to develop its own best estimate thermal hydraulic code, however, application range is different from KEPCO developing code. Considering these activities, it is anticipated that use of the best estimate hydraulic analysis code developed in Korea may be possible in the area of safety evaluation within 10 years.

  12. Current Status of Bariatric and Metabolic Surgery in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment modality in maintaining long-term weight reduction and improving obesity-related conditions in morbidly obese patients. In Korea, surgery for morbid obesity was laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy first performed in 2003. Since 2003, the annual number of bariatric surgeries has markedly increased, including adjustable gastric banding (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, mini-gastric bypass, and others. In Korea, AGB is much more common than in others countries. A large proportion of doctors, the public, and government misunderstand the necessity and effectiveness of bariatric surgery, believing that bariatric surgery has an unacceptably high morbidity, and that it is not superior to non-surgical treatments to improve obesity and obesity-related diseases. The effectiveness, safety, and cost-effectiveness of bariatric surgery have been well demonstrated. The Korean Society of Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery recommend bariatric surgery confining to morbidly obese patients (body mass index ≥40 or >35 in the presence of significant comorbidities). PMID:27834081

  13. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. Methods A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Conclusions Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses. PMID:27200224

  14. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2015-03-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea. This study was designed to report on the current status of ART therapy in South Korea between January 1 and December 31 of 2010. A revised survey, originally developed by the International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies, was sent to all available ART centers via email in 2013. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized into standard IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injections. These cases, the thawing embryo transfer (TET) cases, and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 30,785 ART procedures were provided by 78 clinics. Of the 28,200 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, 92.2% of these cycles were completely transferred. In addition, 8,075 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, which represent a pregnancy rate of 28.6% per oocyte pick-up and 31.1% per embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET was three embryos (37.3%) followed by two embryos (36.3%) and one embryo (14.0%). Of the 6,648 TET cycles transferred, 2,356 clinical pregnancies were confirmed by ultrasonography. The most common number of embryos in the TET group was two embryos (43.4%) followed by three embryos (25.4%) and one embryo (18.9%). The clinical pregnancy rate per transfer in the FET cycles was similar in 2009 and 2010. Among the FET cycles where one or two embryos were transferred, the clinical pregnancy rate per transfer slightly increased from 2009 (28.7%) to 2010 (32.9%).

  15. Current Status of Nursing Informatics Education in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Eunjoo; Kim, Jeongeun; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Kim, Jungha; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Shinae; Jun, Jooyeon; Song, Healim; On, Jeongah; Jung, Hyesil; Hong, Yeong Joo; Yim, Suran

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the current status of nursing informatics education, the content covered in nursing informatics courses, the faculty efficacy, and the barriers to and additional supports for teaching nursing informatics in Korea. A set of questionnaires consisting of an 18-item questionnaire for nursing informatics education, a 6-item questionnaire for faculty efficacy, and 2 open-ended questions for barriers and additional supports were sent to 204 nursing schools via email and the postal service. Nursing schools offering nursing informatics were further asked to send their syllabuses. The subjects taught were analyzed using nursing informatics competency categories and other responses were tailed using descriptive statistics. A total of 72 schools (35.3%) responded to the survey, of which 38 reported that they offered nursing informatics courses in their undergraduate nursing programs. Nursing informatics courses at 11 schools were taught by a professor with a degree majoring in nursing informatics. Computer technology was the most frequently taught subject (27 schools), followed by information systems used for practice (25 schools). The faculty efficacy was 3.76 ± 0.86 (out of 5). The most frequently reported barrier to teaching nursing informatics (n = 9) was lack of awareness of the importance of nursing informatics. Training and educational opportunities was the most requested additional support. Nursing informatics education has increased during the last decade in Korea. However, the proportions of faculty with degrees in nursing informatics and number of schools offering nursing informatics courses have not increased much. Thus, a greater focus is needed on training faculty and developing the courses.

  16. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2009.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Min; Chun, Sang Sik; Han, Hyuck Dong; Hwang, Jung Hye; Hwang, Kyung Joo; Kang, In Soo; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Ki Chul; Kim, Tak; Kwon, Hyuck Chan; Lee, Won Don; Lee, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyu Sup; Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Yu Il; Min, Eung Gi; Moon, Hwa Sook; Moon, Shin Yong; Roh, Sung Il; Yoon, Tae Ki

    2013-11-01

    Great advances have been made in the field of assisted reproductive technology (ART) since the first in vitro fertilization (IVF) baby was born in Korea in the year of 1985. However, it deserve to say that the invaluable data from fertility centers may serve as a useful source to find out which factors affect successful IVF outcome and to offer applicable information to infertile patients and fertility clinics. This article intended to report the status of ART in 2009 Korean Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology surveyed. The current survey was performed to assess the status and success rate of ART performed in Korea, between January 1 and December 31, 2009. Reporting forms had been sent out to IVF centers via e-mail, and collected by e-mail as well in 2012. With International Committee Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technologies recommendation, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and non-ICSI cases have been categorized and also IVF-ET cases involving frozen embryo replacement have been surveyed separately. Seventy-four centers have reported the treatment cycles initiated in the year of 2009, and had performed a total of 27,947 cycles of ART treatments. Among a total of 27,947 treatment cycles, IVF and ICSI cases added up to 22,049 (78.9%), with 45.3% IVF without ICSI and 54.7% IVF with ICSI, respectively. Among the IVF and ICSI patients, patients confirmed to have achieved clinical pregnancy was 28.8% per cycle with oocyte retrieval, and 30.9% per cycle with embryo transfer. The most common number of embryos transferred in 2009 is three embryos (40.4%), followed by 2 embryos (28.4%) and a single embryo transferred (13.6%). Among IVF and ICSI cycles that resulted in multiple live births, twin pregnancy rate was 45.3% and triple pregnancy rate was 1.1%. A total of 191 cases of oocyte donation had been performed to result in 25.0% of live birth rate. Meanwhile, a total of 5,619 cases of frozen embryo replacement had been performed with 33.7% of clinical

  17. History, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Counseling in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Suh, Suhyun; Yang, Eunjoo; Jang, Yoo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although the counseling profession was introduced to South Korea in the 1950s by American delegates of education, counseling has been only lately recognized as a specialized field that requires distinctive knowledge and skills. In this article, the authors describe the history and the current status of counseling in South Korea and then discuss…

  18. History, Current Status, and Future Prospects of Counseling in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Sang Min; Suh, Suhyun; Yang, Eunjoo; Jang, Yoo Jin

    2012-01-01

    Although the counseling profession was introduced to South Korea in the 1950s by American delegates of education, counseling has been only lately recognized as a specialized field that requires distinctive knowledge and skills. In this article, the authors describe the history and the current status of counseling in South Korea and then discuss…

  19. Current status of managing diabetes mellitus in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasing global health problem. Guidelines for diabetic care recommend management of lifestyle and risk factors (glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol), as well as regular screening for complications associated with treatment of the conditions related to diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes increased from 8.6% to 11.0% from 2001 to 2013. According to the diabetes fact sheet 2015, the proportion of patients with diabetes treated with antihypertensive medications increased from 56.0% to 62.5% from 2006 to 2013, and 49.5% of those with diabetes were being treated with lipid-lowering medications in 2013, a 1.8-fold increase since 2006. According to the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 45.6% of patients with diabetes achieved a hemoglobin A1c level of < 7.0%, 72.8% achieved a blood pressure of < 140/85 mmHg, and 58.0% achieved a low density lipoprotein cholesterol level of < 100 mg/dL. Only 19.7% of patients with diabetes had good control of all three of these parameters. Despite improvements in health promotion efforts, the rates of adherence to medication and risk-factor control are low. Therefore, a systematic approach to managing diabetes, including self-management education, is needed to prevent or delay complications. The government needs to establish a long-term policy to address the growing burden of diabetes. PMID:27604796

  20. Current status of managing diabetes mellitus in Korea.

    PubMed

    Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Dae Jung

    2016-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an increasing global health problem. Guidelines for diabetic care recommend management of lifestyle and risk factors (glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol), as well as regular screening for complications associated with treatment of the conditions related to diabetes. The prevalence of diabetes increased from 8.6% to 11.0% from 2001 to 2013. According to the diabetes fact sheet 2015, the proportion of patients with diabetes treated with antihypertensive medications increased from 56.0% to 62.5% from 2006 to 2013, and 49.5% of those with diabetes were being treated with lipid-lowering medications in 2013, a 1.8-fold increase since 2006. According to the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, 45.6% of patients with diabetes achieved a hemoglobin A1c level of < 7.0%, 72.8% achieved a blood pressure of < 140/85 mmHg, and 58.0% achieved a low density lipoprotein cholesterol level of < 100 mg/dL. Only 19.7% of patients with diabetes had good control of all three of these parameters. Despite improvements in health promotion efforts, the rates of adherence to medication and risk-factor control are low. Therefore, a systematic approach to managing diabetes, including self-management education, is needed to prevent or delay complications. The government needs to establish a long-term policy to address the growing burden of diabetes.

  1. Computing Education in Korea--Current Issues and Endeavors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeongwon; An, Sangjin; Lee, Youngjun

    2015-01-01

    Computer education has been provided for a long period of time in Korea. Starting as a vocational program, the content of computer education for students evolved to include content on computer literacy, Information Communication Technology (ICT) literacy, and brand-new computer science. While a new curriculum related to computer science was…

  2. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  3. Economic Education in Korea: Current Status and Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, Jinsoo; Jang, Kyungho

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe key aspects of precollege and undergraduate economic education in Korea. They show that precollege students seem to have low economics literacy due to problems with the curriculum and insufficient training of teachers. At the undergraduate level, they show that economics departments have more male students than female students…

  4. Computing Education in Korea--Current Issues and Endeavors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jeongwon; An, Sangjin; Lee, Youngjun

    2015-01-01

    Computer education has been provided for a long period of time in Korea. Starting as a vocational program, the content of computer education for students evolved to include content on computer literacy, Information Communication Technology (ICT) literacy, and brand-new computer science. While a new curriculum related to computer science was…

  5. Current status and strategies for hepatitis B control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Ju; Kim, Sung Eun; Suk, Ki Tae; An, Jihyun; Jeong, Soung Won; Chung, Woo Jin; Kim, Yoon Jun

    2017-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of chronic liver diseases in Korea. After the introduction of the universal HBV vaccination program, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was markedly reduced, and Korea is now classified as an area of intermediate endemicity for HBV. However, there are still hurdles for elimination of hepatitis B, such as immunoprophylaxis failure against vertical transmission, occurrence of acute hepatitis B among peoples who did not have vaccination at younger age, and rapid increase of immigrant populations from HBV endemic areas. To achieve the World Health Organization goal of viral hepatitis elimination by 2030 in Korea, we suggest comprehensive policies for more effective control of hepatitis B as following: i) insurance coverage for antiviral prophylaxis in mothers with high viremia, ii) screening for hepatitis B seromarkers and catch-up HBV vaccinations of susceptible persons with hepatitis B, iii) establishment of an independent 'viral hepatitis sector' in Centers for Disease Control & Prevention to organize and execute comprehensive strategy for management of viral hepatitis, iv) encourage of management of HBV infection in immigrant populations, v) national campaign to promote awareness of hepatitis B.

  6. Current Clinical Status of Telehealth in Korea: Categories, Scientific Basis, and Obstacles

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hun-Sung; Kim, Hyunah; Lee, Suehyun; Lee, Kye Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Through telehealth, medical services have expanded beyond spatial boundaries and are now available in living spaces outside of hospitals. It can also contribute to patient medical knowledge improvement because patients can access their hospital records and data from home. However, concepts of telehealth are rather vague in Korea. Methods We refer to several clinical reports to determine the current clinical status of and obstacles to telehealth in Korea. Results Patients' health conditions are now reported regularly to doctors remotely, and patients can receive varied assistance. Self-improvement based on minute details that are beyond medical staff's reach is another possible benefit that may be realized with the help of a variety of medical equipment (sensors). The feasibility, clinical effect, and cost-benefit of telehealth have been verified by scientific evidence. Conclusions Patients will be able to improve their treatment adherence by receiving help from various professionals, such as doctors, nurses, nutritionists, and sports therapists. This means that the actual treatment time per patient will increase as well. Ultimately, this will increase the quality of patients' self-administration of care to impede disease progression and prevent complications. PMID:26618030

  7. The history of vaccination and current vaccination policies in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    There may be many reasons for the significant decrease in the incidence of the pediatric infectious diseases in modern Korea; this could be due to the improvement of sanitary facilities, significant growth of Korean economy, improvement of nutrition, development and dissemination of antibiotics and implantation of vaccination, and overall improvement of medical technology. The development of vaccination has been highlighted as a striking achievement of the modern medical sciences with new technologies in many fields of medicine. Since 1876, the method for vaccination has opened its new era by Suk-Young Jee, known as the Jenner in Korea who wrote a book about smallpox vaccination, and it led an opportunity to propagate the needs for the vaccination in Korea. There was a time when pediatric wards were full of patients with parasitic diseases and many vaccine-preventable diseases such as diphtheria, pertussis, Japanese B encephalitis, and poliomyelitis in 1950s-1960s. We do not see those infectious diseases that often any more in recent years. However, we still have patients with water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases related to increasing international travels. We just experienced the first pandemic influenza of the 21st century in 2009 and avian influenza is still a threat to humans in other parts of the world with an unpredictable potential of pandemicity. In addition, we have tough battles with emerging antibiotic resistance in many strains of bacteria and increased opportunistic infections due to improvement of medical technology involving more aggressive treatment modality and use of medical devices. Researches in many areas are under way and we hope that some of them may be preventable and decreased with a development of new vaccines in the future. PMID:23596573

  8. Current status of liver disease in Korea: hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young Suk

    2009-12-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) is the third most common cause of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Korea, following hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and alcohol. HCV prevalence among Koreans older than 40 years of age has been estimated to be 1.29%. The prevalence of CHC increases with age, with the peak prevalence at the age of 60 or older. Blood transfusions have generated no risk of HCV infection since April 1991, when routine screening for anti-HCV in blood donors was adopted in Korea. Although injection drug use seems to be one of the most important risk factors of HCV infection among young adults in urban areas, the majority of CHC patients are not associated with injection drug use. Exposure to acupuncture was identified as a significant risk factor among older adults in rural areas. The mean age of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis and HCC was consistently about 10 years above that of patients associated with HBV. Genotypes 1b and 2a are the two most common types with almost equal proportions, and other genotypes are extremely rare. Korean patients with CHC have a high likelihood of responding to combination therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, with a sustained virological response rate of 60-70% in patients with genotype 1 and 85-90% in those with genotype 2.

  9. Current status of therapeutic plasma exchange in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Young; Kwon, Seog Woon; Kim, Dal Sik; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Hyun Ok; Park, Chong Won; Suh, Jang Soo; Ryang, Dong Wook; Lee, Jeong Nyeo; Lee, Jong Wook; Lim, Young Ae; Lim, Chae Seung; Jeon, Dong Seok; Han, Chi Wha; Han, Tae Hee; Han, Kyou Sup

    2004-04-01

    A nationwide survey on the status of plasma exchange in Korea was performed during the 2 year period 2001-02. Data from 496 patients were collected from 15 major hospitals. The most common indication was myasthenia gravis (15.3%), followed by thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (14.5%) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (9.7%). Clinical improvement was noted in 70.1% of the 415 cases. Plasma exchange by centrifugation alone accounted for 92.4%. Postcentrifugal filtration was carried out in 5.6% and double filtration in 2.0% of treatments. The most common instruments for the centrifugation were Cobe Spectra (71.3%) and Fenwal CS3000 (15.8%). Filtration was performed by either Kuraray KM8300 or Kuraray KM8800. The overall frequency of complications was 11.1% (293/2647 cases), of which symptomatic hypocalcemia was the most common (2.3%).

  10. Current status of assisted reproductive technology in Korea, 2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyoung Hoon; Song, Hyun Jin; Lee, Kyu Sup; Choi, Young Min

    2016-03-01

    The number of assisted reproductive technology (ART) clinics, ART cycles, clinical pregnancy rate (CPR), and number of newborns conceived using ART have steadily increased in South Korea. This aim of this study was to describe the status of ART in South Korea between January 1 and December 31, 2011. A localized online survey was created and sent to all available ART centers via email in 2015. Fresh embryo transfer (FET) cases were categorized depending on whether standard in vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), or half-ICSI procedures were used. Thawed embryo transfer (TET) and other related procedures were surveyed. Data from 36,990 ART procedures were provided by 74 clinics. Of the 30,410 cycles in which oocytes were retrieved, a complete transfer was performed in 91.0% (n=27,683). In addition, 9,197 cycles were confirmed to be clinical pregnancies in the FET cycles, representing a pregnancy rate of 30.2% per oocyte pick-up and 33.2% per ET. The most common number of embryos transferred in the FET procedures was three (38.1%), followed by two (34.7%) and one (14.3%). Of the 8,826 TET cycles, 3,137 clinical pregnancies (31.1%) were confirmed by ultrasonography. While the overall clinical pregnancy rate for the TET cycles performed was lower than the rate reported in 2010 (31.1% vs. 35.4%), the overall CPR for the FET cycles was higher than in 2010 (33.2% in 2011 and 32.9% in 2010). The most common number of embryos transferred in FET cycles was three, as was the case in 2010.

  11. House Dust Mite Allergy in Korea: The Most Important Inhalant Allergen in Current and Future

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-01-01

    The house-dust mite (HDM), commonly found in human dwellings, is an important source of inhalant and contact allergens. In this report, the importance of HDM allergy in Korea and the characteristics of allergens from dust mite are reviewed with an emphasis on investigations performed in Korea. In Korea, Dermatophagoides farinae is the dominant species of HDM, followed by D. pteronyssinus. Tyrophagus putrescentiae is also found in Korea, but its role in respiratory allergic disease in Korea is controversial. The relatively low densities of mite populations and concentrations of mite major allergens in dust samples from Korean homes, compared to westernized countries, are thought to reflect not only different climatic conditions, but also cultural differences, such as the use of 'ondol' under-floor heating systems in Korean houses. HDM are found in more than 90% of Korean houses, and the level of exposure to HDM is clinically significant. About 40%-60% of Korean patients suffering from respiratory allergies, and more than 40% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis, are sensitized to HDM. Mite allergens can be summarized according to their inherent auto-adjuvant activities and/or their binding affinities to the adjuvant-like substances: proteolytic enzymes, lipid binding proteins, chitin binding proteins, and allergens not associated with adjuvant-like activity. In general, allergens with a strong adjuvant-like activity or adjuvant-binding activity elicit potent IgE reactivity. In Korea, Der f 2 is the most potent allergen, followed by Der f 1. Immune responses are modulated by the properties of the allergen itself and by the adjuvant-like substances that are concomitantly administered with the antigens. Characterization of allergenic molecules and elucidation of mechanisms by which adjuvant-like molecules modulate allergic reactions, not only in Korea but also worldwide, will provide valuable information on allergic diseases, and are necessary for the

  12. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in South Korea: Current Status and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joungmin; Kim, Kyeong-hwa

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, there is no consensus on the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This column focuses on how the definition has affected the prevalence rates and services available for students with EBDs. Of the legal, clinical, and educational definitions, the legal definition of EBDs is currently in common use, which raises…

  13. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in South Korea: Current Status and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Joungmin; Kim, Kyeong-hwa

    2016-01-01

    In South Korea, there is no consensus on the definition of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). This column focuses on how the definition has affected the prevalence rates and services available for students with EBDs. Of the legal, clinical, and educational definitions, the legal definition of EBDs is currently in common use, which raises…

  14. Current Status and Progress of Telemedicine in Korea and Other Countries

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji-Young; Park, Young-Taek; Jo, Emmanuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to review the current telemedicine of the Korea and the telemedicine of the other countries. Methods This study reviewed several documents on telemedicine and summarized the documents on the initiation of the telemedicine of the Korea, the recent regulations of the government, the analytical research results, and the telemedicine of foreign countries. Results One of recent demonstration trials of telemedicine began in July 2015 in the Korea. The plan was to conduct an emergency telemedical treatment trial among the cooperative medical service centers until the end of February 2016. No telemedical services were provided at the level of local primary care clinics, and there was 1.2% provision at the hospital level. The Europe Union and the United States had more active telemedical services in comparison to the Korea. Conclusions The introduction and usage of telemedicine in the Korea was behind those of other countries. It is necessary to develop a proactive support policy for telemedicine through a government implemented trial. PMID:26618029

  15. Wave-induced current at Anmok Beach, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Park, D.; Lee, S.; Lim, H.-S.

    2017-08-01

    Currents were measured at two stations on Anmok Beach, and were reproduced by a numerical model system CST3D-WA. Anmok area is known as wave-dominated coast, and the mean tidal range small. Field data with strong wave-induced current are rare, especially at shallow water depth. Measured currents were strong during three periods. The largest instantaneous current speed at a station during a period was 46 cm/s. CST3D-WA system simulated wave-induced current for the three periods, and compared with measurements. The deviation of the incident peak wave direction from the normal direction to the shoreline strongly affects the wave-induced current speed and direction. When the deviation angle crosses the normal direction, the wave-induced alongshore current direction changes between SE and NW. CST3D-WA is thought to have successfully reproduced the wave-induced current fields on this beach.

  16. South Korea’s Current Status of FMS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    because the U.S. has considered replacement of its armed forces stationed on foreign countries ( GPR : Global force Posture Review)5. After the World War...96 Appendix H. Letter of Offer and Acceptance(LOA) Standard Terms and Conditions Section 1. Conditions – United States Government( USG ...Transportation and Discrepancy Provisions 6. Warranties 7. Dispute Resolution 1 Conditions-United States Government( USG ) Obligations 1.1 Unless

  17. Realtime Monitoring of the Extreme Oceanic Conditions in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ro, Y.; Jung, K.

    2006-05-01

    Realtime(RT) monitoring system for the oceanic state variables was developed and has been operating since April, 2004 in the Kangjin Bay, South Sea, Korea shown. The RT production of data stream and display on the Internet web page are made possible in continuous functions of various system elements. Detailed technical information for the RT monitoring system can be referred to Ro et al. (2004). The water quality parameters, current and meteorological conditions are continuously monitored with very high sampling resolution (10 min.) throughout the year and are being published on the Internet web pages (http://oceaninfo.co.kr/kangjin). The research project encompass several important subjects focusing on the extreme oceanic conditions such as very cold water mass formation during the wintertime cold outbreak, highly diluted sea water during the dam water discharge in the summertime monsoon and the subsequent formation of the hypoxia in the shallow Kangjin Bay. These are the typical extreme events captured possibly by the RT monitoring system, without which could never have been observed and understood. These extreme conditions would exert dramatic ecological impact to the local aqua-culture ecology. This study would elucidate the series of physico-chemical processes and its implication of the local eco-system. To understand the complicated processes, various research tools have been employed such as numerical modeling of tidal circulation, density-driven current, water-quality and formation of hypoxia, time series analyses of various water quality properties including multi-variate correlation.

  18. Tanzania: Background and Current Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-08

    in parliament. Tanzania continues its pattern of steady real Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) growth and has a low and stable inflation rate. The...Economist Intelligence Unit predicts real Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) growth of 7.1% in 2011 and 7.6% in 2012. Tanzania: Background and Current...unity for about 40 years in a region wracked by civil wars, often with ethnic dimensions, in neighboring Rwanda, Burundi , Uganda, the Democratic

  19. Current status of brachytherapy in Korea: a national survey of radiation oncologists.

    PubMed

    Kim, Haeyoung; Kim, Joo Young; Kim, Juree; Park, Won; Kim, Young Seok; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Yong Bae

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to acquire information on brachytherapy resources in Korea through a national survey of radiation oncologists. Between October 2014 and January 2015, a questionnaire on the current status of brachytherapy was distributed to all 86 radiation oncology departments in Korea. The questionnaire was divided into sections querying general information on human resources, brachytherapy equipment, and suggestions for future directions of brachytherapy policy in Korea. The response rate of the survey was 88.3%. The average number of radiation oncologists per center was 2.3. At the time of survey, 28 centers (36.8%) provided brachytherapy to patients. Among the 28 brachytherapy centers, 15 (53.5%) were located in in the capital Seoul and its surrounding metropolitan areas. All brachytherapy centers had a high-dose rate system using (192)Ir (26 centers) or (60)Co (two centers). Among the 26 centers using (192)Ir sources, 11 treated fewer than 40 patients per year. In the two centers using (60)Co sources, the number of patients per year was 16 and 120, respectively. The most frequently cited difficulties in performing brachytherapy were cost related. A total of 21 centers had a plan to sustain the current brachytherapy system, and four centers noted plans to upgrade their brachytherapy system. Two centers stated that they were considering discontinuation of brachytherapy due to cost burdens of radioisotope source replacement. The present study illustrated the current status of brachytherapy in Korea. Financial difficulties were the major barriers to the practice of brachytherapy.

  20. Gravity current jump conditions, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungarish, Marius; Hogg, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Consider the flow of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current of density ρc in an ambient fluid of density ρa in a horizontal channel z ∈ [ 0 , H ] , with gravity in - z direction. The motion is often modeled by a two-layer formulation which displays jumps (shocks) in the height of the interface, in particular at the leading front of the dense layer. Various theoretical models have been advanced to predict the dimensionless speed of the jump, Fr = U /√{g' h } ; g' , h are reduced gravity and jump height. We revisit this problem and using the Navier-Stokes equations, integrated over a control volume embedding the jump, derive balances of mass and momentum fluxes. We focus on understanding the closures needed to complete this model and we show the vital need to understand the pressure head losses over the jump, which we show can be related to the vorticity fluxes at the boundaries of the control volume. Our formulation leads to two governing equations for three dimensionless quantities. Closure requires one further assumption, depending on which we demonstrate that previous models for gravity current fronts and internal bores can be recovered. This analysis yield new insights into existing results, and also provides constraints for potential new formulae.

  1. Two Different modes of Springtime PM10 Concentration Variations in Korea and the Associated Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.; Wie, J.; Lee, Y. K.; Moon, B. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study identifies the two EOF modes of springtime PM10 variations in Korea and their associated meteorological conditions. The daily PM10 data from 318 stations and NCEP reanlaysis data during four years (2012-2015) were used. The first EOF mode, which accounts for 70.3% of the total PM10 variation, shows the increase or decrease of PM10 concentrations in the entire region. Regression analysis between the PC time series of the first mode and the meteorological variables shows that the PM10 concentrations increase under dry conditions associated with the high pressure system. The lagged regression analysis also shows that the strong westerly winds at lag -l day contributes to enhanced PM10 concentration, implying the transport of PM10 from China. The second EOF mode, which accounts for 8.5% of the total variation, exhibits a dipole mode of opposite sign for the Gyeonggi region (north-western part of Korea) and the Yeongnam region (south-eastern part of Korea). In this mode, the decrease of PM10 concentrations is closely related to the precipitation associated with the mid-latitude cyclone.This research was supported by Korea Ministry of Environment(MOE) as "Climate Change Correspondence Program"

  2. General internists' perspectives regarding primary care and currently related issues in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Yong; Eun, Sang Jun; Ock, Minsu; Kim, Hyun Joo; Lee, Hyeon-Jeong; Son, Woo-Seung; Jo, Min-Woo

    2015-05-01

    Although primary care has been recognized as an essential element of the healthcare system, the primary healthcare of Korea has not been highly valued. Listening to the voices of physicians who are engaged in primary care should be the first step for improving the level of primary care in Korea. In this study, we conducted a questionnaire survey of general internists to investigate their perspectives regarding primary care, and which included the evaluation of current primary care, perception of the five, key attributes of primary care, and their opinions regarding the management system of chronic diseases. A total of 466 general internists' responses were used in this analysis. The results showed that primary care is considered to have an important role, according to general internists, although their evaluation of the overall status of primary care in Korea indicated that it is poor. The respondents also indicated that the functions of coordination and comprehensiveness in primary care, which can be integral for treating patients with chronic diseases, are most vulnerable. Given the high level of agreement regarding the need for a new medical management system for chronic diseases, based on physicians' autonomy and provided by clinics, establishing a policy encouraging the participation of general internists should be emphasized.

  3. Current Status of Parkinsonism-Related Adverse Events and Associated Drugs in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siin; Suh, Hae Sun

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the current status of drug-induced parkinsonism and drugs possibly related to drug-induced parkinsonism in Korea. We conducted a cross-sectional study using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System database between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2015. We identified all adverse event reports associated with parkinsonism. There were 1402 adverse event reports associated with parkinsonism. The number of adverse event reports has increased annually. Among the 1499 drugs associated with parkinsonism, the most common were metoclopramide (49.77%) and paliperidone (16.14%). The major therapeutic groups (the third level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical code) were propulsives (53.87%) and antipsychotics (35.58%). The mean time of onset of parkinsonism was 34.9 days. However, the time of onset of parkinsonism varied by drug, for example, it was 4.6 days for metoclopramide and 37.2 days for paliperidone. Metoclopramide and antipsychotics were reported in most adverse event reports associated with parkinsonism in Korea.

  4. Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution.

    PubMed

    Moon, Shinje; Han, Jun Hee; Bae, Geun-Ryang; Cho, Enhi; Kim, Bongyoung

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Fifty-eight patients were infected outside of the country and 7,527 patients represented autochthonous HAV infection cases. Autochthonous HAV infection occurred more frequently among men than women (4,619 cases, 6.1 cases per 100,000 population vs. 2,908 cases, 3.9 cases per 100,000 population). The incidence rate was higher in the 20-29 yr-old group (2,309 cases, 11.6 cases per 100,000 populations) and 30-39 yr-old group (3,306 cases, 13.6 cases per 100,000 populations). The majority of cases were reported from March to June (53.6%, 4,038/7,527). Geographic analyses revealed a consistently high relative risk (RR) of HAV infection in mid-western regions (2011, RR, 1.25, P=0.019; 2012, RR, 2.53, P<0.001; 2013, RR, 1.86, P<0.001). In summary, we report that hepatitis A incidence has been decreasing gradually from 2011 to 2013 and that some regions show the highest prevalence rates of HAV infection in Korea.

  5. Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respectively. Fifty-eight patients were infected outside of the country and 7,527 patients represented autochthonous HAV infection cases. Autochthonous HAV infection occurred more frequently among men than women (4,619 cases, 6.1 cases per 100,000 population vs. 2,908 cases, 3.9 cases per 100,000 population). The incidence rate was higher in the 20-29 yr-old group (2,309 cases, 11.6 cases per 100,000 populations) and 30-39 yr-old group (3,306 cases, 13.6 cases per 100,000 populations). The majority of cases were reported from March to June (53.6%, 4,038/7,527). Geographic analyses revealed a consistently high relative risk (RR) of HAV infection in mid-western regions (2011, RR, 1.25, P=0.019; 2012, RR, 2.53, P<0.001; 2013, RR, 1.86, P<0.001). In summary, we report that hepatitis A incidence has been decreasing gradually from 2011 to 2013 and that some regions show the highest prevalence rates of HAV infection in Korea. PMID:26770040

  6. Current regional stress field and the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea and their tectonic implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, M. C.; Cho, H.; Son, M.

    2014-12-01

    To determine current regional stress field and to characterize the resultant crustal deformation in SE Korea, Quaternary fault, focal mechanism, and geotechnical in-situ stress data were synthetically analyzed. The Quaternary faults are extensively observed along major inherited fault zones and show compatible orientations with general trends of the inherited faults. Most of the Quaternary faults have a top-to-the-west thrust geometry and kinematics and show a tendency of upward-decreasing dip angle and upward-narrowing gouge zone. Slip-sense indicators and paleo-stress field reconstructions indicate that the faults resulted from reverse or transpressional faulting under an E-W compression. All the magnetic fabrics (AMS) of the fault gouges also indicate the prevailing reverse-slip faulting under an ENE-WNW compression. The dominant oblate magnetic fabrics parallel to fault plane and the degrees of anisotropy increasing in proportion to their oblatenesses indicate that the fabrics have formed by a progressive deformation due to continuous simple shear during the last reactivation stage as reverse faulting. The focal mechanism study in and around the Korean Peninsula show the horizontally clustered P-axes in ENE-WSW direction and the girdle-distributed T-axes in NNW trend. The geotechnical in-situ stress data in south Korea also show NE- or ENE-trending maximum horizontal stress. The current crustal deformation in Korea thus can be characterized by contractional structures produced under a regional E-W or ENE-WSW compression stress field, and most of the Quaternary faults resulted from the local re-activation of appropriately oriented inherited major faults. Considering the tectonic setting and structural features in Asia during the Neogene, the current stress regime is interpreted to have been caused by the cooperation of westward shallow subduction of Pacific Plate and collision of Indian and Eurasian continents since about 5-3.5 Ma.

  7. Current status of hepatitis C virus infection and countermeasures in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver-related mortality. The new antiviral drugs against HCV, direct acting antivirals, result in >90% cure rate. This review aimed to summarize the current prevalence, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment response associated with HCV infection, and countermeasures for optimal HCV control in South Korea. Based on a literature review, the current anti-HCV prevalence in the Korean population is 0.6 to 0.8%, with increasing prevalence according to age. The major HCV genotypes in Korean patients were genotype 1b and genotype 2. Successful antiviral treatment leads to significantly reduced liver related complications and mortality. However, only about one third of the individuals with HCV infection seem to be managed under the current national health insurance system, suggesting a remarkable rate of underdiagnoses and subsequent loss of opportunity to cure. A recent study in South Korea showed that targeted population screening for HCV infection is cost-effective. To prevent recently developed clusters of HCV infection in some clinics, mandatory surveillance rather than sentinel surveillance for HCV infection is required and governmental countermeasures to prevent reuse of syringes or other medical devises, and public education should be maintained. Moreover, one-time screening for a targeted population should be considered and a cost-effectiveness study supporting an optimal screening strategy is warranted. PMID:28774165

  8. A systematic review on current status of health technology reassessment: insights for South Korea.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyun-Ju; Park, Ji Jeong; Lee, Seon Heui

    2016-11-11

    To systematically investigate the current status and methodology of health technology reassessment (HTR) in various countries to draw insights for the healthcare system in South Korea. A systematic literature search was conducted on the articles published between January 2000 and February 2015 on Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PubMed. The titles and abstracts of retrieved records were screened and selected by two independent reviewers. Data related to HTR were extracted using a pre-standardised form. The review was conducted using narrative synthesis to understand and summarise the HTR process and policies. Forty five studies, conducted in seven countries, including the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, Spain, Sweden, Denmark, and the United States of America, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Informed by the literature review, and complemented by informant interviews, we focused on HTR activities in four jurisdictions: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and Spain. There were similarities in the HTR processes, namely the use of existing health technology assessment agencies, reassessment candidate technology identification and priority setting, stakeholder involvement, support for reimbursement coverage, and implementation strategies. Considering the findings of the systematic review in the context of the domestic healthcare environment in Korea, an appropriate HTR model was developed. This model included four stages, those of identification, prioritisation, reassessment and decision. Disinvestment and reinvestment through the HTR was used to increase the efficiency and quality of care to help patients receive optimal treatment. Based on the lessons learnt from other countries' experiences, Korea should make efforts to establish an HTR process that optimises the National Healthcare Insurance system through revision of the existing Medical Service Act.

  9. Current Status of Electronic Medical Record Systems in Hospitals and Clinics in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Taek; Han, Dongwoon

    2017-07-01

    Many healthcare organizations and professionals have had interests in healthcare information and communication technology (ICT). The objective of this study was to investigate the current status of overall healthcare ICT, especially focusing on Electronic Medical Record (EMR) systems in Korea. This study used a part of the nationwide survey collected for the OECD benchmarking ICT study. The Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service conducted the survey from November 19, 2013 to January 10, 2014. This study followed the methodological guidelines of the OECD. A total of 2,093 hospitals and clinics, including long-term care hospitals, participated in the survey. Among them, 554 hospitals and 906 clinics were included in this study for the generalization of the results. The adoption rates of EMR systems were 96.3% in hospitals and 95.7% in clinics. Most of the hospitals and clinics had high rates of healthcare information exchange (HIE) within the organization; however, there were extremely low HIE rates among external organizations. Most of the hospitals and clinics had EMR systems with clinical-decision-supporting functionalities. Ninety-six percent of the EMR systems of the hospitals and 89.2% of the clinic systems had checking functions, such as alerts or reminders, on contraindications of drug-drug and drug-age interaction. Korea has maintained a high healthcare ICT status compared to countries in the European Union. The EMR systems of hospitals and clinics in Korea had sophisticated functionalities; however, their HIE status was extremely low, which indicates the need for healthcare ICT standardization.

  10. Health resources and management in Korea: development in the past, current issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Song, K Y

    1988-01-01

    Korea's health system has undergone major changes since the late 1970's due to massive economic growth developments. Compulsory health insurance was initiated for all wage earners in 1977 and was expanded to all rural and urban residents in 1980 and 1989. Health resources in the form of human and physical resources and health expenditures are very important to the success of any health insurance system. Korean economic growth in the past 40 years is staggering. It has gone from a per capita income of US $70 in the 50's to over US $2000 in the 80's. Korea is now an upper middle-income country. Population has more than doubled since 1949. Urbanization has increased from 28% in 1960 to 65% in 1985. Reduction of fertility through family planning practices is currently being promoted. Korea has developed 5 health care plans over a 25 year period -- from the 1954-60 allocation of funds for leprosy and tuberculosis control to the 1982-86 'health for all by 2000" policy. The National Health Insurance Program will be initiated in 1989. Communicable diseases were the major cause of death in the 60's, cardiovascular disease in the 70's, and chronic degenerative diseases in the 80's. Incidences of communicable diseases, tuberculosis and parasite infection have all decreased dramatically in the past few decades. Perceived unhealthiness has increased from 1981-87. The 1980's has ushered in a higher utilization of curative care, safe deliveries and immunizations. Inequalities in health care still exist and result from socioeconomic inequalities. Medical resources must be distributed adequately to alleviate inequality. Middle-level health personnel is lacking in Korea at this time, while upper-level personnel has increased. Physical resources tend to be wasted -- there is a high nonoccupancy rate of hospital beds. Other physical resource problems can be partially eliminated by a more equal distribution of health facilities relative to demand. Health insurance utilization has grown

  11. Current loop signal conditioning: Practical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a variety of practical application circuits based on the current loop signal conditioning paradigm. Equations defining the circuit response are also provided. The constant current loop is a fundamental signal conditioning circuit concept that can be implemented in a variety of configurations for resistance-based transducers, such as strain gages and resistance temperature detectors. The circuit features signal conditioning outputs which are unaffected by extremely large variations in lead wire resistance, direct current frequency response, and inherent linearity with respect to resistance change. Sensitivity of this circuit is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit. Electrical output is zero for resistance change equals zero. The same excitation and output sense wires can serve multiple transducers. More application arrangements are possible with constant current loop signal conditioning than with the Wheatstone bridge.

  12. Current trend of acute myocardial infarction in Korea (from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry from 2006 to 2013).

    PubMed

    Kook, Hyun Yi; Jeong, Myung Ho; Oh, Sangeun; Yoo, Sung-Hee; Kim, Eun Jung; Ahn, Youngkeun; Kim, Ju Han; Chai, Leem Soon; Kim, Young Jo; Kim, Chong Jin; Chan Cho, Myeong

    2014-12-15

    Although the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Korea has been rapidly changed because of westernization of diet, lifestyle, and aging of the population, the recent trend of the myocardial infarction have not been reported by classification. We investigated recent trends in the incidence and mortality associated with the 2 major types of AMI. We reviewed 39,978 patients registered in the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry for either ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) from 2006 to 2013. When the rate for AMI were investigated according to each year, the incidence rates of STEMI decreased markedly from 60.5% in 2006 to 48.1% in 2013 (p <0.001). In contrast, a gradual increase in the incidence rates of NSTEMI was observed from 39.5% in 2006 to 51.9% in 2013 (p <0.001). As risk factors, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia were much more common in patients with NSTEMI than STEMI. Among medical treatments, the use of β blockers, angiotensin receptor blocker, and statin were increased from 2006 to 2013 in patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. Patients with STEMI and NSTEMI were more inclined to be increasingly treated by invasive treatments with percutaneous coronary intervention. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the trend of myocardial infarction has been changed rapidly in the aspect of risk factors, ratio of STEMI versus NSTEMI, and therapeutic strategies during the recent 8 years in Korea.

  13. Current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyoung; Yoon, Jihyun; Kwon, Sooyoun; Kim, Jihyun; Han, Youngshin

    2012-12-01

    Recently the need to manage food allergies in schools has been growing. This study aimed to examine the current status of managing food allergies in schools in Seoul, Korea. A questionnaire survey was conducted in cooperation with the School Dietician Association during April 2009. Among the participating 154 schools, a total of 109 (71%) were determining students' food allergy status through parental surveys based on self-reported food allergies. A total of 72 (47%) had experienced student visits to a school health room due to food allergies within one year before the survey. Over 80 percent of the schools relied on self-care only without any school-wide measures for food allergies in place. Among the 890 menu items most frequently served in school lunch programs, a total of 664 (75%) were found to contain more than one food allergen. It is highly suggested that preventive plans and treatment measures should be established to manage food allergies in schools.

  14. Current antimicrobial usage for the management of neutropenic fever in Korea: a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su-Mi; Park, Sun Hee; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong; Shin, Wan-Shik

    2008-12-01

    A nationwide questionnaire-based survey was performed to evaluate the current clinical practices for the management of neutropenic fever in hematology units and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) centers throughout Korea. A 86.9% response rate was obtained from a total of 46 doctors and practical policies of the 33 sites were analysed. Approximately 42.4% and 84.8% of the sites responded that they used oral fluoroquinolone as prophylaxis for neutropenic patients receiving chemotherapy and HSCT, respectively. Additionally, 42.4% of the sites responded that they used antifungal prophylaxis in the chemotherapy groups whereas 90.9% of the sites responded that they used antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Approximately half of the responding sites prescribed combination regimen with 3rd or 4th cephalosporin plus aminoglycoside as a first-line therapy. Most of the sites considered persistent fever for 2-4 days or aggravated clinical symptoms for 1-2 days as failure of the first-line regimen, and they changed antibiotics to second-line regimens that varied widely among the sites. Twenty-seven sites (84.4%) responded that they considered adding an antifungal agent when fever persisted for 5-7 days despite antibacterial therapy. Amphotericin B deoxycholate was preferred as a first-line antifungal, which was probably due to the limitations of the national health insurance system. The role of oral antibiotics in the management of neutropenic fever still accounted for a small portion. To the best of our knowledge, this survey is the first report to examine the practical policies currently in place for the management of neutropenic fever in Korea and the results of this survey may help to establish a Korean guideline in the future.

  15. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  16. The Current Status and Future Directions in the Development of the Cyber Home Learning System in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Myunghee; Kim, Seyoung; Yoon, Seonghye; Chung, Warren

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to set future directions of the Cyber Home Learning System in Korea based on its current status. The Cyber Home Learning System has been designed and used by K-12 students to study voluntarily at home using online lessons. The development process of the Cyber Home Learning System was composed of the following four…

  17. Confirmation of Two Undescribed Fungal Species from Dokdo of Korea Based on Current Classification System Using Multi Loci

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Nguyen, Thi Thuong Thuong; Mun, Hye Yeon; Lee, Haengsub; Kim, Changmu

    2015-01-01

    Using dilution plating method, 47 fungal isolates were obtained from a soil sample collected from Dokdo in the East Sea of Korea in 2013. In this study, two fungal isolates, EML-MFS30-1 and EML-DDSF4, were confirmed as undescribed species, Metarhizium guizhouense and Mortierella oligospora in Korea based on current classification system using multi loci including rDNA internal transcribed spacer, large subunit, small subunit, and β-tubulin (BTUB) genes. Herein, detailed morphological descriptions on characters of the undescribed fungal species as well as their molecular phylogenetic status are provided with comparisons to related species. PMID:26839498

  18. Current microseismicity and generating faults in the Gyeongju area, southeastern Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minhui; Kim, Kwang-Hee; Son, Moon; Kang, Su Young

    2017-01-01

    A study of microseismicity in a 15 × 20 km2 subregion of Gyeongju, southeastern Korea, establishes a direct link between minor earthquakes and known fault structures. The study area has a complex history of tectonic deformation and has experienced large historic earthquakes, with small earthquakes recorded since the beginning of modern instrumental monitoring. From 5 years of continuously recorded local seismic data, 311 previously unidentified microearthquakes can be reliably located using the double-difference algorithm. These newly discovered events occur in linear streaks that can be spatially correlated with active faults, which could pose a serious hazard to nearby communities. At-risk infrastructure includes the largest industrial park in South Korea, nuclear power plants, and disposal facilities for radioactive waste. The current work suggests that the southern segment of the Yeonil Tectonic Line and segments of the Seokup and Waup Basin boundary faults are active. For areas with high rates of microseismic activity, reliably located hypocenters are spatially correlated with mapped faults; in less active areas, earthquake clusters tend to occur at fault intersections. Microearthquakes in stable continental regions are known to exist, but have been largely ignored in assessments of seismic hazard because their magnitudes are well below the detection thresholds of seismic networks. The total number of locatable microearthquakes could be dramatically increased by lowering the triggering thresholds of network detection algorithms. The present work offers an example of how microearthquakes can be reliably detected and located with advanced techniques. This could make it possible to create a new database to identify subsurface fault geometries and modes of fault movement, which could then be considered in the assessments of seismic hazard in regions where major earthquakes are rare.

  19. Helicopter emergency medical services: a report on the current status in a metropolitan area of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young-Hoon; Moon, Sung-Woo; Lee, Sung-Woo; Choi, Sung-Hyuk; Cho, Han-Jin; Kim, Jung-Yun

    2011-06-01

    This report introduces and discusses the present state of the helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) in the metropolitan area of South Korea. The data of patients transported by HEMS from April 2007 to June 2009 were provided by Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department. The data of patients subsequently transported to Korea University Guro Hospital were analyzed. During the study period, 725 emergency rescue calls were dispatched and 703 patients were rescued, of which 562 patients were judged by an emergency medical technician to be in a nonemergent condition and were referred to ground emergency medical services and 141 patients were judged as having an emergent situation and were directly transported to a nearby hospital. The data of patients who were transported to Korea University Guro Hospital by HEMS were as follows. The mean age was 51.7±12.1 years; 75.6% were male patients; 28 patients (68.3%) were traumatically injured; the mean of the injury severity score was 13.5±14.7, and 13 patients (46.4%) had an injury severity score of more than 15. No procedures other than basic life support were performed by the emergency medical technicians during transport. The role of HEMS in South Korea is limited to transporting injured patients from locations that cannot be approached by ground emergency medical services. Even though HEMS is essential considering the local mountainous geography of Seoul, Korea, overutilization of HEMS is still suspected in the metropolitan area.

  20. Epidemiology and current status of allergic rhinitis, asthma, and associated allergic diseases in Korea: ARIA Asia-Pacific workshop report.

    PubMed

    Park, Hae Sim; Choi, Gil Soon; Cho, Joong Sang; Kim, You-Young

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asthma has recently increased in Korea, and both conditions are recognized as major chronic respiratory diseases requiring active intervention. The prevalence of rhinitis among asthmatic patients is high, ranging from 60 to 80%, and could seriously affect asthma severity and outcome. We suggest that allergic rhinitis should be properly evaluated in asthmatic patients to achieve better asthma control.

  1. The Current Status and Future Prospects of Corporate e-Learning in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil

    2007-01-01

    Corporate e-Learning in Korea has grown rapidly over the previous six years (2000-2005). This study argues that the main cause of this heightened interest in corporate e-Learning in Korea was not that companies needed to provide high-quality training programs through the Internet, but rather that the government took initiative to transform the…

  2. Long working hours in Korea: results of the 2010 Working Conditions Survey.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungsun; Kwon, Oh Jun; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Long working hours adversely affect workers' safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation limiting the working week to 40 h, to improve quality-of-life and to increase business competitiveness. In the present study, we explored the characteristics of work in Korea and compared our data of the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) with those of the first KWCS. We found that the average number of hours worked weekly has been reduced but the proportions of workers who work for more than 48 h per week has increased over the 4 yr between the two Korean surveys in all categories studied (male, female, employee, self-employed, and employer). We also found that self-employed and employers work much longer hours than do employees, who are protected by the Labor Standards Act. This was particularly true in the accommodation and food service sectors. In conclusion, Korean workers work longer than do workers of EU countries. The use of average figures masks differences in the numbers of working hours among those engaged in various types of employment, or in certain work sectors. Therefore, the Korean government should not simply monitor reductions in average weekly working hours, but should identify employees working for over 60 h weekly, and reduce their working time.

  3. Kenya: Current Conditions and the Challenges Ahead

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-14

    Nairobi, Kenya. 6 Shashank, Bengali . How Kenya’s Election Was Rigged, the McClatchy Newspapers. January 31, 2008. Kenya: Current Conditions and the...back a single candidate against Moi. The opposition learned from its mistakes, and in 2002 it succeeded in forming and holding together a coalition...party did not stop an opposition victory in Kenya. The lessons learned from the 2002 Kenyan elections are many and could strengthen democracy

  4. Leptospirosis in the republic of Korea: historical perspectives, current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Ja

    2013-06-01

    Leptospirosis is an important public health problem in the Republic of Korea (ROK), occurring sporadically or in outbreaks during the autumn season. Wild rodents, Apodemus agrarius, have been mainly involved in human leptospirosis. The majority of carrier animals are infected with Leptospira interrogans serovar lai. The characteristic pulmonary involvement or hemorrhage may increase the clinical severity or result in fatal outcomes, and these aspects continue to be a threat to people in endemic areas. While the disease incidence has been relatively low in recent years, there have been newer findings of livestock (zoo animals and racing horses) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) captured in urban environments as potential animal carriers. Many avenues of research are still open to define current changes in ecology, epidemiology, and the disease burden in both humans and animals in the ROK, together with global warming and climate change issues. In addition, national policy regarding the weighted wildlife monitoring system and the enhanced disease surveillance program is required to facilitate better monitoring and understanding of this disease.

  5. Material condition assessment with eddy current sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldfine, Neil J. (Inventor); Washabaugh, Andrew P. (Inventor); Sheiretov, Yanko K. (Inventor); Schlicker, Darrell E. (Inventor); Lyons, Robert J. (Inventor); Windoloski, Mark D. (Inventor); Craven, Christopher A. (Inventor); Tsukernik, Vladimir B. (Inventor); Grundy, David C. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Eddy current sensors and sensor arrays are used for process quality and material condition assessment of conducting materials. In an embodiment, changes in spatially registered high resolution images taken before and after cold work processing reflect the quality of the process, such as intensity and coverage. These images also permit the suppression or removal of local outlier variations. Anisotropy in a material property, such as magnetic permeability or electrical conductivity, can be intentionally introduced and used to assess material condition resulting from an operation, such as a cold work or heat treatment. The anisotropy is determined by sensors that provide directional property measurements. The sensor directionality arises from constructs that use a linear conducting drive segment to impose the magnetic field in a test material. Maintaining the orientation of this drive segment, and associated sense elements, relative to a material edge provides enhanced sensitivity for crack detection at edges.

  6. MRI-conditional pacemakers: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, António M; Costa, Francisco; Tralhão, António; Marques, Hugo; Cardim, Nuno; Adragão, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Use of both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pacing devices has undergone remarkable growth in recent years, and it is estimated that the majority of patients with pacemakers will need an MRI during their lifetime. These investigations will generally be denied due to the potentially dangerous interactions between cardiac devices and the magnetic fields and radio frequency energy used in MRI. Despite the increasing reports of uneventful scanning in selected patients with conventional pacemakers under close surveillance, MRI is still contraindicated in those circumstances and cannot be considered a routine procedure. These limitations prompted a series of modifications in generator and lead engineering, designed to minimize interactions that could compromise device function and patient safety. The resulting MRI-conditional pacemakers were first introduced in 2008 and the clinical experience gathered so far supports their safety in the MRI environment if certain conditions are fulfilled. With this technology, new questions and controversies arise regarding patient selection, clinical impact, and cost-effectiveness. In this review, we discuss the potential risks of MRI in patients with electronic cardiac devices and present updated information regarding the features of MRI-conditional pacemakers and the clinical experience with currently available models. Finally, we provide some guidance on how to scan patients who have these devices and discuss future directions in the field. PMID:24851058

  7. Seasonal variability of temperature, salinity, and geostrophic currents obtained from CTD and satellite observations around South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, EunAe; Kim, Sung Yong

    2016-04-01

    The annual variability of temperature, salinity, and geostrophic circulation around South Korea (East/Japan Sea, southern coast, and Yellow Sea) is studied by analyzing conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) profiles for recent 10 years (2001 to 2010). In the estimates of seasonal amplitudes using harmonic analysis, we examine their accuracy by evaluating how well the seasonal fit reconstructs the known pure seasonal signals with noise. Over the shelf (within 70km of the coast) in the East Sea, the seasonal amplitudes, means, and root-mean-squares of subsurface temperature and salinity are smaller than those offshore about 20-50%, which may be due to southward North Korea cold currents along the shelf nearly all year. Conversely, in the Yellow Sea, the seasonal amplitudes of subsurface temperature onshore waters (within 40 km) become larger than offshore about 40% as a result of enhanced onshore tidal mixing.

  8. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design…

  9. Review of Current Studies in Instructional Design Theory in Korea: Major Trends and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cheolil; Yeon, Eunkyoung

    2009-01-01

    This article reviewed recent studies of instructional design theory in Korea to explore major trends and suggest future directions. Based on the analysis of 40 articles from the "Journal of Educational Technology" between 1994 and 2006, this study identified six trends: little emphasis on the conceptualization of instructional design…

  10. The current status and future perspectives of nuclear medicine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Chul; Oh, So Won; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Dong Soo

    2010-06-01

    Since the introduction of nuclear medicine in 1959, Korea accomplished a brilliant development in terms of both clinical practice and research activities, which was mainly due to the dedication of nuclear medicine specialists, consisting of physicians, technicians, and scientists, and strong support from the Korean Government. Now, Korea has 150 medical institutes, performing approximately 561,000 nuclear imaging procedures and 11.6 million in vitro studies in 2008, and ranked fourth in the number of presentations at the Annual Meeting of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (SNM) in 2008. The successful progress in this field has allowed Korea to focus on the international promotion of nuclear medicine, especially in the developing and underdeveloped countries. In consequence, the Asian Regional Cooperative Council for Nuclear Medicine (ARCCNM) was established in 2001, and Seoul hosted the 9th Congress of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology (WFNMB) in 2006. In the future, Korea will strive to sustain its rate of advancement in the field and make every effort to share its progress and promote the exchange of scientific information at the international level.

  11. Summertime coastal current reversal opposing offshore forcing and local wind near the middle east coast of Korea: Observation and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Chang, Kyung-Il; Nam, SungHyun

    2016-07-01

    A 6 year long current measurement at a buoy station off the middle east coast of Korea reveals an equatorward reversal of coastal current in summer opposing poleward local wind stress and offshore boundary current. The current reversal extends about 40 km offshore from the coast and is concurrent with warming and freshening of water column. Estimates of the depth-averaged alongshore momentum balance suggest a major balance between the alongshore pressure gradient and the lateral friction. Sources of the pressure gradient for the summertime current reversal are identified as the alongshore buoyancy gradient driven by the wind curl gradient and the prevalence of warmer and lower salinity water in the north. Alongshore pressure gradient and velocity induced by the wind curl gradient are quantified, which yields the observed seasonal current reversal.

  12. The Current Status of Deep Brain Stimulation for the Treatment of Parkinson Disease in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung-Il

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease with an increasing prevalence in Korea. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a safe and effective surgical treatment option for this disease. The aim of this review was to provide an update regarding current DBS practices with respect to the treatment of PD in the Republic of Korea. The first DBS in Korea was performed in 2000; approximately 2,000 patients have undergone DBS for a variety of neurological disorders, the majority of whom were patients with PD. Approximately 150 new patients with PD receive DBS annually, and more than 20 centers perform DBS. However, DBS remains underutilized for many reasons, and the clinical case burden at many institutions is below the level presumed adequate for qualified practice. With a rapidly aging population and an evolving socioeconomic environment, the need for surgical intervention for PD is likely to increase significantly in the future. Many issues such as finances, education, and quality assurance must be resolved to cope with this need. PMID:26413238

  13. The e-health landscape: current status and future prospects in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoungho; Min, Se Dong; Shin, Hang Sik; Lee, Byung Woo; Kim, Jin Kwon

    2009-05-01

    The e-health infrastructure in Korea has come a long way within a short period since the establishment of the Korea e-Health Association in 2003 by the Korean Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Energy. Since then, four related government departments in the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Ministry of Information and Communication, Ministry of National Defense, and the Ministry of Science and Technology have also started planning and promoting their own strategies for e-Health applications. We have defined standardization, law and policy planning, human resources development, research and development for e-health products, and international collaboration as the five core pillars for the development of a successful e-health industry. In 2008, through the reorganization of government ministries, e-health has become an even more important growth industry for the Korean economy. Consequently, relevant government ministries have more concrete and robust action plans for realization of e-health in effect.

  14. First Phase Development of Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator and Its Current Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Yeom, Jae-Hwan; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2010-01-01

    The first phase of the Korea-Japan Joint VLBI Correlator (KJJVC) development has been completed and installed to correlate the observed data from KVN (Korean VLBI Network) and VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) in October 2009. KJJVC is able to process 16 stations, a maximum of 8 Gbps/station, and 8,192 output channels for VLBI data. The system configuration, the experimental results, and future plans are introduced in this paper.

  15. Current status of liver diseases in Korea: toxic and alcoholic liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung-Ah

    2009-12-01

    The study of the epidemiology of toxic liver injury has been limited in Korea. The number of hospitalizations for toxic liver injury has been estimated to be 2,400 persons per year. About 30~40% of fulminant hepatitis was attributed to toxic hepatitis. The frequent causative agents of toxic hepatitis in Korea are herbal medicines (34-40%), folk remedies (23-34%), and prescribed medicines (24-55%). However, the most common agents causing severe liver injury including fulminant hepatitis are herbal medicine and folk remedies. Antituberculosis drugs and acetaminophen are two common causes of fulminant hepatitis among prescribed drugs. Alcohol is one of the leading causes of chronic liver disease in Korea. No nationwide study on the epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) has been carried out, but 7-31% of cirrhosis has been reported to be alcoholic in a few single-center studies. Alcohol could be a risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in chronic viral hepatitis. Several studies have shown that alcohol increased the risk of HCC in liver cirrhosis with HBsAg or anti-HCV. Furthermore, alcoholic cirrhosis with occult hepatitis B virus infection increased the risk of HCC.

  16. Current status of liver disease in Korea: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Hoon

    2009-12-01

    Recently, obesity (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) and type II diabetes mellitus have reached epidemic proportions in Korea, and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are between 10% and 25% of the general population. NAFLD in Korea is as closely associated with several components of metabolic syndrome including, obesity, hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia as it is in Western countries. Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of fatty liver in patients with normal body weight as well as in patients with obesity. And, obesity induced accumulation of fat in the adipose tissue leads to an imbalance in the regulation of adipokines, such as downregulation of adiponectin and upregulation of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) and ghrelin. High BMI, the AST/ALT ratio, and ALT levels could be used to distinguish NASH from simple steatosis in Korean patients. In large number of NAFLD patients who underwent a voluntary medical checkup, even a small weight reduction was associated with improvements in their hepatic steatosis grade on ultrasonography, serum aminotransferase levels, and related metabolic abnormalities. Subjects with fatty liver disease should be advised to lose weight through lifestyle modifications. Small animal and human studies of treatment with PPAR agonists and betaine have been reported in the Korean literature. It is now acknowledged that NAFLD is the most common liver disease in Korea, largely due to the considerable increase in metabolic abnormalities such as obesity and diabetes. Future studies should continue to focus both on the pathogenesis and the treatment of NAFLD in order to accumulate more of our own data.

  17. Historic and Current Conditions of Southwestern Grasslands

    Treesearch

    Reggie Fletcher; Wayne A. Robbie

    2004-01-01

    Southwestern grasslands today share general differences from their pre-Euro-American settlement conditions. With few exceptions, grasslands--whether in the desert, prairie, or mountains--were, prior to non-Indian settlement, more diverse in plant and animal species composition, more productive, more resilient, and better able to absorb the impact of disturbances....

  18. Current Status of Pathologic Examinations in Korea, 2011–2015, Based on the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sun-ju

    2017-01-01

    Background Pathologic examinations play an important role in medical services. Until recently, the overall status of pathologic examinations in Korea has not been identified. I conducted a nationwide survey of pathologic examination status using the insurance reimbursements (IRs) dataset from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). The aims of this study were to estimate current pathologic examination status in Korea and to provide information for future resource arrangement in the pathology area. Methods I asked HIRA to provide data on IR requests, including pathologic examinations from 2011 to 2015. Pathologic examination status was investigated according to the following categories: annual statistics, requesting department, type of medical institution, administrative district, and location at which pathologic examinations were performed. Results Histologic mapping, immunohistochemistry, and cervicovaginal examinations have increased in the last 5 years. Internal medicine, general surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, and urology were the most common medical departments requesting pathologic examinations. The majority of pathologic examinations were frequently performed in tertiary hospitals. About 60.3% of pathologic examinations were requested in medical institutions located in Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, and Busan. More than half of the biopsies and aspiration cytologic examinations were performed using outside services. The mean period between IR requests and 99 percentile IR request completion inspections was 6.2 months. Conclusions This survey was based on the HIRA dataset, which is one of the largest medical datasets in Korea. The trends of some pathologic examinations were reflected in the policies and needs for detailed diagnosis. The numbers and proportions of pathologic examinations were correlated with the population and medical institutions of the area, as well as patient preference. These data will be helpful for future resource arrangement in

  19. Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Park, Tai Hwan; Park, Sang-Soon; Lee, Kyung Bok; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Cha, Jae Kwan; Kim, Dae-Hyun; Lee, Jun; Lee, Soo Joo; Ko, Youngchai; Park, Jong-Moo; Kang, Kyusik; Cho, Yong-Jin; Hong, Keun-Sik; Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Dong-Eog; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Ji Sung; Jang, Myung Suk; Broderick, Joseph P; Yoon, Byung-Woo; Bae, Hee-Joon

    2014-06-01

    There are limited data on the utilization of diagnostics and the variation of treatments at the national level in acute stroke care. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division stroke registry aimed to describe stroke statistics and quality of care in Korea and to implement quality indicators. Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry was established in April 2008 and covers pretreatment demographics, medical and stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluation, hyperacute revascularization, in-hospital management, discharge disposition, quality indicators, and long-term functional outcomes. Consecutive stroke cases from 12 participating centers are registered to a web-based database. Meticulous data management and auditing policy were applied. A total of 14,792 ischemic stroke cases were enrolled from April 2008 to January 2012. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 4 at admission, with median delay of onset to arrival of 14 h. Rate of risk factor management before stroke exceeds more than 80% for hypertension and diabetes. Revascularization procedures were performed in 1736 subjects (12%), and 34% were endovascular (n = 598). Substantial variability was noted in the preferred modality of hyperacute revascularization (range of endovascular recanalization = 6-60%), use of computed tomography (30-93%), and perfusion imaging (2-96%). The Clinical Research Center for Stroke--5th division registry documented that the current practice of acute stroke care in South Korea largely met the standard of guidelines, but variability of practice still remains. The registry would provide an opportunity to evaluate the quality of stroke care across South Korea and compare it with that of other countries.

  20. Current Status of Infection Prevention and Control Programs for Emergency Medical Personnel in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyang Soon; Uhm, Dong Choon

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical personnel (EMPs) are pre-hospital emergency responders who are at risk of exposure to infections and may also serve as a source for the transmission of infections. However, few studies of infection control have specifically addressed EMPs in the Republic of Korea (hereafter Korea). The goal of this study was to assess the current status of infection prevention and control programs (IPCPs) for EMPs in Korea. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to quantitatively assess the resources and activities of IPCPs. A total of 907 EMPs in five metropolitan cities completed a structured questionnaire from September 2014 to January 2015. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multi-response analysis, and the chi-square test. The mean age of the participants was 34.8±15.1 years. IPCPs were found to have weaknesses with regard to the following resources: the assignment of infection control personnel (ICP) (79.5%), hand hygiene resources such as waterless antiseptics (79.3%), the use of paper towels (38.9%), personal protective equipment such as face shields (46.9%), and safety containers for sharps and a separated space for the disposal of infectious waste (10.1%). Likewise, the following activities were found to be inadequately incorporated into the workflow of EMPs: education about infection control (77.5%), post-exposure management (35.9%), and the decontamination of items and spaces after use (88.4%). ICP were found to have a significant effect on the resources and activities of IPCPs (p<0.001). The resources and activities of IPCPs were found to be significantly different among the five cities (p<0.001). IPCPs for EMPs showed some limitations in their resources and activities. IPCPs should be actively supported, and specific IPCP activities for EMPs should be developed.

  1. Current Status of Infection Prevention and Control Programs for Emergency Medical Personnel in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyang Soon; Uhm, Dong Choon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Emergency medical personnel (EMPs) are pre-hospital emergency responders who are at risk of exposure to infections and may also serve as a source for the transmission of infections. However, few studies of infection control have specifically addressed EMPs in the Republic of Korea (hereafter Korea). The goal of this study was to assess the current status of infection prevention and control programs (IPCPs) for EMPs in Korea. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to quantitatively assess the resources and activities of IPCPs. A total of 907 EMPs in five metropolitan cities completed a structured questionnaire from September 2014 to January 2015. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, multi-response analysis, and the chi-square test. Results: The mean age of the participants was 34.8±15.1 years. IPCPs were found to have weaknesses with regard to the following resources: the assignment of infection control personnel (ICP) (79.5%), hand hygiene resources such as waterless antiseptics (79.3%), the use of paper towels (38.9%), personal protective equipment such as face shields (46.9%), and safety containers for sharps and a separated space for the disposal of infectious waste (10.1%). Likewise, the following activities were found to be inadequately incorporated into the workflow of EMPs: education about infection control (77.5%), post-exposure management (35.9%), and the decontamination of items and spaces after use (88.4%). ICP were found to have a significant effect on the resources and activities of IPCPs (p<0.001). The resources and activities of IPCPs were found to be significantly different among the five cities (p<0.001). Conclusions: IPCPs for EMPs showed some limitations in their resources and activities. IPCPs should be actively supported, and specific IPCP activities for EMPs should be developed. PMID:26639747

  2. The current status and the future of occupational safety and health in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    From the 1970s to 2000, the occupational accident rate in Korea showed a continuous decline. However, the rate has remained stagnant since 2000 even when the fatal injury rate has decreased 40% from that year. Injuries caused by being caught in objects have decreased while those caused by slips and falls on same level and falls from the height have increased. In 2010, the non-fatal injury rate per 100 employees was 0.63 while the fatal injury rate per 100,000 employees was 9.74. The construction industry accounted for 40.2% of all fatal injuries, and falls from the height caused 54.3% of the fatality. Musculoskeletal diseases accounted for 78.8% of the non-fatal occupational diseases while cardio-cerebrovascular diseases and pneumoconiosis are the two major fatal occupational diseases. Occupational diseases caused by chemical agents have decreased to 0.6% of all cases. However, there were several social disputes related to occupational diseases caused by low level of chemicals such as leukemia in a semiconductor company. Korea planned to reduce the fatal injury rate and total workday loss by 30% by 2015. In order to achieve this goal, the government will focus on vulnerable groups in collaboration with allies such as professional associations or organizations.

  3. Noncommunicable diseases: current status of major modifiable risk factors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Chang; Oh, Sun Min

    2013-07-01

    A noncommunicable disease (NCD) is a medical condition or disease that is by definition non-infectious and non-transmissible among people. Currently, NCDs are the leading causes of death and disease burden worldwide. The four main types of NCDs, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes, result in more than 30 million deaths annually. To reduce the burden of NCDs on global health, current public health actions stress the importance of preventing, detecting, and correcting modifiable risk factors; controlling major modifiable risk factors has been shown to effectively reduce NCD mortality. The World Health Organization's World Health Report 2002 identified tobacco use, alcohol consumption, overweight, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol as the most important risk factors for NCDs. Accordingly, the present report set out to review the prevalence and trends of these modifiable risk factors in the Korean population. Over the past few decades, we observed significant risk factor modifications of improved blood pressure control and decreased smoking rate. However, hypertension and cigarette smoking remained the most contributable factors of NCDs in the Korean population. Moreover, other major modifiable risk factors show no improvement or even worsened. The current status and trends in major modifiable risk factors reinforce the importance of prevention, detection, and treatment of risk factors in reducing the burden of NCDs on individuals and society.

  4. [Investigation of actual condition of management and disposal of medical radioactive waste in Korea].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Ichiro; Horiuchi, Shoji; Imoto, Atsushi

    2009-07-20

    In order to realize the rational management and disposal of radioactive waste like DIS or its clearance as performed in Europe, North America, and Japan, we investigated the situation of medical radioactive waste in Korea and its enforcement. We visited three major Korean facilities in May 2008 and confirmed details of the procedure being used by administering a questionnaire after our visit. From the results, we were able to verify that the governmental agency had established regulations for the clearance of radioactive waste as self-disposal based on the clearance level of IAEA in Korea and that the medical facilities performed suitable management and disposal of radioactive waste based on the regulations and superintendence of a radiation safety officer. The type of nuclear medicine was almost the same as that in Japan, and the half-life of all radiopharmaceuticals was 60 days or less. While performing regulatory adjustment concerning the rational management and disposal of radioactive waste in Korea for reference also in this country, it is important to provide an enforcement procedure with quality assurance in the regulations.

  5. History and current condition of Russian psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Valery N; Gurovich, Isaak

    2012-08-01

    Russian psychiatry has a dramatic history, and until now has been at a transitional stage of development. It is facing problems not only common in world psychiatry, but also specific to eastern Europe, in particular Russia. Starting from the beginning of the 1990s, considerable changes have occurred in psychiatry, especially after 1992 when the law on psychiatric care and guarantees of citizens' rights in its provision was adopted. It became the ideological and legislative basis for reforms. However, there are definite obstacles to structural reforms in psychiatry. They are unfavourable technical conditions in many psychiatric clinics, hypercentralization of psychiatric services, shortage of clinical psychologists and social workers in psychiatry, some difficulties in cooperation between psychiatric and general medical institutions. Economic difficulties in the transition period of Russia's social development prevent the overcoming of these problems. They are being actively discussed and some of them are being gradually solved, e.g. the organization of team work in mental health services, the increasing number of specialists on social work, and the involvement of non-government organizations in psychosocial rehabilitation.

  6. Different policy outcomes of the new drugs and currently listed drugs under the positive list system in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui-Kyung; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Mi-Hai

    2012-01-01

    Four years have passed since the positive list system was implemented in South Korea. The system was received well because it has fulfilled its intended objective of enhancing the cost-effectiveness of new drugs. With regard to currently listed drugs, however, debate has lingered since the reevaluation of the cost-effectiveness by therapeutic group. This study intended to review the lessons learned and compromises reached in implementing an evidence-based national formulary. Currently listed drugs are very different from new drugs. In terms of effectiveness, the level of existing evidence tends to be lower for currently listed drugs. Also, the evaluation plan was quite delayed because of the vast amount of literature. In the political decision-making process, a coalition was formed by the pharmaceutical companies with physicians, and the government had difficulty responding because of the strong resistance against the reevaluation of currently listed drugs. Although idealistic, it was an attempt to apply the same standard of cost-effectiveness for currently listed drugs as that for new drugs. To successfully implement the system, however, some factors that need to be considered were limitation of available evidence on currently listed drugs and specific strategies employed against political resistance.

  7. Current Issues in University Education of Korea and Japan. Proceedings of the International Seminar (6th, Seoul, South Korea, July 7-8, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korean Council for Univ. Education, Seoul (South Korea).

    Fourteen conference papers on university education in South Korea and Japan are presented in this document. The papers cover administrative, social, student, and teaching issues and are grouped into six sections based on the major themes of the seminar. The sections are as follows: (1) university administration and management, including "Some…

  8. Social Structural Influences on Healthy Aging: Community-Level Socioeconomic Conditions and Survival Probability of Becoming a Centenarian for Those Aged 65 to 69 in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong In; Kim, Gukbin

    2015-10-01

    This study estimated the associations between community-level socioeconomic conditions and survival probability of becoming a centenarian (SPBC) for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea to determine the social structural influences on healthy aging. The indicators of socioeconomic and data of centenarians were obtained from Statistics Korea database 2014: population census and social survey. Significant positive correlations were found between SPBC and community-level socioeconomic conditions (minimum cost of living and economically active population, water supply and sewerage, pave a road with asphalt, and urbanization). SPBC male and female predictors had higher economic level and base facilities (R2)=0.578, p<.001). The study provides evidence that community-level socioeconomic conditions are important correlates of SPBC for those aged 65 to 69 in South Korea. These strategies should include social structural influences on successful aging in the overall socioeconomic conditions.

  9. Online Registry for Nationwide Database of Current Trend of Helicobacter pylori Eradication in Korea: Interim Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori using first-line therapy is becoming less effective. Subjects who had been treated for H. pylori infection were prospectively enrolled through an on-line database registry from October 2010 to December 2012. Demographic data, detection methods, treatment indication, regimens, durations, compliance, adverse events, and eradication results for H. pylori infection were collected. Data of 3,700 patients from 34 hospitals were analyzed. The overall eradication rate of the first-line therapy was 73.0%. Eradication failure was significantly associated with old age, concomitant medication, and comorbidity. Regional differences in eradication rates were observed. The most common first-line therapy was proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy (standard triple therapy, STT) for 7 days (86.8%). The eradication rates varied with regimens, being 73% in STT, 81.8% in bismuth-based quadruple therapy, 100% in sequential therapy, and 90.3% in concomitant therapy. The eradication rate in treatment-naïve patients was higher than that in patients previously treated for H. pylori infection (73.8% vs. 58.5%, P < 0.001). The overall eradication rate for second-line therapy was 84.3%. There was no statistical difference in eradication rates among various regimens. H. pylori eradication rate using STT is decreasing in Korea and has become sub-optimal, suggesting the need for alternative regimens to improve the efficacy of first-line therapy for H. pylori infection. PMID:27478335

  10. Sequential modification of membrane currents with classical conditioning.

    PubMed Central

    Collin, C; Ikeno, H; Harrigan, J F; Lederhendler, I; Alkon, D L

    1988-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning of the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis was previously shown to produce long-lasting reduction of two K+ currents measured across the Type B photoreceptor soma membrane (Alkon et al., 1982a; Alkon et al., 1985). Pavlovian conditioning of the rabbit was also shown to be followed by persistent K+ current reduction (Disterhoft et al., 1986). Here we report the first evidence that Ca2+ currents can also be modified by conditioning. The amplitude of the currents rather than their voltage-dependence remains reduced at least 1-2 d after conditioning (but not control procedures). Conditioning-induced changes of both K+ and Ca2+ currents increased as a function of training, the Ca2+ currents only changing substantially with greater than or equal to 250 trials. The later changes of the Ca2+ current may function to limit the magnitude of excitability increases due to associative learning. PMID:2853980

  11. Current Trend of Robotic Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeries in Korea: Analysis of Seven-Year National Data.

    PubMed

    Kang, Chang Hyun; Bok, Jin San; Lee, Na Rae; Kim, Young Tae; Lee, Seon Heui; Lim, Cheong

    2015-10-01

    Robotic surgery is an alternative to minimally invasive surgery. The aim of this study was to report on current trends in robotic thoracic and cardiovascular surgical techniques in Korea. Data from the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency (NECA) between January 2006 and June 2012 were used in this study, including a total of 932 cases of robotic surgeries reported to NECA. The annual trends in the case volume, indications for robotic surgery, and distribution by hospitals and surgeons were analyzed in this study. Of the 932 cases, 591 (63%) were thoracic operations and 340 (37%) were cardiac operations. The case number increased explosively in 2007 and 2008. However, the rate of increase regained a steady state after 2011. The main indications for robotic thoracic surgery were pulmonary disease (n=271, 46%), esophageal disease (n=199, 34%), and mediastinal disease (n=117, 20%). The main indications for robotic cardiac surgery were valvular heart disease (n=228, 67%), atrial septal defect (n=79, 23%), and cardiac myxoma (n=27, 8%). Robotic thoracic and cardiovascular surgeries were performed in 19 hospitals. Three large volume hospitals performed 94% of the case volume of robotic cardiac surgery and 74% of robotic thoracic surgery. Centralization of robotic operation was significantly (p<0.0001) more common in cardiac surgery than in thoracic surgery. A total of 39 surgeons performed robotic surgeries. However, only 27% of cardiac surgeons and 23% of thoracic surgeons performed more than 10 cases of robotic surgery. Trend analysis of robotic and cardiovascular operations demonstrated a gradual increase in the surgical volume in Korea. Meanwhile, centralization of surgical cases toward specific surgeons in specific hospitals was observed.

  12. Assessment of hydraulic fish habitat condition using integrated toolkit: a case study of the Geum river basin, Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sangyoung; Kim, Jeongkon; Ko, Ick Hwan; Arthington, Angela; Jones, Gary; Yum, Kyung Taek

    2010-01-01

    Artificial changes of rivers, including construction and operation of dams, inevitably lead to physical and ecological changes throughout waterways and their floodplains. In this study, a conceptual model coupled with integrated numerical modeling is presented for hydraulic fish habitat assessment of the Geum River basin, Republic of Korea. Based on the major events which might have affected the ecological system, a conceptual model was formulated to guide desktop and field studies, modeling and scenario evaluations. The result of hydraulic fish habitat assessment indicated that the construction of the Daecheong Multipurpose Dam (DMD) in the Geum River basin has altered flow magnitudes and reduced the river's flow variability. Changes are evident in the magnitude of medium and small flows and the river experiences increased low flows during the dry season. Black shiner, an endangered fish species in Korea, was selected and analyzed to explore relationships between flow regime change by dams and changes to its preferred habitats. As a result, fewer sensitive riffle-benthic species were observed in the reaches downstream of DMD due to the reduction of suitable habitat conditions such as riffle-pool sequences. The proposed conceptual model and integrated toolkit would allow river managers to isolate the physical and biological effects associated with dam operation and could be useful for developing river management strategies.

  13. Norms for Behavior and Conditions in Two National Park Campgrounds in Korea

    PubMed

    Kim; Shelby

    1998-03-01

    / This study was conducted to examine norm prevalence, norm agreement, and norm stability in an international setting. Data were collected at two campgrounds in Chiri-Mountain National Park, Korea, in 1993 and 1994. Results showed that a high proportion of users could specify norms for various types of campground impacts. Users who rated high importance on impacts tended to show a higher level of norm prevalence. Generally there were differences in social norms and norm agreement across locations. Among those impacts that showed differences, social norms in a less developed area were more restrictive and norm agreement was higher. The results of this study are consistent with normative studies conducted in North America, suggesting that a normative approach can be applied in a variety of settings. Social norms for selected impact indicators were also stable over a one-year time period. Implications are discussed.KEY WORDS: Norms; Norm prevalence; Norm agreement; Norm stability

  14. Current status of the institutional review boards in Korea: constitution, operation, and policy for protection of human research participants.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ock-Joo; Park, Byung-Joo; Sohn, Dong-Ryul; Lee, Seung-Mi; Shin, Sang-Goo

    2003-01-01

    The institutional review board is crucial to ensure the scientific and ethical quality of human participant research. This paper analyzes a survey on the current constitution and operation of institutional review boards (IRBs) in Korea, conducted by the Korean Association of Institutional Review Boards in April 2002. Out of 74 IRBs, 63 responded to the survey (85.1% response rate). IRB membership has a male-to-female ratio of approximately 80:20, a predominance of male clinicians (60%) and an underrepresentation of community people unaffiliated to the institutions (less than 10%). Most IRBs (around 80%) confine the scope of their reviews to the clinical evaluation of drugs or devices, leaving the remaining areas of research involving human participants untouched. As their role is limited, the majority of IRBs do not operate actively: 72% of responding IRBs reviewed less than one protocol per month in 2001. Sixty two percent of institutions have never discussed the need for insuring research participants' risks or making indemnity arrangements. This survey reveals many shortcomings and points for improvement by the institutional support bodies, including the need to establish regular education programs for IRB members and investigators. PMID:12589079

  15. Current and future emission estimates of exhaust gases and particles from shipping at the largest port in Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The emissions of exhaust gases (NOx , SO2, VOCs, and CO2) and particles (e.g., PM) from ships traversing Busan Port in Korea were estimated over three different years (the years 2006, 2008, and 2009). This analysis was performed according to the ship operational modes ("at sea," "maneuvering," and "in port") and ship types based on an activity-based method. The ship emissions for current (base year 2009) and future scenarios (years 2020 and 2050) were also compared. The annual emissions of SO2, VOCs, PM, and CO2 were highest (9.6 × 10(3), 374, 1.2 × 10(3), and 5.6 × 10(5) ton year(-1), respectively) in 2008. In contrast, the annual NO x emissions were highest (11.7 × 10(3) ton year(-1)) in 2006 due mainly to the high NO x emission factor. The emissions of air pollutants for each ship operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in "in port" mode. In addition, the largest fraction (approximately 45-67%) of the emissions of all air pollutants during the study period was emitted from container ships. The future ship emissions of most pollutants (except for SO2 and PM) in 2020 and 2050 are estimated to be 1.4-1.8 and 4.7-6.1 times higher than those in 2009 (base year), respectively.

  16. Current Status and Clinical Studies of Oriental Herbs in Sexual Medicine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Yu Seob; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Li Tao

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most common diseases among aging men. Although previous studies have shown that type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE5-Is) are very effective for the treatment of ED, many researchers are currently attempting to identify therapeutic agents from natural sources with comparable or better effects than PDE5-Is. Herbal medicine is thought to be advantageous because it is natural; moreover, it not only treats isolated symptoms, but also maintains general well-being. Furthermore, since newly created chemical compound libraries have limited structural diversity with regard to pharmaceutical agents, more attention has recently been paid to the ability of oriental herbs to enhance physical health, including sexual function. Herein, we review the current status of Korean preclinical or clinical studies of the application of oriental herbs to sexual medicine. PMID:26331122

  17. Dynamic strength of armature materials under pulsed current conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Duane C.; Noel, Andrew P.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for generating tensile-strength-versus electrical-action curves for armature materials under pulsed current conditions is presented. This technique is capable of imposing high strain rates (above 1000/sec) under pulse current conditions by electromagnetically expanding a wire formed from a candidate armature material. The strain rate is derived by determining the change in mutual inductance between the expanding test wire and a fixed reference wire. The experimental technique and results obtained for aluminum and copper armature materials are described. The results indicate that aluminum and copper armature materials maintain a high percentage of room-temperature tensile strength under actual railgun conditions.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Behcet's Disease Current Activity Form in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo Jin; Seo, Mi Ryoung; Ryu, Hee Jung; Baek, Han Joo

    2015-09-01

    This study was undertaken to perform a cross-cultural adaptation of the Behcet's Disease Current Activity Form (BDCAF, version 2006) questionnaire to the Korean language and to evaluate its reliability and validity in a population of Korean patients with Behcet's disease (BD). A cross-cultural study was conducted among patients with BD who attended our rheumatology clinic between November 2012 and March 2013. There were 11 males and 35 females in the group. The mean age of the participants was 48.5 years and the mean disease duration was 6.4 years. The first BDCAF questionnaire was completed on arrival and the second assessment was performed 20 minutes later by a different physician. The test-retest reliability was analyzed by computing κ statistics. Kappa scores of > 0.6 indicated a good agreement. To assess the validity, we compared the total BDCAF score with the patient's/clinician's perception of disease activity and the Korean version of the Behcet's Disease Quality of Life (BDQOL). For the test-retest reliability, good agreements were achieved on items such as headache, oral/genital ulceration, erythema, skin pustules, arthralgia, nausea/vomiting/abdominal pain, and diarrhea with altered/frank blood per rectum. Moderate agreement was observed for eye and nervous system involvement. We achieved a fair agreement for arthritis and major vessel involvement. Significant correlations were obtained between the total BDCAF score with the BDQOL and the patient's/clinician's perception of disease activity p < 0.05). The Korean version of the BDCAF is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring current disease activity in Korean BD patients.

  19. Does Korea's current diagnosis-related group-based reimbursement system appropriately classify appendectomy patients?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kee-Hwan; Lee, Sang Chul; Lee, Sang Kuon; Choi, Byung-Jo; Jeong, Wonjun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As several years have passed since the implementation of the Korean diagnosis-related group (DRG) payment system for appendicitis, its early outcomes should be assessed to determine if further improvements are warranted. Methods We retrospectively analyzed clinical data from Korean patients who underwent appendectomy, dividing the sample into 2 groups of those who received services before and after implementation of the DRG system. Based on the DRG code classification, patient data were collected including the amount of DRG reimbursement and the total in-patient costs. We subsequently performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify independent factors contributing to higher total in-patient cost. Results Although implementation of the DRG system for appendicitis significantly reduced postoperative length of stay (2.8 ± 1.0 days vs. 3.4 ± 1.9 days, P < 0.001), it did not reduce total in-hospital cost. The independent factors related to total inhospital cost included patient age of 70 years or more (odds ratio [OR], 3.214; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.769–5.840; P < 0.001) and operation time longer than 100 minutes (OR, 3.690; 95% CI, 2.007–6.599, P < 0.001). In addition, older patients (≥70 years) showed a nearly 10 times greater relative risk for having a comorbid condition (95% CI, 5.141–20.214; P < 0.001) and a 3.255 times greater relative risk for having higher total in-hospital cost (95% CI, 1.731–6.119, P < 0.001). Conclusion It appears that older patients (>70 years) have greater comorbidities, which contribute to higher inpatient costs. Thus, our study suggests that patient age be considered as a DRG classification variable. PMID:27478811

  20. Current status of final design and R&D for ITER blanket shield blocks in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, M. S.; Kim, S. W.; Jung, H. C.; Hwang, H. S.; Heo, Y. G.; Kim, D. H.; Ahn, H. J.; Lee, H. G.; Jung, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    them and to optimize the cooling channels. The SB #8 FSP was manufactured and tested in accordance with the pre-qualification program based on the preliminary design, and related R&D activities were implemented to resolve the fabrication issues. This paper provides the current status of the final design and relevant R&D activities of the blanket SB.

  1. Outbreak conditions for Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in the southern coastal waters of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon Ock; Choi, Jae Hoon; Park, Il Heum

    2010-08-01

    We conducted field observations to investigate the cause of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in the Korean Southern Coastal Waters (KSCW), and also analyzed information on marine environmental factors obtained from the National Fisheries and Development Institute (NFRDI), from 1995 to 2008. Long-term tidal currents revealed a two-layered flow with the upper current flowing toward Boddolbada located between Narodo and Nammyeon, and the lower current out of the bay. Water temperatures were higher at the north than at the south of the bay, whereas salinities exhibited the reverse trend. C. polykrikoides blooms occurred at a water temperature of approximately 25.0-26.0 degrees C and a salinity of approximately 31.00 in the seas neighboring Narodo Islands. The outbreak of C. polykrikoides blooms in the seas neighboring Narodo Islands in summer was influenced by thermohaline fronts observed between the KSCW and Tsushima Warm Current (TWC).

  2. Evaluation of current regulations and real accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, L.E.; Kimura, C.Y.; Witte, M.C.

    1985-04-05

    In order to improve estimates of the effectiveness of current regulatory standards, a program was initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to have the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) evaluate regulatory standards against real world accident conditions. This paper presents the results of the evaluation performed for the hypothetical 30-foot drop onto an unyielding surface and real world impact conditions which might be experienced by a spent fuel cask being transported by a truck. The results of the evaluations performed for other pertinent accident conditions for truck and train transport will be documented at the conclusion of the program. 10 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Upland oak ecology symposium: history, current conditions, and sustainability

    Treesearch

    Martin A. Spetich

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-one papers address the ecology, history, current conditions, and sustainability of upland oak forests - with emphasis on the Interior Highlands. Subject categories were selected to provide focused coverage of the state-of-the-art research and understanding of upland oak ecology of the region.

  4. Modeling current climate conditions for forest pest risk assessment

    Treesearch

    Frank H. Koch; John W. Coulston

    2010-01-01

    Current information on broad-scale climatic conditions is essential for assessing potential distribution of forest pests. At present, sophisticated spatial interpolation approaches such as the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) are used to create high-resolution climatic data sets. Unfortunately, these data sets are based on 30-year...

  5. Current leakage performance of dielectric elastomers under different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tongqing; Shi, Zhibao; Chen, Zhiqiang; Huang, He; Wang, T. J.

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade, dielectric elastomers have become promising candidates in the applications of soft electromechanical transducers due to their outstanding properties of large deformation and high energy density. Current leakage of dielectric elastomer is one of the important dissipative mechanisms affecting the energy conversion efficiency. In this work, we experimentally investigate the current leakage performance of dielectric elastomers with different boundary conditions. We find that for displacement-type boundary conditions, the transition from Ohmic conduction to non-Ohmic conduction is abrupt near the critical electric field. By comparison, for force-type boundary conditions, the current leakage density versus electric field curve is smooth and is fit well by an exponential function. The equivalent resistivity of dielectric elastomers under force-type boundary conditions is approximately an order of magnitude smaller than that under displacement-type boundary conditions. The difference is qualitatively explained by a microscopic physical model. These results will help to design and optimize dielectric elastomer transducers to improve their energy conversion efficiency.

  6. Induction machine condition monitoring using notch-filtered motor current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günal, Serkan; Gökhan Ece, Dog˜an; Nezih Gerek, Ömer

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a new approach to induction motor condition monitoring using notch-filtered motor current signature analysis (NFMCSA). Unlike most of the previous work utilizing motor current signature analysis (MCSA) using spectral methods to extract required features for detecting motor fault conditions, here NFMCSA is performed in time-domain to extract features of energy, sample extrema, and third and fourth cumulants evaluated from data within sliding time window. Six identical three-phase induction motors were used for the experimental verification of the proposed method. One healthy machine was used as a reference, while other five with different synthetic faults were used for condition detection and classification. Extracted features obtained from NFMCSA of all motors were employed in three different and popular classifiers. The proposed motor current analysis and the performance of the features used for fault detection and classification are examined at various motor load levels and it is shown that a successful induction motor condition monitoring system is developed. Developed system is also able to indicate the load level and the type of a fault in multi-dimensional feature space representation. In order to test the generality and applicability of the developed method to other induction motors, data acquired from another healthy induction motor with different number of poles and rated power is also incorporated into the system. In spite of the above difference, the proposed feature set successfully locates the healthy motor within the classification cluster of "healthy motors" on the feature space.

  7. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-29

    Mohamud Rage, stated that “we are sending a message to Uganda and Burundi , if they do not take out their AMISOM troops from Somalia, blasts will...Religions: Roman Catholic 42%, Protestant 42%, Muslim 12%, Indigenous beliefs 4%. Language: English (official) GDP (purchasing power parity—PPP): $42.1...billion (2008) GDP per capita (PPP): $1,300.00 (2009) Source: CIA, The World Factbook, 2010. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North

  8. Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, H.D.; Kryter, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting changes in process conditions or the presence of mechanical abnormalities. It was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as a means for determining the effects of service wear on motor-operated valves used in nuclear power plant safety systems. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer, sensing both large and small, long-term and rapid, mechanical load variation and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. The motor current signature, which is carried by the motor power cables, can be extracted at a convenient location and processed as needed to obtain time- and frequency-domain (spectral) characteristics which provide equipment condition indicators for trending over time. MCSA technology (patent applied for) has already been applied successfully to motor-operated valves, vacuum pumps, water pumps, air blowers and air conditioning systems, and examples of such application will be presented. The applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also discussed. 1 ref., 8 figs.

  9. Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process ''downstream'' of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given. 1 ref., 13 figs.

  10. Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kryter, R. C.; Haynes, H. D.

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process downstream of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given.

  11. Environmental drivers of spatial patterns of topsoil nitrogen and phosphorus under monsoon conditions in a complex terrain of South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwanghun; Spohn, Marie; Park, Soo Jin; Huwe, Bernd; Ließ, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in topsoils are critical for plant nutrition. Relatively little is known about the spatial patterns of N and P in the organic layer of mountainous landscapes. Therefore, the spatial distributions of N and P in both the organic layer and the A horizon were analyzed using a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) digital elevation model and vegetation metrics. The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of vegetation and topography on the spatial patterns of N and P in a small watershed covered by forest in South Korea. Soil samples were collected using the conditioned latin hypercube method. LiDAR vegetation metrics, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and terrain parameters were derived as predictors. Spatial explicit predictions of N/P ratios were obtained using a random forest with uncertainty analysis. We tested different strategies of model validation (repeated 2-fold to 20-fold and leave-one-out cross validation). Repeated 10-fold cross validation was selected for model validation due to the comparatively high accuracy and low variance of prediction. Surface curvature was the best predictor of P contents in the organic layer and in the A horizon, while LiDAR vegetation metrics and NDVI were important predictors of N in the organic layer. N/P ratios increased with surface curvature and were higher on the convex upper slope than on the concave lower slope. This was due to P enrichment of the soil on the lower slope and a more even spatial distribution of N. Our digital soil maps showed that the topsoils on the upper slopes contained relatively little P. These findings are critical for understanding N and P dynamics in mountainous ecosystems. PMID:28837590

  12. [Effects of different ecological conditions on grain quality and RVA profile of japonica rice from Yunnan of China and Korea].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen-hua; Kim, Ki-young; Yuan, Ping-rong; Zhao, Guo-zhen; Su, Zhen-xi; Liao, Xin-hua; Yang, Sea-jun; Dai, Lu-yuan

    2009-12-01

    Taking sixteen japonica rice varieties from Yunnan of China and Korea growing at three locations with different altitudes in Yunnan Plateau as test materials, this paper studied the effects of different ecological conditions on their grain quality, including brown rice length (BRL), brown rice width (BRW), length-width ratio (L/W), chalky rate (CR), whiteness (WH), amylose content (AC), protein content (PC), and alkali digestion value (ADV), and their starch RVA profile, including peak viscosity (PKV), hot viscosity (HTV), final viscosity (FLV), breakdown viscosity (BDV), setback viscosity (SBV), consistence viscosity( CTV), peak time (PeT), and pasting temperature (PaT). Of all the test parameters, SBV had the largest coefficient of variation. The coefficients of variation of BRL, CR, AC, PC, ADV, FLV, SBV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties were higher than those of Korean varieties, while the BRW, L/W, WH, PKV, HTV, BDV, CTV, and PaT of Korean varieties had higher coefficients of variation than those of Yunnan varieties. With increasing altitude, the BRL, BRW, L/W, WH, AC, ADV, FLV, and CTV of Yunnan varieties, and the BRL, BRW, WH, PC, PKV, HTV and BDV of Korean varieties decreased significantly, while the CR, PC, HTV, and PeT of Yunnan varieties, and the L/W, AC, ADV, SBV and CTV of Korean varieties increased significantly. The CR of Korean varieties had no obvious change. The PKV, BDV, and PaT of Yunnan varieties and the PaT of Korean varieties increased after an initial decrease, whereas the SBV of Yunnan varieties and the FLV and PeT of Korean varieties were in reverse.

  13. Environmental drivers of spatial patterns of topsoil nitrogen and phosphorus under monsoon conditions in a complex terrain of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwanyong; Choi, Kwanghun; Spohn, Marie; Park, Soo Jin; Huwe, Bernd; Ließ, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in topsoils are critical for plant nutrition. Relatively little is known about the spatial patterns of N and P in the organic layer of mountainous landscapes. Therefore, the spatial distributions of N and P in both the organic layer and the A horizon were analyzed using a light detection and ranging (LiDAR) digital elevation model and vegetation metrics. The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of vegetation and topography on the spatial patterns of N and P in a small watershed covered by forest in South Korea. Soil samples were collected using the conditioned latin hypercube method. LiDAR vegetation metrics, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and terrain parameters were derived as predictors. Spatial explicit predictions of N/P ratios were obtained using a random forest with uncertainty analysis. We tested different strategies of model validation (repeated 2-fold to 20-fold and leave-one-out cross validation). Repeated 10-fold cross validation was selected for model validation due to the comparatively high accuracy and low variance of prediction. Surface curvature was the best predictor of P contents in the organic layer and in the A horizon, while LiDAR vegetation metrics and NDVI were important predictors of N in the organic layer. N/P ratios increased with surface curvature and were higher on the convex upper slope than on the concave lower slope. This was due to P enrichment of the soil on the lower slope and a more even spatial distribution of N. Our digital soil maps showed that the topsoils on the upper slopes contained relatively little P. These findings are critical for understanding N and P dynamics in mountainous ecosystems.

  14. Strength and conditioning in tennis: current research and practice.

    PubMed

    Reid, Machar; Schneiker, Knut

    2008-06-01

    Virtually all professional tennis players are in continuous pursuit of enhanced performance. With the modern game becoming increasingly dynamic and tournament schedules no less demanding, the importance of physical fitness is well accepted. Indeed, most professional tennis players resource strength and conditioning specialists on a full- or part-time basis. As tennis play is characterised by intricate bio-energetics, planning specific strength and conditioning interventions represents a significant challenge for the specialist. Further, where game physiology and mechanics have been described extensively, critiques of the efficacy of different training initiatives are far less common. This review therefore considers the current scientific, tennis-specific fitness training evidence base in light of contemporary conditioning, and more particularly resistance training, practices.

  15. Structure of current and plasma in current sheets depending on the conditions of sheet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, A. G.; Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Yushkov, E. V.; Artemyev, A. V.; Satunin, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of current sheets created under laboratory conditions is characterized by a large variety, which depends substantially on the conditions under which the sheet if formed. In this work, we present the results of an experimental study of the structure and evolution of current sheets that were formed in magnetic configurations with a singular line of the X type. It has been shown that the change in the transverse magnetic field gradient, the strength of the longitudinal magnetic field, and the mass of the ions in plasma makes it possible to significantly vary the main parameters of the current sheets. This offers the challenges of using laboratory experimental results for analyzing and simulating the cosmophysical processes.

  16. Automotive batteries under current- or voltage- regulated charging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Moresby, J.F.; Rand, D.A.J.

    1984-10-01

    The value of cobalt as an automotive battery elixir has been assessed under both current-regulated (AS 2149 Test) and voltage-regulated (SAE J240a Test) charging conditions. Cobalt exerts a beneficial effect in the former but an antagonistic effect in the latter. Degradation in battery performance under voltage control is due to the depolarizing action of cobalt. This situation is unchanged with voltage limits between 14.8 and 13.8 V. Since present-day automobiles are fitted with voltage regulators, it is concluded that cobalt offers little promise of improving the service life of automotive batteries.

  17. Photodynamic therapy: current role in the treatment of chorioretinal conditions

    PubMed Central

    Newman, D K

    2016-01-01

    Verteporfin photodynamic therapy (vPDT) is a selective vaso-occlusive treatment that targets choroidal vascular abnormalities. It was initially developed to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration using the ‘standard' vPDT protocol (verteporfin 6 mg/m2, vPDT laser fluence 50 J/cm2). vPDT therapy has subsequently evolved as an important treatment modality for a range of other chorioretinal conditions including choroidal haemangioma, central serous chorioretinopathy, polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy, and peripapillary choroidal neovascularisation. Various ‘safety-enhanced' vPDT protocols have been devised to optimise treatment outcomes, typically using reduced dose verteporfin (verteporfin 3 mg/m2) or reduced fluence vPDT (vPDT laser fluence 25 J/cm2). This paper reviews the current role of vPDT therapy in the treatment of chorioretinal conditions. PMID:26742867

  18. High Accuracy Temperature Measurements Using RTDs with Current Loop Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.

    1997-01-01

    To measure temperatures with a greater degree of accuracy than is possible with thermocouples, RTDs (Resistive Temperature Detectors) are typically used. Calibration standards use specialized high precision RTD probes with accuracies approaching 0.001 F. These are extremely delicate devices, and far too costly to be used in test facility instrumentation. Less costly sensors which are designed for aeronautical wind tunnel testing are available and can be readily adapted to probes, rakes, and test rigs. With proper signal conditioning of the sensor, temperature accuracies of 0.1 F is obtainable. For reasons that will be explored in this paper, the Anderson current loop is the preferred method used for signal conditioning. This scheme has been used in NASA Lewis Research Center's 9 x 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel, and is detailed.

  19. Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augment Extinction of Conditioned Fear?

    PubMed Central

    van ’t Wout, Mascha; Mariano, Timothy Y.; Garnaat, Sarah L.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exposure-based therapy parallels extinction learning of conditioned fear. Prior research points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as a potential site for the consolidation of extinction learning and subsequent retention of extinction memory. Objective/hypothesis The present study aimed to evaluate whether the application of non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during extinction learning enhances late extinction and early recall in human participants. Methods Forty-four healthy volunteers completed a 2-day Pavlovian fear conditioning, extinction, and recall paradigm while skin conductance activity was continuously measured. Twenty-six participants received 2 mA anodal tDCS over EEG coordinate AF3 during extinction of a first conditioned stimulus. The remaining 18 participants received similar tDCS during extinction of a second conditioned stimulus. Sham stimulation was applied for the balance of extinction trials in both groups. Normalized skin conductance changes were analyzed using linear mixed models to evaluate effects of tDCS over late extinction and early recall trials. Results We observed a significant interaction between timing of tDCS during extinction blocks and changes in skin conductance reactivity over late extinction trials. These data indicate that tDCS was associated with accelerated late extinction learning of a second conditioned stimulus after tDCS was combined with extinction learning of a previous conditioned stimulus. No significant effects of tDCS timing were observed on early extinction recall. Conclusions Results could be explained by an anxiolytic aftereffect of tDCS and extend previous studies on tDCS-induced modulation of fear and threat related learning processes. These findings support further exploration of the clinical use of tDCS. PMID:27037186

  20. Can Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Augment Extinction of Conditioned Fear?

    PubMed

    van 't Wout, Mascha; Mariano, Timothy Y; Garnaat, Sarah L; Reddy, Madhavi K; Rasmussen, Steven A; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2016-01-01

    Exposure-based therapy parallels extinction learning of conditioned fear. Prior research points to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex as a potential site for the consolidation of extinction learning and subsequent retention of extinction memory. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the application of non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) during extinction learning enhances late extinction and early recall in human participants. Forty-four healthy volunteers completed a 2-day Pavlovian fear conditioning, extinction, and recall paradigm while skin conductance activity was continuously measured. Twenty-six participants received 2 mA anodal tDCS over EEG coordinate AF3 during extinction of a first conditioned stimulus. The remaining 18 participants received similar tDCS during extinction of a second conditioned stimulus. Sham stimulation was applied for the balance of extinction trials in both groups. Normalized skin conductance changes were analyzed using linear mixed models to evaluate effects of tDCS over late extinction and early recall trials. We observed a significant interaction between timing of tDCS during extinction blocks and changes in skin conductance reactivity over late extinction trials. These data indicate that tDCS was associated with accelerated late extinction learning of a second conditioned stimulus after tDCS was combined with extinction learning of a previous conditioned stimulus. No significant effects of tDCS timing were observed on early extinction recall. Results could be explained by an anxiolytic aftereffect of tDCS and extend previous studies on tDCS-induced modulation of fear and threat related learning processes. These findings support further exploration of the clinical use of tDCS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Study of quality assurance regulations for linear accelerators in Korea: A comparison study between the current status in Korea and the international guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunho; Jeong, Seonghoon; Jo, Yunhui; Yoon, Myonggeun

    2015-07-01

    Quality assurance (QA) for medical linear accelerators is indispensable for appropriate cancer treatment. Some international organizations and advanced Western countries have provided QA guidelines for linear accelerators. Currently, QA regulations for linear accelerators in Korean hospitals specify a system in which each hospital stipulates its independent hospital-based protocols for QA procedures (HP_QAPs) and conducts QA based on those HP_QAPs while regulatory authorities verify whether items under those HP_QAPs have been performed. However, because this regulatory method cannot guarantee the quality of universal treatment and QA items with tolerance criteria are different in many hospitals, the presentation of standardized QA items and tolerance criteria is essential. In this study, QA items in HP_QAPs from various hospitals and those presented by international organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency, the European Union, and the American Association of Physicist in Medicine, and by advanced Western countries, such as the USA, the UK, and Canada, were compared. Concordance rates between QA items for linear accelerators that were presented by the aforementioned organizations and those currently being implemented in Korean hospitals were shown to exhibit a daily QA of 50%, a weekly QA of 22%, a monthly QA of 43%, and an annual QA of 65%, and the overall concordance rates of all QA items were approximately 48%. In the comparison between QA items being implemented in Korean hospitals and those being implemented in advanced Western countries, concordance rates were shown to exhibit a daily QA of 50%, a weekly QA of 33%, a monthly QA of 60%, and an annual QA of 67%, and the overall concordance rates of all QA items were approximately 57%. The results of this study indicate that the HP_QAPs currently implemented by Korean hospitals as QA standards for linear accelerators used in radiation therapy do not meet international standards. If this

  2. Clay minerals and gravels of late Pleistocene interstadial coastal sediments above the current sea level, south coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D. Y.; Kim, J. C.; Lim, J.; Yi, S.; Nahm, W. H.; Kim, J. Y.; Han, M.

    2015-12-01

    At nowadays, the severe greenhouse effect causes rapid sea level rise around the Korea Peninsula. Paleo-climate researches have been concentrating on hydrological activities during the mid-Holocene optimum and the last interglacial period to use the paleo-analogues data in predicting the future hydrological environments. The previous studies on the late Pleistocene interstadial coastal sediments have primarily been biased towards the terraces of the east coast in the Korean Peninsula. According to the results, the last interglacial marine terraces of the east coast were existed at 18 m in elevation. Uplift rate of them was presumed to be 0.1mm/year (Choi, 2006). Also, the stratigraphy of the Quaternary coastal deposits of the Yellow Sea has been suggested by Park et al. (1998) and Lim et al. (2003). In recent, Jang et al. (2014) reported the OSL dated Eemian marine deposit along the southwest coast of Korea. However, the age-equivalent outcrops of the south coast are not discovered yet. The first outcrops of the late Pleistocene interstadial coastal sediment above the present sea level were discovered at IJin-ri site of Haenam, south coast of Korea. It would be very useful for calculating the rates of Eemian sea level rise and uplift of south coast of Korea. 62 cubic samples were collected at 6 cm intervals from the section (4.8-8.83m in elevation). Four sedimentary units, from Unit 1 to 4 in ascending order, are distinguished based on sedimentary textures and grain size distribution as follows: Unit 1 (sand, 4.8 m-5.32 m in elevation), Unit 2 (silty clay, 5.32 m-6.8 m in elevation), Unit 3 (gravelly sand, 6.8m-7.8m in elevation) and, Unit 4(sandy gravel, 7.8m-8.83m in elevation). The sediments which included rounded or semi-rounded gravels are thought to be transported from marine. Also, the assemblages of clay minerals from the sections are similar to those of Yellow Sea. It shows the possibility that the sediments originated from marine during high sea level

  3. Do Downscaled General Circulation Models Reliably Simulate Current Climatic Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, L.; Bock, A. R.; McCabe, G. J., Jr.; Markstrom, S. L.; Atkinson, D.

    2016-12-01

    The accuracy of statistically-downscaled (SD) General Circulation Model (GCM) simulations of monthly surface climate for historical conditions (1950-2000) used to drive a monthly water balance model (MWBM) were assessed for the conterminous United States (CONUS). SD monthly precipitation (PPT) and atmospheric temperature (TAVE) from 95 GCMs (38 from the coupled model intercomparison project (CMIP) 3 and 57 from CMIP5) were used as inputs to a MWBM. Input (PPT, TAVE) and output (snow water equivalent (SWE), and runoff (RUN)) MWBM variables were evaluated by comparing variables computed using historical climate forcings (developed from gridded station data (GSD)) with those computed using historical SD climate. Distributions of GSD- and SD-based MWBM variables were compared using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (KS Test). When all MWBM variables were considered, the KS Test results showed an overall improvement by the CMIP5- relative to CMIP3-based simulations, likely due to improvements in PPT simulations. Results from this study indicate that for the majority of the CONUS, there are downscaled GCMs that can reliably simulate current climatic conditions. But, in some locations (particularly in California), there are no downscaled GCMs tested that replicate historical conditions for all four MWBM variables. In these locations, improved GCM simulations of precipitation are needed to more reliably estimate components of the hydrologic cycle.

  4. Medical device reimbursement coverage and pricing rules in Korea: current practice and issues with access to innovation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Soo; Salole, Eugene

    2014-06-01

    The development of health funding policy in Korea has followed the country's rapid economic development, with a comprehensive National Health Insurance (NHI) system in place by 1989. The funding of medical devices has followed this progression, with incorporation into the NHI reimbursement system in 2000 (several years later than pharmaceuticals), but important issues affecting patient access remain. Although the effect of devices on the NHI budget is relatively modest (only about 4%), because of concerns about NHI sustainability, attention has increasingly been paid to their management and funding. Unlike pharmaceuticals, however, it has been quite challenging to develop clear and fair criteria for reimbursement coverage and pricing of medical devices. The two key and longstanding issues around the reimbursement of medical devices in Korea are how to expedite market entry of improved or innovative medical devices at appropriate prices, and how to satisfactorily lower the reimbursement levels of older devices, thereby making headroom for new technologies to be reimbursed. Despite protracted discussions over the last decade, industry and government have been unable to reach full agreement. There has been some progress (e.g., introduction of the Value Appraisal and the Revaluation Systems), but there remains urgent need for productive discussion and consensus between government and industry regarding reasonable funding rules, transparency, and clarity in the reimbursement pricing process for medical devices.

  5. Conditions for Lower Hybrid Current Drive in ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesario, R.; Amicucci, L.; Cardinali, A.; Castaldo, C.; Ceccuzzi, S.; Napoli, F.; Tuccillo, A. A.; Galli, A.; Schettini, G.

    2012-12-01

    To control the plasma current profile represents one of the most important problems of the research of nuclear fusion energy based on the tokamak concept, as in the plasma column the necessary conditions of stability and confinement should be satisfied. This problem can be solved by using the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) effect, which was demonstrated to occur also at reactor grade high plasma densities provided that a proper method should be utilised, as assessed on FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade). This method, based on theoretical predictions confirmed by experiment, produces relatively high electron temperature at the plasma periphery and scrape-off layer (SOL), consequently reducing the broadening of the spectrum launched by the antenna produced by parasitic wave physics of the edge, namely parametric instability (PI). The new results presented here show that, for kinetic profiles now foreseen for the SOL of ITER, PI is expected to hugely broaden the antenna spectrum and prevent any penetration in the core of the coupled LH power. However, considering the FTU method and assuming higher electron temperature at the edge (which would be however reasonable for ITER) the PI-produced spectral broadening would be mitigated, and enable the penetration of the coupled LH power in the main plasma. By successful LHCD effect, the control of the plasma current profile at normalised minor radius of about 0.8 would be possible, with much higher efficiency than that obtainable by other tools. A very useful reinforce of bootstrap current effects would be thus possible by LHCD in ITER.

  6. Predicting EMIC wave properties from ring current plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowee, M.; Fu, X.; Jordanova, V.

    2015-12-01

    Recently, sophisticated computer models have shown that accurate, dynamic modelling of the energetic electrons in the radiation belt requires global and real-time plasma and wave conditions. Data provided by in-situ spacecraft measurement are too sparse to supply enough inputs for continuous global modeling of the radiation belt. Here we present a model to predict amplitude, peak frequency and spectral width of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave from the anisotropic ring current ion distributions, which are the source of the wave. The model is derived from hybrid simulations in a large initial parameter space for plasmas consisting of electrons, protons, and helium ions. Key parameters include the ratio of plasma frequency to ion gyrofrequency, the density, temperature and anisotropy of hot ions, and the cold-ion composition. The results show that amplitude, peak frequency and spectral width of EMIC waves can be related to linear properties of the anisotropy-driven instability, e.g. growth rate and plasma beta, through simple analytic formulas. Combined with a dynamic ring current model, this model can provide global EMIC wave information needed for radiation-belt modeling.

  7. Meteorological Conditions Causing Jet-Engine Poweloss Events: Current Understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strapp, J. W.; Ratvasky, T. P.

    2009-09-01

    The aviation industry is currently investigating a regular occurrence of jet engine-powerloss events which have now been attributed to the ingestion of atmospheric ice particles, usually in the vicinity of deep convection. There is a limited amount of information on the cloud microphysical properties near the cores of deep convection due to the potential hazards of flying in these areas, and due to the fact that it is a very challenging environment for current instrumentation. Most of the information that has been used to deduce the details of the conditions that cause engine powerloss has been extracted from the event-aircraft flight data recorders, pilot interviews, ground radar and satellite, a series of flight test programs in the 1950s and again in the 1990s, and the most recently available limited data from the cloud physics community. These have led to the conclusion that engine events occur due to flight through high mass concentrations of ice particles, probably with ice water contents (IWCs) in excess of 2 grams per cubic meter, and perhaps as high as 8. The limited microphysical data available has been used to suggest a median mass diameter of the ice particles of ~200 microns, with some evidence that it may be as low as 40 microns. These small particle sizes in the presence of high mass concentration is consistent with the lack of radar echoes > 20 dBZ observed on the pilot's radar, a consistent observation during engine events. The Engine Harmonization Working Group, an industry/regulator/government committee investigating engine powerloss, has concluded that the level of understanding of the properties of these clouds is inadequate to provide guidance to industry for engine design and testing. In order to address this issue, NASA and Environment Canada are planning to instrument an aircraft to make measurements in high IWC regions of tropical monsoon and continental convection. There is also a significant effort to upgrade and develop new

  8. The Current Status of Quality of Reporting in Acupuncture Treatment Case Reports: An Analysis of the Core Journal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongjoo; Eom, Yoon-Ji; Nam, Dongwoo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate the overall quality of case reports concerning acupuncture treatment in Korea. Methods We selected a representative Korean journal and retrieved eligible case reports on acupuncture treatment published from 2009 to 2015. We assessed the quality of reporting based on CAse REport (CARE) and STandards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) guideline checklists. Results A total of 93 eligible case reports of acupuncture treatment were identified among the 107 articles screened. Overall quality of reporting in the case reports was generally acceptable (75.4% on CARE, 67.7% on STRICTA), but several crucial items remained substantially underreported. Conclusions Endorsement of the CARE and STRICTA guidelines is needed to improve the completeness of reporting. Our findings will be helpful in developing a more appropriate reporting guideline for case reports in acupuncture treatment. PMID:28642800

  9. Factors related to the parallel use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional medicine among patients with chronic conditions in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Byunghee; Han, Dongwoon; Na, Seonsam; Lim, Byungmook

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to examine the characteristics and behavioral patterns of patients with chronic conditions behind their parallel use of the conventional medicine (CM) and the complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that includes traditional Korean Medicine (KM). This cross-sectional study used the self-administered anonymous survey method to obtain the results from inpatients who were staying in three hospitals in Gyeongnam province in Korea. Of the 423 participants surveyed, 334 participants (79.0%) used some form of CAM among which KM therapies were the most common modalities. The results of a logistic regression analysis showed that the parallel use pattern was most apparent in the groups aged over 40. Patients with hypertension or joint diseases were seen to have higher propensity to show the parallel use patterns, whereas patients with diabetes were not. In addition, many sociodemographic and health-related characteristics are related to the patterns of the parallel use of CAM and CM. In the rural area of Korea, most inpatients who used CM for the management of chronic conditions used CAM in parallel. KM was the most common in CAM modalities, and the aspect of parallel use varied according to the disease conditions.

  10. California's Adjudicated Groundwater Basins: History, Current Conditions, Potential Reforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langridge, R.; Brown, A.; Rudestam, K.; Conrad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater adjudications are one approach to managing a groundwater basin in California. While the 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) established new management requirements for 127 high and medium priority groundwater basins, it exempted all 26 of the state's adjudicated groundwater basins from the Act. The State Water Resources Control Board prioritized the evaluation of these adjudicated basins to assist in aligning the processes and outcomes of adjudication with SGMA's goals for the sustainable management of groundwater. Working with the Board, our research evaluated the history and current condition of all of California's adjudicated basins along with potential future improvements to the adjudication process. Our presentation will provide a summary of our findings and highlight some successful features of the adjudication process along with the challenges adjudicated basins face to achieve long-term sustainable groundwater management. Our discussion will include a review of: whether most adjudications result in groundwater extractions at or near a basins' designated safe yield; whether overdraft conditions are reduced or eliminated over the long term; and the degree of collaboration and inclusion of community stakeholders in the adjudication process. In addition to this overview, we will highlight 3-4 basins with particularly interesting management challenges and solutions. For each of these basins, we will describe the problem that precipitated the need for the adjudication and how adjudication outcomes were influenced by: how the judgment defined and distributed water rights; the management structure and strategies to manage the basin; how safe yield and overdraft are defined and determined; and, importantly, the effectiveness of the adjudication in halting or reversing groundwater overdraft.

  11. Educational Facilities in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Korean program to modernize school buildings and equipment to better meet current teaching needs.Examines Korea's education and administrative systems, and the Ministry of Education's involvement in schooling trends, facilities for higher education, and developments in information and technology. (GR)

  12. A preliminary study for the development of indices and the current state of surgical site infections (SSIs) in Korea: the Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program.

    PubMed

    Park, Sun Jin; Lee, Kil Yeon; Park, Ji Won; Lee, Jae Gil; Choi, Hee Jung; Chun, Hee Kyung; Kang, Jung Gu

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to develop an effective system for surgical site infection (SSI) surveillance and examine the current domestic state of SSIs for common abdominal surgeries in Korea. The Korean Surgical Site Infection Surveillance (KOSSIS) program was developed as an SSI surveillance system. A prospective multicenter study in nine university-affiliated or general hospitals was conducted for patients who underwent gastrectomy, cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, or proctectomy between August 16 and September 30 in 2012. Patients were monitored for up to 30 days by combining direct observation and a postdischarge surgeon survey. Data on SSIs were prospectively collected with KOSSIS secretarial support according to a common protocol. Operation-specific SSI rates were stratified according to risk factors and compared with data from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System (KONIS) and National Healthcare Safety Network. A focus group interview was conducted with participating hospitals for feedback. A total of 1,088 operations were monitored: 207 gastrectomies, 318 cholecystectomies, 270 appendectomies, 197 colectomies, and 96 proctectomies. Operation-specific SSI rates determined by the KOSSIS program were substantially higher than those found in KONIS (7.73% [95% confidence interval, 4.5%-12.3%] vs. 3.4% for gastrectomies, 10.15% [95% confidence interval, 6.1%-15.2%] vs. 4.0% for colectomy, and 13.5% [95% confidence interval, 7.4%-22.0%] vs. 4.2% for proctectomy). Despite a short surveillance period and heterogenous group of hospitals, our results suggest that KOSSIS could be a useful program to enhance SSI surveillance in Korea.

  13. Solenoid transport of beams with current-dependent initial conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Harris, J. R.; Poole, B. R.; Lewellen, J. W.

    2017-09-06

    We present that intense charged particle beams will generally be formed with an initial correlation between their longitudinal properties, including longitudinal variations in current, and their transverse properties, including their radius and divergence. This is due to the competition between the transverse focusing fields in the beam source and the time-varying space charge forces in the beam. In DC electron guns where the current modulation is slow compared to the electron transit time, the nature of these correlations was previously shown to depend on the gun geometry, exhibiting a linear dependence of the beam radius and divergence on the beammore » current at the gun exit. Here, we extend the previous work to study the transport of beams with such correlation in uniform and periodic solenoid channels. For each transport channel configuration studied, the transverse envelope equation is used to calculate the envelope of 101 beam slices differing in their slice currents, as well as initial radius and divergence (due to their dependence on slice current). For each channel configuration, these calculations are performed 546 times, with each of these iterations considering a different degree of correlation between the radius and divergence, and the slice current. It is found that some degree of correlation between the initial radius and slice current actually aids in beam transport, and the required strength of correlation can be estimated with simple models. Finally, increasing the degree of correlation between the initial divergence and slice current is generally counterproductive, and the degree of sensitivity to such correlations depends on the design of the transport channel.« less

  14. Solenoid transport of beams with current-dependent initial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, J. R.; Poole, B. R.; Lewellen, J. W.

    2017-09-01

    Intense charged particle beams will generally be formed with an initial correlation between their longitudinal properties, including longitudinal variations in current, and their transverse properties, including their radius and divergence. This is due to the competition between the transverse focusing fields in the beam source and the time-varying space charge forces in the beam. In DC electron guns where the current modulation is slow compared to the electron transit time, the nature of these correlations was previously shown to depend on the gun geometry, exhibiting a linear dependence of the beam radius and divergence on the beam current at the gun exit. Here, we extend the previous work to study the transport of beams with such correlation in uniform and periodic solenoid channels. For each transport channel configuration studied, the transverse envelope equation is used to calculate the envelope of 101 beam slices differing in their slice currents, as well as initial radius and divergence (due to their dependence on slice current). For each channel configuration, these calculations are performed 546 times, with each of these iterations considering a different degree of correlation between the radius and divergence, and the slice current. It is found that some degree of correlation between the initial radius and slice current actually aids in beam transport, and the required strength of correlation can be estimated with simple models. Increasing the degree of correlation between the initial divergence and slice current is generally counterproductive, and the degree of sensitivity to such correlations depends on the design of the transport channel.

  15. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  16. Surface circulation and vertical structure of current off the Keum River estuary, Korea in later spring 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Moon-Jin; Kim, Chang-Soo; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Moon, Hong-Bae

    2017-07-01

    To examine the surface circulation and vertical structure of currents in the region of the Keum River (KR) plume, we analyzed the subinertial surface currents obtained by high frequency radar and the vertical profiles of currents measured at a station (M1) located 10 km distance from the estuary mouth for one month in late spring 2008. Monthly-mean surface circulation is composed of the westward flow from the estuary mouth and the northward flow in the offshore. These surface mean currents are a gradient (geostrophic) current around the monthly-mean plume bulge. Dominant variabilities of the surface currents, winds, and KR-outflow are decomposed by the Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF). The first current EOF mode, explaining 39% of total variation, is primarily related to the first wind EOF mode varying along the coast and the second current mode, explaining 33% of total variation, is mainly related to the first KR-outflow EOF mode varying along the mean KR-outflow direction. Meanwhile, vertical profile of the monthly-mean current at M1 shows a two-layer structure of the current flowing offshore (onshore) in the upper (lower) layer because the water column is divided by a pycnocline at 7-9 m depths below the plume water. This two layer structure is a background persisting current structure, at least in spring, maintained by the geostrophic balance induced by the sea level slope and density gradient along the line normal to the westward mean surface current direction due to monthly-mean plume bulge off the KR estuary. EOF analysis of vertical current profiles reveals that the first mode, explaining 43% of total variation, represents the two-layer structure of the current variability. The upper-layer current varies along a line normal to the mainland coastline and the low-layer one varies approximately along a line parallel to the coastline, with direction difference of about 115° between the upper-and low-layer. From the correlation analysis it is found that 60

  17. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder as a Mediator Between Trauma Exposure and Comorbid Mental Health Conditions in North Korean Refugee Youth Resettled in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeunhee J

    2016-02-01

    A structural equation model was used to investigate the relationship between trauma exposure and comorbid mental health problems and the mediation effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) between trauma and mental health variables. The research model is based on the stress-vulnerability conceptual framework in which PTSD as a comorbid disorder mediates the relationship between trauma exposure and mental health problems. A self-administered survey was administered to 144 North Korean refugee youth residing in South Korea. Trauma exposure, both interpersonal and noninterpersonal, had no direct relationship with comorbid mental health problems. However, interpersonal trauma contributed to comorbid mental health problems through PTSD, demonstrating the mediation effect of PTSD and supporting the stress-vulnerability hypothesis of the current research model. Clinical implications of the study and future direction for research are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Resurgence of Mumps in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Routine vaccination against mumps has markedly reduced its incidence. However, the incidence of mumps continuously has increased since 2007. In 2013, a large mumps epidemic occurred in Korea, and this epidemic is still an ongoing problem. This epidemic occurred primarily in school settings and affected vaccinated adolescents, predominantly male students. The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures. Containment of mumps outbreaks is challenging because the sensitivity of diagnostic tests is low among vaccinees and control measures are less efficient because of the inherent nature of the mumps virus. Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era. In order to control the current mumps epidemic and prevent further outbreaks, we need to better understand the dynamics of mumps among vaccinated populations and the changing epidemiology in Korea. Concerted efforts should be made to systematically monitor the immunization status of the Korean population and to improve diagnosis efficiency. Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future. PMID:25844258

  19. The longleaf pine forest: trends and current conditions

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Raymond M. Sheffield

    1996-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) ecosystems once occupied perhaps as much as 60 million acres in the Southeastern United States (fig. l), stretching from southeastern Virginia south to central Florida and west into eastern Texas (Stout and Marion 1993). These fire-dependent ecosystems covered a wide range of site conditions, from low, wet...

  20. The Current Condition of Native Americans. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold

    This digest provides an overview of Native American demography, education, employment, and health conditions. In the 1990 census, 1.9 million Americans claimed American Indian status and over 5 million indicated Indian descent. About 637,000 lived on reservations or trust lands, while over 250,000 lived in cities. Half of Native Americans lived in…

  1. Identification of columnar aerosol types under high aerosol optical depth conditions for a single AERONET site in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yongjoo; Ghim, Young Sung; Holben, B. N.

    2016-02-01

    Dominant aerosol types were classified using level 2 inversion products for the Anmyon Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site in Korea for the period 1999-2007. The aerosol types were mineral dust (MD), MD mixed with carbon, and black carbon mixed coarse particles (BCCP) for coarse mode aerosols, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and secondary inorganic ions (SII) for fine mode aerosols, and mixed particles between. The classification was carried out using a clustering method based on parameters, including single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE), and fine mode volume fraction (FMVF). Among the seven aerosol types, MD was distinct, with the highest AAE and a very low FMVF and SII with the highest SSA and FMVF. BCCP was introduced to designate coarse particles mixed with BC, of which the AAE was lower than 1, despite a low FMVF. In addition to a large difference in AAE between BC and OC, the SSA of OC was larger than that of BC, indicating the effects of the white smoke produced from the smoldering phase of biomass burning. Monthly variations of the aerosol types were well interpreted by meteorology and emissions and coincided with those in the previous studies. Applying our results to well-characterized global AERONET sites, we confirmed that the aerosol types at Anmyon were valid at other sites. However, the results also showed that the mean properties for aerosol types were influenced by the specific aerosols prevalent at the study sites.

  2. Identification of Columnar Aerosol Types Under High Aerosol Optical Depth Conditions for a Single AERONET Site in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Yongjoo; Ghim, Young Sung; Holben, Brent N.

    2016-01-01

    Dominant aerosol types were classified using level 2 inversion products for the Anmyon Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site in Korea for the period 19992007. The aerosol types were mineral dust (MD), MD mixed with carbon, and black carbonmixed coarse particles (BCCP) for coarsemode aerosols, black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and secondary inorganic ions (SII) for fine mode aerosols, and mixed particles between. The classification was carried out using a clustering method based on parameters, including single scattering albedo (SSA), absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE), and fine mode volume fraction (FMVF). Among the seven aerosol types, MD was distinct, with the highest AAE and a very low FMVF and SII with the highest SSA and FMVF. BCCP was introduced to designate coarse particles mixed with BC, of which the AAE was lower than 1, despite a low FMVF. In addition to a large difference in AAE between BC andOC, the SSA ofOC was larger than that of BC, indicating the effects of the white smoke produced from the smoldering phase of biomass burning. Monthly variations of the aerosol types were well interpreted by meteorology and emissions and coincided with those in the previous studies. Applying our results to well-characterized global AERONET sites, we confirmed that the aerosol types at Anmyon were valid at other sites. However, the results also showed that the mean properties for aerosol types were influenced by the specific aerosols prevalent at the study sites.

  3. On Students‧ Evasion of Science and Engineering Course in Korea and the Recent Conditions of College Students Employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Youngjong

    In the 21st century as information society, to increase the advancement rate of high capable students in science and engineering majors, we can consider the sociological, economical and psychological aspects of the problem. So, we need promote the gifted and talented students in elementary and secondary education, and through such improving measures we need plan to reform the trend of avoiding science and engineering courses. And also, we have to develop diverse education programs to get higher competence. We have to develop the programs for female students with the help of the experts. We have to establish the career guidance system. As a whole, we have to aim both the specialization and diversification of the education system for improving quality of the education. And by analyzing the difficult situation of finding job for college student in South Korea, we have to devise countermeasures for long-term graduate unemployment. In this article, I will introduce the Korean case of an analysis of the trend of avoiding science and engineering courses and the case of recent job-hunting situations of college students.

  4. Childhood trauma, parental death, and their co-occurrence in relation to current suicidality risk in adults: a nationwide community sample of Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Lee, Christina; Fava, Maurizio; Mischoulon, David; Shim, Eun-Jung; Heo, Jung-Yoon; Choi, Hong; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2014-12-01

    Although previous studies have suggested that childhood trauma and parental death are strongly associated with suicidality in adulthood, it is still unclear how these factors interact within the same population. A total of 1396 adults were recruited through nationwide multistage probability sampling in South Korea. Subjects were evaluated through face-to-face interviews using the Suicidality Module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form. Among the 1396 adults, the group that experienced both childhood trauma and parental death had the highest current suicidality risks (F = 12.16, p < 0.0001) and lifetime suicide attempt (χ2 = 35.81, p < 0.0001) compared with the other groups, which were only childhood trauma, only parental death, and neither. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that middle-to-high current suicidality risk and lifetime suicide attempt were significantly associated with concurrent childhood trauma and parental death (odds ratio, 3.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-6.65) as well as with only childhood trauma (odds ratio, 1.95; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-2.87), after adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, household monthly income, and living area. Emotional abuse was the only type of childhood trauma significantly associated with higher current suicidality scores in those who experienced childhood parental death than in those who did not (F = 3.26, p = 0.041). Current suicidality risk and lifetime suicide attempt are associated with experiencing both parental death and trauma, especially emotional abuse, in childhood, whereas experiencing only childhood parental death is associated with neither.

  5. Sediment transport on macrotidal flats in Garolim Bay, west coast of Korea: significance of wind waves and asymmetry of tidal currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee J.; Jo, Hyung R.; Chu, Yong S.; Bahk, Kyung S.

    2004-05-01

    A self-recording instrument, named Tidal Sediment Dynamics Observational System (TISDOS), was built to monitor transport characteristics of nearbed sediments on tidal flats. It was deployed on a tidal flat in the semi-enclosed Garolim Bay, west coast of Korea, over a 15-day period between 5 and 20 January 2002 to examine sediment-transport processes during winter seasons. The measurements involved brief durations of high waves allowing for observation of wave effects upon the sediment transport on the tidal flat. Time series of various hydrodynamic parameters (water depth, current velocities, wave height, suspended sediment concentration, and bed level) from point measurements show characteristic interrelationships between parameters on both temporal and spatial scales. The tidal flat is dominated by flooding currents up to 2 times stronger than ebb currents. The current speeds measured simultaneously at two stations along a cross-shore transect varied in harmony with water depth, reaching the maximum during spring tide that was steadily decreased onshore. The onshore decrease in current speed was compatible with a fining textural trend from sand on the lower flat to mud toward the upper flat. Both the maximum water depth and current speed during individual tidal cycles also show semi-diurnal asymmetry that was highlighted during spring tide. Waves were of critical importance in resuspending bed material and thus yielding higher suspended sediment concentrations. On the middle flat, the suspended sediment concentrations were highest, exceeding 400 mg/l at 0.5 m above the seabed during large waves (relative wave height, 0.33) under weakest neap currents. In this wavy climate, the suspended sediment concentration increased over time during ebb, in strong contrast with a gradual decrease through time after mid-flood peaks under tidal currents without waves. The daily vertical flux of suspended sediments trapped in a plastic bottle also indicates the significance of

  6. Peru: Current Conditions and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-21

    Widespread social unrest has increased as growing inflation combines with unmet expectations that social conditions for Peru’s poorest citizens would...observers as disastrous. His antagonistic relationship with the international financial community and excessive spending on social programs led to...established a reputation for governing effectively and fighting corruption. García hoped that Simon would defuse social tensions and advance programs to

  7. Complying with current Joint Commission Statement of Conditions (SOC) requirements.

    PubMed

    Erickson, D; Berek, B; Mills, G

    1997-01-01

    This Technical Document has been developed to provide the reader with insight into the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' (JCAHO) Statement of Conditions (SOC) process and recent changes for completing the SOC for Business Occupancies. The intent of this document is not to replace the instructions in Part 1 of the SOC or to give a complete review of the National Fire Protection Agency's (NFPA) Life Safety Code for health care or business occupancies, but rather to complement them.

  8. Uganda: Current Conditions and the Crisis in North Uganda

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-31

    2005 between the government of Sudan and the SPLM has threatened the survival of the LRA as a force in Southern Sudan. The takeover of the government...the Spring 2007 planting season. In 2006-2007, food production was better than expected, in part due to good weather conditions. The industrial...processing of coffee, cotton, tea, sugar, tobacco, edible oils, dairy products, and grain milling as well as brewing. Other ventures include vehicle

  9. Wake Survey of a Marine Current Turbine Under Steady Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lust, Ethan; Luznik, Luksa; Flack, Karen

    2016-11-01

    A submersible particle image velocimetry (PIV) system was used to study the wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine. The turbine was tested in a large tow tank facility at the United States Naval Academy. The turbine is a 1/25th scale model of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Reference Model 1 (RM1) tidal turbine. It is a two-bladed turbine measuring 0.8 m in diameter and featuring a NACA 63-618 airfoil cross section. Separate wind tunnel testing has shown the foil section used on the turbine to be Reynolds number independent with respect to lift at the experimental parameters of tow carriage speed (Utow = 1 . 68 m/s) and tip speed ratio (TSR = 7). The wake survey was conducted over an area extending 0.25D forward of the turbine tip path to 2.0D aft, and to a depth of 1.0D beneath the turbine output shaft in the streamwise plane. Each field of view was approximately 30 cm by 30 cm, and each overlapped the adjacent fields of view by 5 cm. The entire flow field was then reconstructed into a single field of investigation. Results include streamwise and vertical ensemble average velocity fields averaged over approximately 1,000 realizations, as well as higher-order statistics. Turbine tip vortex centers were identified and plotted showing increasing aperiodicity with wake age. keywords: horizontal axis marine current turbine, particle image velocimetry, towing tank, wake survey

  10. Overview of the Burden of Diseases in North Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yo Han; Kim, Young Ae; Yeom, Ji Won; Oh, In-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    This article evaluates the overall current disease burden of North Korea through the recent databases of international organizations. It is notable that North Korea as a nation is exhibiting a relatively low burden from deaths and that there is greater burden from deaths caused by non-communicable diseases than from those caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition. However, the absolute magnitude of problems from communicable diseases like TB and from child malnutrition, which will increase the disease burden in the future, remains great. North Korea, which needs to handle both communicable and nutritional conditions, and non-communicable diseases, whose burden is ever more increasing in the nation, can now be understood as a country with the 'double-burden' of disease. PMID:23766868

  11. Overview of the burden of diseases in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yo Han; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Young Ae; Yeom, Ji Won; Oh, In-Hwan

    2013-05-01

    This article evaluates the overall current disease burden of North Korea through the recent databases of international organizations. It is notable that North Korea as a nation is exhibiting a relatively low burden from deaths and that there is greater burden from deaths caused by non-communicable diseases than from those caused by communicable diseases and malnutrition. However, the absolute magnitude of problems from communicable diseases like TB and from child malnutrition, which will increase the disease burden in the future, remains great. North Korea, which needs to handle both communicable and nutritional conditions, and non-communicable diseases, whose burden is ever more increasing in the nation, can now be understood as a country with the 'double-burden' of disease.

  12. Current status of personnel and infrastructure resources for infection prevention and control programs in the Republic of Korea: A national survey.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Lee, Sung Eun; Seo, Beom Sam; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Jong Hun; Yang, Kyung Sook; Kim, Min Ja; Sohn, Jang Wook

    2016-11-01

    There is significant variability in personnel and infrastructural resources for infection prevention and control (IPC) among health care institutions. The aim of this study is to evaluate the current status of individual hospital-based IPC programs in the Republic of Korea (ROK). A multicenter cross-sectional survey of 100 hospitals participating in the national surveillance programs for multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in the ROK was conducted in September 2015. The survey consisted of 140 standardized Web-based questionnaires. The survey response rate was 41.0%. The responding hospitals are largely organized with multibed rooms, with an insufficient numbers of single rooms. Employment status of infection specialists and hand hygiene resources were better in larger hospitals. The responding hospitals had 1 full-time infection control nurse per 400.3 ± 154.1 beds, with wide variations in training and experience. Facilities have great diversity in their approach to preventing MDROs. There appeared to be no difference in supplies consumption and protocols for IPC among the hospitals, stratified according to size. A greater availability of specialist personnel, single rooms, and a comprehensive IPC program, with the support of a policy-oriented management, is necessary to achieve effective IPC. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental Determination of Bed Conditions in Concentrated Pyroclastic Density Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winner, A.; Ferrier, K.; Dufek, J.

    2016-12-01

    Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are ground-hugging mixtures of hot gas and rock that can reach temperatures > 800 oC and speeds of 200 m/s. These flows are capable of eroding and entraining the underlying bed material into the flow, which can strongly influence flow momentum, runout distance, and hazards associated with PDCs. However, the mechanism of erosion remains poorly constrained, with proposed mechanisms including under-pressure following the head of the fluidized current, force chain enhanced stresses at the bed, and discrete particle impacts and friction. The interactions between PDCs and the bed have been difficult to observe in the field, as their infrequent occurrence, opacity, and hostile environment make real-time measurement difficult. This study is aimed at obtaining a better understanding of the interactions between PDCs and the bed through a quantitative analysis of bed forces. Our experimental apparatus consists of a rotating cylindrical flume of radius 22 cm, within which gas-rich granular material flows along the interior of the cylinder as it rotates. By using a rotating cylinder, we are able to simulate long-duration flows, allowing us to observe impact forces at the bed over timescales comparable to the flow duration of natural PDCs. To measure the distribution and evolution of forces imparted by the flow on the bed, we constructed a cylindrical insert with a non-erodible bed in which we embedded force sensor arrays parallel and perpendicular to the direction of flow. To measure the forces felt by the particles in the flow, we added "smart particles" 25 to 50 mm in diameter to the flow. Each smart particle contains a three-axis accelerometer and a micro SD card enclosed in a spherical plastic casing, and possesses a density similar to that of the pumice in the experimental flow. Each smart particle also contains a three-axis magnetometer which permits its location to be tracked by means of a unique applied magnetic field. Ultimately

  14. Late Holocene distal mud deposits off the Nakdong delta, SE Korea: evidence for shore-parallel sediment transport in a current-dominated setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Yuri; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Kim, Young Jun; Kang, Dong-Hyo; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Gil Young; Ryu, Byong-Jae

    2015-12-01

    The distal mud deposits (DMDs) off the Nakdong delta represent a subaqueous delta on the inner continental shelf aligned parallel to the southeast coast of Korea and displaying a clinoform geometry. Hydrographically, the coast is characterized by a micro-tidal regime, the strong Korean Coastal Current (KCC) and the East Korean Warm Current (EKWC). Age models and sedimentary facies related to the clinoform geometries are based on high-resolution chirp subbottom profile data and have provided information on shore-parallel sediment transport and accumulation during the late Holocene sea-level highstand. The highest sedimentation rates (6.19-9.17 cm/year) produced steep foresets in the central DMDs at water depths of 35-50 m. Here, vertical burrows are repeatedly truncated by laminated mud packages displaying erosional surfaces. This region represents the main depocenter of the Nakdong subaqueous delta. The topset sediments of the southern DMD at ~40 m water depth closer to the river mouth show relatively low sedimentation rates (0.01-0.12 cm/year). Here, the muds have a predominantly mottled character. Similarly, the foreset sediments of the northern DMD at ~71-80 m water depth with sedimentation rates of 0.10-2.03 cm/year are also predominantly characterized by mottled muds. The spatial dispersal pattern of the DMDs is consistent with the coast-parallel front between the KCC and EKWC along the southeast Korean coast. In addition, the depocenter of the Nakdong subaqueous delta clinoform is affected by the near-bed turbulence generated by episodic storm events.

  15. Estimation of ocean surface currents from maximum cross correlation applied to GOCI geostationary satellite remote sensing data over the Tsushima (Korea) Straits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, M. A.; Quartly, G. D.; Shutler, J. D.; Miller, P. I.; Yoshikawa, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Attempts to automatically estimate surface current velocities from satellite-derived thermal or visible imagery face the limitations of data occlusion due to cloud cover, the complex evolution of features and the degradation of their surface signature. The Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI) provides a chance to reappraise such techniques due to its multiyear record of hourly high-resolution visible spectrum data. Here we present the results of applying a Maximum Cross Correlation (MCC) technique to GOCI data. Using a combination of simulated and real data we derive suitable processing parameters and examine the robustness of different satellite products, those being water-leaving radiance and chlorophyll concentration. These estimates of surface currents are evaluated using High Frequency (HF) radar systems located in the Tsushima (Korea) Strait. We show the performance of the MCC approach varies depending on the amount of missing data and the presence of strong optical contrasts. Using simulated data it was found that patchy cloud cover occupying 25% of the image pair reduces the number of vectors by 20% compared to using perfect images. Root mean square errors between the MCC and HF radar velocities are of the order of 20 cm s-1. Performance varies depending on the wavelength of the data with the blue-green products out-performing the red and near infra-red products. Application of MCC to GOCI chlorophyll data results in similar performance to radiances in the blue-green bands. The technique has been demonstrated using specific examples of an eddy feature and tidal induced features in the region.

  16. Current status of the use of antiadhesive agents for gastric cancer surgery: a questionnaire survey in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji-Ho; Jeong, Sang-Ho; Choi, Sang-Kyung; Hong, Soon-Chan; Jung, Eun-Jung; Jeong, Chi-Young; Ju, Young-Tae; Ha, Woo-Song

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the use of antiadhesive agents (AAdAs) via a questionnaire and to discuss the availability of AAdAs. Methods The survey was sent to a list of members that was approved by the Korean Gastric Association. The survey included questions on AAdA use by surgeons, the type of AAdAs used, and the reasons for not using AAdAs. Surgeons were also asked to describe complications related to AAdAs, and the reliability of its use. Results The response rate was 21%. The rates of frequent use stratified by procedure were 26.9% (14/52) for open gastrectomy, 5.9% (3/51) for laparoscopic gastrectomy, and 31.5% (17/54) for surgery for postoperative bowel obstruction (P < 0.01). After including data from the occasional use group, the corresponding values were 51.9% (27/52), 19.6% (10/51), and 70.4% (38/54), respectively (P < 0.01). Sefrafilm and Guardix were most commonly used for open procedures. Guardix and Interceed were most commonly used for laparoscopic surgery. The primary reasons for nonuse of AAdAs were ineffectiveness and high cost. Ten percent (4/40) of surgeons observed complications associated with AAdAs. A minority (17.3%, 9/52) had positive attitudes toward AAdAs. The majority of respondents expressed neutral (73.1%, 38/52) or negative (9.6%, 5/52) attitudes toward AAdAs. Conclusion The low use rates of AAdAs in gastric cancer surgery may be attributable to perceptions that AAdAs are ineffective, unreliable, and costly. We anticipate the emergence of promising antiadhesive strategies that reach far beyond the limitations of current products. PMID:23487148

  17. Promoting and protecting worker health and safety in the Republic of Korea agricultural sector.

    PubMed

    Calvert, Geoffrey M; Lee, Kyungsuk; Roh, Sangchul; Davis, Kermit G; Tak, SangWoo

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of agriculture, all other Republic of Korea industrial sectors have comprehensive systems in place for workplace surveillance (i.e., disease, injury, and exposure), research, and targeted interventions. However, because few statistics are available on the occupational health and safety conditions in the Republic of Korea agricultural sector, there is little information to guide interventions to prevent hazardous agricultural exposures. The scant information that is currently available suggests that agriculture ranks among the most hazardous industries in the Republic of Korea. Building on information obtained at the International Symposium on Development of Prevention Strategies for Agricultural Health and Safety held in Suwon, Republic of Korea, in 2005, and embellished with examples of surveillance, research, and intervention activities conducted in the United States and elsewhere, this article provides guidance to promote and protect the health of Korean agricultural workers. This information can also guide other countries to reduce agricultural hazards.

  18. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  19. Current status of cord blood banking during first two years of 'National Government-Assigned Public Cord Blood Banks Operation' in Korea.

    PubMed

    Roh, Eun Youn; Lee, Jung Lim; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Kim, Su Yeon; Lee, Kyung Eun; Song, Do Young; Kim, Tai Gyu; Shin, Sue

    2014-10-01

    Cord blood (CB) has become a viable stem cell source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and public cord blood banks (CBBs) have been established to manage donated cord blood units (CBUs) for unrelated HSCT. As the potential uses for CB continue to grow, there is a global tendency to encourage public CBBs. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of public CBBs that were designated and supported by the Korean national government. We analyzed 6,168 CBUs preserved at the 3 Government-Assigned Public CBBs during their first two years of operation (2012-2013) and the standard operating procedures for CB processing at each CBB. CBU inventories at ALLCORD, Catholic HSC Bank and Fatima Public CBB were 4,022, 1,207 and 939 units, respectively. Total nucleated cell (TNC) counts per unit were 11.0 × 10(8) at ALLCORD, 10.7 × 10(8) at Fatima and 9.8 × 10(8) at Catholic, and all far exceeded the requirement for cryopreservation under the law (7.0 × 10(8)). CD34(+) cell counts and % were as follows: 3.5 × 10(6) (0.31 %) in ALLCORD, 2.2 × 10(6) (0.20 %) in Fatima and 2.2 × 10(6) (0.22 %) in Catholic. All the three banks observed the 'CB Act' in dealing with CBUs, including collection, processing, laboratory tests and cryopreservation. Government supported and strictly law-abiding public CBBs in Korea have considerable CBU inventories of high quality in terms of efficacy and safety. Legislation and accompanying government-support will be helpful for establishing CB standardization, vitalizing CBT and improving clinical outcomes.

  20. Impact of Boundary Conditions on Extreme Climate Simulation over South-Korea in the CORDEX-East Asia Domain Using RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, S. G.; Suh, M. S.; Cha, D. H.; Kang, H. S.

    2012-04-01

    The COordinated Regional climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) is a framework devoted to coordinate international efforts on regional climate simulations. National Institute of Meteorological Research of KMA organizes a domestic collaborative research project for contributing to the CORDEX East Asia. Within the evaluation framework of CORDEX, the goal of this study is to produce 20-year regional climate and also to assess the performance skills of different regional climate models (RCMs; e.g., RegCM4, RSM, WRF, and SNURCM). In this work, we will present the two sets of extreme climate simulation results of RegCM4 over South-Korea in the CORDEX-East Asia Domain driven by the two different lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) data, ERA-Interim (ERA) and NCEP/DOE reanalysis (R-2) during the 20 years (1989-2008). For the validation of RegCM4 extreme climate simulations, the climate stations daily data (precipitation, maximum/minimum temperature) from KMA were used. We consider two types definition of extremes based on the intensity and frequency, as the number of days with extreme events (four categories: frost, hot, wet, and dry days) exceeding absolute threshold values and the average of the highest/lowest 5% (percentile thresholds) values at the each station for each year. Although the RegCM4 underestimated the frequency and intensity of daily extreme climate events compared to the observation regardless of the LBC, the RegCM4 successfully simulates the inter-annual variations of the four categories and the highest (lowest) 5% mean maximum (minimum) temperature and precipitation. The highest/lowest 5% maximum/minimum temperature (precipitation) simulated by RegCM4 using ERA was systematically higher (stronger) than those by using R-2 over South-Korea during simulation period. And maximum temperature and heavy precipitation is better simulated when driven by ERA than R-2, on the other hand, minimum temperature is better simulated when driven by R-2. As a result, the

  1. Online health information use by participants in selected senior centres in Korea: current status of internet access and health information use by Korean older adults.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joohyun; Gassert, Carole A; Kim, Hyun Sook

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe how older adult internet users from senior centres in Korea accessed and used health information on the internet and the perceived barriers that prevented internet use. Increasingly, patients are using health-related information available on the internet. Internet based health information has influenced patient knowledge and expectations regarding healthcare. However, there are few studies about the use of internet for health information by older adults, and even less is known about older adults in Korea. Based on the Access to Information framework developed by McCreadie and Rice, this quantitative study with a qualitative adjunct explored the older adults' use of internet for health information. A convenience sample of 91 community-dwelling older adults in Korea was recruited from 10 randomly selected senior centres, using the modified Kaiser Family Foundation Survey as the basis for structured interview. Half of older internet users (n = 13) had used online health information and found it was helpful. Barriers to internet use were: no interest (90.8%); too complicated (75%); no experience in using internet (∼50%); too expensive (∼50%); or disability (10%). Qualitative findings revealed that the prime reason for non-use of the internet was related to literacy and level of education due to historical background. The results of quantitative and qualitative analysis supported that the internet users were relatively younger, more educated, male, had a higher income, received more support from others and all from large senior centres. This study is important because the results can provide valuable insights into the potential for health education and health communication for older adults in Korea using the internet. It could affect health promotion, policy and education for older adults in Korea. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Stable overload conditions of high-temperature superconductors at alternating current injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskii, V. R.

    2015-01-01

    The stability of alternating current injected into a high-temperature superconductor or into a current-carrying element on its basis is studied under weak cooling. The stability conditions of the current varying with time by a sinusoidal law are studied versus its frequency. It is shown that before unstable states set in, the peak values of the electric field intensity, current, and temperature in the superconductor are higher than the values determining a thermal electrodynamic stability boundary of the current permanently flowing through the superconductor—the so-called thermal quench current. It is found that ultimate stable alternating currents cause high stable thermal losses in superconductors; these losses being not considered in the modern theory of losses. Such stable conditions can be referred to as overload conditions. Analysis shows that there are characteristic times determining the time intervals within which alternating current is stable under overload conditions. Main thermoelectrodynamic mechanisms behind the existence of these intervals are formulated. They explain why the superconductor stable overheating and induced electric field reach high values before the injected alternating current becomes unstable. The existence of overload conditions considerably extends the application area of high-temperature superconductors.

  3. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  4. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  5. Current progress toward eradicating Helicobacter pylori in East Asian countries: differences in the 2013 revised guidelines between China, Japan, and South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2014-02-14

    New 2013 guidelines on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been published in China, Japan, and South Korea. Like the previous ones, these new guidelines differ between the three countries with regard to the indications for H. pylori eradication, diagnostic methods, and treatment regimens. The most profound change among all of the guidelines is that the Japanese national health insurance system now covers the expenses for all infected subjects up to second-line treatment. This makes the Japanese indications for eradication much wider than those in China and South Korea. With regard to the diagnosis, a serum H. pylori antibody test is not recommended in China, whereas it is considered to be the most reliable method in Japan. A decrease relative to the initial antibody titer of more than 50% after 6-12 mo is considered to be the most accurate method for determining successful eradication in Japan. In contrast, only the urea breath test is recommended after eradication in China, while either noninvasive or invasive methods (except the bacterial culture) are recommended in South Korea. Due to the increased rate of antibiotics resistance, first-line treatment is omitted in China and South Korea in cases of clarithromycin resistance. Notably, the Japanese regimen consists of a lower dose of antibiotics for a shorter duration (7 d) than in the other countries. There is neither 14 d nor bismuth-based regimen in the first-line and second-line treatment in Japan. Such differences among countries might be due to differences in the approvals granted by the governments and national health insurance system in each country. Further studies are required to achieve the best results in the diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection based on cost-effectiveness in East Asian countries.

  6. Negotiations with North Korea: Lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallucci, Robert L.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, I summarize the events leading to the negotiation of the Agreed Framework with North Korea. I also highlight the threats that result from the current situation, and some of the technical issues relevant to understanding events.

  7. Assessment of mycotoxin risk on corn in the Philippines under current and future climate change conditions.

    PubMed

    Salvacion, Arnold R; Pangga, Ireneo B; Cumagun, Christian Joseph R

    2015-01-01

    This study attempts to assess the risk of mycotoxins (aflatoxins and fumonisins) contamination on corn in the Philippines under current and projected climate change conditions using fuzzy logic methodology based on the published range of temperature and rainfall conditions that favor mycotoxin development. Based on the analysis, projected climatic change will reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination in the country due to increased rainfall. In the case of fumonisin contamination, most parts of the country are at a very high risk both under current conditions and the projected climate change conditions.

  8. Wave-current interactions in deep water conditions: field measurements and analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rougier, Gilles; Rey, Vincent; Molcard, Anne

    2015-04-01

    The study of wave - current interaction has drawn interest in oceanography, ocean engineering, maritime navigation and for tides or waves power device design. In the context of the hydrodynamics study along the French Mediterranean coast, a current profiler was deployed near Toulon at the south of the "Port Cros" island. This coastal zone is characterized by a steep slope, the water depth varying from tens meters to several thousand meters over few kilometers from the coast. An ambient current, the "Northern Current", coming from the Ligurian sea (area of Genoa, Italy) and following the coast up to Toulon, is present all over the year. Its mean surface velocity is of about 0.30 m/s, its flow rate of about 1.5 Sv. The region is exposed to two dominating winds: the Mistral, coming from North-West, and Eastern winds. Both generate swell and/or wind waves in either following or opposing current conditions with respect to the Northern Current. A current profiler equipped with a wave tracking system (ACPD workhorse from RDI) was deployed from July to October 2014 in deep water conditions (depth of about 500m). The mooring system allowed the ADCP to measure the current profile from the sea surface down to 25m depth, which corresponds more or less to the depth of influence of waves of periods up to 10s. The collected data include energetic wave conditions in either following or opposing current conditions. The current intensity and its vertical profiles have shown a significant temporal variability according to the meteorological conditions. Effects of the wave conditions on the current properties are discussed. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This work was supported by the program BOMBYX and the ANR grant No ANR-13-ASTR-0007.

  9. An overview of biotechnology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi; Hahm; Rhee; Han

    1999-03-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, Korea has invested heavily in biotechnology research and development, with the aim of becoming a leading nation in this field. It is important to understand the historical progress of this development in order to appreciate the current state of biotechology in Korea. However, it is equally important to know what research is currently being planned and carried out, and by whom.

  10. Disaster Vulnerability in South Korea under a Gender Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Gunhui

    2017-04-01

    The most affected natural disaster has been flooding in South Korea, however, many unexpected natural disasters cause by snow or drought have become severe due to the climate change. Therefore it is very important to analyze disaster vulnerability under the unexpected climate condition. When the natural disaster happens, in many cases, female was more damaged than male because of the cultural and physical limitations. Disaster is never gender neutral. For example, four times as many female as male died in Indonesia tsunami. Therefore, it is very important to consider gender sensitivity in the disaster vulnerability to mitigate effects on the female. In this study, the current disaster management guideline in South Korea is investigated in the gender perspective and compared to the other countries. As a result, gender analysis in the disaster preparedness and response is not implemented in South Korea. Thus, the gender balanced disaster management guideline is newly proposed. Also, the disaster vulnerability considering gendered factors are evaluated and analyzed in the urban area. Acknowledgement This research was supported by Support Program for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and future Planning(No. 2016H1C3A1903202)

  11. Operational Forecasting and Warning systems for Coastal hazards in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwang-Soon; Kwon, Jae-Il; Kim, Jin-Ah; Heo, Ki-Young; Jun, Kicheon

    2017-04-01

    Coastal hazards caused by both Mother Nature and humans cost tremendous social, economic and environmental damages. To mitigate these damages many countries have been running the operational forecasting or warning systems. Since 2009 Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) has been developed by the leading of Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) in Korea and KOOS has been operated in 2012. KOOS is consists of several operational modules of numerical models and real-time observations and produces the basic forecasting variables such as winds, tides, waves, currents, temperature and salinity and so on. In practical application systems include storm surges, oil spills, and search and rescue prediction models. In particular, abnormal high waves (swell-like high-height waves) have occurred in the East coast of Korea peninsula during winter season owing to the local meteorological condition over the East Sea, causing property damages and the loss of human lives. In order to improve wave forecast accuracy even very local wave characteristics, numerical wave modeling system using SWAN is established with data assimilation module using 4D-EnKF and sensitivity test has been conducted. During the typhoon period for the prediction of sever waves and the decision making support system for evacuation of the ships, a high-resolution wave forecasting system has been established and calibrated.

  12. Hysteresis Loss Analysis of Soft Magnetic Materials Under Direct Current Bias Conditions (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    correlated higher losses is not well understood. A domain imaging study under applied fields that uses the conditions reported in this study may...AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2015-0133 Hysteresis Loss Analysis of Soft Magnetic Materials Under Direct Current Bias Conditions (Preprint) Zafer Turgut...Technical Paper 1 October 2013 to 1 September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hysteresis Loss Analysis of Soft Magnetic Materials Under Direct Current Bias

  13. Role of varying interface conditions on the eddy current response from cracks in multilayer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Aaron; Knopp, Jeremy; Aldrin, John C.; Sabbagh, Harold A.; Boehnlein, Thomas; Mooers, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to improve the understanding of the role of interface conditions on eddy current inspections for cracks in multilayer aircraft structures. This paper presents initial experimental and simulated results studying the influence of gaps and contact conditions between two plates with a notch in the second layer. Simulations show an amplification of the eddy current signal for a subsurface notch adjacent to an air gap as opposed to a submerged notch in a solid plate.

  14. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Treesearch

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  15. Resurgence of measles in a country of elimination: interim assessment and current control measures in the Republic of Korea in early 2014.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Un; Kim, Ju Whi; Eom, Hye Eun; Oh, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Eun Seong; Kang, Hae Ji; Nam, Jeong-Gu; Kim, Ki Soon; Kim, Sung Soon; Lee, Chan Kyu; Park, Young-Joon; Park, Ok

    2015-04-01

    Since the beginning of 2014, the Republic of Korea has experienced a resurgence of measles cases. Among the 220 cases confirmed as measles during epidemiological weeks 1-20 (December 29, 2013 to May 17, 2014), 10 imported cases were identified. The predominant genotype was B3, which reflects the circulating measles virus in adjacent countries. Even with the verification of measles elimination in March 2014 by the World Health Organization, recent importation has been related to international travel. Targeted control measures have been implemented in addition to proper isolation and patient care. A vigilant surveillance system and high levels of vaccine coverage should be maintained to sustain the measles elimination status.

  16. Theoretical model and experimental investigation of current density boundary condition for welding arc study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutaghane, A.; Bouhadef, K.; Valensi, F.; Pellerin, S.; Benkedda, Y.

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents results of theoretical and experimental investigation of the welding arc in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) and Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) processes. A theoretical model consisting in simultaneous resolution of the set of conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and current, Ohm's law and Maxwell equation is used to predict temperatures and current density distribution in argon welding arcs. A current density profile had to be assumed over the surface of the cathode as a boundary condition in order to make the theoretical calculations possible. In stationary GTAW process, this assumption leads to fair agreement with experimental results reported in literature with maximum arc temperatures of ~21 000 K. In contrast to the GTAW process, in GMAW process, the electrode is consumable and non-thermionic, and a realistic boundary condition of the current density is lacking. For establishing this crucial boundary condition which is the current density in the anode melting electrode, an original method is setup to enable the current density to be determined experimentally. High-speed camera (3000 images/s) is used to get geometrical dimensions of the welding wire used as anode. The total area of the melting anode covered by the arc plasma being determined, the current density at the anode surface can be calculated. For a 330 A arc, the current density at the melting anode surface is found to be of 5 × 107 A m-2 for a 1.2 mm diameter welding electrode.

  17. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  18. Knowledge, Current Status, and Barriers toward Healthcare Worker Vaccination among Family Medicine Resident Participants in a Web-Based Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kyungjin; Kim, Sungjong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Son, Ki Young; Lee, Jungun

    2017-01-01

    Background We investigated the knowledge, status, and barriers toward healthcare workers receiving vaccinations among Korean family medicine residents. To date, a systematic study has not been conducted among medical practitioners examining these variables. Methods A web-based, anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to all 942 family medicine residents working in 123 training hospitals in Korea. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate factors affecting vaccination completion. Results Korean family medicine residents (N=242, 25.7%) from 54 training hospitals (43.9%) participated in the survey. Only 24 respondents (9.9%) had correct knowledge on all the recommended vaccinations by the Korean Society of Infectious Diseases. The complete vaccination rates against hepatitis B virus and influenza were relatively high (69.4% and 83.0%, respectively), whereas they were relatively low against other infections (e.g., 16.5%– 53.1%). The most common reason for not receiving a vaccination was the belief that there was little possibility of infection from the vaccine-preventable diseases. Conclusion Knowledge and vaccination coverage were poor among family medicine residents in Korea. Medical schools should provide vaccination information to healthcare workers as part of their mandatory curriculum. Further research should confirm these findings among primary care physicians and other healthcare workers. PMID:28197329

  19. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.

    2017-02-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagnetic main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a geomagnetic field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by geomagnetic activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.

  20. Magnetic Field Perturbations from Currents in the Dark Polar Regions During Quiet Geomagnetic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis-Christensen, E.; Finlay, C. C.; Hesse, M.; Laundal, K. M.

    2017-03-01

    In the day-side sunlit polar ionosphere the varying and IMF dependent convection creates strong ionospheric currents even during quiet geomagnetic conditions. Observations during such times are often excluded when using satellite data to model the internal geomagnetic main field. Observations from the night-side or local winter during quiet conditions are, however, also influenced by variations in the IMF. In this paper we briefly review the large scale features of the ionospheric currents in the polar regions with emphasis on the current distribution during undisturbed conditions. We examine the distribution of scalar measurements of the magnetic field intensity minus predictions from a geomagnetic field model. These `residuals' fall into two main categories. One category is consistently distributed according to the well-known ionospheric plasma convection and its associated Birkeland currents. The other category represent contributions caused by geomagnetic activity related to the substorm current wedge around local magnetic midnight. A new observation is a strong IMF By control of the residuals in the midnight sector indicating larger ionospheric currents in the substorm current wedge in the northern polar region for By > 0 and correspondingly in the southern hemisphere for By < 0.

  1. Optimized calculation of the synergy conditions between electron cyclotron current drive and lower hybrid current drive on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Bo-Jiang, Ding; Y, Peysson; J, Decker; Miao-Hui, Li; Xin-Jun, Zhang; Xiao-Jie, Wang; Lei, Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The optimized synergy conditions between electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) and lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) with normal parameters of the EAST tokamak are studied by using the C3PO/LUKE code based on the understanding of the synergy mechanisms so as to obtain a higher synergistic current and provide theoretical reference for the synergistic effect in the EAST experiment. The dependences of the synergistic effect on the parameters of two waves (lower hybrid wave (LHW) and electron cyclotron wave (ECW)), including the radial position of the power deposition, the power value of the LH and EC waves, and the parallel refractive indices of the LHW (N∥) are presented and discussed. Project supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011GB102000, 2012GB103000, and 2013GB106001), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11175206 and 11305211), the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program in the Field of Plasma Physics (Grant No. 11261140328), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. JZ2015HGBZ0472).

  2. Whither Unified Korea? East, West or Center?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    the balance of power in Northeast Asia has been significantly shaped by an enduring Republic of Korea (ROK)-US alliance. Despite the constant threat of...a resumption of hostilities between the two Koreas, the current structure maintains a status quo that assures the balance of power in Northeast Asia...the balance of power imposed on the region since 1953. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report

  3. A Conversion of Wheatstone Bridge to Current-Loop Signal Conditioning for Strain Gages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1995-01-01

    Current loop circuitry replaced Wheatstone bridge circuitry to signal-condition strain gage transducers in more than 350 data channels for two different test programs at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The uncorrected test data from current loop circuitry had a lower noise level than data from comparable Wheatstone bridge circuitry, were linear with respect to gage-resistance change, and were uninfluenced by varying lead-wire resistance. The current loop channels were easier for the technicians to set up, verify, and operate than equivalent Wheatstone bridge channels. Design choices and circuit details are presented in this paper in addition to operational experience.

  4. Evaluation of current and novel protocols for disinfection of airplane passenger footwear under simulated conditions.

    PubMed

    Amass, Sandra F; Schneider, Jessica L; Gaul, Angela M

    2005-09-30

    Aerobic bacterial culture was used to compare the effectiveness of the current USDA footwear disinfection protocol for airplane passengers contacting livestock to a novel protocol. The current protocol consists of brushing and dipping shoe soles in 1% Virkon S. The number of bacteria was not different between shoes treated with the current protocol and untreated shoes. No shoes met the standard for disinfection after the current disinfection protocol was completed. The novel protocol consisted of brushing shoe soles, wiping soles with a cotton towel soaked in 1% Virkon S, and drying soles with paper towels. The number of bacteria was less (P<0.0001) on treated shoes compared to control shoes. Eighteen of 20 shoes (90%) cleaned using the novel protocol met the standard for disinfection. Direct comparison of the current and novel protocols found that the number of bacteria cultured was less (P<0.0001) after implementing the novel protocol compared to implementing the current protocol. Again, no shoes treated using the current protocol met the standard for disinfection after the current protocol was completed. Sixteen and 17 of 20 shoes (80--85%), respectively, met the standard for disinfection after the novel protocol was completed. Under conditions of this study, current US airport footwear disinfection protocols were inadequate to disinfect footwear when using aerobic bacteria as a marker for disinfection. We recommend implementation of the novel footwear disinfectant protocol for select passengers from international flights.

  5. Assessing Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions

    Treesearch

    George H. Mitri; Mireille G. Jazi; David McWethy

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence and extent of large-scale wildfires in the Mediterranean have been linked to extended periods of warm and dry weather. We set out to assess Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions. The Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) was the primary climate variable used in our evaluation of climate/fire...

  6. Current utilization and influencing factors of complementary and alternative medicine among children with neuropsychiatric disease: a cross-sectional survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Min-Jeong; Lee, Hye-Yoon; Lim, Jung-Hwa; Yun, Young-Ju

    2016-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread but has various utilization rates according to country and the condition of patients. Generally, CAM is more frequently used in diseases that have no clear treatment method in conventional medicine. Therefore, a high utilization rate of CAM can be assumed in pediatric neurological diseases, but few studies have investigated the utilization of CAM in children with neuropsychiatric diseases. In particular, studies regarding the current use of CAM are scarce. We conducted a survey of the parents or caregivers of patients who visited the pediatric rehabilitation clinic, pediatric neurology clinic, or pediatric psychiatry clinic at one university hospital from April to July 2011. We analyzed the factors that affect the utilization of CAM and other rehabilitation therapies. Among the 578 patients recruited, 258 patients have ever received CAM (51.5%), and the current CAM utilization rate was 19.0% (110 patients). Two hundred patients (34.6%) were currently receiving only other rehabilitation therapies, and 268 patients (46.4%) were currently receiving no type of therapy. The rate of current CAM usage was significantly high in epilepsy patients. The ORs of 1-6-year-old and 7-12-year-old children compared with 13-19-year-old children were 3.14 (95 % CI 1.31-7.53) and 3.34 (95% CI 1.64-6.79), respectively, and the OR of the group with longer disease duration (≥48 months) compared with the group with shorter disease duration was 3.36 (95% CI 1.71-6.59). Only the age and disease duration showed statistically significant differences between the patients who were administered CAM and those who received other rehabilitation therapies (p < 0.0001). CAM is preferred by patients under 13 years of age compared with patients aged 13-19 years, whereas other rehabilitation therapies are preferred by patients aged 1-6 years, followed by those aged 6-12 years and then by those aged 13-19 years. The patient's age and disease

  7. The constant current loop - A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1993-01-01

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. An adaptation of the current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations.

  8. The constant current loop - A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1993-01-01

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. An adaptation of the current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations.

  9. Improving Scientific Inquiry for Social Work in South Korea: The Center for Social Welfare Research at Yonsei University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jae-Sung; Choi, Soochan; Kim, Yujin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines current social issues and welfare needs in South Korea and discusses societal efforts to respond to these needs through social welfare systems nationwide. It also reviews how social work scholars, major contributors to the creation of a Korean welfare state, have contributed to the conditions of social work practice by…

  10. Nation Building in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    opportunity to rebuild South Korea . He saw it as “something almost unique in history. It is the opportunity of an army in a foreign land to contribute...problems. The North Korean invasion in 1950 wedded South Korea to the United States and confronted the United States with the enormous task of...elections in Korea .8 After failing to achieve agreement to peninsula-wide elections, the United Nations sponsored elections in South

  11. The Subtidal Lagrangian Current in Delaware's Inland Bays Under Low Wind Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xin; Wong, Kuo-Chuin

    1994-10-01

    A series of field surveys were conducted in Delaware's inland bays to investigate the subtidal current in a Lagrangian framework. Drifters tracked by the LORAN-C and satellite (ARGOS) positioning techniques were released in January and April of 1992. The LORAN-C position data were first locally corrected, and then inter-compared with the concurrent ARGOS data. Subtidal currents were then examined based on LORAN-C position data obtained under low wind conditions. Current velocities, calculated from a central finite-difference algorithm, were generally less than 3·0 Cm s -1 in the bays, although larger currents (5·5 cm s -1) were observed in the vicinity of the Indian River Inlet. Correlation between the subtidal current and wind was also systematically examined. In January, subtidal current and wind were favourably correlated with a complex correlation coefficient of 0·78 and an average veering of about 3°. In April, however, a poor correlation was found between the current and wind vector time series.

  12. Degradation of Leakage Currents in Solid Tantalum Capacitors Under Steady-State Bias Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of leakage currents in various types of solid tantalum capacitors under steady-state bias conditions was investigated at temperatures from 105 oC to 170 oC and voltages up to two times the rated voltage. Variations of leakage currents with time under highly accelerated life testing (HALT) and annealing, thermally stimulated depolarization currents, and I-V characteristics were measured to understand the conduction mechanism and the reason for current degradation. During HALT the currents increase gradually up to three orders of magnitude in some cases, and then stabilize with time. This degradation is reversible and annealing can restore the initial levels of leakage currents. The results are attributed to migration of positively charged oxygen vacancies in tantalum pentoxide films that diminish the Schottky barrier at the MnO2/Ta2O5 interface and increase electron injection. A simple model allows for estimation of concentration and mobility of oxygen vacancies based on the level of current degradation.

  13. Condition Monitoring System Designing of GIS Based on Trip/close Coil Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Dongliang; Wang, Zhi; Xue, Feng; Li, Haitao

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the types and characteristics of the faults from GIS were analyzed that the major failures were caused by its operating mechanism and auxiliary control circuits. While a useful parameter to effectively diagnose the mechanical failures of GIS is the trip/close coil current which is accessible and easy-to-measure. A portable system has been design to monitor the condition of GIS by detecting the coil current. This system was fulfilled with functions like signal sampling, processing, transmitting and performing. DSP and ARM11 carrying WINCE 6.0 have been used to construct the system. The feasibility and reliability were validated through several repeated experiments.

  14. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in breast milk of Korea in 2011: current contamination, time course variation, influencing factors and health risks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sunggyu; Kim, Sunmi; Kim, Eunkyo; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Gyuyeon; Kim, Hai-Joong; Park, Jeongim; Jae Lee, Jeong; Choi, Sooran; Young Kim, Su; Kim, Suungjoo; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Kyungho; Moon, Hyo-Bang

    2013-10-01

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen to assess maternal and infant exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, 208 breast milk samples were collected from 89 participants during lactation period, at <7, 15, 30, and 90 days postpartum, in four cities in Korea, and were determined for 19 PBDE congeners. The total PBDE concentrations (ΣPBDE) ranged from 0.23 to 68.4 (mean: 2.73) ng/g lipid weight, and were within the ranges reported for European and Asian countries. Within a month of lactation after delivery, no significant changes were found in the PBDE concentrations. The predominance of BDE 153 rather than BDE 47 was found in the most samples that BDE 153 was detected, and was likely to be associated with stepwise debromination of BDE 209. No associations were found between PBDE concentrations in breast milk and demographic parameters, except for ΣPBDE with maternal age and delivery mode. Certain types of diet such as corn, seafood and nut correlated significantly with PBDE levels in breast milk. The estimated daily intakes of ΣPBDE for breast-feeding infants were lower than the guidelines proposed by the US EPA, indicating limited health risk from PBDEs through breast feeding. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Mechanism of strategic management of a sanatorium-and-spa facility under current economic conditions].

    PubMed

    Kholmogorov, N A; Fedotchenko, A A

    2010-01-01

    The existing system of management of sanatorium-and-spa facilities constitutes a major economic risk factor under current socio-economic situation. One of the most important conditions for the sustainable continuation of activities of a sanatorium-and-spa institution is its adaptability to the changing economic environment. Those health care providers are likely to have an advantage in new conditions that offer a larger scope of specialized services, simultaneously reduces their costs and prices, introduce resource-saving technologies, and stimulate motivation of the medical personnel.

  16. WaterWatch - Maps, Graphs, and Tables of Current, Recent, and Past Streamflow Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jian, Xiaodong; Wolock, David; Lins, Harry

    2008-01-01

    WaterWatch (http://water.usgs.gov/waterwatch/) is a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Wide Web site that dis-plays maps, graphs, and tables describing real-time, recent, and past streamflow conditions for the United States. The real-time information generally is updated on an hourly basis. WaterWatch provides streamgage-based maps that show the location of more than 3,000 long-term (30 years or more) USGS streamgages; use colors to represent streamflow conditions compared to historical streamflow; feature a point-and-click interface allowing users to retrieve graphs of stream stage (water elevation) and flow; and highlight locations where extreme hydrologic events, such as floods and droughts, are occurring. The streamgage-based maps show streamflow conditions for real-time, average daily, and 7-day average streamflow. The real-time streamflow maps highlight flood and high flow conditions. The 7-day average streamflow maps highlight below-normal and drought conditions. WaterWatch also provides hydrologic unit code (HUC) maps. HUC-based maps are derived from the streamgage-based maps and illustrate streamflow conditions in hydrologic regions. These maps show average streamflow conditions for 1-, 7-, 14-, and 28-day periods, and for monthly average streamflow; highlight regions of low flow or hydrologic drought; and provide historical runoff and streamflow conditions beginning in 1901. WaterWatch summarizes streamflow conditions in a region (state or hydrologic unit) in terms of the long-term typical condition at streamgages in the region. Summary tables are provided along with time-series plots that depict variations through time. WaterWatch also includes tables of current streamflow information and locations of flooding.

  17. CURRENT CONDITIONS OF WATER ENVIRONMENT AND ELEMENT DISTRIBUTION AT KATHMANDU, NEPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Fumitake; Nakajima, Junko; Yatabe, Ryuichi; Bhandary, Netra

    Understanding current environmental condition is one of the most important issues for achieving effective policy for not only environmental protection but also disaster prevention. Element distribution in the water environment at Kathmandu area was investigated in this study in order to understand current environmental conditions in the areas. The characteristic elements observed in this area were considered to be Cu and Sr, the concentrations of which seem to be relatively higher than those in the other Asian areas. Water contamination problem in that area was also serious, and urgent and effective countermeasures are required. These were caused mainly by organic substances, therefore infrastructures for environmental protection such as sewage treatment plant and waste treatment facility should be prepared and operated sufficiently. Besides, water quality monitoring system also should be developed for environmental protection and for future application of water quality information to disaster countermeasures.

  18. A fast transient outward current in the rat sympathetic neurone studied under voltage-clamp conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Belluzzi, O; Sacchi, O; Wanke, E

    1985-01-01

    . These data are consistent with the view that in the rat sympathetic neurone, under physiological conditions, it is the IA current rather than the delayed outward current that is responsible for the fast action potential repolarization. PMID:2580089

  19. Enhanced D-T supershot performance at high current using extensive lithium conditioning in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, D.K.; Strachan, J.D.; Bell, M.G.; Scott, S.D.; Budny, R.; Bell, R.E.; Bitter, M.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.

    1995-05-01

    A substantial improvement in supershot fusion plasma performance has been realized by combining the enhanced confinement due to tritium fueling with the enhanced confinement due to extensive Li conditioning of the TFTR limiter. This combination has resulted in not only significantly higher global energy confinement times than had previously been obtained in high current supershots, but also the highest ratio of central fusion output power to input power observed to date.

  20. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Psychiatric Conditions: A Review of Current Research

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mariyah; Sreeram, Venkatesh

    2017-01-01

    Neural-derived exosomes can be used as diagnostic markers to screen for various psychiatric conditions. These intravenously injected exosomes carry the potential to cross the blood brain barrier and deliver miRNA molecules specifically to neurons, microglia, and oligodendrocytes in the brain, resulting in specific gene knockdown. Here the authors review and discuss the current research on microRNA molecules and the therapeutic roles they may potentially play in treating depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. PMID:28386521

  1. Front conditions for gravity currents in channels of general cross-section: some general conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungarish, Marius

    2015-11-01

    We consider the propagation of a high-Reynolds-number gravity current in a horizontal channel with general cross-section of width f (z) , 0 <= z <= H the gravity acceleration g acts in - z direction. (The rectangular case is f (z) = const.) We assume a two-layer system of fluids of densities ρc (current, of height h) and ρa (ambient, filling the remaining part of the channel). We revisit the derivation of the nose Froude-number condition Fr = U /(g' h) 1 / 2 ; U is the speed of propagation of the current and g' = (ρc /ρa - 1) g . We present compact insightful expressions of Fr and energy dissipation as a functions of φ (= area fraction occupied by the current in the cross-section), and show that a degree of freedom is present. We demonstrate that the extension of the closure suggested by Benjamin for the rectangular cross-section, namely that the bottom is a perfect stagnation line, produces Fr solutions which are optimal with respect to several useful criteria. However, the energy conserving closure yields problematic Fr results, as manifest in particular by invalidity for deep currents (small h / H). Connection with realistic time-dependent gravity currents is discussed.

  2. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Eiden, T. J.; Gerczak, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-04-01

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150μA of proton current from the source, with over 70μA on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above ˜1×1017/m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  3. Predicting electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave amplitude from unstable ring current plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiangrong; Cowee, Misa M.; Jordanova, Vania K.; Gary, S. Peter; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Winske, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the Earth's inner magnetosphere are enhanced fluctuations driven unstable by ring current ion temperature anisotropy. EMIC waves can resonate with relativistic electrons and play an important role in precipitation of MeV radiation belt electrons. In this paper, we investigate the excitation and saturation of EMIC instability in a homogeneous plasma using both linear theory and nonlinear hybrid simulations. We have explored a four-dimensional parameter space, carried out a large number of simulations, and derived a scaling formula that relates the saturation EMIC wave amplitude to initial plasma conditions. Such scaling can be used in conjunction with ring current models like ring current-atmosphere interactions model with self-consistent magnetic field to provide global dynamic EMIC wave maps that will be more accurate inputs for radiation belt modeling than statistical models.

  4. Optimal conditions for high current proton irradiations at the university of Wisconsin's ion beam laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Wetteland, C. J.; Field, K. G.; Gerczak, T. J.; Eiden, T. J.; Maier, B. R.; Albakri, O.; Sridharan, K.; Allen, T. R.

    2013-04-19

    The National Electrostatics Corporation's (NEC) Toroidal Volume Ion Source (TORVIS) source is known for exceptionally high proton currents with minimal service downtime as compared to traditional sputter sources. It has been possible to obtain over 150{mu}A of proton current from the source, with over 70{mu}A on the target stage. However, beam fluxes above {approx}1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17}/m2-s may have many undesirable effects, especially for insulators. This may include high temperature gradients at the surface, sputtering, surface discharge, cracking or even disintegration of the sample. A series of experiments were conducted to examine the role of high current fluxes in a suite of ceramics and insulating materials. Results will show the optimal proton irradiation conditions and target mounting strategies needed to minimize unwanted macro-scale damage, while developing a procedure for conducting preliminary radiation experiments.

  5. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  6. Tidal Power Exploitation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Byung Ho; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Choi, Jae Cheon

    The highest tides in South Korea are found along the northwest coast between latitudes 36-38 degrees and the number of possible sites for tidal range power barrages to create tidal basins is great due to irregular coastlines with numerous bays. At present Lake Sihwa tidal power plant is completed. The plant is consisted of 10 bulb type turbines with 8 sluice gates. The installed capacity of turbines and generators is 254MW and annual energy output expected is about 552.7 GWh taking flood flow generation scheme. Three other TPP projects are being progressed at Garolim Bay (20 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Kangwha (28 turbines with 25.4MW capacity), Incheon (44 or 48 turbines with 30 MW capacity) and project features will be outlined here. The introduction of tidal barrages into four major TPP projects along the Kyeonggi bay will render wide range of potential impacts. Preliminary attempts were performed to quantify these impacts using 2 D hydrodynamic model demonstrating the changes in tidal amplitude and phase under mean tidal condition, associated changes in residual circulation (indicator for SPM and pollutant dispersion), bottom stress (indicator for bedload movement), and tidal front (positional indicator for bio-productivity) in both shelf scale and local context. Tidal regime modeling system for ocean tides in the seas bordering the Korean Peninsula is designed to cover an area that is broad in scope and size, yet provide a high degree of resolution in strong tidal current region including off southwestern tip of the Peninsula (Uldolmok , Jangjuk, Wando-Hoenggan), Daebang Sudo (Channel) and Kyeonggi Bay. With this simulation system, real tidal time simulation of extended springneap cycles was performed to estimate spatial distribution of tidal current power potentials in terms of power density, energy density and then extrapolated annual energy density.

  7. Large-scale forcing of environmental conditions on subarctic copepods in the northern California Current system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hui; Bi, Hongsheng; Peterson, William T.

    2015-05-01

    In the ocean, dominant physical processes often change at various spatial and temporal scales. Here, we examined associations between large-scale physical forcing indexed by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), regional ocean conditions including alongshore currents in relation to the abundance of two subarctic oceanic copepods, Neocalanus plumchrus, and N. cristatus in the offshore portions of the northern California Current (NCC) system in spring of 1998-2008. We found significant relationships between the abundance of copepods, water temperature, and alongshore currents with a lag of two or four months in response to the PDO in the NCC system. During the growth season in March/April both subarctic copepod species displayed consistent cross-shelf patterns with shoreward decreasing gradient in abundance, and were negatively correlated with the PDO, sea water temperature, and alongshore currents. Our studies highlight the responses of regional ocean conditions to large-scale physical forcing and illustrate the potential for Neocalanus copepods as unique vectors for a new understanding of the ecological response in the offshore oceanic waters of the NCC system to climate variability.

  8. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  9. Multistage gearbox condition monitoring using motor current signature analysis and Kolmogorov Smirnov test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Chinmaya; Mohanty, A. R.

    2006-02-01

    Even though there are a number of condition monitoring and analysis techniques, researchers are in search of a simple and easy way to monitor vibration of a gearbox, which is an omnipresent and an important power transmission component in any machinery. Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) has been the most recent addition as a non-intrusive and easy to measure condition monitoring technique. The objective of this paper is to detect artificially introduced defects in gears of a multistage automotive transmission gearbox at different gear operations using MCSA as a condition monitoring technique and Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test as an analysis technique assuming that any defect or load has a specific probability distribution. Empirical cumulative distribution functions (ECDF) are used to differentiate these probability distributions. Steady as well as fluctuating load conditions on the gearbox are tested for both vibration and current signatures during different gear operations. It is concluded that combined MCSA and KS test can be an effective way to monitor and detect faults in gears.

  10. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-01

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect—using electric current shape analysis—for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between “does-not-need-to-be-replaced” and “needs-to-be-replaced” shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification. PMID:28146057

  11. Replacement Condition Detection of Railway Point Machines Using an Electric Current Sensor.

    PubMed

    Sa, Jaewon; Choi, Younchang; Chung, Yongwha; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Daihee; Yoon, Sukhan

    2017-01-29

    Detecting replacement conditions of railway point machines is important to simultaneously satisfy the budget-limit and train-safety requirements. In this study, we consider classification of the subtle differences in the aging effect-using electric current shape analysis-for the purpose of replacement condition detection of railway point machines. After analyzing the shapes of after-replacement data and then labeling the shapes of each before-replacement data, we can derive the criteria that can handle the subtle differences between "does-not-need-to-be-replaced" and "needs-to-be-replaced" shapes. On the basis of the experimental results with in-field replacement data, we confirmed that the proposed method could detect the replacement conditions with acceptable accuracy, as well as provide visual interpretability of the criteria used for the time-series classification.

  12. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  13. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  14. Review of Professional Workers' Multicultural Competence: Implications in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Romee; Heo, Gyeong Mi; Kim, Jinhee

    2016-01-01

    The importance of professional workers' multicultural competence (MC) is increasingly noted in Korea, which is shifting into a multicultural society. This study investigates the current location of the discussion regarding the MC of professional workers in Korea using reviews of existing studies in international and Korean contexts. This paper…

  15. English Education and Teacher Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jo, Seongja

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the English language is a global phenomenon, but it has a particular resonance in South Korea, where English is second only to Korean as a common language. The paper examines the current educational context in South Korea and the policy and practice issues that arise within this context regarding teacher education in English as a…

  16. Boundary conditions and formation of pure spin currents in magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliashvili, Merab; Tsitsishvili, George

    2017-09-01

    Schrödinger equation for an electron confined to a two-dimensional strip is considered in the presence of homogeneous orthogonal magnetic field. Since the system has edges, the eigenvalue problem is supplied by the boundary conditions (BC) aimed in preventing the leakage of matter away across the edges. In the case of spinless electrons the Dirichlet and Neumann BC are considered. The Dirichlet BC result in the existence of charge carrying edge states. For the Neumann BC each separate edge comprises two counterflow sub-currents which precisely cancel out each other provided the system is populated by electrons up to certain Fermi level. Cancelation of electric current is a good starting point for developing the spin-effects. In this scope we reconsider the problem for a spinning electron with Rashba coupling. The Neumann BC are replaced by Robin BC. Again, the two counterflow electric sub-currents cancel out each other for a separate edge, while the spin current survives thus modeling what is known as pure spin current - spin flow without charge flow.

  17. Relative importance of ring and tail currents to Dst under extremely disturbed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalegaev, V. V.; Makarenkov, E. V.

    2008-02-01

    Relative ring current (RC) and tail current (TC) contributions to Dst were investigated on the basis of the statistical study of 70 magnetic storms of different intensities. Special attention was paid to the extremely disturbed conditions during magnetic storms in October-November 2003. Variations of the magnetic field produced by magnetospheric currents on the Earth's surface were calculated using paraboloid model of the magnetosphere A2000 [Alexeev, I.I., Belenkaya, E.S., Kalegaev, V.V., Feldstein, Y.I., Grafe, A., 1996. Journal of Geophysical Research 101,7737; Alexeev, I.I., Kalegaev, V.V., Belenkaya, E.S., Bobrovnikov, S.Yu., Feldstein, Ya.I., Gromova, L.I., 2001. Journal of Geophysical Research 106, 25683], taking into account the effect of terrestrial induced currents. For each magnetic storm we calculated Dst and contributions produced by large-scale magnetospheric current systems. The relative RC and TC contributions for each event at the storm maximum were examined in relationship to the peak pressure-corrected Dst value. Analysis of Dst sources confirms the conclusions of Kalegaev and Ganushkina [2005. In: Pulkkinen, T., Tsyganenko, N.A., Friedel, R.H.W. (Eds.), Physics and Modeling of the Inner Magnetosphere, AGU Geophysical Monograph 155. AGU, Washington, DC, p. 293] and Kalegaev and Makarenkov [2006. Geomagnetism and Aeronomy 46, 570] about saturation of the TC effect under extremely disturbed conditions. The RC becomes the dominant Dst source during severe magnetic storms, but during moderate storms its contribution to Dst is comparable with TC's contribution. The RC injection amplitude increases with the growth of magnetospheric disturbance level.

  18. LONGEVITY IN NORTH KOREA AND SOUTH KOREA: PREVALENCE OF CENTENARIANS IN ONE THE POOREST AND ONE OF THE RICHEST NATIONS.

    PubMed

    Schwekendiek, Daniel

    2017-05-09

    Over recent decades, economic living conditions have dramatically improved in South Korea, which now represents one of the most developed nations. At the same time, its twin in the North remains one of the poorest countries on earth. Thus, the Korean peninsula represents a unique historical experiment that allows for study of the effects of environment on human development under a variety of ceteris paribus cultural, genetic and climatic conditions. Previous studies comparing the biosocial performances of the two Koreas have focused on indicators such as weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference and age at menarche. The purpose of the present study was to investigate longevity based on the number of centenarians living in the two Koreas by drawing on censuses implemented around 1925 and 2010. The study found that North Korea had some 0.7 centenarians per one million persons in 1925, and this rate moderately improved to 2.7 around 2010. Conversely, rates skyrocketed in South Korea from 2.7 in 1925 to 38.2 around 2010. This suggests that the rate of centenarians in North Korea around 2010 corresponds to that of South Korea in 1925, suggesting a chronological lag in delayed human development of some 85 years. The prevalence of centenarians is fourteen times higher in contemporary South Korea compared with the North - broadly confirming previous biosocial studies on the two Koreas and two Germanies reporting improved human development in market-oriented systems compared with socialist ones.

  19. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  20. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  1. 19 CFR 10.1009 - Certification for goods exported to Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Korea. 10.1009...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Export Requirements § 10.1009 Certification for goods exported to Korea. (a...

  2. 19 CFR 10.1009 - Certification for goods exported to Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Korea. 10.1009...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Export Requirements § 10.1009 Certification for goods exported to Korea. (a...

  3. 19 CFR 10.1009 - Certification for goods exported to Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certification for goods exported to Korea. 10.1009...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement Export Requirements § 10.1009 Certification for goods exported to Korea. (a...

  4. USDA Foreign Agricultural Service overview for operational monitoring of current crop conditions and production forecasts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutchfield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The presentation will discuss the current status of the International Production Assessment Division of the USDA ForeignAgricultural Service for operational monitoring and forecasting of current crop conditions, and anticipated productionchanges to produce monthly, multi-source consensus reports on global crop conditions including the use of Earthobservations (EO) from satellite and in situ sources.United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) International Production AssessmentDivision (IPAD) deals exclusively with global crop production forecasting and agricultural analysis in support of the USDAWorld Agricultural Outlook Board (WAOB) lockup process and contributions to the World Agricultural Supply DemandEstimates (WASE) report. Analysts are responsible for discrete regions or countries and conduct in-depth long-termresearch into national agricultural statistics, farming systems, climatic, environmental, and economic factors affectingcrop production. IPAD analysts become highly valued cross-commodity specialists over time, and are routinely soughtout for specialized analyses to support governmental studies. IPAD is responsible for grain, oilseed, and cotton analysison a global basis. IPAD is unique in the tools it uses to analyze crop conditions around the world, including customweather analysis software and databases, satellite imagery and value-added image interpretation products. It alsoincorporates all traditional agricultural intelligence resources into its forecasting program, to make the fullest use ofavailable information in its operational commodity forecasts and analysis. International travel and training play animportant role in learning about foreign agricultural production systems and in developing analyst knowledge andcapabilities.

  5. The constant current loop: A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1992-01-01

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable resistance sensors to remotely located signal conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. Theoretical predictions supported by laboratory testing confirm the following features of the approach: (1) dc response; (2) the electrical output is unaffected by extremely large variations in the resistance of any or all lead wires; (3) the electrical output remains zero for no change in gage resistance; (4) the electrical output is inherently linear with respect to gage resistance change; (5) the sensitivity is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; and (6) the same excitation wires can serve multiple independent gages. An adaptation of current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations. These innovations are the subject of NASA patent applications.

  6. The constant current loop: A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1993-01-01

    A practical, single, constant-current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers was synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature device are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. Theoretical predictions supported by laboratory testing confirm the following features of the approach: (1) the dc response; (2) the electrical output is unaffected by extremely large variations in the resistance of any or all lead wires; (3) the electrical output remains zero for no change in gage resistance; (4) the electrical output is inherently linear with respect to gage resistance change; (5) the sensitivity is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; and (6) the same excitation and sense wires can serve multiple independent gages. An adaptation of the current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations. These innovations are the subject of NASA patent applications.

  7. The constant current loop: A new paradigm for resistance signal conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Karl F.

    1994-01-01

    A practical single constant current loop circuit for the signal conditioning of variable-resistance transducers has been synthesized, analyzed, and demonstrated. The strain gage and the resistance temperature detector are examples of variable-resistance sensors. Lead wires connect variable-resistance sensors to remotely located signal-conditioning hardware. The presence of lead wires in the conventional Wheatstone bridge signal-conditioning circuit introduces undesired effects that reduce the quality of the data from the remote sensors. A practical approach is presented for suppressing essentially all lead wire resistance effects while indicating only the change in resistance value. Theoretical predictions supported by laboratory testing confirm the following features of the approach: (1) dc response; (2) the electrical output is unaffected by extremely large variation in the resistance of any or all lead wires; (3) the electrical output remains zero for no change in gage resistance; (4) the electrical output is inherently linear with respect to gage resistance change; (5) the sensitivity is double that of a Wheatstone bridge circuit; and (6) the same excitation wires can serve multiple independent gages. An adaptation of current loop circuit is presented that simultaneously provides an output signal voltage directly proportional to transducer resistance change and provides temperature information that is unaffected by transducer and lead wire resistance variations. These innovations are the subject of NASA patent applications.

  8. Nile blue fluorescence signals from cut single muscle fibers under voltage or current clamp conditions

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented for recording extrinsic optical signals from segments of single skeletal muscle fibers under current or voltage clamp conditions. Such segments, which are cut from intact fibers, are maintained in a relaxed state, while exhbiting otherwise normal physiological properties, including healthy delayed rectifier currents. Extrinsic fluorescence changes are demonstrated, using the permeant potentiometric probe, Nile Blue A. These changes vary nonlinearly with the controlled surface membrane potential, in a manner which suggests that they arise from potential changes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. According to this interpretation, a simple model based on the gating charge movement implicated in excitation-contraction coupling, provides a self-consistent description of the voltage dependence of the signal that requires no additional parameters. PMID:310445

  9. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  10. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  11. Childhood conditions and current physical performance among non-institutionalized individuals aged 50+ in Israel.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Galit

    2016-12-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood have been previously linked with high risk of various health conditions. However, the association with future physical function has been less studied. Hand grip strength and chair-rising time are objective measures of physical capability indicating current and future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that perceived socio-economic status in childhood is related to current measures of physical function, among Israeli participants of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project. The study included 2300 participants aged 50 years or older (mean age 68 ± 10; 56 % women). Generalized linear regression models were used to examine the associations of childhood wealth and number of books in residence with grip strength and time to complete five rises from a chair. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between the early life conditions and the ability to perform the physical tests. Adjustment was made for current income or household wealth, and for demographic, anthropometric, health, and life-style measures. Being wealthy and having a large number of books at home in childhood was associated with a stronger hand grip and a better chair-rise test performance. These associations were more robust in women compared to men, and persisted after adjustment for potential covariates. In addition, childhood wealth and number of books were associated with lower risk of being unable to perform the tests. Thus, early-life programming may contribute to physical function indicators in mid- and late-life.

  12. Childhood conditions and current physical performance among non-institutionalized individuals aged 50+ in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions in childhood have been previously linked with high risk of various health conditions. However, the association with future physical function has been less studied. Hand grip strength and chair-rising time are objective measures of physical capability indicating current and future health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that perceived socio-economic status in childhood is related to current measures of physical function, among Israeli participants of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe project. The study included 2300 participants aged 50 years or older (mean age 68 ± 10; 56 % women). Generalized linear regression models were used to examine the associations of childhood wealth and number of books in residence with grip strength and time to complete five rises from a chair. Logistic regression models were used to assess the relationships between the early life conditions and the ability to perform the physical tests. Adjustment was made for current income or household wealth, and for demographic, anthropometric, health, and life-style measures. Being wealthy and having a large number of books at home in childhood was associated with a stronger hand grip and a better chair-rise test performance. These associations were more robust in women compared to men, and persisted after adjustment for potential covariates. In addition, childhood wealth and number of books were associated with lower risk of being unable to perform the tests. Thus, early-life programming may contribute to physical function indicators in mid- and late-life. PMID:28190995

  13. Electric Current Activated Combustion Synthesis and Chemical Ovens Under Terrestrial and Reduced Gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unuvar, C.; Fredrick, D.; Anselmi-Tamburini, U.; Manerbino, A.; Guigne, J. Y.; Munir, Z. A.; Shaw, B. D.

    2004-01-01

    Combustion synthesis (CS) generally involves mixing reactants together (e.g., metal powders) and igniting the mixture. Typically, a reaction wave will pass through the sample. In field activated combustion synthesis (FACS), the addition of an electric field has a marked effect on the dynamics of wave propagation and on the nature, composition, and homogeneity of the product as well as capillary flow, mass-transport in porous media, and Marangoni flows, which are influenced by gravity. The objective is to understand the role of an electric field in CS reactions under conditions where gravity-related effects are suppressed or altered. The systems being studied are Ti+Al and Ti+3Al. Two different ignition orientations have been used to observe effects of gravity when one of the reactants becomes molten. This consequentially influences the position and concentration of the electric current, which in turn influences the entire process. Experiments have also been performed in microgravity conditions. This process has been named Microgravity Field Activated Combustion Synthesis (MFACS). Effects of gravity have been demonstrated, where the reaction wave temperature and velocity demonstrate considerable differences besides the changes of combustion mechanisms with the different high currents applied. Also the threshold for the formation of a stable reaction wave is increased under zero gravity conditions. Electric current was also utilized with a chemical oven technique, where inserts of aluminum with minute amounts of tungsten and tantalum were used to allow observation of effects of settling of the higher density solid particles in liquid aluminum at the present temperature profile and wave velocity of the reaction.

  14. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

  15. Occupational Neurologic Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Yun, Yong-Hun; Oh, Myoung-Soon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a schematic review of the clinical manifestations of occupational neurologic disorders in Korea and discusses the toxicologic implications of these conditions. Vascular encephalopathy, parkinsonism, chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, and neurodegenerative diseases are common presentations of occupational neurotoxic syndromes in Korea. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomic neurologic syndrome. Detailed neurologic examinations and categorization of the clinical manifestations of neurologic disorders will improve the clinical management of occupational neurologic diseases. Physicians must be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of possible exposure to neurotoxins, and they should also pay attention to less-typical, rather-vague symptoms and signs in workers because the toxicologic characteristics of occupational neurologic diseases in Korea have changed from typical patterns to less-typical or equivocal patterns. This shift is likely to be due to several years of low-dose exposure, perhaps combined with the effects of aging, and new types of possibly toxicant-related neurodegenerative diseases. Close collaboration between neurologists and occupational physicians is needed to determine whether neurologic disorders are work-related. PMID:20607045

  16. Predicting EMIC wave properties from ring current conditions observed by Van Allen Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordanova, V.; Fu, X.; Cowee, M.; Gary, S. P.; Winske, D.; Reeves, G. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, we have developed a model to predict amplitude and spectrum of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) wave from the anisotropic ring current ion distributions. The model is derived from linear theory and nonlinear hybrid simulations in a large parameter space for homogeneous plasmas consisting of electrons, protons, and helium ions. In this study we apply our model to selected EMIC events observed by Van Allen Probes satellites. Using the plasma conditions measured by the HOPE instrument, we predict EMIC properties and compare them to wave measurements by the EMFISIS instrument. Detailed analysis of these events will be shown.

  17. A Model based Examination of Conditions for Ignition of Turbidity Currents on Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, A. J.; Krishna, G.

    2009-12-01

    Turbidity currents form a major mechanism for the movement of sediment in the natural environment. Self-accelerating turbidity currents over continental slopes are of considerable scientific and engineering interest due to their role as agents for submarine sediment transportation from the shelf to the seabed. Such currents are called ignitive provided they eventually reach a catastrophic state as acceleration results in high sediment loads due to erosion of the sloping bed. A numerical model, which treats the fluid and the particles as two separate phases, is applied to investigate the effects of particle size, initial flow friction velocity and mild bed slope on the ignitive condition. Laboratory experimental data have been included as part of the analysis for qualitative comparison purposes. Ignition for the smallest of the three selected sizes (0.21mm) of medium sand typical of Florida beaches was found to depend on the initial conditions at the head of the slope as determined by the pressure gradient. Bed slope seemed to be of secondary importance. For the two sands with larger grain sizes (0.28mm and 0.35mm) the slope was found to play a more important role when compared to the initial pressure gradient. For a given pressure gradient, increasing the slope increased the likelihood of self-acceleration. It is concluded that in general ignition cannot be defined merely in terms of positive values of the velocity gradient and the sediment flux gradient along the slope. Depending on particle size the initial pressure gradient can also play a role. For the selected initial conditions (grain size, pressure gradient and bed slope), out of the 54 combinations tested, all except three satisfied the Knapp-Bagnold criterion for auto-suspension irrespective of whether the turbid current was ignitive or non-ignitive. In all 54 cases the current was found to erode the bed. Further use of the model will require accommodation of wider ranges of sediment size and bed density

  18. CONDITIONS FOR PHOTOSPHERICALLY DRIVEN ALFVENIC OSCILLATIONS TO HEAT THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE BY PEDERSEN CURRENT DISSIPATION

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2011-07-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic model that includes a complete electrical conductivity tensor is used to estimate conditions for photospherically driven, linear, non-plane Alfvenic oscillations extending from the photosphere to the lower corona to drive a chromospheric heating rate due to Pedersen current dissipation that is comparable to the observed net chromospheric radiative loss of {approx}10{sup 7} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The heating rates due to electron current dissipation in the photosphere and corona are also computed. The wave amplitudes are computed self-consistently as functions of an inhomogeneous background (BG) atmosphere. The effects of the conductivity tensor are resolved numerically using a resolution of 3.33 m. The oscillations drive a chromospheric heating flux F{sub Ch} {approx} 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at frequencies {nu} {approx} 10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} mHz for BG magnetic field strengths B {approx}> 700 G and magnetic field perturbation amplitudes {approx}0.01-0.1 B. The total resistive heating flux increases with {nu}. Most heating occurs in the photosphere. Thermalization of Poynting flux in the photosphere due to electron current dissipation regulates the Poynting flux into the chromosphere, limiting F{sub Ch}. F{sub Ch} initially increases with {nu}, reaches a maximum, and then decreases with increasing {nu} due to increasing electron current dissipation in the photosphere. The resolution needed to resolve the oscillations increases from {approx}10 m in the photosphere to {approx}10 km in the upper chromosphere and is {proportional_to}{nu}{sup -1/2}. Estimates suggest that these oscillations are normal modes of photospheric flux tubes with diameters {approx}10-20 km, excited by magnetic reconnection in current sheets with thicknesses {approx}0.1 km.

  19. E-waste management challenges in Iran: presenting some strategies for improvement of current conditions.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Nowrouz, Parviz; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Nazari, Jalil; Hashemi, Ahmad Asl; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Dehghanzadeh, Reza

    2012-11-01

    E-waste is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in Iran, owing to an increase in consumption of electrical and electronic equipment. Nevertheless, as is the case in some other countries, E-waste management has not received sufficient attention. For the successful implementation of any waste management plan (including an E-waste management plan), the availability of sufficient and accurate information on the quantities and composition of the waste generated and on current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. At present, in Iran, there is no available and accurate information that describes the characteristics and generation rate of E-waste or the actual practice of management and handling of the waste. For this initial study, eight electronic products were selected for the determination of their E-waste generation rate in the country, and two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessment of the current condition of E-waste management. The study found that the amount of E-waste generation in the country for the eight selected electronic items alone was 115,286, 112,914 and 115,151 metric tons in 2008, 2009 and 2010, respectively. Of the types of electronic items included in the study, televisions, with an average of 42.42%, and PCs, with an average of 32.66% accounted for the greatest proportions of the total mass of E-waste generated during 2008-2010. Currently, despite the fact that primary legislation for E-waste management (as part of general waste legislation) exists in Iran, this primary legislation has not yet been implemented. In practical terms, there is no definite policy or plan for the allocation of funds to prepare suitable equipment and facilities for the management and recycling of E-waste at the end of the products' useful life. Proposed improvements in current conditions are identified, first by considering other countries' experiences and then suggesting specific practical policies, rules, and regulations that should be

  20. Precipitation-Runoff Simulations of Current and Natural Streamflow Conditions in the Methow River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ely, D. Matthew

    2003-01-01

    Management of the water resources of the Methow River Basin is changing in response to the listing of three species of fish under the Endangered Species Act and the Washington State-legislated watershed-planning process. This report describes the construction and calibration of an enhanced precipitation-runoff model for the Methow River Basin and evaluates the model as a predictive tool for assessing the current and natural streamflow conditions. This study builds upon a previous precipitation-runoff model for the Methow River Basin and validates the current model using a new, more extensive streamflow data network. The major enhancement was the simulation of current flow conditions with the addition of irrigation diversions, returns, and application. The Geographic Information System Weasel characterized the physical properties of the basin and the Modular Modeling System, using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, simulated the hydrologic flow. Streamflow was simulated for water years 1992-2001 to calibrate the model to measured streamflows. A sensitivity analysis was completed using nonlinear regression to determine hydrologic parameters pertinent to the modeling results. Simulated and measured streamflow generally showed close agreement, especially during spring runoff from snowmelt. Low-flow or baseflow periods, most restrictive to fish habitation, were simulated reasonably well yet possessed the most uncertainty. Simulations of annual mean streamflow as a percentage of measured annual mean streamflow for the 10-year calibration period at six of the seven streamflow-gaging stations ranged from -35.2 to +26.2 percent, with 65 percent of the simulated values within 15 percent. One station was intentionally calibrated to over-simulate discharge (simulated discharge greater than measured discharge) in order to compensate for observed channel losses not simulated by the model. Simulation of water years 1960-2001 demonstrated great variability in monthly

  1. Conditions for the formation of nongyrotropic current sheets in slowly evolving plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, Karl; Hesse, Michael

    2010-08-15

    This paper addresses the formation of nongyrotropic current sheets resulting from slow external driving. The medium is a collisionless plasma with one spatial dimension and a three-dimensional velocity space. The study is based on particle simulation and an analytical approach. Earlier results that apply to compression of an initial Harris sheet are generalized in several ways. In a first step a general sufficient criterion for the presence of extra ion and electron currents due to nongyrotropic plasma conditions is derived. Then cases with antisymmetric magnetic and electric fields are considered. After establishing consistency of the criterion with the earlier case, the usefulness of this concept is illustrated in detail by two further particle simulations. The results indicate that the formation of nongyrotropic current sheets is a ubiquitous phenomenon for plasmas with antisymmetric fields that have evolved slowly from initial gyrotropic states. A fourth case concerns a plasma with a unidirectional magnetic field. Consistent with the general criterion, the observed final state is fluidlike in that it is approximately gyrotropic. Momentum balance is shown to include a contribution that results from accumulation of an off-diagonal pressure tensor component during the evolution. Heat flux also plays an important role.

  2. Characterizing drought stress and trait influence on maize yield under current and future conditions.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Matthew T; Tardieu, François; Dong, Zhanshan; Messina, Carlos D; Hammer, Graeme L

    2014-03-01

    Global climate change is predicted to increase temperatures, alter geographical patterns of rainfall and increase the frequency of extreme climatic events. Such changes are likely to alter the timing and magnitude of drought stresses experienced by crops. This study used new developments in the classification of crop water stress to first characterize the typology and frequency of drought-stress patterns experienced by European maize crops and their associated distributions of grain yield, and second determine the influence of the breeding traits anthesis-silking synchrony, maturity and kernel number on yield in different drought-stress scenarios, under current and future climates. Under historical conditions, a low-stress scenario occurred most frequently (ca. 40%), and three other stress types exposing crops to late-season stresses each occurred in ca. 20% of cases. A key revelation shown was that the four patterns will also be the most dominant stress patterns under 2050 conditions. Future frequencies of low drought stress were reduced by ca. 15%, and those of severe water deficit during grain filling increased from 18% to 25%. Despite this, effects of elevated CO2 on crop growth moderated detrimental effects of climate change on yield. Increasing anthesis-silking synchrony had the greatest effect on yield in low drought-stress seasonal patterns, whereas earlier maturity had the greatest effect in crops exposed to severe early-terminal drought stress. Segregating drought-stress patterns into key groups allowed greater insight into the effects of trait perturbation on crop yield under different weather conditions. We demonstrate that for crops exposed to the same drought-stress pattern, trait perturbation under current climates will have a similar impact on yield as that expected in future, even though the frequencies of severe drought stress will increase in future. These results have important ramifications for breeding of maize and have implications for

  3. Estimating turbidity current conditions from channel morphology: A Froude number approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequeiros, Octavio E.

    2012-04-01

    There is a growing need across different disciplines to develop better predictive tools for flow conditions of density and turbidity currents. Apart from resorting to complex numerical modeling or expensive field measurements, little is known about how to estimate gravity flow parameters from scarce available data and how they relate to each other. This study presents a new method to estimate normal flow conditions of gravity flows from channel morphology based on an extensive data set of laboratory and field measurements. The compilation consists of 78 published works containing 1092 combined measurements of velocity and concentration of gravity flows dating as far back as the early 1950s. Because the available data do not span all ranges of the critical parameters, such as bottom slope, a validated Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)κ-ɛnumerical model is used to cover the gaps. It is shown that gravity flows fall within a range of Froude numbers spanning 1 order of magnitude centered on unity, as opposed to rivers and open-channel flows which extend to a much wider range. It is also observed that the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow regime occurs around a slope of 1%, with a spread caused by parameters other than the bed slope, like friction and suspended sediment settling velocity. The method is based on a set of equations relating Froude number to bed slope, combined friction, suspended material, and other flow parameters. The applications range from quick estimations of gravity flow conditions to improved numerical modeling and back calculation of missing parameters. A real case scenario of turbidity current estimation from a submarine canyon off the Nigerian coast is provided as an example.

  4. Factors Influencing Adult Physical Health after Controlling for Current Health Conditions: Evidence from a British Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of 6875 British adults examining the effects of parental social status (measured at birth), cognitive ability (at age 11 yrs), personality traits, education and occupational attainment on physical health and functioning (all measured at age 50 yrs), after taking account of current health conditions (number of illness). Correlation analysis showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, education and occupation, and two personality traits (Emotional Stability/Neuroticism, and Conscientiousness) were all significantly associated with adult physical health variables. Structural equation modelling showed that health conditions and personality traits were significantly, and inversely, associated with physical health (indicated by good daily physical functioning, relative absence of pain, perceived health, and low level of limitations at work due to physical health). Parental social status, childhood intelligence, educational and occupational attainment were all modestly, but significantly and directly, associated with adult physical health. The effect of childhood intelligence on adult physical health was, in part, mediated through Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness. After controlling for health conditions Emotional Stability was the strongest predictor of physical health. Implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:23826090

  5. Climate- and remote sensing-based tools for drought management application in North and South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, W.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Tadesse, T.; Svoboda, M.; Fuchs, B.; Wilhite, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    North and South Korea have experienced more frequent and extreme droughts since the late 1990s. In recent years, severe droughts in 2000-2001, 2012, and 2015 have led to widespread agricultural and environmental impacts, and resulted in water shortages and large reductions in crop yields. This has been particularly problematic in the agricultural sector of North Korea, which has a high-level of vulnerability due to variations of climate and this, in turn, results in food security issues. This vulnerability is exacerbated by North Korea's relatively small area of arable land, most of which is not very productive. The objective of this study was to develop a drought management application using climate- and remote sensing-based tools for North and South Korea. These tools are essential for improving drought planning and preparedness in this area. In this study, various drought indicators derived from climate and remote sensing data (SPI, SC-PDSI, SPEI, and VegDRI-Korea) were investigated to monitor the current drought condition and evaluate their ability to characterize agricultural and meteorological drought events and their potential impacts. Results from this study can be used to develop or improve the national-level drought management application for these countries. The goal is to provide improved and more timely information on both the spatial and temporal dimensions of drought conditions and provide a tool to identify both past and present drought events in order to make more informed management decisions and reduce the impacts of current droughts and reduce the risk to future events.

  6. Quantum heat current under non-perturbative and non-Markovian conditions: Applications to heat machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Akihito; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-01

    We consider a quantum system strongly coupled to multiple heat baths at different temperatures. Quantum heat transport phenomena in this system are investigated using two definitions of the heat current: one in terms of the system energy and the other in terms of the bath energy. When we consider correlations among system-bath interactions (CASBIs)—which have a purely quantum mechanical origin—the definition in terms of the bath energy becomes different. We found that CASBIs are necessary to maintain the consistency of the heat current with thermodynamic laws in the case of strong system-bath coupling. However, within the context of the quantum master equation approach, both of these definitions are identical. Through a numerical investigation, we demonstrate this point for a non-equilibrium spin-boson model and a three-level heat engine model using the reduced hierarchal equations of motion approach under the strongly coupled and non-Markovian conditions. We observe the cyclic behavior of the heat currents and the work performed by the heat engine, and we find that their phases depend on the system-bath coupling strength. Through consideration of the bath heat current, we show that the efficiency of the heat engine decreases as the strength of the system-bath coupling increases, due to the CASBI contribution. In the case of a large system-bath coupling, the efficiency decreases further if the bath temperature is increased, even if the ratio of the bath temperatures is fixed, due to the discretized nature of energy eigenstates. This is also considered to be a unique feature of quantum heat engines.

  7. Knock-in model of Dravet syndrome reveals a constitutive and conditional reduction in sodium current

    PubMed Central

    Schutte, Ryan J.; Schutte, Soleil S.; Algara, Jacqueline; Barragan, Eden V.; Gilligan, Jeff; Staber, Cynthia; Savva, Yiannis A.; Smith, Martin A.; Reenan, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of mutations in the SCN1A sodium channel gene confer a wide spectrum of epileptic disorders, requiring efficient model systems to study cellular mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic targets. We recently demonstrated that Drosophila knock-in flies carrying the K1270T SCN1A mutation known to cause a form of genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) exhibit a heat-induced increase in sodium current activity and seizure phenotype. To determine whether different SCN1A mutations cause distinct phenotypes in Drosophila as they do in humans, this study focuses on a knock-in line carrying a mutation that causes a more severe seizure disorder termed Dravet syndrome (DS). Introduction of the DS SCN1A mutation (S1231R) into the Drosophila sodium channel gene para results in flies that exhibit spontaneous and heat-induced seizures with distinct characteristics and lower onset temperature than the GEFS+ flies. Electrophysiological studies of GABAergic interneurons in the brains of adult DS flies reveal, for the first time in an in vivo model system, that a missense DS mutation causes a constitutive and conditional reduction in sodium current activity and repetitive firing. In addition, feeding with the serotonin precursor 5-HTP suppresses heat-induced seizures in DS but not GEFS+ flies. The distinct alterations of sodium currents in DS and GEFS+ GABAergic interneurons demonstrate that both loss- and gain-of-function alterations in sodium currents are capable of causing reduced repetitive firing and seizure phenotypes. The mutation-specific effects of 5-HTP on heat-induced seizures suggest the serotonin pathway as a potential therapeutic target for DS. PMID:24805083

  8. Quantum heat current under non-perturbative and non-Markovian conditions: Applications to heat machines.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihito; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2016-12-14

    We consider a quantum system strongly coupled to multiple heat baths at different temperatures. Quantum heat transport phenomena in this system are investigated using two definitions of the heat current: one in terms of the system energy and the other in terms of the bath energy. When we consider correlations among system-bath interactions (CASBIs)-which have a purely quantum mechanical origin-the definition in terms of the bath energy becomes different. We found that CASBIs are necessary to maintain the consistency of the heat current with thermodynamic laws in the case of strong system-bath coupling. However, within the context of the quantum master equation approach, both of these definitions are identical. Through a numerical investigation, we demonstrate this point for a non-equilibrium spin-boson model and a three-level heat engine model using the reduced hierarchal equations of motion approach under the strongly coupled and non-Markovian conditions. We observe the cyclic behavior of the heat currents and the work performed by the heat engine, and we find that their phases depend on the system-bath coupling strength. Through consideration of the bath heat current, we show that the efficiency of the heat engine decreases as the strength of the system-bath coupling increases, due to the CASBI contribution. In the case of a large system-bath coupling, the efficiency decreases further if the bath temperature is increased, even if the ratio of the bath temperatures is fixed, due to the discretized nature of energy eigenstates. This is also considered to be a unique feature of quantum heat engines.

  9. Preliminary Results of Near-Surface Shear-Wave Velocity Models and Seismic Site Conditions in Gangneung, Korea Using Rayleigh-Wave Dispersion Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, A.; Kim, K. Y.

    2014-12-01

    To determine the near-surface shear wave velocities (Vs) and seismic site characteristics in densely populated areas in Gangneung on the eastern coast of Korea, passive and active surface waves were recorded at 117 sites of low altitude using twelve or twenty four 4.5-Hz geophones and a 24-channel engineering seismograph during this year. An 8-kg wooden hammer was used as an active source. The seismic waves were recorded for 8 to 30 s and digitized at 125 to 500 Hz sample rates. Dispersion images of the Rayleigh waves were obtained by the extended spatial autocorrelation (ESPAC) method. At 46 recording sites, the overburden layer was too thick to investigate bedrock with this shallow geophysical method. Shear-wave velocity models were derived from the estimated dispersion curves using the damped least-squares inversion scheme. From these 1-D velocity models, estimated mean values of Vs at the top of bedrock, depth to the bedrock, average Vs of the overburden layer, and average Vs of the top 30-m depth (Vs30) are 672±37 m/s, 17±0.5 m, 253±9 m/s, and 343±15 m/s, respectively, in the 95% confidence range. The estimated values from the inverted profiles were interpolated to yield maps for the entire low altitude area. Most of the investigated areas in Gangneung belong to NEHRP site class D (58%), C (34%), E (4%), and B (4%). In downtown area, both the lower estimates of Vs30 and thick overburden layer make it more prone to significant ground amplifications. The computed correlation coefficients (r) of Vs30 with elevation and topographic gradient, on linear scales, are 0.7 and 0.6, respectively.

  10. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on semantic discrimination eyeblink conditioning.

    PubMed

    Kotilainen, Tuukka; Lehto, Soili M; Wikgren, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulation method that has been used to modulate learning. We tested whether anodal tDCS targeted at the left DLPFC could enhance learning in a semantic variant of discrimination eyeblink conditioning, i.e., whether the stimulation would have a specific effect on the discrimination ability, rate of acquisition, amplitude of the conditioned response (CR), or all of these. Immediately prior to the eyeblink conditioning, the participants received either active stimulation of 1 mA for 10 min or sham stimulation. The anode was placed over F3 and the cathode over the right supraorbital area. The conditioned stimuli (CSs) were common Finnish male and female names that were presented as text. Male names were reinforced with an unconditioned stimulus. Stimulation had no effect on the learning rate or discrimination ratio, but the stimulated participants showed steeper CR acquisition in the initial phase of the experiment. Nevertheless, the participants in the stimulation group showed greater eyeblink CRs to the non-reinforced CS. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the magnitude and rate of CRs to non-reinforced CS was higher in the active stimulation group than in the sham stimulation group, which may suggest deterioration of discrimination and contingency awareness in the used task. Our observations may suggest a lack of effect on the participants' ability to discriminate between two different types of CS. Furthermore, cathodal modulation of the right prefrontal cortex may explain the change in magnitude and rate of CRs to non-reinforced CS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Current Fluctuations of the One Dimensional Symmetric Simple Exclusion Process with Step Initial Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard; Gerschenfeld, Antoine

    2009-07-01

    For the symmetric simple exclusion process on an infinite line, we calculate exactly the fluctuations of the integrated current Q t during time t through the origin when, in the initial condition, the sites are occupied with density ρ a on the negative axis and with density ρ b on the positive axis. All the cumulants of Q t grow like sqrt{t} . In the range where Qt˜ sqrt{t} , the decay exp [- Q {/t 3}/ t] of the distribution of Q t is non-Gaussian. Our results are obtained using the Bethe ansatz and several identities derived recently by Tracy and Widom for exclusion processes on the infinite line.

  12. A Review & Assessment of Current Operating Conditions Allowable Stresses in ASME Section III Subsection NH

    SciTech Connect

    R. W. Swindeman

    2009-12-14

    The current operating condition allowable stresses provided in ASME Section III, Subsection NH were reviewed for consistency with the criteria used to establish the stress allowables and with the allowable stresses provided in ASME Section II, Part D. It was found that the S{sub o} values in ASME III-NH were consistent with the S values in ASME IID for the five materials of interest. However, it was found that 0.80 S{sub r} was less than S{sub o} for some temperatures for four of the materials. Only values for alloy 800H appeared to be consistent with the criteria on which S{sub o} values are established. With the intent of undertaking a more detailed evaluation of issues related to the allowable stresses in ASME III-NH, the availabilities of databases for the five materials were reviewed and augmented databases were assembled.

  13. Formation of Martian Gullies by the Action of Liquid Water Flowing Under Current Martian Environmental Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Toon, O. B.; Pollard, W. H.; Mellon, M. T.; Pitlick, J.; McKay, C. P.; Andersen, D. T.

    2005-01-01

    Images from the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) on the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft show geologically young small-scale features resembling terrestrial water-carved gullies. An improved understanding of these features has the potential to reveal important information about the hydrological system on Mars, which is of general interest to the planetary science community as well as the field of astrobiology and the search for life on Mars. The young geologic age of these gullies is often thought to be a paradox because liquid water is unstable at the Martian surface. Current temperatures and pressures are generally below the triple point of water (273 K, 6.1 mbar) so that liquid water will spontaneously boil and/or freeze. We therefore examine the flow of water on Mars to determine what conditions are consistent with the observed features of the gullies.

  14. Sarcopenia: An Undiagnosed Condition in Older Adults. Current Consensus Definition: Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy on November 18, 2009 to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. While cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the two conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1.0 m·s−1. Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s−1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg: appendicular mass relative to ht2 that is ≤ 7.23 kg/ m2 in men ≤ 5.67 kg/ m2 in men). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization and death. PMID:21527165

  15. Humpback whale diets respond to variance in ocean climate and ecosystem conditions in the California Current.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Alyson H; Clark, Casey T; Calambokidis, John; Barlow, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Large, migratory predators are often cited as sentinel species for ecosystem processes and climate-related changes, but their utility as indicators is dependent upon an understanding of their response to environmental variability. Documentation of the links between climate variability, ecosystem change and predator dynamics is absent for most top predators. Identifying species that may be useful indicators and elucidating these mechanistic links provides insight into current ecological dynamics and may inform predictions of future ecosystem responses to climatic change. We examine humpback whale response to environmental variability through stable isotope analysis of diet over a dynamic 20-year period (1993-2012) in the California Current System (CCS). Humpback whale diets captured two major shifts in oceanographic and ecological conditions in the CCS. Isotopic signatures reflect a diet dominated by krill during periods characterized by positive phases of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), cool sea surface temperature (SST), strong upwelling and high krill biomass. In contrast, humpback whale diets are dominated by schooling fish when the NPGO is negative, SST is warmer, seasonal upwelling is delayed and anchovy and sardine populations display increased biomass and range expansion. These findings demonstrate that humpback whales trophically respond to ecosystem shifts, and as a result, their foraging behavior is a synoptic indicator of oceanographic and ecological conditions across the CCS. Multi-decadal examination of these sentinel species thus provides insight into biological consequences of interannual climate fluctuations, fundamental to advancing ecosystem predictions related to global climate change. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes. PMID:26657137

  17. A new strategy for tuberculosis control in North Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Jeon; Ki, Moran; Sung, Nackmoon

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most prevalent diseases in North Korea. Despite some positive accomplishments by current aid projects, it is still necessary to investigate the existing aid system. The following are necessary for improvement: sustaining a high degree of expertise, cooperation among various related parties including the international community, mediation to induce this cooperation, a more active role of the South Korean government, and encouragement of North Korea to more actively participate. Achieving these will help solve the issues of current tuberculosis aid projects in North Korea and lead to more successful outcomes.

  18. A global map of suitability for coastal Vibrio cholerae under current and future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Luis E; Ryan, Sadie J; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M; Finkelstein, Julia L; King, Christine A; Qiao, Huijie; Polhemus, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a globally distributed water-borne pathogen that causes severe diarrheal disease and mortality, with current outbreaks as part of the seventh pandemic. Further understanding of the role of environmental factors in potential pathogen distribution and corresponding V. cholerae disease transmission over time and space is urgently needed to target surveillance of cholera and other climate and water-sensitive diseases. We used an ecological niche model (ENM) to identify environmental variables associated with V. cholerae presence in marine environments, to project a global model of V. cholerae distribution in ocean waters under current and future climate scenarios. We generated an ENM using published reports of V. cholerae in seawater and freely available remotely sensed imagery. Models indicated that factors associated with V. cholerae presence included chlorophyll-a, pH, and sea surface temperature (SST), with chlorophyll-a demonstrating the greatest explanatory power from variables selected for model calibration. We identified specific geographic areas for potential V. cholerae distribution. Coastal Bangladesh, where cholera is endemic, was found to be environmentally similar to coastal areas in Latin America. In a conservative climate change scenario, we observed a predicted increase in areas with environmental conditions suitable for V. cholerae. Findings highlight the potential for vulnerability maps to inform cholera surveillance, early warning systems, and disease prevention and control.

  19. Electron Acceleration in a Dynamically Evolved Current Sheet Under Solar Coronal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Du, A. M.; Feng, Xueshang; Cao, Xin; Lu, Quanming; Yang, Liping; Chen, Gengxiong; Zhang, Ying

    2014-05-01

    Electron acceleration in a drastically evolved current sheet under solar coronal conditions is investigated via the combined 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) resistive magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and test-particle approaches. Having a high magnetic Reynolds number (105), the long, thin current sheet is torn into a chain of magnetic islands, which grow in size and coalesce with each other. The acceleration of electrons is explored in three typical evolution phases: when several large magnetic islands are formed (phase 1), two of these islands are approaching each other (phase 2), and almost merging into a "monster" magnetic island (phase 3). The results show that for all three phases electrons with an initial Maxwell distribution evolve into a heavy-tailed distribution and more than 20 % of the electrons can be accelerated higher than 200 keV within 0.1 second and some of them can even be energized up to MeV ranges. The lower-energy electrons are located away from the magnetic separatrices and the higher-energy electrons are inside the magnetic islands. The most energetic electrons have a tendency to be around the outer regions of the magnetic islands or to appear in the small secondary magnetic islands. It is the trapping effect of the magnetic islands and the distributions of E p that determine the acceleration and spatial distributions of the energetic electrons.

  20. Persistent Na+ current modifies burst discharge by regulating conditional backpropagation of dendritic spikes.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Brent; Noonan, Liza; Lemon, Neal; Turner, Ray W

    2003-01-01

    The estimation and detection of stimuli by sensory neurons is affected by factors that govern a transition from tonic to burst mode and the frequency characteristics of burst output. Pyramidal cells in the electrosensory lobe of weakly electric fish generate spike bursts for the purpose of stimulus detection. Spike bursts are generated during repetitive discharge when a frequency-dependent broadening of dendritic spikes increases current flow from dendrite to soma to potentiate a somatic depolarizing afterpotential (DAP). The DAP eventually triggers a somatic spike doublet with an interspike interval that falls inside the dendritic refractory period, blocking spike backpropagiation and the DAP. Repetition of this process gives rise to a rhythmic dendritic spike failure, termed conditional backpropagation, that converts cell output from tonic to burst discharge. Through in vitro recordings and compartmental modeling we show that burst frequency is regulated by the rate of DAP potentiation during a burst, which determines the time required to discharge the spike doublet that blocks backpropagation. DAP potentiation is magnified through a positive feedback process when an increase in dendritic spike duration activates persistent sodium current (I(NaP)). I(NaP) further promotes a slow depolarization that induces a shift from tonic to burst discharge over time. The results are consistent with a dynamical systems analysis that shows that the threshold separating tonic and burst discharge can be represented as a saddle-node bifurcation. The interaction between dendritic K(+) current and I(NaP) provides a physiological explanation for a variable time scale of bursting dynamics characteristic of such a bifurcation.

  1. Numerical simulation of wave-current interaction under strong wind conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larrañaga, Marco; Osuna, Pedro; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco Javier

    2017-04-01

    Although ocean surface waves are known to play an important role in the momentum and other scalar transfer between the atmosphere and the ocean, most operational numerical models do not explicitly include the terms of wave-current interaction. In this work, a numerical analysis about the relative importance of the processes associated with the wave-current interaction under strong off-shore wind conditions in Gulf of Tehuantepec (the southern Mexican Pacific) was carried out. The numerical system includes the spectral wave model WAM and the 3D hydrodynamic model POLCOMS, with the vertical turbulent mixing parametrized by the kappa-epsilon closure model. The coupling methodology is based on the vortex-force formalism. The hydrodynamic model was forced at the open boundaries using the HYCOM database and the wave model was forced at the open boundaries by remote waves from the southern Pacific. The atmospheric forcing for both models was provided by a local implementation of the WRF model, forced at the open boundaries using the CFSR database. The preliminary analysis of the model results indicates an effect of currents on the propagation of the swell throughout the study area. The Stokes-Coriolis term have an impact on the transient Ekman transport by modifying the Ekman spiral, while the Stokes drift has an effect on the momentum advection and the production of TKE, where the later induces a deepening of the mixing layer. This study is carried out in the framework of the project CONACYT CB-2015-01 255377 and RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793).

  2. Evaporation Rates for Liquid Water and Ice Under Current Martian Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Chittenden, J.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies have been concerned with the evaporation rates under martian conditions in order to place limits on the possible survival time of both liquid water and ice exposed on the surface of Mars. Such studies also aid in assessing the efficacy of an overlying layer of dust or loose regolith material in providing a barrier to free evaporation and thus prolong the lifetime of water in locations where its availability to putative living organisms would be significant. A better quantitative understanding of the effects of phase changes of water in the near surface environment would also aid the evaluation of the possible role of water in the formation of currently observed features, such as gullies in cliff walls and relatively short-term changes in the albedo of small surface areas ('dark stains'). Laboratory measurements aimed at refinement of our knowledge of these values are described here. The establishment of accurate values for evaporation rates and their dependence on the physical conditions of temperature, pressure and energy input, is an important benchmark for the further investigation of the efficacy of barriers to free evaporation in providing a prolonged period of survival of the water, particularly as a liquid.

  3. Panel Conditioning in Longitudinal Studies: Evidence from Labor Force Items in the Current Population Survey

    PubMed Central

    Halpern-Manners, Andrew; Warren, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Does participating in a longitudinal survey affect respondents’ answers to subsequent questions about their labor force characteristics? In this article, we investigate the magnitude of “panel conditioning” or “time in survey” biases for key labor force questions in the monthly Current Population Survey (CPS). Using linked CPS records for household heads first interviewed between January 2007 and June 2010, our analyses are based on strategic within-person comparisons across survey months and between-person comparisons across CPS rotation groups. We find considerable evidence for panel conditioning effects in the CPS. Panel conditioning downwardly biases the CPS-based unemployment rate, mainly by leading people to remove themselves from its denominator. Across surveys, CPS respondents (claim to) leave the labor force in greater numbers than otherwise equivalent respondents who are participating in the CPS for the first time. The results cannot be attributed to panel attrition or mode effects. We discuss implications for CPS-based research and policy as well as for survey methodology more broadly. PMID:22893185

  4. Evaporation Rates for Liquid Water and Ice Under Current Martian Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sears, D. W. G.; Moore, S. R.; Meier, A.; Chittenden, J.; Kareev, M.; Farmer, C. B.

    2004-01-01

    A number of studies have been concerned with the evaporation rates under martian conditions in order to place limits on the possible survival time of both liquid water and ice exposed on the surface of Mars. Such studies also aid in assessing the efficacy of an overlying layer of dust or loose regolith material in providing a barrier to free evaporation and thus prolong the lifetime of water in locations where its availability to putative living organisms would be significant. A better quantitative understanding of the effects of phase changes of water in the near surface environment would also aid the evaluation of the possible role of water in the formation of currently observed features, such as gullies in cliff walls and relatively short-term changes in the albedo of small surface areas ('dark stains'). Laboratory measurements aimed at refinement of our knowledge of these values are described here. The establishment of accurate values for evaporation rates and their dependence on the physical conditions of temperature, pressure and energy input, is an important benchmark for the further investigation of the efficacy of barriers to free evaporation in providing a prolonged period of survival of the water, particularly as a liquid.

  5. Effects of the current boundary conditions at the plasma-gun gap on density in SSPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnikov, Roman; Lodestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.

    2012-10-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) was a toroidal magnetic-confinement device without toroidal magnetic-field coils or a central transformer but which generated core-plasma currents by dynamo processes driven by coaxial plasma-gun injection into a flux-conserving vessel. Record electron temperatures in a spheromak (Te˜500eV) were achieved, and final results of the SSPX program were reported in [1]. Plasma density, which depended strongly on wall conditions, was an important parameter in SSPX. It was observed that density rises with Igun and that confinement improved as the density was lowered. Shortly after the last experiments, a new feature was added to the Corsica code's solver used to reconstruct SSPX equilibria. Motivated by n=0 fields observed in NIMROD simulations of SSPX, an insulating boundary condition was implemented at the plasma-gun gap. Using this option we will perform new reconstructions of SSPX equilibria and look for correlations between the location of the separatrix (which moves up the gun wall and onto the insulating gap as Igun increases) and plasma density and magnetic-flux amplification [2].[4pt] [1] H. S. McLean, APS, DPP, Dallas, TX, 2008.[0pt] [2] E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1064 (2007).

  6. Clinical compliance of viewing conditions in radiology reporting environments against current guidelines and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, S.; Rainford, L.; Butler, M. L.

    2014-03-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the importance of environmental conditions in the radiology reporting environment, with many indicating that incorrect parameters could lead to error and misinterpretation. Literature is available with recommendations as to the levels that should be achieved in clinical practice, but evidence of adherence to these guidelines in radiology reporting environments is absent. This study audited the reporting environments of four teleradiologist and eight hospital based radiology reporting areas. This audit aimed to quantify adherence to guidelines and identify differences in the locations with respect to layout and design, monitor distance and angle as well as the ambient factors of the reporting environments. In line with international recommendations, an audit tool was designed to enquire in relation to the layout and design of reporting environments, monitor angle and distances used by radiologists when reporting, as well as the ambient factors such as noise, light and temperature. The review of conditions were carried out by the same independent auditor for consistency. The results obtained were compared against international standards and current research. Each radiology environment was given an overall compliance score to establish whether or not their environments were in line with recommended guidelines. Poor compliance to international recommendations and standards among radiology reporting environments was identified. Teleradiology reporting environments demonstrated greater compliance than hospital environments. The findings of this study identified a need for greater awareness of environmental and perceptual issues in the clinical setting. Further work involving a larger number of clinical centres is recommended.

  7. Pre-slaughter conditions, animal stress and welfare: current status and possible future research.

    PubMed

    Terlouw, E M C; Arnould, C; Auperin, B; Berri, C; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Deiss, V; Lefèvre, F; Lensink, B J; Mounier, L

    2008-10-01

    The present paper describes the main procedures used to slaughter fowl, pigs, calves and adult cattle, sheep, and farmed fish, starting on the farm and ending with the death of the animal at the abattoir. It reviews the currently known causes of stress, indicated by behavioural and physiological measurements on the animal level, and by post-mortem muscle metabolism. During the pre-slaughter period, psychological stress is due to changes of environment, social disturbances and handling, and physical stress is due to food deprivation, climatic conditions, fatigue, and sometimes pain. The exact causes of stress depend, however, on the characteristics of each species, including the rearing system. For fowl, bird catching and crating, duration and climatic conditions of transport and of lairage and shackling are the main known pre-slaughter stress factors. For pigs, stress is caused by fighting during mixing of pens, loading and unloading conditions, and introduction in the restrainer. Handling and novelty of the situation contribute to the stress reactions. For veal calves and adult cattle, disruption of the social group, handling, loading and sometimes unloading conditions, fatigue, novelty of the situation and for calves mixing with unfamiliar animals are known stress factors. Gathering and yarding of extensively reared lambs and sheep causes stress, particularly when shepherd dogs are used. Subsequent transport may induce fatigue, especially if sheep are commercialised through auctions or markets. In farmed fish, stress is predominantly related to environmental aspects such as temperature, oxygen, cleanliness of the water and, to a certain extent, stocking density and removal of the fish from the water. If transport and lairage conditions are good and their durations not too long, they may allow pigs, calves and adult cattle, sheep, and fish to rest. For certain species, it was shown that genetic origin and earlier experience influence reactions to the slaughter

  8. Disasters can happen to anybody: The case of Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Kyoo-Man

    2016-02-15

    In Korea, there is a pervasive feeling of invincibility to the point that people and organizations do not believe that disasters can strike them. This has impact on the level of preparedness for disasters. This study aims to delve into how Korea has to change its governmental policies/practices with some private partners' efforts to mitigate disaster risks. A case study was utilized as the major methodology by comparing exclusive management with inclusive management. These two approaches have been comparatively analyzed via four variables, namely the central government, the local governments, the incident commander, and other stakeholders. The major finding is that Korea's practices and policies have to evolve from the current exclusive management into future-oriented inclusive management. Moreover, the importance of communication, cooperation, collaboration, and multi-discipline coordination is discussed. Additionally, the problem of reductionism and equal participation among all stakeholders, as well as the resistance from vested interests, are recognized and elaborated for Korea and the international community. - Highlights: • Only a few stakeholders in Korea believe that disaster can happen to anyone. This study aims to delve into how Korea has to change its current practices to mitigate disaster risks. • To compare exclusive management with inclusive management, we have examined four comparative variables, namely the central government's policy, local government's strategy, the incident commander's post, and other stakeholders' efforts. • The major finding is that Korea's practices and policies have to evolve from the current exclusive management into future-oriented inclusive management.

  9. Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we

  10. Three Gorges Reservoir Area: soil erosion under natural condition vs. soil erosion under current land use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönbrodt, Sarah; Behrens, Thorsten; Scholten, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Apparently, the current most prominent human-induced example for large scale environmental impact is the Three Gorges Dam in China. The flooding alongside the Yangtze River, and its tributaries results in a vast loss of settlement and farmland area with productive, fertile valley soils. Due to the associated high land use dynamic on uphill-sites, the soil resources are underlying high land use pressure. Within our study, the soil erosion under natural conditions is compared to the soil erosion under current land use after the impoundment. Both were modeled using the empirical Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) which is able to predict long-term annual soil loss with limited data. The database consists of digital terrain data (45 m resolution DEM, erosive slope length based on Monte-Carlo-Aggregation according to Behrens et al. (2008)), field investigations of recent erosion forms, and literature studies. The natural disposition to soil erosion was calculated considering the USLE factors R, S, and K. The soil erosion under current land use was calculated taking into account all USLE factors. The study area is the catchment of the Xiangxi River in the Three Gorges Reservoir area. Within the Xiangxi Catchment (3,200 km²) the highly dynamic backwater area (580 km²), and two micro-scale study sites (Xiangjiaba with 2.8 km², and Quyuan with 88 km²) are considered more detailed as they are directly affected by the river impoundment. Central features of the Xiangxi Catchment are the subtropical monsoon climate, an extremely steep sloping relief (mean slope angle 39°, SD 22.8°) artificially fractured by farmland terraces, and a high soil erodibility (mean K factor 0.37, SD 0.13). On the catchment scale the natural disposition to soil erosion makes up to mean 518.0 t ha-1 a-1. The maximum potential soil loss of 1,730.1 t ha-1 a-1 under natural conditions is reached in the Quyuan site (mean 635.8 t ha-1 a-1) within the backwater area (mean 582.9 t ha-1 a-1). In the

  11. Influence of mountain pine beetle epidemic on winter habitat conditions for Merriam's turkeys: Management implications for current and future condition

    Treesearch

    Chadwick P. Lehman; Mark A. Rumble; Michael A. Battaglia; Todd R. Mills; Lance A. Asherin

    2016-01-01

    Understanding response of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forest development following a mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) epidemic has important management implications for winter habitat conditions for Merriam’s wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami; hereafter, turkeys). Therefore, we quantified habitat changes over time for turkeys...

  12. Electron Acceleration in a Dynamically Evolved Current Sheet of Solar Coronal Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaohua, Z.; Du, A.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    Electron acceleration in a drastically evolved current sheet of solar coronal conditions is investigated via the combined resistive Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and test particle approaches. With high magnetic Reynolds number, the long-thin current sheet is tearing into a chain of magnetic islands, which grow in size and coalesce together. The acceleration of electrons are explored in three typical evolvement phases: when several large magnetic islands are formed (phase1), two of them are approaching each other (phase2) and almost merging into a "monster" magnetic island (phase3). The results show that for all the three phases electrons with an initially Maxwellian distribution evolve into a heavy-tailed distribution and more than 20% of the electrons can be accelerated higher than 200 keV within 0.1 second and some of them can even be energized up to MeV ranges. Most of the energetic electrons move around the magnetic islands in clockwise direction (anti-parallel to the magnetic field lines), drifting in the -Z direction. The energetic electrons with 10 keV < Ek < 200 keV are located outside the magnetic separatrices, where parallel electric field (Ep) is small. The electrons with 200 keV < Ek < 5000 keV are distributed inside the magnetic islands where Ep is moderate large but have complex structures. The electrons with Ek > 5000 keV are located around the outer regions of the magnetic islands or at the core regions of the magnetic islands. Some of the most energetic electrons even appear in the small secondary magnetic islands that are embedded in the diusion regions in between the magnetic islands. It is the trapping eect of the magnetic islands and the distributions of Ep that determine the acceleration processes and space distribution of the energetic electrons.

  13. Addressing drought conditions under current and future climates in the Jordan River region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törnros, T.; Menzel, L.

    2014-01-01

    The Standardized Precipitation-Evaporation Index (SPEI) was applied in order to address the drought conditions under current and future climates in the Jordan River region located in the southeastern Mediterranean area. In the first step, the SPEI was derived from spatially interpolated monthly precipitation and temperature data at multiple timescales: accumulated precipitation and monthly mean temperature were considered over a number of timescales - for example 1, 3, and 6 months. To investigate the performance of the drought index, correlation analyses were conducted with simulated soil moisture and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from remote sensing. A comparison with the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), i.e., a drought index that does not incorporate temperature, was also conducted. The results show that the 6-month SPEI has the highest correlation with simulated soil moisture and best explains the interannual variation of the monthly NDVI. Hence, a timescale of 6 months is the most appropriate when addressing vegetation growth in the semi-arid region. In the second step, the 6-month SPEI was derived from three climate projections based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenario A1B. When comparing the period 2031-2060 with 1961-1990, it is shown that the percentage of time with moderate, severe and extreme drought conditions is projected to increase strongly. To address the impact of drought on the agricultural sector, the irrigation water demand during certain drought years was thereafter simulated with a hydrological model on a spatial resolution of 1 km. A large increase in the demand for irrigation water was simulated, showing that the agricultural sector is expected to become even more vulnerable to drought in the future.

  14. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Meredydd; McJeon, Haewon C.; Shui, Bin; Lee, Seung Eon

    2009-04-17

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Korea, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial buildings in Korea.

  15. 76 FR 13892 - Importation of Tomatoes With Stems From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Stems From the Republic of Korea Into the United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... consignments of tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea. The conditions for the importation of tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea include requirements for pest exclusion at the production site...

  16. Cyclonic activity over the territory of Belarus under current climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, Inna; Sumak, Katsiaryna

    2017-04-01

    Cyclones are the main synoptic processes, which determine the complicated weather conditions and precipitation regime in the middle latitudes. Intensity of cyclonic activity in the center of Europe depends on dynamics of main baric centers in atmosphere of the North Atlantic (described by NAO) and location of main tropospheric flows. Therefore, the current climat changes might influence to trajectories and intensity of cyclones. The Republic of Belarus is located in the center of East Europe, therefore most of cyclones in this part of the continent are passing over its territory. The main objective of the study is analysis of trajectories and frequency of cyclones, which were moving by the territory of Belarus during the period of 1995-2015. At present, there is not enough climatic information about these processes. During the studied period 329 cyclones are moved over the territory of Belarus. So, is about 15-16 cyclones per year affected the weather conditions. From them 22% belongs to western and northwestern types of cyclones separately, 56% consists to southern cyclones. The maximum number of all types of cyclones (21-23 cases per year) observed in 1998, 2004, 2008 and 2009. Minimum of cyclone activity (is about 10 cases) falls on 2015. The western cyclones frequently moves over the territory of Belarus in March and in December. The northwestern cyclones most observed in January and in February. The amount of southern cyclones more evenly distributed within a year. The most cases is observed in warm season, in July, April and May. Minimum of southern cyclones occures in January and December. The most of western cyclones, which moved over the territory of Belarus is formed between 50N and 60N over regions of the Northwest Atlantic, the British Isles, the North Sea and south of the Baltic Sea. The main feature of these cyclones is a change of trajectories after the crossing of Belarus, further the most of cyclones turns toward northeast, but few number moves

  17. Wave–current interaction in the presence of a three-dimensional bathymetry: Deep water wave focusing in opposing current conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rey, V. Charland, J. Touboul, J.

    2014-09-15

    Large scale experiments were carried out in the Ocean Engineering Basin FIRST, France. A tri-dimensional bathymetry consisting of two symmetrical submerged mounds was displayed on the flat bed on both sides of the basin. Regular waves of frequency corresponding to deep water conditions above the bathymetry were generated in opposing current conditions. A strong tri-dimensional behaviour is observed for the wave amplitude, leading to a strong focusing (up to twice the incident amplitude) of the wave energy towards the central deeper zone. This amplification cannot be ascribed to the increase of the current intensity in the main wave direction, nor to a current gradient normally to the wave direction. A wave phase gradient, normal to its main direction, is observed up-wave (or downstream) the mounds. This phase lag depends on the wave amplitude, it is the higher for the moderate amplitude case. The experimental data are compared with calculations of a refraction-diffraction model assuming a depth-averaged current. If the model qualitatively predicts the wave amplification in the centerline of the basin, discrepancies are observed in the vicinity of the depth changes. The observed mean current vertical profile shape is then supposed to play a significant role in the wave focusing, especially near the steep slopes down-stream the mounds. In addition, the waves are found to modify substantially both horizontal and vertical current fields.

  18. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  19. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  20. Theoretical derivation of anodizing current and comparison between fitted curves and measured curves under different conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chong, Bin; Yu, Dongliang; Jin, Rong; Wang, Yang; Li, Dongdong; Song, Ye; Gao, Mingqi; Zhu, Xufei

    2015-04-01

    Anodic TiO2 nanotubes have been studied extensively for many years. However, the growth kinetics still remains unclear. The systematic study of the current transient under constant anodizing voltage has not been mentioned in the original literature. Here, a derivation and its corresponding theoretical formula are proposed to overcome this challenge. In this paper, the theoretical expressions for the time dependent ionic current and electronic current are derived to explore the anodizing process of Ti. The anodizing current-time curves under different anodizing voltages and different temperatures are experimentally investigated in the anodization of Ti. Furthermore, the quantitative relationship between the thickness of the barrier layer and anodizing time, and the relationships between the ionic/electronic current and temperatures are proposed in this paper. All of the current-transient plots can be fitted consistently by the proposed theoretical expressions. Additionally, it is the first time that the coefficient A of the exponential relationship (ionic current jion = A exp(BE)) has been determined under various temperatures and voltages. And the results indicate that as temperature and voltage increase, ionic current and electronic current both increase. The temperature has a larger effect on electronic current than ionic current. These results can promote the research of kinetics from a qualitative to quantitative level.

  1. Effects of environmental and biological conditions on the recruitment and growth of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum on the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Lyeol; Kwon, Soon Hyun; Lee, Hyun Gon; Yu, Ok Hwan

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, which is often dominant in intertidal zones, is influenced by both environmental and biological conditions. However, there have been few comprehensive studies on the interactive effects of these two groups of factors. The present study examined the environmental and biological parameters determining the population dynamics of the clams that is a dominant component of the intertidal communities of Euhangri and Padori on the west coast of Korean peninsula. We collected R. philippinarum and other members of the macrobenthos (> 1 mm long) monthly from 0.25 m2 quadrats deployed in the intertidal zones at Euhangri, Taean, and Padori during the period from August 2013 to January 2015. Physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment were measured at the same time. Water temperature and salinity is high and low in the summer to winter, respectively. While mean grain size of the sediment was higher at Euhangri than at Padori, total mean density of R. philippinarum was higher at Euhangri (325 ind./ 0.25 m² at Padori vs. 194 ind./0.25 m² at Euhangri). Settled spat (< 10 mm in length) density was much higher at Euhangri than at Padori (132 vs. 12 individuals/0.25m2, respectively). R. philippinarum spats settled down on the sediment at Euhangri in October and grew continually until the following May, when they reached adult size. Spats that settled down at Padori between March and April were not able to reach the adult stage. As the density of the adult population increased, the condition index of individual clams decreased, but as the population density of the spat increased the body condition index increased. The chlorophyll a content of the sediments at Padori exceeded that at Euhangri and decreased as the population of R. philippinarum increased. The shapes of R. philippinarum shells at Euhangri were more prolate than those at Padori, and the condition index at Euhangri exceeded that at Padori, indicating

  2. Effects of environmental and biological conditions on the recruitment and growth of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum on the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sang Lyeol; Kwon, Soon Hyun; Lee, Hyung-Gon; Yu, Ok Hwan

    2017-03-01

    The distribution of the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, which is often dominant in intertidal zones, is influenced by both environmental and biological conditions. However, there have been few comprehensive studies on the interactive effects of these two groups of factors. The present study examined the environmental and biological parameters determining the population dynamics of the clams that is a dominant component of the intertidal communities of Euhangri and Padori on the west coast of Korean peninsula. We collected R. philippinarum and other members of the macrobenthos (> 1 mm long) monthly from 0.25 m2 quadrats deployed in the intertidal zones at Euhangri, Taean, and Padori during the period from August 2013 to January 2015. Physicochemical parameters of the water and sediment were measured at the same time. Water temperature and salinity is high and low in the summer to winter, respectively. While mean grain size of the sediment was higher at Euhangri than at Padori, total mean density of R. philippinarum was higher at Euhangri (325 ind./ 0.25 m2 at Padori vs. 194 ind./0.25 m2 at Euhangri). Settled spat (< 10 mm in length) density was much higher at Euhangri than at Padori (132 vs. 12 individuals/0.25m2, respectively). R. philippinarum spats settled down on the sediment at Euhangri in October and grew continually until the following May, when they reached adult size. Spats that settled down at Padori between March and April were not able to reach the adult stage. As the density of the adult population increased, the condition index of individual clams decreased, but as the population density of the spat increased the body condition index increased. The chlorophyll a content of the sediments at Padori exceeded that at Euhangri and decreased as the population of R. philippinarum increased. The shapes of R. philippinarum shells at Euhangri were more prolate than those at Padori, and the condition index at Euhangri exceeded that at Padori, indicating

  3. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  4. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  5. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  6. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  7. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  8. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  9. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  10. A note on current sheet stress balance in the geomagnetic tail for asymmetrical tail lobe plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, C. J.; Cowley, S. W. H.

    1987-04-01

    It is shown that the current sheet equilibrium condition can be readily generalized to include lobe plasma asymmetry under the simplifying assumption that all particles incident on the current sheet are transmitted through it. The result is expressed in a form which emphasizes the physical equivalence of stress balance by anisotropic plasma pressure and by net flow through the current sheet. The former case occurs for symmetrical lobe conditions, and balance is expressed in terms of the marginal firehose stability condition. The latter case occurs if one lobe dominates, when the field-aligned plasma flow speed in the field line rest frame must equal the tail lobe Alfven speed. Results are illustrated by a simple example in which the inflow plasmas are approximated as cold ion beams of unequal density and speed. It is shown that equilibrium solutions cease to exist for sufficiently large inflow velocity shears, but that in practice this condition is most unlikely to be encountered in the tail.

  11. The National 3-D Geospatial Information Web-Based Service of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. T.; Kim, C. W.; Kang, I. G.

    2013-09-01

    3D geospatial information systems should provide efficient spatial analysis tools and able to use all capabilities of the third dimension, and a visualization. Currently, many human activities make steps toward the third dimension like land use, urban and landscape planning, cadastre, environmental monitoring, transportation monitoring, real estate market, military applications, etc. To reflect this trend, the Korean government has been started to construct the 3D geospatial data and service platform. Since the geospatial information was introduced in Korea, the construction of geospatial information (3D geospatial information, digital maps, aerial photographs, ortho photographs, etc.) has been led by the central government. The purpose of this study is to introduce the Korean government-lead 3D geospatial information web-based service for the people who interested in this industry and we would like to introduce not only the present conditions of constructed 3D geospatial data but methodologies and applications of 3D geospatial information. About 15% (about 3,278.74 km2) of the total urban area's 3D geospatial data have been constructed by the national geographic information institute (NGII) of Korea from 2005 to 2012. Especially in six metropolitan cities and Dokdo (island belongs to Korea) on level of detail (LOD) 4 which is photo-realistic textured 3D models including corresponding ortho photographs were constructed in 2012. In this paper, we represented web-based 3D map service system composition and infrastructure and comparison of V-world with Google Earth service will be presented. We also represented Open API based service cases and discussed about the protection of location privacy when we construct 3D indoor building models. In order to prevent an invasion of privacy, we processed image blurring, elimination and camouflage. The importance of public-private cooperation and advanced geospatial information policy is emphasized in Korea. Thus, the progress of

  12. Carotenoids and total phenolic contents in plant foods commonly consumed in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Gun-Ae; Cho, Yoon-Suk; Chen, C-Y. Oliver; Tang, Guangwen; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.; Russell, Robert M.; Yoon, Sun; Lee-Kim, Yang Cha

    2012-01-01

    Phytochemicals are reported to provide various biological functions leading to the promotion of health as well as the reduced risk of chronic diseases. Fat-soluble plant pigments, carotenoids, are extensively studied micronutrient phytochemicals for their potential health benefits. It is noteworthy that specific carotenoids may be responsible for different protective effects against certain diseases. In addition, each carotenoid can be obtained from different types of plant foods. Considering the fact that the phytochemical content in foods can vary according to, but not limited to, the varieties and culture conditions, it is important to establish a database of phytochemicals in locally produced plant foods. Currently, information on individual carotenoid content in plant foods commonly consumed in Korea is lacking. As the first step to support the production and consumption of sustainable local plant foods, carotenoids and total phenolic contents of plant foods commonly consumed in Korea are presented and their potential biological functions are discussed in this review. PMID:23346297

  13. Methyl Red Decolorization Efficiency of a Korea Strain of Aspergillus sp. Immobilized into Different Polymeric Matrices.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom-Su; Blaghen, Mohamed; Lee, Kang-Min

    2017-07-01

      Intensive research studies have revealed that fungal decolorization of dye wastewater is a promising replacement for the current process of dye wastewater decolorization. The authors isolated an Aspergillus sp. from the effluent of a textile industry area in Korea and assessed the effects of a variety of operational parameters on the decolorization of methyl red (MR) by this strain of Aspergillus sp. This Aspergillus sp. was then immobilized by entrapment in several polymeric matrices and the effects of operational conditions on MR decolorization were investigated again. The optimal decolorization activity of this Aspergillus sp. was observed in 1% glucose at a temperature of 37 °C and pH of 6.0. Furthermore, stable decolorization efficiency was observed when fungal biomass was immobilized into alginate gel during repeated batch experiment. These results suggest that the Aspergillus sp. isolated in Korea could be used to treat industrial wastewaters containing MR dye.

  14. Persistent Sodium Current Drives Conditional Pacemaking in CA1 Pyramidal Neurons under Muscarinic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yamada-Hanff, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons are normally quiescent but can fire spontaneously when stimulated by muscarinic agonists. In brain slice recordings from mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons, we examined the ionic basis of this activity using interleaved current-clamp and voltage-clamp experiments. Both in control and after muscarinic stimulation, the steady-state current–voltage curve was dominated by inward TTX-sensitive persistent sodium current (INaP) that activated near −75 mV and increased steeply with depolarization. In control, total membrane current was net outward (hyperpolarizing) near −70 mV so that cells had a stable resting potential. Muscarinic stimulation activated a small nonselective cation current so that total membrane current near −70 mV shifted to become barely net inward (depolarizing). The small depolarization triggers regenerative activation of INaP, which then depolarizes the cell from −70 mV to spike threshold. We quantified the relative contributions of INaP, hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih), and calcium current to pacemaking by using the cell's own firing as a voltage command along with specific blockers. TTX-sensitive sodium current was substantial throughout the entire interspike interval, increasing as the membrane potential approached threshold, while both Ih and calcium current were minimal. Thus, spontaneous activity is driven primarily by activation of INaP in a positive feedback loop starting near −70 mV and providing increasing inward current to threshold. These results show that the pacemaking “engine” from INaP is an inherent property of CA1 pyramidal neurons that can be engaged or disengaged by small shifts in net membrane current near −70 mV, as by muscarinic stimulation. PMID:24048831

  15. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2017.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2017 in Korea in order to estimate the nation's current cancer burden. Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2015 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observe age-specific cancer rates against observed years, and then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly; we only used data of the latest trend. A total of 221,143 new cancer cases and 80,268 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2017. The most common cancer sites are the colorectum, stomach, lung, thyroid, and breast. These five cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Korea. For mortality, the most common sites are the lung, liver, colorectal, stomach, and pancreas. The incidence rate of all cancers in Korea appears to have decreased mainly because of a decrease in thyroid cancer. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Korea could be an important resource for planning and evaluation of cancer-control programs.

  16. Prediction of Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Korea, 2017

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kyu-Won; Won, Young-Joo; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Lee, Duk Hyoung; Lee, Kang Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to report on cancer incidence and mortality for the year 2017 in Korea in order to estimate the nation’s current cancer burden. Materials and Methods Cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2014 were obtained from the Korea National Cancer Incidence Database, and cancer mortality data from 1993 to 2015 were acquired from Statistics Korea. Cancer incidence and mortality were projected by fitting a linear regression model to observe age-specific cancer rates against observed years, and then multiplying the projected age-specific rates by the age-specific population. The Joinpoint regression model was used to determine at which year the linear trend changed significantly; we only used data of the latest trend. Results A total of 221,143 new cancer cases and 80,268 cancer deaths are expected to occur in Korea in 2017. The most common cancer sites are the colorectum, stomach, lung, thyroid, and breast. These five cancers represent half of the overall burden of cancer in Korea. For mortality, the most common sites are the lung, liver, colorectal, stomach, and pancreas. Conclusion The incidence rate of all cancers in Korea appears to have decreased mainly because of a decrease in thyroid cancer. These up-to-date estimates of the cancer burden in Korea could be an important resource for planning and evaluation of cancer-control programs. PMID:28301926

  17. Comparing current and desired ecological conditions at a landscape scale in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains, USA.

    SciTech Connect

    Druckenbrod, Dr. Daniel L.; Dale, Virginia H; Olsen, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    We applied a landscape conservation approach that quantifies current and desired ecological conditions for 10680 km2 of diverse forests in the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains of Tennessee and Kentucky. In this case study, forest cover was classified using Landsat TM imagery and evaluated with forest inventory data. Landform forest associations were characterized by combining forest cover, physiographic descriptions of remnant and historical forests, and forest structure and composition from the inventory data. These landform forest associations estimate current forest conditions and, in comparison with a projection of potential natural forest conditions, indicated that upland deciduous forests in the Plateau have the greatest reduction in cover, particularly in small private ownerships. Although of similar composition, upland deciduous forests in the Plateau also possessed younger stands with smaller trees than observed from potential old-growth conditions. These results provide scientific guidance for transitioning these forests toward desired ecological conditions through regional conservation initiatives.

  18. Connecting to Collections in Florida: Current Conditions and Critical Needs in Libraries, Archives, and Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne; Marty, Paul F.; Braun, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from an IMLS-funded project to evaluate the current state of collections in Florida's libraries, archives, and museums, current practices to preserve and conserve these collections, and perceived needs to maintain and improve these collections for future generations. The survey, modeled after the Heritage Health Index…

  19. Connecting to Collections in Florida: Current Conditions and Critical Needs in Libraries, Archives, and Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Corinne; Marty, Paul F.; Braun, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    This article presents results from an IMLS-funded project to evaluate the current state of collections in Florida's libraries, archives, and museums, current practices to preserve and conserve these collections, and perceived needs to maintain and improve these collections for future generations. The survey, modeled after the Heritage Health Index…

  20. Ten Years of Infrasound Observation in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hee-Il; Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-05-01

    Over the ten years after the installation of our first seismo-acoustic array station (CHNAR) in September 1999, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) has been continuously observing infrasound with an infrasound array network, named KIN (Korean Infrasound Network) in Korea. This network consists of seven seismo-acoustic arrays (BRDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR and TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array (KMPAR and TJIAR) is about 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of acoustic gauges are between 4 (TJIAR) and 18 (YAGAR), and 1 or 5 seismometers are collocated at the center of the acoustic array. All seismic and infrasonic signals of the arrays are digitized at 40 samples/sec and transmitted to KIGAM in real time. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different kind of anthropogenic source as well as natural one are detected by KIN. Ten years of seismo-acoustic data are analyzed by using PMCC program, and identified more than five thousand of infrasonic events and catalogued in our infrasound database. This database is used to study characteristics of seasonally dependent propagation of the infrasound wave in local scale, as well as to better understand how atmospheric condition affects the detection ratio at a specific station throughout the year. It also played a valuable role in discriminating the anthropogenic events such as the second nuclear test on 25 May 2009 in North Korea, from natural earthquakes, which is important in estimating the seismicity in Korea.

  1. Monitoring the Financial Condition of Colleges and Universities. AAHE-ERIC Higher Education Research Currents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Barbara

    1984-01-01

    Efforts to monitor the financial condition of colleges and universities have arisen from concerns about the effects of economic and demographic pressures. Researchers have attempted to monitor financial condition through two types of research: subjective studies and objective financial indicator studies. Subjective analyses can be useful for…

  2. The effect of low oxygen conditions on biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in a shallow seasonally stratified bay in southeast Korea (Jinhae Bay).

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Sug; Lee, Yong-Hwa; Kwon, Jung-No; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2015-06-15

    The formation and distribution of oxygen-deficient water mass (ODW) in Jinhae Bay exhibited seasonal patterns similar to those of the summer thermocline, indicating a close mutual relationship, and the influence of ODW formation conditions appeared prominently in the bottom water. The principal factors analysis indicate that dissolved oxygen and NO2 in the bottom water during the time of ODW formation were highly correlated with NH3 and dissolved inorganic phosphorus. The findings clearly illustrate the effects on ODW of seasonal physical and chemical changes. ODW that formed in the bottom water of Jinhae Bay during summer produced high concentrations of nutrients in the bottom water; since the growth of phytoplankton was limited by the strong stratification and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen (<3mg/L) in the bottom layer, these nutrients (especially NH3 and DIP) were retained and accumulated, serving as a major source of nutrients during the dry winter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Surface current dynamics under sea breeze conditions observed by simultaneous HF radar, ADCP and drifter measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Fraunié, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    Ocean surface boundary layer dynamics off the southern coast of France in the NW Mediterranean is investigated by using velocity observations by high-frequency (HF) radars, surface drifting buoys and a downward-looking drifting acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). The analysis confirms that velocities measured by HF radars correspond to those observed by an ADCP at the effective depth z f = k -1, where k is wavenumber of the radio wave emitted by the radar. The radials provided by the radars were in a very good agreement with in situ measurements, with the relative errors of 1 and 9 % and root mean square (RMS) differences of 0.02 and 0.04 m/s for monostatic and bistatic radar, respectively. The total radar-based velocities appeared to be slightly underestimated in magnitude and somewhat biased in direction. At the end of the survey period, the difference in the surface current direction, based on HF radar and ADCP data, attained 10°. It was demonstrated that the surface boundary layer dynamics cannot be reconstructed successfully without taking into the account velocity variation with depth. A significant misalignment of ˜30° caused by the sea breeze was documented between the HF radar (HFR-derived) surface current and the background current. It was also found that the ocean response to a moderate wind forcing was confined to the 4-m-thick upper layer. The respective Ekman current attained the maximum value of 0.15 m/s, and the current rotation was found to be lagging the wind by approximately 40 min, with the current vector direction being 15-20° to the left of the wind. The range of velocity variability due to wind forcing was found comparable with the magnitude of the background current variability.

  4. [Current situation of the research on living conditions and health status of elderly people in Spain].

    PubMed

    Machón-Sobrado, Mónica; Vergara-Mitxeltorena, Itziar; Dorronsoro-Iraeta, Miren; Larrañaga-Larrañaga, Nerea; Vrotsou, Kalliopi; Larrañaga-Padilla, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    To analyse the dimensions studied with respect to living and health conditions of the non-institutionalised elderly in the scientific literature in Spain. A content analysis based on secondary sources was carried out by literature searches in Pubmed and Embase in Spanish and English. The search strategies combined terms related to older people, health and/or living conditions and with Spain. All studies assessing living and/or health conditions of elderly in Spain were included. Studies analyzing a specific aspect of living or health conditions and those based on institutionalized population were excluded. A total of 14 studies were considered in the content analysis. The studies are usually local, cross-sectional and data collection is done by direct interview. Variability was observed in the aspects analysed about living and health conditions. All studies included: sociodemographic characteristics, health status and lifestyle habits. Issues related to the status of the out-of home environment are poorly analysed. This work allows knowing the dimensions prioritised in the studies carried out to date about health and living conditions in Spain. It also provides key elements for the development of future research aiming to integrate both living and health conditions of elderly population, both aspects closely related. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Sediment concentrations, flow conditions, and downstream evolution of two turbidity currents, Monterey Canyon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Octavio E. Sequeiros,; Noble, Marlene A.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity of turbidity currents to carry sand and coarser sediment from shallow to deep regions in the submarine environment has attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines. Yet not only are field measurements of oceanic turbidity currents a rare achievement, but also the data that have been collected consist mostly of velocity records with very limited or no suspended sediment concentration or grain size distribution data. This work focuses on two turbidity currents measured in Monterey Canyon in 2002 with emphasis on suspended sediment from unique samples collected within the body of these currents. It is shown that concentration and grain size of the suspended material, primarily controlled by the source of the gravity flows and their interaction with bed material, play a significant role in shaping the characteristics of the turbidity currents as they travel down the canyon. Before the flows reach their normal or quasi-steady state, which is defined by bed slope, bed roughness, and suspended grain size, they might pass through a preliminary adjustment stage where they are subject to capacity-driven deposition, and release heavy material in excess. Flows composed of fine (silt/clay) sediments tend to be thicker than those with sands. The measured velocity and concentration data confirm that flow patterns differ between the front and body of turbidity currents and that, even after reaching normal state, the flow regime can be radically disrupted by abrupt changes in canyon morphology.

  6. Histological analysis on the medieval mummy in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Youn, Minyoung; Chang, Byung Soo

    2003-11-26

    Recently, there have been some reports on the mummies from the medieval tombs in Korea, which were not made on purpose. Although these mummies could be an invaluable source for the studies on the physical state of medieval Koreans, there were not any reports on this subject until now. In this study, we first tried to investigate the various tissues using light- and electron-microscopic techniques. In the organs we have examined, even though the collagen fibers were profusely found within all of them, some types of cells, such as red blood cells, chondrocytes, hepatocyte and muscle cells, were also visible in various tissues. The histological characteristics of the current case seemed to be well matched with the previous study in general even though there were also somewhat different findings from the previous reports on the mummies. Although the cause of the mummification in Korea was not completely explained, we think that the cause in this case could be correlated with cultural aspects--not with natural conditions--because the mummies were only found in cases where the lime-soil barrier was maintained until their discovery, and which separated the inner space of the coffins from the outer space. As similar cases are frequently reported nowadays, invaluable data on the physical status of the medieval Koreans could be attainable if systemic investigation could be performed on similar cases which are found in the future.

  7. Current and hydrographic conditions at the East Flower Garden Bank in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, W. J.; Wijesekera, H. W.; Jarosz, E.; Fribance, D. B.; Lugo-Fernández, A.; Hallock, Z. R.

    2013-07-01

    The East Flower Garden Bank (EFGB), part of the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, is located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, about 185 km southeast of Galveston, Texas. With a width of about 5 km, the steep-sided bank rises from water depths of over 100 m to within less than 20 m of the surface. Four acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) moorings and four temperature/salinity strings were deployed around the EFGB with an additional ADCP on top of the bank for about 1 year. The main objective was to understand the ocean processes over the EFGB and to examine the importance of the topographically induced processes on shelf edge circulation on longer (e.g. days to seasonal) time scales. Currents were generally eastward over the bank in the upper water column. Eddy events occasionally reversed the eastward flow for a few days. Currents in the lower water column tended to align with the bank's bathymetry and mostly were directed offshore at the southern edge of the bank. Wind and eddy events moved both shelf and off-shelf waters over the bank, including waters from as deep as 200 m through upwelling and/or mixing processes. Mixed layers changed by as much as 50 m in a couple of days. Inertial currents occurred throughout the year and were often much larger than the tidal currents. Commonly, the inertial currents were strong enough to reverse the predominantly eastward current flow on time scales of less than a day. Westward propagating cyclonic eddies (often associated with anticyclonic eddies) likely connect biological activities of the EFGB with the West Flower Garden Bank. Banks such as the EFGB, with large aspect ratios and heights, strongly alter circulation and enhance exchange processes at the shelf break.

  8. 76 FR 64109 - Comment Request for Extension of a Currently Approved Information Collection: Labor Condition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Collection: Labor Condition Application and Instructions for H-1B, H- 1B1, and E-3 Nonimmigrants; Forms ETA... and Training Administration. Title(s): Labor Condition Application for H-1B, H-1B1, and E-3... a toll-free number); by fax at (202) 693-2768; or by e-mail at ETA.OFLC.Forms@dol.gov subject line...

  9. Electrodynamic stabilization conditions for high-temperature superconducting composites with different types of current-voltage characteristic nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkharov, A. M.; Lavrov, N. A.; Romanovskii, V. R.

    2014-06-01

    The current instability is studied in high-temperature superconducting current-carrying elements with I- V characteristics described by power or exponential equations. Stability analysis of the macroscopic states is carried out in terms of a stationary zero-dimensional model. In linear temperature approximation criteria are derived that allow one to find the maximum allowable values of the induced current, induced electric field intensity, and overheating of the superconductor. A condition is formulated for the complete thermal stabilization of the superconducting composite with regard to the nonlinearity of its I- V characteristic. It is shown that both subcritical and supercritical stable states may arise. In the latter case, the current and electric field intensity are higher than the preset critical parameters of the superconductor. Conditions for these states depending on the properties of the matrix, superconductor's critical current, fill factor, and nonlinearity of the I- V characteristic are discussed. The obtained results considerably augment the class of allowable states for high-temperature superconductors: it is demonstrated that there exist stable resistive conditions from which superconductors cannot pass to the normal state even if the parameters of these conditions are supercritical.

  10. An Analysis of Size and Structure of the Army of Reunified Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    studies on German reunification • Compare German and Korean reunification • Review the army’s mission from Korea Defense Paper 2006 • Discuss the...reunified Korea should maintain military forces sufficient to deter a PLA invasion by providing a robust conventional defense of Korean territory...is approximately 350,000, which is about two-thirds the size of the current Republic of Korea Army (ROKA). North Korean military personnel could be

  11. Thermoelectric Property Dependence on Performance of Peltier Current Leads Under Overcurrent Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Emoto, Masahiko; Hamabe, Makoto; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Ivanov, Yury; Sun, Jian; Yamaguchi, Satarou

    2012-06-01

    Superconductivity can potentially provide a solution to the world's energy needs because superconducting transmission and distribution (T&D) systems can decrease losses and are also capable of integrating renewables into the power grid. At Chubu University we have built a 200-m-class superconducting direct-current T&D system (CASER-2). To minimize heat leakage from the current leads, we investigated thermoelectric materials. The Peltier current lead (PCL) is one of the key technologies that will enhance the performance of superconducting systems: as direct current (DC) flows through the current lead, thermoelectric elements on opposite terminations of the superconducting line can be used to decrease the heat ingress to the cryogenic environment ( n-type on one end, p-type on the opposite end). The heat leakage to the cryogenic environment depends on the properties of the thermoelectric materials. In this paper, we estimate the performance of PCLs in cryogenic operations, including the potential for overcurrent operation, through both modeling and experiments at CASER-2.

  12. East Asia: Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-18

    CHOSON Reviews Korean Army 13 ECONOMIC Samsung Group Moves Toward Merger, Expansion 34 Production of Export Goods Diversified 35 Rapid Information...events and the income from the sale of TV broadcasting privileges." However, the IOC and the Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) of Seoul have taken the...explanation into rumors that 6.5 million U.S. dollars was received as a commis- sion for Korea’s purchase of u.s. weapons during the Chon government, as

  13. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  14. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  15. Optimization of Water Management of Cranberry Fields under Current and Future Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Létourneau, G.; Gumiere, S.; Mailhot, E.; Rousseau, A. N.

    2016-12-01

    In North America, cranberry production is on the rise. Since 2005, land area dedicated to cranberry doubled, principally in Canada. Recent studies have shown that sub-irrigation could lead to improvements in yield, water use efficiency and pumping energy requirements compared to conventional sprinkler irrigation. However, the experimental determination of the optimal water table level of each production site may be expensiveand time-consuming. The primary objective of this study is to optimize the water table level as a function of typical soil properties, and climatic conditions observed in major production areas using a numerical modeling approach. The second objective is to evaluate the impacts of projected climatic conditions on water management of cranberry fields. To that end, cranberry-specific management operations such as harvest flooding, rapid drainage following heavy rainfall, or hydric stress management during dry weather conditions were simulated with the HYDRUS 2D software. Results have shown that maintaining the water table approximately at 60 cm provides optimal results for most of the studied soils. However, under certain extreme climatic conditions, the drainage system design may not allow maintaining optimal hydric conditions for cranberry growth. The long-term benefit of this study has potential to advance the design of drainage/sub-irrigation systems.

  16. Assessment of Cropland Water and Nitrogen Balance from Climate Change in Korea Peninsular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, C. H.; Song, C.; Kim, T.; Lee, W. K.; Jeon, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    If crop growth is based on cropland productivity, the changes are due to changes in water and nitrogen balance from climate. In this study, order to estimation the change in cropland water and nitrogen balance in Korea peninsular using meteorological data observed last 30 years(1984-2013y). And we used soil, topography and management data about cropland. So as to estimating water and nitrogen variables, we used to the GIS based EPIC model that is major crop model in agro-ecosystem modelling field. Among the much of water and nitrogen variables, we selected to evapotranspiration, runoff, precipitation, nitrification, N lost, N contents and denitrification for this analysis. This selected variables associate with cropland water and nitrogen balance.First result, we can found the water balance changes in Korea peninsular, especially South Korea better condition than North Korea. In North Korea, evapotranspiration and precipitation result were lower than South Korea, but runoff result was bigger than South Korea. And we got a result about nitrogen balance changes in Korea peninsular from climate. In spatially, South and North Korea showed to similar condition on nitrogen balance in whole period. But in temporally, showed negative trends as time goes on, it caused by climate change. Overall condition of water and nitrogen balance on last 30 years in Korea peninsular, South Korea showed better condition than North Korea. Water and nitrogen balance change means have to be changed on agriculture management action, such as irrigation and fertilizer. In future period, climate change will cause a large effect to cropland water and nitrogen balance in mid-latitude area, so we have to prepare the change of this field for wise adaptation by climate change.

  17. Wave-Current Conditions and Navigation Safety at an Inlet Entrance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-26

    new turn in the channel direction that directed vessels abruptly toward a south- oriented navigation channel (the grey polygon in Fig. 1). Fig...the navigable region at Tillamook. KEY WORDS: Navigation safety; numerical modeling; waves; current; sediment transport; channel infilling...drain into Tillamook Bay, a shallow estuary, which connects to the Pacific Ocean through the navigation channel that passes through a jetty

  18. Electromagnetic induction in spherical cap current layers under lunar and terrestrial conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, G.; Schwartz, K.

    1975-01-01

    Attention is given to electromagnetic induction in infinitesimally thin spherical cap current layers of arbitrary size and arbitrary axisymmetric integrated conductivity, taking into account a location at nonzero but otherwise arbitrary depth beneath the surface of observation. The description of a theoretical model is presented and the induced fields computed from the theoretical formulas for several different spherical cap models are discussed.

  19. Impact resistance of current design composite fan blades tested under short-haul operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinhagen, C. A.; Salemme, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Boron/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite blades were impacted in a rotating whirligig facility with conditions closely simulating those which might be experienced by a STOL engine impacted with various foreign objects. The tip speed of the rotating blades was 800 feet per second. The blades were impacted with simulated birds, real birds, ice balls, and gravel. The results of composite blade impact tests were compared with a titanium blade tested under similar conditions. Neither composite material indicated a clear superiority over the other. Blades made from both composite materials showed more damage than the titanium blades.

  20. Understanding the connection between historic range of variation, current social values and developing desired conditions

    Treesearch

    Larry Blocker; Susan K. Hagle; Rick Lasko; Robert Keane; Barry Bollenbacher; Bruce Fox; Fred Samson; Randy Gay; Cynthia Manning

    2001-01-01

    Relationships between the development of desired conditions based on today’s social values, and an understanding of the historic range of variability (HRV) are key to the implementation of ecosystem management. Relevant to the discussion are wildlife habitat values, forage production, economics related to wood resources, aesthetics and visual quality, changes in...

  1. Performance of current broccoli varieties under eastern U.S. conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broccoli production on the east coast has been limited because the weather often causes developmental defects in the head that make the crop unsalable. As a result of the small market for seeds, there has been limited effort to develop varieties that have better tolerance of the growing conditions....

  2. Evaluating indices that measure departure of current landscape composition from historical conditions

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons

    2011-01-01

    A measure of the degree of departure of a landscape from its range of historical conditions can provide a means for prioritizing and planning areas for restoration treatments. There are few statistics or indices that provide a quantitative context for measuring departure across landscapes. This study evaluated a set of five similarity indices commonly used in...

  3. Homeworking: Home Office or Home Sweatshop? Report on Current Conditions of Homeworkers in Toronto's Garment Industry. NALL Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Roxana; Wong, Renita Yuk-Lin; Choi, Angela

    The current conditions of home workers in the garment industry in Toronto, Canada, were examined through in-depth telephone interviews with 30 Chinese-speaking immigrant women who were employed as home workers in 1999. The paper dicusses the formal training and informal learning experiences of immigrant woman who are garment workers. A comparison…

  4. Effect of Catalytic Pyrolysis Conditions Using Pulse Current Heating Method on Pyrolysis Products of Wood Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Honma, Sensho; Hata, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The influence of catalysts on the compositions of char and pyrolysis oil obtained by pyrolysis of wood biomass with pulse current heating was studied. The effects of catalysts on product compositions were analyzed using GC-MS and TEM. The compositions of some aromatic compounds changed noticeably when using a metal oxide species as the catalyst. The coexistence or dissolution of amorphous carbon and iron oxide was observed in char pyrolyzed at 800°C with Fe3O4. Pyrolysis oil compositions changed remarkably when formed in the presence of a catalyst compared to that obtained from the uncatalyzed pyrolysis of wood meal. We observed a tendency toward an increase in the ratio of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis oil composition after catalytic pyrolysis at 800°C. Pyrolysis of biomass using pulse current heating and an adequate amount of catalyst is expected to yield a higher content of specific polyaromatic compounds. PMID:25614894

  5. NATO Reassurance and Nuclear Reductions: Creating the Conditions (Transatlantic Current, no. 2)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE JAN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE NATO...but should include ambiguous sce- narios where more debate is needed. NATO is currently deciding how robust its next major exercise, Steadfast Jazz ...conventional conflict (de- signed in such a way as to ensure that NATO prepara- tions are not aimed at any particular country and cover all possible

  6. Real-time natural soundscape generation based on current weather conditions for workspace voice-masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggs, Caitlin

    Sound masking in work spaces has been implemented to decrease likelihood of distraction from work tasks and improve speech privacy. Current uses of noise as maskers commonly apply broadband white or pink noise signals due to their perceived neutrality. This research combines work into the restorative properties of exposure to nature/natural sounds and pilot studies of natural sounds as maskers to suggest a noise-masking system of 'natural' sounds. This system composes a natural soundscape in real time determined by the current weather and time of day such that the masking audio is aesthetically pleasing and informative about the outside world in addition to providing improved speech privacy and reducing distraction when compared to a setting with no masking system. Currently there is no experimental foundation to suggest that restoration or slowed attentional fatigue can occur if this type of alternative masking sound is presented during a task. This implementation of a dynamic, immersive soundscape masker begins the investigation into the practical efficacy of such a masking system.

  7. Electronic health records and online medical records: an asset or a liability under current conditions?

    PubMed

    Allen-Graham, Judith; Mitchell, Lauren; Heriot, Natalie; Armani, Roksana; Langton, David; Levinson, Michele; Young, Alan; Smith, Julian A; Kotsimbos, Tom; Wilson, John W

    2017-01-20

    Objective The aim of the present study was to audit the current use of medical records to determine completeness and concordance with other sources of medical information.Methods Medical records for 40 patients from each of five Melbourne major metropolitan hospitals were randomly selected (n=200). A quantitative audit was performed for detailed patient information and medical record keeping, as well as data collection, storage and utilisation. Using each hospital's current online clinical database, scanned files and paperwork available for each patient audited, the reviewers sourced as much relevant information as possible within a 30-min time allocation from both the record and the discharge summary.Results Of all medical records audited, 82% contained medical and surgical history, allergy information and patient demographics. All audited discharge summaries lacked at least one of the following: demographics, medication allergies, medical and surgical history, medications and adverse drug event information. Only 49% of records audited showed evidence the discharge summary was sent outside the institution.Conclusions The quality of medical data captured and information management is variable across hospitals. It is recommended that medical history documentation guidelines and standardised discharge summaries be implemented in Australian healthcare services.What is known about this topic? Australia has a complex health system, the government has approved funding to develop a universal online electronic medical record system and is currently trialling this in an opt-out style in the Napean Blue Mountains (NSW) and in Northern Queensland. The system was originally named the personally controlled electronic health record but has since been changed to MyHealth Record (2016). In Victoria, there exists a wide range of electronic health records used to varying degrees, with some hospitals still relying on paper-based records and many using scanned medical records. This

  8. Impact of erosion testing aspects on current and future flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Omid

    2011-05-01

    High speed of aero vehicles including commercial and military aircraft, missiles, unmanned air vehicles, as well as conceptual aircraft of the future are imposing larger restrictions on the materials of these vehicles and highlight the importance of adequate quantification of material behavior and performance during different flight conditions. Erosion due to weather conditions and other present particles such as hydrometeors; rain, hail and ice, as well as sand, volcanic ash and dust resulting from residues in the atmosphere are eminent as hazardous on the structure of a flying vehicle and may adversely influence the lifecycle of the structure. This study outlines an extensive review of research efforts on erosion in aviation and provides a basis for comparison between different apparatus simulating rain erosion and their usage within the aerospace industry. The significant aspects of erosion testing and future prospects for erosion impact are further addressed for forthcoming generations of flying vehicles.

  9. Forecasting of the electrical actuators condition using stator’s current signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglova, T. N.; Yaroshenko, I. V.; Rabotalov, N. N.; Melnikov, M. A.

    2017-02-01

    This article describes a forecasting method for electrical actuators realized through the combination of Fourier transformation and neural network techniques. The method allows finding the value of diagnostic functions in the iterating operating cycle and the number of operational cycles in time before the BLDC actuator fails. For forecasting of the condition of the actuator, we propose a hierarchical structure of the neural network aiming to reduce the training time of the neural network and improve estimation accuracy.

  10. Longleaf pine forest: Trends and current conditions. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Outcalt, K.W.; Sheffield, R.M.

    1996-09-01

    Longleaf pine is the key tree species in a complex of fire-dependent ecosystems long native to the Southeastern United States. This report is an assessment of the amount, location, ownership, and condition of the remaining longleaf ecosystem. These inventories were conducted on permanent sample plots systematically distributed across timberland to obtain a proportionate sample of all major forest types, sites, and ownership classes in the region.

  11. Direct electric current treatment under physiologic saline conditions kills Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms via electrolytic generation of hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed

    Sandvik, Elizabeth L; McLeod, Bruce R; Parker, Albert E; Stewart, Philip S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which a direct electrical current reduced the viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in conjunction with ciprofloxacin at physiologic saline conditions meant to approximate those in an infected artificial joint. Biofilms grown in CDC biofilm reactors were exposed to current for 24 hours in 1/10(th) strength tryptic soy broth containing 9 g/L total NaCl. Dose-dependent log reductions up to 6.7 log(10) CFU/cm(2) were observed with the application of direct current at all four levels (0.7 to 1.8 mA/cm(2)) both in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin. There were no significant differences in log reductions for wells with ciprofloxacin compared to those without at the same current levels. When current exposures were repeated without biofilm or organics in the medium, significant generation of free chlorine was measured. Free chlorine doses equivalent to the 24 hour endpoint concentration for each current level were shown to mimic killing achieved by current application. Current exposure (1.8 mA/cm(2)) in medium lacking chloride and amended with sulfate, nitrate, or phosphate as alternative electrolytes produced diminished kills of 3, 2, and 0 log reduction, respectively. Direct current also killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms when NaCl was present. Together these results indicate that electrolysis reactions generating hypochlorous acid from chloride are likely a main contributor to the efficacy of direct current application. A physiologically relevant NaCl concentration is thus a critical parameter in experimental design if direct current is to be investigated for in vivo medical applications.

  12. Direct Electric Current Treatment under Physiologic Saline Conditions Kills Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilms via Electrolytic Generation of Hypochlorous Acid

    PubMed Central

    Sandvik, Elizabeth L.; McLeod, Bruce R.; Parker, Albert E.; Stewart, Philip S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which a direct electrical current reduced the viability of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms in conjunction with ciprofloxacin at physiologic saline conditions meant to approximate those in an infected artificial joint. Biofilms grown in CDC biofilm reactors were exposed to current for 24 hours in 1/10th strength tryptic soy broth containing 9 g/L total NaCl. Dose-dependent log reductions up to 6.7 log10 CFU/cm2 were observed with the application of direct current at all four levels (0.7 to 1.8 mA/cm2) both in the presence and absence of ciprofloxacin. There were no significant differences in log reductions for wells with ciprofloxacin compared to those without at the same current levels. When current exposures were repeated without biofilm or organics in the medium, significant generation of free chlorine was measured. Free chlorine doses equivalent to the 24 hour endpoint concentration for each current level were shown to mimic killing achieved by current application. Current exposure (1.8 mA/cm2) in medium lacking chloride and amended with sulfate, nitrate, or phosphate as alternative electrolytes produced diminished kills of 3, 2, and 0 log reduction, respectively. Direct current also killed Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms when NaCl was present. Together these results indicate that electrolysis reactions generating hypochlorous acid from chloride are likely a main contributor to the efficacy of direct current application. A physiologically relevant NaCl concentration is thus a critical parameter in experimental design if direct current is to be investigated for in vivo medical applications. PMID:23390518

  13. Eddy Current Minimizing Flow Plug for Use in Flow Conditioning and Flow Metering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An eddy-current-minimizing flow plug has open flow channels formed between the plug's inlet and outlet. Each open flow channel includes (i) a first portion that originates at the inlet face and converges to a location within the plug that is downstream of the inlet, and (ii) a second portion that originates within the plug and diverges to the outlet. The diverging second portion is approximately twice the length of the converging first portion. The plug is devoid of planar surface regions at its inlet and outlet, and in fluid flow planes of the plug that are perpendicular to the given direction of a fluid flowing therethrough.

  14. A condition for small bootstrap current in three-dimensional toroidal configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhailov, M. I.; Nührenberg, J.; Zille, R.

    2016-11-15

    It is shown that, if the maximum of the magnetic field strength on a magnetic surface in a threedimensional magnetic confinement configuration with stellarator symmetry constitutes a line that is orthogonal to the field lines and crosses the symmetry line, then the bootstrap current density is smaller compared to that in quasi-axisymmetric (qa) [J. Nührenberg et al., in Proc. of Joint Varenna−Lausanne Int. Workshop on Theory of Fusion Plasmas, Varenna, 1994, p. 3] and quasi-helically (qh) symmetric [J. Nührenberg and R. Zille, Phys. Lett. A 129, 113 (1988)] configurations.

  15. The development of geospatial infrastructure in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji Sun, L.; Bo Mi, L.; Jay Hyoun, K.; Yun Soo, C.

    2008-05-01

    In this contribution, the development of geospatial infrastructure for next generation in Korea is introduced. The efforts are initiated by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation in Korea through a project titled ¢®¡ÆKorean Land Spatialization¢®¡¾ in 2007. Among the five core research topics of the project, the renovation of the spatial infrastructure is the first one which mainly focused on the development of Unified Control Points and Precise Geoid Determination. The goal, methods, and current activities related to this renovation are discussed. We expect this work would be a base on the construction of ubiquitous society through providing various information such as 3D position, gravity, magnetic, etc. with good accuracy and efficiency. In addition, it would contribute to create a higher value-added business in various spatial scientific fields.

  16. Impressed current cathodic protection of a caisson structure for arctic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Willis, A.D. Ltd., Bowesfield Lane, Stockton on Tees, Cleveland TS18 3HQ ); Lingnau, D.G. )

    1988-11-01

    The search for new commercial oil production has led to exploration for the first offshore fields within the arctic circle. The cathodic protection of structures capable of withstanding sea ice floes of 4-m (12-ft) thick presents the corrosion engineer with a new challenge. The design consideration for an external corrosion prevention system on a permanent caisson structure (Molikpaq) deployed for a 20-year service life are reviewed both in terms of the cathodic protection requirement and the mechanical considerations. This article describes a practical system adopted as a solution to these challenges. the rationale is also detailed for selecting the maximum current output for the system, materials for anodes, dielectric shields and reference electrodes, along with the methods used in installation. Data obtained during the commissioning of the system is included, as well as values of output current and potential from the fixed control electrodes during the systems's initial month of operation at an offshore drilling unit. The system not only achieved protection of the external immersed surfaces, but also full cathodic protection in the central core area filled with aggregate.

  17. Transient thermal analysis of a tri-axial HTS cable on fault current condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, N.; Cao, K.; Wang, D.; Song, M.; Miyagi, D.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.

    2013-11-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) tri-axial cable, which consists of three concentric phases, was developed as a potential commercial solution for next generation distribution power network. In our previous research, we simulate the transient thermal behavior of the cable by solving the heat equation using one-dimension difference method. The result shows that it takes time to recover the cable temperature to the steady-state operation level due to a low thermal conductivity of the insulation layer after a fault. However for a long cable system, when middle phase in concentric structure is rated under an over current, accumulated heat from middle phase might continually warm up the liquid nitrogen (LN2) flow by heat transfer even the over current has been stopped. In this research, we improve the numerically calculation which includes the consideration of flowing liquid nitrogen and the heat transfer in both radius and longitudinal directions. A long tri-axial cable system thermal stability is discussed based on the calculation results.

  18. Reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation in malignant lymphoma: current status

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Zhang, Yi-Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a potential cure for patients with malignant lymphoma that is based on the graft-versus-lymphoma (GVL) effect. Myeloablative conditioning allo-SCT is associated with high mortality and morbidity, particularly in patients older than 45 years, heavily pretreated patients (prior hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or more than two lines of conventional chemotherapy) or patients affected by other comorbidities. Therefore, conventional allo-SCT is restricted to younger patients (<50 to 55 years) in good physical condition. Over the last decade, allo-SCT with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC-allo-SCT) has been increasingly used to treat patients with lymphoma. This treatment is associated with lower toxicity and substantial decrease in the incidence of transplant-related mortality, and has the potential to lead to long-term remissions. Therefore, patients who are not suitable to undergo conventional allo-SCT can benefit from the potentially curative GVL effects of allo-SCT. Although RIC-allo-SCT has improved the survival of lymphoma patients, high post-transplant relapse rates or disease progression mainly results in treatment failure. Thus, further improvement is clearly needed. The role and timing of RIC-allo-SCT in the treatment of lymphoma remains unclear. Therefore, more prospective studies should clarify the effectiveness of this method. In this article, we review the recent literature on RIC-allo-SCT as a treatment for major lymphoma subtypes. Areas that require further investigation in the context of clinical trials are also highlighted. PMID:23691438

  19. Rights of persons with conditions associated with disability: current legal framework.

    PubMed

    Moya, Graciela

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this review study is to promote the dissemination of the legislation in force in Argentina for the protection of the rights of persons with conditions that might cause disability. Articles of bills and laws that protect the rights of these families are reviewed, so that health care providers assisting them have better access to them. Argentina has a wide range of laws and regulations dedicated to protecting them, but they are generally not clearly recognized by citizens. The aim is to disseminate this information in the medical setting so that health care providers can help patients recognize their rights through empowerment.

  20. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  1. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  2. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  3. Conditions for establishing quasistable double layers in the Earth's auroral upward current region

    SciTech Connect

    Main, D. S.; Newman, D. L.; Ergun, R. E.

    2010-12-15

    The strength and stability of simulated double layers at the ionosphere-auroral cavity boundary have been studied as a function of cold ionospheric electron temperature and density. The simulations are performed with an open boundary one-dimensional particle-in- cell (PIC) simulation and are initialized by imposing a density cavity within the simulation domain. The PIC simulation includes H{sup +} and O{sup +} ion beams, a hot H{sup +} background population, cold ionospheric electrons, and a hot electron population. It is shown that a double layer remains quasistable for a variety of initial conditions and plasma parameters. The average potential drop of the double layer is found to increase as the cold electron temperature decreases. However, in terms of cold electron density, the average potential drop of the double layer is found to increase up to some critical cold electron density and decreases above this value. Comparisons with FAST observations are made and agreement is found between simulation results and observations in the shape and width of the double layer. This study helps put a constraint on the plasma conditions in which a DL can be expected to form and remain quasistable.

  4. Past, present, and future of pharmacovigilance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dong Yoon; Ahn, Kyung-Min; Kang, Hye-Ryun

    2017-01-01

    As an essential part of patient safety, pharmacovigilance is of worldwide interest and should expand its scope and focus on new emerging issues. South Korea has been making continuous efforts in the field of pharmacovigilance for the last 3 decades since voluntary adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting system was first launched in 1988. Korea joined the World Health Organization Program for International Drug Monitoring in 1992, and the activities of Pharmacovigilance Research Network, Korean Society for Pharmacoepidemiology and Risk Management, and Regional Pharmacovigilance Center (RPVC) have contributed to the remarkable progress in the pharmacovigilance area and global status. RPVCs have played pivotal roles in establishment of pharmacovigilance system in Korea by monitoring voluntary ADR reports. RPVCs started with 3 hospitals in 2006 and have now expanded to 27 hospitals nationwide. The Korea Institute of Drug Safety & Risk Management was established in 2012 and in charge of operating the decentralized national pharmacovigilance system. The voluntary report of ADR, which is the basis of current pharmacovigilance system, has various limitations and an active surveillance system can be the overarching alternative. This change in pharmacovigilance paradigm is a global trend and Korea has excellent infrastructure such as broad distribution of electronic medical recording systems and a nationwide single healthcare insurance. As a result, the pharmacovigilance in Korea is now expected to progress to a new active surveillance system from traditional spontaneous reporting system. PMID:28765823

  5. Long-term, One-dimensional Simulation of Lower Snake River Temperatures for Current and Unimpounded Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, William A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2001-02-15

    The objective of the study was to compare water temperatures in the Lower Snake River for current (impounded) and unimpounded conditions using a mathematical model of the river system. A long-term analysis was performed using the MASS1 one-dimensional (1D) hydrodynamic and water quality model. The analysis used historical flows and meteorological conditions for a 35-year period spanning between 1960 and 1995. Frequency analysis was performed on the model results to calculate river temperatures at various percent of time exceeded levels. Results were are also analyzed to compute the time when, during the year, water temperatures rose above or fell below various temperature levels. The long-term analysis showed that the primary difference between the current and unimpounded river scenarios is that the reservoirs decrease the water temperature variability. The reservoirs also create a thermal inertia effect which tends to keep water cooler later into the spring and warmer later into the fall compared to the unimpounded river condition. Given the uncertainties in the simulation model, inflow temperatures, and meteorological conditions the results show only relatively small differences between current and unimpounded absolute river temperatures.

  6. [Pathological buying. A review of the current knowledge regarding this condition of behavioral excess].

    PubMed

    Müller, A; de Zwaan, M

    2010-04-01

    Compulsive buying is characterized by frequent excessive purchasing of items that are primarily not needed or used. The compulsive buying behavior results in mental, social, financial and often legal problems. Although compulsive buying affects a significant percentage of the general population and has received increasing attention in research, it has largely been ignored in clinical practice. Compulsive buying disorder is currently conceptualized as an"impulse control disorder not otherwise specified". However, the appropriate classification continues to be debated. Compulsive buying is associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity, especially with depressive, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, substance use, personality, and other impulse control disorders. Small controlled trials failed to confirm the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of compulsive buying disorder, whereas early evidence suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy is helpful in alleviating compulsive buying symptoms. Further research is needed to establish a better understanding of etiology, classification, and treatment strategies.

  7. Eddy Current Minimizing Flow Plug for Use in Flow Conditioning and Flow Metering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An eddy-current-minimizing flow plug has an outer radial wall with open flow channels formed between the plug's inlet and outlet. The plug has a central region coupled to the inner surface of the outer radial wall. Each open flow channel includes (i) a first portion originating at the inlet and converging to a location in the plug where convergence is contributed to by changes in thickness of the outer radial wall and divergence of the central region, and (ii) a second portion originating in the plug and diverging to the outlet where divergence is contributed to by changes in thickness of the outer radial wall and convergence of the central region. For at least a portion of the open flow channels, a central axis passing through the first and second portions is non-parallel with respect to the given direction of the flow.

  8. Modelling of the reactive sputtering process with non-uniform discharge current density and different temperature conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vašina, P; Hytková, T; Eliáš, M

    2009-05-01

    The majority of current models of the reactive magnetron sputtering assume a uniform shape of the discharge current density and the same temperature near the target and the substrate. However, in the real experimental set-up, the presence of the magnetic field causes high density plasma to form in front of the cathode in the shape of a toroid. Consequently, the discharge current density is laterally non-uniform. In addition to this, the heating of the background gas by sputtered particles, which is usually referred to as the gas rarefaction, plays an important role. This paper presents an extended model of the reactive magnetron sputtering that assumes the non-uniform discharge current density and which accommodates the gas rarefaction effect. It is devoted mainly to the study of the behaviour of the reactive sputtering rather that to the prediction of the coating properties. Outputs of this model are compared with those that assume uniform discharge current density and uniform temperature profile in the deposition chamber. Particular attention is paid to the modelling of the radial variation of the target composition near transitions from the metallic to the compound mode and vice versa. A study of the target utilization in the metallic and compound mode is performed for two different discharge current density profiles corresponding to typical two pole and multipole magnetics available on the market now. Different shapes of the discharge current density were tested. Finally, hysteresis curves are plotted for various temperature conditions in the reactor.

  9. Simulation of Deep Water Renewal in Crater Lake, Oregon, USA under Current and Future Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Wood, T. M.; Wherry, S.; Girdner, S.

    2015-12-01

    We applied a 1-dimensional lake model developed to simulate deep mixing related to thermobaric instabilities in temperate lakes to Crater Lake, a 590-m deep caldera lake in Oregon's Cascade Range known for its stunning deep blue color and extremely clear water, in order to determine the frequency of deep water renewal in future climate conditions. The lake model was calibrated with 6 years of water temperature profiles, and then simulated 10 years of validation data with an RMSE ranging from 0.81°C at 50 m depth to 0.04°C at 350-460 m depth. The simulated time series of heat content in the deep lake accurately captured extreme years characterized by weak and strong deep water renewal. The lake model uses wind speed and lake surface temperature (LST) as boundary conditions. LST projections under six climate scenarios from the CMIP5 intermodel comparison project (2 representative concentration pathways X 3 general circulation models) were evaluated with air2water, a simple lumped model that only requires daily values of downscaled air temperature. air2water was calibrated with data from 1993-2011, resulting in a RMSE between simulated and observed daily LST values of 0.68°C. All future climate scenarios project increased water temperature throughout the water column and a substantive reduction in the frequency of deepwater renewal events. The least extreme scenario (CNRM-CM5, RCP4.5) projects the frequency of deepwater renewal events to decrease from about 1 in 2 years in the present to about 1 in 3 years by 2100. The most extreme scenario (HadGEM2-ES, RCP8.5) projects the frequency of deepwater renewal events to be less than 1 in 7 years by 2100 and lake surface temperatures never cooling to less than 4°C after 2050. In all RCP4.5 simulations the temperature of the entire water column is greater than 4°C for increasing periods of time. In the RCP8.5 simulations, the temperature of the entire water column is greater than 4°C year round by the year 2060 (HadGEM2

  10. CURRENT CONDITIONS AND RESIDENCE PREFERENCES OR CITIZENS' PERCEPTIONS ON NONCONVENTIONAL WATER RESOURCES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuzuki, Yoshiaki; Aramaki, Toshiya

    Preferences or perceptions of ordinary citizens on three kinds of nonconventional water resources including rainwater, permissible groundwater exuding to underground railway stations and tunnels and reclaimed wastewater were investigated by use of the Internet survey method. The survey results were analysed with analytical hierar chal process (AHP) and willingness to pay (WTP). Weight vectors of natural environment and people's lives were found larger than other three first order evaluation conditions, society, economics and technology. The order of the weight vector values for the three water resources were rainwater, reclaimed wastewater and permissible groundwater. That for the five water usages were agricultural and horticulture water, water storage in preparation for disaster, toilet flushing water, environment water and sprinkler water for washing road and cooling atmosphere temperature. The difference between toilet flushing water and environment water was not significant by 5% significance. The analyzed data showed that differences between the weight vector values of the alternatives (water resources and their usages) became small by increasing the number of the evaluation conditions, which would be a topic to be resolved for AHP application to actual public projects. For water resources, WTP with public budgets was Japanese Yen (JY) 53,100-55,100 person-1 year-1, and WTP with private finances was JY 19,100-20,800 person-1 year-1. For water usages, public WTP was JY 20,400-47,200 person-1 year-1 and private WTP was JY 8,400-16,000 person-1 year-1. The orders of WTP values were similar to the orders of the weight vector values for both water resources and their usages obtained by the AHP analysis. Effective dissemination subjects and objects of the nonconventional water resources and their usages were extracted by the analysis for attributes including sex, age, living area, occupation and education.

  11. Burden of disease in Korea during 2000-10.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Park, J H

    2014-06-01

    This study estimates the burden of disease in Korea during 2000-10, using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). DALYs are the sum of years of life lost from mortality and years of life lost from disability. DALYs for 24 major diseases in 2000, 2005 and 2010 Korea were calculated based on the Global Burden of Disease Study method. As in other advanced nations, the burden of disease in Korea is characterized by an increasing importance of cancer, unipolar depression and ischemic heart disease (1681, 1508 and 562 person-years for Year 2010 in terms of DALYs per 10 0000, respectively). At the same time, unipolar depression, liver cirrhosis and mental and behavioral disorder due to alcohol use (1508, 323 and 535 person-years for 2010, respectively) became much more common in Korea than in other advanced nations. The burden of disease in Korea follows the pattern of other advanced nations in general but also registers some unique characteristics affected by the nation's distinctive epidemiological and sociocultural contexts, e.g. rapid economic growth and dramatic social transition without appropriate policy response. Korea's health and welfare policy might need to incorporate these special conditions for the effective reduction of its disease burden. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. North Korea Drought

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-29

    North Korea's state news agency reported the country is facing its worst drought in a century. Rice-growing provinces have been badly affected and more than 30% of rice paddies were parching up. A Landsat 7 image from June 29, 2002, compared with an ASTER image from June 26, 2015, shows the disparity in the rice crop. The images display vegetation in red, and bare fields in dark blue. The images cover an area of 27 x 34.5 km, and are located at 38.5 degrees north, 125.6 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19501

  13. Multicultural Education and the Rights to Education of Migrant Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soon-Won

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews the current state of multicultural education for migrant children in South Korea and calls for a critical reorientation of multicultural education for all. Racism was deepened during the colonial period in Korea, and continues to this day. Thus I argue that the ambivalent, dualistic ethnic prejudice distorted by colonialism can…

  14. Educational Administration as National Capacity Building: Towards South Korea Becoming a Creative Learning State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold; Sun Hyung, Park

    2015-01-01

    This philosophy paper proposes that a primary purpose of Educational Administration, as a field of study, research and practice in South Korea, becomes national capacity building. It does this by evaluating the current scope of Educational Administration against the need for a new national education policy to help South Korea make the transition…

  15. Educational Administration as National Capacity Building: Towards South Korea Becoming a Creative Learning State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Reynold; Sun Hyung, Park

    2015-01-01

    This philosophy paper proposes that a primary purpose of Educational Administration, as a field of study, research and practice in South Korea, becomes national capacity building. It does this by evaluating the current scope of Educational Administration against the need for a new national education policy to help South Korea make the transition…

  16. Decentralization of Educational Administration and Strengthening of Local Educational Planning in Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Il-hwan

    The decentralization of educational administration has been undertaken as a major reform effort in the Republic of Korea (South Korea). Current efforts at decentralization are only the most recent of numerous attempts to reduce what many observers agree is an excessive centralization of the nation's statewide administration for public affairs and…

  17. Multicultural Education and the Rights to Education of Migrant Children in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Soon-Won

    2010-01-01

    This study reviews the current state of multicultural education for migrant children in South Korea and calls for a critical reorientation of multicultural education for all. Racism was deepened during the colonial period in Korea, and continues to this day. Thus I argue that the ambivalent, dualistic ethnic prejudice distorted by colonialism can…

  18. Integrating Policies and Systems for Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of the Republic of Korea. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Na, Jung; Moon, Mugyeong

    Noting that young children in the Republic of Korea have received institutional education and care for more than 100 years, this report provides an in-depth analysis of Korea's reform of its early childhood education and care (ECEC) system. The analysis focuses on how ECEC has evolved, the current system, why Korea has attempted to reform the…

  19. Excess Heat Production in Pd/D during Periodic Pulse Discharge Current in Various Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabut, A. B.

    2006-02-01

    Experimental data from low-energy nuclear reactions (LERN) in condensed media are presented. The nuclear reactions products were found in solid cathode media used in glow discharge. Apparently, the nuclear reactions were initiated when bombarding the cathode surface by plasma ions with the energy of 1.0-2.0 keV. Excess heat from a high current glow discharge reaction in D2, Xe, and Kr using cathodes already charged with preliminary deuterium-charged Pd and Ti cathode samples are given. Excess heat up to 10-15 W and efficiency up to 130% was recorded under the experiments for Pd cathode samples in D2 discharge. Excess heat up to 5 W and efficiency up to 150% was recorded for Pd cathodes that were charged with deuterium before the run, in Xe and Kr discharges. At the same time excess heat was not observed for pure Pd cathode samples in Xe and Kr discharges. The formation of impurity nuclides (7Li, 13C, 15N, 20Ne, 29Si, 44Ca, 48Ca, 56Fe, 57Fe, 59Co, 64Zn, 66Zn, 75As, 107Ag, 109Ag, 110Cg, 111Cg, 112Cg, 114Cg, and 115In) with the efficiency up to 1013 at./s was recorded. The isotopic ratios of these new nuclides ware quite different from the natural ratios. Soft X-ray radiation from the solid-state cathode with the intensity up to 0.01 Gy/s was recorded in experiments with discharges in H2, D2, Ar, Xe, and Kr. The X-ray radiation was observed in bursts of up to 106 photons, with up to 105 bursts per second while the discharge was formed and within 100 ms after turning off the discharge current. The results of the X-ray radiation registration showed that the exited energy levels have a lifetime up to 100 ms or more, and the energy of 1.2-2.5 keV. A possible mechanism for producing excess heat and nuclear transmutation reactions in the solid medium with the exited energy levels is considered.

  20. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  1. Musculoskeletal ultrasound in rheumatology in Korea: targeted ultrasound initiative survey.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taeyoung; Wakefield, Richard J; Emery, Paul

    2016-04-01

    In collaboration with the Targeted Ultrasound Initiative (TUI), to conduct the first study in Korea to investigate current practices in ultrasound use among Korean rheumatologists. We translated the TUI Global Survey into Korean and added questions to better understand the specific challenges facing rheumatologists in Korea. To target as many rheumatologists in Korea as possible, we created an on-line version of this survey, which was conducted from March to April 2013. Rheumatologists are in charge of ultrasound in many Korean hospitals. Rheumatologists in hospitals and private clinics use ultrasound to examine between one and five patients daily; they use ultrasound for diagnosis more than monitoring and receive compensation of about US$30-50 per patient. There are marked differences in the rates of ultrasound usage between rheumatologists who work in private practice compared with tertiary hospitals. Korean rheumatologists not currently using ultrasound in their practice appear eager to do so. This survey provides important insights into the current status of ultrasound in rheumatology in Korea and highlights several priorities; specifically, greater provision of formal training, standardization of reporting and accrual of greater experience among ultrasound users. If these needs are addressed, all rheumatology departments in Korea are likely to use ultrasound or have access to it in the future. © 2014 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Uncertainties in predicting rice yield by current crop models under a wide range of climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Adam, Myriam; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fumoto, Tamon; Gaydon, Donald; Marcaida, Manuel; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Oriol, Philippe; Ruane, Alex C; Ruget, Françoise; Singh, Balwinder-; Singh, Upendra; Tang, Liang; Tao, Fulu; Wilkens, Paul; Yoshida, Hiroe; Zhang, Zhao; Bouman, Bas

    2015-03-01

    Predicting rice (Oryza sativa) productivity under future climates is important for global food security. Ecophysiological crop models in combination with climate model outputs are commonly used in yield prediction, but uncertainties associated with crop models remain largely unquantified. We evaluated 13 rice models against multi-year experimental yield data at four sites with diverse climatic conditions in Asia and examined whether different modeling approaches on major physiological processes attribute to the uncertainties of prediction to field measured yields and to the uncertainties of sensitivity to changes in temperature and CO2 concentration [CO2 ]. We also examined whether a use of an ensemble of crop models can reduce the uncertainties. Individual models did not consistently reproduce both experimental and regional yields well, and uncertainty was larger at the warmest and coolest sites. The variation in yield projections was larger among crop models than variation resulting from 16 global climate model-based scenarios. However, the mean of predictions of all crop models reproduced experimental data, with an uncertainty of less than 10% of measured yields. Using an ensemble of eight models calibrated only for phenology or five models calibrated in detail resulted in the uncertainty equivalent to that of the measured yield in well-controlled agronomic field experiments. Sensitivity analysis indicates the necessity to improve the accuracy in predicting both biomass and harvest index in response to increasing [CO2 ] and temperature.

  3. Uncertainties in Predicting Rice Yield by Current Crop Models Under a Wide Range of Climatic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Adam, Myriam; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fumoto, Tamon; hide

    2014-01-01

    Predicting rice (Oryza sativa) productivity under future climates is important for global food security. Ecophysiological crop models in combination with climate model outputs are commonly used in yield prediction, but uncertainties associated with crop models remain largely unquantified. We evaluated 13 rice models against multi-year experimental yield data at four sites with diverse climatic conditions in Asia and examined whether different modeling approaches on major physiological processes attribute to the uncertainties of prediction to field measured yields and to the uncertainties of sensitivity to changes in temperature and CO2 concentration [CO2]. We also examined whether a use of an ensemble of crop models can reduce the uncertainties. Individual models did not consistently reproduce both experimental and regional yields well, and uncertainty was larger at the warmest and coolest sites. The variation in yield projections was larger among crop models than variation resulting from 16 global climate model-based scenarios. However, the mean of predictions of all crop models reproduced experimental data, with an uncertainty of less than 10 percent of measured yields. Using an ensemble of eight models calibrated only for phenology or five models calibrated in detail resulted in the uncertainty equivalent to that of the measured yield in well-controlled agronomic field experiments. Sensitivity analysis indicates the necessity to improve the accuracy in predicting both biomass and harvest index in response to increasing [CO2] and temperature.

  4. Uncertainties in Predicting Rice Yield by Current Crop Models Under a Wide Range of Climatic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tao; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Adam, Myriam; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fumoto, Tamon; Gaydon, Donald; Marcaida, Manuel, III; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Oriol, Philippe; Ruane, Alex C.; Ruget, Francoise; Singh, Balwinder; Singh, Upendra; Tang, Liang; Tao, Fulu; Wilkens, Paul; Yoshida, Hiroe; Zhang, Zhao; Bouman, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Predicting rice (Oryza sativa) productivity under future climates is important for global food security. Ecophysiological crop models in combination with climate model outputs are commonly used in yield prediction, but uncertainties associated with crop models remain largely unquantified. We evaluated 13 rice models against multi-year experimental yield data at four sites with diverse climatic conditions in Asia and examined whether different modeling approaches on major physiological processes attribute to the uncertainties of prediction to field measured yields and to the uncertainties of sensitivity to changes in temperature and CO2 concentration [CO2]. We also examined whether a use of an ensemble of crop models can reduce the uncertainties. Individual models did not consistently reproduce both experimental and regional yields well, and uncertainty was larger at the warmest and coolest sites. The variation in yield projections was larger among crop models than variation resulting from 16 global climate model-based scenarios. However, the mean of predictions of all crop models reproduced experimental data, with an uncertainty of less than 10 percent of measured yields. Using an ensemble of eight models calibrated only for phenology or five models calibrated in detail resulted in the uncertainty equivalent to that of the measured yield in well-controlled agronomic field experiments. Sensitivity analysis indicates the necessity to improve the accuracy in predicting both biomass and harvest index in response to increasing [CO2] and temperature.

  5. A Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling Scheme for Estimating Erosion Rates Under Current Climate Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowman, L.; Barros, A. P.

    2014-12-01

    Computational modeling of surface erosion processes is inherently difficult because of the four-dimensional nature of the problem and the multiple temporal and spatial scales that govern individual mechanisms. Landscapes are modified via surface and fluvial erosion and exhumation, each of which takes place over a range of time scales. Traditional field measurements of erosion/exhumation rates are scale dependent, often valid for a single point-wise location or averaging over large aerial extents and periods with intense and mild erosion. We present a method of remotely estimating erosion rates using a Bayesian hierarchical model based upon the stream power erosion law (SPEL). A Bayesian approach allows for estimating erosion rates using the deterministic relationship given by the SPEL and data on channel slopes and precipitation at the basin and sub-basin scale. The spatial scale associated with this framework is the elevation class, where each class is characterized by distinct morphologic behavior observed through different modes in the distribution of basin outlet elevations. Interestingly, the distributions of first-order outlets are similar in shape and extent to the distribution of precipitation events (i.e. individual storms) over a 14-year period between 1998-2011. We demonstrate an application of the Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework for five basins and one intermontane basin located in the central Andes between 5S and 20S. Using remotely sensed data of current annual precipitation rates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and topography from a high resolution (3 arc-seconds) digital elevation map (DEM), our erosion rate estimates are consistent with decadal-scale estimates based on landslide mapping and sediment flux observations and 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than most millennial and million year timescale estimates from thermochronology and cosmogenic nuclides.

  6. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  7. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  8. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  9. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  10. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  11. Temperature and current accelerated lifetime conditions and testing of laser diodes for ESA BepiColombo space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klumel, Genady; Karni, Yoram; Cohen, Shalom; Rech, Markus; Weidlich, Kai

    2011-03-01

    System designers and end users of diode pumped solid state lasers often require knowledge of the operability limits of QCW laser diode pump sources and their predicted reliability performance as a function of operating conditions. Accelerated ageing at elevated temperatures, duty cycles and/or currents allows extended lifetime testing of diode stacks to be executed on compressed timescales with high confidence. We present a novel, time-efficient technique for the determination of accelerated lifetime test conditions using degradation rate data, rather than the traditionally used failures against time data. To assess the effect of thermally accelerated ageing, 4 groups of 4 stacks each were operated for 60 million pulses at different temperature stress levels by varying the pulse repetition rate from 100Hz to 250Hz. The measured power degradation rates fitted to an Arrhenius type model, result in activation energy of 0.47- 0.74eV, apparently indicating two thermally activated degradation modes with different activation energies. Similarly, for current accelerated ageing, another 4 groups of 4 stacks were tested at operation currents from 120A to 150A. The optical power degradation rates due to current stress follow a power law behavior with a current acceleration factor of 1.7. The obtained acceleration parameters allowed considerable reduction of the lifetime test duration, which would have otherwise taken an unacceptably long time under nominal operating conditions. The successful results of the accelerated lifetime have been a major milestone enabling qualification of SCD stacks as pump sources for the laser altimeter in ESA Bepi-Colombo space mission. The presented reliability analysis allows life test qualification programs to be accelerated for generic QCW stacks and their lifetime to be predicted in various operating environments.

  12. Groundwater resources of the Devils Postpile National Monument—Current conditions and future vulnerabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, Deborah

    2017-06-15

    This study presents an extensive database on groundwater conditions in and around Devils Postpile National Monument. The database contains chemical analyses of springs and the monument water-supply well, including major-ion chemistry, trace element chemistry, and the first information on a list of organic compounds known as emerging contaminants. Diurnal, seasonal, and annual variations in groundwater discharge and chemistry are evaluated from data collected at five main monitoring sites, where streams carry the aggregate flow from entire groups of springs. These springs drain the Mammoth Mountain area and, during the fall months, contribute a significant fraction of the San Joaquin River flow within the monument. The period of this study, from fall 2012 to fall 2015, includes some of the driest years on record, though the seasonal variability observed in 2013 might have been near normal. The spring-fed streams generally flowed at rates well below those observed during a sequence of wet years in the late 1990s. However, persistence of flow and reasonably stable water chemistry through the recent dry years are indicative of a sizeable groundwater system that should provide a reliable resource during similar droughts in the future. Only a few emerging contaminants were detected at trace levels below 1 microgram per liter (μg/L), suggesting that local human visitation is not degrading groundwater quality. No indication of salt from the ski area on the north side of Mammoth Mountain could be found in any of the groundwaters. Chemical data instead show that natural mineral water, such as that discharged from local soda springs, is the main source of anomalous chloride in the monument supply well and in the San Joaquin River. The results of the study are used to develop a set of recommendations for future monitoring to enable detection of deleterious impacts to groundwater quality and quantity

  13. Epaulet size and current condition in red-winged blackbirds: examining a semistatic signal, testosterone, immune function, and parasites.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Loren; Stewart, Tara E; González-Gómez, Paulina L; O'Loghlen, Adrian L; Wingfield, John C; Ellis, Vincenzo A; Rothstein, Stephen I

    2015-01-01

    Some sexually selected signals are thought to convey information about the current condition and genetic/epigenetic quality of the individual signaling, including the ability to resist parasites. However, it is unclear whether semistatic sexual signals that develop periodically and remain stable over protracted periods, such as avian breeding plumage, can relate to measures of current condition and health. We examined a semistatic signal (wing epaulet size) in male red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) during the breeding season and looked for relationships between this trait and circulating testosterone (T), hematocrit, bacteria-killing ability (BKA) of the blood, and the infection status, richness, and abundance of four functional categories of parasite. We found that epaulet size was positively related to circulating levels of T and ectoparasite infections. We found no relationships between T and parasite infections. In adult males there was a negative relationship between T and BKA, whereas in yearling males there was no relationship. We found no evidence for a general reduction in immunocompetence in males with larger epaulets but rather an increase in susceptibility to specific types of parasites. Our results suggest that semistatic signals can be linked to measures of current condition, and we postulate that these relationships are modulated via activity levels related to breeding-season activities.

  14. Elicitors as alternative strategy to pesticides in grapevine? Current knowledge on their mode of action from controlled conditions to vineyard.

    PubMed

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Farace, Giovanni; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-04-01

    Development and optimisation of alternative strategies to reduce the use of classic chemical inputs for protection against diseases in vineyard is becoming a necessity. Among these strategies, one of the most promising consists in the stimulation and/or potentiation of the grapevine defence responses by the means of elicitors. Elicitors are highly diverse molecules both in nature and origins. This review aims at providing an overview of the current knowledge on these molecules and will highlight their potential efficacy from the laboratory in controlled conditions to vineyards. Recent findings and concepts (especially on plant innate immunity) and the new terminology (microbe-associated molecular patterns, effectors, etc.) are also discussed in this context. Other objectives of this review are to highlight the difficulty of transferring elicitors use and results from the controlled conditions to the vineyard, to determine their practical and effective use in viticulture and to propose ideas for improving their efficacy in non-controlled conditions.

  15. Transport and fate of river waters under flood conditions and rim current influence: the Mississippi River test case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourafalou, Villy; Androulidakis, Yannis

    2013-04-01

    Large river plumes are a major supplier of freshwater, sediments and nutrients in coastal and shelf seas. Novel processes controlling the transport and fate of riverine waters (and associated materials) will be presented, under flood conditions and in the presence of complex topography, ambient shelf circulation and slope processes, controlled by the interaction with rim currents. The Mississippi River (MR) freshwater outflow is chosen as a test case, as a major circulation forcing mechanism for the Northern Gulf of Mexico and a unique river plume for the intense interactions with a large scale ocean current, namely the Loop Current branch of the Gulf Stream, and associated eddy field. The largest MR outflow in history (45,000 m3/sec in 2011) is compared with the second largest outflow in the last 8 years (41,000 m3/sec in 2008). Realistically forced simulations, based on the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) with careful treatment of river plume dynamics and nested to a data assimilated, basin-wide model, reveal the synergistic effect of enhanced discharge, winds, stratification of ambient shelf waters and offshore circulation over the transport of plume waters. The investigation targets a broader understanding of the dynamics of large scale river plumes in general, and of the MR plume in particular. In addition, in situ observations from ship surveys and satellite chl-a data showed that the mathematical simulations with high temporal resolution river outflow input may reproduce adequately the buoyant waters spreading over the Northern Gulf of Mexico shelf and offshore areas. The fate of the river plume is strongly determined and affected by deep basin processes. The strong impacts of the Loop Current system (and its frontal eddies) on river plume evolution are of particular importance under conditions of increased offshore spreading, which is presumed under large discharge rates and can cause loss of riverine materials to the basin interior. Flood conditions

  16. Determining heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and their waste management challenges: Some strategies for improving current conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Taghipour, Hassan; Amjad, Zahra; Jafarabadi, Mohamad Asghari; Gholampour, Akbar; Norouz, Prviz

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metals in spent compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) determined. • Current waste management condition of CFLs in Iran assessed. • Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. • We propose extended producer responsibility (EPR) for CFLs waste management. - Abstract: From environmental viewpoint, the most important advantage of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) is reduction of green house gas emissions. But their significant disadvantage is disposal of spent lamps because of containing a few milligrams of toxic metals, especially mercury and lead. For a successful implementation of any waste management plan, availability of sufficient and accurate information on quantities and compositions of the generated waste and current management conditions is a fundamental prerequisite. In this study, CFLs were selected among 20 different brands in Iran. Content of heavy metals including mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was determined by inductive coupled plasma (ICP). Two cities, Tehran and Tabriz, were selected for assessing the current waste management condition of CFLs. The study found that waste generation amount of CFLs in the country was about 159.80, 183.82 and 153.75 million per year in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively. Waste generation rate of CFLs in Iran was determined to be 2.05 per person in 2012. The average amount of mercury, lead, nickel, arsenic and chromium was 0.417, 2.33, 0.064, 0.056 and 0.012 mg per lamp, respectively. Currently, waste of CFLs is disposed by municipal waste stream in waste landfills. For improving the current conditions, we propose by considering the successful experience of extended producer responsibility (EPR) in other electronic waste management. The EPR program with advanced recycling fee (ARF) is implemented for collecting and then recycling CFLs. For encouraging consumers to take the spent CFLs back at the end of the products’ useful life, a proportion of

  17. Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes under pulsed current conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Feng; Ikeda, Masao Liu, Jianping; Zhang, Shuming; Zhou, Kun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Zongshun

    2015-07-21

    Injection current dependences of electroluminescence transition energy in blue InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells light emitting diodes (LEDs) with different quantum barrier thicknesses under pulsed current conditions have been analyzed taking into account the related effects including deformation caused by lattice strain, quantum confined Stark effects due to polarization field partly screened by carriers, band gap renormalization, Stokes-like shift due to compositional fluctuations which are supposed to be random alloy fluctuations in the sub-nanometer scale, band filling effect (Burstein-Moss shift), and quantum levels in finite triangular wells. The bandgap renormalization and band filling effect occurring at high concentrations oppose one another, however, the renormalization effect dominates in the concentration range studied, since the band filling effect arising from the filling in the tail states in the valence band of quantum wells is much smaller than the case in the bulk materials. In order to correlate the carrier densities with current densities, the nonradiative recombination rates were deduced experimentally by curve-fitting to the external quantum efficiencies. The transition energies in LEDs both with 15 nm quantum barriers and 5 nm quantum barriers, calculated using full strengths of theoretical macroscopic polarization given by Barnardini and Fiorentini [Phys. Status Solidi B 216, 391 (1999)] are in excellent accordance with experimental results. The LED with 5 nm barriers has been shown to exhibit a higher transition energy and a smaller blue shift than those of LED with 15 nm barriers, which is mainly caused by the smaller internal polarization field in the quantum wells.

  18. Wave-current interaction in the bottom boundary layer during storm and non-storm conditions: observations and model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, D.E.; Cacchione, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    Bottom boundary layer measurements of current velocity profiles and bed response under combined wave and current conditions were obtained at a water depth of 145 m on the shelf off central California during December 1988. High quality logarithmic current profiles, excellent time-series bottom photographs, and a large variation in the relative strengths of the wave-induced oscillatory currents and the quasi-steady low frequency currents provided a dataset that is ideal for examining the effects of wave-current interaction near a rough boundary. During one period of 3 days that included a brief storm event, the wave-induced bottom currents (Ub 1 10) ranged from 2.3 to 22 cm s-1 and the steady currents (Ur) ranged from 1.8 to 28.1 cm s-1 at 0.18 m above the bottom; the ratio Ub U18 varied from below 0.2 to more than 7. Velocity profiles were highly logarithmic (R2 > 0.95) 60% of the time and 27 profiles collected at 2-h intervals had R2 {slanted equal to or greater-than} 0.994 which allowed reliable estimates of the current shear velocity (U*c) and roughness length (zoc). Mean U*c values had magnitudes of 0.3-2.4 cm s-1 and zoc, which ranged from 0.04 to 3.5 cm, was strongly correlated to the Ub U18 ratio. Drag coefficients (CD = ??c/??U1002) ranged from about 2.5 ?? 10-3-12 ?? 10-3 in direct response to the wave-current variation; the use of a constant CD of 3 ?? 10-3 for steady flow over a rough bed would have underpredicted the shear stress by up to four times during the storm event. The large zoc and U*c values cannot be explained by changes in the carefully-observed, small (<1 cm) physical bed roughness elements that covered the mud-rich study site. A side-scan sonar site survey also eliminated the possibility of flow disturbance by larger upstream topography. The observations clearly demonstrate the importance of wave-current interaction near a rough boundary. Comparison of the observations with results of the combined flow models of Grant and Madsen and Glenn

  19. Economic burden of smoking in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H; Kim, H; Park, T; Jee, S; Nam, C; Park, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To support tobacco control policies in Korea by providing the estimated annual economic burden attributed to cigarette smoking. Methods: The following two different approaches were used to estimate the cost: "disease specific" and "all causes". In the disease specific approach, we focused on estimating direct and indirect costs involved in treatments of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases, and cancer as a result of smoking, by using an epidemiologic approach—the population attributable risk (PAR). To compute PAR, the relative risks of smoking in terms of physician visits, hospital admission, and death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. In the all causes approach, we examined the differences in direct and indirect costs between smokers and non-smokers for all conditions and types of disease. The major data source was the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation cohort study, which had complete records of smoking status as of 1992 for 115 682 male and 67 932 female insured workers. Results: By the disease specific approach, the estimated costs attributable to smoking in 1998 in Korea ranged from US$2269.42 million ($4.89 million per 100 000 population; 0.59% of gross domestic product (GDP)) to $2956.75 million ($6.37 million; 0.78% of GDP). The all causes approach yielded a minimum cost of $3154.75 million ($6.79 million; 0.82% GDP) and a maximum of $4580.25 million ($9.86 million; 1.19% GDP). Conclusion: The study confirms that smoking places a substantial economic burden on Korean society. In light of this, our study provides evidence for a strong need to develop a national policy to effectively control tobacco consumption in Korea. PMID:12612360

  20. Skill assessment of Korea operational oceanographic system (KOOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Park, K.

    2016-02-01

    For the ocean forecast system in Korea, the Korea operational oceanographic system (KOOS) has been developed and pre-operated since 2009 by the Korea institute of ocean science and technology (KIOST) funded by the Korean government. KOOS provides real time information and forecasts for marine environmental conditions in order to support all kinds of activities in the sea. Furthermore, more significant purpose of the KOOS information is to response and support to maritime problems and accidents such as oil spill, red-tide, shipwreck, extraordinary wave, coastal inundation and so on. Accordingly, it is essential to evaluate prediction accuracy and efforts to improve accuracy. The forecast accuracy should meet or exceed target benchmarks before its products are approved for release to the public.In this paper, we conduct error quantification of the forecasts using skill assessment technique for judgement of the KOOS performance. Skill assessment statistics includes the measures of errors and correlations such as root-mean-square-error (RMSE), mean bias (MB), correlation coefficient (R), and index of agreement (IOA) and the frequency with which errors lie within specified limits termed the central frequency (CF).The KOOS provides 72-hour daily forecast data such as air pressure, wind, water elevation, currents, wave, water temperature, and salinity produced by meteorological and hydrodynamic numerical models of WRF, ROMS, MOM5, WAM, WW3, and MOHID. The skill assessment has been performed through comparison of model results with in-situ observation data (Figure 1) for the period from 1 July, 2010 to 31 March, 2015 in Table 1 and model errors have been quantified with skill scores and CF determined by acceptable criteria depending on predicted variables (Table 2). Moreover, we conducted quantitative evaluation of spatio-temporal pattern correlation between numerical models and observation data such as sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface current produced by

  1. Comparison between current and ideal condition of educational justice from the students’ viewpoints at Jahrom Nursing and Paramedical School

    PubMed Central

    MONTASERI, MOHAMMAD ALI; HOJAT, MOHSEN; KARIMYAR JAHROMI, MAHDI

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Educational justice is a process by which all those involved in education are pondering and seeking to establish it in their regulatory environments. This study aimed to investigate effective factors in an ideal educational justice and the current condition of educational justice from the students’ viewpoint and ultimately increase the awareness and understanding of authorities and educational planners of the existing shortcomings.  Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study. Samples include all nursing, operating room, and anesthesia students of nursing and paramedical college who had passed at least 5 semesters. Data collection was carried out through a scholar questionnaire. Validity was assessed through content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using a pilot study.  In order to determine the status of the scores, 5 points (very high), 4 (often), 3 (moderate), 2 (low) and 1 (very low) were assigned, respectively. To determine the justice level, a 35 score interval was considered as very low, low, medium, high and very high. SPSS software, descriptive statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data.  Results: There was a significant difference between the ideal and the current conditions in all items (p≤0.001) and also in the total mean score of ideal condition  and mean score of current condition (p=0.010). Conclusion: In an educational system, educational methods and aims should be regulated in a way that principles and components of justice are attainable and distribution and allocation of educational facilities of justice are considered thoroughly. PMID:25512917

  2. Comparison between current and ideal condition of educational justice from the students' viewpoints at Jahrom Nursing and Paramedical School.

    PubMed

    Montaseri, Mohammad Ali; Hojat, Mohsen; Karimyar Jahromi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Educational justice is a process by which all those involved in education are pondering and seeking to establish it in their regulatory environments. This study aimed to investigate effective factors in an ideal educational justice and the current condition of educational justice from the students' viewpoint and ultimately increase the awareness and understanding of authorities and educational planners of the existing shortcomings.  This is a descriptive-analytical study. Samples include all nursing, operating room, and anesthesia students of nursing and paramedical college who had passed at least 5 semesters. Data collection was carried out through a scholar questionnaire. Validity was assessed through content validity and reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated using a pilot study.  In order to determine the status of the scores, 5 points (very high), 4 (often), 3 (moderate), 2 (low) and 1 (very low) were assigned, respectively. To determine the justice level, a 35 score interval was considered as very low, low, medium, high and very high. SPSS software, descriptive statistics, independent t-test and ANOVA were used to analyze the data.  There was a significant difference between the ideal and the current conditions in all items (p≤0.001) and also in the total mean score of ideal condition  and mean score of current condition (p=0.010). In an educational system, educational methods and aims should be regulated in a way that principles and components of justice are attainable and distribution and allocation of educational facilities of justice are considered thoroughly.

  3. Global Simulations of the March 17, 2013 Storm: Importance of Boundary Conditions in Reproducing Ring Current Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y.; Jordanova, V.; Larsen, B.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Welling, D. T.; Skoug, R. M.; Kletzing, C.

    2013-12-01

    As modeling capabilities become increasingly available for the study of inner magnetospheric dynamics, the models' boundary conditions remain a crucial controlling factor in reproducing observations. In this study, we use the kinetic Ring current-Atmosphere Interaction Model (RAM) two-way coupled with the global MHD model BATS-R-US to study the evolution of the ring current and its feedback to the ionospheric electrodynamics during the March 17, 2013 storm. The MHD code solves fluid quantities and provides the inner magnetosphere code with plasma sheet plasma, which is the primary source for the development of the ring current. In this study, we examine the effect of different boundary conditions in specifying the plasma sheet plasma source on reproducing observations of the inner magnetospheric/subauroral region, such as in-situ observations (e.g., flux, magnetic fields, and electric fields) from Van Allen Probes (RBSP), field-aligned currents from AMPERE, and global convection maps from SuperDARN. These different boundary settings include a Maxwellian distribution assumption with MHD single-fluid temperature and density, a Kappa distribution assumption with MHD single-fluid temperature and density, and a bi-Maxwellian distribution with anisotropic pressures passed from the MHD code. Results indicate that a Kappa distribution at the boundary of RAM leads to a better ring current flux prediction than that with a Maxwellian distribution assumption, as well as a more realistic spatial distribution of ion anisotropy, which is important in driving electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The anisotropic pressure coupling between the kinetic code and the MHD code with a bi-Maxwellian function significantly improves the agreement with observations, especially the Dst index prediction.

  4. Strong IMF By-Related Plasma Convection in the Ionosphere and Cusp Field-Aligned Currents Under Northward IMF Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, G.; Lu, G.; Strangeway, R. J.; Pfaff, R. F., Jr.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present in this paper an investigation of IMF-By related plasma convection and cusp field-aligned currents using FAST data and AMIE model during a prolonged interval with large positive IMF By and northward Bz conditions (By/Bz much greater than 1). Using the FAST single trajectory observations to validate the global convection patterns at key times and key locations, we have demonstrated that the AMIE procedure provides a reasonably good description of plasma circulations in the ionosphere during this interval. Our results show that the plasma convection in the ionosphere is consistent with the anti-parallel merging model. When the IMF has a strongly positive By component under northward conditions, we find that the global plasma convection forms two cells oriented nearly along the Sun-earth line in the ionosphere. In the northern hemisphere, the dayside cell has clockwise convection mainly circulating within the polar cap on open field lines. A second cell with counterclockwise convection is located in the nightside circulating across the polar cap boundary, The observed two-cell convection pattern appears to be driven by the reconnection along the anti-parallel merging lines poleward of the cusp extending toward the dusk side when IMF By/Bz much greater than 1. The magnetic tension force on the newly reconnected field lines drives the plasma to move from dusk to dawn in the polar cusp region near the polar cap boundary. The field-aligned currents in the cusp region flow downward into the ionosphere. The return field-aligned currents extend into the polar cap in the center of the dayside convection cell. The field-aligned currents are closed through the Peterson currents in the ionosphere, which flow poleward from the polar cap boundary along the electric field direction.

  5. Previous success and current body condition determine breeding propensity in Lesser Scaup: evidence for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, Jeffrey M.; Cutting, Kyle A.; Takekawa, John Y.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Williams, Tony D.; Koons, David N.

    2014-01-01

    The decision to breed influences an individual's current and future reproduction, and the proportion of individuals that breed is an important determinant of population dynamics. Age, experience, individual quality, and environmental conditions have all been demonstrated to influence breeding propensity. To elucidate which of these factors exerts the greatest influence on breeding propensity in a temperate waterfowl, we studied female Lesser Scaup (Aythya affinis) breeding in southwestern Montana. Females were captured during the breeding seasons of 2007–2009, and breeding status was determined on the basis of (1) presence of an egg in the oviduct or (2) blood plasma vitellogenin (VTG) levels. Presence on the study site in the previous year, a proxy for adult female success, was determined with stable isotope signatures of a primary feather collected at capture. Overall, 57% of females had evidence of breeding at the time of capture; this increased to 86% for females captured on or after peak nest initiation. Capture date and size-adjusted body condition positively influenced breeding propensity, with a declining body-condition threshold through the breeding season. We did not detect an influence of age on breeding propensity. Drought conditions negatively affected breeding propensity, reducing the proportion of breeding females to 0.85 (SE = 0.05) from 0.94 (SE = 0.03) during normal-water years. A female that was present in the previous breeding season was 5% more likely to breed than a female that was not present then. The positive correlation between age and experience makes it difficult to differentiate the roles of age, experience, and individual quality in reproductive success in vertebrates. Our results indicate that individual quality, as expressed by previous success and current body condition, may be among the most important determinants of breeding propensity in female Lesser Scaup, providing further support for the individual heterogeneity hypothesis.

  6. Dynamics of electrical double layer formation in room-temperature ionic liquids under constant-current charging conditions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xikai; Huang, Jingsong; Zhao, Hui; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2014-07-16

    We report detailed simulation results on the formation dynamics of an electrical double layer (EDL) inside an electrochemical cell featuring room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) enclosed between two planar electrodes. Under relatively small charging currents, the evolution of cell potential from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations during charging can be suitably predicted by the Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum model proposed recently (Bazant et al 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 046102). Under very large charging currents, the cell potential from MD simulations shows pronounced oscillation during the initial stage of charging, a feature not captured by the continuum model. Such oscillation originates from the sequential growth of the ionic space charge layers near the electrode surface. This allows the evolution of EDLs in RTILs with time, an atomistic process difficult to visualize experimentally, to be studied by analyzing the cell potential under constant-current charging conditions. While the continuum model cannot predict the potential oscillation under such far-from-equilibrium charging conditions, it can nevertheless qualitatively capture the growth of cell potential during the later stage of charging. Improving the continuum model by introducing frequency-dependent dielectric constant and density-dependent ion diffusion coefficients may help to further extend the applicability of the model. The evolution of ion density profiles is also compared between the MD and the continuum model, showing good agreement.

  7. Dynamics of electrical double layer formation in room-temperature ionic liquids under constant-current charging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xikai; Huang, Jingsong; Zhao, Hui; Sumpter, Bobby G; Qiao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    We report detailed simulation results on the formation dynamics of an electrical double layer (EDL) inside an electrochemical cell featuring room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) enclosed between two planar electrodes. Under relatively small charging currents, the evolution of cell potential during charging can be suitably predicted by the Landau-Ginzburg-type continuum model proposed recently (M. Z. Bazant, B. D. Storey, and A. A. Kornyshev, Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 046102, 2011). Under very large charging currents, the cell potential shows pronounced oscillation during the initial stage of charging, a feature not captured by the continuum model. Such oscillation originates from the sequential growth of the ionic space charge layers near the electrode surface, allowing the evolution of EDLs in RTILs with time, an atomistic process difficult to visualize experimentally, to be studied by analyzing the cell potential under constant current charging conditions. While the continuum model cannot predict the potential oscillation under such far-from-equilibrium charging conditions, it can nevertheless qualitatively capture the growth of cell potential during the later stage of charging. Improving the continuum model by introducing frequency-dependent dielectric constant and density-dependent ion diffusion coefficients may help to further extend the applicability of the model. Keywords: ionic

  8. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  9. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  10. Estimating change in cardiovascular disease and diabetes burdens due to dietary and metabolic factors in Korea 1998–2011: a comparative risk assessment analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yoonsu; Cudhea, Frederick; Park, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jong-Tae; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Singh, Gitanjali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Over the past 10 years, the burden of chronic diseases in Korea has increased. However, there are currently no quantitative estimates of how changes in diet and metabolic factors have contributed to these shifting burdens. This study aims to evaluate the contributions of dietary and metabolic risk factors to death from cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) such as cardiovascular conditions, strokes and diabetes in Korea, and to estimate how these contributions have changed over the past 10 years (1998–2011). Design and methods We used data on 6 dietary and 4 metabolic risk factors by sex, age and year from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The relative risks for the effects of the risk factors on CMD mortality were obtained from meta-analyses. The population-attributable fraction attributable to the risk factors was calculated by using a comparative risk assessment approach across sex and age strata (males and females, age groups 25–34, 35–44, 45–54, 55–64, 65–74 and 75+ years) from 1998 to 2011. Results The results showed that a suboptimal diet and high blood pressure were the main risk factors for CMD mortality in Korea. High blood pressure accounted for 127 096 (95% uncertainty interval (UI): 121 907 to 132 218) deaths from CMD. Among the individual dietary risk factors, a high intake of sodium (42 387 deaths; 95% UI: 42 387 to 65 094) and a low intake of fruit (50 244 deaths; 95% UI: 40 981 to 59 178) and whole grains (54 248 deaths; 95% UI: 47 020 to 61 343) were responsible for the highest number of CMD deaths in Korea. Conclusions Indicating the relative importance of risk factors in Korea, the results suggest that metabolic and dietary risk factors were major contributors to CMD mortality. PMID:28003293

  11. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  12. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  13. South Korea and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Se Ho

    1988-01-01

    Examines projections about the future of Korea, predicting a highly diversified society built upon industrialization and moving toward an information society. Discusses the growing middle class and its societal implications and considers the effects of the country's increasing democratization. (GEA)

  14. Effect of Using Electric Current during Dentin Bonding Agent Application on Microleakage under Simulated Pulpal Pressure Condition

    PubMed Central

    Gharizadeh, Naghmeh; Kaviani, Azita; Nik, Samaneh

    2010-01-01

    Background: The use of electric current during application of etch-and-rinse adhesive systems has been recently introduced to decrease microleakage. This study investigated the effects of an electric field produced by an experimental device for the application of a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive on moist dentin surface. Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human premolars were used for this study. In order to simulate real conditions, the pulpal pressure was set to 35 cm H2O for all the specimens. The teeth were divided into two groups: in group I, etch-and-rinse system (Single Bond) was applied with electric current while group II, etch-and-rinse system (Single Bond) was applied without electric current. Specimens were prepared for dye penetration test. The data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The results showed that group I had less microleakage scores compared to group II (P = 0.047). Conclusion: Based on the result of this study, it could be concluded that using electric current for applying adhesive systems had a significant effect on reducing microleakage. PMID:21448443

  15. South Korea's low fertility raises European-style issues.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1991-10-01

    A demographic revolution has taken place in South Korea as evidenced by the marked decline in total fertility rate (TFR) from 6 in 1960 to the 1987 level of 1.6. South Korea holds the record for low fertility among developing countries, with women in South Korea averaging fewer children in their lifetimes than do women in Europe. The 1987 TFR for South Korea was even less than that of Sweden, Norway, and France. Emphasizing high initial rates of contraceptive use, family planning (FP) has been a strong component of South Korea's 5-year plans since 1962. Strong governmental support backed the efforts of a large group of FP workers who provided free contraceptives from private physicians. High discontinuation rates resulted, however, and the abortion rate has soared to equal the number of live births. Albeit a developing nation, South Korea now faces the challenges of below replacement fertility more typical of more developed countries. Current fertility levels indicate population increase to approximately 50 million by 2020, followed by a slow decline. While reducing pressure on limited resources, population decline and demographic aging will also demand allocation of a higher proportion of government funds to medical care, and potentially threaten South Korea's competitiveness in the world labor market. Having effected decreases in population growth and fertility, the government reduced the annual sterilization target in 1986 from 300,000 to 60,000 by 1991, and will increasingly turn to the private sector and national health insurance for service provision to all but the poor. A 2-child family norm may be promoted, FP programs expanded to the unmarried and legislation developed to eliminate the preference for sons. Delivery systems may also be reorganized to encourage continued use of contraceptive methods.

  16. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed. PMID:23858399

  17. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk

    2013-07-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed.

  18. Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a rotating channel with convective boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Zahir, Hina; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir

    The present article has been arranged to study the Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed.

  19. Photoelectric currents across planar bilayer membranes containing bacterial reaction centers. Response under conditions of single electron turnover.

    PubMed Central

    Packham, N K; Dutton, P L; Mueller, P

    1982-01-01

    Light-induced electric current and potential responses have been measured across planar phospholipid membranes containing reaction centers from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides. Under conditions in which the reaction centers are restricted to a single electron turnover, the responses can be correlated with the light-induced electron transfer reactions associated with the reaction center. The results indicate that electron transfer from the bacteriochlorophyll dimer to the primary ubiquinone molecule, and from ferrocytochrome c to the oxidized dimer occur in series across the planar membrane. Electron transfer from the primary to secondary ubiquinone molecule is not electrogenic. PMID:6277403

  20. A QR accelerated volume-to-surface boundary condition for finite element solution of eddy current problems

    SciTech Connect

    White, D; Fasenfest, B; Rieben, R; Stowell, M

    2006-09-08

    We are concerned with the solution of time-dependent electromagnetic eddy current problems using a finite element formulation on three-dimensional unstructured meshes. We allow for multiple conducting regions, and our goal is to develop an efficient computational method that does not require a computational mesh of the air/vacuum regions. This requires a sophisticated global boundary condition specifying the total fields on the conductor boundaries. We propose a Biot-Savart law based volume-to-surface boundary condition to meet this requirement. This Biot-Savart approach is demonstrated to be very accurate. In addition, this approach can be accelerated via a low-rank QR approximation of the discretized Biot-Savart law.

  1. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  2. Influence of electrical current variance and thermal resistances on optimum working conditions and geometry for thermoelectric energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Miguel; Reid, Rachel; Ohara, Brandon; Lee, Hohyun

    2013-05-01

    Recent reports on enhanced thermoelectric figure of merits based on nanoscale effects have revived interest in potential applications of thermoelectric modules for waste heat recovery and distributed power generation. However, studies of optimized working conditions have not been thoroughly investigated. The majority of the previous studies on optimum load resistance for maximum power output or maximum efficiency assume temperatures at the ends of thermoelectric materials are known and constant. In reality, temperature should be determined by the energy conservation equations, which are functions of the load resistance, as well as the thermal resistances of the heat source, heat sink, and contact pads. This work exploits a numerical method to determine the actual temperature of thermoelectric materials, and optimum working conditions for thermoelectric energy harvesting are presented. The proposed model considers the effect of thermal resistances between a thermoelectric module and heat reservoirs, and the electrical current variation with respect to load resistance. The optimum condition for load resistance ratio was observed to occur at larger values than those obtained from traditional optimization work. Additionally, optimum geometry for a thermoelectric module is suggested for energy harvesting methods, where forced convection or oversized heat sinks cannot be used. Experimental results obtained from a commercial thermoelectric module are also presented to validate the proposed model. This work forms a basis to predict optimum working conditions in various thermoelectric energy harvesting applications.

  3. The simulation of Typhoon-induced coastal inundation in Busan, South Korea applying the downscaling technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Dongmin; Park, Junghyun; Yuk, Jin-Hee; Joh, MinSu

    2017-04-01

    Due to typhoons, the south coastal cities including Busan in South Korea coastal are very vulnerable to a surge, wave and corresponding coastal inundation, and are affected every year. In 2016, South Korea suffered tremendous damage by typhoon 'Chaba', which was developed near east-north of Guam on Sep. 28 and had maximum 10-minute sustained wind speed of about 50 m/s, 1-minute sustained wind speed of 75 m/s and a minimum central pressure of 905 hpa. As 'Chaba', which is the strongest since typhoon 'Maemi' in 2003, hit South Korea on Oct. 5, it caused a massive economic and casualty damage to Ulsan, Gyeongju and Busan in South Korea. In particular, the damage of typhoon-induced coastal inundation in Busan, where many high-rise buildings and residential areas are concentrated near coast, was serious. The coastal inundation could be more affected by strong wind-induced wave than surge. In fact, it was observed that the surge height was about 1 m averagely and a significant wave height was about 8 m at coastal sea nearby Busan on Oct. 5 due to 'Chaba'. Even though the typhoon-induced surge elevated the sea level, the typhoon-induced long period wave with wave period of more than 15s could play more important role in the inundation. The present work simulated the coastal inundation induced by 'Chaba' in Busan, South Korea considering the effects of typhoon-induced surge and wave. For 'Chaba' hindcast, high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) was applied using a reanalysis data produced by NCEP (FNL 0.25 degree) on the boundary and initial conditions, and was validated by the observation of wind speed, direction and pressure. The typhoon-induced coastal inundation was simulated by an unstructured gird model, Finite Volume Community Ocean Model (FVCOM), which is fully current-wave coupled model. To simulate the wave-induced inundation, 1-way downscaling technique of multi domain was applied. Firstly, a mother's domain including Korean peninsula was

  4. Asian Consumer Education Study: Korea. Summary of Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannister, Rosella; Green, Hayden

    The Asian Consumer Education Study was designed to gather information about the current status of consumer education in Korea. Conversations and informal interviews with 27 consumer leaders showed that, with the exception of academic specialists and consumer professionals in government, business, and community organizations, consumers gave little…

  5. Trends in parasitic diseases in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Eun-Hee; Guk, Sang-Mee; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2008-03-01

    In the Republic of Korea, cases of zoonotic, opportunistic and imported parasitoses are being detected increasingly. Vivax malaria disappeared in the late 1970s but re-emerged in 1993 and, currently, 1000-2000 cases occur annually. Brugian filariasis was endemic on offshore islands until 1990 but has now been eradicated. Soil-transmitted helminthiases (ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections) were highly prevalent until the 1970s but are now well controlled. However, food-borne trematode infections, such as clonorchiasis and intestinal trematodiases (including heterophyidiasis, echinostomiasis and gymnophalloidiasis), each show steady prevalence. This review focuses on trends in parasitic diseases in the Republic of Korea.

  6. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    reprocessed enough separated plutonium for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).27...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 01 JUL 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea?s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  7. North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-16

    for another three weapons (in addition to the estimated 4 -6 bomb-worth from reprocessing the 8,000 fuel rods).27 The 5MWe reactor was again shut...with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 16 DEC 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...COVERED 00-00-2009 to 00-00-2009 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE North Korea?s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  8. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-06-01

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998–1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change.

  9. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System

    PubMed Central

    Jacox, Michael G.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998–1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change. PMID:27278260

  10. Impact of urban WWTP and CSO fluxes on river peak flow extremes under current and future climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Keupers, Ingrid; Willems, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The impact of urban water fluxes on the river system outflow of the Grote Nete catchment (Belgium) was studied. First the impact of the Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) and the Combined Sewer Overflow (CSO) outflows on the river system for the current climatic conditions was determined by simulating the urban fluxes as point sources in a detailed, hydrodynamic river model. Comparison was made of the simulation results on peak flow extremes with and without the urban point sources. In a second step, the impact of climate change scenarios on the urban fluxes and the consequent impacts on the river flow extremes were studied. It is shown that the change in the 10-year return period hourly peak flow discharge due to climate change (-14% to +45%) was in the same order of magnitude as the change due to the urban fluxes (+5%) in current climate conditions. Different climate change scenarios do not change the impact of the urban fluxes much except for the climate scenario that involves a strong increase in rainfall extremes in summer. This scenario leads to a strong increase of the impact of the urban fluxes on the river system.

  11. Progress in Malassezia Research in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Young; Lee, Yang Won; Choe, Yong Beom

    2015-01-01

    Yeasts of the genus Malassezia are part of the normal flora of human skin. However, they are also associated with various skin diseases. Since the introduction of Malassezia to the Korean Dermatologic Society two decades ago, remarkable progress has been made in our knowledge of this genus. In this paper, we review recent developments in Malassezia research, including taxonomy and methods for species identification, recent genome analyses, Malassezia species distribution in healthy conditions and in specific skin diseases, trials investigating the mechanisms underlying Malassezia-related diseases, as well as therapeutic options. This review will enhance our understanding of Malassezia yeasts and related skin diseases in Korea. PMID:26719632

  12. Human Taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: Hidden or Gone?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea. PMID:23467688

  13. Human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea: hidden or gone?

    PubMed

    Chai, Jong-Yil

    2013-02-01

    History and current status of human taeniasis in the Republic of Korea, due to Taenia solium, Taenia asiatica, and Taenia saginata, are briefly reviewed. Until the 1980s, human taeniasis had been quite common in various localities of Korea. A study from 1924 reported 12.0% egg prevalence in fecal examinations. Thereafter, the prevalence of Taenia spp. ranged from 3% to 14% depending on the time and locality. Jeju-do, where pigs were reared in a conventional way, was the highest endemic area of taeniasis. An analysis of internal transcribed spacer 2 and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes of 68 taeniasis cases reported from 1935 to 2005 in Korea by a research group revealed the relative occurrence of the 3 Taenia spp. as follows: T. solium (4.4%), T. asiatica (75.0%), and T. saginata (20.6%). However, national surveys on intestinal helminths conducted every 5 years on randomly selected people revealed that the Taenia egg prevalence dropped from 1.9% in 1971 to 0.02% in 1997 and finally to 0.0% in 2004. With the exception of 3 egg-positive cases reported in 2008 and 2 worm-proven cases in 2011, no more cases have been officially recorded. Based on these surveys and also on other literature, it can be concluded that taeniasis has virtually disappeared from Korea, although a few sporadic cases may remain hidden. Human cysticercosis is also expected to disappear within a couple of decades in Korea.

  14. Research on Korean Pharmacopuncture in South Korea since 2007.

    PubMed

    Lim, ChungSan; Park, SangKyun; Sun, SeungHo; Lee, KwangHo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the current trends in research on pharmacopuncture in Korea since 2007. A literature review was performed by using the search engines 'Science and Technology Society Village', 'Korean Studies Information Service System', 'National Discovery for Science Leaders', and 'Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System' in Korea from January 2007 to December 2013. Searched key words were 'pharmacopuncture', 'herbal acupuncture', 'aqua-acupuncture', and 'bee venom'. Finally, we selected 457 papers, including Korean experimental studies and clinical studies. Selected papers were classified according to year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease & topic, research type and the publishing journal. One hundred fifty pharmacopunctures were studied in 457 papers. Single compound pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in experimental studies while animal-based pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in clinical studies. Bee venom placed first among the various pharmacopunctures, followed by placenta, sweet bee venom, mountain-ginseng, and anti-inflammatory pharmacopunctures. Experimental research on pharmacopuncture has fallen since 2007 when 55 papers were published. However, clinical research has been increasing steadily. In clinical studies, case reports were numerous than randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Musculoskeletal diseases were the most frequently-treated diseases in studies on pharmacopuncture; among the musculoskeletal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis was the most frequently-treated disease in experimental studies and low back pain was the most frequently-treated condition in clinical studies. Since 2007, 45 different journals have published studies on pharmacopuncture, with the Journal of the Korean Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine Society having the largest number of papers on pharmacopuncture and the Journal of Pharmacopuncture the second largest number. The trends

  15. Bioethics education of nursing curriculum in Korea: a national study.

    PubMed

    Choe, Kwisoon; Kang, Youngmi; Lee, Woon-Yong

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the current profile of bioethics education in the nursing curriculum as perceived by nursing students and faculty in Korea. A convenience sampling method was used for recruiting 1223 undergraduate nursing students and 140 nursing faculty in Korea. Experience of Bioethics Education, Quality of Bioethics Education, and Demand for Bioethics Education Scales were developed. The Experience of Bioethics Education Scale showed that the nursing curriculum in Korea does not provide adequate bioethics education. The Quality of Bioethics Education Scale revealed that the topics of human nature and human rights were relatively well taught compared to other topics. The Demand for Bioethics Education Scale determined that the majority of the participants believed that bioethics education should be a major requirement in the nursing curriculum. The findings of this study suggest that bioethics should be systemically incorporated into nursing courses, clinical practice during the program, and during continuing education.

  16. Paths toward hepatitis B immunization in South Korea and Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    South Korea and Taiwan have had similar experiences of economic development in the post-war era. The two societies have also successfully overcome the threat of liver cancer by using mass hepatitis B vaccinations. However, to reach their current states, they followed different directions, and experienced differing effects on their national health governance systems. In South Korea, vaccine production occurred prior to effectively introducing immunization programs. In contrast, Taiwan established an effective immunization program first. However, industrialization of vaccines against hepatitis B has failed. Taiwan has to import vaccines for domestic use. This article provides a contextual overview on the different methods South Korea and Taiwan have used to arrive at their modern status of hepatitis B immunization. PMID:23858397

  17. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Brittany D.; Mackaman-Lofland, Chelsea; Pollock, Nicholas M.; Bendaña, Sylvana; Dawson, Blaine; Wichgers, Pamela

    2014-04-01

    The May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) produced multiple pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), burying the area north of the volcano under 10s of meters of deposits. Detailed measurements of recently exposed strata from these PDCs provide substantial insight into the dynamics of concentrated currents including inferences on particle-particle interactions, current mobility due to sedimentation fluidization and internal pore pressure, particle support mechanisms, the influence of surface roughness and the conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization. Four primary flow units are identified along the extensive drainage system north of the volcano. Each flow unit has intricate vertical and lateral facies changes and complex cross-cutting relationships away from source. Each flow unit is an accumulation from an unsteady but locally sustained PDC or an amalgamation of several PDC pulses. The PDCs associated with Units I and II likely occurred during the pre-climactic, waxing phase of the eruption. These currents flowed around and filled in the hummocky topography, leaving the massive to diffusely-stratified deposits of Units I and II. The deposits of both Units I and II are generally more massive in low lying areas and more stratified in areas of high surface roughness, suggesting that surface roughness enhanced basal shear stress within the flow boundary. Units III and IV are associated with the climactic phase of the eruption, which produced the most voluminous and wide-spread PDCs. Both flow units are characteristically massive and enriched in vent-derived lithic blocks. These currents flowed over and around the debris avalanche deposits, as evidenced by the erosion of blocks from the hummocks. Unit III is massive, poorly sorted, and shows little to no evidence of elutriation or segregation of lithics and pumice, suggesting a highly concentrated current where size-density segregation was suppressed. Unit IV shows similar depositional

  18. Current growth, fat reserves and somatic condition of juvenile Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus membras) reared in different salinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajasilta, Marjut; Laine, Päivi; Paranko, Jorma

    2011-03-01

    We studied the effect of salinity on growth, fat reserves and condition of the Baltic herring ( Clupea harengus membras) juveniles in order to determine their optimum salinity. About 5 months old fish were reared in four salinities (5.7, 8, 12 and 15 psu) over a period of 1.5 months in constant temperature (+6°C) and photoperiod (light:dark = 12 h:12 h). Uptake of radioactively labelled glycine (14C-glycine) by the scales was used as an indicator of growth rate. The amount of mesenteric fat varied among individuals, but fish kept in 12 psu had significantly more fat in their body cavity and also their somatic condition was better ( P < 0.05) than in juveniles kept in the other salinities. Incorporation of 14C-glycine by the scales was dependent not only on salinity, but also on the method of scale sampling. Part of the scales sampled was non-growing and therefore unsuitable for the analysis of growth. Using the growing scales in the analysis, the current growth rate of herring juveniles was highest in salinities of 8 and 12 psu. Fat reserves, somatic condition and growth rate suggested that Baltic herring juveniles have their optimum salinity in 8-12 psu, which is somewhat higher than the salinity in most of the nursery grounds in the Baltic Sea.

  19. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  20. Dynamics of pyroclastic density currents: Conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization - Mount St Helens, Washington (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, B. D.; Pollock, N. M.; Mackaman-Lofland, C. A.; Bendana, S.

    2013-12-01

    The May 18th, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens (MSH) produced multiple pyroclastic density currents (PDCs), burying the area north of the volcano under 10s of meters of deposits. Detailed measurements of recently exposed strata from these PDCs provide substantial insight into the dynamics of concentrated currents including inferences on particle-particle interactions, current mobility due to sedimentation fluidization and internal pore pressure, particle support mechanisms, the influence of surface roughness and the conditions that promote substrate erosion and self-channelization. Four primary flow units are identified along the extensive drainage system north of the volcano. The PDCs associated with Units I and II likely occurred during the pre-climactic, waxing phase of the eruption. These currents flowed around and filled in the hummocky topography left behind by the earlier debris avalanche, leaving the massive to diffusely-stratified deposits of Units I and II. The deposits of both Units I and II are generally massive in low lying areas and stratified in areas of high surface roughness, suggesting that surface roughness enhanced basal shear stress within the flow boundary. Units III and IV are associated with the climactic phase of the eruption, which produced the most voluminous and wide-spread PDCs. Both flow units are characteristically massive and enriched in vent-derived lithic blocks. However, an increase in the proportion and size of lithic blocks is found (1) downstream of debris avalanche hummocks, suggesting the PDCs flowed over and around debris avalanche hummocks and were energetic enough to locally entrain accidental lithics from the hummocks and transport them tens of meters downstream, and (2) within large channels cut by later PDCs into earlier PDC deposits, suggesting self-channelization of the flows increased the carrying capacity of the subsequent channelized currents. Unit III is massive, poorly sorted, and shows little to no evidence of

  1. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  2. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  3. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea...

  4. Evaluation of Infectivity, Virulence and Transmission of FDMV Field Strains of Serotypes O and A Isolated In 2010 from Outbreaks in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Juan M.; Lee, Kwang-Nyeong; Eschbaumer, Michael; Bishop, Elizabeth A.; Hartwig, Ethan J.; Pauszek, Steven J.; Smoliga, George R.; Kim, Su-Mi; Park, Jong-Hyeon; Ko, Young-Joon; Lee, Hyang-Sim; Tark, Dongseob; Cho, In-Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been described in several previously FMD-free Asian nations, including the Republic of Korea (South Korea). One outbreak with FMD virus (FDMV) serotype A and two with serotype O occurred in South Korea in 2010/2011. The causative viruses belonged to lineages that had been spreading in South East Asia, far East and East Asia since 2009 and presented a great threat to the countries in that region. Most FMDV strains infect ruminants and pigs, as it happened during the outbreaks of FMDV serotype O in South Korea. Contrastingly, the strain of serotype A affected only ruminants. Based upon these findings, the intention of the work described in the current report was to characterize and compare the infectivity, virulence and transmission of both strains under laboratory conditions in cattle and pigs, by direct inoculation and contact exposure. As expected, FMDV serotype O was highly virulent in both cattle and swine by contact exposure and direct inoculation. Surprisingly, FMDV serotype A was highly virulent in swine, but was less infectious in cattle by contact exposure to infected swine or cattle. Interestingly, similar quantities of aerosolized FMDV RNA were detected during experiments with viruses of serotypes O and A. Specific virus-host interaction of A/SKR/2010 could affect the transmission of this strain to cattle, and this may explain in part the limited spread of the serotype A epizootic. PMID:26735130

  5. Evaluation of Infectivity, Virulence and Transmission of FDMV Field Strains of Serotypes O and A Isolated In 2010 from Outbreaks in the Republic of Korea

    DOE PAGES

    Pacheco, Juan M.; Lee, Kwang -Nyeong; Eschbaumer, Michael; ...

    2016-01-06

    Since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been described in several previously FMD-free Asian nations, including the Republic of Korea (South Korea). One outbreak with FMD virus (FDMV) serotype A and two with serotype O occurred in South Korea in 2010/2011. The causative viruses belonged to lineages that had been spreading in South East Asia, far East and East Asia since 2009 and presented a great threat to the countries in that region. Most FMDV strains infect ruminants and pigs, as it happened during the outbreaks of FMDV serotype O in South Korea. Contrastingly, the strain ofmore » serotype A affected only ruminants. Based upon these findings, the intention of the work described in the current report was to characterize and compare the infectivity, virulence and transmission of both strains under laboratory conditions in cattle and pigs, by direct inoculation and contact exposure. As expected, FMDV serotype O was highly virulent in both cattle and swine by contact exposure and direct inoculation. Surprisingly, FMDV serotype A was highly virulent in swine, but was less infectious in cattle by contact exposure to infected swine or cattle. Interestingly, similar quantities of aerosolized FMDV RNA were detected during experiments with viruses of serotypes O and A. Here, specific virus-host interaction of A/SKR/2010 could affect the transmission of this strain to cattle, and this may explain in part the limited spread of the serotype A epizootic« less

  6. Evaluation of Infectivity, Virulence and Transmission of FDMV Field Strains of Serotypes O and A Isolated In 2010 from Outbreaks in the Republic of Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Pacheco, Juan M.; Lee, Kwang -Nyeong; Eschbaumer, Michael; Bishop, Elizabeth A.; Hartwig, Ethan J.; Pauszek, Steven J.; Smoliga, George R.; Kim, Su -Mi; Park, Jong -Hyeon; Ko, Young -Joon; Lee, Hyang -Sim; Tark, Dongseob; Cho, In -Soo; Kim, Byounghan; Rodriguez, Luis L.; Arzt, Jonathan; Parida, Satya

    2016-01-06

    Since the early 2000s outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have been described in several previously FMD-free Asian nations, including the Republic of Korea (South Korea). One outbreak with FMD virus (FDMV) serotype A and two with serotype O occurred in South Korea in 2010/2011. The causative viruses belonged to lineages that had been spreading in South East Asia, far East and East Asia since 2009 and presented a great threat to the countries in that region. Most FMDV strains infect ruminants and pigs, as it happened during the outbreaks of FMDV serotype O in South Korea. Contrastingly, the strain of serotype A affected only ruminants. Based upon these findings, the intention of the work described in the current report was to characterize and compare the infectivity, virulence and transmission of both strains under laboratory conditions in cattle and pigs, by direct inoculation and contact exposure. As expected, FMDV serotype O was highly virulent in both cattle and swine by contact exposure and direct inoculation. Surprisingly, FMDV serotype A was highly virulent in swine, but was less infectious in cattle by contact exposure to infected swine or cattle. Interestingly, similar quantities of aerosolized FMDV RNA were detected during experiments with viruses of serotypes O and A. Here, specific virus-host interaction of A/SKR/2010 could affect the transmission of this strain to cattle, and this may explain in part the limited spread of the serotype A epizootic

  7. What's down below? Current and potential future applications of geophysical techniques to identify subsurface permafrost conditions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Campbell, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    For infrastructure design, operations, and maintenance requirements in the North the ability to accurately and efficiently detect the presence (or absence) of ground ice in permafrost terrains is a serious challenge. Ground ice features including ice wedges, thermokarst cave-ice, and segregation ice are present in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Currently, most engineering applications use borehole logging and sampling to extrapolate conditions at the point scale. However, there is high risk of over or under estimating the presence of frozen or unfrozen features when relying on borehole information alone. In addition, boreholes are costly, especially for planning linear structures like roads or runways. Predicted climate warming will provide further challenges for infrastructure development and transportation operations where permafrost degradation occurs. Accurately identifying the subsurface character in permafrost terrains will allow engineers and planners to cost effectively create novel infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. There is thus a great need for a low cost rapidly deployable, spatially extensive means of 'measuring' subsurface conditions. Geophysical measurements, both terrestrial and airborne, have strong potential to revolutionize our way of mapping subsurface conditions. Many studies in continuous and discontinuous permafrost have used geophysical measurements to identify discrete features and repeatable patterns in the subsurface. The most common measurements include galvanic and capacitive coupled resistivity, ground penetrating radar, and multi frequency electromagnetic induction techniques. Each of these measurements has strengths, weaknesses, and limitations. By combining horizontal geophysical measurements, downhole geophysics, multispectral remote sensing images, LiDAR measurements, and soil and vegetation mapping we can start to assemble a holistic view of how surface conditions and standoff measurements

  8. Sensitivity of runoff behaviour of Alpine catchments to system conditions - looking at the current and future situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meißl, Gertraud; Klebinder, Klaus; Kerl, Florian; Dobler, Christian; Geitner, Clemens; Schöberl, Friedrich; Kohl, Bernhard; Markart, Gerhard; Sotier, Bernadette; Formayer, Herbert; Goler, Robert; Gorgas, Theresa; Bürger, Gerd; Bronstert, Axel

    2014-05-01

    Alpine settlements are often situated on alluvial fans at the outlet of small catchments. Thus they are - due to the short response time - exposed to a high risk in case of flash floods. Within the project "Sensitivity of the runoff characteristics of small Alpine catchments to climate change" we aim at identifying the critical combinations of event characteristics (intensity and duration of rain) and system conditions (soil moisture, state of vegetation and land use, snow cover) producing flash floods in order to improve the predictability of such events. We have investigated three Alpine catchments in western Austria with different altitudes and precipitation regimes. On the plot scale, field measurements, especially irrigation experiments, revealed that the rainfall-runoff reaction of slopes producing a high or low amount of surface runoff is relatively independent of the actual soil moisture content. However, plots producing a medium amount of surface runoff at dry conditions may generate significantly increased surface runoff volumes at moist conditions. Intensive grazing raises the amount of surface runoff with the duration of pasture season. Event analysis and mapping of the catchment inventories showed that the catchments with low (Ruggbachtal, 400 - 1000 m a.s.l, Vorarlberg) and medium altitude (Brixenbachtal, 800 - 2000 m a.s.l., Tyrol) tend to be sensitive to antecedent precipitation. Due to the high amount of pastured areas, the Brixenbach catchment shows a seasonal variation of runoff behaviour with a maximum of surface runoff in the late summer. The highly situated catchment (Längental, 2000 - 3000 m a.s.l., Tyrol) may show an increased runoff response at rain-on-snow-events. Because of its high portion of rock and talus slopes the runoff reaction of the catchment is quite insensitive to antecedent soil moisture content and grazing intensity. Currently ongoing hydrological modelling will show how seasonal system conditions (duration of snow cover

  9. Time trend of cadmium intake in Korea.

    PubMed

    Moon, Chan-Seok; Yang, Hye-Ran; Nakatsuka, Haruo; Ikeda, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate past and current levels of cadmium (Cd) intake among the general populations in Korea. For this purpose, publications reporting dietary intake of cadmium (Cd-D), cadmium concentration in blood (Cd-B) and that in urine (Cd-U) in Korea were retrieved through literature survey for a period from 1975 to 2015. In practice, 9, 21 and 14 articles were available on Cd-D, Cd-B and Cd-Ucr (Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), respectively. Linear regression analyses of the reported values as a function of years (i.e., the year when each survey was conducted) showed steady decreases in all of the three exposure markers of Cd-D, Cd-B and Cd-U(cr). Factors possibly contributing for the reduction were discussed including the government-set guideline of 0.2 mg/kg for rice and changes in food habits among general populations. There have been steady decreases in Cd-D, Cd-B and Cd-U(cr). The current estimates for Cd-D, Cd-B and Cd-Ucr were 6.0-7.4 μg/day, 0.73-0.83 μg/L and 0.60-0.95 μg/g cr, respectively.

  10. Processing Marine Gravity Data Around Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y.; Chang, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea currently 4 research ships are under operating in Korea, after the first research vessel equipped shipborne gravity meter was introduced in 1990s. These are Onnuri(launch 1991) of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute), Haeyang2000(launch 1996), Badaro1(launch 2002) of NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute) and Tamhae2(launch 1997) of KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). Those of research vessel, Haeyang2000 have observed marine gravity data over 150,000 points each year from year 1996 to year 2003. Haeyang2000, about 2,500 tons, is unable to operate onshore so NORI has constructed another 600 tons research ship Badaro1 that has observed marine gravity data onshore since year 2002. Haeyang2000 finished observing marine gravity data offshore within Korean territorial waters until year 2003. Currently Badaro1 is observing marine gravity data onshore. These shipborne gravity data will be very useful and important on geodesy and geophysics research also those data can make a contribution to developing these studies. In this study NORI's shipbrne gravity data from 1996 to 2007 has been processed for fundamental data to compute Korean precise geoid. Marine gravity processing steps as followed. 1. Check the time sequence, latitude and longitude position, etc. of shipborne gravity data 2. Arrangement of the tide level below the pier and meter drift correction of each cruise. 3. Elimination of turning points. 4. The time lag correction. 5. Computation of RV's velocities, Heading angles and the Eötvös correction. 6. Kalman filtering of GPS navigation data using cross-over points. 7. Cross-over correction using least square adjustment. About 2,058,000 points have been processed with NORI's marine gravity data from 1996 to 2007 in this study. The distribution of free-air anomalies was -41.0 mgal to 136.0 mgal(mean 8.90mgal) within Korean territorial waters. The free-air anomalies processed with the marine gravity data are

  11. Sarcopenia: an undiagnosed condition in older adults. Current consensus definition: prevalence, etiology, and consequences. International working group on sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Roger A; Vellas, Bruno; Evans, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Morley, John E; Newman, Anne B; Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Andrieu, Sandrine; Bauer, Juergen; Breuille, Denis; Cederholm, Tommy; Chandler, Julie; De Meynard, Capucine; Donini, Lorenzo; Harris, Tamara; Kannt, Aimo; Keime Guibert, Florence; Onder, Graziano; Papanicolaou, Dimitris; Rolland, Yves; Rooks, Daniel; Sieber, Cornel; Souhami, Elisabeth; Verlaan, Sjors; Zamboni, Mauro

    2011-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability, and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy, on November 18, 2009, to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. Although cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the 2 conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1 m/s(-1). Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s(-1) and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg, appendicular mass relative to ht(2) that is ≤ 7.23 kg/m(2) in men and ≤ 5.67 kg/m(2) in women). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization, and death.

  12. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  13. High-Definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Enhances Conditioned Pain Modulation in Healthy Volunteers: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Flood, Andrew; Waddington, Gordon; Cathcart, Stuart

    2016-05-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of brain stimulation that allows for the selective increase or decrease in the cortical excitability of a targeted region. When applied over the motor cortex it has been shown to induce changes in cortical and subcortical brain regions involved in descending pain inhibition or conditioned pain modulation (CPM). The aim of the current study was to assess whether activation of pain inhibitory pathways via tDCS of the motor cortex facilitates the CPM response. Elevated CPM after active tDCS of the motor cortex was hypothesized. Thirty healthy male volunteers attended 2 experimental sessions separated by 7 days. Both sessions consisted of CPM assessment after 20 minutes of either active or sham (placebo) tDCS over the motor cortex. CPM capacity was assessed via the pain-inhibits-pain protocol; CPM responses were shown to be elevated after active compared with sham tDCS. This report concludes that tDCS of the motor cortex enhances the CPM response in healthy men. This finding supports the potential utility of tDCS interventions in clinical pain treatment. The use of noninvasive brain stimulation over the motor cortex was shown to enhance the CPM effect. This finding supports the use of tDCS in the treatment of chronic pain, particularly in sufferers exhibiting maladaptive CPM. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy of One-Dimensional Nanostructure: Effects of Nanostructure Dimensions on the Tip Feedback Current under Unbiased Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Hui; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Eunkyoung; Amemiya, Shigeru

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) is developed as a powerful approach to electrochemical characterization of individual one-dimensional (1D) nanostructures under unbiased conditions. 1D nanostructures comprise high-aspect-ratio materials with both nanoscale and macroscale dimensions such as nanowires, nanotubes, nanobelts, and nanobands. Finite element simulations demonstrate that the feedback current at a disk-shaped ultramicroelectrode tip positioned above an unbiased nanoband, as prepared on an insulating substrate, is sensitive to finite dimensions of the band, i.e., micrometer length, nanometer width, and nanometer height from the insulating surface. The electron-transfer rate of a redox mediator at the nanoband surface depends not only on the intrinsic rate but also on the open-circuit potential of the nanoband, which is determined by the dimensions of the nanoband as well as the tip inner and outer radii, and tip–substrate distance. The theoretical predictions are confirmed experimentally by employing Au nanobands as fabricated on a SiO2 surface by electron-beam lithography, thereby yielding well defined dimensions of 100 or 500 nm in width, 47 nm in height, and 50 μm in length. A 100 nm-wide nanoband can be detected by SECM imaging with ∼2 μm-diameter tips although the tip feedback current is compromised by finite electron-transfer kinetics for Ru(NH3)63+ at the nanoband surface. PMID:20160938

  15. A glucose anode for enzymatic fuel cells optimized for current production under physiological conditions using a design of experiment approach.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rakesh; Leech, Dónal

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a design of experiment methodology to investigate and improve the performance of glucose oxidizing enzyme electrodes. Enzyme electrodes were constructed by co-immobilization of amine-containing osmium redox complexes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase in a carboxymethyldextran matrix at graphite electrode surfaces to provide a 3-dimensional matrix for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Optimization of the amount of the enzyme electrode components to produce the highest current density under pseudo-physiological conditions of 5 mM glucose in saline buffer at 37 °C was performed using response surface methodology. A statistical analysis showed that the proposed model had a good fit with the experimental results. From the validated model, the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carboxymethyldextran components was identified as major contributing factors to the improved performance. Based on the optimized amount of components, enzyme electrodes display current densities of 1.2±0.1 mA cm(-2) and 5.2±0.2 mA cm(-2) at 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl in buffer containing 5 mM and 100 mM glucose, respectively, largely consistent with the predicted values. This demonstrates that use of a design of experiment approach can be applied effectively and efficiently to improve the performance of enzyme electrodes as anodes for biofuel cell device development.

  16. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants.

    PubMed

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G; Elizalde, Luciana; Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-05-25

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. The use of social media by adults with acquired conditions who use AAC: current gaps and considerations in research.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Helen L

    2017-03-01

    The global growth and development of social media has had a positive impact on many individuals who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC), who use it to communicate and connect with others. Research evidence into the use of social media by adults with acquired conditions who use AAC is limited. These individuals are a heterogeneous population, who can present with a range of linguistic, cognitive and physical needs, some of which progress rapidly, making accessing social media a challenge. These issues warrant research focusing on developing interventions to support the use of social media and the impact of these interventions. For individuals with acquired conditions who have previously used social media and for those who are new to the experience, social media can offer a vital connection to friends, family and health professionals. This paper examines current gaps in knowledge in this area in the field of AAC and proposes potential methodologies for future research. These include combining qualitative and quantitative methodologies (e.g., analysis of online interactions and observational data) that would be useful tools for data collection in an under-researched field.

  18. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants

    PubMed Central

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Elizalde, Luciana; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. PMID:27226469

  19. English Educational Policies of the U.S. Army Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948 and Their Effects on the Development of English Language Teaching in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Gyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the English language teaching (ELT) policies and measures taken under the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) from 1945 to 1948, in an attempt to illuminate their implications on the current ELT in Korea. The study analyzes data derived from documents of the Korean and the U.S. governments, literature on…

  20. English Educational Policies of the U.S. Army Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948 and Their Effects on the Development of English Language Teaching in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Gyong

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the English language teaching (ELT) policies and measures taken under the United States Army Military Government in Korea (USAMGIK) from 1945 to 1948, in an attempt to illuminate their implications on the current ELT in Korea. The study analyzes data derived from documents of the Korean and the U.S. governments, literature on…

  1. Flow structure in the near wake of a horizontal axis marine current turbine under steady and unsteady inflow conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luznik, Luksa; Lust, Ethan; Flack, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Near wake flow field results are presented for a 1/25 scale, 0.8 m diameter (D) two bladed horizontal axis tidal turbine. The 2D PIV measurements were obtained in the USNA 380 ft tow tank for two inflow conditions. The first case had steady inflow conditions, i.e. the turbine was towed at a constant carriage speed (Utow = 1.68 m/s) and the second case had a constant carriage speed and incoming regular waves with a period of 2.3 seconds and 0.18 m wave height. The underwater PIV system is comprised of two submersible housings with forward looking submersible containing laser sheet forming optics, and the side looking submersible includes a camera and remote focus/aperture electronics. The resulting individual field of view for this experiment was nominally 30x30 cm2. Near wake mapping is accomplished by ``tiling'' individual fields of view with approximately 5 cm overlap. All measurements were performed at the nominal tip speed ratio (TSR) of 7. The mapping is accomplished in a vertical streamwise plane (x-z plane) centered on the turbine nacelle and the image pair captures were phase locked to two phases: reference blade horizontal and reference blade vertical. Results presented include distribution of mean velocities, Reynolds stresses, 2D turbulent kinetic energy. The discussion will focus on comparisons between steady and unsteady case. Further discussion will include comparisons between the current high resolution PIV measurements and the previous point measurements with the same turbine at different lateral planes in the same flow conditions.

  2. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  3. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  4. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...

  5. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  6. Assessment of Power Potential of Tidal Currents and Impacts of Power Extraction on Flow Conditions in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orhan, Kadir; Mayerle, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet and thus requires an effective and appropriate response, with a view to accelerating the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. At this point, a worldwide shift to renewable energy is crucial. In this study, a methodology comprising of the estimates of power yield, evaluation of the effects of power extraction on flow conditions, and near-field investigations to deliver wake characteristics, recovery and interactions is described and applied to several straits in Indonesia. Site selection is done with high-resolution, three-dimensional flow models providing sufficient spatiotemporal coverage. Much attention has been given to the meteorological forcing, and conditions at the open sea boundaries to adequately capture the density gradients and flow fields. Model verifications using tidal records show excellent agreement. Sites with adequate depth for the energy conversion using horizontal axis tidal turbines, average kinetic power density greater than 0.5 kW/m2, and surface area larger than 0.5km2 are defined as energy hotspots. Spatial variation of the average extractable electric power is determined, and annual tidal energy resource is estimated for the straits in question. The results showed that the potential for tidal power generation in Indonesia is likely to exceed previous predictions reaching around 4,800MW. Models with higher resolutions have been developed to assess the impacts of devices on flow conditions and to resolve near-field turbine wakes in greater detail. The energy is assumed to be removed uniformly by sub-grid scale arrays of turbines. An additional drag force resulting in dissipation of the pre-existing kinetic power from 10% to 60% within a flow cross-section is introduced to capture the impacts. k-ɛ model, which is a second order turbulence closure model is selected to involve the effects of the turbulent kinetic energy and turbulent

  7. SonTek SL3G Side-Looking Doppler Current Meter application in Complex Flow Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenaar, D.

    2014-12-01

    The SonTek Argonaut SL Side-Looking Doppler Current Meters are well established products in the measurement of real-time water velocity in open channels. With the development of acoustic doppler technology the decision was made to incorporate latest technology in the Argonaut SL and hence the SonTek SL3G was born.The SonTek SL3G Acoustic Doppler instrument incorporates a number of innovations that improves velocity measurements and quality assurance of data for Side-Looking Doppler Current Meters. SmartPulseHD was originally introduced with the launch of the SonTek M9/S5 RiverSurveyor Acoustic Doppler Instruments and the increased accuracy and resolution of velocity measurements made it obvious to include into the new SL3G instruments. SmartPulseHD continuously tracks the water conditions and selects the optimum processing configuration required using multiple ping types and processing techniques. The new SL3G design makes it the smallest Side Looking Acoustic Doppler Velocity Meter on the market reducing flow disturbance caused by the instrument and the distance of first measurement cell from boundary.The application of the SL3G Acoustic Doppler instrument is designed for complex flow conditions where the use of conventional stage-discharge relationships is economically not viable and therefore requires the use of velocity index methodology. The case-study presented in this paper is situated in the Colorado River downstream of Imperial Dam affected by controlled releases, drainage from adjacent irrigation areas and backwater from a weir situated downstream of the monitoring site. The paper analyses the relationship between measured mean velocity and index velocity and if additional variables such as stage and or Y-velocity need to be incorporated in the development of the index velocity rating. In addition, to determine the variables impacting on the index velocity rating, the index velocity applied will be evaluated by the best linear relationship between the

  8. Relations Among Geology, Physiography, Land Use, and Stream Habitat Conditions in the Buffalo and Current River Systems, Missouri and Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panfil, Maria S.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated links between drainage-basin characteristics and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo National River, Arkansas and the Ozark National Scenic Riverways, Missouri. It was designed as an associative study - the two parks were divided into their principle tributary drainage basins and then basin-scale and stream-habitat data sets were gathered and compared between them. Analyses explored the relative influence of different drainage-basin characteristics on stream habitat conditions. They also investigated whether a relation between land use and stream characteristics could be detected after accounting for geologic and physiographic differences among drainage basins. Data were collected for three spatial scales: tributary drainage basins, tributary stream reaches, and main-stem river segments of the Current and Buffalo Rivers. Tributary drainage-basin characteristics were inventoried using a Geographic Information System (GIS) and included aspects of drainage-basin physiography, geology, and land use. Reach-scale habitat surveys measured channel longitudinal and cross-sectional geometry, substrate particle size and embeddedness, and indicators of channel stability. Segment-scale aerial-photo based inventories measured gravel-bar area, an indicator of coarse sediment load, along main-stem rivers. Relations within and among data sets from each spatial scale were investigated using correlation analysis and multiple linear regression. Study basins encompassed physiographically distinct regions of the Ozarks. The Buffalo River system drains parts of the sandstone-dominated Boston Mountains and of the carbonate-dominated Springfield and Salem Plateaus. The Current River system is within the Salem Plateau. Analyses of drainage-basin variables highlighted the importance of these physiographic differences and demonstrated links among geology, physiography, and land-use patterns. Buffalo River tributaries have greater relief, steeper slopes, and more

  9. Interactive Dialogues in Language Software to Develop Speaking Fluency: A Study of Preservice English Teachers in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Joohee

    2013-01-01

    The current government in Korea, in order to encourage more fluent use of English, has shifted the focus of the English curriculum from language accuracy to language fluency by encouraging English teachers to use English as a classroom language. However, many English teachers in Korea feel burdened by this policy, mainly because they themselves…

  10. Interactive Dialogues in Language Software to Develop Speaking Fluency: A Study of Preservice English Teachers in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Joohee

    2013-01-01

    The current government in Korea, in order to encourage more fluent use of English, has shifted the focus of the English curriculum from language accuracy to language fluency by encouraging English teachers to use English as a classroom language. However, many English teachers in Korea feel burdened by this policy, mainly because they themselves…

  11. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  12. Standardization of ABO antibody titer measurement at laboratories in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young Ae; Kang, Seon Joo

    2014-11-01

    Measurement of the ABO antibody (Ab) titer is important in ABO-incompatible transplantation. However, to the best of our knowledge, no standard protocol or external survey program to measure the ABO Ab titer has been established in Korea. We investigated the current status of ABO Ab titer measurements at various laboratories in Korea and the impact of the protocol provided to reduce interlaboratory variations in the methods and results of ABO Ab titers. The Korean external quality assessment of blood bank laboratories sent external survey samples with a questionnaire to 68 laboratories across Korea for the measurement of ABO Ab titers in May 2012. After 6 months, a second set of survey samples were sent with a standard protocol to 53 of the previously surveyed laboratories. The protocol recommended incubation at room temperature only and use of the indirect antihuman globulin method for the tube test as well as and the column agglutination test (CAT). Several interlaboratory variations were observed in the results, technical procedures, and methods selected for measurement. We found that 80.4% laboratories hoped to change their protocol to the provisional one. Additionally, CAT showed significantly lower variation among laboratories (P=0.006) than the tube test. Our study provides baseline data regarding the current status of ABO Ab titer measurement in Korea. The standard protocol and external survey were helpful to standardize the technical procedures and select methods for ABO Ab titer measurement.

  13. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  14. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  15. 76 FR 63149 - Importation of Tomatoes With Stems From the Republic of Korea Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 319 [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0020] RIN 0579-AD33 Importation of Tomatoes With Stems From... stems from the Republic of Korea. The conditions for the importation of tomatoes with stems from the... tomatoes with stems from the Republic of Korea while continuing to provide protection against the...

  16. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions.

    PubMed

    Morales, Ivan; Cooper, Jennifer; Amador, José A; Boving, Thomas B

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  17. Basin-scale simulation of current and potential climate changed hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christiansen, Daniel E.; Walker, John F.; Hunt, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) is the largest public investment in the Great Lakes in two decades. A task force of 11 Federal agencies developed an action plan to implement the initiative. The U.S. Department of the Interior was one of the 11 agencies that entered into an interagency agreement with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as part of the GLRI to complete scientific projects throughout the Great Lakes basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, a bureau within the Department of the Interior, is involved in the GLRI to provide scientific support to management decisions as well as measure progress of the Great Lakes basin restoration efforts. This report presents basin-scale simulated current and forecast climatic and hydrologic conditions in the Lake Michigan Basin. The forecasts were obtained by constructing and calibrating a Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model of the Lake Michigan Basin; the PRMS model was calibrated using the parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis (PEST) software suite. The calibrated model was used to evaluate potential responses to climate change by using four simulated carbon emission scenarios from eight general circulation models released by the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3. Statistically downscaled datasets of these scenarios were used to project hydrologic response for the Lake Michigan Basin. In general, most of the observation sites in the Lake Michigan Basin indicated slight increases in annual streamflow in response to future climate change scenarios. Monthly streamflows indicated a general shift from the current (2014) winter-storage/snowmelt-pulse system to a system with a more equally distributed hydrograph throughout the year. Simulated soil moisture within the basin illustrates that conditions within the basin are also expected to change on a monthly timescale. One effect of increasing air temperature as a result of the changing

  18. Modeling Nitrogen Losses in Conventional and Advanced Soil-Based Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems under Current and Changing Climate Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Most of the non-point source nitrogen (N) load in rural areas is attributed to onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). Nitrogen compounds cause eutrophication, depleting the oxygen in marine ecosystems. OWTS rely on physical, chemical and biological soil processes to treat wastewater and these processes may be affected by climate change. We simulated the fate and transport of N in different types of OWTS drainfields, or soil treatment areas (STA) under current and changing climate scenarios, using 2D/3D HYDRUS software. Experimental data from a mesocosm-scale study, including soil moisture content, and total N, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations, were used to calibrate the model. A water content-dependent function was used to compute the nitrification and denitrification rates. Three types of drainfields were simulated: (1) a pipe-and-stone (P&S), (2) advanced soil drainfields, pressurized shallow narrow drainfield (PSND) and (3) Geomat (GEO), a variation of SND. The model was calibrated with acceptable goodness-of-fit between the observed and measured values. Average root mean square error (RSME) ranged from 0.18 and 2.88 mg L-1 for NH4+ and 4.45 mg L-1 to 9.65 mg L-1 for NO3- in all drainfield types. The calibrated model was used to estimate N fluxes for both conventional and advanced STAs under current and changing climate conditions, i.e. increased soil temperature and higher water table. The model computed N losses from nitrification and denitrification differed little from measured losses in all STAs. The modeled N losses occurred mostly as NO3- in water outputs, accounting for more than 82% of N inputs in all drainfields. Losses as N2 were estimated to be 10.4% and 9.7% of total N input concentration for SND and Geo, respectively. The highest N2 losses, 17.6%, were estimated for P&S. Losses as N2 increased to 22%, 37% and 21% under changing climate conditions for Geo, PSND and P&S, respectively. These findings can provide practitioners

  19. Maximum allowable currents in YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting tapes as a function of the coating thickness, external magnetic field induction, and cooling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkharov, A. M.; Dontsova, E. S.; Lavrov, N. A.; Romanovskii, V. R.

    2014-04-01

    Maximum allowable (ultimate) currents stably passing through an YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting current-carrying element are determined as a function of a silver (or copper) coating thickness, external magnetic field induction, and cooling conditions. It is found that if a magnetic system based on yttrium ceramics is cooled by a cryogenic coolant, currents causing instabilities (instability onset currents) are almost independent of the coating thickness. If, however, liquid helium is used as a cooling agent, the ultimate current monotonically grows with the thickness of the stabilizing copper coating. It is shown that depending on cooling conditions, the stable values of the current and electric field strength preceding the occurrence of instability may be both higher and lower than the a priori chosen critical parameters of the superconductor. These features should be taken into account in selecting the stable value of the operating current of YBa2Cu3O7 superconducting windings.

  20. Improvement of Water Quality at Dongbin Harbor with Construction of an Inland Canal, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-Sik

    2014-01-01

    The behaviors of the water body of Dongbin Harbor located at Pohang City, Gyongpook Province, in Korea were numerically simulated in this study. A canal was planned to connect the harbor and the Hyeongsan River to improve water quality inside the harbor. The current system was first simulated by using a commercial program RMA2, with respect to both tidal currents and river flow. The progress inside the harbor from a supply of fresh water from the Hyeongsan River was then predicted by using RMA4. Both the present and future conditions (before and after construction of an inland canal) were taken into consideration in numerical simulations. It is concluded that the water quality inside the harbor can be improved considerably after construction of the canal. PMID:25003149

  1. Signs of adaptation to local pH conditions across an environmental mosaic in the California Current Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Pespeni, M H; Chan, F; Menge, B A; Palumbi, S R

    2013-11-01

    Little is known about the potential for rapid evolution in natural populations in response to the high rate of contemporary climatic change. Organisms that have evolved in environments that experience high variability across space and time are of particular interest as they may harbor genetic variation that can facilitate evolutionary response to changing conditions. Here we review what is known about genetic capacity for adaptation in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, a species that has evolved in the upwelling ecosystem of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. We also present new results testing for adaptation to local pH conditions in six populations from Oregon to southern California. We integrate data on 19,493 genetic polymorphisms with data on local pH conditions. We find correlations between allele frequency and rank average time spent at pH <7.8 in 318 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 275 genes. Two of the genes most correlated with local pH are a protein associated with the cytoskeleton and a proton pump, with functional roles in maintenance of cell volume and with internal regulation of pH, respectively. Across all loci tested, high correlations with local pH were concentrated in genes related to transport of ions, biomineralization, lipid metabolism, and cell-cell adhesion, functional pathways important for maintaining homeostasis at low pH. We identify a set of seven genes as top candidates for rapid evolutionary response to acidification of the ocean. In these genes, the putative low-pH-adapted allele, based on allele frequencies in natural populations, rapidly increases in frequency in purple sea urchin larvae raised at low pH. We also found that populations from localities with high pH show a greater change in allele frequency toward putative low-pH-adapted alleles under experimental acidification, compared with low-pH populations, suggesting that both natural and artificial selection favor the same alleles for response to low pH. These

  2. Record critical current density in bulk MgB2 using carbon-coated amorphous boron with optimum sintering conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muralidhar, M.; Higuchi, M.; Diko, P.; Jirsa, M.; Murakami, M.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the synthesis and characterization of a sintered bulk MgB2 material produced at an optimized sintering temperature with a varying content of carbon-encapsulated amorphous boron. A series of MgB2 bulks was prepared with 0%, 1.5%, 2.8%, 7.3%, 12% and 16.5% of carbon-encapsulated boron. In the samples with 12% of carbon-encapsulated boron, Mg and MgB2C2 formation was observed. Tc was around 38.4 K for the pure MgB2 and decreased with increasing carbon content up to 25 K for 16.5 % of carbon-encapsulated boron. The highest Jc values of 470 kA/cm2 and 310 kA/cm2, in the self-field and 1 T, respectively, were achieved at 20 K, in the MgB2 sample with 1.5% of carbon-encapsulated boron. It proved that the optimized sintering conditions together with the appropriate amount of the carbon-coated boron were able to bring critical current performance of bulk MgB2 material up to the level necessary for real technical applications.

  3. Expressing acid-sensing ion channel 3 in the brain alters acid-evoked currents and impairs fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Vralsted, V C; Price, M P; Du, J; Schnizler, M; Wunsch, A M; Ziemann, A E; Welsh, M J; Wemmie, J A

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies on mice with a disruption of the gene encoding acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) suggest that ASIC1a is required for normal fear behavior. To investigate the effects of altering the subunit composition of brain ASICs on behavior, we developed transgenic mice expressing ASIC3 via the pan-neuronal synapsin I promoter. These mice express ASIC3 in the brain, where the endogenous ASIC3 protein is not detected. We found that in ASIC3 transgenic mice, ASIC3 co-immunoprecipitated with the endogenous ASIC1a protein and distributed in the same subcellular brain fractions as ASIC1a. In addition, ASIC3 significantly increased the rate of desensitization of acid-evoked currents in cultured cortical neurons. Importantly, ASIC3 reduced Pavlovian fear conditioning to both context and auditory cues. These observations suggest that ASIC3 can heteromultimerize with ASIC1a in the brain and alter the biophysical properties of the endogenous channel complex. Moreover, these data suggest that ASIC subunit composition and channel desensitization may be critical determinants for ASIC-dependent behavior.

  4. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  5. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-06

    15 Niksch, Larry A., North Korea and Terrorism: The Yokita Megumi Factor. The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis. Spring 2002. pp. 14-16. 16 For...remains were not those of Megumi Yokota or Kaoru Matsuki, as Pyongyang had claimed, and the issue remained contentious at year’s end. Four Japanese

  6. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  7. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Representative for the DPRK. 41 Smith, Overcoming Humanitarian Dilemmas, p.13 Source: World Food Program, Map Resources. Adapted by CRS. (K. Yancey 3/18/04...2003 e-mail correspondence with Rick Corsino, former WFP Country Director for North Korea. 44 May 2005 e-mail correspondence with Richard Ragan, WFP

  8. Mitigation potential of horizontal ground coupled heat pumps for current and future climatic conditions: UK environmental modelling and monitoring studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García González, Raquel; Verhoef, Anne; Vidale, Pier Luigi; Gan, Guohui; Wu, Yupeng; Hughes, Andrew; Mansour, Majdi; Blyth, Eleanor; Finch, Jon; Main, Bruce

    2010-05-01

    model predictions of soil moisture content and soil temperature with measurements at different GCHP locations over the UK. The combined effect of environment dynamics and horizontal GCHP technical properties on long-term GCHP performance will be assessed using a detailed land surface model (JULES: Joint UK Land Environment Simulator, Meteorological Office, UK) with additional equations embedded describing the interaction between GCHP heat exchangers and the surrounding soil. However, a number of key soil physical processes are currently not incorporated in JULES, such as groundwater flow, which, especially in lowland areas, can have an important effect on the heat flow between soil and HE. Furthermore, the interaction between HE and soil may also cause soil vapour and moisture fluxes. These will affect soil thermal conductivity and hence heat flow between the HE and the surrounding soil, which will in turn influence system performance. The project will address these issues. We propose to drive an improved version of JULES (with equations to simulate GCHP exchange embedded), with long-term gridded (1 km) atmospheric, soil and vegetation data (reflecting current and future environmental conditions) to reliably assess the mitigation potential of GCHPs over the entire domain of the UK, where uptake of GCHPs has been low traditionally. In this way we can identify areas that are most suitable for the installation of GCHPs. Only then recommendations can be made to local and regional governments, for example, on how to improve the mitigation potential in less suitable areas by adjusting GCHP configurations or design.

  9. Effects of Military Development on Economic Growth in North and South Korea, 1945-1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    expanding arms sales to gain foreign capital , as well as other economic benefits (i.e., secure future oil supplies). 9 Both North and South Korea currently...need foreign capital for economic development. Arms exports are a viable method of obtaining the needed capital . The cash flow into the Koreas from...etc. These investments have a high capital -output ration. There has been forced migration to the cities increasing the demand for housing and public

  10. The 1km estimation of Vegetation carbon budgets in South Korea using a terrestrial ecosystem model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, S.; Ito, A.; Lee, W.; Son, Y.; Kwak, D.; Oh, S.; Song, Y.; Lee, S.; Choi, S.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystem can store atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), one of the major factors of global warming, in vegetation and soils through photosynthesis process. Human induced CO2 emission has been rapidly increased by industrialization. On the current situation, Terrestrial ecosystem could be regarded as one of the major sinks of CO2 for mitigating global warming. So it is very important to quantify carbon dynamics and budget for preparing adaptation measures to climate change. Terrestrial ecosystem models have been developed and used for investigating the terrestrial carbon dynamics and quantifying budget. In this study, we simulated biogeochemistry model, VISIT, in whole South Korea territory to quantify ecosystem carbon budgets. Before simulating this model, we modified model parameters such as maximum photosynthetic rate and phonological parameters with flux measurement data. And then, we prepared high resolution input variables for simulation from reliable national source. As a result, the model estimated the vegetation ecosystems in South Korea are a net carbon sink, with a value of 3.51 Tg C year-1 during the period 1999-2008. Compared with the anthropogenic emission of South Korea, vegetation ecosystems offset 3.3% of human emissions. Spatially, evident latitudinal and topographical gradients were found in all estimates over entire areas due to the environmental difference surrounding ecosystems. In addition, seasonal and inter-annual variability could be found in the estimates, especially biomass growth and carbon uptake, in consequence of the variation of annual weather conditions. However, to achieve a reliable estimate of a carbon budget, the result should be examined and validated carefully by the independent approaches. And also, to overcome the uncertainties in the simulation model, we need to develop a method for consideration of disturbances, such as land-use change, fertilizing, timber production, and air pollution. This modeling approach can

  11. Academic and Research Programs in Exercise Science, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; SONG, WOOK

    2009-01-01

    We appreciate the opportunity to review academic curriculum and current research focus of Exercise Science programs in South Korea. The information of this paper was collected by several different methods, including e-mail and phone interviews, and a discussion with Korean professors who attended the 2009 ACSM annual conference. It was agreed that exercise science programming in South Korea has improved over the last 60 years since being implemented. One of distinguishable achievement is that exercise science programs after the 1980’s has been expanded to several different directions. It does not only produce physical education teachers but also attributes more to research, sports medicine, sports, leisure and recreation. Therefore, it has produced various jobs in exercise-related fields. Some of exercise science departments do not require teacher preparation course work in their curriculum which allows students to focus more on their specialty. Secondly, we believe we South Korea has caught up with advanced countries in terms of research quality. Many Korean researchers have recently published and presented their investigations in international journals and conferences. The quality and quantity of these studies introduced to international societies indicate that Exercise Science programs in South Korea is continuing to develop and plays an important part in the world. PMID:27182314

  12. Geoelectrical Methods and Monitoring for Dam Safety Assessment, Republic of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S. K.; Oldenburg, D.; Kang, S.; Song, S. H.

    2016-12-01

    Geoelectrical methods and monitoring to detect the seepage and internal erosion are essential for the safety assessment of earth dams. This work aims to develop improved methodologies to analyze the observed data and to monitor changes in seepage flow using direct current (DC) and self-potential (SP) methods. The seasonal variation of water level at dams causes a change in seepage and water saturation and hence alters the resistivity of the dam material. DC data are sensitive to water saturation and hence changes in saturation can be obtained by repeatedly measuring DC data. However, a more diagnostic parameter for safety assessment is fluid flow, and resistivity is only weakly coupled to that. Fortunately SP signals are directly related to fluid flow, and thus an SP survey has the potential to characterize fluid flow through the earth matrix. In Korea, the safety assessment of earth fill dams has been dealt by Korea Rural Community Corporation (KRC). Most of the dams are relatively old ( >50 years), hence assessing deterioration and corresponding seepage of those dams are crucial. In order to evaluate the engineering geological properties of the soil at earth dams in Korea, two boreholes in each dam were drilled to a bedrock depth that exceeds the height of the dam. A large set of field tests, including standard penetration tests (SPT) and in-situ permeability tests, were carried out along the boreholes. However, seepage paths in the dam is complex hence those limited measurements at a few points is not sufficient to delineate the zone of preferential seepage flow. For this, KRC developed permanent DC monitoring systems at a number of agricultural dams in Korea. The data were automatically collected every 6 hours. During the monitoring, the measurements of the water level at two boreholes were gathered at the same time. In this presentation we select an agricultural dam and delineate an anomalous leakage zone by inverting and interpreting time-lapse DC resistivity

  13. An introduction to Chuna manual medicine in Korea: History, insurance coverage, education, and clinical research in Korean literature.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Yong; Moon, Tae-Woong; Cho, Dong-Chan; Lee, Jung-Han; Ko, Youn-Seok; Hwang, Eui-Hyung; Heo, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Tae-Young; Shin, Byung-Cheul

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to summarize the curriculum, history, and clinical researches of Chuna in Korea and to ultimately introduce Chuna to Western medicine. Information about the history and insurance coverage of Chuna was collected from Chuna-related institutions and papers. Data on Chuna education in all 12 Korean medicine (KM) colleges in Korea were reconstructed based on previously published papers. All available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chuna in clinical research were searched using seven Korean databases and six KM journals. As a result, during the modern Chuna era, one of the three periods of Chuna, which also include the traditional Chuna era and the suppressed Chuna era, Chuna developed considerably because of a solid Korean academic system, partial insurance coverage, and the establishment of a Chuna association in Korea. All of the KM colleges offered courses on Chuna-related subjects (CRSs); however, the total number of hours dedicated to lectures on CRSs was insufficient to master Chuna completely. Overall, 17 RCTs were reviewed. Of the 14 RCTs of Chuna in musculoskeletal diseases, six reported Chuna was more effective than a control condition, and another six RCTs proposed Chuna had the same effect as a control condition. One of these 14 RCTs made the comparison impossible because of unreported statistical difference; the last RCT reported Chuna was less effective than a control condition. In addition, three RCTs of Chuna in neurological diseases reported Chuna was superior to a control condition. In conclusion, Chuna was not included in the regular curriculum in KM colleges until the modern Chuna era; Chuna became more popular as the result of it being covered by Korean insurance carriers and after the establishment of a Chuna association. Meanwhile, the currently available evidence is insufficient to characterize the effectiveness of Chuna in musculoskeletal and neurological diseases.

  14. Korea and the Yellow Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired September 24, 2012 City lights at night are a fairly reliable indicator of where people live. But this isn’t always the case, and the Korean Peninsula shows why. As of July 2012, South Korea’s population was estimated at roughly 49 million people, and North Korea’s population was estimated at about half that number. But where South Korea is gleaming with city lights, North Korea has hardly any lights at all—just a faint glimmer around Pyongyang. On September 24, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite captured this nighttime view of the Korean Peninsula. This imagery is from the VIIRS “day-night band,” which detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe signals such as gas flares, auroras, wildfires, city lights, and reflected moonlight. The wide-area image shows the Korean Peninsula, parts of China and Japan, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The white inset box encloses an area showing ship lights in the Yellow Sea. Many of the ships form a line, as if assembling along a watery border. Following the 1953 armistice ending the Korean War, per-capita income in South Korea rose to about 17 times the per-capital income level of North Korea, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Worldwide, South Korea ranks 12th in electricity production, and 10th in electricity consumption, per 2011 estimates. North Korea ranks 71st in electricity production, and 73rd in electricity consumption, per 2009 estimates. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day-Night Band data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Defense. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Suomi NPP - VIIRS Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Click here to view all of the Earth at Night 2012

  15. Assessment of Nitrate Contamination of Groundwater in Korea Using a Mathematical Simulation Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E.; Kim, M.; Lee, K.

    2005-12-01

    According to the nationwide groundwater monitoring system, nitrate is one of the major contaminants found in groundwater in Korea. Septic systems, animal waste and fertilizer are potential sources of nitrate contamination. There have been a growing number of studies on identification of the source of nitrate contamination of groundwater at agricultural sites, or analysis of the groundwater contamination at intensive livestock facilities. However, there have been a few studies on linkage between the surface loading of nitrate sources and the level of groundwater contamination. The objective of this study is to assess the groundwater contamination with nitrate resulted from current agricultural practices, and the potential impacts of changes in the practices on the groundwater contamination by using a mathematical model. An integrated modeling framework incorporating the nitrogen leaching model, LEACHN, and mass transport model, RT3D linked to MODFLOW was used to account for the fate and transport of nitrate through soil and groundwater. Data were collected from different areas so that they could represent the condition of agricultural sites in Korea. The groundwater nitrate contamination was assessed for different crops and soil types under varying fertilization rates and manure application.

  16. Spectral descriptions of submesoscale surface circulation in a coastal region off the East Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Yong; Yoo, Jang Gon; Kim, Hyeon Seong

    2017-04-01

    The spectral characteristics of hourly and 1-km resolution coastal surface currents obtained from an array of high-frequency radars of a coastal region off the East Coast of Korea are described in the frequency and wavenumber domains. The primary variance of the observed surface currents for a period of one year appears in the low-frequency (longer than 2 days), diurnal, and near-inertial frequency bands. The low-frequency surface currents exhibit more consistent variability with the regional geostrophic currents in summer than those in winter because of the relatively weaker wind conditions and a shallower mixed layer during summer. The diurnal surface circulation contains components that are coherent with diurnal land-sea breezes because of the development of the diurnal marine boundary layer. Clockwise near-inertial surface currents present decreasing amplitudes and spatially consistent on-shore phase propagations represented as a coastal inhibition, which is caused by coastal boundary effects on the near-inertial currents. The kinetic energy spectra of the surface currents in the wavenumber domain have decay slopes between k-2 and k-3, and their seasonal decay slopes are slightly steeper in winter than in summer. These findings can be interpreted that the submesoscale processes in this region can be related to both surface frontogenesis caused by regional mesoscale eddies with weak seasonality and baroclinic instability associated with the seasonal mixed layer and vertical fluctuations modulated by its harmonic frequencies.

  17. Various Current Responses of Single Silver Nanoparticle Collisions on a Gold Ultramicroelectrode Depending on the Collision Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mun, Seon Kyu; Lee, Sangmin; Kim, Dong Young; Kwon, Seong Jung

    2017-06-29

    Collisions of silver nanoparticles (NPs) with a more electrocatalytic gold or platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME) surface have been observed by using an electrochemical method. Depending on the applied potential to the UME, the current response to the collision of Ag NPs on the UME resulted in various shape changes. A staircase decrease, a blip decrease, and a blip increase of the hydrazine oxidation current were obtained at an applied potential of 0.33, 0.80, and 1.3 V, respectively. Different collision behaviors of Ag NPs on the UME surface were suggested for each shape of current response. Ag NP attachment, which hindered the diffusion flux to the UME, caused a staircase decrease of the electrocatalytic current. Instantaneous blocking of the hydrazine oxidation by Ag NP collision and, following recovery of the current by means of oxidation of Ag NP, caused a blip decrease of the electrocatalytic current. The formation of a higher oxidation state of Ag on the Ag NP and its electrocatalytic hydrazine oxidation resulted in a blip increase of the electrocatalytic current. The analysis of the current response of a single NP collision experiment can be a useful tool to understand the various behaviors of NPs on the electrode surface. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    Second- 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...The White House, Roundtable Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea...2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the

  19. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-10

    and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. Korea’s nuclear programs and...the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 30 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan navy intercepted and

  20. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per...clarified that “ no funds are provided in this act for energy-related assistance for North Korea.” The House Appropriations Committee report on the other...and Diplomacy, by Larry A. Niksch, and CRS Report RL34256, North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues, by Mary Beth Nikitin. 22 See CRS Report

  1. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-09

    Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response...North Korean denuclearization efforts. Later in the report , the Committee clarifies that “ no funds are provided in this act for energy-related...Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues, by Mary Beth Nikitin. 19 See CRS Report RL30613, North Korea: Terrorism List Removal, by Larry A. Niksch. 20

  2. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    News , December 1, 2012. U.S.- South Korea Relations Congressional Research Service 7 • China’s rising influence in ...entered into force and will be eliminated completely in the fifth year of the agreement. South Korea also agreed to allow U.S.-based car manufacturers to...sell in South Korea up to 25,000 cars per year per manufacturer as long as they met U.S. safety and environmental standards. This

  3. High resolution mapping of flood hazard for South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Sourima; Nzerem, Kechi; Zovi, Francesco; Li, Shuangcai; Mei, Yi; Assteerawatt, Anongnart; Hilberts, Arno; Tillmanns, Stephan; Mitas, Christos

    2015-04-01

    Floods are one of primary natural hazards that affect South Korea. During the past 15 years, catastrophic flood events which mainly have occurred during the rainy and typhoon seasons - especially under condition where soils are already saturated, have triggered substantial property damage with an average annual loss of around US1.2 billion (determined from WAter Management Information System's flood damage database for years 2002-2011) in South Korea. According to Seoul Metropolitan Government, over 16,000 households in the capital city Seoul were inundated during 2010 flood events. More than 10,000 households in Seoul were apparently flooded during one major flood event due to torrential rain in July 2011. Recently in August 2014, a serious flood event due to heavy rainfall hit the Busan region in the south east of South Korea. Addressing the growing needs, RMS has recently released country-wide high resolution combined flood return period maps for post-drainage local "pluvial" inundation and undefended large-scale "fluvial" inundation to aid the government and the insurance industry in the evaluation of comprehensive flood risk. RMS has developed a flood hazard model for South Korea to generate inundation depths and extents for a range of flood return periods. The model is initiated with 30 years of historical meteorological forcing data and calibrated to daily observations at over 100 river gauges across the country. Simulations of hydrologic processes are subsequently performed based on a 2000 year set of stochastic forcing. Floodplain inundation processes are modelled by numerically solving the shallow water equations using finite volume method on GPUs. Taking into account the existing stormwater drainage standards, economic exposure densities, etc., reasonable flood maps are created from inundation model output. Final hazard maps at one arcsec grid resolution can be the basis for both evaluating and managing flood risk, its economic impacts, and insured flood

  4. Serious fungal infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Ha, Y E; Denning, D W; Peck, K R

    2017-02-04

    Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers. Approximately 1 million people were estimated to be affected by fungal infections every year. The burdens of candidemia (4.12 per 100,000), cryptococcal meningitis (0.09 per 100,000), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (0.51 per 100,000) in South Korea were estimated to be comparable to those in other countries. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (22.4 per 100,000) was markedly high, probably due to the high burden of tuberculosis in Korea. The low burdens of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (56.9 per 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (75.1 per 100,000) warrant further study. Oral candidiasis (539 per 100,000) was estimated to affect a much larger population than noted in previous studies. Our work provides valuable insight on the epidemiology of fungal infections; however, additional studies are needed.

  5. Using historical simulations of vegetation to assess departure of current vegetation conditions across large landscapes[Chapter 11

    Treesearch

    Lisa Holsinger; Robert E. Keane; Brian Steele; Matthew C. Reeves; Sarah Pratt

    2006-01-01

    The Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools Prototype Project, or LANDFIRE Prototype Project, was conceived, in part, to identify areas across the nation where existing landscape conditions are markedly different from historical conditions (Keane and Rollins, Ch. 3). This objective arose from the recognition that over 100 years of land use and wildland...

  6. Error quantification of abnormal extreme high waves in Operational Oceanographic System in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Sang-Hun; Kim, Jinah; Heo, Ki-Young; Park, Kwang-Soon

    2017-04-01

    In winter season, large-height swell-like waves have occurred on the East coast of Korea, causing property damages and loss of human life. It is known that those waves are generated by a local strong wind made by temperate cyclone moving to eastward in the East Sea of Korean peninsula. Because the waves are often occurred in the clear weather, in particular, the damages are to be maximized. Therefore, it is necessary to predict and forecast large-height swell-like waves to prevent and correspond to the coastal damages. In Korea, an operational oceanographic system (KOOS) has been developed by the Korea institute of ocean science and technology (KIOST) and KOOS provides daily basis 72-hours' ocean forecasts such as wind, water elevation, sea currents, water temperature, salinity, and waves which are computed from not only meteorological and hydrodynamic model (WRF, ROMS, MOM, and MOHID) but also wave models (WW-III and SWAN). In order to evaluate the model performance and guarantee a certain level of accuracy of ocean forecasts, a Skill Assessment (SA) system was established as a one of module in KOOS. It has been performed through comparison of model results with in-situ observation data and model errors have been quantified with skill scores. Statistics which are used in skill assessment are including a measure of both errors and correlations such as root-mean-square-error (RMSE), root-mean-square-error percentage (RMSE%), mean bias (MB), correlation coefficient (R), scatter index (SI), circular correlation (CC) and central frequency (CF) that is a frequency with which errors lie within acceptable error criteria. It should be utilized simultaneously not only to quantify an error but also to improve an accuracy of forecasts by providing a feedback interactively. However, in an abnormal phenomena such as high-height swell-like waves in the East coast of Korea, it requires more advanced and optimized error quantification method that allows to predict the abnormal

  7. Optimization of Experimental Conditions of the Pulsed Current GTAW Parameters for Mechanical Properties of SDSS UNS S32760 Welds Based on the Taguchi Design Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousefieh, M.; Shamanian, M.; Saatchi, A.

    2012-09-01

    Taguchi design method with L9 orthogonal array was implemented to optimize the pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding parameters for the hardness and the toughness of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS, UNS S32760) welds. In this regard, the hardness and the toughness were considered as performance characteristics. Pulse current, background current, % on time, and pulse frequency were chosen as main parameters. Each parameter was varied at three different levels. As a result of pooled analysis of variance, the pulse current is found to be the most significant factor for both the hardness and the toughness of SDSS welds by percentage contribution of 71.81 for hardness and 78.18 for toughness. The % on time (21.99%) and the background current (17.81%) had also the next most significant effect on the hardness and the toughness, respectively. The optimum conditions within the selected parameter values for hardness were found as the first level of pulse current (100 A), third level of background current (70 A), first level of % on time (40%), and first level of pulse frequency (1 Hz), while they were found as the second level of pulse current (120 A), second level of background current (60 A), second level of % on time (60%), and third level of pulse frequency (5 Hz) for toughness. The Taguchi method was found to be a promising tool to obtain the optimum conditions for such studies. Finally, in order to verify experimental results, confirmation tests were carried out at optimum working conditions. Under these conditions, there were good agreements between the predicted and the experimental results for the both hardness and toughness.

  8. Toward a sustainable regional electricity system: The case of Kangwaon Province in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Inwhan

    Korea's exceptional economic growth for the last three decades has been accompanied by a rapid growth in commercial energy use. While the world increased its total primary energy consumption by 1.7 percent annually during the period between 1971 and 1994, Korea expanded its consumption level by 8.5 percent during the same period. The first quarter of the twenty-first century will be a period when energy consumption in Korea escalates even further, particularly in electricity consumption. This projection raises potential conflicts between Korea's economic growth and Korea's participation in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (Noh, 1991). A sustainable energy system is likely to promote sustainable development. However, Korea's current electricity system mainly comprised of fossil fuels and nuclear power is unsustainable in the context of energy, environment, and economy (E3). As a means of addressing the problem, this study introduces the country's electricity system shaped by the actions of local regions. How a local region, such as Kangwon Province in Korea, might take steps to mitigate the problems associated with Korea's current electricity system? Reducing regional electricity requirements through end-use efficiency improvements in electric appliances, buildings, and industrial processes is fundamentally important. Decentralized and renewable-oriented electricity supply options are also important to the success of region-based sustainable electricity systems. This dissertation compares environmental and economic benefits between the conventional and sustainable electricity systems to meet electricity requirements in Kangwon Province in the year 2010. The results clearly indicate that the region-based sustainable electricity system gives significant benefits to the Province in terms of energy, economy, and environment. In the final chapter, policy guidelines are developed to implement region-based sustainable electricity plans.

  9. Visit to the Yongbyon Nuclear Facilities in North Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Hecker, Siegfried S.

    2004-02-07

    Actions of the Government of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea have precipitated two nuclear crises in the past 10 years. The 1994 crisis was resolved through the 'Agreed Framework.' North Korea agreed to 'freeze' and eventually dismantle its nuclear program (with U.S. help to store spent fuel safely and under IAEA inspection). In return, the United States agreed (with the KEDO international consortium) to build two light-water reactors and supply North Korea with heavy-fuel oil until the reactors come on line. In addition, both sides agreed to move towards full normalization of relations, work for peace and security on a nuclear-free Korean Peninsula, and work on strengthening the international nonproliferation regime. The second nuclear crisis erupted when North Korean Government officials allegedly admitted to having a clandestine uranium enrichment program when confronted with this accusation by U.S. officials in October 2002. The United States (through KEDO) suspended heavy-fuel oil shipments and North Korea responded by expelling the IAEA inspectors, withdrawing from the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, and restarting its nuclear program in January 2003. The North Korean Government has invited Professor John Lewis of Stanford University, a China and North Korea scholar, for Track I1 discussions of nuclear and other key issues since 1987. In August 2003, Professor Lewis visited North Korea just before the first six-party talks, which were designed by the United States to solve the current nuclear crisis. Professor Lewis was invited back for the January 2004 visit. He asked Jack Pritchard, former U.S. special envoy for DRPK negotiations, and me to accompany him. Two Asian affairs staff specialists from the U.S. Senate Foreign Relations Committee also joined us. I will report on the visit to the Yongbyon Nuclear Scientific Research Center on January 8,2004. We toured the 5 MWe reactor, the 50 MWe reactor construction site, the spent fuel pool storage

  10. New Nuclear Emergency Prognosis system in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Ha; Jeong, Seung-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Kwan-Hee

    2016-04-01

    This paper reviews the status of assessment and prognosis system for nuclear emergency response in Korea, especially atmospheric dispersion model. The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) performs the regulation and radiological emergency preparedness of the nuclear facilities and radiation utilizations. Also, KINS has set up the "Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Plan" and the associated procedures such as an emergency response manual in consideration of the IAEA Safety Standards GS-R-2, GS-G-2.0, and GS-G-2.1. The Radiological Emergency Technical Advisory Center (RETAC) organized in an emergency situation provides the technical advice on radiological emergency response. The "Atomic Computerized Technical Advisory System for nuclear emergency" (AtomCARE) has been developed to implement assessment and prognosis by RETAC. KINS developed Accident Dose Assessment and Monitoring (ADAMO) system in 2015 to reflect the lessons learned from Fukushima accident. It incorporates (1) the dose assessment on the entire Korean peninsula, Asia region, and global region, (2) multi-units accident assessment (3) applying new methodology of dose rate assessment and the source term estimation with inverse modeling, (4) dose assessment and monitoring with the environmental measurements result. The ADAMO is the renovated version of current FADAS of AtomCARE. The ADAMO increases the accuracy of the radioactive material dispersion with applying the LDAPS(Local Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 1.5 km) and RDAPS(Regional Data Assimilation Prediction System, Spatial resolution: 12km) of weather prediction data, and performing the data assimilation of automatic weather system (AWS) data from Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and data from the weather observation tower at NPP site. The prediction model of the radiological material dispersion is based on the set of the Lagrangian Particle model and Lagrangian Puff model. The dose estimation methodology

  11. THEMIS multispacecraft observations of a reconnecting magnetosheath current sheet with symmetric boundary conditions and a large guide field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Øieroset, M.; Phan, T. D.; Shay, M. A.; Haggerty, C. C.; Fujimoto, M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Mozer, F. S.

    2017-08-01

    We report three spacecraft observations of a reconnecting magnetosheath current sheet with a guide field of unity, with THEMIS D (THD) and THEMIS E (THE)/THEMIS A (THA) observing oppositely directed reconnection exhausts, indicating the presence of an X line between the spacecraft. The near-constant convective speed of the magnetosheath current sheet allowed the direct translation of the observed time series into spatial profiles. THD observed asymmetries in the plasma density and temperature profiles across the exhaust, characteristics of symmetric reconnection with a guide field. The exhausts at THE and THA, on the other hand, were not the expected mirror image of the THD exhaust in terms of the plasma and field profiles. They consisted of a main outflow at the center of the current sheet, flanked by oppositely directed flows at the two edges of the current sheet, suggesting the presence of a second X line, whose outflow wraps around the outflow from the first X line.

  12. Research on Korean Pharmacopuncture in South Korea since 2007

    PubMed Central

    Lim, ChungSan; Park, SangKyun; Sun, SeungHo; Lee, KwangHo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the current trends in research on pharmacopuncture in Korea since 2007. Methods: A literature review was performed by using the search engines ‘Science and Technology Society Village’, ‘Korean Studies Information Service System’, ‘National Discovery for Science Leaders’, and ‘Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System’ in Korea from January 2007 to December 2013. Searched key words were ‘pharmacopuncture’, ‘herbal acupuncture’, ‘aqua-acupuncture’, and ‘bee venom’. Finally, we selected 457 papers, including Korean experimental studies and clinical studies. Selected papers were classified according to year of publication, type of pharmacopuncture, disease & topic, research type and the publishing journal. Results: One hundred fifty pharmacopunctures were studied in 457 papers. Single compound pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in experimental studies while animal-based pharmacopuncture was the most studied pharmacopuncture in clinical studies. Bee venom placed first among the various pharmacopunctures, followed by placenta, sweet bee venom, mountain-ginseng, and anti-inflammatory pharmacopunctures. Experimental research on pharmacopuncture has fallen since 2007 when 55 papers were published. However, clinical research has been increasing steadily. In clinical studies, case reports were numerous than randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Musculoskeletal diseases were the most frequently-treated diseases in studies on pharmacopuncture; among the musculoskeletal diseases, rheumatoid arthritis was the most frequently-treated disease in experimental studies and low back pain was the most frequently-treated condition in clinical studies. Since 2007, 45 different journals have published studies on pharmacopuncture, with the Journal of the Korean Acupuncture and Moxibustion Medicine Society having the largest number of papers on pharmacopuncture and the

  13. Infection Management and Health Practices Among Forensic Science Investigators in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Kyeong-Sook; Cho, Ok-Hee; Yoo, Yang-Sook

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the current status of infection management for forensic science investigators in South Korea. This study included 104 forensic science investigators, of which 97.1% were exposed to the blood or body fluids of corpses during handling. Of these investigators, 98% claimed they wore gloves, and 12.9% used double-layered gloves. A total of 70.6% of the participants with relevant work experience wore masks to reduce infection risk; 43% wore gowns and goggles when at risk of contracting an infection. Furthermore, 59.8% of the investigators with pertinent work experience sought appropriate first aid and treatment when they experienced contaminated skin cuts or stab wounds. Working conditions and other problems should be analyzed consistently with the cooperation of employees, occupational health practitioners, and relevant organizations to prevent work-associated infections among forensic science investigators.

  14. Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis on Blade Response of Vertical Axis Tidal Current Turbine Under Operational Condition

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ye; Karri, Naveen K.; Wang, Qi

    2014-04-30

    Tidal power as a large-scale renewable source of energy has been receiving significant attention recently because of its advantages over the wind and other renewal energy sources. The technology used to harvest energy from tidal current is called a tidal current turbine. Though some of the principles of wind turbine design are applicable to tidal current turbines, the design of latter ones need additional considerations like cavitation damage, corrosion etc. for the long-term reliability of such turbines. Depending up on the orientation of axis, tidal current turbines can be classified as vertical axis turbines or horizontal axis turbines. Existing studies on the vertical axis tidal current turbine focus more on the hydrodynamic aspects of the turbine rather than the structural aspects. This paper summarizes our recent efforts to study the integrated hydrodynamic and structural aspects of the vertical axis tidal current turbines. After reviewing existing methods in modeling tidal current turbines, we developed a hybrid approach that combines discrete vortex method -finite element method that can simulate the integrated hydrodynamic and structural response of a vertical axis turbine. This hybrid method was initially employed to analyze a typical three-blade vertical axis turbine. The power coefficient was used to evaluate the hydrodynamic performance, and critical deflection was considered to evaluate the structural reliability. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted with various turbine height-to-radius ratios. The results indicate that both the power output and failure probability increase with the turbine height, suggesting a necessity for optimal design. An attempt to optimize a 3-blade vertical axis turbine design with hybrid method yielded a ratio of turbine height to radius (H/R) about 3.0 for reliable maximum power output.

  15. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  16. The demographic transition in the Korean peninsula, 1910-1990: South and North Korea compared.

    PubMed

    Kim, D S

    1994-12-01

    North and South Korea have both experienced demographic transition and fertility and mortality declines. The fertility declines came later in North Korea. In 1990, the population was 43.4 million in South Korea and 21.4 million in North Korea and the age and sex compositions were similar. This evolution of population structure occurred despite differences in political systems and fertility determinants. Differences were in the fertility rate and the rate of natural increase. The total fertility rate was 2.5 children in North Korea and 1.6 in South Korea. The rate of natural increase was 18.5 per 1000 in North Korea and 9.8 in South Korea. Until 1910, the Korean peninsula was in the traditional stage characterized by high fertility and mortality. The early transitional stage came during 1910-45 under the Japanese annexation. Health and medical facilities improved and the crude birth rate rose and then declined. With the exception of the war years, population expanded as a function of births, deaths, and international migration. Poor economic conditions in rural areas acted as a push factor for south-directed migration, migration to Japan, and urban migration. Next came the chaotic stage, during 1945-60. South Korean population expanded during this period of political unrest. Repatriation and refugee migration constituted a large proportion of the population increase. Although the war brought high mortality, new medicine and disease treatment reduced the mortality rate after the war. By 1955-60, the crude death rate was 16.1 per 1000 in South Korea. The crude birth rate remained high at 42 per 1000 between 1950-55. The postwar period was characterized by the baby boom and higher fertility than the pre-war period of 1925-45. Total fertility was 6.3 by 1955-60. The late transitional stage occurred during 1960-85 with reduced fertility and continued mortality decline. By 1980-85, total fertility was 2.3 in the closed population. The restabilization stage occurred during

  17. Urologic robotic surgery in Korea: past and present.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ill Young

    2015-08-01

    Since 2005 when the da Vinci surgical system was approved as a medical device by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, 51 systems have been installed in 40 institutions as of May 2015. Although robotic surgery is not covered by the national health insurance service in Korea, it has been used in several urologic fields as a less invasive surgery. Since the first robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in 2005, partial nephrectomy, radical cystectomy, pyeloplasty, and other urologic surgeries have been performed. The following should be considered to extend the indications for robotic surgery: training systems including accreditation, operative outcomes from follow-up results, and cost-effectiveness. In this review, the history and current status of robotic surgeries in Korea are presented.

  18. Urologic robotic surgery in Korea: Past and present

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Since 2005 when the da Vinci surgical system was approved as a medical device by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare, 51 systems have been installed in 40 institutions as of May 2015. Although robotic surgery is not covered by the national health insurance service in Korea, it has been used in several urologic fields as a less invasive surgery. Since the first robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in 2005, partial nephrectomy, radical cystectomy, pyeloplasty, and other urologic surgeries have been performed. The following should be considered to extend the indications for robotic surgery: training systems including accreditation, operative outcomes from follow-up results, and cost-effectiveness. In this review, the history and current status of robotic surgeries in Korea are presented. PMID:26279823

  19. 2014 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Overweight and Obesity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee Kyoung; Lee, Won-Young; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kang, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Bom Taeck; Kim, Seon Mee; Kim, Eun Mi; Suh, Sang-Hoon; Shin, Hye Jung; Lee, Kyu Rae; Lee, Ki Young; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Seon Yeong; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Chang Beom; Chung, Sochung; Jeong, In Kyung; Hur, Kyung Yul

    2014-01-01

    The dramatic increase in the prevalence of obesity and its accompanying comorbidities are major health concerns in Korea. Obesity is defined as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 in Korea. Current estimates are that 32.8% of adults are obese: 36.1% of men and 29.7% of women. The prevalence of being overweight and obese in national surveys is increasing steadily. Early detection and the proper management of obesity are urgently needed. Weight loss of 5% to 10% is the standard goal. In obese patients, control of cardiovascular risk factors deserves the same emphasis as weight-loss therapy. Since obesity is multifactorial, proper care of obesity requires a coordinated multidisciplinary treatment team, as a single intervention is unlikely to modify the incidence or natural history of obesity. PMID:25559568

  20. Twenty-two survivors over the age of 1 year with full trisomy 18: presenting and current medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Deborah; Campbell, Emily

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to provide data about 22 survivors over the age of 1 year with full trisomy 18 (12-59 months). Mothers completed the online, mixed method Tracking Rare Incidence Syndrome (TRIS) Survey provides data on birth information (e.g., gestational age, birth weight) and medical conditions identified at birth and at the time of survey completion. Data indicate similar birth characteristics to other studies and presence of syndrome related medical conditions including cardiac conditions, use of a variety of feeding methods, apnea, respiratory difficulties, and kidney issues. Associated interventions, sometimes considered "aggressive" or "intensive" treatments including cardiac surgeries were noted in the sample. Implications for treatment are provided and the need for additional research with this clinical subgroup is needed.