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Sample records for korea triga snf

  1. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  2. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  3. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  4. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  5. EXTERNAL CRITICALITY CALCULATION FOR DOE SNF CODISPOSAL WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    H. Radulescu

    2002-10-18

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the potential for criticality for the fissile material that could accumulate in the near-field (invert) and in the far-field (host rock) beneath the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the proposed monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to the following DOE SNF types: Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Enrico Fermi, Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Fort St. Vrain, Melt and Dilute, Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, and Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics reactor (TRIGA). The results of this calculation are intended to be used for estimating the probability of criticality in the near-field and in the far-field. There are no limitations on use of the results of this calculation. The calculation is associated with the waste package design and was developed in accordance with the technical work plan, ''Technical Work Plan for: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel and Plutonium Disposition Work Packages'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC [BSC], 2002a). This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) per the activity evaluation under work package number P6212310Ml in the technical work plan TWP-MGR-MD-0000 10 REV 01 (BSC 2002a).

  6. 78 FR 26811 - Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Supplemental Information and Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor,'' to inform the public that the NRC is considering issuance of a...

  7. Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    AD-A270 956 L11L1I~I1 11 11 :1Ji ili! August 1993 AFRRI 93-5 TECHNICAL REPORT Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water L OCT 1 93 John Dickson Robert...COVER~ED I August 1993 Technical Report 4 TITLE AND SUBTITLE S.FNDN NUMBERS Analysis of the TRIGA Reactor Pool Water PE: NWED QAXM 6, AUTHOR(S) Dickson...AVAILABIIY STATEMENT 1 2b. DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT tMaxtm -um 200 words ) 14. SUBJECTTERMS 1S

  8. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  10. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  11. Archaeometry using the Cornell TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, T.Z.; Bentley, R.A.; Clark, D.D.; Keyser, P.T.; Sadlikova, K.; Silverman, A.; Whitehead, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    There are several archaeological studies in progress at Cornell, and the various excavations include Etruscan (Siena, Italy), Neolithic (Halai, Greece), and late Classical (Sula Valley, northwest Honduras) Honduran sites. As part of these investigations, samples from these sites are analyzed using the Cornell TRIGA reactor. Cornell TRIGA is a 500-kW reactor well suited for high-sensitivity neutron activation analysis (NAA) and prompt gamma NAA (PGNAA). The NAA facilities include several 20 to 30% efficient high-purity germanium detectors coupled to several personal computer-based analyzers. A PGNAA facility using a cold neutron beam is currently under development. The Cornell cold neutron beam is designed for a temperature of {approximately}30 K and a flux of {approximately}1 x 10{sup 7} n /cm{sup 2}{center_dot}s thermal equivalent. The guided beam is extracted and taken 13 m from the TRIGA core into an adjoining laboratory area, where the PGNAA irradiation and counting station will be set up.

  12. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (OSU) TRAINING RESEARCH ISOTOPE GENERAL ATOMICS (TRIGA) OVERPACK CLOSURE WELDING PROCESS PARAMETER DEVELOPMENT & QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-11

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the Oregon State University (OSU) TRIGA{reg_sign} Reactor is currently being stored in thirteen 55-gallon drums at the Hanford Site's low-level burial grounds. This fuel is soon to be retrieved from buried storage and packaged into new containers (overpacks) for interim storage at the Hanford Interim Storage Area (ISA). One of the key activities associated with this effort is final closure of the overpack by welding. The OSU fuel is placed into an overpack, a head inserted into the overpack top, and welded closed. Weld quality, for typical welded fabrication, is established through post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE); however, in this case, once the SNF is placed into the overpack, routine testing and NDE are not feasible. An alternate approach is to develop and qualify the welding process/parameters, demonstrate beforehand that they produce the desired weld quality, and then verify parameter compliance during production welding. Fluor engineers have developed a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) technique and parameters, demonstrating that weld quality requirements for closure of packaged SNF overpacks are met, using this alternate approach. The following reviews the activities performed for this development and qualification effort.

  13. Applications of the Dow TRIGA research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, C.W.; Quinn, T.J.; Krueger, D.A.

    1982-07-01

    The Dow TRIGA Mark I reactor is a one-hundred kilowatt nuclear reactor installed by General Atomics using the Torrey Pines reactor console, seventy-five used stainless-steel clad fuel elements and one new aluminium clad fuel element. The reactor is equipped with a forty-position rotating Lazy Susan in the reflector, a pneumatic transfer system with its terminal in the F-ring of the core, and a central thimble which can be used for irradiation of samples in the center of the core or which can be emptied of the shielding water to produce a beam of neutrons and gamma rays in the area atop the pool. Samples can also be irradiated in or near the core. There is no provision for pulsing this TRIGA reactor. The neutron activation analysis program uses the Dow TRIGA reactor as a source of thermal neutrons and a Kaman A711 generator as a source of 14-MeV neutrons. The associated counting equipment includes one Gel(Li) detector and two Nal(Tl) detectors, each using a 100-position sample changer and all interfaced to a Tracor-Northern TN-11 data acquisition and computing system, one Ge(Li) detector and its TN-11 system for the pneumatic transfer system and the beam tube experiments, and two NaKTl)detectors with a TN-4000 system used with the Kaman neutron generator. The activation analysis program gets samples from all parts of the manufacturing and research efforts at Dow: raw materials, intermediates, products, effluents, research samples, samples from customers who use Dow products, and environmental samples. This presentation is devoted to the progress made in the past year on the pneumatic transfer system and the renewed work on prompt gamma-ray spectroscopy including the extensive process of method validation.

  14. Arkansas Tech University TRIGA nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sankoorikal, J.; Culp, R.; Hamm, J.; Elliott, D.; Hodgson, L.; Apple, S.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the TRIGA nuclear reactor (ATUTR) proposed for construction on the campus of Arkansas Tech University in Russellville, Arkansas. The reactor will be part of the Center for Energy Studies located at Arkansas Tech University. The reactor has a steady state power level of 250 kW and can be pulsed with a maximum reactivity insertion of $2.0. Experience gained in dismantling and transporting some of the components from Michigan State University, and the storage of these components will be presented. The reactor will be used for education, training, and research. (author)

  15. Molecular analysis of the SNF4 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: evidence for physical association of the SNF4 protein with the SNF1 protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Celenza, J L; Eng, F J; Carlson, M

    1989-01-01

    The SNF4 gene is required for expression of glucose-repressible genes in response to glucose deprivation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previous evidence suggested that SNF4 is functionally related to SNF1, another essential gene in this global regulatory system that encodes a protein kinase. Increased SNF1 gene dosage partially compensates for a mutation in SNF4, and the SNF4 function is required for maximal SNF1 protein kinase activity in vitro. We have cloned SNF4 and identified its 1.2-kilobase RNA, which is not regulated by glucose repression. A 36-kilodalton SNF4 protein is predicted from the nucleotide sequence. Disruption of the chromosomal SNF4 locus revealed that the requirement for SNF4 function is less stringent at low temperature (23 degrees C). A bifunctional SNF4-lacZ gene fusion that includes almost the entire SNF4 coding sequence was constructed. The fusion protein was shown by immunofluorescence microscopy to be distributed throughout the cell, with partial localization to the nucleus. The SNF4-beta-galactosidase protein coimmunoprecipitated with the SNF1 protein kinase, thus providing evidence for the physical association of the two proteins. Images PMID:2481228

  16. SNF1/AMPK pathways in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hedbacker, Kristina; Carlson, Marian

    2009-01-01

    The SNF1/AMPK family of protein kinases is highly conserved in eukaryotes and is required for energy homeostasis in mammals, plants, and fungi. SNF1 protein kinase was initially identified by genetic analysis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SNF1 is required primarily for the adaptation of yeast cells to glucose limitation and for growth on carbon sources that are less preferred than glucose, but is also involved in responses to other environmental stresses. SNF1 regulates transcription of a large set of genes, modifies the activity of metabolic enzymes, and controls various nutrient-responsive cellular developmental processes. Like AMPK, SNF1 protein kinase is heterotrimeric. It is phosphorylated and activated by the upstream kinases Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1 and is inactivated by the Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase 1. Further regulation of SNF1 is achieved through autoinhibition and through control of its subcellular localization. Here we review the current understanding of SNF1 protein kinase pathways in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other yeasts. PMID:17981722

  17. Probaability of Criticality for MOX SNF

    SciTech Connect

    P. Gottlieb

    1999-09-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to provide a conservative (upper bound) estimate of the probability of criticality for mixed oxide (MOX) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of the Westinghouse pressurized water reactor (PWR) design that has been proposed for use. with the Plutonium Disposition Program (Ref. 1, p. 2). This calculation uses a Monte Carlo technique similar to that used for ordinary commercial SNF (Ref. 2, Sections 2 and 5.2). Several scenarios, covering a range of parameters, are evaluated for criticality. Parameters specifying the loss of fission products and iron oxide from the waste package are particularly important. This calculation is associated with disposal of MOX SNF.

  18. Technology development for DOE SNF management

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.L.; Einziger, R.E.; Murphy, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the process used to identify technology development needs for the same management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) inventory. Needs were assessed for each of the over 250 fuel types stores at DOE sites around the country for each stage of SNF management--existing storage, transportation, interim storage, and disposal. The needs were then placed into functional groupings to facilitate integration and collaboration among the sites.

  19. Upgrade of the Dow TRIGA research reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, C.W.

    1991-11-01

    Useful operation of the Dow TRIGA{sup a} research reactor over a period of >20 years has led to a commitment to upgrades enabling another two decades of use with increased capabilities. The reactor utilization program and the upgrades are described in this paper. These included requesting a 20-yr license instead of the 10-yr license, which had been used previously; changing the license to allow operation at power levels of up to 300 kW, which provided improved analytical sensitivity; adding fuel elements to the core, which allowed better performance at the higher power levels; renovating the laboratories, which included consolidating the radioactive materials handling areas and improving the sample preparation areas; installing new shielding, detectors, computers, and sample-handling robots for greater productivity and sensitivity; replacing the 1967-1974 era control console and renovating the control rod drives to provide greater safety, reliability, and maintenance capabilities; and identifying, training, and licensing more senior reactor operators to allow the staff to continue operating and improving this system well past the turn of the century.

  20. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  1. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  2. A multisubunit complex containing the SWI1/ADR6, SWI2/SNF2, SWI3, SNF5, and SNF6 gene products isolated from yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, B R; Kim, Y J; Sayre, M H; Laurent, B C; Kornberg, R D

    1994-01-01

    A complex containing the products of the SWI1/ADR6, SWI2/SNF2, SWI3, SNF5, and SNF6 genes and four additional polypeptides has been purified from extracts of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Physical association of these proteins was demonstrated by copurification and coimmunoprecipitation. A potent DNA-dependent ATPase copurified with the complex, and this activity was evidently associated with SWI2/SNF2. Images PMID:8127913

  3. Canister storage building compliance assessment SNF project NRC equivalency criteria - HNF-SD-SNF-DB-003

    SciTech Connect

    BLACK, D.M.

    1999-08-11

    This document presents the Project's position on compliance with the SNF Project NRC Equivalency Criteria--HNF-SD-SNF-DE-003, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Path Forward Additional NRC Requirements. No non-compliances are shown The compliance statements have been reviewed and approved by DOE. Open items are scheduled to be closed prior to project completion.

  4. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  5. Benchmarking criticality analysis of TRIGA fuel storage racks.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Matthew Loren; DeBey, Timothy M; Higginbotham, Jack F

    2017-01-01

    A criticality analysis was benchmarked to sub-criticality measurements of the hexagonal fuel storage racks at the United States Geological Survey TRIGA MARK I reactor in Denver. These racks, which hold up to 19 fuel elements each, are arranged at 0.61m (2 feet) spacings around the outer edge of the reactor. A 3-dimensional model was created of the racks using MCNP5, and the model was verified experimentally by comparison to measured subcritical multiplication data collected in an approach to critical loading of two of the racks. The validated model was then used to show that in the extreme condition where the entire circumference of the pool was lined with racks loaded with used fuel the storage array is subcritical with a k value of about 0.71; well below the regulatory limit of 0.8. A model was also constructed of the rectangular 2×10 fuel storage array used in many other TRIGA reactors to validate the technique against the original TRIGA licensing sub-critical analysis performed in 1966. The fuel used in this study was standard 20% enriched (LEU) aluminum or stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel.

  6. ORIGEN2 calculations supporting TRIGA irradiated fuel data package

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.

    1996-09-20

    ORIGEN2 calculations were performed for TRIGA spent fuel elements from the Hanford Neutron Radiography Facility. The calculations support storage and disposal and results include mass, activity,and decay heat. Comparisons with underwater dose-rate measurements were used to confirm and adjust the calculations.

  7. ISOTOPIC MODEL FOR COMMERCIAL SNF BURNUP CREDIT

    SciTech Connect

    A.H. Wells

    2004-11-17

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate a process for selecting bounding depletion parameters, show that they are conservative for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and establish the range of burnup for which the parameters are conservative. The general range of applicability is for commercial light water reactor (LWR) SNF with initial enrichments between 2.0 and 5.0 weight percent {sup 235}U and burnups between 10 and 50 gigawatt-day per metric ton of uranium (GWd/MTU).

  8. SOURCE TERMS FOR AVERAGE DOE SNF CANISTERS

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Goluoglu

    2000-06-09

    The objective of this calculation is to generate source terms for each type of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister that may be disposed of at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to generating source terms for average DOE SNF canisters, and is not intended to be used for subsequent calculations requiring bounding source terms. This calculation is to be used in future Performance Assessment calculations, or other shielding or thermal calculations requiring average source terms.

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  10. Implementation of an aerodynamic lens for TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Nagy, Sz.; van de Laar, J. J. W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the optimization of the gas-jet system employed to couple the TRIGA-SPEC experiment to the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. CdI2 aerosol particles suspended in N2 as carrier gas are used for an effective transport of fission products from neutron induced 235 U fission from the target chamber to a surface ion source. Operating conditions of the gas-jet were modified to enable the implementation of an aerodynamic lens, fitting into the limited space available in front of the ion source. The lens boosts the gas-jet efficiency by a factor of 4-10. The characterization of the gas-jet system as well as the design of the aerodynamic lens and efficiency studies are presented and discussed.

  11. High-Precision Mass Measurements At TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Knuth, K.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-04-01

    In order to study neutron-rich nuclides far from the valley of stability as well as long-lived actinoids the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been recently installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Short-lived neutron-rich fission products are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoid target installed close to the reactor core. A helium gas-jet system with carbon aerosol particles is used to extract the fission products to the experiment. The Penning trap system has already been commissioned. Off-line mass measurements are routinely performed using a recently developed laser ablation ion source, and the gas-jet system has been tested. An overview of the experiment and current status will be given.

  12. Gcn5 regulates the dissociation of SWI/SNF from chromatin by acetylation of Swi2/Snf2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael; Workman, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    The positive link between the SWI/SNF and the Gcn5 histone acetyltransferase in transcriptional activation has been well described. Here we report an inhibitory role for Gcn5 in SWI/SNF targeting. We demonstrate that Gcn5-containing complexes directly acetylate the Snf2 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex in vitro, as well as in vivo. Moreover, the acetylation of Snf2 facilitates the dissociation of the SWI/SNF complex from acetylated histones, and reduces its association with promoters in vivo. These data reveal a novel mechanism by which Gcn5 modulates chromatin structure not only through the acetylation of histones, but also by directly acetylating Snf2. PMID:21159817

  13. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; Rawi, M. Z. M.

    2016-01-22

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  14. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  15. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; M. Rawi M., Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  16. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  17. Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.

    SciTech Connect

    ZEFRAN, BOJAN

    2007-02-28

    Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.

  18. Mutational analysis of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 protein kinase and evidence for functional interaction with the SNF4 protein.

    PubMed Central

    Celenza, J L; Carlson, M

    1989-01-01

    The SNF1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein-serine/threonine kinase that is required for derepression of gene expression in response to glucose limitation. We present evidence that the protein kinase activity is essential for SNF1 function: substitution of Arg for Lys in the putative ATP-binding site results in a mutant phenotype. A polyhistidine tract near the N terminus was found to be dispensable. Deletion of the large region C terminal to the kinase domain only partially impaired SNF1 function, causing expression of invertase to be somewhat reduced but still glucose repressible. The function of the SNF4 gene, another component of the regulatory system, was required for maximal in vitro activity of the SNF1 protein kinase. Increased SNF1 gene dosage partially alleviated the requirement for SNF4. C-terminal deletions of SNF1 also reduced dependence on SNF4. Our findings suggest that SNF4 acts as a positive effector of the kinase but does not serve a regulatory function in signaling glucose availability. Images PMID:2557546

  19. An RFQ cooler and buncher for the TRIGA-SPEC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Krieger, A.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörterhäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Smorra, C.; Will, E.

    2014-01-01

    A linear Paul trap for cooling of ion beams, the former cooler for emittance elimination radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) at MISTRAL/ISOLDE, has been installed and commissioned at the TRIGA-SPEC experiment located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. It is connected to a hot-surface-ionization ion source and a subsequent mass separator for ionization and pre-separation of neutron-rich fission products as delivered from the reactor. The capability of accumulating and bunching ion beams has been implemented to provide low-emittance ion pulses of 250 ns width containing up to 106 ions. A technical description of the upgraded RFQ as well as its characterization with stable ions is presented. Its installation allows delivery of low-emittance ion bunches to the two branches of the TRIGA-SPEC experiment, namely TRIGA-TRAP and TRIGA-LASER.

  20. Transcription Activator Interactions with Multiple SWI/SNF Subunits

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Kristen E.; Hassan, Ahmed H.; Brown, Christine E.; Howe, LeAnn; Workman, Jerry L.

    2002-01-01

    We have previously shown that the yeast SWI/SNF complex stimulates in vitro transcription from chromatin templates in an ATP-dependent manner. SWI/SNF function in this regard requires the presence of an activator with which it can interact directly, linking activator recruitment of SWI/SNF to transcriptional stimulation. In this study, we determine the SWI/SNF subunits that mediate its interaction with activators. Using a photo-cross-linking label transfer strategy, we show that the Snf5, Swi1, and Swi2/Snf2 subunits are contacted by the yeast acidic activators, Gcn4 and Hap4, in the context of the intact native SWI/SNF complex. In addition, we show that the same three subunits can interact individually with acidic activation domains, indicating that each subunit contributes to binding activators. Furthermore, mutations that reduce the activation potential of these activators also diminish its interaction with each of these SWI/SNF subunits. Thus, three distinct subunits of the SWI/SNF complex contribute to its interactions with activation domains. PMID:11865042

  1. The SANS facility at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ionita, I. Grabcev, B.; Todireanu, S.; Constantin, F.; Shvetsov, V.; Anghel, E.; Popescu, G.; Mincu, M.; Datcu, A.

    2006-12-15

    The SANS facility existing at the Pitesti 14MW TRIGA reactor is presented. The main characteristics and the preliminary evaluation of the installation performances are given. A monochromatic neutron beam with 1.5 A {<=} {lambda} {<=} 5 A is produced by a mechanical velocity selector with helical slots. A fruitful partnership was established between INR Pitesti (Romania) and JINR Dubna (Russia). The first step in this cooperation consists in the manufacturing in Dubna of a battery of gas-filled positional detectors devoted to the SANS instrument.

  2. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nurhayati; Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-01

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  3. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ramli, Nurhayati Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Maskin, Mazleha; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-22

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  5. Hospital Transfers of Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Patients within 48 Hours and 30 Days after SNF Admission

    PubMed Central

    Ouslander, Joseph G.; Naharci, Ilkin; Engstrom, Gabriella; Shutes, Jill; Wolf, David G.; Rojido, Maria; Tappen, Ruth; Newman, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Close to one in 5 patients admitted to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) are readmitted to the acute hospital within 30 days, and a substantial percentage are readmitted within two days of the SNF admission. These rapid returns to the hospital may provide insights for improving care transitions between the acute hospital and the SNF. Objectives To describe the characteristics of SNF to hospital transfers that occur within 48 hours and 30 days of SNF admission based on root cause analyses (RCAs) performed by SNF staff, and identify potential areas of focus for improving transitions between hospitals and SNFs. Design Trained staff from SNFs enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial of the INTERACT (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program performed retrospective RCAs on hospital transfers during a 12-month implementation period. Setting SNFs from across the U.S. Participants 64 of 88 SNFs randomized to the intervention group submitted RCAs. Interventions SNFs were implementing the INTERACT quality improvement program. Measures Data were abstracted from the INTERACT Quality Improvement (QI) tool, a structured, retrospective RCA on hospital transfers. Results Among 4,658 transfers for which data on the time between SNF admission and hospital transfer were available, 353 (8%) occurred within 48 hours of SNF admission; 524 (11%) 3–6 days after SNF admission; 1,450 (31%) (7 – 29 days after SNF admission; and 2,331 (50%) occurred 30 days or longer after admission. Comparisons between transfers that occurred within 48 hours and within 30 days of SNF admission to transfers that occurred 30 days or longer after SNF admission revealed several statistically significant differences between patient risk factors for transfer, symptoms and signs precipitating the transfers, and other characteristics of the transfers. Hospitalization in the last 30 days and year was significantly more common among those with rapid returns to

  6. Transport of fission products with a helium gas-jet at TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibach, M.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Herfurth, F.; Geppert, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.

    2010-02-01

    A helium gas-jet system for the transport of fission products from the research reactor TRIGA Mainz has been developed, characterized and tested within the TRIGA-SPEC experiment. For the first time at TRIGA Mainz carbon aerosol particles have been used for the transport of radionuclides from a target chamber with high efficiency. The radionuclides have been identified by means of γ-spectroscopy. Transport time, efficiency as well as the absolute number of transported radionuclides for several species have been determined. The design and the characterization of the gas-jet system are described and discussed.

  7. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE NAVAL SNF WASTE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-05-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the design of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methodologies and processes described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000b). The calculations that support the design of the naval SNF WP will be discussed; however, only a sub-set of such analyses will be presented and shall be limited to those identified in the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The objective of this analysis is to describe the naval SNF WP design method and to show that the design of the naval SNF WP complies with the ''Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Interface Control Document (ICD) criteria for Site Recommendation. Additional criteria for the design of the naval SNF WP have been outlined in Section 6.2 of the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the naval long WP containing one naval long SNF canister. This WP is representative of the WPs that will contain both naval short SNF and naval long SNF canisters. The following items are included in the scope of this analysis: (1) Providing a general description of the applicable design criteria; (2) Describing the design methodology to be used; (3) Presenting the design of the naval SNF waste package; and (4) Showing compliance with all applicable design criteria. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the technical product development plan (TPDP) ''Design Analysis for the Naval SNF Waste Package (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

  8. Interaction of SNF1 Protein Kinase with Its Activating Kinase Sak1▿

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Xinjing; Carlson, Marian

    2011-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1 protein kinase, a member of the SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) family, is activated by three kinases, Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1, which phosphorylate the Snf1 catalytic subunit on Thr-210 in response to glucose limitation and other stresses. Sak1 is the primary Snf1-activating kinase and is associated with Snf1 in a complex. Here we examine the interaction of Sak1 with SNF1. We report that Sak1 coimmunopurifies with the Snf1 catalytic subunit from extracts of both glucose-replete and glucose-limited cultures and that interaction occurs independently of the phosphorylation state of Snf1 Thr-210, Snf1 catalytic activity, and other SNF1 subunits. Sak1 interacts with the Snf1 kinase domain, and nonconserved sequences C terminal to the Sak1 kinase domain mediate interaction with Snf1 and augment the phosphorylation and activation of Snf1. The Sak1 C terminus is modified in response to glucose depletion, dependent on SNF1 activity. Replacement of the C terminus of Elm1 (or Tos3) with that of Sak1 enhanced the ability of the Elm1 kinase domain to interact with and phosphorylate Snf1. These findings indicate that the C terminus of Sak1 confers its function as the primary Snf1-activating kinase and suggest that the physical association of Sak1 with SNF1 facilitates responses to environmental change. PMID:21216941

  9. The Chromatin Remodelling Enzymes SNF2H and SNF2L Position Nucleosomes adjacent to CTCF and Other Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wiechens, Nicola; Gkikopoulos, Triantaffyllos; Schofield, Pieta; Rocha, Sonia; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Within the genomes of metazoans, nucleosomes are highly organised adjacent to the binding sites for a subset of transcription factors. Here we have sought to investigate which chromatin remodelling enzymes are responsible for this. We find that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling enzyme SNF2H plays a major role organising arrays of nucleosomes adjacent to the binding sites for the architectural transcription factor CTCF sites and acts to promote CTCF binding. At many other factor binding sites SNF2H and the related enzyme SNF2L contribute to nucleosome organisation. The action of SNF2H at CTCF sites is functionally important as depletion of CTCF or SNF2H affects transcription of a common group of genes. This suggests that chromatin remodelling ATPase’s most closely related to the Drosophila ISWI protein contribute to the function of many human gene regulatory elements. PMID:27019336

  10. An Analysis of Decommissioning Costs for the AFRRI TRIGA Reactor Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Laboratory, as provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission publication NUREG /CR-1756. The data in this study were adapted to reflect the decommissioning requirements of the AFRRI TRIGA reactor facility.

  11. SWI/SNF Displaces SAGA-Acetylated Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Chandy, Mark; Gutiérrez, José L.; Prochasson, Philippe; Workman, Jerry L.

    2006-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a well-characterized chromatin remodeling complex that remodels chromatin by sliding nucleosomes in cis and/or displacing nucleosomes in trans. The latter mechanism has the potential to remove promoter nucleosomes, allowing access to transcription factors and RNA polymerase. In vivo, histone acetylation often precedes apparent nucleosome loss; therefore, we sought to determine whether nucleosomes containing acetylated histones could be displaced by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. We found that SAGA-acetylated histones were lost from an immobilized nucleosome array when treated with the SWI/SNF complex. When the nucleosome array was acetylated by SAGA in the presence of bound transcription activators, it generated a peak of acetylation surrounding the activator binding sites. Subsequent SWI/SNF treatment suppressed this acetylation peak. Immunoblots indicated that SWI/SNF preferentially displaced acetylated histones from the array relative to total histones. Moreover, the Swi2/Snf2 bromodomain, an acetyl-lysine binding domain, played a role in the displacement of acetylated histones. These data indicate that targeted histone acetylation by the SAGA complex predisposes promoter nucleosomes for displacement by the SWI/SNF complex. PMID:17030999

  12. Swi/Snf dynamics on stress-responsive genes is governed by competitive bromodomain interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gilmore, Joshua; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex functions to alter nucleosome positions by either sliding nucleosomes on DNA or the eviction of histones. The presence of histone acetylation and activator-dependent recruitment and retention of Swi/Snf is important for its efficient function. It is not understood, however, why such mechanisms are required to enhance Swi/Snf activity on nucleosomes. Snf2, the catalytic subunit of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, has been shown to be a target of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase. Our study found that acetylation of Snf2 regulates both recruitment and release of Swi/Snf from stress-responsive genes. Also, the intramolecular interaction of the Snf2 bromodomain with the acetylated lysine residues on Snf2 negatively regulates binding and remodeling of acetylated nucleosomes by Swi/Snf. Interestingly, the presence of transcription activators mitigates the effects of the reduced affinity of acetylated Snf2 for acetylated nucleosomes. Supporting our in vitro results, we found that activator-bound genes regulating metabolic processes showed greater retention of the Swi/Snf complex even when Snf2 was acetylated. Our studies demonstrate that competing effects of (1) Swi/Snf retention by activators or high levels of histone acetylation and (2) Snf2 acetylation-mediated release regulate dynamics of Swi/Snf occupancy at target genes. PMID:25319830

  13. TRIGA-SPEC: the prototype of MATS and LaSpec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Krämer, J.; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of short-lived nuclei is a challenging task that MATS and LaSpec will handle at the low energy branch of Super-FRS at FAIR. The groundwork for those experiments is laid-out already today at the TRIGA-SPEC facility as a powerful development platform located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. The latest status, new developments and first results of commissioning runs are presented here.

  14. Interaction of DOE SNF and Packaging Materials

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Anderson

    1998-09-01

    A sensitivity analysis was conducted to identify and evaluate potential destructive interactions between the materials in US Department of Energy (USDOE) spent nuclear fuels (SNFs) and their storage/disposal canisters. The technical assessment was based on the thermodynamic properties as well as the chemical and physical characteristics of the materials expected inside the canisters. No chemical reactions were disclosed that could feasibly corrode stainless steel canisters to the point of failure. However, the possibility of embrittlement (loss of ductility) of the stainless steel through contact with liquid metal fission products or hydrogen inside the canisters cannot be dismissed. Higher-than-currently-permitted internal gas pressures must also be considered. These results, based on the assessment of two representative 90-year-cooled fuels that are stored at 200°C in stainless steel canisters with internal blankets of helium, may be applied to most of the fuels in the USDOE's SNF inventory.

  15. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  16. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling and linker histones in plants.

    PubMed

    Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    In yeast and mammals, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes belonging to the SWI/SNF family play critical roles in the regulation of transcription, cell proliferation, differentiation and development. Homologs of conserved subunits of SWI/SNF-type complexes, including several putative ATPases and other core subunits, have been identified in plants. Here I summarize recent insights in structural organization and functional diversification of putative plant SWI/SNF-type chromatin remodeling complexes and discuss in a broader evolutionary perspective the similarities and differences between plant and yeast/animal SWI/SNF remodeling. I also summarize the current view of localization in nucleosome and dynamic behaviour in chromatin of linker (H1) histones and discuss significance of recent findings indicating that in both plants and mammals histone H1 is involved in determining patterns of DNA methylation at selected loci.

  17. Tri-Gas Pressurization System Testing and Modeling for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B.; Polsgrove, R.; Stephens, J.; Hedayat, A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Tri-gas in rocket propulsion systems is somewhat of a new technology. This paper defines Tri-gas as a mixture of gases composed largely of helium with a small percentage of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. When exposed to a catalyst the hydrogen and oxygen in the mixture combusts, significantly raising the temperature of the mixture. The increase in enthalpy resulting from the combustion process significantly decreases the required quantity of gas needed to pressurize the ullage of the vehicle propellant tanks. The objective of this effort was to better understand the operating characteristics of Tri-gas in a pressurization system with low temperature applications. In conjunction with ongoing programs at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, an effort has been undertaken to evaluate the operating characteristics of Tri-gas through modeling and bench testing. Through improved understanding of the operating characteristics, the risk of using this new technology in a launch vehicle propulsion system was reduced. Bench testing of Tri-gas was a multistep process that targeted gas characteristics and performance aspects that pose a risk to application in a pressurization system. Pressurization systems are vital to propulsion system performance. Keeping a target ullage pressure in propulsions tanks is necessary to supply propellant at the conditions and flow rates required to maintain desired engine functionality. The first component of testing consisted of sampling Tri-gas sources that had been stagnant for various lengths of time in order to determine the rate at which stratification takes place. Second, a bench test was set up in which Tri-gas was sent through a catalyst bed. This test was designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Tri-gas, under low temperature inlet temperatures, in a flight-like catalyst bed reactor. The third, most complex, test examined the performance characteristics of Tri-gas at low temperature temperatures

  18. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Startup Plan to Operations

    SciTech Connect

    GREGORY, J.R.

    2000-10-11

    This plan defines the approach that will be used to ensure the transition from initial startup to normal operations of the SNF operations--are performed in a safe, controlled, and deliberate manner. It provides a phased approach that bridges the operations between the completion of the ORR and the return to normal operations. This plan includes management oversight and administrative controls to be implemented and then reduced in a controlled manner until normal operations are authorized by SNF Management.

  19. Spectroscopic Properties and Potential Energy Curves of SnF +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, K.; Xu, H.

    1995-06-01

    Spectroscopic properties and potential energy curves of several electronic states of SnF+ are computed using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) followed by first- and second-order configuration interaction (FOCI, SOCI) methods that include up to 1.6 million configurations. Spin-orbit effects were incorporated using the relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) method. Spectroscopic properties of several excited electronic states of SnF+ are reported, none of which is observed at present.

  20. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  1. Hospital Transfers of Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Patients Within 48 Hours and 30 Days After SNF Admission.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, Joseph G; Naharci, Ilkin; Engstrom, Gabriella; Shutes, Jill; Wolf, David G; Rojido, Maria; Tappen, Ruth; Newman, David

    2016-09-01

    Close to 1 in 5 patients admitted to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) are readmitted to the acute hospital within 30 days, and a substantial percentage are readmitted within 2 days of the SNF admission. These rapid returns to the hospital may provide insights for improving care transitions between the acute hospital and the SNF. To describe the characteristics of SNF to hospital transfers that occur within 48 hours and 30 days of SNF admission based on root cause analyses (RCAs) performed by SNF staff, and identify potential areas of focus for improving transitions between hospitals and SNFs. Trained staff from SNFs enrolled in a randomized, controlled clinical trial of the INTERACT (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program performed retrospective RCAs on hospital transfers during a 12-month implementation period. SNFs from across the United States. 64 of 88 SNFs randomized to the intervention group submitted RCAs. SNFs were implementing the INTERACT quality improvement program. Data were abstracted from the INTERACT Quality Improvement (QI) tool, a structured, retrospective RCA on hospital transfers. Among 4658 transfers for which data on the time between SNF admission and hospital transfer were available, 353 (8%) occurred within 48 hours of SNF admission, 524 (11%) 3 to 6 days after SNF admission, 1450 (31%) 7 to 29 days after SNF admission, and 2331 (50%) occurred 30 days or longer after admission. Comparisons between transfers that occurred within 48 hours and within 30 days of SNF admission to transfers that occurred 30 days or longer after SNF admission revealed several statistically significant differences between patient risk factors for transfer, symptoms and signs precipitating the transfers, and other characteristics of the transfers. Hospitalization in the last 30 days and year was significantly more common among those with rapid returns to the hospital. Shortness of breath was significantly more common

  2. 76 FR 69296 - University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed... University of Utah (UU, the licensee), which authorizes continued operation of the UU TRIGA Nuclear Reactor...

  3. 77 FR 68155 - The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R-84

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... the licensee to operate the AFFRI TRIGA Reactor up to a steady-state thermal power of 1.1 MW for an additional 20 years from the date of issuance. DATES: Submit comments by December 17, 2012. Requests for a... authorize the licensee to operate the AFFRI TRIGA Reactor up to a steady-state thermal power of 1.1 MW...

  4. Feedback Control of Snf1 Protein and Its Phosphorylation Is Necessary for Adaptation to Environmental Stress.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsiang-En; Liu, Tzu-Ning; Yeh, Chung-Shu; Chang, Tien-Hsien; Lo, Yi-Chen; Kao, Cheng-Fu

    2015-07-03

    Snf1, a member of the AMP-activated protein kinase family, plays a critical role in metabolic energy control in yeast cells. Snf1 activity is activated by phosphorylation of Thr-210 on the activation loop of its catalytic subunit; following activation, Snf1 regulates stress-responsive transcription factors. Here, we report that the level of Snf1 protein is dramatically decreased in a UBP8- and UBP10-deleted yeast mutant (ubp8Δ ubp10Δ), and this is independent of transcriptional regulation and proteasome-mediated degradation. Surprisingly, most Snf1-mediated functions, including glucose limitation regulation, utilization of alternative carbon sources, stress responses, and aging, are unaffected in this strain. Snf1 phosphorylation in ubp8Δ ubp10Δ cells is hyperactivated upon stress, which may compensate for the loss of the Snf1 protein and protect cells against stress and aging. Furthermore, artificial elevation of Snf1 phosphorylation (accomplished through deletion of REG1, which encodes a protein that regulates Snf1 dephosphorylation) restored Snf1 protein levels and the regulation of Snf1 activity in ubp8Δ ubp10Δ cells. Our results reveal the existence of a feedback loop that controls Snf1 protein level and its phosphorylation, which is masked by Ubp8 and Ubp10 through an unknown mechanism. We propose that this dynamic modulation of Snf1 phosphorylation and its protein level may be important for adaptation to environmental stress. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Activation domains drive nucleosome eviction by SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, José L; Chandy, Mark; Carrozza, Michael J; Workman, Jerry L

    2007-01-01

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes play a critical role in chromatin dynamics. A large number of in vitro studies have pointed towards nucleosome sliding as the principal remodeling outcome of SWI/SNF action, whereas few have described histone octamer transfer as the principal outcome. In contrast, recent in vivo studies have linked the activity of SWI/SNF to histone eviction in trans from gene promoters. In this study, we have found that the chimeric transcription factor Gal4-VP16 can enhance SWI/SNF histone octamer transfer activity, resulting in targeted histone eviction from a nucleosome probe. This effect is dependent on the presence of the activation domain. We observed that under conditions mimicking the in vivo relative abundance of SWI/SNF with respect to the total number of nucleosomes in a cell nucleus, the accessibility of the transcription factor binding site is the first determinant in the sequence of events leading to nucleosome remodeling. We propose a model mechanism for this transcription factor-mediated enhancement of SWI/SNF octamer transfer activity. PMID:17235287

  6. Evaluation of Neutron Poison Materials for DOE SNF Disposal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors is being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for ultimate disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Most of the aluminum-based fuel material contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) (more than 20 percent 235U), which challenges the preclusion of criticality events for disposal periods exceeding 10,000 years. Recent criticality analyses have shown that the addition of neutron absorbing materials (poisons) is needed in waste packages containing DOE SNF canisters fully loaded with Al-SNF under flooded and degraded configurations to demonstrate compliance with the requirement that Keff less than 0.95. Compatibility of poison matrix materials and the Al-SNF, including their relative degradation rate and solubility, are important to maintain criticality control. An assessment of the viability of poison and matrix materials has been conducted, and an experimental corrosion program has been initiated to provide data on degradation rates of poison and matrix materials and Al-SNF materials under repository relevant vapor and aqueous environments. Initial testing includes Al6061, Type 316L stainless steel, and A516Gr55 in synthesized J-13 water vapor at 50 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C and in condensate water vapor at 100 degrees C. Preliminary results are presented herein.

  7. TRIGA Mark II Criticality Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz

    2000-12-15

    The experimental results of criticality benchmark experiments performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor are presented. The experiments were performed with partly burned fuel in two compact and uniform core configurations in the same arrangements as were used in the fresh fuel criticality benchmark experiment performed in 1991. In the experiments, both core configurations contained only 12 wt% U-ZrH fuel with 20% enriched uranium. The first experimental core contained 43 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.22 MWd or 2.8% {sup 235}U burned. The last experimental core configuration was composed of 48 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.15 MWd or 2.6% {sup 235}U burned. The experimental determination of k{sub eff} for both core configurations, one subcritical and one critical, are presented. Burnup for all fuel elements was calculated in two-dimensional four-group diffusion approximation using the TRIGLAV code. The burnup of several fuel elements was measured also by the reactivity method.

  8. SWI/SNF in cardiac progenitor cell differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ienglam; Liu, Liu; Sham, Mai Har; Wang, Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Cardiogenesis requires proper specification, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). The differentiation of CPCs to specific cardiac cell types is likely guided by a comprehensive network comprised of cardiac transcription factors and epigenetic complexes. In this review, we describe how the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complexes work synergistically with transcription and epigenetic factors to direct specific cardiac gene expression during CPC differentiation. Furthermore, we discuss how SWI/SNF may prime chromatin for cardiac gene expression at a genome-wide level. A detailed understanding of SWI/SNF-mediated CPC differentiation will provide important insight into the etiology of cardica defects and help design novel therapies for heart disease. PMID:23606236

  9. Air Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Moses, S.D.; Shapovalov, V.I.; Morenko, A.

    2007-07-01

    Sometimes the only feasible means of shipping research reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) among countries is via air transport because of location or political conditions. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established a regulatory framework to certify air transport Type C casks. However, no such cask has been designed, built, tested, and certified. In lieu of an air transport cask, research reactor SNF has been transported using a Type B cask under an exemption with special arrangements for administrative and security controls. This work indicates that it may be feasible to transport commercial power reactor SNF assemblies via air, and that the cost is only about three times that of shipping it by railway. Optimization (i.e., reduction) of this cost factor has yet to be done. (authors)

  10. Thermal Evaluation for the Naval SNF Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal performance of the naval long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) under multiple disposal conditions in a monitored geologic repository (MGR). The scope of this calculation is limited to determination of thermal temperature profiles upon the surface of, and within, the naval long SNF WP. The objective is to develop a temperature profile history within the WP, at time increments up to 10,000 years of emplacement. The results of this calculation are intended to support the Naval SNF WP Analysis and Model Report (AMR) for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was performed to the specifications within its Technical Development Plan (TDP) (Ref. 8.16). This calculation is developed and documented in accordance with the AP-3.12Q/REV. 0IICN. 0 procedure, Calculations.

  11. Decommissioning of the TRIGA mark II and III and radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Doo Seong Hwang; Yoon Ji Lee; Gyeong Hwan Chung; Jei Kwon Moon

    2013-07-01

    KAERI has carried out decommissioning projects for two research reactors (KRR-1 and 2). The decommissioning project of KRR-1 (TRIGA Mark II) and 2 (TRIGA Mark III) was launched in 1997 with a total budget of 23.25 million US dollars. KRR-2 and all auxiliary facilities were already decommissioned, and KRR-1 is being decommissioned now. Much more dismantled waste is generated than in any other operations of nuclear facilities. Thus, the waste needs to be reduced and stabilized through decontamination or treatment before disposal. This paper introduces the current status of the decommissioning projects and describes the volume reduction and conditioning of decommissioning waste for final disposal. (authors)

  12. CONTAINMENT EVALUATION OF BREACHED AL-SNF FOR CASK TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D. W.; Sindelar, R. L.; Iyer, N. C.

    2005-11-07

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors (FRR/DRR) is being shipped to the Savannah River Site. To enter the U.S., the cask with loaded fuel must be certified to comply with the requirements in the Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The requirements include demonstration of containment of the cask with its contents under normal and accident conditions. Al-SNF is subject to corrosion degradation in water storage, and many of the fuel assemblies are ''failed'' or have through-clad damage. A methodology has been developed with technical bases to show that Al-SNF with cladding breaches can be directly transported in standard casks and maintained within the allowable release rates. The approach to evaluate the limiting allowable leakage rate, L{sub R}, for a cask with breached Al-SNF for comparison to its test leakage rate could be extended to other nuclear material systems. The approach for containment analysis of Al-SNF follows calculations for commercial spent fuel as provided in NUREG/CR-6487 that adopts ANSI N14.5 as a methodology for containment analysis. The material-specific features and characteristics of damaged Al-SNF (fuel materials, fabrication techniques, microstructure, radionuclide inventory, and vapor corrosion rates) that were derived from literature sources and/or developed in laboratory testing are applied to generate the four containment source terms that yield four separate cask cavity activity densities; namely, those from fines; gaseous fission product species; volatile fission product species; and fuel assembly crud. The activity values, A{sub 2}, are developed per the guidance of 10CFR71. The analysis is performed parametrically to evaluate maximum number of breached assemblies and exposed fuel area for a proposed shipment in a cask with a test leakage rate.

  13. Regulation of virulence factors, carbon utilization and virulence by SNF1 in Cryptococcus neoformans JEC21 and divergent actions of SNF1 between cryptococcal strains.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiao; Li, Dong; Liu, Xiaoguang; Pan, Jiao; Yan, Bing; Zhu, Xudong

    2010-12-01

    We describe here the functions of a Snf1/AMPK homolog in the human pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, strain JEC21. We found that JEC21 SNF1 is a key regulator for the biosynthesis of the major virulence factors, stress resistance and alternative carbon source utilization. Disruption of JEC21 SNF1 results in defects of laccase activity and capsule production, sensitivity to cation stress. Especially, we found that JEC21 SNF1 is essential for growth at elevated temperature and for thermotolerance. To our knowledge, a role for Snf1 proteins in thermotolerance has not been reported. Furthermore, we observed a functional divergence between JEC21 SNF1 and its equivalent from serotype A strain H99. A high temperature is needed for H99 SNF1 to function in stress response and carbon source preference, but not for the JEC21 SNF1. Our results confirmed a critical role of JEC21 SNF1 in regulation of stress response and virulence. Revelation of divergent actions of SNF1 may help to understand the evolution of cryptococcal pathogenesis and provides insights into the strain-associated biosynthesis of virulence factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accelerated Closure of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD, W.W.

    2001-02-01

    The K East and K West Basins, built in the early 1950s, have been used to store irradiated nuclear fuel from the Hanford N Reactor. This fuel, which is referred to as spent nuclear fuel (SNF), has been stored underwater since 1975 in KE Basin and since 1981 in KW Basin. There are 54,000 N Reactor fuel assemblies in 3,800 canisters in the K West Basin, and 51,000 fuel assemblies in 3,700 canisters in the K East Basin that total 2,100 metric tons of SNF.

  15. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care...

  16. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care...

  17. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care...

  18. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care...

  19. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. 409.85 Section 409.85 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care...

  20. Automated power control system for reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Anith Khairunnisa; Minhat, Mohd Sabri; Hassan, Mohd Khair

    2017-01-01

    Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) Mark II type undergoes safe operation for more than 30 years and the only research reactor exists in Malaysia. The main safety feature of Instrumentation and Control (I&C) system design is such that any failure in the electronic, or its associated components, does not lead to an uncontrolled rate of reactivity. The existed controller using feedback approach to control the reactor power. This paper introduces proposed controllers such as Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) and Proportional Integral Derivatives (PID) controller for the RTP simulation. In RTP, the most important considered parameter is the reactor power and act as nervous system. To design a controller for complex plant like RTP is quite difficult due to high cost and safety factors cause by the failure of the controller. Furthermore, to overcome these problems, a simulator can be used to replace functions the hardware and test could then be simulated using this simulator. In order to find the best controller, several controllers were proposed and the result will be analysed for study the performances of the controller. The output result will be used to find out the best RTP power controller using MATLAB/Simulink and gives result as close as the real RTP performances. Currently, the structures of RTP was design using MATLAB/Simulink tool that consist of fission chamber, controller, control rod position, height-to-worth of control rods and a RTP model. The controller will control the control rod position to make sure that the reactivity still under the limitation parameter. The results given from each controller will be analysed and validated through experiment data collected from RTP.

  1. Effect of Hospital–SNF Referral Linkages on Rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Momotazur; Foster, Andrew D; Grabowski, David C; Zinn, Jacqueline S; Mor, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether the rate of rehospitalization is lower among patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) with which a hospital has a strong linkage. Data Sources/Collection. We used national Medicare enrollment, claims, and the Minimum Data Set to examine 2.8 million newly discharged patients to 15,063 SNFs from 2,477 general hospitals between 2004 and 2006. Study Design. We examined the relationship between the proportion of discharges from a hospital and alternative SNFs on the rehospitalization of patients treated by that hospital–SNF pair using an instrumental variable approach. We used distances to alternative SNFs from residence of the patients of the originating hospital as the instrument. Principal Findings. Our estimates suggest that if the proportion of a hospital's discharges to an SNF was to increase by 10 percentage points, the likelihood of patients treated by that hospital–SNF pair to be rehospitalized within 30 days would decline by 1.2 percentage points, largely driven by fewer rehospitalizations within a week of hospital discharge. Conclusions. Stronger hospital–SNF linkages, independent of hospital ownership, were found to reduce rehospitalization rates. As hospitals are held accountable for patients' outcomes postdischarge under the Affordable Care Act, hospitals may steer their patients preferentially to fewer SNFs. PMID:24134773

  2. Ubp8 and SAGA Regulate Snf1 AMP Kinase Activity ▿

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Marenda A.; Koutelou, Evangelia; Hirsch, Calley; Akdemir, Kadir; Schibler, Andria; Barton, Michelle Craig; Dent, Sharon Y. R.

    2011-01-01

    Posttranslational modifications of histone proteins play important roles in the modulation of gene expression. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) 2-MDa SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5) complex, a well-studied multisubunit histone modifier, regulates gene expression through Gcn5-mediated histone acetylation and Ubp8-mediated histone deubiquitination. Using a proteomics approach, we determined that the SAGA complex also deubiquitinates nonhistone proteins, including Snf1, an AMP-activated kinase. Ubp8-mediated deubiquitination of Snf1 affects the stability and phosphorylation state of Snf1, thereby affecting Snf1 kinase activity. Others have reported that Gal83 is phosphorylated by Snf1, and we found that deletion of UBP8 causes decreased phosphorylation of Gal83, which is consistent with the effects of Ubp8 loss on Snf1 kinase functions. Overall, our data indicate that SAGA modulates the posttranslational modifications of Snf1 in order to fine-tune gene expression levels. PMID:21628526

  3. snf1lk encodes a protein kinase that may function in cell cycle regulation.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Angela; Huang, Guo-Ying; Huang, Gui-Yi; Nguyen, Ngoc-Thinh; Reuter, Sean; McBride, Jennifer L; Ruiz, Joseph C

    2004-06-01

    msk, myocardial SNF1-like kinase, was originally isolated in a screen for kinases expressed during early cardiogenesis in the mouse. msk maps to the proximal end of mouse chromosome 17 in a region that is syntenic with human chromosome 21q22.3, where the gene for SNF1LK, a predicted protein that shares 80% identity at the amino acid level with Msk, is located. Accordingly, msk has been redesignated snf1lk. Interestingly, the region encompassing the SNF1LK locus has been implicated in congenital heart defects often observed in patients with Down syndrome. snf1lk is also expressed in skeletal muscle progenitor cells of the somite beginning at 9.5 dpc. These data suggest a more general role for snf1lk in the earliest stages of muscle growth and/or differentiation. Consistent with a role in cell cycling, we observe that Chinese hamster ovary cells that express a tetracycline-inducible SNF1LK kinase domain do not divide, but undergo additional rounds of replication to yield 8N and 16N cells. These data suggest a possible function for SNF1LK in G2/M regulation. We show data that indicate that SNF1LK does not share functional homology with other SNF1-related kinases, but represents a new subclass with novel molecular activities.

  4. SNF2H promotes hepatocellular carcinoma proliferation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanan; Qin, Juanxiu; Liu, Qian; Hong, Xufen; Li, Tianming; Zhu, Yuanjun; He, Lei; Zheng, Bing; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and has an extremely poor prognosis. Surgical resection is always inapplicable to HCC patients diagnosed at an advanced tumor stage. The mechanisms underlying HCC cell proliferation remain obscure. In the present study, SWItch/sucrose nonfermentable catalytic subunit SNF2 (SNF2H) expression was tested in HCC tissues and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation upon overexpression of SNF2H or knockdown of SNF2H expression was investigated in cultured HCC cells. It was demonstrated that SNF2H is a vital factor for HCC growth. The SNF2H expression level is increased in HCC tissues compared with paratumoral liver tissues. SNF2H promotes HCC cell proliferation and colony formation ability in vitro. SNF2H may increase the protein level of β-catenin and enhance its nuclear accumulation in HCC cells, thereby leading to the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the present results indicate that SNF2H plays a vital role in HCC cell growth, suggesting that SNF2H may be a promising therapeutic target for HCC treatment. PMID:27446433

  5. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  6. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-02-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of beta and gamma subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its beta and gamma subunits.

  7. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of β and γ subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its β and γ subunits. PMID:16201971

  8. ESCRT-III subunits Snf7-1 and Snf7-2 differentially regulate transmembrane cargos in hESC-derived human neurons

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds Endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) is involved in several fundamental cellular processes and human diseases. Many mammalian ESCRT proteins have multiple isoforms but their precise functions remain largely unknown, especially in human neurons. Results In this study, we differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into postmitotic neurons and characterized the functional properties of these neurons. Moreover, we found that among the three human paralogs of the yeast ESCRT-III subunit Snf7, hSnf7-1 and hSnf7-2 are most abundantly expressed in human neurons. Both hSnf7-1 and hSnf7-2 are required for the survival of human neurons, indicating a non-redundant essential function. Indeed, hSnf7-1 and hSnf7-2 are preferentially associated with CHMP2A and CHMP2B, respectively, and regulate the turnover of distinct transmembrane cargos such as neurotransmitter receptors in human neurons. Conclusion These findings indicate that different mammalian paralogs of the yeast ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 have non-redundant functions in human neurons, suggesting that ESCRT-III with distinct subunit compositions may preferentially regulate different cargo proteins. PMID:21975012

  9. Protein kinase A contributes to the negative control of Snf1 protein kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Barrett, LaKisha; Orlova, Marianna; Maziarz, Marcin; Kuchin, Sergei

    2012-02-01

    Snf1 protein kinase regulates responses to glucose limitation and other stresses. Snf1 activation requires phosphorylation of its T-loop threonine by partially redundant upstream kinases (Sak1, Tos3, and Elm1). Under favorable conditions, Snf1 is turned off by Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase. The reg1 mutation causes increased Snf1 activation and slow growth. To identify new components of the Snf1 pathway, we searched for mutations that, like snf1, suppress reg1 for the slow-growth phenotype. In addition to mutations in genes encoding known pathway components (SNF1, SNF4, and SAK1), we recovered "fast" mutations, designated fst1 and fst2. Unusual morphology of the mutants in the Σ1278b strains employed here helped us identify fst1 and fst2 as mutations in the RasGAP genes IRA1 and IRA2. Cells lacking Ira1, Ira2, or Bcy1, the negative regulatory subunit of cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA), exhibited reduced Snf1 pathway activation. Conversely, Snf1 activation was elevated in cells lacking the Gpr1 sugar receptor, which contributes to PKA signaling. We show that the Snf1-activating kinase Sak1 is phosphorylated in vivo on a conserved serine (Ser1074) within an ideal PKA motif. However, this phosphorylation alone appears to play only a modest role in regulation, and Sak1 is not the only relevant target of the PKA pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that PKA, which integrates multiple regulatory inputs, could contribute to Snf1 regulation under various conditions via a complex mechanism. Our results also support the view that, like its mammalian counterpart, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), yeast Snf1 participates in metabolic checkpoint control that coordinates growth with nutrient availability.

  10. Mechanism(s) of SWI/SNF-induced nucleosome mobilization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Balliano, Angela; Hayes, Jeffrey J

    2011-01-24

    Impediments to DNA access due to assembly of the eukaryotic genome into chromatin are in part overcome by the activity of ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes. These complexes employ energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to destabilize histone-DNA interactions and alter nucleosome positions, thereby increasing the accessibility of DNA-binding factors to their targets. However, the mechanism by which theses complexes accomplish this task remains unresolved. We review aspects of nucleosome alteration by the SWI/SNF complex, the archetypal remodeling enzyme. We focus on experiments that provide insights into how SWI/SNF induces nucleosome movement along DNA. Numerous biochemical activities have been characterized for this complex, all likely providing clues as to the molecular mechanism of translocation.

  11. Lessons learned from CIRFT testing on SNF vibration integrity study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L.; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) was developed to support U.S. NRC and DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign studies on high burn-up (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation during normal conditions of transport (NCT). Two devices were developed; the first CIRFT was successfully installed and operated in the ORNL hot-cells in September 2013. Since hot cell testing commenced several HBU SNF samples from both Zr-4 and M5 clads were investigated. The second CIRFT device was developed in February 2014, and has been used to test clad/fuel surrogate rods (stainless steel with alumina pellet inserts). The second CIRFT machine has also been used for sensor development and test sensitivity analyses, as well as loading boundary condition parameter studies. The lessons learned from CIRFT testing will be presented in this paper.

  12. SNF5 Mutation Leads to Intractable Pain in Schwannomatosis Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    increase in the number and type of sensory neurons that express the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 . Using a culture system, we have determined that...soluble factor is released by snf5-/- Schwann cells that acts on sensory neurons to induce the expression of TRPV1 . This factor is greater than 10K...molecular weight and does not affect neuron survival. The increase in the immunoreactivity of TRPV1 is correlated with an increase in the expression of

  13. SNF5 Mutation Leads to Intractable Pain in Schwannomatosis Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1 . Using a culture system, we have determined that soluble factor is released by snf5-/- Schwann cells that acts on...sensory neurons to induce the expression of TRPV1 . This factor is greater than 10K molecular weight and does not affect neuron survival. The increase in...the immunoreactivity of TRPV1 is correlated with an increase in the expression of functional capsaicin-sensitive ion fluxes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS

  14. Stille couplings catalytic in tin: a "Sn-F" approach.

    PubMed

    Maleczka, R E; Gallagher, W P

    2001-12-27

    A new tin recycling method for Stille couplings catalytic in tin is reported. PMHS made hypercoordinate by KF((aq)) allows Me(3)SnH to be efficiently recycled during a Pd(0)-catalyzed hydrostannation/Stille cascade. Relative to previously disclosed protocols, reaction times are shorter and because this process is believed to proceed through a Me(3)SnF intermediate the hazards and problems associated with trimethyltins are also diminished.[reaction: see text

  15. SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMANN, D.W.

    1999-02-24

    This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.

  16. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of SnF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Dingguo; Balasubramanian, K.

    1994-07-01

    Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of 20 electronic states of SnF arising from valence dissociation limits are computed using the complete active space MCSCF (CASSCF) followed by first- and second-order configuration interaction (FOCI, SOCI) methods, which included up to one million configurations. Our computed spectroscopic constants of five electronic states fit well with the experimentally observed X, A, a, and C states. The dipole moments and other yet to be observed properties of several electronic states are reported.

  17. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Tri-gas Thruster Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorado, Vanessa; Grunder, Zachary; Schaefer, Bryce; Sung, Meagan; Pedersen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, spacecraft reaction control systems have primarily utilized cold gas thrusters because of their inherent simplicity and reliability. However, cold gas thrusters typically have a low specific impulse. It has been determined that a higher specific impulse can be achieved by passing a monopropellant fluid mixture through a catalyst bed prior to expulsion through the thruster nozzle. This research analyzes the potential efficiency improvements from using tri-gas, a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen, and an inert gas, which in this case is helium. Passing tri-gas through a catalyst causes the hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water vapor, ultimately heating the exiting fluid and generating a higher specific impulse. The goal of this project was to optimize the thruster performance by characterizing the effects of varying several system components including catalyst types, catalyst lengths, and initial catalyst temperatures.

  18. Experimental power density distribution benchmark in the TRIGA Mark II reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Stancar, Z.; Radulovic, V.; Podvratnik, M.; Zerovnik, G.; Trkov, A.; Barbot, L.; Domergue, C.; Destouches, C.

    2012-07-01

    In order to improve the power calibration process and to benchmark the existing computational model of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Josef Stefan Inst. (JSI), a bilateral project was started as part of the agreement between the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA) and the Ministry of higher education, science and technology of Slovenia. One of the objectives of the project was to analyze and improve the power calibration process of the JSI TRIGA reactor (procedural improvement and uncertainty reduction) by using absolutely calibrated CEA fission chambers (FCs). This is one of the few available power density distribution benchmarks for testing not only the fission rate distribution but also the absolute values of the fission rates. Our preliminary calculations indicate that the total experimental uncertainty of the measured reaction rate is sufficiently low that the experiments could be considered as benchmark experiments. (authors)

  19. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system.

  20. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.

    2017-02-01

    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  1. Verifying the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method using the TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon-Sam; Leyine, S.H.

    1984-07-01

    A new experimental/analytical method has been developed using the Penn State Breazeale (TRIGA) reactor, to measure the k{sub eff} of a damaged core, e.g., the TMI-2 core, and unfold its k{sub infinity} distribution. This new method, the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method, uses the response of several neutron detectors in fixed positions around the core periphery (and possibly in the core) when a neutron source is placed sequentially in different discrete core positions. Experiments have been performed with the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR) and analyzed with appropriate neutron calculations, using PSU-LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II (EXT-II), to verify the method.

  2. Fission yeast SWI/SNF and RSC complexes show compositional and functional differences from budding yeast.

    PubMed

    Monahan, Brendon J; Villén, Judit; Marguerat, Samuel; Bähler, Jürg; Gygi, Steven P; Winston, Fred

    2008-08-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes have crucial roles in transcription and other chromatin-related processes. The analysis of the two members of this class in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SWI/SNF and RSC, has heavily contributed to our understanding of these complexes. To understand the in vivo functions of SWI/SNF and RSC in an evolutionarily distant organism, we have characterized these complexes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although core components are conserved between the two yeasts, the compositions of S. pombe SWI/SNF and RSC differ from their S. cerevisiae counterparts and in some ways are more similar to metazoan complexes. Furthermore, several of the conserved proteins, including actin-like proteins, are markedly different between the two yeasts with respect to their requirement for viability. Finally, phenotypic and microarray analyses identified widespread requirements for SWI/SNF and RSC on transcription including strong evidence that SWI/SNF directly represses iron-transport genes.

  3. AMPK in Yeast: The SNF1 (Sucrose Non-fermenting 1) Protein Kinase Complex.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Pascual; Viana, Rosa; Garcia-Gimeno, Maria Adelaida

    2016-01-01

    In yeast, SNF1 protein kinase is the orthologue of mammalian AMPK complex. It is a trimeric complex composed of Snf1 protein kinase (orthologue of AMPKα catalytic subunit), Snf4 (orthologue of AMPKγ regulatory subunit), and a member of the Gal83/Sip1/Sip2 family of proteins (orthologues of AMPKβ subunit) that act as scaffolds and also regulate the subcellular localization of the complex. In this chapter, we review the recent literature on the characteristics of SNF1 complex subunits, the structure and regulation of the activity of the SNF1 complex, its role at the level of transcriptional regulation of relevant target genes and also at the level of posttranslational modification of targeted substrates. We also review the crosstalk of SNF1 complex activity with other key protein kinase pathways such as cAMP-PKA, TORC1, and PAS kinase.

  4. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2017, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and SNF Payment Models Research. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-05

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2017. In addition, it specifies a potentially preventable readmission measure for the Skilled Nursing Facility Value-Based Purchasing Program (SNF VBP), and implements requirements for that program, including performance standards, a scoring methodology, and a review and correction process for performance information to be made public, aimed at implementing value-based purchasing for SNFs. Additionally, this final rule includes additional polices and measures in the Skilled Nursing Facility Quality Reporting Program (SNF QRP). This final rule also responds to comments on the SNF Payment Models Research (PMR) project.

  5. Production of {sup 99}Mo using LEU and molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The production of {sup 99}Mo using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and natural molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor is investigated. The successive linear programming technique is applied to minimize the target loadings for different yield constraints. The irradiation time is related to the kinetics of the growth and decay of {sup 99}Mo. The feasibility of a neutron generated based {sup 99}Mo production system is discussed.

  6. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-01

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP).

  7. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    SciTech Connect

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-12

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP)

  8. Fundamental approach to TRIGA steady-state thermal-hydraulic CHF analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-03-30

    Methods are investigated for predicting the power at which critical heat flux (CHF) occurs in TRIGA reactors that rely on natural convection for primary flow. For a representative TRIGA reactor, two sets of functions are created. For the first set, the General Atomics STAT code and the more widely-used RELAP5-3D code are each employed to obtain reactor flow rate as a function of power. For the second set, the Bernath correlation, the 2006 Groeneveld table, the Hall and Mudawar outlet correlation, and each of the four PG-CHF correlations for rod bundles are used to predict the power at which CHF occurs as a function of channel flow rate. The two sets of functions are combined to yield predictions of the power at which CHF occurs in the reactor. A combination of the RELAP5-3D code and the 2006 Groeneveld table predicts 67% more CHF power than does a combination of the STAT code and the Bernath correlation. Replacing the 2006 Groeneveld table with the Bernath CHF correlation (while using the RELAP5-3D code flow solution) causes the increase to be 23% instead of 67%. Additional RELAP5-3D flow-versus-power solutions obtained from Reference 1 and presented in Appendix B for four specific TRIGA reactors further demonstrates that the Bernath correlation predicts CHF to occur at considerably lower power levels than does the 2006 Groeneveld table. Because of the lack of measured CHF data in the region of interest to TRIGA reactors, none of the CHF correlations considered can be assumed to provide the definitive CHF power. It is recommended, however, to compare the power levels of the potential limiting rods with the power levels at which the Bernath and 2006 Groeneveld CHF correlations predict CHF to occur.

  9. Biochemical and functional studies on the regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK homolog SNF1

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Gabriele A.; Momcilovic, Milica; Carlson, Marian; Tong, Liang

    2010-01-01

    Summary AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator for controlling cellular energy homeostasis. Its homolog in yeast, SNF1, is activated in response to glucose depletion and other stresses. The catalytic (α) subunit of AMPK/SNF1, Snf1 in yeast, contains a protein Ser/Thr kinase domain (KD), an auto-inhibitory domain (AID), and a region that mediates interactions with the two regulatory (β and γ) subunits. Previous studies suggested that Snf1 contains an additional segment, a regulatory sequence (RS, corresponding to residues 392-518), which may also have an important role in regulating the activity of the enzyme. The crystal structure of the heterotrimer core of S. cerevisiae SNF1 showed interactions between a part of the RS (residues 460-498) and the γ subunit Snf4. Here we report biochemical and functional studies on the regulation of SNF1 by the RS. GST pulldown experiments demonstrate strong and direct interactions between residues 450-500 of the RS and the heterotrimer core, and single-site mutations in the RS-Snf4 interface can greatly reduce these interactions in vitro. On the other hand, functional studies appear to show only small effects of the RS-Snf4 interactions on the activity of SNF1 in vivo. This suggests that residues 450–500 may be constitutively associated with Snf4, and the remaining segments of the RS, as well as the AID, may be involved in regulating SNF1 activity. PMID:20529674

  10. Neutron flux characterisation of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II research reactor for radiobiological and microdosimetric applications.

    PubMed

    Alloni, D; Prata, M; Salvini, A; Ottolenghi, A

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays the Pavia TRIGA reactor is available for national and international collaboration in various research fields. The TRIGA Mark II nuclear research reactor of the Pavia University offers different in- and out-core neutron irradiation channels, each characterised by different neutron spectra. In the last two years a campaign of measurements and simulations has been performed in order to guarantee a better characterisation of these different fluxes and to meet the demands of irradiations that require precise information on these spectra in particular for radiobiological and microdosimetric studies. Experimental data on neutron fluxes have been collected analysing and measuring the gamma activity induced in thin target foils of different materials irradiated in different TRIGA experimental channels. The data on the induced gamma activities have been processed with the SAND II deconvolution code and finally compared with the spectra obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison between simulated and measured spectra showed a good agreement allowing a more precise characterisation of the neutron spectra and a validation of the adopted method.

  11. Transport model based on three-dimensional cross-section generation for TRIGA core analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriangchaiporn, Nateekool

    This dissertation addresses the development of a reactor core physics model based on 3-D transport methodology utilizing 3-D multigroup fuel lattice cross-section generation and core calculation for PSBR. The proposed 3-D transport calculation scheme for reactor core simulations is based on the TORT code. The methodology includes development of algorithms for 2-D and 3-D cross-section generation. The fine- and broad-group structures for the TRIGA cross-section generation problems were developed based on the CPXSD (Contributon and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven) methodology that selects effective group structure. Along with the study of cross section generation, the parametric studies for SN calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of the spatial meshing, angular, and scattering order variables and to obtain the suitable values for cross-section collapsing of the TRIGA cell problem. The TRIGA core loading 2 is used to verify and validate the selected effective group structures. Finally, the 13 group structure was selected to use for core calculations. The results agree with continuous energy for eigenvalues and normalized pin power distribution. The Monte Carlo solutions are used as the references.

  12. Modeling of γ field around irradiated TRIGA fuel elements by R2S method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemen, Ambrožič; Luka, Snoj

    2017-09-01

    The JSI TRIGA reactor has several irradiation facilities with well characterized neutron fields. The characterization was performed by measurements and by utilizing Monte Carlo particle transport computational methods. Because of this, JSI TRIGA has become a reference center for neutron irradiation of detectors for ATLAS experiment (CERN). Thorough γ characterization of the reactor is however yet to be performed. Current Monte Carlo particle transport code only account for the prompt generation of neutron induced γ rays, which have been characterized, but are neglecting the time dependent delayed part, which may in some cases amount to more then 30% of total γ flux in an operation reactor, and is the only source of γ-rays after reactor shutdown. Several common approaches of modeling delayed -rays , namely D1S and R2S exist. In this paper an in-house developed R2S method code is described, coupling a Monte Carlo particle transport code MCNP6 and neutron activation code FISPACT-II, with intermediate steps performed by custom Python scripts. An example of its capabilities is presented in terms of evaluation of utilization of JSI TRIGA nuclear fuel as a viable γ-ray source. In the model, fresh nuclear fuel is considered and a silicon pipe sample is modeled in. Fuel activities, dose and kerma rates on the sample, as well as emitted γ-ray spectra and isotopic contribution to the contact dose are calculated and presented.

  13. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff Anuar, Abul Adli Idris, Hairul Nizam Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  14. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  15. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

    2010-06-22

    Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

  16. Use of tri-gas incubator for routine culture of Campylobacter species from fecal specimens.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, J S; Hodge, D S; Smith, D E; Yong, Y A

    1990-01-01

    We evaluated a tri-gas incubator for Campylobacter isolation to be used instead of an anaerobic jar. Fecal specimens were cultured in duplicate onto charcoal selective medium and incubated at 43 degrees C for 48 h in two different environments: a tri-gas incubator (Forma Scientific) adjusted to provide an atmosphere of 10% CO2, 10% O2, and the balance N2; and evacuated anaerobic jars with a replacement gas mixture of 10% CO2, 5% O2, and 85% N2. A total of 106 Campylobacter jejuni and 8 Campylobacter coli isolates were obtained from 2,348 stool specimens. Of the positive specimens, 113 isolates came from the incubator and 111 isolates came from the anaerobic jars. An additional 32 previously positive specimens were replated onto charcoal selective medium and retested by both methods. We recovered 27 C. jejuni isolates, 26 isolates by each method. The isolates from the incubator typically produced discrete colonies, while the isolates from the anaerobic jar showed some degree of swarming in colony formation. The tri-gas incubator provided a cost-effective method for culturing Campylobacter spp. PMID:2280012

  17. The SWI/SNF Complex Protein Snr1 Is a Tumor Suppressor in Drosophila Imaginal Tissues.

    PubMed

    Xie, Gengqiang; Chen, Hanqing; Jia, Dongyu; Shu, Zhiqiang; Palmer, William Hunt; Huang, Yi-Chun; Zeng, Xiankun; Hou, Steven X; Jiao, Renjie; Deng, Wu-Min

    2017-02-15

    Components of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex are among the most frequently mutated genes in various human cancers, yet only SMARCB1/hSNF5, a core member of the SWI/SNF complex, is mutated in malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRT). How SMARCB1/hSNF5 functions differently from other members of the SWI/SNF complex remains unclear. Here, we use Drosophila imaginal epithelial tissues to demonstrate that Snr1, the conserved homolog of human SMARCB1/hSNF5, prevents tumorigenesis by maintaining normal endosomal trafficking-mediated signaling cascades. Removal of Snr1 resulted in neoplastic tumorigenic overgrowth in imaginal epithelial tissues, whereas depletion of any other members of the SWI/SNF complex did not induce similar phenotypes. Unlike other components of the SWI/SNF complex that were detected only in the nucleus, Snr1 was observed in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Aberrant regulation of multiple signaling pathways, including Notch, JNK, and JAK/STAT, was responsible for tumor progression upon snr1-depletion. Our results suggest that the cytoplasmic Snr1 may play a tumor suppressive role in Drosophila imaginal tissues, offering a foundation for understanding the pivotal role of SMARCB1/hSNF5 in suppressing MRT during early childhood. Cancer Res; 77(4); 862-73. ©2017 AACR.

  18. Caloric Restriction Extends Yeast Chronological Life Span by Optimizing the Snf1 (AMPK) Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Wierman, Margaret B; Maqani, Nazif; Strickler, Erika; Li, Mingguang; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2017-07-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the homologous yeast SNF1 complex are key regulators of energy metabolism that counteract nutrient deficiency and ATP depletion by phosphorylating multiple enzymes and transcription factors that maintain energetic homeostasis. AMPK/SNF1 also promotes longevity in several model organisms, including yeast. Here we investigate the role of yeast SNF1 in mediating the extension of chronological life span (CLS) by caloric restriction (CR). We find that SNF1 activity is required throughout the transition of log phase to stationary phase (diauxic shift) for effective CLS extension. CR expands the period of maximal SNF1 activation beyond the diauxic shift, as indicated by Sak1-dependent T210 phosphorylation of the Snf1 catalytic α-subunit. A concomitant increase in ADP is consistent with SNF1 activation by ADP in vivo Downstream of SNF1, the Cat8 and Adr1 transcription factors are required for full CR-induced CLS extension, implicating an alternative carbon source utilization for acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) production and gluconeogenesis. Indeed, CR increased acetyl-CoA levels during the diauxic shift, along with expression of both acetyl-CoA synthetase genes ACS1 and ACS2 We conclude that CR maximizes Snf1 activity throughout and beyond the diauxic shift, thus optimizing the coordination of nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA production with massive reorganization of the transcriptome and respiratory metabolism. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  19. Crystal Structure of the Heterotrimer Core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK Homologue SNF1

    SciTech Connect

    Amodeo,G.; Rudolph, M.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis in mammals and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, obesity and other diseases. The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems to be activated by a ligand other than AMP. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.6 resolution of the heterotrimer core of SNF1. The ligand-binding site in the {gamma}-subunit (Snf4) has clear structural differences from that of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe enzyme, although our crystallographic data indicate that AMP can also bind to Snf4. The glycogen-binding domain in the {beta}-subunit (Sip2) interacts with Snf4 in the heterotrimer but should still be able to bind carbohydrates. Our structure is supported by a large body of biochemical and genetic data on this complex. Most significantly, the structure reveals that part of the regulatory sequence in the {alpha}-subunit (Snf1) is sequestered by Snf4, demonstrating a direct interaction between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits and indicating that our structure may represent the heterotrimer core of SNF1 in its activated state.

  20. Subunits of the Snf1 kinase heterotrimer show interdependence for association and activity.

    PubMed

    Elbing, Karin; Rubenstein, Eric M; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-09-08

    The Snf1 kinase and its mammalian orthologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), function as heterotrimers composed of a catalytic alpha-subunit and two non-catalytic subunits, beta and gamma. The beta-subunit is thought to hold the complex together and control subcellular localization whereas the gamma-subunit plays a regulatory role by binding to and blocking the function of an auto-inhibitory domain (AID) present in the alpha-subunit. In addition, catalytic activity requires phosphorylation by a distinct upstream kinase. In yeast, any one of three Snf1-activating kinases, Sak1, Tos3, or Elm1, can fulfill this role. We have previously shown that Sak1 is the only Snf1-activating kinase that forms a stable complex with Snf1. Here we show that the formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex requires the beta- and gamma-subunits in vivo. However, formation of the Sak1.Snf1 complex is not necessary for glucose-regulated phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop. Snf1 kinase purified from cells lacking the beta-subunits do not contain any gamma-subunit, indicating that the Snf1 kinase does not form a stable alphagamma dimer in vivo. In vitro kinase assays using purified full-length and truncated Snf1 proteins demonstrate that the kinase domain, which lacks the AID, is significantly more active than the full-length Snf1 protein. Addition of purified beta- and gamma-subunits could stimulate the kinase activity of the full-length alpha-subunit but only when all three subunits were present, suggesting an interdependence of all three subunits for assembly of a functional complex.

  1. SWI/SNF gene variants and glioma risk and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Amankwah, Ernest K.; Thompson, Reid C.; Nabors, L. Burton; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Browning, James E.; Madden, Melissa H.; Egan, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The human SWItch/Sucrose Non-Fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex plays essential roles in a variety of cellular processes and has been implicated in human cancer. However, the role of germline genetic variants in this complex in relation to cancer risk is not well studied. METHODS We assessed the association of 16 variants in the catalytic subunits (SMARCA2 and SMARCA4) of the SWI/SNF complex with the risk of glioma subtypes (lower grade astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma and glioblastoma [GBM]) and with mortality from high-grade tumors (GBM) in a multicenter US case-control study that included 561 cases and 574 controls. Associations were estimated with odds ratios (OR, for risk) or hazards ratios (HR, for mortality) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). False discovery rate (FDR-q) was used to control for multiple testing in risk associations. RESULTS None of the investigated SNPs was associated with overall glioma risk. However, analyses according to histological subtypes revealed a statistically significant increased risk of oligodendroglioma in association with SMARCA2 rs2296212 (OR=4.05, 95%CI=1.11-14.80, P=0.030, q=0.08) and rs4741651 (OR=4.68, 95%CI=1.43-15.30, P=0.011, q=0.08) and SMARCA4 rs11672232 (OR=1.90, 95%CI=1.01-3.58, P=0.048, q=0.08) and rs12232780 (OR=2.14, 95%CI=1.06-4.33, P=0.035, q=0.08). No significant risk associations were observed for GBM or lower grade astrocytoma. Suggestive associations with GBM mortality were not validated in the Cancer Genome Atlas. CONCLUSION Our findings suggest that genetic variants in SMARCA2 and SMARCA4 influence the risk of oligodendroglioma. Further research is warranted on the SWI/SNF complex genes and epigenetic mechanisms more generally in the development of glioma in adults. PMID:23276717

  2. The remote methods for radwaste and SNF control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, O.; Stepanov, V.; Danilovich, A.; Potapov, V.

    2017-01-01

    With the examples of developments carried out in the Kurchatov Institute and by the world leaders in the field the presentation considers the devices and methods to obtain remotely information on the distribution of radioactivity in radwaste and SNF. It describes the different types of light portable gamma cameras. The application of scanning spectrometric systems is considers also. The methods of recording UV radiation for detection of alpha contamination with the luminescence of air are presented. We discuss the scope and tasks that can be solved using remote and non-destructive methods.

  3. The history and perspective of Romania-USA cooperation in the field of technologic transfer of TRIGA reactor concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ciocaanescu, M.; Ionescu, M.

    1996-08-01

    The cooperation between Romania and the USA in the field of technologic transfer of nuclear research reactor technology began with the steady state 14 MW{sub t} TRIGA reactor, installed at INR Pitesti, Romania. It is the first in the range of TRIGA reactors proposed as a materials testing reactor. The first criticality was reached in November 19, 1979 and first operation at 14 MW{sub t} level was in February 1980. The paper will present the short history of this cooperation and the perspective for a new cooperation for building a Nuclear Heating Plant using the TRIGA reactor concept for demonstration purpose. The energy crisis is a world-wide problem which affects each country in different ways because the resources and the consumption are unfairly distributed. World-wide research points out that the fossil fuel sources are not to be considered the main energy sources for the long term as they are limited.

  4. Transcriptional Activation Domains of Human Heat Shock Factor 1 Recruit Human SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, E. Kelly; Weirich, Christine S.; Guyon, Jeffrey R.; Sif, Saïd; Kingston, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomal DNA and increase transcription of nucleosomal templates. Human heat shock factor one (hHSF1) is a tightly regulated activator that stimulates transcriptional initiation and elongation using different portions of its activation domains. Here we demonstrate that hHSF1 associates with BRG1, the ATPase subunit of human SWI/SNF (hSWI/SNF) at endogenous protein concentrations. We also show that hHSF1 activation domains recruit hSWI/SNF to a chromatin template in a purified system. Mutation of hHSF1 residues responsible for activation of transcriptional elongation has the most severe effect on recruitment of SWI/SNF and association of hHSF1 with BRG1, suggesting that recruitment of chromatin remodeling activity might play a role in stimulation of elongation. PMID:11486022

  5. SWI/SNF-directed stem cell lineage specification: dynamic composition regulates specific stages of skeletal myogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Toto, Paula Coutinho; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Albini, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes are key regulators of the epigenetic modifications that determine whether stem cells maintain pluripotency or commit toward specific lineages through development and during postnatal life. Dynamic combinatorial assembly of multiple variants of SWI/SNF subunits is emerging as the major determinant of the functional versatility of SWI/SNF. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural and functional properties of the alternative SWI/SNF complexes that direct stem cell fate toward skeletal muscle lineage and control distinct stages of skeletal myogenesis. In particular, we will refer to recent evidence pointing to the essential role of two SWI/SNF components not expressed in embryonic stem cells—the catalytic subunit BRM and the structural component BAF60C—whose induction in muscle progenitors coincides with the expansion of their transcriptional repertoire. PMID:27207468

  6. NSNFP Activities in Support of Repository Licensing for Disposal of DOE SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Henry H. Loo; Brett W.. Carlsen; Sheryl L. Morton; Larry L. Taylor; Gregg W. Wachs

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is in the process of preparing the Yucca Mountain license application for submission to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the nation’s first geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste. Because the DOE SNF will be part of the license application, there are various components of the license application that will require information relative to the DOE SNF. The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is the organization that directs the research, development, and testing of treatment, shipment, and disposal technologies for all DOE SNF. This report documents the work activities conducted by the NSNFP and discusses the relationship between these NSNFP technical activities and the license application. A number of the NSNFP activities were performed to provide risk insights and understanding of DOE SNF disposal as well as to prepare for anticipated questions from the regulatory agency.

  7. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  8. SNF sludge treatment system preliminary project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    Flament, T.A.

    1998-03-03

    The Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) Project Director for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project has requested Numatec Hanford Company (NHC) to define how Hanford would manage a new subproject to provide a process system to receive and chemically treat radioactive sludge currently stored in the 100 K Area fuel retention basins. The subproject, named the Sludge Treatment System (STS) Subproject, provides and operates facilities and equipment to chemically process K Basin sludge to meet Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) requirements. This document sets forth the NHC management approach for the STS Subproject and will comply with the requirements of the SNF Project Management Plan (HNF-SD-SNFPMP-011). This version of this document is intended to apply to the initial phase of the subproject and to evolve through subsequent revision to include all design, fabrication, and construction conducted on the project and the necessary management and engineering functions within the scope of the subproject. As Project Manager, NHC will perform those activities necessary to complete the STS Subproject within approved cost and schedule baselines and turn over to FDH facilities, systems, and documentation necessary for operation of the STS.

  9. Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus

    2001-09-01

    With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.

  10. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes.

    PubMed

    Strange, Rex Meade; Russelburg, L Peyton; Delaney, Kimberly J

    2016-08-01

    Although the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing has been well characterized, the evolution of spliceosomal proteins is poorly understood. The U1A/U2B″/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both the U1 and U2 small interacting nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The highly constrained nature of this system has inhibited an analysis of co-evolutionary trends between the proteins and their RNA binding targets. Here we report accelerated sequence evolution in the SNF protein family in Phylum Nematoda, which has allowed an analysis of protein:RNA co-evolution. In a comparison of SNF genes from ecdysozoan species, we found a correlation between trans-splicing species (nematodes) and increased phylogenetic branch lengths of the SNF protein family, with respect to their sister clade Arthropoda. In particular, we found that nematodes (~70-80 % of pre-mRNAs are trans-spliced) have experienced higher rates of SNF sequence evolution than arthropods (predominantly cis-spliced) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, this increased evolutionary rate correlates with the reliance on trans-splicing by nematodes, which would alter the role of the SNF family of spliceosomal proteins. We mapped amino acid substitutions to functionally important regions of the SNF protein, specifically to sites that are predicted to disrupt protein:RNA and protein:protein interactions. Finally, we investigated SNF's RNA targets: the U1 and U2 snRNAs. Both are more divergent in nematodes than arthropods, suggesting the RNAs have co-evolved with SNF in order to maintain the necessarily high affinity interaction that has been characterized in other species.

  11. Interaction maps of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ESCRT-III protein Snf7.

    PubMed

    Sciskala, Barbara; Kölling, Ralf

    2013-11-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ESCRT-III protein Snf7 is part of an intricate interaction network at the endosomal membrane. Interaction maps of Snf7 were established by measuring the degree of binding of individual binding partners to putative binding motifs along the Snf7 sequence by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pulldown. For each interaction partner, distinct binding profiles were obtained. The following observations were made. The ESCRT-III subunits Vps20 and Vps24 showed a complementary binding pattern, suggesting a model for the series of events in the ESCRT-III functional cycle. Vps4 bound to individual Snf7 motifs but not to full-length Snf7. This suggests that Vps4 does not bind to the closed conformation of Snf7. We also demonstrate for the first time that the ALIX/Bro1 homologue Rim20 binds to the α6 helix of Snf7. Analysis of a Snf7 α6 deletion mutant showed that the α6 helix is crucial for binding of Bro1 and Rim20 in vivo and is indispensable for the multivesicular body (MVB)-sorting and Rim-signaling functions of Snf7. The Snf7Δα6 protein still appeared to be incorporated into ESCRT-III complexes at the endosomal membrane, but disassembly of the complex seemed to be defective. In summary, our study argues against the view that the ESCRT cycle is governed by single one-to-one interactions between individual components and emphasizes the network character of the ESCRT interactions.

  12. Monte Carlo Simulation of the TRIGA Mark II Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Jeraj, Robert; Zagar, Tomaz; Ravnik, Matjaz

    2002-03-15

    Monte Carlo calculations of a criticality experiment with burned fuel on the TRIGA Mark II research reactor are presented. The main objective was to incorporate burned fuel composition calculated with the WIMSD4 deterministic code into the MCNP4B Monte Carlo code and compare the calculated k{sub eff} with the measurements. The criticality experiment was performed in 1998 at the ''Jozef Stefan'' Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with the same fuel elements and loading pattern as in the TRIGA criticality benchmark experiment with fresh fuel performed in 1991. The only difference was that in 1998, the fuel elements had on average burnup of {approx}3%, corresponding to 1.3-MWd energy produced in the core in the period between 1991 and 1998. The fuel element burnup accumulated during 1991-1998 was calculated with the TRIGLAV in-house-developed fuel management two-dimensional multigroup diffusion code. The burned fuel isotopic composition was calculated with the WIMSD4 code and compared to the ORIGEN2 calculations. Extensive comparison of burned fuel material composition was performed for both codes for burnups up to 20% burned {sup 235}U, and the differences were evaluated in terms of reactivity. The WIMSD4 and ORIGEN2 results agreed well for all isotopes important in reactivity calculations, giving increased confidence in the WIMSD4 calculation of the burned fuel material composition. The k{sub eff} calculated with the combined WIMSD4 and MCNP4B calculations showed good agreement with the experimental values. This shows that linking of WIMSD4 with MCNP4B for criticality calculations with burned fuel is feasible and gives reliable results.

  13. Argon-41 production and evolution at the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor (OSTR)

    SciTech Connect

    Anellis, L.G.; Johnson, A.G.; Higginbotham, J.F.

    1988-07-01

    In this study, argon-41 concentrations were measured at various locations within the reactor facility to assess the accuracy of models used to predict argon-41 evolution from the reactor tank, and to determine the relationship between argon gas evolution from the tank and subsequent argon-41 concentrations throughout the reactor room. In particular, argon-41 was measured directly above the reactor tank with the reactor tank lids closed, at other accessible locations on the reactor top with the tank lids both closed and open, and at several locations on the first floor of the reactor room. These measured concentrations were then compared to values calculated using a modified argon-41 production and evolution model for TRIGA reactor tanks and ventilation values applicable to the OSTR facility. The modified model was based in part on earlier TRIGA models for argon-41 production and release, but added features which improved the agreement between predicted and measured values. The approximate dose equivalent rate due to the presence of argon-41 in reactor room air was calculated for several different locations inside the OSTR facility. These dose rates were determined using the argon-41 concentration measured at each specific location, and were subsequently converted to a predicted quarterly dose equivalent for each location based on the reactor's operating history. The predicted quarterly dose equivalent values were then compared to quarterly doses measured by film badges deployed as dose-integrating area radiation monitors at the locations of interest. The results indicate that the modified production and evolution model is able to predict argon-41 concentrations to within a factor of ten when compared to the measured data. Quarterly dose equivalents calculated from the measured argon-41 concentrations and the reactor's operating history seemed consistent with results obtained from the integrating area radiation monitors. Given the argon-41 concentrations measured

  14. Technical Specifications for the Neutron Radiography Facility (TRIGA Mark 1 Reactor). Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.L.; Perfect, J.F.

    1988-04-01

    These Technical Specifications state the limits under which the Neutron Radiography Facility, with its associated TRIGA Mark I Reactor, is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. These specifications cover operation of the Facility for the purpose of examination of specimens (including contained fissile material) by neutron radiography, for the irradiation of specimens in the pneumatic transfer system and approved in-core or in-pool irradiation facilities and operator training. The Final Safety Analysis Report (TC-344) and its supplements, and these Technical Specifications are the basic safety documents of the Neutron Radiography Facility.

  15. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-01

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  16. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    SciTech Connect

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-22

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  17. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications.

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Türkmen, Mehmet; Çakir, Tahir; Reyhancan, İskender A; Çolak, Üner; Okka, Muhittin; Kiziltaş, Sahip

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au-Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented.

  18. The spectrum of SWI/SNF mutations, ubiquitous in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Shain, A Hunter; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complex that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to reposition nucleosomes, thereby modulating gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that SWI/SNF functions as a tumor suppressor in some cancers. However, the spectrum of SWI/SNF mutations across human cancers has not been systematically investigated. Here, we mined whole-exome sequencing data from 24 published studies representing 669 cases from 18 neoplastic diagnoses. SWI/SNF mutations were widespread across diverse human cancers, with an excess of deleterious mutations, and an overall frequency approaching TP53 mutation. Mutations occurred most commonly in the SMARCA4 enzymatic subunit, and in subunits thought to confer functional specificity (ARID1A, ARID1B, PBRM1, and ARID2). SWI/SNF mutations were not mutually-exclusive of other mutated cancer genes, including TP53 and EZH2 (both previously linked to SWI/SNF). Our findings implicate SWI/SNF as an important but under-recognized tumor suppressor in diverse human cancers, and provide a key resource to guide future investigations.

  19. Mapping the interaction of Snf1 with TORC1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Vaga, Stefania; Chumnanpuen, Pramote; Kumar, Rahul; Vemuri, Goutham N; Aebersold, Ruedi; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-11-08

    Nutrient sensing and coordination of metabolic pathways are crucial functions for all living cells, but details of the coordination under different environmental conditions remain elusive. We therefore undertook a systems biology approach to investigate the interactions between the Snf1 and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that Snf1 regulates a much broader range of biological processes compared with TORC1 under both glucose- and ammonium-limited conditions. We also find that Snf1 has a role in upregulating the NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (encoded by GDH3) under derepressing condition, and therefore may also have a role in ammonium assimilation and amino-acid biosynthesis, which can be considered as a convergence of Snf1 and TORC1 pathways. In addition to the accepted role of Snf1 in regulating fatty acid (FA) metabolism, we show that TORC1 also regulates FA metabolism, likely through modulating the peroxisome and β-oxidation. Finally, we conclude that direct interactions between Snf1 and TORC1 pathways are unlikely under nutrient-limited conditions and propose that TORC1 is repressed in a manner that is independent of Snf1.

  20. Snf1-Dependent Transcription Confers Glucose-Induced Decay upon the mRNA Product.

    PubMed

    Braun, Katherine A; Dombek, Kenneth M; Young, Elton T

    2015-12-14

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the switch from respiratory metabolism to fermentation causes rapid decay of transcripts encoding proteins uniquely required for aerobic metabolism. Snf1, the yeast ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, has been implicated in this process because inhibiting Snf1 mimics the addition of glucose. In this study, we show that the SNF1-dependent ADH2 promoter, or just the major transcription factor binding site, is sufficient to confer glucose-induced mRNA decay upon heterologous transcripts. SNF1-independent expression from the ADH2 promoter prevented glucose-induced mRNA decay without altering the start site of transcription. SNF1-dependent transcripts are enriched for the binding motif of the RNA binding protein Vts1, an important mediator of mRNA decay and mRNA repression whose expression is correlated with decreased abundance of SNF1-dependent transcripts during the yeast metabolic cycle. However, deletion of VTS1 did not slow the rate of glucose-induced mRNA decay. ADH2 mRNA rapidly dissociated from polysomes after glucose repletion, and sequences bound by RNA binding proteins were enriched in the transcripts from repressed cells. Inhibiting the protein kinase A pathway did not affect glucose-induced decay of ADH2 mRNA. Our results suggest that Snf1 may influence mRNA stability by altering the recruitment activity of the transcription factor Adr1. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  1. Snf1-Dependent Transcription Confers Glucose-Induced Decay upon the mRNA Product

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Katherine A.; Dombek, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the switch from respiratory metabolism to fermentation causes rapid decay of transcripts encoding proteins uniquely required for aerobic metabolism. Snf1, the yeast ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, has been implicated in this process because inhibiting Snf1 mimics the addition of glucose. In this study, we show that the SNF1-dependent ADH2 promoter, or just the major transcription factor binding site, is sufficient to confer glucose-induced mRNA decay upon heterologous transcripts. SNF1-independent expression from the ADH2 promoter prevented glucose-induced mRNA decay without altering the start site of transcription. SNF1-dependent transcripts are enriched for the binding motif of the RNA binding protein Vts1, an important mediator of mRNA decay and mRNA repression whose expression is correlated with decreased abundance of SNF1-dependent transcripts during the yeast metabolic cycle. However, deletion of VTS1 did not slow the rate of glucose-induced mRNA decay. ADH2 mRNA rapidly dissociated from polysomes after glucose repletion, and sequences bound by RNA binding proteins were enriched in the transcripts from repressed cells. Inhibiting the protein kinase A pathway did not affect glucose-induced decay of ADH2 mRNA. Our results suggest that Snf1 may influence mRNA stability by altering the recruitment activity of the transcription factor Adr1. PMID:26667037

  2. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David G.

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  3. Potential dispositioning flowsheets for ICPP SNF and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.L.; Anderson, P.A.; Bendixsen, C.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1953. This activity resulted mainly in the recovery of uranium and the management of the resulting wastes. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste was routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then calcined to form a dry granular solid. The calcine is stored in stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. In April 1992, the DOE discontinued the practice of reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels. This decision has left a legacy of 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons of heavy metal within unprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) left in inventory at the ICPP. The nation`s radioactive waste policy has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), which requires the final disposal of SNF and radioactive waste in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. In accordance with these regulations and other legal agreements between the State of Idaho and the DOE, the DOE must, among other requirements, (1) complete a final Environmental Impact Statement by April 30, 1995, (2) evaluate and test sodium-bearing waste pre-treatment technologies, (3) select the sodium-bearing and calcine waste pre-treatment technology, if necessary, by June 1, 1995, and (4) select a technology for converting calcined waste into an appropriate disposal form by June 1, 1995.

  4. Radionuclide mass inventory, activity, decay heat, and dose rate parametric data for TRIGA spent nuclear fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.

    1997-03-01

    Parametric burnup calculations are performed to estimate radionuclide isotopic mass and activity concentrations for four different Training, Research, and Isotope General Atomics (TRIGA) nuclear reactor fuel element types: (1) Aluminum-clad standard, (2) Stainless Steel-clad standard, (3) High-enrichment Fuel Life Improvement Program (FLIP), and (4) Low-enrichment Fuel Life Improvement Program (FLIP-LEU-1). Parametric activity data are tabulated for 145 important radionuclides that can be used to generate gamma-ray emission source terms or provide mass quantity estimates as a function of decay time. Fuel element decay heats and dose rates are also presented parametrically as a function of burnup and decay time. Dose rates are given at the fuel element midplane for contact, 3.0-feet, and 3.0-meter detector locations in air. The data herein are estimates based on specially derived Beginning-of-Life (BOL) neutron cross sections using geometrically-explicit TRIGA reactor core models. The calculated parametric data should represent good estimates relative to actual values, although no experimental data were available for direct comparison and validation. However, because the cross sections were not updated as a function of burnup, the actinide concentrations may deviate from the actual values at the higher burnups.

  5. Electron versus proton accelerator driven sub-critical system performance using TRIGA reactors at power

    SciTech Connect

    Carta, M.; Burgio, N.; D'Angelo, A.; Santagata, A.; Petrovich, C.; Schikorr, M.; Beller, D.; Felice, L. S.; Imel, G.; Salvatores, M.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides a comparison of the performance of an electron accelerator-driven experiment, under discussion within the Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiments (RACE) Project, being conducted within the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), and of the proton-driven experiment TRADE (TRIGA Accelerator Driven Experiment) originally planned at ENEA-Casaccia in Italy. Both experiments foresee the coupling to sub-critical TRIGA core configurations, and are aimed to investigate the relevant kinetic and dynamic accelerator-driven systems (ADS) core behavior characteristics in the presence of thermal reactivity feedback effects. TRADE was based on the coupling of an upgraded proton cyclotron, producing neutrons via spallation reactions on a tantalum (Ta) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 200 kW. RACE is based on the coupling of an Electron Linac accelerator, producing neutrons via photoneutron reactions on a tungsten-copper (W-Cu) or uranium (U) target, with the core driven at a maximum power around 50 kW. The paper is focused on analysis of expected dynamic power response of the RACE core following reactivity and/or source transients. TRADE and RACE target-core power coupling coefficients are compared and discussed. (authors)

  6. Development of neutron beam projects at the University of Texas TRIGA Mark II Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Unlu, Kenan; Bauer, Thomas L.; Wehring, Bernard W.

    1992-07-01

    Recently, the UT-TRIGA research reactor was licensed and has become fully operational. This reactor, the first new US university reactor in 17 years, is the focus of a new reactor laboratory facility which is located on the Balcones Research Center at The University of Texas at Austin. The TRIGA Mark II reactor is licensed for 1.1 MW steady power operation, 3 dollar pulsing, and includes five beam ports. Various neutron beam-line projects have been assigned to each beam port. Neutron Depth Profiling (NDP) and the Texas Cold Neutron Source (TCNS) are close to completion and will be operational in the near future. The design of the NDP instrument has been completed, a target chamber has been built, and the thermal neutron collimator, detectors, data acquisition electronics, and data processing computers have been acquired. The target chamber accommodates wafers up to 12'' in diameter and provides remote positioning of these wafers. The design and construction of the TCNS has been completed. The TCNS consists of a moderator (mesitylene), a neon heat pipe, a cryogenic refrigerator, and neutron guide tubes. In addition, fission-fragment research (HIAWATHA), Neutron Capture Therapy, and Neutron Radiography are being pursued as projects for the other three beam ports. (author)

  7. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-07-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  8. Review of Heat Transfer Models in GOTH_SNF for Spent Fuel MCO Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Kirkpatrick; Chris A. Dahl

    2003-09-01

    The present report is one of a series of three. The series provides an independent technical review of certain aspects of the GOTH-SNF code that is used for accident analysis of the multicanister overpack that is proposed for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in the planned repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The work documented in the present report and its two companions was done under the auspices of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. The other two reports in the series are DOE/SNF/REP-0871 and DOE/SNF/REP-089.2

  9. 78 FR 5840 - Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115 The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is noticing the termination of Facility Operating...

  10. The chromatin remodeling and mRNA splicing functions of the Brahma (SWI/SNF) complex are mediated by the SNR1/SNF5 regulatory subunit.

    PubMed

    Zraly, Claudia B; Dingwall, Andrew K

    2012-07-01

    Nucleosome remodeling catalyzed by the ATP-dependent SWI/SNF complex is essential for regulated gene expression. Transcriptome profiling studies in flies and mammals identified cell cycle and hormone responsive genes as important targets of remodeling complex activities. Loss of chromatin remodeling function has been linked to developmental abnormalities and aggressive cancers. The Drosophila Brahma (Brm) SWI/SNF complex assists in reprogramming and coordinating gene expression in response to ecdysone hormone signaling at critical points during development. We used RNAi knockdown in cultured cells and transgenic flies, and conditional mutant alleles to identify unique and important functions of two conserved Brm complex core subunits, SNR1/SNF5 and BRM/SNF2-SWI2, on target gene regulation. Unexpectedly, we found that incorporation of a loss of function SNR1 subunit led to alterations in RNA polymerase elongation, pre-mRNA splicing regulation and chromatin accessibility of ecdysone hormone regulated genes, revealing that SNR1 functions to restrict BRM-dependent nucleosome remodeling activities downstream of the promoter region. Our results reveal critically important roles of the SNR1/SNF5 subunit and the Brm chromatin remodeling complex in transcription regulation during elongation by RNA Polymerase II and completion of pre-mRNA transcripts that are dependent on hormone signaling in late development.

  11. An assessment of KW Basin radionuclide activity when opening SNF canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D.W.; Mollerus, F.J.; Wray, J.L.

    1995-02-06

    N Reactor spent fuel is being stored in sealed canisters in the KW Basin. Some of the canisters contain damaged fuel elements. There is the potential for release of Cs 137, Kr 85, H3, and other fission products and transuranics (TRUs) when canisters are opened. Canister opening is required to select and transfer fuel elements to the 300 Area for examination as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Characterization program. This report estimates the amount of radionuclides that can be released from Mark II spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters in KW Basin when canisters are opened for SNF fuel sampling as part of the SNF Characterization Program. The report also assesses the dose consequences of the releases and steps that can be taken to reduce the impacts of these releases.

  12. SWI/SNF has intrinsic nucleosome disassembly activity that is dependent on adjacent nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Sabri, Abdellah; Pondugula, Santhi; Kassabov, Stefan R; Chatterjee, Nilanjana; Kladde, Michael P; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2010-05-28

    The ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF regulates transcription and has been implicated in promoter nucleosome eviction. Efficient nucleosome disassembly by SWI/SNF alone in biochemical assays, however, has not been directly observed. Employing a model system of dinucleosomes rather than mononucleosomes, we demonstrate that remodeling leads to ordered and efficient disassembly of one of the two nucleosomes. An H2A/H2B dimer is first rapidly displaced, and then, in a slower reaction, an entire histone octamer is lost. Nucleosome disassembly by SWI/SNF did not require additional factors such as chaperones or acceptors of histones. Observations in single molecules as well as bulk measurement suggest that a key intermediate in this process is one in which a nucleosome is moved toward the adjacent nucleosome. SWI/SNF recruited by the transcriptional activator Gal4-VP16 preferentially mobilizes the proximal nucleosome and destabilizes the adjacent nucleosome.

  13. Analysis of rice Snf2 family proteins and their potential roles in epigenetic regulation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongfeng; Zhu, Ning; Wang, Xuemin; Yi, Qingping; Zhu, Deyan; Lai, Yan; Zhao, Yu

    2013-09-01

    Snf2 family proteins are ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors that control many aspects of DNA events such as transcription, replication, homologous recombination and DNA repair. In animals several members in this family have been revealed to control gene expression in concert with other epigenetic mechanisms including histone modification, histone variants and DNA methylation. Their function in regulating genome expression in plant has hardly been disclosed before except in Arabidopsis. Here we identified 40 members of this family in the rice (Oryza Sativa) genome and constructed a phylogenetic tree together with Arabidopsis 41 Snf2 proteins. Sequence alignment of the Snf2 helicase regions revealed conserved motifs and blocks in most proteins. Expression profile analysis indicates that many rice Snf2 family genes show a tissue-specific expression pattern and some of them respond to abiotic stresses including drought, salt and cold. The results provide a basis for further analysis of their roles in epigenetic regulation to control rice development.

  14. University of Illinois nuclear pumped laser program. [experiments with a TRIGA pulsed reactor with a broad pulse and a low peak flux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, G. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of nuclear pumped lasers with improved efficiency, energy storage capability, and UF6 volume pumping is reviewed. Results of nuclear pumped laser experiments using a TRIGA-type pulsed reactor are outlined.

  15. Legal precedents regarding use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal transportation of SNF and HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, E.J. Jr.; Bentz, C.B.; O`Hora, T.D.; Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Risk assessment has become an increasingly important and essential tool in support of Federal decision-making regarding the handling, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This paper analyzes the current statutory and regulatory framework and related legal precedents with regard to SNF and HLW transportation. The authors identify key scientific and technical issues regarding the use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal decision-making regarding anticipated shipments.

  16. Adenovirus E1A specifically blocks SWI/SNF-dependent transcriptional activation.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M E; Cairns, B R; Levinson, R S; Yamamoto, K R; Engel, D A; Smith, M M

    1996-01-01

    Expression of the adenovirus E1A243 oncoprotein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces a slow-growth phenotype with accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This effect is due to the N-terminal and CR1 domains of E1A243, which in rodent cells are involved in triggering cellular transformation and also in binding to the cellular transcriptional coactivator p300. A genetic screen was undertaken to identify genes required for the function of E1A243 in S. cerevisiae. This screen identified SNF12, a gene encoding the 73-kDa subunit of the SWI/SNF transcriptional regulatory complex. Mutation of genes encoding known members of the SWI/SNF complex also led to loss of E1A function, suggesting that the SWI/SNF complex is a target of E1A243. Moreover, expression of E1A in wild-type cells specifically blocked transcriptional activation of the INO1 and SUC2 genes, whose activation pathways are distinct but have a common requirement for the SWI/SNF complex. These data demonstrate a specific functional interaction between E1A and the SWI/SNF complex and suggest that a similar interaction takes place in rodent and human cells. PMID:8816487

  17. p38 pathway targets SWI-SNF chromatin-remodeling complex to muscle-specific loci.

    PubMed

    Simone, Cristiano; Forcales, Sonia Vanina; Hill, David A; Imbalzano, Anthony N; Latella, Lucia; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2004-07-01

    During skeletal myogenesis, genomic reprogramming toward terminal differentiation is achieved by recruiting chromatin-modifying enzymes to muscle-specific loci. The relative contribution of extracellular signaling cascades in targeting these enzymes to individual genes is unknown. Here we show that the differentiation-activated p38 pathway targets the SWI-SNF chromatin-remodeling complex to myogenic loci. Upon differentiation, p38 kinases were recruited to the chromatin of muscle-regulatory elements. Blockade of p38 alpha/beta repressed the transcription of muscle genes by preventing recruitment of the SWI-SNF complex at these elements without affecting chromatin binding of muscle-regulatory factors and acetyltransferases. The SWI-SNF subunit BAF60 could be phosphorylated by p38 alpha-beta in vitro, and forced activation of p38 alpha/beta in myoblasts by expression of a constitutively active MKK6 (refs. 5,6,7) promoted unscheduled SWI-SNF recruitment to the myogenin promoter. Conversely, inactivation of SWI-SNF enzymatic subunits abrogated MKK6-dependent induction of muscle gene expression. These results identify an unexpected function of differentiation-activated p38 in converting external cues into chromatin modifications at discrete loci, by selectively targeting SWI-SNF to muscle-regulatory elements.

  18. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex is required for maintenance of lineage specific enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Alver, Burak H.; Kim, Kimberly H.; Lu, Ping; Wang, Xiaofeng; Manchester, Haley E.; Wang, Weishan; Haswell, Jeffrey R.; Park, Peter J.; Roberts, Charles W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Genes encoding subunits of SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin remodelling complexes are collectively altered in over 20% of human malignancies, but the mechanisms by which these complexes alter chromatin to modulate transcription and cell fate are poorly understood. Utilizing mouse embryonic fibroblast and cancer cell line models, here we show via ChIP-seq and biochemical assays that SWI/SNF complexes are preferentially targeted to distal lineage specific enhancers and interact with p300 to modulate histone H3 lysine 27 acetylation. We identify a greater requirement for SWI/SNF at typical enhancers than at most super-enhancers and at enhancers in untranscribed regions than in transcribed regions. Our data further demonstrate that SWI/SNF-dependent distal enhancers are essential for controlling expression of genes linked to developmental processes. Our findings thus establish SWI/SNF complexes as regulators of the enhancer landscape and provide insight into the roles of SWI/SNF in cellular fate control. PMID:28262751

  19. beta-subunits of Snf1 kinase are required for kinase function and substrate definition.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M C; McCartney, R R

    2000-09-15

    The Snf1 kinase and its mammalian homolog, the AMP-activated protein kinase, are heterotrimeric enzymes composed of a catalytic alpha-subunit, a regulatory gamma-subunit and a beta-subunit that mediates heterotrimer formation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes three beta-subunit genes, SIP1, SIP2 and GAL83. Earlier studies suggested that these subunits may not be required for Snf1 kinase function. We show here that complete and precise deletion of all three beta-subunit genes inactivates the Snf1 kinase. The sip1Delta sip2Delta gal83Delta strain is unable to derepress invertase, grows poorly on alternative carbon sources and fails to direct the phosphorylation of the Mig1 and Sip4 proteins in vivo. The SIP1 sip2Delta gal83Delta strain manifests a subset of Snf phenotypes (Raf(+), Gly(-)) observed in the snf1Delta 10 strain (Raf(-), Gly(-)), suggesting that individual beta-subunits direct the Snf1 kinase to a subset of its targets in vivo. Indeed, deletion of individual beta-subunit genes causes distinct differences in the induction and phosphorylation of Sip4, strongly suggesting that the beta-subunits play an important role in substrate definition.

  20. Drying Results of K-Basin Damaged/Corroded SNF Internal Sludge and Surface Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Abrefah, J.; Alexander, D.L.; Marschman, S.C.

    2000-09-21

    Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)to study the drying behavior of the K-Basin spent nuclear fuel (SNF) internal sludge and two different surface coatings of SNF elements. These measurements were conducted in support of the safety and process analyses of the proposed Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) to move the N-Reactor fuel stored at K-Basin to an interim storage facility. These limited experiments on the corrosion products of K-Basin SNF material were part of the broad studies performed to ascertain the bounding pressurization of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO). Seven SNF internal sludge samples taken from different damage regions of three damaged/corroded outer K-Basin SNF elements were dried. Additionally, two surface coating samples taken from two SNF elements stored at K-West were tested. All the tests were performed in a vacuum atmosphere with the same temperature ramp rate of about 0.4 C/ min. Each TGA test sample was weighed before and after the test on a balance located in the Shielded Analytical Laboratory hot cell. The test samples were vacuum dried in the TGA system for about 24 hours prior to heating them at the rate of 0.4 C/min. The observations from the weight change data are summarized below.

  1. Relative fission product yield determination in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Michael A.

    Fission product yield data sets are one of the most important and fundamental compilations of basic information in the nuclear industry. This data has a wide range of applications which include nuclear fuel burnup and nonproliferation safeguards. Relative fission yields constitute a major fraction of the reported yield data and reduce the number of required absolute measurements. Radiochemical separations of fission products reduce interferences, facilitate the measurement of low level radionuclides, and are instrumental in the analysis of low-yielding symmetrical fission products. It is especially useful in the measurement of the valley nuclides and those on the extreme wings of the mass yield curve, including lanthanides, where absolute yields have high errors. This overall project was conducted in three stages: characterization of the neutron flux in irradiation positions within the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Mark I Reactor (GSTR), determining the mass attenuation coefficients of precipitates used in radiochemical separations, and measuring the relative fission products in the GSTR. Using the Westcott convention, the Westcott flux, modified spectral index, neutron temperature, and gold-based cadmium ratios were determined for various sampling positions in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor. The differential neutron energy spectrum measurement was obtained using the computer iterative code SAND-II-SNL. The mass attenuation coefficients for molecular precipitates were determined through experiment and compared to results using the EGS5 Monte Carlo computer code. Difficulties associated with sufficient production of fission product isotopes in research reactors limits the ability to complete a direct, experimental assessment of mass attenuation coefficients for these isotopes. Experimental attenuation coefficients of radioisotopes produced through neutron activation agree well with the EGS5 calculated results. This suggests mass attenuation coefficients of molecular

  2. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-22

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 ({sup 233}U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  3. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (233U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  4. Neutron spectra at two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor loaded with HEU fuel.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Hernández-Dávila, V M; Aguilar, F; Paredes, L; Rivera, T

    2014-01-01

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, one radial and another tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Measurements were carried out with the reactor core loaded with high enriched uranium fuel. Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a (6)LiI(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 in.-diameter high-density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code. For each spectrum total flux, mean energy and ambient dose equivalent were determined. Measured spectra show fission, epithermal and thermal neutrons, being harder in the radial beam port.

  5. Production and release rate of (37)Ar from the UT TRIGA Mark-II research reactor.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Christine; Biegalski, Steven R; Artnak, Edward J; Moll, Ethan; Haas, Derek A; Lowrey, Justin D; Aalseth, Craig E; Seifert, Allen; Mace, Emily K; Woods, Vincent T; Humble, Paul

    2017-02-01

    Air samples were taken at various locations around The University of Texas at Austin's TRIGA Mark II research reactor and analyzed to determine the concentrations of (37)Ar, (41)Ar, and (133)Xe present. The measured ratio of (37)Ar/(41)Ar and historical records of (41)Ar releases were then utilized to estimate an annual average release rate of (37)Ar from the reactor facility. Using the calculated release rate, atmospheric transport modeling was performed in order to determine the potential impact of research reactor operations on nearby treaty verification activities. Results suggest that small research reactors (∼1 MWt) do not release (37)Ar in concentrations measurable by currently proposed OSI detection equipment.

  6. A carbon-cluster laser ion source for TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz

    2009-08-01

    A new laser ablation ion source was developed and tested for the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP in order to provide carbon-cluster ions for absolute mass calibration. Ions of different cluster sizes up to C+24 were successfully produced, covering the mass range up to the heavy actinide elements. The ions were captured in a Penning trap, and their time-of-flight cyclotron resonances recorded in order to determine their cyclotron frequency. Furthermore, the same ion source was used to produce GdO+ ions from a gadolinium target in sufficient amount for mass spectrometry purposes. The design of the source and its characteristics are presented. This paper comprises partly the PhD theses of J Ketelaer and C Smorra.

  7. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Irwan, M. N.; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy

    2014-09-03

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 65}Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs were leached out from the spent resin while {sup 60}Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  8. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy, Irwan, M. N.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of 134Cs, 137Cs, 152Eu, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co and 65Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of 152Eu and 134Cs were leached out from the spent resin while 60Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  9. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  10. Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6 in hydrothermal solutions-An experimental study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; I-Ming, C.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6, which is used as the starting material, in hydrothermal solutions have been studied at 200-602??C and 1 kbar. Experimental results show that intense hydrolysis of Na2SnF6 occurs at high temperatures and that with the rise of temperature the hydrolysis will become more intense. Under the present experimental conditions the most possible existing form of Sn in the hydrothermal solutions is SnF3(OH) or Na2SnF3(OH). In addition, the hydrolysis constants for Na2SnF6 have also been calculated at 200-602??C, and the relationship between Na2SnF6 hydrolysis and temperature is discussed. ?? 1987 Science Press.

  11. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  12. Neutron flux and spectrum characterization in the University of Illinois TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, R.O.; Williams, J.G.; Ougouag, A.M.

    1988-07-01

    The principal irradiation facilities at the University of Illinois TRIGA are a central thimble, a pneumatic 'rabbit' tube in the G-hexagon, a forty- position Lazy Susan facility in the reflector, a through-port passing tangentially through the reflector, and a recently installed rotating tube in a three-element cluster position in the F- and G-hexagons. These facilities are used primarily for thermal and epithermal neutron activation, and for radiation damage studies in semiconductor and other materials. Thermal and epithermal neutron fluence rates have recently been measured by means of radiometric monitors in all the core and reflector facilities at a variety of reactor power levels. In addition, the fast neutron fluences have been characterized by means of threshold and non-threshold activation reaction rates measured in those positions used for radiation damage studies. Unfolding of neutron spectra from the measured reaction rates was done by means of the code LSL-M2, which was made available in 1986 from the Radiation Shielding Information Center. This code uses the generalized least squares method and incorporates a full propagation of uncertainties due to errors in measured reaction rates, cross section data, and input neutron spectra. The input spectra, needed in LSL-M2, were taken from the General Atomic report GA4361 which includes 24-group spectra, calculated by the code GAZE, for the center of the core, the F-hexagon and the Lazy Susan. These positions, and some of the material and geometrical specifications, do not correspond exactly with the actual ones at the University of Illinois TRIGA, but the differences in the neutron spectra were found to be small. The unfolded neutron spectra may be used to obtain fast neutron spectrum parameters needed in radiation damage studies and hardness testing. For example, the 1-MeV equivalent fluence rates for displacement damage in silicon, calculated according to the ASTM Standard E722, are reported. (author)

  13. Criticality safety assessment of a TRIGA reactor spent-fuel pool under accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Glumac, B; Ravnik, M.; Logar, M.

    1997-02-01

    Additional criticality safety analysis of a pool-type storage for TRIGA spent fuel at the Jozef Stefan Institute in Ljubljana, Slovenia, is presented. Previous results have shown that subcriticality is not guaranteed for some postulated accidents (earthquake with subsequent fuel rack disintegration resulting in contact fuel pitch) under the assumption that the fuel rack is loaded with fresh 12 wt% standard fuel. To mitigate this deficiency, a study was done on replacing a certain number of fuel elements in the rack with cadmium-loaded absorber rods. The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4A with an ENDF/B-V library and detailed three-dimensional geometrical model of the spent-fuel rack was used for this purpose. First, a minimum critical number of fuel elements was determined for contact pitch, and two possible geometries of rack disintegration were considered. Next, it was shown that subcriticality can be ensured when pitch is decreased from a rack design pitch of 8 cm to contact, if a certain number of fuel elements (8 to 20 out of 70) are replaced by absorber rods, which are uniformly mixed into the lattice. To account for the possibility that random mixing of fuel elements and absorber rods can occur during rack disintegration and result in a supercritical configuration, a probabilistic study was made to sample the probability density functions for random absorber rod lattice loadings. Results of the calculations show that reasonably low probabilities for supercriticality can be achieved (down to 10{sup {minus}6} per severe earthquake, which would result in rack disintegration and subsequent maximum possible pitch decrease) even in the case where fresh 12 wt% standard TRIGA fuel would be stored in the spent-fuel pool.

  14. High Temperature Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions Between TRIGA Fuels and 304 Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Emmanuel; Keiser, Jr., Dennis D.; Forsmann, Bryan; Janney, Dawn E.; Henley, Jody; Woolstenhulme, Eric C.

    2016-02-01

    High-temperature fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) fuel elements and the 304 stainless steel (304SS) are of interest to develop an understanding of the fuel behavior during transient reactor scenarios. TRIGA fuels are composed of uranium (U) particles dispersed in a zirconium-hydride (Zr-H) matrix. In reactor, the fuel is encased in 304-stainless-steel (304SS) or Incoloy 800 clad tubes. At high temperatures, the fuel can readily interact with the cladding, resulting in FCCI. A number of FCCI can take place in this system. Interactions can be expected between the cladding and the Zr-H matrix, and/or between the cladding and the U-particles. Other interactions may be expected between the Zr-H matrix and the U-particles. Furthermore, the fuel contains erbium-oxide (Er-O) additions. Interactions can also be expected between the Er-O, the cladding, the Zr-H and the U-particles. The overall result is that very complex interactions may take place as a result of fuel and cladding exposures to high temperatures. This report discusses the characterization of the baseline fuel microstructure in the as-received state (prior to exposure to high temperature), characterization of the fuel after annealing at 950C for 24 hours and the results from diffusion couple experiments carries out at 1000C for 5 and 24 hours. Characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with sample preparation via focused ion beam in situ-liftout-technique.

  15. Proposed design for the PGAA facility at the TRIGA IPR-R1 research reactor.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Bruno T; Jacimovic, Radojko; Menezes, Maria Angela Bc; Leal, Alexandre S

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an initial proposed design of a Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) facility to be installed at the TRIGA IPR-R1, a 60 years old research reactor of the Centre of Development of Nuclear Technology (CDTN) in Brazil. The basic characteristics of the facility and the results of the neutron flux are presented and discussed. The proposed design is based on a quasi vertical tube as a neutron guide from the reactor core, inside the reactor pool, 6 m below the room's level where shall be located the rack containing the set sample/detector/shielding. The evaluation of the thermal and epithermal neutron flux in the sample position was done considering the experimental data obtained from a vertical neutron guide, already existent in the reactor, and the simulated model for the facility. The experimental determination of the neutron flux was obtained through the standard procedure of using Au monitors in different positions of the vertical tube. In order to validate both, this experiment and calculations of the simulated model, the flux was also determined in different positions in the core used for sample irradiation. The model of the system was developed using the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The preliminary results suggest the possibility of obtaining a beam with minimum thermal flux of magnitude 10(6) cm(-2) s(-1), which confirm the technical feasibility of the installation of PGAA at the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor. This beam would open new possibilities for enhancing the applications using the reactor.

  16. Amino acid residues involved in ligand preference of the Snf3 transporter-like sensor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Dietvorst, Judith; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Kielland-Brandt, Morten C; Brandt, Anders

    2010-03-01

    Snf3 is a plasma membrane protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae able to sense the presence of glucose. Although the Snf3 protein does not transport sugars, it shares sequence similarity with various glucose transporters from other organisms. We investigated the sugar specificity/preferences of Snf3. The ability of cells to sense sugars in vivo was monitored by following the degradation of the Mth1 protein, an early event in the signal pathway. Our study reveals that Snf3, in addition to glucose, also senses fructose and mannose, as well as the glucose analogues 2-deoxyglucose, 3-O-methylglucoside and 6-deoxyglucose. The signalling proficiency of a non-phosphorylatable analogue strongly supports the notion that sensing through Snf3 does not require sugar phosphorylation. Sequence comparisons of Snf3 to glucose transporters indicated amino acid residues possibly involved in sensing of sugars other than glucose. By site-specific mutagenesis of the structural gene, roles of specific residues in Snf3 could be established. Change of isoleucine-374 to valine in transmembrane segment 7 of Snf3 partially abolished sensing of fructose and mannose, while mutagenesis causing a change of phenylalanine-462 to tyrosine in transmembrane segment 10 of Snf3 abolished sensing of fructose. Neither of these amino acid changes affected the ability of Snf3 to sense glucose, nor did they permit Snf3 to sense galactose. These data indicate a similarity between a ligand binding site of the sensor Snf3 and binding sites used for facilitated hexose transport in the GLUT proteins. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin Differentially Regulate Expression of Genes of the SNF1-Related Kinase Complex in Tomato Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Kent J.; Downie, A. Bruce; Gee, Oliver H.; Alvarado, Veria; Yang, Hong; Dahal, Peetambar

    2003-01-01

    The SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase subfamily plays central roles in metabolic and transcriptional responses to nutritional or environmental stresses. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, activating and anchoring subunits associate with and regulate the activity, substrate specificity, and cellular localization of the kinase subunit in response to changing nutrient sources or energy demands, and homologous SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) proteins are present in plants. We isolated cDNAs corresponding to the kinase (LeSNF1), regulatory (LeSNF4), and localization (LeSIP1 and LeGAL83) subunits of the SnRK1 complex from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). LeSNF1 and LeSNF4 complemented yeast snf1 and snf4 mutants and physically interacted with each other and with LeSIP1 in a glucose-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. LeSNF4 mRNA became abundant at maximum dry weight accumulation during seed development and remained high when radicle protrusion was blocked by abscisic acid (ABA), water stress, far-red light, or dormancy, but was low or undetected in seeds that had completed germination or in gibberellin (GA)-deficient seeds stimulated to germinate by GA. In leaves, LeSNF4 was induced in response to ABA or dehydration. In contrast, LeSNF1 and LeGAL83 genes were essentially constitutively expressed in both seeds and leaves regardless of the developmental, hormonal, or environmental conditions. Regulation of LeSNF4 expression by ABA and GA provides a potential link between hormonal and sugar-sensing pathways controlling seed development, dormancy, and germination. PMID:12857836

  18. Lessons Learned From Root Cause Analyses of Transfers of Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) Patients to Acute Hospitals: Transfers Rated as Preventable Versus Nonpreventable by SNF Staff.

    PubMed

    Ouslander, Joseph G; Naharci, Ilkin; Engstrom, Gabriella; Shutes, Jill; Wolf, David G; Alpert, Graig; Rojido, Carolina; Tappen, Ruth; Newman, David

    2016-07-01

    Determining if a transfer of a skilled nursing facility (SNF) patient/resident to an acute hospital is potentially avoidable or preventable is challenging. Most previous research on potentially avoidable or preventable hospitalizations is based on diagnoses without in-depth root cause analysis (RCA), and few studies have examined SNF staff perspective on preventability of transfers. To examine factors associated with hospital transfers rated as potentially preventable versus nonpreventable by SNF staff. Trained staff from SNFs enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial of the INTERACT (Interventions to Reduce Acute Care Transfers) quality improvement program performed retrospective RCAs on hospital transfers during a 12-month implementation period. SNFs from across the United States. Sixty-four of 88 SNFs randomized to the intervention group submitted RCAs with a rating of whether the transfer was determined to be potentially preventable or nonpreventable. SNFs were implementing the INTERACT Quality Improvement (QI) program. Data were abstracted from the INTERACT QI tool, a structured, retrospective RCA on hospital transfers. A total of 4527 RCAs with a rating of preventability were submitted during the 12-month implementation period, of which 1044 (23%) were rated as potentially preventable by SNF staff. In unadjusted univariate analyses, factors associated with ratings of potentially preventable included acute changes in condition of fever, decreased food or fluid intake, functional decline, shortness of breath, and new urinary incontinence; other factors included the clinician, resident, and/or family insisting on the transfer, transfers that occurred fewer than 30 days from SNF admission and that occurred on weekends, transfers ordered by a covering physician (as opposed to the primary physician), and transfers that resulted in an emergency department (ED) visit with return to the SNF. Factors associated with ratings of nonpreventable included on

  19. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, Ubc1, indirectly regulates SNF1 kinase activity via Forkhead-dependent transcription

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Rubin; Lobanova, Liubov; Waldner, Amanda; Fu, Anthony; Xiao, Linda; Harkness, Troy A.; Arnason, Terra G.

    2016-01-01

    The SNF1 kinase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an excellent model to study the regulation and function of the AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) family of serine-threonine protein kinases. Yeast discoveries regarding the regulation of this non-hormonal sensor of metabolic/environmental stress are conserved in higher eukaryotes, including poly-ubiquitination of the α-subunit of yeast (Snf1) and human (AMPKα) that ultimately effects subunit stability and enzyme activity. The ubiquitin-cascade enzymes responsible for targeting Snf1 remain unknown, leading us to screen for those that impact SNF1 kinase function. We identified the E2, Ubc1, as a regulator of SNF1 kinase function. The decreased Snf1 abundance found upon deletion of Ubc1 is not due to increased degradation, but instead is partly due to impaired SNF1 gene expression, arising from diminished abundance of the Forkhead 1/2 proteins, previously shown to contribute to SNF1 transcription. Ultimately, we report that the Fkh1/2 cognate transcription factor, Hcm1, fails to enter the nucleus in the absence of Ubc1. This implies that Ubc1 acts indirectly through transcriptional effects to modulate SNF1 kinase activity. PMID:28357323

  20. The imitation switch ATPase Snf2l is required for superovulation and regulates Fgl2 in differentiating mouse granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Pépin, David; Paradis, François; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Picketts, David J; Vanderhyden, Barbara C

    2013-06-01

    Imitation switch (ISWI) proteins are catalytic subunits of chromatin remodeling complexes that alter nucleosome positioning by hydrolyzing ATP to regulate access to DNA. In mice, there are two paralogs, SNF2-homolog (SNF2H) and SNF2-like (SNF2L), which participate in different complexes and have contrasting patterns of expression. Here we investigate the role of SNF2L in ovaries by characterizing a mouse bearing an inactivating deletion of exon 6 that disrupts the ATPase domain. Snf2l mutant mice produce significantly fewer eggs than control mice when superovulated. Gonadotropin stimulation leads to a significant deficit in secondary follicles and an increase in abnormal antral follicles. Mutant females also failed to induce fibrinogen-like 2 (Fgl2) in response to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) stimulation, while overexpression of SNF2L was sufficient to drive its expression in granulosa cells. SNF2L was also shown to directly interact with the nuclear receptor co-activator flightless I (FLI-I) as shown by immunoprecipitation. These results begin to establish a role for SNF2L in the precise coordination of gene expression in granulosa cells during folliculogenesis and its broader implications in fertility.

  1. Nation Building in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-01

    opportunity to rebuild South Korea . He saw it as “something almost unique in history. It is the opportunity of an army in a foreign land to contribute...problems. The North Korean invasion in 1950 wedded South Korea to the United States and confronted the United States with the enormous task of...elections in Korea .8 After failing to achieve agreement to peninsula-wide elections, the United Nations sponsored elections in South

  2. Preparation and planning for the replacement of the Oregon State University TRIGA reactor rotary specimen rack assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, T.V.; Dodd, B.; Johnson, A.G.; Carpenter, W.T.

    1984-07-01

    Recently there have been a number of indications that the rotating rack may be approaching the end of its useful life. In order to benefit from the experience of other reactors who have removed and replaced their rotating racks, General Atomic (GA) was contacted and previous TRIGA Conference proceedings were scanned. It was determined that a number of facilities, had experienced difficulties with their lazy susans and eventually had to replace them. However, most of the written descriptions of this project were not sufficiently detailed to be of great use. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the more important questions related to the replacement of our rotating rack assembly and OSU's currently proposed solutions, with a view towards soliciting ideas from other members of the TRIGA reactor community.

  3. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  4. White Paper: Multi-purpose canister (MPC) for DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-04-01

    The paper examines the issue, What are the advantages, disadvantages, and other considerations for using the MPC concept as part of the strategy for interim storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF? The paper is based in part on the results of an evaluation made for the DOE National Spent Fuel Program by the Waste Form Barrier/Canister Team, which is composed of knowledgeable DOE and DOE-contractor personnel. The paper reviews the MPC and DOE SNF status, provides criteria and other considerations applicable to the issue, and presents an evaluation, conclusions, and recommendations. The primary conclusion is that while most of DOE SNF is not currently sufficiently characterized to be sealed into an MPC, the advantages of standardized packages in handling, reduced radiation exposure, and improved human factors should be considered in DOE SNF program planning. While the design of MPCs for DOE SNF are likely premature at this time, the use of canisters should be considered which are consistent with interim storage options and the MPC design envelope.

  5. Structural basis for activation, assembly and membrane binding of ESCRT-III Snf7 filaments.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shaogeng; Henne, W Mike; Borbat, Peter P; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Freed, Jack H; Mao, Yuxin; Fromme, J Christopher; Emr, Scott D

    2015-12-15

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) constitute hetero-oligomeric machines that catalyze multiple topologically similar membrane-remodeling processes. Although ESCRT-III subunits polymerize into spirals, how individual ESCRT-III subunits are activated and assembled together into a membrane-deforming filament remains unknown. Here, we determine X-ray crystal structures of the most abundant ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 in its active conformation. Using pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS), we show that Snf7 activation requires a prominent conformational rearrangement to expose protein-membrane and protein-protein interfaces. This promotes the assembly of Snf7 arrays with ~30 Å periodicity into a membrane-sculpting filament. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that mutations on these protein interfaces halt Snf7 assembly and block ESCRT function. The architecture of the activated and membrane-bound Snf7 polymer provides crucial insights into the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling.

  6. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  7. Differential remodeling of the HIV-1 nucleosome upon transcription activators and SWI/SNF complex binding.

    PubMed

    Angelov, D; Charra, M; Seve, M; Côté, J; Khochbin, S; Dimitrov, S

    2000-09-15

    Here we have examined HIV-1 nucleosome remodeling upon the binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex using a novel approach. The approach combines UV laser protein-DNA crosslinking, electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis and DNase I protection analysis with immunochemical techniques. It was found that single activator-bound HIV-1 nucleosomes exhibit very weak perturbation in histone NH(2) tail-DNA interactions. However, the simultaneous binding of the transcription activators Sp1, NF-kB1, LEF-1 and USF synergistically increased the release of histone NH(2) tails from nucleosomal DNA. In contrast, the binding of SWI/SNF complex to HIV-1 nucleosome disrupted structured histone domain-DNA contacts, but not histone NH(2) tail-DNA interactions. Stable remodeled nucleosomes, (obtained after detachment of SWI/SNF), displayed identical structural alterations with those bound to SWI/SNF. These results demonstrate a different in vitro remodeling of the HIV-1 nucleosome upon the binding of multiple transcription activators and of SWI/SNF complex. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  8. Nucleosome disruption and enhancement of activator binding by a human SW1/SNF complex.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H; Imbalzano, A N; Khavari, P A; Kingston, R E; Green, M R

    1994-08-11

    CHROMATIN structure can affect the transcriptional activity of eukaryotic structural genes by blocking access of sequence-specific activator proteins (activators) to their promoter-binding sites. For example, the DNA-binding domain of the yeast GAL4 protein interacts very poorly with nucleosome cores compared with naked DNA2 (and see below), and binding of other activators is even more strongly inhibited. The way in which activators bind to nucleosomal DNA is therefore a critical aspect of transcriptional activation. Genetic studies have suggested that the multi-component SWI/SNF complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae facilitates transcription by altering the structure of the chromatin. Here we identify and partially purify a human homologue of the yeast SWI/SNF complex (hSWI/SNF complex). We show that a partially purified hSWI/SNF complex mediates the ATP-dependent disruption of a nucleosome, thereby enabling the activators, GAL4-VP16 and GAL4-AH, to bind within a nucleosome core. We conclude that the hSWI/SNF complex acts directly to reorganize chromatin structure so as to facilitate binding of transcription factors.

  9. SMARCB1-mediated SWI/SNF complex function is essential for enhancer regulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Lee, Ryan S; Alver, Burak H; Haswell, Jeffrey R; Wang, Su; Mieczkowski, Jakub; Drier, Yotam; Gillespie, Shawn M; Archer, Tenley C; Wu, Jennifer N; Tzvetkov, Evgeni P; Troisi, Emma C; Pomeroy, Scott L; Biegel, Jaclyn A; Tolstorukov, Michael Y; Bernstein, Bradley E; Park, Peter J; Roberts, Charles W M

    2017-02-01

    SMARCB1 (also known as SNF5, INI1, and BAF47), a core subunit of the SWI/SNF (BAF) chromatin-remodeling complex, is inactivated in nearly all pediatric rhabdoid tumors. These aggressive cancers are among the most genomically stable, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism by which SMARCB1 loss drives transformation. Here we show that, despite having indistinguishable mutational landscapes, human rhabdoid tumors exhibit distinct enhancer H3K27ac signatures, which identify remnants of differentiation programs. We show that SMARCB1 is required for the integrity of SWI/SNF complexes and that its loss alters enhancer targeting-markedly impairing SWI/SNF binding to typical enhancers, particularly those required for differentiation, while maintaining SWI/SNF binding at super-enhancers. We show that these retained super-enhancers are essential for rhabdoid tumor survival, including some that are shared by all subtypes, such as SPRY1, and other lineage-specific super-enhancers, such as SOX2 in brain-derived rhabdoid tumors. Taken together, our findings identify a new chromatin-based epigenetic mechanism underlying the tumor-suppressive activity of SMARCB1.

  10. Identification of multiple distinct Snf2 subfamilies with conserved structural motifs

    PubMed Central

    Flaus, Andrew; Martin, David M. A.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The Snf2 family of helicase-related proteins includes the catalytic subunits of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complexes found in all eukaryotes. These act to regulate the structure and dynamic properties of chromatin and so influence a broad range of nuclear processes. We have exploited progress in genome sequencing to assemble a comprehensive catalogue of over 1300 Snf2 family members. Multiple sequence alignment of the helicase-related regions enables 24 distinct subfamilies to be identified, a considerable expansion over earlier surveys. Where information is known, there is a good correlation between biological or biochemical function and these assignments, suggesting Snf2 family motor domains are tuned for specific tasks. Scanning of complete genomes reveals all eukaryotes contain members of multiple subfamilies, whereas they are less common and not ubiquitous in eubacteria or archaea. The large sample of Snf2 proteins enables additional distinguishing conserved sequence blocks within the helicase-like motor to be identified. The establishment of a phylogeny for Snf2 proteins provides an opportunity to make informed assignments of function, and the identification of conserved motifs provides a framework for understanding the mechanisms by which these proteins function. PMID:16738128

  11. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  12. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems.

  13. Structural basis for activation, assembly and membrane binding of ESCRT-III Snf7 filaments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaogeng; Henne, W Mike; Borbat, Peter P; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Freed, Jack H; Mao, Yuxin; Fromme, J Christopher; Emr, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) constitute hetero-oligomeric machines that catalyze multiple topologically similar membrane-remodeling processes. Although ESCRT-III subunits polymerize into spirals, how individual ESCRT-III subunits are activated and assembled together into a membrane-deforming filament remains unknown. Here, we determine X-ray crystal structures of the most abundant ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 in its active conformation. Using pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS), we show that Snf7 activation requires a prominent conformational rearrangement to expose protein-membrane and protein-protein interfaces. This promotes the assembly of Snf7 arrays with ~30 Å periodicity into a membrane-sculpting filament. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that mutations on these protein interfaces halt Snf7 assembly and block ESCRT function. The architecture of the activated and membrane-bound Snf7 polymer provides crucial insights into the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12548.001 PMID:26670543

  14. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  15. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Guzzi, Cinzia; Reghellin, Veronica; Khoomrung, Sakda; Capusoni, Claudia; Compagno, Concetta; Airoldi, Cristina; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2015-07-01

    The metabolism of proliferating cells shows common features even in evolutionary distant organisms such as mammals and yeasts, for example the requirement for anabolic processes under tight control of signaling pathways. Analysis of the rewiring of metabolism, which occurs following the dysregulation of signaling pathways, provides new knowledge about the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation. The key energy regulator in yeast Snf1 and its mammalian ortholog AMPK have earlier been shown to have similar functions at glucose limited conditions and here we show that they also have analogies when grown with glucose excess. We show that loss of Snf1 in cells growing in 2% glucose induces an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, enhances glycolytic activity, fatty acid accumulation and reliance on amino acid utilization for growth. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Snf1/AMPK-deficient cells remodel their metabolism fueling mitochondria and show glucose and amino acids addiction, a typical hallmark of cancer cells.

  16. SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling of RNR3 requires TAFIIs and the general transcription machinery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vishva Mitra; Li, Bing; Reese, Joseph C.

    2003-01-01

    Gene expression requires the recruitment of chromatin remodeling activities and general transcription factors (GTFs) to promoters. Whereas the role of activators in recruiting chromatin remodeling activities has been clearly demonstrated, the contributions of the transcription machinery have not been firmly established. Here we demonstrate that the remodeling of the RNR3 promoter requires a number of GTFs, mediator and RNA polymerase II. We also show that remodeling is dependent upon the SWI/SNF complex, and that TFIID and RNA polymerase II are required for its recruitment to the promoter. In contrast, Gcn5p-dependent histone acetylation occurs independently of TFIID and RNA polymerase II function, and we provide evidence that acetylation increases the extent of nucleosome remodeling, but is not required for SWI/SNF recruitment. Thus, the general transcription machinery can contribute to nucleosome remodeling by mediating the association of SWI/SNF with promoters, thereby revealing a novel pathway for the recruitment of chromatin remodeling activities. PMID:12600943

  17. Polynitrogen chemistry: preparation and characterization of (N5)2SnF6, N5SnF5, and N5B(CF3)4.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William W; Vij, Ashwani; Vij, Vandana; Bernhardt, Eduard; Christe, Karl O

    2003-06-16

    Metathetical processes were used to convert N5SbF6 into N5[B(CF3)4] and (N5)2SnF6. The latter salt is especially noteworthy because it contains two N5+ ions per anion, thus demonstrating that salts with touching polynitrogen cations can be prepared. This constitutes an important milestone towards our ultimate goal of synthesizing a stable, ionic nitrogen allotrope. The stepwise decomposition of (N5)2SnF6 yielded N5SnF5. Multinuclear NMR spectra show that in HF the SnF5- ion exists as a mixture of Sn2F(10)(2-) and Sn4F(20)(4-) ions. Attempts to isolate FN5 from the thermolysis of (N5)2SnF6 were unsuccessful, yielding only the expected decomposition products, FN3, N2, trans-N2F2, NF3, and N2.

  18. The LmSNF1 Gene Is Required for Pathogenicity in the Canola Blackleg Pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Strelkov, Stephen E.; Hwang, Sheau-Fang

    2014-01-01

    Leptosphaeria maculans is a fungal pathogen causing blackleg in canola. Its virulence has been attributed, among other factors, to the activity of hydrolytic cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs). Studies on the pathogenicity function of CWDEs in plant pathogenic fungi have been difficult due to gene redundancy. In microorganisms many CWDE genes are repressed by glucose and derepressed by the function of the sucrose non-fermenting protein kinase 1 gene (SNF1). To address the molecular function of SNF1 in L. maculans, the ortholog of SNF1 (LmSNF1) was cloned and functionally characterized using a gene knockout strategy. Growth of the LmSNF1 knockout strains was severely disrupted, as was sporulation, spore germination and the ability to attach on the plant surface. When inoculated on canola cotyledons, the LmSNF1 knockout strains could not cause any symptoms, indicating the loss of pathogenicity. The expression of 11 selected CWDE genes and a pathogenicity gene (LopB) was significantly down-regulated in the LmSNF1 knockout strains. In conclusion, knockout of LmSNF1 prevents L. maculans from properly derepressing the production of CWDEs, compromises the utilization of certain carbon sources, and impairs fungal pathogenicity on canola. PMID:24638039

  19. SNF2beta-BRG1 is essential for the viability of F9 murine embryonal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sumi-Ichinose, C; Ichinose, H; Metzger, D; Chambon, P

    1997-01-01

    The yeast and animal SNF-SWI and related multiprotein complexes are thought to play an important role in processes, such as transcription factor binding to regulatory elements, which require nucleosome remodeling in order to relieve the repressing effect of packaging DNA in chromatin. There are two mammalian homologs of the yeast SNF2-SWI2 subunit protein, SNF2alpha-brm and SNF2beta-BRG1, and overexpression of either one of them has been shown to enhance transcriptional activation by glucocorticoid, estrogen, and retinoic acid (RA) receptors in transiently transfected cells. We have investigated here the function of SNF2beta-BRG1 in the RA receptor-retinoid X receptor-mediated transduction of the retinoid signal in F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells which differentiate into endodermal-like cells upon RA treatment. The two SNF2beta-BRG1 alleles have been targeted by homologous recombination and subsequently disrupted by using a conditional Cre recombinase. We show that F9 EC cells inactivated on both SNF2beta alleles are not viable and that heterozygous mutant cells are affected in proliferation but not in RA-induced differentiation. Thus, in F9 EC cells, SNF2beta-BRG1 appears to play an essential role in basal processes involved in cell proliferation, in addition to its putative role in the activation of transcription mediated by nuclear receptors. PMID:9315656

  20. The Effect of Pitch, Burnup, and Absorbers on a TRIGA Spent-Fuel Pool Criticality Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Logar, Marjan; Jeraj, Robert; Glumac, Bogdan

    2003-02-15

    It has been shown that supercriticality might occur for some postulated accident conditions at the TRIGA spent-fuel pool. However, the effect of burnup was not accounted for in previous studies. In this work, the combined effect of fuel burnup, pitch among fuel elements, and number of uniformly mixed absorber rods for a square arrangement on the spent-fuel pool k{sub eff} is investigated.The Monte Carlo computer code MCNP4B with the ENDF-B/VI library and detailed three dimensional geometry was used. The WIMS-D code was used to model the isotopic composition of the standard TRIGA and FLIP fuel for 5, 10, 20 and 30% burnup level and 2- and 4-yr cooling time.The results show that out of the three studied effects, pitch from contact (3.75 cm) up to rack design pitch (8 cm), number of absorbers from zero to eight, and burnup up to 30%, the pitch has the greatest influence on the multiplication factor k{sub eff}. In the interval in which the pitch was changed, k{sub eff} decreased for up to {approx}0.4 for standard and {approx}0.3 for FLIP fuel. The number of absorber rods affects the multiplication factor much less. This effect is bigger for more compact arrangements, e.g., for contact of standard fuel elements with eight absorber rods among them, k{sub eff} values are smaller for {approx}0.2 ({approx}0.1 for FLIP) than for arrangements without absorber rods almost regardless of the burnup. The effect of burnup is the smallest. For standard fuel elements, it is {approx}0.1 for almost all pitches and numbers of absorbers. For FLIP fuel, it is smaller for a factor of 3, but increases with the burnup for compact arrangements. Cooling time of fuel has just a minor effect on the k{sub eff} of spent-fuel pool and can be neglected in spent-fuel pool design.

  1. HORIZONTAL DROP OF THE NAVAL SNF LONG WASTE PACKAGE ON UNYIELDING SURFACE

    SciTech Connect

    T. Schmitt

    2000-05-23

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Long Waste Package (WP) subjected to a 2.4-m horizontal drop on an unyielding surface (US). The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the waste package design and was performed by the Waste Package Design section in accordance with the development plan for ''Horizontal Drop of the Naval SNF Long Waste Package on Unyielding Surface''.

  2. Molecular Pathways: SWI/SNF (BAF) complexes are frequently mutated in cancer—mechanisms and potential therapeutic insights

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Haswell, Jeffrey R.; Roberts, Charles M. W.

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are pleomorphic multi-subunit cellular machines that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to modulate chromatin structure. The complexes interact with transcription factors at promoters and enhancers to modulate gene expression and contribute to lineage specification, differentiation and development. Initial clues to a role in tumor suppression for SWI/SNF complexes came over a decade ago when the gene encoding the SMARCB1/SNF5 core subunit was found specifically inactivated in nearly all pediatric rhabdoid tumors. In the last 3 years, cancer genome sequencing efforts have revealed an unexpectedly high mutation rate of SWI/SNF subunit genes, which are collectively mutated in 20% of all human cancers and approach the frequency of p53 mutations. Here we provide a background on these newly recognized tumor suppressor complexes, discuss mechanisms implicated in the tumor suppressor activity, and highlight findings that may lead to potential therapeutic targets for SWI/SNF mutant cancers. PMID:24122795

  3. [SWI/SNF Protein Complexes Participate in the Initiation and Elongation Stages of Drosophila hsp70 Gene Transcription].

    PubMed

    Mazina, M Yu; Nikolenko, Yu V; Krasnov, A N; Vorobyeva, N E

    2016-02-01

    The participation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in the stimulation of the RNA polymerase II binding to gene promotors was demonstrated in all model eukaryotic organisms. It was shown eight years ago that the SWI/SNF complex influence on transcription is not limited to its role in initiation but also includes participation in elongation and alternative splicing. In the current work, we describe the subunit composition of the SWI/SNF complexes participating in initiation, preparing for the elongation and elongation of hsp70 gene transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. The data reveal the high mobility of the SWI/SNF complex composition during the hsp 70 gene transcription process. We suggest a model describing the process of sequential SWI/SNF complex formation during heat-shock induced transcription of the hsp 70 gene.

  4. TFG/TAF30/ANC1, a component of the yeast SWI/SNF complex that is similar to the leukemogenic proteins ENL and AF-9.

    PubMed Central

    Cairns, B R; Henry, N L; Kornberg, R D

    1996-01-01

    The SWI1/ADR6, SWI2/SNF2, SWI3, SNF5, and SNF6 gene products are all required for proper transcriptional control of many genes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetic studies indicated that these gene products might form a multiprotein SWI/SNF complex important for chromatin transitions preceding transcription from RNA polymerase II promoters. Biochemical studies identified a SWI/SNF complex containing these and at least six additional polypeptides. Here we show that the 29-kDa component of the SWI/SNF complex is identical to TFG3/TAF30/ANC1. Thus, a component of the SWI/SNF complex is also a member of the TFIIF and TFIID transcription complexes. TFG3 interacted with the SNF5 component of the SWI/SNF complex in protein interaction blots. TFG3 is significantly similar to ENL and AF-9, two proteins implicated in human acute leukemia. These results suggest that ENL and AF-9 proteins interact with the SNF5 component of the human SWI/SNF complex and raise the possibility that the SWI/SNF complex is involved in acute leukemia. PMID:8668146

  5. Differential roles of the glycogen-binding domains of beta subunits in regulation of the Snf1 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Mangat, Simmanjeet; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini; McCartney, Rhonda R; Elbing, Karin; Schmidt, Martin C

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AMP-activated protein kinase family, including the Snf1 kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated under conditions of nutrient stress. AMP-activated protein kinases are heterotrimeric complexes composed of a catalytic alpha subunit and regulatory beta and gamma subunits. In this study, the role of the beta subunits in the regulation of Snf1 activity was examined. Yeasts express three isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase consisting of Snf1 (alpha), Snf4 (gamma), and one of three alternative beta subunits, either Sip1, Sip2, or Gal83. The Gal83 isoform of the Snf1 complex is the most abundant and was analyzed in the greatest detail. All three beta subunits contain a conserved domain referred to as the glycogen-binding domain. The deletion of this domain from Gal83 results in a deregulation of the Snf1 kinase, as judged by a constitutive activity independent of glucose availability. In contrast, the deletion of this homologous domain from the Sip1 and Sip2 subunits had little effect on Snf1 kinase regulation. Therefore, the different Snf1 kinase isoforms are regulated through distinct mechanisms, which may contribute to their specialized roles in different stress response pathways. In addition, the beta subunits are subjected to phosphorylation. The responsible kinases were identified as being Snf1 and casein kinase II. The significance of the phosphorylation is unclear since the deletion of the region containing the phosphorylation sites in Gal83 had little effect on the regulation of Snf1 in response to glucose limitation.

  6. Differential Roles of the Glycogen-Binding Domains of β Subunits in Regulation of the Snf1 Kinase Complex▿

    PubMed Central

    Mangat, Simmanjeet; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Elbing, Karin; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AMP-activated protein kinase family, including the Snf1 kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are activated under conditions of nutrient stress. AMP-activated protein kinases are heterotrimeric complexes composed of a catalytic α subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits. In this study, the role of the β subunits in the regulation of Snf1 activity was examined. Yeasts express three isoforms of the AMP-activated protein kinase consisting of Snf1 (α), Snf4 (γ), and one of three alternative β subunits, either Sip1, Sip2, or Gal83. The Gal83 isoform of the Snf1 complex is the most abundant and was analyzed in the greatest detail. All three β subunits contain a conserved domain referred to as the glycogen-binding domain. The deletion of this domain from Gal83 results in a deregulation of the Snf1 kinase, as judged by a constitutive activity independent of glucose availability. In contrast, the deletion of this homologous domain from the Sip1 and Sip2 subunits had little effect on Snf1 kinase regulation. Therefore, the different Snf1 kinase isoforms are regulated through distinct mechanisms, which may contribute to their specialized roles in different stress response pathways. In addition, the β subunits are subjected to phosphorylation. The responsible kinases were identified as being Snf1 and casein kinase II. The significance of the phosphorylation is unclear since the deletion of the region containing the phosphorylation sites in Gal83 had little effect on the regulation of Snf1 in response to glucose limitation. PMID:19897735

  7. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  8. Neutron detection of the Triga Mark III reactor, using nuclear track methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, G. Golzarri, J. I.; Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-23

    Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM), based on the neutron-proton interaction is one often employed alternative for neutron detection. In this paper we apply NTM to determine the Triga Mark III reactor operating power and neutron flux. The facility nuclear core, loaded with 85 Highly Enriched Uranium as fuel with control rods in a demineralized water pool, provide a neutron flux around 2 × 10{sup 12} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, at the irradiation channel TO-2. The neutron field is measured at this channel, using Landauer{sup ®} PADC as neutron detection material, covered by 3 mm Plexiglas{sup ®} as converter. After exposure, plastic detectors were chemically etched to make observable the formed latent tracks induced by proton recoils. The track density was determined by a custom made Digital Image Analysis System. The resulting average nuclear track density shows a direct proportionality response for reactor power in the range 0.1-7 kW. We indicate several advantages of the technique including the possibility to calibrate the neutron flux density measured at low reactor power.

  9. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  10. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo Mansilla, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations.

  11. Testing the applicability of the k0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-08-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA ( k0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters ( α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k0-NAA method at the MINT.

  12. Design of sample carrier for neutron irradiation facility at TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Y.; Hamid, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.; Ahmad, M. H. A. R. M.; Yusof, M. R.; Yazid, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work is to design a sample carrier for neutron irradiation experiment at beam ports of research nuclear reactor, the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). The sample carrier was designed so that irradiation experiment can be performed safely by researchers. This development will resolve the transferring of sample issues faced by the researchers at the facility when performing neutron irradiation studies. The function of sample carrier is to ensure the sample for the irradiation process can be transferred into and out from the beam port of the reactor safely and effectively. The design model used was House of Quality Method (HOQ) which is usually used for developing specifications for product and develop numerical target to work towards and determining how well we can meet up to the needs. The chosen sample carrier (product) consists of cylindrical casing shape with hydraulic cylinders transportation method. The sample placing can be done manually, locomotion was by wheel while shielding used was made of boron materials. The sample carrier design can shield thermal neutron during irradiation of sample so that only low fluencies fast neutron irradiates the sample.

  13. Estimation of Na-24 activity concentration in BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajijul Hoq, M.; Malek Soner, M. A.; Salam, M. A.; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S. M.

    The Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) TRIGA Research Reactor is a unique nuclear installation of the country generally implemented for a wide variety of research applications and serves as an excellent source of neutron. During reactor operation it is necessary to measure and control the activity concentration of the pool water for fuel element failure detection and for the determination of contamination. The present study deals with the estimation of activity concentration for Na-24 present in water coolant produced as a result of 23Na (n, γ) 24Na reaction. Several governing equations have been employed to estimate the Na-24 activity concentrations theoretically at different reactor power levels including maximum reactor power of 2.4 MW. From the obtained result it is ensured that the estimated Na-24 activity of 8.83 × 10-3 μCi /cm3 is not significant enough for any radiological hazard. Thus for ensuring radiological safety issues of the research reactor the assessment performed under the present study has an implication.

  14. Refurbishment of the rotating rack of the OSU TRIGA MKII reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Higginbotham, J.F.; Dodd, B.; Pratt, D.S.; Anderson, T.V.

    1992-07-01

    Many TRIGA reactors have experienced operational difficulties with the rotating racks used for sample irradiation. Generally the rack gradually becomes more difficult to rotate until it finally seizes. The recommended action at that point is replacement of the entire facility at a significant cost. The purpose of this paper is to describe the symptoms leading to rack failure and to present the results of a refurbishment procedure that does not involve the use of solvents which create mixed chemical and radioactive hazardous waste. The primary reason for rack failure is the buildup of sludge produced through irradiation of lubrication oil. The refurbishment procedure involves using a commercially available degreasing solution which can be pumped into and out of the rack with the objective of removing this sludge. The solution used is sold under the trade name 'Simple Green'. No radioactive material was detected on smear or air samples taken of the work area during the reifurbishment activities and the rack rotates freely in both direction even after eighteen months of operation. The only disadvantage to performing this procedure has been the need to maintain a very aggressive contamination control program when unloading samples from the rack. A very fine particulate material attaches to the outside of tubes used to encapsulate samples. This material can produce contamination levels of 10,000 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} in the worst cases but will typically produce local hot spots on the order of 1000 dpm. (author)

  15. Assessment and mitigation of power quality problems for PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Mohd Fazli; Ramachandaramurthy, Vigna K.

    2017-01-01

    An electrical power systems are exposed to different types of power quality disturbances. Investigation and monitoring of power quality are necessary to maintain accurate operation of sensitive equipment especially for nuclear installations. This paper will discuss the power quality problems observed at the electrical sources of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP). Assessment of power quality requires the identification of any anomalous behavior on a power system, which adversely affects the normal operation of electrical or electronic equipment. A power quality assessment involves gathering data resources; analyzing the data (with reference to power quality standards) then, if problems exist, recommendation of mitigation techniques must be considered. Field power quality data is collected by power quality recorder and analyzed with reference to power quality standards. Normally the electrical power is supplied to the RTP via two sources in order to keep a good reliability where each of them is designed to carry the full load. The assessment of power quality during reactor operation was performed for both electrical sources. There were several disturbances such as voltage harmonics and flicker that exceeded the thresholds. To reduce these disturbances, mitigation techniques have been proposed, such as to install passive harmonic filters to reduce harmonic distortion, dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) to reduce voltage disturbances and isolate all sensitive and critical loads.

  16. Production of 37Ar in The University of Texas TRIGA reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Egnatuk, Christine M.; Lowrey, Justin; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Woods, Vincent T.; Keillor, Martin E.

    2011-06-19

    The detection of {sup 37}Ar is important for on-site inspections for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. In an underground nuclear explosion this radionuclide is produced by {sup 40}Ca(n,{alpha}){sup 37}Ar reaction in surrounding soil and rock. With a half-life of 35 days, {sup 37}Ar provides a signal useful for confirming the location of an underground nuclear event. An ultra-low-background proportional counter developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is used to detect {sup 37}Ar, which decays via electron capture. The irradiation of Ar gas at natural enrichment in the 3L facility within the Mark II TRIGA reactor facility at The University of Texas at Austin provides a source of {sup 37}Ar for the calibration of the detector. The {sup 41}Ar activity is measured by the gamma activity using an HPGe detector after the sample is removed from the core. Using the {sup 41}Ar/{sup 37}Ar production ratio and the {sup 41}Ar activity, the amount of {sup 37}Ar created is calculated. The {sup 41}Ar decays quickly (half-life of 109.34 minutes) leaving a radioactive sample of high purity {sup 37}Ar and only trace levels of {sup 39}Ar.

  17. The chromatin remodeling complex Swi/Snf regulates splicing of meiotic transcripts in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Douglass, Stephen; Galivanche, Anoop R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Despite its relatively streamlined genome, there are important examples of regulated RNA splicing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, such as splicing of meiotic transcripts. Like other eukaryotes, S. cerevisiae undergoes a dramatic reprogramming of gene expression during meiosis, including regulated splicing of a number of crucial meiosis-specific RNAs. Splicing of a subset of these is dependent upon the splicing activator Mer1. Here we show a crucial role for the chromatin remodeler Swi/Snf in regulation of splicing of meiotic genes and find that the complex affects meiotic splicing in two ways. First, we show that Swi/Snf regulates nutrient-dependent downregulation of ribosomal protein encoding RNAs, leading to the redistribution of spliceosomes from this abundant class of intron-containing RNAs (the ribosomal protein genes) to Mer1-regulated transcripts. We also demonstrate that Mer1 expression is dependent on Snf2, its acetylation state and histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation at the MER1 locus. Hence, Snf2 exerts systems level control of meiotic gene expression through two temporally distinct mechanisms, demonstrating that it is a key regulator of meiotic splicing in S. cerevisiae. We also reveal an evolutionarily conserved mechanism whereby the cell redirects its energy from maintaining its translational capacity to the process of meiosis. PMID:28637241

  18. The WSTF-SNF2h chromatin remodeling complex interacts with several nuclear proteins in transcription.

    PubMed

    Cavellán, Erica; Asp, Patrik; Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Farrants, Ann-Kristin Ostlund

    2006-06-16

    The WSTF (Williams syndrome transcription factor) protein is involved in vitamin D-mediated transcription and replication as a component of two distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, WINAC and WICH, respectively. We show here that the WICH complex (WSTF-SNF2h) interacts with several nuclear proteins as follows: Sf3b155/SAP155, RNA helicase II/Gualpha, Myb-binding protein 1a, CSB, the proto-oncogene Dek, and nuclear myosin 1 in a large 3-MDa assembly, B-WICH, during active transcription. B-WICH also contains RNAs, 45 S rRNA, 5 S rRNA, 7SL RNA, and traces of the U2 small nuclear RNA. The core proteins, WSTF, SNF2h, and nuclear myosin 1, are associated with the RNA polymerase III genes 5 S rRNA genes and 7SL, and post-transcriptional silencing of WSTF reduces the levels of these transcripts. Our results show that a WSTF-SNF2h assembly is involved in RNA polymerase III transcription, and we suggest that WSTF-SNF2h-NM1 forms a platform in transcription while providing chromatin remodeling.

  19. Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex binds both promoters and terminators to regulate gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Yatusevich, Ruslan; Buszewicz, Daniel; Krzyczmonik, Katarzyna; Patryn, Jacek; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Wilczynski, Bartek; Koblowska, Marta; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Abstract ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are important regulators of gene expression in Eukaryotes. In plants, SWI/SNF-type complexes have been shown critical for transcriptional control of key developmental processes, growth and stress responses. To gain insight into mechanisms underlying these roles, we performed whole genome mapping of the SWI/SNF catalytic subunit BRM in Arabidopsis thaliana, combined with transcript profiling experiments. Our data show that BRM occupies thousands of sites in Arabidopsis genome, most of which located within or close to genes. Among identified direct BRM transcriptional targets almost equal numbers were up- and downregulated upon BRM depletion, suggesting that BRM can act as both activator and repressor of gene expression. Interestingly, in addition to genes showing canonical pattern of BRM enrichment near transcription start site, many other genes showed a transcription termination site-centred BRM occupancy profile. We found that BRM-bound 3΄ gene regions have promoter-like features, including presence of TATA boxes and high H3K4me3 levels, and possess high antisense transcriptional activity which is subjected to both activation and repression by SWI/SNF complex. Our data suggest that binding to gene terminators and controlling transcription of non-coding RNAs is another way through which SWI/SNF complex regulates expression of its targets. PMID:27994035

  20. Arabidopsis SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex binds both promoters and terminators to regulate gene expression.

    PubMed

    Archacki, Rafal; Yatusevich, Ruslan; Buszewicz, Daniel; Krzyczmonik, Katarzyna; Patryn, Jacek; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Biecek, Przemyslaw; Wilczynski, Bartek; Koblowska, Marta; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej; Swiezewski, Szymon

    2017-04-07

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are important regulators of gene expression in Eukaryotes. In plants, SWI/SNF-type complexes have been shown critical for transcriptional control of key developmental processes, growth and stress responses. To gain insight into mechanisms underlying these roles, we performed whole genome mapping of the SWI/SNF catalytic subunit BRM in Arabidopsis thaliana, combined with transcript profiling experiments. Our data show that BRM occupies thousands of sites in Arabidopsis genome, most of which located within or close to genes. Among identified direct BRM transcriptional targets almost equal numbers were up- and downregulated upon BRM depletion, suggesting that BRM can act as both activator and repressor of gene expression. Interestingly, in addition to genes showing canonical pattern of BRM enrichment near transcription start site, many other genes showed a transcription termination site-centred BRM occupancy profile. We found that BRM-bound 3΄ gene regions have promoter-like features, including presence of TATA boxes and high H3K4me3 levels, and possess high antisense transcriptional activity which is subjected to both activation and repression by SWI/SNF complex. Our data suggest that binding to gene terminators and controlling transcription of non-coding RNAs is another way through which SWI/SNF complex regulates expression of its targets. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. SWI/SNF regulates a transcriptional program that induces senescence to prevent liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tordella, Luca; Khan, Sadaf; Hohmeyer, Anja; Banito, Ana; Klotz, Sabrina; Raguz, Selina; Martin, Nadine; Dhamarlingam, Gopuraja; Carroll, Thomas; González Meljem, José Mario; Deswal, Sumit; Martínez-Barbera, Juan Pedro; García-Escudero, Ramón; Zuber, Johannes; Zender, Lars; Gil, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is a potent tumor suppressor mechanism. To identify senescence regulators relevant to cancer, we screened an shRNA library targeting genes deleted in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we describe how knockdown of the SWI/SNF component ARID1B prevents OIS and cooperates with RAS to induce liver tumors. ARID1B controls p16INK4a and p21CIP1a transcription but also regulates DNA damage, oxidative stress, and p53 induction, suggesting that SWI/SNF uses additional mechanisms to regulate senescence. To systematically identify SWI/SNF targets regulating senescence, we carried out a focused shRNA screen. We discovered several new senescence regulators, including ENTPD7, an enzyme that hydrolyses nucleotides. ENTPD7 affects oxidative stress, DNA damage, and senescence. Importantly, expression of ENTPD7 or inhibition of nucleotide synthesis in ARID1B-depleted cells results in re-establishment of senescence. Our results identify novel mechanisms by which epigenetic regulators can affect tumor progression and suggest that prosenescence therapies could be employed against SWI/SNF-mutated cancers. PMID:27737960

  2. SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Complexes in Cardiovascular Development and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bevilacqua, Ariana; Willis, Monte S.; Bultman, Scott J.

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of congenital heart defects has been recently advanced by whole exome sequencing projects, which have identified de novo mutations in many genes encoding epigenetic regulators. Notably, multiple subunits of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes have been identified as strong candidates underlying these defects because they physically and functionally interact with cardiogenic transcription factors critical to cardiac development, such as TBX5, GATA-4, and NKX2-5. While these studies indicate a critical role of SWI/SNF complexes in cardiac development and congenital heart disease, many exciting new discoveries have identified their critical role in the adult heart in both physiological and pathological conditions involving multiple cell types in the heart, including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and neural crest cells. This review summarizes the role of SWI/SNF chromatinremodeling complexes in cardiac development, congenital heart disease, cardiac hypertrophy, and vascular endothelial cell survival. Although the clinical relevance of SWI/SNF mutations has traditionally been focused primarily on their role in tumor suppression, these recent studies illustrate their critical role in the heart whereby they regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cardiac derived cell lines. PMID:24183004

  3. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409.36 Section 409.36 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPITAL INSURANCE BENEFITS Requirements for Coverage of Posthospital...

  4. Functional differentiation of SWI/SNF remodelers in transcription and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Moshkin, Yuri M; Mohrmann, Lisette; van Ijcken, Wilfred F J; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2007-01-01

    Drosophila BAP and PBAP represent two evolutionarily conserved subclasses of SWI/SNF chromatin remodelers. The two complexes share the same core subunits, including the BRM ATPase, but differ in a few signature subunits: OSA defines BAP, whereas Polybromo (PB) and BAP170 specify PBAP. Here, we present a comprehensive structure-function analysis of BAP and PBAP. An RNA interference knockdown survey revealed that the core subunits BRM and MOR are critical for the structural integrity of both complexes. Whole-genome expression profiling suggested that the SWI/SNF core complex is largely dysfunctional in cells. Regulation of the majority of target genes required the signature subunit OSA, PB, or BAP170, suggesting that SWI/SNF remodelers function mostly as holoenzymes. BAP and PBAP execute similar, independent, or antagonistic functions in transcription control and appear to direct mostly distinct biological processes. BAP, but not PBAP, is required for cell cycle progression through mitosis. Because in yeast the PBAP-homologous complex, RSC, controls cell cycle progression, our finding reveals a functional switch during evolution. BAP mediates G(2)/M transition through direct regulation of string/cdc25. Its signature subunit, OSA, is required for directing BAP to the string/cdc25 promoter. Our results suggest that the core subunits play architectural and enzymatic roles but that the signature subunits determine most of the functional specificity of SWI/SNF holoenzymes in general gene control.

  5. Criticality Potential of Waste Packages Containing DOE SNF Affected by Igneous Intrusion

    SciTech Connect

    D.S. Kimball; C.E. Sanders

    2006-02-07

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is currently preparing an application to submit to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for a construction authorization for a monitored geologic repository. The repository will contain spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and defense high-level waste (DHLW) in waste packages placed in underground tunnels, or drifts. The primary objective of this paper is to perform a criticality analysis for waste packages containing DOE SNF affected by a disruptive igneous intrusion event in the emplacement drifts. The waste packages feature one DOE SNF canister placed in the center and surrounded by five High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canisters. The effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) is determined for potential configurations of the waste package during and after an intrusive igneous event. Due to the complexity of the potential scenarios following an igneous intrusion, finding conservative and bounding configurations with respect to criticality requires some additional considerations. In particular, the geometry of a slumped and damaged waste package must be examined, drift conditions must be modeled over a range of parameters, and the chemical degradation of DOE SNF and waste package materials must be considered for the expected high temperatures. The secondary intent of this calculation is to present a method for selecting conservative and bounding configurations for a wide range of end conditions.

  6. Protective effects of SnF2 - Part I. Mineral solubilisation studies on powdered apatite.

    PubMed

    Baig, Arif A; Faller, Robert V; Yan, Janet; Ji, Nelson; Lawless, Michelle; Eversole, Sandra L

    2014-03-01

    To compare the ability of two active ingredients - sodium fluoride (NaF) and stannous fluoride (SnF2 ) - to inhibit hydroxyapatite (HAP) dissolution in buffered acidic media. Two in vitro studies were conducted. HAP powder, which is representative of tooth mineral, was pretreated with: test solutions of NaF or SnF2 , 10 g solution per 300 mg HAP powder (Study 1); or NaF or SnF2 dentifrice slurry supernatants, 20 g supernate per 200 mg HAP powder for 1 minute followed by three washes with water, then dried (Study 2). About 50 mg of pretreated HAP was exposed to 25 ml of acid dissolution media adjusted to and maintained at pH 4.5 in a Metrohn Titrino reaction cell. Exposure of HAP to the media results in dissolution and release of hydroxide ion, increasing the pH of the solution. The increase in pH is compensated for by automatic additions of acid to maintain the original pH (4.5) of the reaction cell. Total volume of titrant added after 30 minutes was used to calculate the percentage reduction in dissolution versus non-treated HAP control. Both F sources provided protection against acid dissolution; however, in each study, SnF2 -treated HAP was significantly more acid-resistant than the NaF treated mineral. In study 1, at 280 ppm F, representing concentrations of F found in the mouth after in vivo dentifrice use, the reduction in HAP dissolution was 47.7% for NaF and 75.7% for the SnF2 -treated apatite (extrapolated). In study 2, the reduction in HAP dissolution was 61.3% for NaF and 92.8% for SnF2 -treated samples. Differences in percentage reduction were statistically significant (Paired-t test). Results of these studies demonstrate that both of the fluoride sources tested enhance the acid resistance of tooth mineral and that resistance is significantly greater after treatment with SnF2 compared with treatment of tooth mineral with NaF. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. SNF2H interacts with XRCC1 and is involved in repair of H2O2-induced DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiko; Shimizu, Shinji; Yasuhira, Shinji; Horiuchi, Saburo

    2016-07-01

    The protein XRCC1 has no inherent enzymatic activity, and is believed to function in base excision repair as a dedicated scaffold component that coordinates other DNA repair factors. Repair foci clearly represent the recruitment and accumulation of DNA repair factors at sites of damage; however, uncertainties remain regarding their organization in the context of nuclear architecture and their biological significance. Here we identified the chromatin remodeling factor SNF2H/SMARCA5 as a novel binding partner of XRCC1, with their interaction dependent on the casein kinase 2-mediated constitutive phosphorylation of XRCC1. The proficiency of repairing H2O2-induced damage was strongly impaired by SNF2H knock-down, and similar impairment was observed with knock-down of both XRCC1 and SNF2H simultaneously, suggesting their role in a common repair pathway. Most SNF2H exists in the nuclear matrix fraction, forming salt extraction-resistant foci-like structures in unchallenged nuclei. Remarkably, damage-induced formation of both PAR and XRCC1 foci depended on SNF2H, and the PAR and XRCC1 foci co-localized with the SNF2H foci. We propose a model in which a base excision repair complex containing damaged chromatin is recruited to specific locations in the nuclear matrix for repair, with this recruitment mediated by XRCC1-SNF2H interaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of new irradiation channels inside the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor core.

    PubMed

    Chham, E; El Bardouni, T; Benaalilou, K; Boukhal, H; El Bakkari, B; Boulaich, Y; El Younoussi, C; Nacir, B

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to improve the capacity of radioisotope production in the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor, which is considered as one of the most important applications of research reactors. The aim of this study is to enhance the utilization of TRIGA core in the field of neutron activation and ensure an economic use of the fuel. The main idea was to create an additional irradiation channel (IC) inside the core. For this purpose, three new core configurations are proposed, which differ according to the IC position in the core. Thermal neutron flux distribution and other neutronic safety parameters such as power peaking factors, excess reactivity, and control rods worth reactivity were calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) code and neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII evaluation. The calculated thermal flux in the central thimble (CT) and in the added IC for the reconfigured core is compared with the thermal flux in the CT of the existing core, which is taken as a reference. The results show that all the obtained fluxes in CTs are very close to the reference value, while a remarkable difference is observed between the fluxes in the new ICs and reference. This difference depends on the position of IC in the reactor core. To demonstrate that the Moroccan TRIGA reactor could safely operate at 2MW, with new configurations based on new ICs, different safety-related thermal-hydraulic parameters were investigated. The PARET model was used in this study to verify whether the safety margins are met despite the new modifications of the core. The results show that it is possible to introduce new ICs safely in the reactor core, because the obtained values of the parameters are largely far from compromising the safety of the reactor.

  9. Snf1 Is a Regulator of Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Seip, John; Jackson, Raymond; He, Hongxian; Zhu, Quinn

    2013-01-01

    In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, de novo lipid synthesis and accumulation are induced under conditions of nitrogen limitation (or a high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio). The regulatory pathway responsible for this induction has not been identified. Here we report that the SNF1 pathway plays a key role in the transition from the growth phase to the oleaginous phase in Y. lipolytica. Strains with a Y. lipolytica snf1 (Ylsnf1) deletion accumulated fatty acids constitutively at levels up to 2.6-fold higher than those of the wild type. When introduced into a Y. lipolytica strain engineered to produce omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Ylsnf1 deletion led to a 52% increase in EPA titers (7.6% of dry cell weight) over the control. Other components of the Y. lipolytica SNF1 pathway were also identified, and their function in limiting fatty acid accumulation is suggested by gene deletion analyses. Deletion of the gene encoding YlSnf4, YlGal83, or YlSak1 significantly increased lipid accumulation in both growth and oleaginous phases compared to the wild type. Furthermore, microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of the Ylsnf1 mutant identified significantly differentially expressed genes during de novo lipid synthesis and accumulation in Y. lipolytica. Gene ontology analysis found that these genes were highly enriched with genes involved in lipid metabolism. This work presents a new role for Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in lipid accumulation in this oleaginous yeast. PMID:24056466

  10. Global Epigenetic Changes Induced by SWI2/SNF2 Inhibitors Characterize Neomycin-Resistant Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Shyamal K.; Komath, Sneha Sudha; Mayo, Marty W.; Hockensmith, Joel W.; Muthuswami, Rohini

    2012-01-01

    Background Previously, we showed that aminoglycoside phosphotransferases catalyze the formation of a specific inhibitor of the SWI2/SNF2 proteins. Aminoglycoside phosphotransferases, for example neomycin-resistant genes, are used extensively as selection markers in mammalian transfections as well as in transgenic studies. However, introduction of the neomycin-resistant gene is fraught with variability in gene expression. We hypothesized that the introduction of neomycin-resistant genes into mammalian cells results in inactivation of SWI2/SNF2 proteins thereby leading to global epigenetic changes. Methodology Using fluorescence spectroscopy we have shown that the inhibitor, known as Active DNA-dependent ATPase A Domain inhibitor (ADAADi), binds to the SWI2/SNF2 proteins in the absence as well as presence of ATP and DNA. This binding occurs via a specific region known as Motif Ia leading to a conformational change in the SWI2/SNF2 proteins that precludes ATP hydrolysis. ADAADi is produced from a plethora of aminoglycosides including G418 and Streptomycin, two commonly used antibiotics in mammalian cell cultures. Mammalian cells are sensitive to ADAADi; however, cells stably transfected with neomycin-resistant genes are refractory to ADAADi. In resistant cells, endogenous SWI2/SNF2 proteins are inactivated which results in altered histone modifications. Microarray data shows that the changes in the epigenome are reflected in altered gene expression. The microarray data was validated using real-time PCR. Finally, we show that the epigenetic changes are quantized. Significance The use of neomycin-resistant genes revolutionized mammalian transfections even though questions linger about efficacy. In this study, we have demonstrated that selection of neomycin-resistant cells results in survival of only those cells that have undergone epigenetic changes, and therefore, data obtained using these resistant genes as selection markers need to be cautiously evaluated. PMID

  11. Glucose de-repression by yeast AMP-activated protein kinase SNF1 is controlled via at least two independent steps.

    PubMed

    García-Salcedo, Raúl; Lubitz, Timo; Beltran, Gemma; Elbing, Karin; Tian, Ye; Frey, Simone; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Krantz, Marcus; Klipp, Edda; Hohmann, Stefan

    2014-04-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, controls energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells but little is known about the mechanisms governing the dynamics of its activation/deactivation. The yeast AMPK, SNF1, is activated in response to glucose depletion and mediates glucose de-repression by inactivating the transcriptional repressor Mig1. Here we show that overexpression of the Snf1-activating kinase Sak1 results, in the presence of glucose, in constitutive Snf1 activation without alleviating glucose repression. Co-overexpression of the regulatory subunit Reg1 of the Glc-Reg1 phosphatase complex partly restores glucose regulation of Snf1. We generated a set of 24 kinetic mathematical models based on dynamic data of Snf1 pathway activation and deactivation. The models that reproduced our experimental observations best featured (a) glucose regulation of both Snf1 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, (b) determination of the Mig1 phosphorylation status in the absence of glucose by Snf1 activity only and (c) a regulatory step directing active Snf1 to Mig1 under glucose limitation. Hence it appears that glucose de-repression via Snf1-Mig1 is regulated by glucose via at least two independent steps: the control of activation of the Snf1 kinase and directing active Snf1 to inactivating its target Mig1.

  12. Interaction of a Swi3 homolog with Sth1 provides evidence for a Swi/Snf-related complex with an essential function in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Treich, I; Carlson, M

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swi/Snf complex has a role in remodeling chromatin structure to facilitate transcriptional activation. The complex has 11 components, including Swi1/Adr6, Swi2/Snf2, Swi3, Snf5, Snf6, Snf11, Swp73/Snf12, and Tfg3. Mammalian homologs of these proteins have been shown to form multiple Swi/Snf-related complexes. Here we characterize an S. cerevisiae Swi3 homolog (Swh3) and present evidence that it associates in a complex with a Snf2 homolog, Sthl. We identified Swh3 as a protein that interacts with the N terminus of Snf2 in the two-hybrid system. Swh3 and Swi3 are functionally distinct, and overexpression of one does not compensate for loss of the other. Swh3 is essential for viability and does not activate transcription of reporters. The Snf2 sequence that interacts with Swh3 was mapped to a region conserved in Sth1. We show that Swh3 and Sth1 fusion proteins interact in the two-hybrid system and coimmunoprecipitate from yeast cell extracts. We also map interactions between Swh3 and Sth1 and examine the role of a leucine zipper motif in self-association of Swh3. These findings, together with previous analysis of Sth1, indicate that Swh3 and Sth1 are associated in a complex that is functionally distinct from the Swi/Snf complex and essential for viability. PMID:9121424

  13. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 1 Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    PACKER, M.J.

    1999-11-04

    Metallic uranium Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) is currently stored within two water filled pools, 105-KE Basin (KE Basin) and 105-KW Basin (KW Basin), at the United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. The Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNF Project) is responsible to DOE for operation of these fuel storage pools and for the 2100 metric tons of SNF materials that they contain. The SNF Project mission includes safe removal and transportation of all SNF from these storage basins to a new storage facility in the 200 East Area. To accomplish this mission, the SNF Project modifies the existing KE Basin and KW Basin facilities and constructs two new facilities: the 100 K Area Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF), which drains and dries the SNF; and the 200 East Area Canister Storage Building (CSB), which stores the SNF. The purpose of this document is to describe the design basis feed compositions for materials stored or processed by SNF Project facilities and activities. This document is not intended to replace the Hanford Spent Fuel Inventory Baseline (WHC 1994b), but only to supplement it by providing more detail on the chemical and radiological inventories in the fuel (this volume) and sludge. A variety of feed definitions is required to support evaluation of specific facility and process considerations during the development of these new facilities. Six separate feed types have been identified for development of new storage or processing facilities. The approach for using each feed during design evaluations is to calculate the proposed facility flowsheet assuming each feed. The process flowsheet would then provide a basis for material compositions and quantities which are used in follow-on calculations.

  14. The SWI/SNF Complex Creates Loop Domains in DNA and Polynucleosome Arrays and Can Disrupt DNA-Histone Contacts within These Domains

    PubMed Central

    Bazett-Jones, David P.; Côté, Jacques; Landel, Carolyn C.; Peterson, Craig L.; Workman, Jerry L.

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms by which the chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF complex interacts with DNA and alters nucleosome organization, we have imaged the SWI/SNF complex with both naked DNA and nucleosomal arrays by using energy-filtered microscopy. By making ATP-independent contacts with DNA at multiple sites on its surface, SWI/SNF creates loops, bringing otherwise-distant sites into close proximity. In the presence of ATP, SWI/SNF action leads to the disruption of nucleosomes within domains that appear to be topologically constrained by the complex. The data indicate that the action of one SWI/SNF complex on an array of nucleosomes can lead to the formation of a region where multiple nucleosomes are disrupted. Importantly, nucleosome disruption by SWI/SNF results in a loss of DNA content from the nucleosomes. This indicates a mechanism by which SWI/SNF unwraps part of the nucleosomal DNA. PMID:9891080

  15. Extraction of pure thermal neutron beam for the proposed PGNAA facility at the TRIGA research reactor of AERE, Savar, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Sabina; Zaman, M. A.; Islam, S. M. A.; Ahsan, M. H.

    1993-10-01

    A study on collimators and filters for the design of a spectrometer for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) at one of the radial beamports of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at AERE, Savar has been carried out. On the basis of this study a collimator and a filter have been designed for the proposed PGNAA facility. Calculations have been done for measuring neutron flux at various positions of the core of the reactor using the computer code TRIGAP. Gamma dose in the core of the reactor has also been measured experimentally using TLD technique in the present work.

  16. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegner, Markus; Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele; Khan, Rustam; Blaickner, Matthias; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Böck, Helmuth

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  17. License renewal and power upgrade of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aderhold, Howard C.

    1984-07-01

    The Cornell Mark II TRIGA reactor has been a principal facility for instruction and research in nuclear science and engineering at Cornell, and it has been extensively used by other departments at Cornell and by nearby universities and industries. Initially the fuel was low hydride, 8.5w/o 19%-enriched, aluminum clad; in 1974 it was changed to high-hydride, stainless-steel-clad. The maximum power has been 100 kW, with pulses to $2, and operation has been on a one-shift demand basis. Annual energy generation of 50 MWH has been typical. Standard features include a 4-inch tangential port and our 6-inch radial ports, a thermal column with hohlraum and vertical access, a central thimble, a 'rabbit', and a set of dry irradiation tubes, replacing the 'Lazy Susan'. The license was renewed and amended in November 1983; the new limits are 500 kW and $3 pulses. Physical changes to the facility included addition of a water-to-water heat exchanger and of a diffuser at the water outlet {approx} 60 cm above the core. The flow rate is 300 liters per minute in the primary (reactor) side of the heat exchanger. The temperature of the chilled water entering the secondary of the exchanger is {approx} 12?C; its flow rate is adjusted by a servo-controlled by-pass valve to maintain the desired range of pool water temperature. Steps taken to go to higher power included rearrangement of fuel elements to increase excess reactivity, recalibration of control rods, and power vs ion chamber current calibrations at successively higher power by comparing the rate of rise of pool temperature with a known rate using electrical heating elements. Steady-state operation has been done up to 480 kW (nominal) but pulsing at the newly allowed higher levels has not been tested as yet.

  18. Experimental study of radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the BAEC TRIGA Research Reactor.

    PubMed

    Ajijul Hoq, M; Malek Soner, M A; Salam, M A; Haque, M M; Khanom, Salma; Fahad, S M

    2017-09-09

    The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked. In the present study, neutron, beta and gamma radiation dose rate at different strategic points of the reactor facility with reactor power level of 2.4MW was measured to estimate the rising level of radiation due to its operational activities. From the obtained results high radiation dose is observed at the measurement position of the piercing beam port which is caused by neutron leakage and accordingly, dose rate at the stated position with different reactor power levels was measured. This study also deals with the gamma dose rate measurements at a fixed position of the reactor pool top surface for different reactor power levels under both Natural Convection Cooling Mode (NCCM) and Forced Convection Cooling Mode (FCCM). Results show that, radiation dose rate is higher for NCCM in compared with FCCM and increasing with the increase of reactor power. Thus, concerning the radiological safety issues for working personnel and the general public, the radiation dose level monitoring and the experimental analysis performed within this paper is so much effective and the result of this work can be utilized for base line data and code verification of the nuclear reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SWI/SNF enzymes promote SOX10- mediated activation of myelin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Himangi G; Mehta, Gaurav; Zhang, Xiaolu; Datar, Ila; Mehrotra, Aanchal; Yeung, Kam C; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2013-01-01

    SOX10 is a Sry-related high mobility (HMG)-box transcriptional regulator that promotes differentiation of neural crest precursors into Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, and melanocytes. Myelin, formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, is essential for propagation of nerve impulses. SWI/SNF complexes are ATP dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes that are critical for cellular differentiation. It was recently demonstrated that the BRG1 subunit of SWI/SNF complexes activates SOX10 expression and also interacts with SOX10 to activate expression of OCT6 and KROX20, two transcriptional regulators of Schwann cell differentiation. To determine the requirement for SWI/SNF enzymes in the regulation of genes that encode components of myelin, which are downstream of these transcriptional regulators, we introduced SOX10 into fibroblasts that inducibly express dominant negative versions of the SWI/SNF ATPases, BRM or BRG1. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 have mutations in the ATP binding site and inhibit gene activation events that require SWI/SNF function. Ectopic expression of SOX10 in cells derived from NIH 3T3 fibroblasts led to the activation of the endogenous Schwann cell specific gene, myelin protein zero (MPZ) and the gene that encodes myelin basic protein (MBP). Thus, SOX10 reprogrammed these cells into myelin gene expressing cells. Ectopic expression of KROX20 was not sufficient for activation of these myelin genes. However, KROX20 together with SOX10 synergistically activated MPZ and MBP expression. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 abrogated SOX10 mediated activation of MPZ and MBP and synergistic activation of these genes by SOX10 and KROX20. SOX10 was required to recruit BRG1 to the MPZ locus. Similarly, in immortalized Schwann cells, BRG1 recruitment to SOX10 binding sites at the MPZ locus was dependent on SOX10 and expression of dominant negative BRG1 inhibited expression of MPZ and MBP in these cells. Thus, SWI/SNF enzymes cooperate with SOX10 to

  20. Implementation of k0-INAA standardisation at ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Turkey based on k0-IAEA software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Ayse Nur; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of k0-INAA method at the Istanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The neutron spectrum parameters such as epithermal neutron flux distribution parameter (α), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and thermal neutron flux (φth) were determined at the central irradiation channel of the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using bare triple-monitor method. HPGe detector calibrations and calculations were carried out by k0-IAEA software. The α, f and φth values were calculated to be -0.009, 15.4 and 7.92·1012 cm-2 s-1, respectively. NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash and intercomparison samples consisting of clay and sandy soil samples were used to evaluate the validity of the method. For selected elements, the statistical evaluation of the analysis results was carried out by z-score test. A good agreement between certified/reported and experimental values was obtained.

  1. Description of the Canadian particulate-fill waste-package (WP) system for spent-nuclear fuel (SNF) and its applicability to light-water reactor SNF WPs with depleted uranium-dioxide fill

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-10-20

    The US is beginning work on an advanced, light-water reactor (LWR), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), waste package (WP) that uses depleted uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) fill. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program has completed a 15-year development program of its repository concept for CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor SNF. As one option, Canada has developed a WP that uses a glass-bead or silica-sand fill. The Canadian development work on fill materials inside WPs can provide a guide for the development of LWR SNF WPs using depleted uranium (DU) fill materials. This report summarizes the Canadian work, identifies similarities and differences between the Canadian design and the design being investigated in the US to use DU fill, and identifies what information is applicable to the development of a DU fill for LWR SNF WPs. In both concepts, empty WPs are loaded with SNF, the void space between the fuel pins and the outer void space between SNF assemblies and the inner WP wall would be filled with small particles, the WPs are then sealed, and the WPs are placed into the repository.

  2. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling regulates alcohol response behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans and is associated with alcohol dependence in humans.

    PubMed

    Mathies, Laura D; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Austin, Makeda K; Edwards, Alexis C; Riley, Brien P; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2015-03-10

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread and serious problem. Understanding the factors that influence the likelihood of abuse is important for the development of effective therapies. There are both genetic and environmental influences on the development of abuse, but it has been difficult to identify specific liability factors, in part because of both the complex genetic architecture of liability and the influences of environmental stimuli on the expression of that genetic liability. Epigenetic modification of gene expression can underlie both genetic and environmentally sensitive variation in expression, and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the progression to addiction. Here, we identify a role for the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in regulating the behavioral response to alcohol in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that SWI/SNF components are required in adults for the normal behavioral response to ethanol and that different SWI/SNF complexes regulate different aspects of the acute response to ethanol. We showed that the SWI/SNF subunits SWSN-9 and SWSN-7 are required in neurons and muscle for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol. Examination of the members of the SWI/SNF complex for association with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a human population identified allelic variation in a member of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that variation in the regulation of SWI/SNF targets may influence the propensity to develop abuse disorders. Together, these data strongly implicate the chromatin remodeling associated with SWI/SNF complex members in the behavioral responses to alcohol across phyla.

  3. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-02-03

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of the Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the spent nuclear fuel project (SNFP) Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  4. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  5. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes are associated with cardiac hypertrophy in a genetic rat model of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Aanchal; Joe, Bina; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2013-12-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by a sustained increase in cardiomyocyte size and re-activation of the fetal cardiac gene program. Previous studies implicated SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes as regulators of the fetal cardiac gene program in surgical models of cardiac hypertrophy. Although hypertension is a common risk factor for developing cardiac hypertrophy, there has not yet been any investigation into the role of SWI/SNF enzymes in cardiac hypertrophy using genetic models of hypertension. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that components of the SWI/SNF complex are activated and recruited to promoters that regulate the fetal cardiac gene program in hearts that become hypertrophic as a result of salt induced hypertension. Utilizing the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat model, we found that the protein levels of several SWI/SNF subunits required for heart development, Brg1, Baf180, and Baf60c, are elevated in hypertrophic hearts from S rats fed a high salt diet compared with normotensive hearts from Dahl salt-resistant (R) rats fed the same diet. Furthermore, we detected significantly higher levels of SWI/SNF subunit enrichment as well as evidence of more accessible chromatin structure on two fetal cardiac gene promoters in hearts from S rats compared with R rats. Our data implicate SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes as regulators of gene expression in cardiac hypertrophy resulting from salt induced hypertension. Thus we provide novel insights into the epigenetic mechanisms by which salt induced hypertension leads to cardiac hypertrophy.

  6. The AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 fuel gauge and energy regulator: structure, function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Ghillebert, Ruben; Swinnen, Erwin; Wen, Jing; Vandesteene, Lies; Ramon, Matthew; Norga, Koen; Rolland, Filip; Winderickx, Joris

    2011-11-01

    All life forms on earth require a continuous input and monitoring of carbon and energy supplies. The AMP-activated kinase (AMPK)/sucrose non-fermenting1 (SNF1)/Snf1-related kinase1 (SnRK1) protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved metabolic sensors found in all eukaryotic organisms from simple unicellular fungi (yeast SNF1) to animals (AMPK) and plants (SnRK1). Activated by starvation and energy-depleting stress conditions, they enable energy homeostasis and survival by up-regulating energy-conserving and energy-producing catabolic processes, and by limiting energy-consuming anabolic metabolism. In addition, they control normal growth and development as well as metabolic homeostasis at the organismal level. As such, the AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinases act in concert with other central signaling components to control carbohydrate uptake and metabolism, fatty acid and lipid biosynthesis and the storage of carbon energy reserves. Moreover, they have a tremendous impact on developmental processes that are triggered by environmental changes such as nutrient depletion or stress. Although intensive research by many groups has partly unveiled the factors that regulate AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinase activity as well as the pathways and substrates they control, several fundamental issues still await to be clarified. In this review, we will highlight these issues and focus on the structure, function and regulation of the AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 kinases.

  7. Role of Nhp6 and Hmo1 in SWI/SNF occupancy and nucleosome landscape at gene regulatory regions.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Matias I; Smolle, Michaela; Gidi, Cristian; Amigo, Roberto; Valenzuela, Nicole; Arriagada, Axel; Maureira, Alejandro; Gogol, Madelaine M; Torrejón, Marcela; Workman, Jerry L; Gutiérrez, José L

    2017-03-01

    Diverse chromatin modifiers are involved in regulation of gene expression at the level of transcriptional regulation. Among these modifiers are ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers, where the SWI/SNF complex is the founding member. It has been observed that High Mobility Group (HMG) proteins can influence the activity of a number of these chromatin remodelers. In this context, we have previously demonstrated that the yeast HMG proteins Nhp6 and Hmo1 can stimulate SWI/SNF activity. Here, we studied the genome-wide binding patterns of Nhp6, Hmo1 and the SWI/SNF complex, finding that most of gene promoters presenting high occupancy of this complex also display high enrichment of these HMG proteins. Using deletion mutant strains we demonstrate that binding of SWI/SNF is significantly reduced at numerous genomic locations by deletion of NHP6 and/or deletion of HMO1. Moreover, alterations in the nucleosome landscape take place at gene promoters undergoing reduced SWI/SNF binding. Additional analyses show that these effects also correlate with alterations in transcriptional activity. Our results suggest that, besides the ability to stimulate SWI/SNF activity, these HMG proteins are able to assist the loading of this complex onto gene regulatory regions.

  8. 327 SNF fuel return to K-Basin quality process plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1998-09-22

    The B and W Hanford Company`s (BWHC) 327 Facility, in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, contains Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) single fuel element canisters (SFEC) and fuel remnant canisters (FRC) which are to be returned to K-Basin. Seven shipments of up to six fuel canisters will be loaded into the CNS 1-13G Cask and transported to 105-KE.

  9. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-05-10

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  10. Recruitment of SWI/SNF to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Angus; Holloway, Adele; Reeves, Raymond; Tremethick, David John

    2004-01-01

    Following human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integration into the host cell's genome, the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) is packaged into a highly specific chromatin structure comprised of an array of nucleosomes positioned with respect to important DNA sequence elements that regulate the transcriptional activity of the provirus. While several host cell factors have been shown to be important for chromatin remodeling and/or basal transcription, no specific mechanism that relieves the transcriptional repression imposed by nuc-1, a positioned nucleosome that impedes the start site of transcription, has been found. Since phorbol esters cause the rapid disruption of nuc-1 and markedly stimulate HIV-1 transcription, we looked for protein factors that associate with this region of the HIV-1 promoter in a phorbol-ester-dependent manner. We report here that ATF-3, JunB, and BRG-1 (the ATPase subunit of the 2-MDa human chromatin remodeling machine SWI/SNF) are recruited to the 3' boundary of nuc-1 following phorbol myristate acetate stimulation in Jurkat T cells. Analysis of the recruitment of BRG-1 in nuclear extracts prepared from Jurkat T cells and reconstitution of an in vitro system with purified components demonstrate that ATF-3 is responsible for targeting human SWI/SNF (hSWI/SNF) to the HIV-1 promoter. Importantly, this recruitment of hSWI/SNF required HMGA1 proteins. Further support for this conclusion comes from immunoprecipitation experiments showing that BRG-1 and ATF-3 can exist together in the same complex. Although ATF-3 clearly plays a role in the specific targeting of BRG-1 to the HIV-1 promoter, the maintenance of a stable association between BRG-1 and chromatin appears to be dependent upon histone acetylation. By adding BRG-1 back into a BRG-1-deficient cell line (C33A cells), we demonstrate that trichostatin A strongly induces the 5'-LTR-driven reporter transcription in a manner that is dependent upon BRG-1 recruitment.

  11. Unique challenges for storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, T.A.

    1998-03-01

    Non-commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy presents some unique challenges for interim storage as well as ultimate disposal in a repository. There is an important link between Yucca Mountain Repository work and the future needs of the DOE SNF program. Close coordination and early definition of acceptance criteria are essential. Much of the Yucca Mountain Repository work has focused on commercial SNF which has very high structural integrity and a well documented set of characteristics and burn-up histories. In contrast, DOE non-commercial SNF at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) represents over two hundred fifty fuel types, much of which is degraded. Fuel designs by DOE were centered around various test objectives in experimental reactors. The result was a proliferation of fuel types. Interest in enhanced heat transfer led to use of sodium as a bond between the fuel and cladding. The desire for smaller more compact reactors with higher power densities led to a variety of enrichments from less than 20% to greater than 90%. INEEL has most of the US U-233 spent nuclear fuel, which came from breeder reactor concepts and consideration of a thorium fuel cycle. These various fuel types now must be placed in safe, stable interim dry storage. Emphasis is being placed on the use of commercially available dry storage designs and independent spent fuel storage installations licensed under NRC criteria. A lot of technological development is being done to characterize fuels that do not have the documented fabrication and operational histories of commercial LWR fuels. Program objectives are safe interim storage and least cost transition to geological repository storage.

  12. One small step for Mot1; one giant leap for other Swi2/Snf2 enzymes?

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Ramya; Auble, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The TATA-binding protein (TBP) is a major target for transcriptional regulation. Mot1, a Swi2/Snf2-related ATPase, dissociates TBP from DNA in an ATP dependent process. The experimental advantages of this relatively simple reaction have been exploited to learn more about how Swi2/Snf2 ATPases function biochemically. However, many unanswered questions remain and fundamental aspects of the Mot1 mechanism are still under debate. Here, we review the available data and integrate the results with structural and biochemical studies of related enzymes to derive a model for Mot1’s catalytic action consistent with the broad literature on enzymes in this family. We propose that the Mot1 ATPase domain is tethered to TBP by a flexible, spring-like linker of alpha helical hairpins. The linker juxtaposes the ATPase domain such that it can engage duplex DNA on one side of the TBP-DNA complex. This allows the ATPase to employ short-range, nonprocessive ATP-driven DNA tracking to pull or push TBP off its DNA site. DNA translocation is a conserved property of ATPases in the broader enzyme family. As such, the model explains how a structurally and functionally conserved ATPase domain has been put to use in a very different context than other enzymes in the Swi2/Snf2 family. PMID:21658482

  13. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A.; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J.; Poirier, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as “readers,” which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers. PMID:26416878

  14. DOE-Managed HLW and SNF Research: FY15 EBS and Thermal Analysis Work Package Status.

    SciTech Connect

    Matteo, Edward N.; Hadgu, Teklu

    2015-11-01

    This report examines the technical elements necessary to evaluate EBS concepts and perform thermal analysis of DOE-Managed SNF and HLW in the disposal settings of primary interest – argillite, crystalline, salt, and deep borehole. As the disposal design concept is composed of waste inventory, geologic setting, and engineered concept of operation, the engineered barrier system (EBS) falls into the last component of engineered concept of operation. The waste inventory for DOE-Managed HLW and SNF is closely examined, with specific attention to the number of waste packages, the size of waste packages, and the thermal output per package. As expected, the DOE-Managed HLW and SNF inventory has a much smaller volume, and hence smaller number of canisters, as well a lower thermal output, relative to a waste inventory that would include commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). A survey of available data and methods from previous studies of thermal analysis indicates that, in some cases, thermo-hydrologic modeling will be necessary to appropriately address the problem. This report also outlines scope for FY16 work -- a key challenge identified is developing a methodology to effectively and efficiently evaluate EBS performance in each disposal setting on the basis of thermal analyses results.

  15. SWI/SNF-Mediated Lineage Determination in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Confers Resistance to Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kevin Hong; Xu, Fuhua; Flowers, Stephen; Williams, Edek A J; Fritton, J Christopher; Moran, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Redirecting the adipogenic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to other lineages, particularly osteoblasts, is a key goal in regenerative medicine. Controlling lineage selection through chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF, which act coordinately to establish new patterns of gene expression, would be a desirable intervention point, but the requirement for the complex in essentially every lineage pathway has generally precluded selectivity. However, a novel approach now appears possible by targeting the subset of SWI/SNF powered by the alternative ATPase, mammalian brahma (BRM). BRM is not required for development, which has hindered understanding of its contributions, but knockdown genetics here, designed to explore the hypothesis that BRM-SWI/SNF has different regulatory roles in different mesenchymal stem cell lineages, shows that depleting BRM from mesenchymal stem cells has a dramatic effect on the balance of lineage selection between osteoblasts and adipocytes. BRM depletion enhances the proportion of cells expressing markers of osteoblast precursors at the expense of cells able to differentiate along the adipocyte lineage. This effect is evident in primary bone marrow stromal cells as well as in established cell culture models. The altered precursor balance has major physiological significance, which becomes apparent as protection against age-related osteoporosis and as reduced bone marrow adiposity in adult BRM-null mice. © 2015 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  16. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression. PMID:26457678

  17. Uranium Oxide Rate Summary for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-09-20

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the uranium oxidation reaction rate information developed by the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project and describe the basis for selecting reaction rate correlations used in system design. The selection basis considers the conditions of practical interest to the fuel removal processes and the reaction rate application during design studies. Since the reaction rate correlations are potentially used over a range of conditions, depending of the type of evaluation being performed, a method for transitioning between oxidation reactions is also documented. The document scope is limited to uranium oxidation reactions of primary interest to the SNF Project processes. The reactions influencing fuel removal processes, and supporting accident analyses, are: uranium-water vapor, uranium-liquid water, uranium-moist air, and uranium-dry air. The correlation selection basis will consider input from all available sources that indicate the oxidation rate of uranium fuel, including the literature data, confirmatory experimental studies, and fuel element observations. Trimble (2000) summarizes literature data and the results of laboratory scale experimental studies. This document combines the information in Trimble (2000) with larger scale reaction observations to describe uranium oxidation rate correlations applicable to conditions of interest to the SNF Project.

  18. Effects of SNF1 on Maltose Metabolism and Leavening Ability of Baker's Yeast in Lean Dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Lin, Xue; Liu, Xiao-Er; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Maltose metabolism of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression, thereby delaying the dough fermentation. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. The Snf1 protein kinase is well known to be essential for the response to glucose repression and required for transcription of glucose-repressed genes including the maltose-utilization genes (MAL). In this study, the SNF1 overexpression and deletion industrial baker's yeast strains were constructed and characterized in terms of maltose utilization, growth and fermentation characteristics, mRNA levels of MAL genes (MAL62 encoding the maltase and MAL61 encoding the maltose permease) and maltase and maltose permease activities. Our results suggest that overexpression of SNF1 was effective to glucose derepression for enhancing MAL expression levels and enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. These enhancements could result in an 18% increase in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in LSMLD medium (the low sugar model liquid dough fermentation medium) containing glucose and maltose and a 15% increase in leavening ability in lean dough. These findings provide a valuable insight of breeding industrial baker's yeast for rapid fermentation.

  19. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  20. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  1. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  2. Educational Facilities in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEB Exchange, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes a Korean program to modernize school buildings and equipment to better meet current teaching needs.Examines Korea's education and administrative systems, and the Ministry of Education's involvement in schooling trends, facilities for higher education, and developments in information and technology. (GR)

  3. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor…

  4. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed

  5. Characterization of the Novel DNA-Binding Activity of p270, a hSWI/SNF Protein Frequently Downregulated in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    interacts with the developmental transcription factors BF-I and Lyu,P.C. (2003) Mutagenesis Study on the zebra fish S0X9 and PAX9. J. Biol. Chem., 278... Tissue -specific and developmental stage-specific chromatin remodeling by Swi/Snf complexes. Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., DNA binding by a mammalian SWI/SNF...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Human SWI/SNF complexes are ATP-dependent chromatin

  6. The SNF5 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a glutamine- and proline-rich transcriptional activator that affects expression of a broad spectrum of genes.

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, B C; Treitel, M A; Carlson, M

    1990-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF5 gene affects expression of both glucose- and phosphate-regulated genes and appears to function in transcription. We report the nucleotide sequence, which predicts that SNF5 encodes a 102,536-dalton protein. The N-terminal third of the protein is extremely rich in glutamine and proline. Mutants carrying a deletion of the coding sequence were viable but grew slowly, indicating that the SNF5 gene is important but not essential. Evidence that SNF5 affects expression of the cell type-specific genes MF alpha 1 and BAR1 at the RNA level extends the known range of SNF5 function. SNF5 is apparently required for expression of a wide variety of differently regulated genes. A bifunctional SNF5-beta-galactosidase fusion protein was localized in the nucleus by immunofluorescence. No DNA-binding activity was detected for SNF5. A LexA-SNF5 fusion protein, when bound to a lexA operator, functioned as a transcriptional activator. Images PMID:2233708

  7. Access Denied: Snf1 Activation Loop Phosphorylation Is Controlled by Availability of the Phosphorylated Threonine 210 to the PP1 Phosphatase*

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Eric M.; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan M.; Shirra, Margaret K.; Arndt, Karen M.; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf1 kinase activation loop is determined by the integration of two reaction rates: the rate of phosphorylation by upstream kinases and the rate of dephosphorylation by Glc7. The activities of the Snf1-activating kinases do not appear to be glucose-regulated, since immune complex kinase assays with each of the three Snf1-activating kinases show similar levels of activity when prepared from cells grown in either high or low glucose. In contrast, the dephosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop was strongly regulated by glucose. When de novo phosphorylation of Snf1 was inhibited, phosphorylation of the Snf1 activation loop was found to be stable in low glucose but rapidly lost upon the addition of glucose. A greater than 10-fold difference in the rates of Snf1 activation loop dephosphorylation was detected. However, the activity of the Glc7-Reg1 phosphatase may not itself be directly regulated by glucose, since the Glc7-Reg1 enzyme was active in low glucose toward another substrate, the transcription factor Mig1. Glucose-mediated regulation of Snf1 activation loop dephosphorylation is controlled by changes in the ability of the Snf1 activation loop to act as a substrate for Glc7. PMID:17991748

  8. SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking CHFR mediated ubiquitination and degradation of its major components

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Inkyung; Sohn, Dong H.; Choi, Jinwook; Kim, Joo Mi; Jeon, Shin; Seol, Jae Hong; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediates the ubiquitination of the major components of the SWI/SNF complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediated-ubiquitination induces the degradation of the major components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRG3 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking the CHFR activity. -- Abstract: The murine SWI/SNF-like BAF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that functions as a transcriptional regulator in cell proliferation, differentiation and development. The SWI/SNF-like BAF complex consists of several components including core subunits such as BRG1, BAF155/SRG3, BAF47/SNF5/INI1, and BAF170. We have previously shown that the interaction between SRG3/mBAF155 and other components of the complex stabilizes them by attenuating their proteasomal degradation. However, it has not been known how the major components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex such as BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a are targeted for the ubiquitination and degradation, and how SRG3/mBAF155 protects them from the degradation process. Here we report that CHFR interacts with BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex and ubiquitinates them to target for degradation through a proteasome-mediated pathway, and that SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes these components by blocking their interaction with CHFR.

  9. Assessment of crosstalks between the Snf1 kinase complex and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae via systems biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Borklu Yucel, Esra; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2013-11-01

    Sphingolipids are essential building blocks of the plasma membranes and are highly bioactive in the regulation of diverse cellular functions and pathological processes, a fact which renders the sphingolipid metabolism an important research area. In this study, a computational framework was recruited for the reconstruction of a functional interaction network for sphingolipid metabolism in Baker's yeast, SSN. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations were integrated with functional interaction data of the BIOGRID database and the reconstructed protein interaction network was subjected to topological and descriptive analyses. SSN was of a scale-free nature, following a power law model with γ=1.41. Prominent processes of SSN revealed that the reconstructed network encapsulated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in vital cellular processes such as energy homeostasis, cell growth and/or death and synthesis of building blocks. To investigate the potential of SSN for predicting signal transduction pathways regulating and/or being regulated by sphingolipid biosynthesis in yeast, a case study involving the S. cerevisiae counterpart of AMP-activated protein kinase, the Snf1 kinase complex, was conducted. The mutant strain lacking the catalytic α subunit, snf1Δ/snf1Δ, had elevated inositol phosphorylceramide and mannosyl-inositol phosphorylceramide levels, and decreased mannosyl-diinositol phosphorylceramide levels compared to the wild type strain, revealing that Snf1p has a regulatory role in the sphingolipid metabolism. Transcriptome data belonging to that strain available in the literature were mapped onto SSN and the correlated SSN was further investigated to evaluate the possible crosstalk machineries where sphingolipids and Snf1p function in coordination, in other words the crosstalk points between sphingolipid-mediated and Snf1 kinase signalling. The subsequent investigation of the discovered candidate crosstalk processes by performing sensitivity experiments imply a

  10. Effect of self-administered daily irrigation with 0.02% SnF2 on periodontal disease activity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P; Quinn, R; Buchanan, S; Eakle, W; Chambers, D

    1985-07-01

    To determine the effect on periodontal health of a daily self-administered irrigation with 0.02% stannous fluoride (SnF2) solution, 28 subjects who had moderate to advanced periodontitis were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group (n = 9) which used no irrigation, a group (n = 8) which used a self-administered water irrigation device (Water Pik) daily with water (H2O group) and a group (n = 11) which used the Water Pik in a similar manner but with SnF2 solution (SnF2 group). All subjects were instructed in routine tooth brushing and flossing but received no other periodontal treatment. 4 study sites were selected from each patient which had pocket depths greater than 4 mm and bleeding upon probing. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, pocket depth, loss of attachment, and microbiologic samples of subgingival plaque for morphologic determinations were collected from all study sites at baseline, 2, 6, and 10 weeks. A cross-over was then initiated for 2 additional monthly checks in which the H2O group changed to SnF2 and the SnF2 group was divided into 2 subgroups which either continued to use SnF2 or changed to H2O. The control group completed the study at the beginning of the crossover. The clinical data showed significantly more improvement in periodontal health during the first 10 weeks for the SnF2 group (p less than 0.01). After cross-over, the clinical data indicated the group that changed from H2O to SnF2 significantly improved their periodontal health, while the group that changed from SnF2 to H2O became worse. The microbiologic data showed trends which agreed with the clinical data during the first 10 weeks but were less significant. After cross-over, the %s of motile rods and spirochetes were too small (0-7%) to establish statistically significant changes considering the accuracy of the technique used.

  11. East Asia: Korea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-18

    CHOSON Reviews Korean Army 13 ECONOMIC Samsung Group Moves Toward Merger, Expansion 34 Production of Export Goods Diversified 35 Rapid Information...events and the income from the sale of TV broadcasting privileges." However, the IOC and the Korean Olympic Committee (KOC) of Seoul have taken the...explanation into rumors that 6.5 million U.S. dollars was received as a commis- sion for Korea’s purchase of u.s. weapons during the Chon government, as

  12. South Korea Leads the Warfight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    warfighting command in a doctrinally supporting relationship to the ROK armed forces. The evolution to a Korean -led defense of the Republic of Korea is a...T he Republic of Korea –U.S. alliance is embarking on the most profound transformation affecting American forces on the peninsula since the Korean ...War. For the last 57 years, the United States has led the war- fighting command responsible for the defense of the Republic of Korea (ROK). As the ROK

  13. G1/S Inhibitors and the SWI/SNF Complex Control Cell-Cycle Exit during Muscle Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ruijtenberg, Suzan; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-07-16

    The transition from proliferating precursor cells to post-mitotic differentiated cells is crucial for development, tissue homeostasis, and tumor suppression. To study cell-cycle exit during differentiation in vivo, we developed a conditional knockout and lineage-tracing system for Caenorhabditis elegans. Combined lineage-specific gene inactivation and genetic screening revealed extensive redundancies between previously identified cell-cycle inhibitors and the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Muscle precursor cells missing either SWI/SNF or G1/S inhibitor function could still arrest cell division, while simultaneous inactivation of these regulators caused continued proliferation and a C. elegans tumor phenotype. Further genetic analyses support that SWI/SNF acts in concert with hlh-1 MyoD, antagonizes Polycomb-mediated transcriptional repression, and suppresses cye-1 Cyclin E transcription to arrest cell division of muscle precursors. Thus, SWI/SNF and G1/S inhibitors provide alternative mechanisms to arrest cell-cycle progression during terminal differentiation, which offers insight into the frequent mutation of SWI/SNF genes in human cancers.

  14. Genetic Interaction Mapping Reveals a Role for the SWI/SNF Nucleosome Remodeler in Spliceosome Activation in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Kristin L.; Ryan, Colm J.; Xu, Jiewei; Lipp, Jesse J.; Nissen, Kelly E.; Roguev, Assen; Shales, Michael; Krogan, Nevan J.; Guthrie, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous regulatory connections between pre-mRNA splicing and chromatin have been demonstrated, the precise mechanisms by which chromatin factors influence spliceosome assembly and/or catalysis remain unclear. To probe the genetic network of pre-mRNA splicing in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed an epistatic mini-array profile (E-MAP) and discovered many new connections between chromatin and splicing. Notably, the nucleosome remodeler SWI/SNF had strong genetic interactions with components of the U2 snRNP SF3 complex. Overexpression of SF3 components in ΔSWI/SNF cells led to inefficient splicing of many fission yeast introns, predominantly those with non-consensus splice sites. Deletion of SWI/SNF decreased recruitment of the splicing ATPase Prp2, suggesting that SWI/SNF promotes co-transcriptional spliceosome assembly prior to first step catalysis. Importantly, defects in SWI/SNF as well as SF3 overexpression each altered nucleosome occupancy along intron-containing genes, illustrating that the chromatin landscape both affects—and is affected by—co-transcriptional splicing. PMID:25825871

  15. Genetic interaction mapping reveals a role for the SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeler in spliceosome activation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kristin L; Ryan, Colm J; Xu, Jiewei; Lipp, Jesse J; Nissen, Kelly E; Roguev, Assen; Shales, Michael; Krogan, Nevan J; Guthrie, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Although numerous regulatory connections between pre-mRNA splicing and chromatin have been demonstrated, the precise mechanisms by which chromatin factors influence spliceosome assembly and/or catalysis remain unclear. To probe the genetic network of pre-mRNA splicing in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed an epistatic mini-array profile (E-MAP) and discovered many new connections between chromatin and splicing. Notably, the nucleosome remodeler SWI/SNF had strong genetic interactions with components of the U2 snRNP SF3 complex. Overexpression of SF3 components in ΔSWI/SNF cells led to inefficient splicing of many fission yeast introns, predominantly those with non-consensus splice sites. Deletion of SWI/SNF decreased recruitment of the splicing ATPase Prp2, suggesting that SWI/SNF promotes co-transcriptional spliceosome assembly prior to first step catalysis. Importantly, defects in SWI/SNF as well as SF3 overexpression each altered nucleosome occupancy along intron-containing genes, illustrating that the chromatin landscape both affects--and is affected by--co-transcriptional splicing.

  16. Tsunami Catalog in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Sobeom; Hyun, Seung Gyu; Noh, Myunghyun

    2015-04-01

    Significant tsunamis are described in historic and instrumental earthquake sources for all regions around the Korean Peninsula. According to the low seismicity near the Peninsula, there are relatively few tsunami events in Korea. Most of the tsunami events are associated with big earthquakes at the eastern margin of the East Sea. One historical event is associated with a volcanic eruption. For that reason, the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula is the affectable area for tsunami. One historical event at the Yellow Sea area is inferred a result from a big earthquake in China. And one plate boundary earthquake between the Philippine Plate and the Eurasian Plate affected to an island located in south of the Korean Peninsula. We confirmed the historic tsunami events by review the foreign literatures. More detailed information is presented for the instrumental earthquake source events. This work was supported by the Nuclear Safety Research Program through the Korea Radiation Safety Foundation (KORSAFe) and the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (NSSC), Republic of Korea (Grant No. 1305001).

  17. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    SciTech Connect

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  18. Downregulation of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor subunits modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Kahali, Bhaskar; Reisman, David; Patrick, Steve M.

    2012-10-01

    Chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF plays important roles in many cellular processes including transcription, proliferation, differentiation and DNA repair. In this report, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits Brg1 and Brm in the cellular response to cisplatin in lung cancer and head/neck cancer cells. Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhanced cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Repair kinetics of cisplatin DNA adducts revealed that downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impeded the repair of both intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Cisplatin ICL-induced DNA double strand break repair was also decreased in Brg1 and Brm depleted cells. Altered checkpoint activation with enhanced apoptosis as well as impaired chromatin relaxation was observed in Brg1 and Brm deficient cells. Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm did not affect the recruitment of DNA damage recognition factor XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions, but affected ERCC1 recruitment, which is involved in the later stages of DNA repair. Based on these results, we propose that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity by facilitating efficient repair of the cisplatin DNA lesions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhances cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impedes the repair of cisplatin intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brg1 and Brm deficiency results in impaired chromatin relaxation, altered checkpoint activation as well as enhanced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm affects recruitment of ERCC1, but not XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions.

  19. Glucocorticoid receptor-mediated cis-repression of osteogenic genes requires BRM-SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Pico, Michael J; Hashemi, Sharareh; Xu, Fuhua; Nguyen, Kevin Hong; Donnelly, Robert; Moran, Elizabeth; Flowers, Stephen

    2016-12-01

    Glucocorticoids are an effective therapy for a variety of severe inflammatory and autoimmune disorders; however, the therapeutic use of glucocorticoids is severely limited by their negative side effects, particularly on osteogenesis. Glucocorticoids regulate transcription by binding to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), which then binds the promoters of target genes to induce either activation or repression. The gene activation effects of nuclear hormone receptors broadly require the cooperation of the chromatin remodeling complex known as SWI/SNF, which is powered by an ATPase core. The well-studied SWI/SNF ATPase, BRG1, is required for gene activation by a spectrum of nuclear hormone receptors including GR. However, glucocorticoid-induced side effects specifically related to impaired osteogenesis are mostly linked with GR-mediated repression. We have considered whether cis-repression of osteogenic genes by GR may be mediated by a distinct subclass of SWI/SNF powered by the alternative ATPase, BRM. BRM does not have an essential role in mammalian development, but plays a repressor role in osteoblast differentiation and favors adipogenic lineage selection over osteoblast commitment, effects that mirror the repressor effects of GR. The studies reported here examine three key GR cis-repression gene targets, and show that GR association with these promoters is sharply reduced in BRM deficient cells. Each of these GR-targeted genes act in a different way. Bglap encodes osteocalcin, which contributes to normal maturation of osteoblasts from committed pre-osteoblasts. The Per3 gene product acts in uncommitted mesenchymal stem cells to influence the osteoblast/adipocyte lineage selection point. Fas ligand, encoded by FasL, is a means by which osteoblasts can modulate bone degradation by osteoclasts. Repression of each of these genes by glucocorticoid favors bone loss. The essential role of BRM in cooperation with GR at each of these control points offers a novel

  20. The SNF2-family member Fun30 promotes gene silencing in heterochromatic loci.

    PubMed

    Neves-Costa, Ana; Will, W Ryan; Vetter, Anna T; Miller, J Ross; Varga-Weisz, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    Chromatin regulates many key processes in the nucleus by controlling access to the underlying DNA. SNF2-like factors are ATP-driven enzymes that play key roles in the dynamics of chromatin by remodelling nucleosomes and other nucleoprotein complexes. Even simple eukaryotes such as yeast contain members of several subfamilies of SNF2-like factors. The FUN30/ETL1 subfamily of SNF2 remodellers is conserved from yeasts to humans, but is poorly characterized. We show that the deletion of FUN30 leads to sensitivity to the topoisomerase I poison camptothecin and to severe cell cycle progression defects when the Orc5 subunit is mutated. We demonstrate a role of FUN30 in promoting silencing in the heterochromatin-like mating type locus HMR, telomeres and the rDNA repeats. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that Fun30 binds at the boundary element of the silent HMR and within the silent HMR. Mapping of nucleosomes in vivo using micrococcal nuclease demonstrates that deletion of FUN30 leads to changes of the chromatin structure at the boundary element. A point mutation in the ATP-binding site abrogates the silencing function of Fun30 as well as its toxicity upon overexpression, indicating that the ATPase activity is essential for these roles of Fun30. We identify by amino acid sequence analysis a putative CUE motif as a feature of FUN30/ETL1 factors and show that this motif assists Fun30 activity. Our work suggests that Fun30 is directly involved in silencing by regulating the chromatin structure within or around silent loci.

  1. Endocytosis and Vacuolar Degradation of the Yeast Cell Surface Glucose Sensors Rgt2 and Snf3*

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Adhiraj; Kim, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Sensing and signaling the presence of extracellular glucose is crucial for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae because of its fermentative metabolism, characterized by high glucose flux through glycolysis. The yeast senses glucose through the cell surface glucose sensors Rgt2 and Snf3, which serve as glucose receptors that generate the signal for induction of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism. Rgt2 and Snf3 detect high and low glucose concentrations, respectively, perhaps because of their different affinities for glucose. Here, we provide evidence that cell surface levels of glucose sensors are regulated by ubiquitination and degradation. The glucose sensors are removed from the plasma membrane through endocytosis and targeted to the vacuole for degradation upon glucose depletion. The turnover of the glucose sensors is inhibited in endocytosis defective mutants, and the sensor proteins with a mutation at their putative ubiquitin-acceptor lysine residues are resistant to degradation. Of note, the low affinity glucose sensor Rgt2 remains stable only in high glucose grown cells, and the high affinity glucose sensor Snf3 is stable only in cells grown in low glucose. In addition, constitutively active, signaling forms of glucose sensors do not undergo endocytosis, whereas signaling defective sensors are constitutively targeted for degradation, suggesting that the stability of the glucose sensors may be associated with their ability to sense glucose. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that the amount of glucose available dictates the cell surface levels of the glucose sensors and that the regulation of glucose sensors by glucose concentration may enable yeast cells to maintain glucose sensing activity at the cell surface over a wide range of glucose concentrations. PMID:24451370

  2. Mass measurements on stable nuclides in the rare-earth region with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    SciTech Connect

    Ketelaer, J.; Audi, G.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Dworschak, M.; Herfurth, F.; Cakirli, R. B.; Casten, R. F.; Droese, C.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Smorra, C.; Minaya Ramirez, E.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Noertershaeuser, W.; Wang, M.

    2011-07-15

    The masses of 15 stable nuclides in the rare-earth region have been measured with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP. This is the first series of absolute mass measurements linking these nuclides to the atomic-mass standard {sup 12}C. Previously, nuclear reaction studies almost exclusively determined the literature values of these masses in the Atomic-Mass Evaluation. The TRIGA-TRAP results show deviations on the order of 3-4 standard deviations from the latest published values of the Atomic-Mass Evaluation 2003 for some cases. However, the binding-energy differences that are important for nuclear structure studies have been confirmed and improved. The new masses are discussed in the context of valence proton-neutron interactions using double differences of binding energies, {delta}V{sub pn}(Z,N).

  3. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  4. 3RD WP PROBABILISTIC CRITICALITY ANALYSIS: METHODOLOGY FOR BASKET DEGRADATION WITH APPLICANTION TO COMMERICAL SNF

    SciTech Connect

    P. Goulib

    1997-09-15

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department to describe the latest version of the probabilistic criticality analysis methodology and its application to the entire commercial waste stream of commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) expected to be emplaced in the repository. The purpose of this particular application is to evaluate the 21 assembly PWR absorber plate waste package (WP) with respect to degraded mode criticality performance. The degradation of principal concern is the borated stainless steel absorber plates which are part of the waste package basket and which constitute a major part of the waste package criticality control. The degradation (corrosion, dissolution) of this material will result in the release of most of the boron from the waste package and increase the possibility of criticality. The results of this evaluation will be expressed in terms of the fraction of the PWR SNF which can exceed a given k{sub eff}, as a function of time and the peak value of that fraction over a time period up to several hundred thousand years. The ultimate purpose of this analysis is to support the waste package design which defines waste packages to cover a range of SNF characteristics. In particular, with respect to PWR criticality the current categories are: (1) no specific criticality control material, (2) borated stainless steel plates in the waste package basket, and (3) zirconium clad boron carbide control rods (Ref. 5.4). The results of this analysis will indicate the coverage provided by the first two categories. With these results, this study will provide the first quantitative estimate of the benefit expected from the control measure consisting of borated stainless steel plates. This document is the third waste package probabilistic criticality analysis. The first two (Ref. 5.12 for the first and Ref. 5.15 for the second) analyses were based primarily on the

  5. Storage and treatment of SNF of Alfa class nuclear submarines: current status and problems

    SciTech Connect

    Ignatiev, Sviatoslav; Zabudko, Alexey; Pankratov, Dmitry; Somov, Ivan; Suvorov, Gennady

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The current status and main problems associated with storage, defueling and following treatment of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of Nuclear Submarines (NS) with heavy liquid metal cooled reactors are considered. In the final analysis these solutions could be realized in the form of separate projects to be funded through national and bi- and multilateral funding in the framework of the international collaboration of the Russian Federation on complex utilization of NS and rehabilitation of contaminated objects allocated in the North-West region of Russia. (authors)

  6. Plan for Characterization of K Basin Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and Sludge (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    TRIMBLE, D.J.

    2000-08-24

    This is an update of the plan for the characterization of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and sludge stored in the Hanford K West and K East Basins. The purpose of the characterization program is to provide fuel and sludge data in support of the SNF Project in the effort to remove the fuel from the K Basins and place it into dry storage. Characterization of the K Basin fuel and sludge was initiated in 1994 and has been guided by the characterization plans (Abrefah 1994, Lawrence 1995a, Lawrence 1995b) and the characterization program management plan (PMP) (Lawrence 1995c, Lawrence 1998, Trimble 1999). The fuel characterization was completed in 1999. Summaries of these activities were documented by Lawrence (1999) and Suyama (1999). Lawrence (1999) is a summary report providing a road map to the detailed documentation of the fuel characterization. Suyama (1999) provides a basis for the limited characterization sample size as it relates to supporting design limits and the operational safety envelope for the SNF Project. The continuing sludge characterization is guided by a data quality objective (DQO) (Makenas 2000) and a sampling and analysis plan (SAP) (Baker, Welsh and Makenas 2000) The original intent of the characterization program was ''to provide bounding behavior for the fuel'' (Lawrence 1995a). To accomplish this objective, a fuel characterization program was planned that would provide data to augment data from the literature. The program included in-situ examinations of the stored fuel and laboratory testing of individual elements and small samples of fuel (Lawrence 1995a). Some of the planned tests were scaled down or canceled due to the changing needs of the SNF Project. The fundamental technical basis for the process that will be used to place the K Basin fuel into dry storage was established by several key calculations. These calculations characterized nominal and bounding behavior of fuel in Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) during processing and storage

  7. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  8. Physiological and Cellular Responses Caused by RNAi- Mediated Suppression of Snf7 Orthologue in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Segers, Gerrit; Flannagan, Ronald; Wiggins, Elizabeth; Clinton, William; Ilagan, Oliver; McNulty, Brian; Clark, Thomas; Bolognesi, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in triggering RNA interference (RNAi) in western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte), providing potential novel opportunities for insect pest control. The putative Snf7 homolog of WCR (DvSnf7) has previously been shown to be an effective RNAi target for insect control, as DvSnf7 RNAi leads to lethality of WCR larvae. Snf7 functions as a part of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) pathway which plays a crucial role in cellular housekeeping by internalization, transport, sorting and lysosomal degradation of transmembrane proteins. To understand the effects that lead to death of WCR larvae by DvSnf7 RNAi, we examined some of the distinct cellular processes associated with ESCRT functions such as de-ubiquitination of proteins and autophagy. Our data indicate that ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in DvSnf7 dsRNA-fed larval tissues and that the autophagy process seems to be impaired. These findings suggest that the malfunctioning of these cellular processes in both midgut and fat body tissues triggered by DvSnf7 RNAi were the main effects leading to the death of WCR. This study also illustrates that Snf7 is an essential gene in WCR and its functions are consistent with biological functions described for other eukaryotes. PMID:23349844

  9. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  10. SLC6 family transporter SNF-10 is required for protease-mediated activation of sperm motility in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Fenker, Kristin E.; Hansen, Angela A.; Chong, Conrad A.; Jud, Molly C.; Duffy, Brittany A.; Norton, J. Paul; Hansen, Jody M.; Stanfield, Gillian M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Motility of sperm is crucial for their directed migration to the egg. The acquisition and modulation of motility are regulated to ensure that sperm move when and where needed, thereby promoting reproductive success. One specific example of this phenomenon occurs during differentiation of the amoeboid sperm of C. elegans as they activate from a round spermatid to a mature, crawling spermatozoon. Sperm activation is regulated by redundant pathways to occur at a specific time and place for each sex. Here, we report the identification of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) transporter protein SNF-10 as a key regulator of C. elegans sperm activation in response to male protease activation signals. We find that SNF-10 is present in sperm and is required for activation by the male but not by the hermaphrodite. Loss of both snf-10 and a hermaphrodite activation factor render sperm completely insensitive to activation. Using in vitro assays, we find that snf-10 mutant sperm show a specific deficit in response to protease treatment but not to other activators. Prior to activation, SNF-10 is present in the plasma membrane, where it represents a strong candidate to receive signals that lead to subcellular morphogenesis. After activation, it shows polarized localization to the cell body region that is dependent on membrane fusions mediated by the dysferlin FER-1. Our discovery of snf-10 offers insight into the mechanisms differentially employed by the two sexes to accomplish the common goal of producing functional sperm, as well as how the physiology of nematode sperm may be regulated to control motility as it is in mammals. PMID:24929237

  11. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  12. Fires and smoke in Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the Terra satellite detected several fires burning in South Korea on June 6, 2002. The smoke is blanketing both South and North Korea, and may be mingling with smoke from other fires in China. Beneath the haze, colored water at the southern tip of the Peninsula suggests sediment or phytoplankton in the coastal waters.

  13. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  14. Role of Snf1p in Regulation of Intracellular Sorting of the Lactose and Galactose Transporter Lac12p in Kluyveromyces lactis†

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemuth, Christian; Breunig, Karin D.

    2005-01-01

    The protein kinase Snf1/AMPK plays a central role in carbon and energy homeostasis in yeasts and higher eukaryotes. To work out which aspects of the Snf1-controlled regulatory network are conserved in evolution, the Snf1 requirement in galactose metabolism was analyzed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Whereas galactose induction was only delayed, K. lactis snf1 mutants failed to accumulate the lactose/galactose H+ symporter Lac12p in the plasma membran,e as indicated by Lac12-green fluorescent protein fusions. In contrast to wild-type cells, the fusion protein was mostly intracellular in the mutant. Growth on galactose and galactose uptake could be restored by the KHT3 gene, which encodes a new transporter of the HXT subfamily of major facilitators These findings indicate a new role of Snf1p in regulation of sugar transport in K. lactis. PMID:15821131

  15. Gene silencing associated with SWI/SNF complex loss during NSCLC development.

    PubMed

    Song, Shujie; Walter, Vonn; Karaca, Mehmet; Li, Ying; Bartlett, Christopher S; Smiraglia, Dominic J; Serber, Daniel; Sproul, Christopher D; Plass, Christoph; Zhang, Jiren; Hayes, D Neil; Zheng, Yanfang; Weissman, Bernard E

    2014-04-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates gene expression and alters chromatin structures in an ATP-dependent manner. Recent sequencing efforts have shown mutations in BRG1 (SMARCA4), one of two mutually exclusive ATPase subunits in the complex, in a significant number of human lung tumor cell lines and primary non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) clinical specimens. To determine how BRG1 loss fuels tumor progression in NSCLC, molecular profiling was performed after restoration of BRG1 expression or treatment with a histone deacetylase inhibitor or a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor in a BRG1-deficient NSCLC cells. Importantly, validation studies from multiple cell lines revealed that BRG1 reexpression led to substantial changes in the expression of CDH1, CDH3, EHF, and RRAD that commonly undergo silencing by other epigenetic mechanisms during NSCLC development. Furthermore, treatment with DNMT inhibitors did not restore expression of these transcripts, indicating that this common mechanism of gene silencing did not account for their loss of expression. Collectively, BRG1 loss is an important mechanism for the epigenetic silencing of target genes during NSCLC development. Inactivation of the SWI/SNF complex provides a novel mechanism to induce gene silencing during NSCLC development. Mol Cancer Res; 12(4); 560-70. ©2014 AACR.

  16. North Korea Drought

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-29

    North Korea's state news agency reported the country is facing its worst drought in a century. Rice-growing provinces have been badly affected and more than 30% of rice paddies were parching up. A Landsat 7 image from June 29, 2002, compared with an ASTER image from June 26, 2015, shows the disparity in the rice crop. The images display vegetation in red, and bare fields in dark blue. The images cover an area of 27 x 34.5 km, and are located at 38.5 degrees north, 125.6 degrees east. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19501

  17. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  18. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  19. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  20. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  1. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...

  2. Cry3Bb1-Resistant Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) Does Not Exhibit Cross-Resistance to DvSnf7 dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Khajuria, Chitvan; Pleau, Michael; Ilagan, Oliver; Chen, Mao; Jiang, Changjian; Price, Paula; McNulty, Brian; Clark, Thomas; Head, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Background and Methodology There is a continuing need to express new insect control compounds in transgenic maize against western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (WCR). In this study three experiments were conducted to determine cross-resistance between the new insecticidal DvSnf7 dsRNA, and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry3Bb1; used to control WCR since 2003, with field-evolved resistance being reported. Laboratory susceptible and Cry3Bb1-resistant WCR were evaluated against DvSnf7 dsRNA in larval diet-incorporation bioassays. Additionally, the susceptibility of seven field and one field-derived WCR populations to DvSnf7 (and Cry3Bb1) was assessed in larval diet-overlay bioassays. Finally, beetle emergence of laboratory susceptible and Cry3Bb1-resistant WCR was evaluated with maize plants in the greenhouse expressing Cry3Bb1, Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, or DvSnf7 dsRNA singly, or in combination. Principal Findings and Conclusions The Cry3Bb1-resistant colony had slight but significantly (2.7-fold; P<0.05) decreased susceptibility to DvSnf7 compared to the susceptible colony, but when repeated using a field-derived WCR population selected for reduced Cry3Bb1 susceptibility, there was no significant difference (P<0.05) in DvSnf7 susceptibility compared to that same susceptible population. Additionally, this 2.7-fold difference in susceptibility falls within the range of DvSnf7 susceptibility among the seven field populations tested. Additionally, there was no correlation between susceptibility to DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 for all populations evaluated. In greenhouse studies, there were no significant differences (P<0.05) between beetle emergence of susceptible and Cry3Bb1-resistant colonies on DvSnf7 and Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1, and between DvSnf7 and MON 87411 (DvSnf7 + Cry3Bb1) for the Cry3Bb1-resistant colony. These results demonstrate no cross-resistance between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 against WCR. Therefore, pyramiding DvSnf7 with Bt proteins such as Cry3Bb1 and

  3. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung-Sun; Chey, Jeanyung

    2016-11-01

    Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea, albeit its relatively short history, has advanced dramatically. We review a brief history and current status of clinical neuropsychology in South Korea. The history, the educational pathway, the training pathway, the certification process, and careers in clinical neuropsychology in South Korea are reviewed. We have reviewed the neuropsychological services, including assessment and treatment, research on neurological and psychiatric populations, and neuropsychology education and the requirements related to education, training, and board examinations of those providing neuropsychological services in South Korea. We also describe how the Korean Society for Neuropsychology Research, the first and only meeting for neuropsychologists in the country established in 1999, has played a major role in how clinical neuropsychology is practiced and developed as a professional field in South Korea. Clinical neuropsychology in South Korea has achieved major progress over just a quarter of a century, and its future is promising in light of the increasing demand for neuropsychological services and advances in neuroscience in the country. Challenges that the community of clinical neuropsychologists are currently facing in South Korea, including formalizing neuropsychological curriculum and training programs and developing advanced credentialing procedures, are discussed.

  4. Mutant p53 cooperates with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex to regulate VEGFR2 in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Neil T; Fomin, Vitalay; Regunath, Kausik; Zhou, Jeffrey Y; Zhou, Wen; Silwal-Pandit, Laxmi; Freed-Pastor, William A; Laptenko, Oleg; Neo, Suat Peng; Bargonetti, Jill; Hoque, Mainul; Tian, Bin; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Engebraaten, Olav; Manley, James L; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Neilsen, Paul M; Prives, Carol

    2015-06-15

    Mutant p53 impacts the expression of numerous genes at the level of transcription to mediate oncogenesis. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the primary functional VEGF receptor that mediates endothelial cell vascularization, as a mutant p53 transcriptional target in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Up-regulation of VEGFR2 mediates the role of mutant p53 in increasing cellular growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. Mutant p53 binds near the VEGFR2 promoter transcriptional start site and plays a role in maintaining an open conformation at that location. Relatedly, mutant p53 interacts with the SWI/SNF complex, which is required for remodeling the VEGFR2 promoter. By both querying individual genes regulated by mutant p53 and performing RNA sequencing, the results indicate that >40% of all mutant p53-regulated gene expression is mediated by SWI/SNF. We surmise that mutant p53 impacts transcription of VEGFR2 as well as myriad other genes by promoter remodeling through interaction with and likely regulation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Therefore, not only might mutant p53-expressing tumors be susceptible to anti VEGF therapies, impacting SWI/SNF tumor suppressor function in mutant p53 tumors may also have therapeutic potential.

  5. About SnF 2 stannous fluoride. II. Crystal structure of β- and γ-SnF 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denes, G.; Pannetier, J.; Lucas, J.

    1980-06-01

    Two new structural modifications (β and γ) of SnF 2 have been prepared and their structures refined from X-ray powder data by analogy with high- and low-pressure TeO 2. Both structures are described and discussed using Galy's and Brown's models. Topological relationships to rutile and cristobalite structures are outlined.

  6. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 2 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    PEARCE, K.L.

    2000-04-05

    Volume 2 provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories of sludge currently stored within the Hanford Site's 105-K Basin This volume also provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories for the sludge streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, J.C.

    1995-10-24

    This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented

  8. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is critical for the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vachtenheim, Jiri; Ondrusova, Lubica; Borovansky, Jan

    2010-02-12

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is required for melanocyte development, maintenance of the melanocyte-specific transcription, and survival of melanoma cells. MITF positively regulates expression of more than 25 genes in pigment cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that expression of several MITF downstream targets requires the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, which contains one of the two catalytic subunits, Brm or Brg1. Here we show that the expression of MITF itself critically requires active SWI/SNF. In several Brm/Brg1-expressing melanoma cell lines, knockdown of Brg1 severely compromised MITF expression with a concomitant dowregulation of MITF targets and decreased cell proliferation. Although Brm was able to substitute for Brg1 in maintaining MITF expression and melanoma cell proliferation, sequential knockdown of both Brm and Brg1 in 501mel cells abolished proliferation. In Brg1-null SK-MEL-5 melanoma cells, depletion of Brm alone was sufficient to abrogate MITF expression and cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of Brg1 or Brm to the promoter of MITF. Together these results demonstrate the essential role of SWI/SNF for expression of MITF and suggest that SWI/SNF may be a promissing target in melanoma therapy.

  9. IL-10 transcription is negatively regulated by BAF180, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes play a critical role in the development of T helper lymphocytes, including Th2 cells, and directly program chromatin structure at Th2 cytokine genes. Different versions of SWI/SNF complexes, including BAF and PBAF, have been described based on unique subunit composition. However, the relative role of BAF and PBAF in Th cell function and cytokine expression has not been reported. Results Here we examine the role of the PBAF SWI/SNF complex in Th cell development and gene expression using mice deficient for a PBAF-specific component, BAF180. We find that T cell development in the thymus and lymphoid periphery is largely normal when the BAF180 gene is deleted late in thymic development. However, BAF180-deficient Th2 cells express high levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. BAF180 binds directly to regulatory elements in the Il-10 locus but is replaced by BAF250 BAF complexes in the absence of BAF180, resulting in increased histone acetylation and CBP recruitment to the IL-10 locus. Conclusions These results demonstrate that BAF180 is a repressor of IL-10 transcription in Th2 cells and suggest that the differential recruitment of different SWI/SNF subtypes can have direct consequences on chromatin structure and gene transcription. PMID:22336179

  10. Mutant p53 cooperates with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex to regulate VEGFR2 in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Pfister, Neil T.; Fomin, Vitalay; Regunath, Kausik; Zhou, Jeffrey Y.; Zhou, Wen; Silwal-Pandit, Laxmi; Freed-Pastor, William A.; Laptenko, Oleg; Neo, Suat Peng; Bargonetti, Jill; Hoque, Mainul; Tian, Bin; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Engebraaten, Olav; Manley, James L.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Neilsen, Paul M.; Prives, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Mutant p53 impacts the expression of numerous genes at the level of transcription to mediate oncogenesis. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the primary functional VEGF receptor that mediates endothelial cell vascularization, as a mutant p53 transcriptional target in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Up-regulation of VEGFR2 mediates the role of mutant p53 in increasing cellular growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. Mutant p53 binds near the VEGFR2 promoter transcriptional start site and plays a role in maintaining an open conformation at that location. Relatedly, mutant p53 interacts with the SWI/SNF complex, which is required for remodeling the VEGFR2 promoter. By both querying individual genes regulated by mutant p53 and performing RNA sequencing, the results indicate that >40% of all mutant p53-regulated gene expression is mediated by SWI/SNF. We surmise that mutant p53 impacts transcription of VEGFR2 as well as myriad other genes by promoter remodeling through interaction with and likely regulation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Therefore, not only might mutant p53-expressing tumors be susceptible to anti VEGF therapies, impacting SWI/SNF tumor suppressor function in mutant p53 tumors may also have therapeutic potential. PMID:26080815

  11. Tpk3 and Snf1 protein kinases regulate Rgt1 association with Saccharomyces cerevisiae HXK2 promoter

    PubMed Central

    Palomino, A.; Herrero, P.; Moreno, F.

    2006-01-01

    Hexokinase 2 is an essential factor for signalling repression through the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-glucose sensing pathway. The main regulatory mechanism that controls the HXK2 gene expression in yeast is mediated by the Rgt1 and Med8 transcription factors, which repress HXK2 expression in low-glucose containing media. In this study, we show that the repression activity of Rgt1 is regulated by Snf1 and Tpk3 protein kinases. Binding of Rgt1 to the HXK2 promoter requires Rgt1 phosphorylation by Snf1 or by an Snf1-dependent protein kinase. Conversely, Rgt1 hyperphosphorylation by the Tpk3 or by a Tpk3-dependent protein kinase dissociates Rgt1 from the repressor complex. Two-hybrid and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that an Snf1-dependent interaction between Rgt1 and Med8 in the repressor complex is also essential for Rgt1 repression. The repression of HXK2 transcription by Rgt1 likely occurs through the formation of a DNA loop in the HXK2 locus, spanning the promoter and coding regions. These results suggest that a novel silent-chromatin loop is responsible for Rgt1-dependent transcriptional regulation of the HXK2 gene. PMID:16528100

  12. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... swing-bed hospital. 413.114 Section 413.114 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... swing-bed hospital. (a) Purpose and basis. This section implements section 1883 of the Act, which provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  13. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  14. Glucose represses the lactose-galactose regulon in Kluyveromyces lactis through a SNF1 and MIG1- dependent pathway that modulates galactokinase (GAL1) gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Dong, J; Dickson, R C

    1997-01-01

    Expression of the lactose-galactose regulon in Kluyveromyces lactis is induced by lactose or galactose and repressed by glucose. Some components of the induction and glucose repression pathways have been identified but many remain unknown. We examined the role of the SNF1 (KlSNF1) and MIG1 (KlMIG1) genes in the induction and repression pathways. Our data show that full induction of the regulon requires SNF1; partial induction occurs in a Klsnf1 -deleted strain, indicating that a KlSNF1 -independent pathway(s) also regulates induction. MIG1 is required for full glucose repression of the regulon, but there must be a KlMIG1 -independent repression pathway also. The KlMig1 protein appears to act downstream of the KlSnf1 protein in the glucose repression pathway. Most importantly, the KlSnf1-KIMig repression pathway operates by modulating KlGAL1 expression. Regulating KlGAL1 expression in this manner enables the cell to switch the regulon off in the presence of glucose. Overall, our data show that, while the Snf1 and Mig1 proteins play similar roles in regulating the galactose regulon in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and K.lactis , the way in which these proteins are integrated into the regulatory circuits are unique to each regulon, as is the degree to which each regulon is controlled by the two proteins. PMID:9278487

  15. Recruitment of the SWI-SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex as a Mechanism of Gene Activation by the Glucocorticoid Receptor τ1 Activation Domain

    PubMed Central

    Wallberg, Annika E.; Neely, Kristen E.; Hassan, Ahmed H.; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Workman, Jerry L.; Wright, Anthony P. H.

    2000-01-01

    The SWI-SNF complex has been shown to alter nucleosome conformation in an ATP-dependent manner, leading to increased accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to transcription factors. In this study, we show that the SWI-SNF complex can potentiate the activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) through the N-terminal transactivation domain, τ1, in both yeast and mammalian cells. GR-τ1 can directly interact with purified SWI-SNF complex, and mutations in τ1 that affect the transactivation activity in vivo also directly affect τ1 interaction with SWI-SNF. Furthermore, the SWI-SNF complex can stimulate τ1-driven transcription from chromatin templates in vitro. Taken together, these results support a model in which the GR can directly recruit the SWI-SNF complex to target promoters during glucocorticoid-dependent gene activation. We also provide evidence that the SWI-SNF and SAGA complexes represent independent pathways of τ1-mediated activation but play overlapping roles that are able to compensate for one another under some conditions. PMID:10688647

  16. Relationship of the Camp-Dependent Protein Kinase Pathway to the Snf1 Protein Kinase and Invertase Expression in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Albert-Hubbard, E. J.; Yang, X.; Carlson, M.

    1992-01-01

    The SNF1 protein kinase and the associated SNF4 protein are required for release of glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To identify functionally related proteins, we selected genes that in multicopy suppress the raffinose growth defect of snf4 mutants. Among the nine genes recovered were two genes from the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAPK) pathway, MS11 and PDE2. Increased dosage of these genes partially compensates for defects in nutrient utilization and sporulation in snf1 and snf4 null mutants, but does not restore invertase expression. These results suggest that SNF1 and cAPK affect some of the same cellular responses to nutrients. To examine the role of the cAPK pathway in regulation of invertase, we assayed mutants in which the cAPK is not modulated by cAMP. Expression of invertase was regulated in response to glucose and was dependent on SNF1 function. Thus, a cAMP-responsive cAPK is dispensable for regulation of invertase. PMID:1310088

  17. Effect of professional flossing with NaF or SnF2 gel on approximal caries in 13-16-year-old schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Gisselsson, H; Birkhed, D; Emilson, C G

    1999-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of professional flossing with NaF and SnF2 gels on caries development on approximal tooth surfaces. Two-hundred-and-eighty 13-year-old schoolchildren were divided into 3 groups: (1) NaF (n = 97), (2) SnF2 (n = 85), and (3) placebo gel group (n = 98). The investigation was carried out double-blind. The children were treated 4 times a year for 3 years with 1% NaF gel, 1% SnF2 gel, or placebo gel. The treatment was carried out by dental nurses and the time required per visit was approximately 10 min. After 3 years, the mean approximal caries increment, including initial caries lesions, was 2.8 in the NaF, 2.4 in the SnF2, and 4.0 in the placebo gel group (P< 0.05 for SnF2 vs placebo); a reduction compared to the placebo of 30% and 39% in the NaF and SnF2 groups, respectively. Thus, professional flossing with NaF or SnF2 gel carried out 4 times a year may be considered as an interesting caries-preventing method for large-scale application in schoolchildren.

  18. Analytical analyses of startup measurements associated with the first use of LEU fuel in Romania's 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L. ); Ciocanescu, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) is located in Pitesti, Romania. Beginning with an HEU core (10 wt% U), the reactor first went critical in November 1979 but was shut down ten years later because of insufficient excess reactivity. Last November the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), which operates the SSR, received from the ANL RERTR program a shipment of 125 LEU pins fabricated by General Atomics and of the same geometry as the original fuel but with an enrichment of 19.7% 235U and a loading of 45 wt% U. Using 100 of these pins, four LEU clusters, each containing a 5 x 5 square array of fuel rods, were assembled. These four LEU clusters replaced the four most highly burned HEU elements in the SSR. The reactor resumed operations last February with a 35-element mixed HEU/LEU core configuration. In preparation for full power operation of the SSR with this mixed HEU/LEU core, a number of measurements were made. These included control rod calibrations, excess reactivity determinations, worths of experiment facilities, reaction rate distributions, and themocouple measurements of fuel temperatures as a function of reactor power. This paper deals with a comparison of some of these measured reactor parameters with corresponding analytical calculations.

  19. Comparison of EPR response of alanine and Gd₂O₃-alanine dosimeters exposed to TRIGA Mainz reactor.

    PubMed

    Marrale, M; Schmitz, T; Gallo, S; Hampel, G; Longo, A; Panzeca, S; Tranchina, L

    2015-12-01

    In this work we report some preliminary results regarding the analysis of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) response of alanine pellets and alanine pellets added with gadolinium used for dosimetry at the TRIGA research reactor in Mainz, Germany. Two set-ups were evaluated: irradiation inside PMMA phantom and irradiation inside boric acid phantom. We observed that the presence of Gd2O3 inside alanine pellets increases the EPR signal by a factor of 3.45 and 1.24 in case of PMMA and boric acid phantoms, respectively. We can conclude that in the case of neutron beam with a predominant thermal neutron component the addition of gadolinium oxide can significantly improve neutron sensitivity of alanine pellets. Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of both response of alanine and Gd-added alanine pellets with FLUKA code were performed and a good agreement was achieved for pure alanine dosimeters. For Gd2O3-alanine deviations between MC simulations and experimental data were observed and discussed.

  20. Neutronics and thermal hydraulic analysis of TRIGA Mark II reactor using MCNPX and COOLOD-N2 computer code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiyapun, K.; Wetchagarun, S.

    2017-06-01

    The neutronic analysis of TRIGA Mark II reactor has been performed. A detailed model of the reactor core was conducted including standard fuel elements, fuel follower control rods, and irradiation devices. As the approach to safety nuclear design are based on determining the criticality (keff), reactivity worth, reactivity excess, hot rod power factor and power peaking of the reactor, the MCNPX code had been used to calculate the nuclear parameters for different core configuration designs. The thermal-hydraulic model has been developed using COOLOD-N2 for steady state, using the nuclear parameters and power distribution results from MCNPX calculation. The objective of the thermal-hydraulic model is to determine the thermal safety margin and to ensure that the fuel integrity is maintained during steady state as well as during abnormal condition at full power. The hot channel fuel centerline temperature, fuel surface temperature, cladding surface temperature, the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and DNB ratio were determined. The good agreement between experimental data and simulation concerning reactor criticality proves the reliability of the methodology of analysis from neutronic and thermal hydraulic perspective.

  1. Estimation of (41)Ar activity concentration and release rate from the TRIGA Mark-II research reactor.

    PubMed

    Hoq, M Ajijul; Soner, M A Malek; Rahman, A; Salam, M A; Islam, S M A

    2016-03-01

    The BAEC TRIGA research reactor (BTRR) is the only nuclear reactor in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Atomic Energy Regulatory Authority (BAERA) regulations require that nuclear reactor licensees undertake all reasonable precautions to protect the environment and the health and safety of persons, including identifying, controlling and monitoring the release of nuclear substances to the environment. The primary activation product of interest in terms of airborne release from the reactor is (41)Ar. (41)Ar is a noble gas readily released from the reactor stacks and most has not decayed by the time it moves offsite with normal wind speed. Initially (41)Ar is produced from irradiation of dissolved air in the primary water which eventually transfers into the air in the reactor bay. In this study, the airborne radioisotope (41)Ar generation concentration, ground level concentration and release rate from the BTRR bay region are evaluated theoretically during the normal reactor operation condition by several governing equations. This theoretical calculation eventually minimizes the doubt about radiological safety to determine the radiation level for (41)Ar activity whether it is below the permissible limit or not. Results show that the estimated activity for (41)Ar is well below the maximum permissible concentration limit set by the regulatory body, which is an assurance for the reactor operating personnel and general public. Thus the analysis performed within this paper is so much effective in the sense of ensuring radiological safety for working personnel and the environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Occupational Asthma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-01-01

    Occupational asthma (OA) is the leading occupational respiratory disease. Cases compensated as OA by the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) (218 cases), cases reported by a surveillance system (286 cases), case reports by related scientific journals and cases confirmed by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute (OSHRI) over 15 yr from 1992 to 2006 were analyzed. Annual mean incidence rate was 1.6 by compensation and 3.5 by surveillance system, respectively. The trend appeared to increase according to the surveillance system. Incidence was very low compared with other countries. The most frequently reported causative agent was isocyanate followed by reactive dye in dyeing factories. Other chemicals, metals and dust were also found as causative agents. OA was underreported according to compensation and surveillance system data. In conclusion, a more effective surveillance system is needed to evaluate OA causes and distribution, and to effectively prevent newly developing OA. PMID:21258586

  3. Occupational Infection in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Jeong, Jae Sim

    2010-01-01

    Occupational infection is a human disease caused by work-associated exposure to microbial agents through human and environmental contact. According to the literature, occupational infection was the third leading cause of occupational disease (861 cases, 8.0%), and health care, agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers were risk groups in Korea. In addition, most high-risk groups have not been protected by workers' compensation, which could lead to underestimation of the exact spectrum and magnitude of the problem, and may also result in a lack of development and implementation of occupational infection management. Through a review of national guidelines and documentations on prevention and control of occupational infection, a management strategy would promote adherence to worker safety regulations if it is explicit with regard to the agent and mode of infection in each of the high-risk groups. PMID:21258592

  4. Nucleoplasmic/nucleolar translocation and identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in Dictyostelium BAF60a/SMARCD1 homologue Snf12.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Andrew; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-09-01

    Dictyostelium is a model eukaryote for the study of several cellular processes; however, comparatively little is known about its nucleolus. Identification of nucleolar proteins is key to understanding this nuclear subcompartment, but only four have been identified in Dictyostelium. As discussed in this article, a potential relationship between nucleolar NumA1 and BAF60a/SMARCD1 suggested BAF60a may also reside in the nucleolus. Here, we identify BAF60a homologue Snf12 as the fifth nucleolar protein in Dictyostelium. Immunolocalization experiments demonstrate that Snf12 is nucleoplasmic, but translocates to nucleoli upon actinomycin-D-induced transcription inhibition (0.05 mg/mL, 4 h). Translocation was accompanied by a microtubule-independent protrusion of nucleolar Snf12 regions from the nucleus followed by detection of Snf12 in cytoplasmic circles for at least 48 h. Residues (372)KRKR(375) are both necessary and sufficient for nucleoplasmic localization of Snf12 and represent a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS), similar to recently identified NLSs in other Dictyostelium proteins. Since nucleolar and nucleoplasmic proteins redistribute during mitosis, we investigated Snf12 dynamics during this time. Dictyostelium undergoes closed mitosis, meaning its nuclear envelope remains intact. Despite this, during metaphase and anaphase Snf12 redistributed throughout the cytoplasm before reaccumulating in the nucleus during telophase, unlike the previously reported nucleoplasmic redistribution of nucleolar NumA1. The nuclear exit of Snf12 was independent of its putative nuclear export signal and not inhibited by exportin inhibition, suggesting that the redistribution of nuclear proteins during mitosis in Dictyostelium is mediated by other mechanisms. Snf12 is the second Dictyostelium nucleolar protein for which its dynamics during mitosis have been investigated.

  5. SWI/SNF factors required for cellular resistance to DNA damage include ARID1A and ARID1B and show interdependent protein stability.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Reiko; Ui, Ayako; Kanno, Shin-Ichiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Nagase, Takahiro; Kohno, Takashi; Yasui, Akira

    2014-05-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling family contains various protein complexes, which regulate gene expression during cellular development and influence DNA damage response in an ATP- and complex-dependent manner, of which details remain elusive. Recent human genome sequencing of various cancer cells revealed frequent mutations in SWI/SNF factors, especially ARID1A, a variant subunit in the BRG1-associated factor (BAF) complex of the SWI/SNF family. We combined live-cell analysis and gene-suppression experiments to show that suppression of either ARID1A or its paralog ARID1B led to reduced nonhomologous end joining activity of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), decreased accumulation of KU70/KU80 proteins at DSB, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation, as well as to cisplatin and UV. Thus, in contrast to transcriptional regulation, both ARID1 proteins are required for cellular resistance to various types of DNA damage, including DSB. The suppression of other SWI/SNF factors, namely SNF5, BAF60a, BAF60c, BAF155, or BAF170, exhibits a similar phenotype. Of these factors, ARID1A, ARID1B, SNF5, and BAF60c are necessary for the immediate recruitment of the ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF complex to DSB, arguing that both ARID1 proteins facilitate the damage response of the complex. Finally, we found interdependent protein stability among the SWI/SNF factors, suggesting their direct interaction within the complex and the reason why multiple factors are frequently lost in parallel in cancer cells. Taken together, we show that cancer cells lacking in the expression of certain SWI/SNF factors, including ARID1A, are deficient in DNA repair and potentially vulnerable to DNA damage. ©2014 AACR.

  6. RNF20-SNF2H Pathway of Chromatin Relaxation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair.

    PubMed

    Kato, Akihiro; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2015-07-14

    Rapid progress in the study on the association of histone modifications with chromatin remodeling factors has broadened our understanding of chromatin dynamics in DNA transactions. In DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, the well-known mark of histones is the phosphorylation of the H2A variant, H2AX, which has been used as a surrogate marker of DSBs. The ubiquitylation of histone H2B by RNF20 E3 ligase was recently found to be a DNA damage-induced histone modification. This modification is required for DSB repair and regulated by a distinctive pathway from that of histone H2AX phosphorylation. Moreover, the connection between H2B ubiquitylation and the chromatin remodeling activity of SNF2H has been elucidated. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of RNF20-mediated processes and the molecular link to H2AX-mediated processes during DSB repair.

  7. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-02

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report Annex B--Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1999, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 4, and the CVDF Final Design Report. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence and references to the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This manual has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Master Equipment List

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-09-21

    This document provides the master equipment list (MEL) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The MEL was prepared to comply with DOE Standard 3024-98, Content of System Design Descriptions. The MEL was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems and the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDD). The MEL identifies the SSCs and their safety functions, the design criteria, codes and standards, and quality assurance requirements that are required for establishing the safety design basis of the SSCs. The MEL also includes operating parameters, manufacturer information, and references the procurement specifications for the SSCs. This MEL shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future phases of the CVDF SAR, the SDD's, and CVDF operations.

  9. Atomic force microscopy imaging of SWI/SNF action: mapping the nucleosome remodeling and sliding.

    PubMed

    Montel, Fabien; Fontaine, Emeline; St-Jean, Philippe; Castelnovo, Martin; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine

    2007-07-15

    We propose a combined experimental (atomic force microscopy) and theoretical study of the structural and dynamical properties of nucleosomes. In contrast to biochemical approaches, this method allows us to determine simultaneously the DNA-complexed length distribution and nucleosome position in various contexts. First, we show that differences in the nucleoproteic structure observed between conventional H2A and H2A.Bbd variant nucleosomes induce quantitative changes in the length distribution of DNA-complexed with histones. Then, the sliding action of remodeling complex SWI/SNF is characterized through the evolution of the nucleosome position and wrapped DNA length mapping. Using a linear energetic model for the distribution of DNA-complexed length, we extract the net-wrapping energy of DNA onto the histone octamer and compare it to previous studies.

  10. Preliminary Criticality Analysis of Degraded SNF Accumulations to a Waste Package (SCPB: N/A) 

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    2005-12-15

    This study is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) to provide input to a separate evaluation on the probability of criticality in the far-field environment. These calculations are performed in sufficient detail to provide conservatively bounding configurations to support separate probabilistic analyses. The objective of this evaluation is to provide input to a risk analysis which will show that criticalities involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) are not credible, or indicate additional measures that are required for the Engineered Barrier Segment (EBS) to make such events incredible. Minimum critical volumes and masses of UO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O/tuff mixtures are determined without application of regulatory safety limits. This study does not address or demonstrate compliance with regulatory limits.

  11. Vertical Drop of the Naval SNF Long Waste Package On Unyielding Surface

    SciTech Connect

    S. Mastilovic

    2006-07-21

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a Naval SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) Long Waste Package (WP) subjected to 2 m-vertical drop on unyielding surface (US). The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the waste package design; calculation is performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The finite element calculation is performed by using the commercially available ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 finite element code. The result of this calculation is provided in terms of maximum stress intensities.

  12. Baektu Mountain, China & North Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-07-14

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Baektu Mountain, an active volcano on the border between North Korea and China. Rising to 2744 m, its summit caldera is filled with a crater lake, Heaven Lake.

  13. EPA Collaboration with South Korea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA, the Ministry of Environment of Korea, and partner agencies in both countries cooperate to strengthen environmental governance, improve air and water quality, and reduce exposure to toxic chemicals.

  14. South Korea and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Se Ho

    1988-01-01

    Examines projections about the future of Korea, predicting a highly diversified society built upon industrialization and moving toward an information society. Discusses the growing middle class and its societal implications and considers the effects of the country's increasing democratization. (GEA)

  15. The putative SWI/SNF complex subunit BRAHMA activates flower homeotic genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Lidia; Farrona, Sara; Reyes, Jose C

    2006-09-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana BRAHMA (BRM, also called AtBRM) is a SNF2 family protein homolog of Brahma, the ATPase of the Drosophila SWI/SNF complex involved in chromatin remodeling during transcription. Here we show that, in contrast to its Drosophila counterpart, BRM is not an essential gene. Thus, homozygous BRM loss of function mutants are viable but exhibit numerous defects including dwarfism, altered leaf and root development and several reproduction defects. The analysis of the progeny of self-fertilized heterozygous brm plants and reciprocal crosses between heterozygous and wild type plants indicated that disruption of BRM reduced both male and female gametophyte transmission. This was consistent with the presence of aborted ovules in the self-fertilized heterozygous flowers that contained arrested embryos predominantly at the two terminal cells stage. Furthermore, brm homozygous mutants were completely sterile. Flowers of brm loss-of-function mutants have several developmental abnormalities, including homeotic transformations in the second and third floral whorls. In accordance with these results, brm mutants present reduced levels of APETALA2, APETALA3, PISTILLATA and NAC-LIKE, ACTIVATED BY AP3/PI. We have previously shown that BRM strongly interacts with AtSWI3C. Now we extend our interaction studies demonstrating that BRM interacts weakly with AtSWI3B but not with AtSWI3A or AtSWI3D. In agreement with these results, the phenotype described in this study for brm plants is very similar to that previously described for the AtSWI3C mutant plants, suggesting that both proteins participate in the same genetic pathway or form a molecular complex.

  16. Regulation of a plant SNF1-related protein kinase by glucose-6-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Toroser, D.; Plaut, Z.; Huber, S.C.

    2000-05-01

    One of the major protein kinases (PK{sub III}) that phosphorylates serine-158 of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), which is responsible for light/dark modulation of activity, is known to be a member of the SNF1-related family of protein kinases. In the present study, the authors have developed a fluorescence-based continuous assay for measurement of PK{sub III} activity. Using the continuous assay, along with the fixed-time-point {sup 32}P-incorporation assay, they demonstrate that PK{sub III} activity is inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P). Relative inhibition by Glc-6-P was increased by decreasing pH from 8.5 to 5.5 and by reducing the concentration of Mg{sup 2+} in the assay from 10 to 2 nM. Under likely physiological conditions (PH 7.0 and 2 mM Mg{sup 2+}), 10 nM Glc-6-P inhibited kinase activity approximately 70%. Inhibition by Glc-6-P could not be ascribed to contaminants in the commercial preparations. Other metabolites inhibited PK{sub III} in the following order: Glc-6-P > mannose-6-P, fructose-1,6P{sub 2} > ribose-5-P, 3-PGA, fructose-6-P. Inorganic phosphate, Glc, and AMP were not inhibitory, and free Glc did not reverse the inhibition by Glc-6-P. Because SNF1-related protein kinases are thought to function broadly in the regulation of enzyme activity and gene expression, Glc-6-P inhibition of PK{sub III} activity potentially provides a mechanism for metabolic regulation of the reactions catalyzed by these important protein kinases.

  17. Comprehensive assessment of the expression of the SWI/SNF complex defines two distinct prognostic subtypes of ovarian clear cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abou-Taleb, Hisham; Yamaguchi, Ken; Matsumura, Noriomi; Murakami, Ryusuke; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Higasa, Koichiro; Amano, Yasuaki; Abiko, Kaoru; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Hamanishi, Junzo; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Baba, Tsukasa; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Mandai, Masaki

    2016-08-23

    Somatic mutations in the ARID1A tumor-suppressor gene have been frequently identified in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) cases. BAF250a encoded by ARID1A is a member of the SWI/SNF complex, but the expression and mutation status of other SWI/SNF subunits have not been explored. The current study aimed to elucidate the biological and clinical significance of the SWI/SNF complex subunits, by assessing the expression and mutation status of SWI/SNF subunits, and distinct genomic aberrations associated with their expression. Of 82 CCC specimens, 38 samples presented no BAF250a expression, and 50 samples exhibited the loss of at least one subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. Cases which lack at least one SWI/SNF complex component exhibited significantly more advanced stages, faster growth and stronger nuclear atypia compared with SWI/SNF-positive samples (p<0.05). Although BAF250a expression is not related to poor prognosis, the group presenting the loss of at least one SWI/SNF complex subunit exhibited significantly shorter overall and progression-free survivals (p<0.05). A multivariate analysis suggested that the expression status of the SWI/SNF complex serves as an independent prognostic factor (p<0.005). The cases positive for all SWI/SNF subunits demonstrated significantly greater DNA copy number alterations, such as amplification at chromosomes 8q.24.3 and 20q.13.2-20q.13.33 (including ZNF217) and deletion at chromosomes 13q12.11-13q14.3 (including RB1), 17p13.2-17p13.1 (including TP53) and 19p13.2-19p13.12. In conclusion, the CCCs exhibiting the loss of one or multiple SWI/SNF complex subunits demonstrated aggressive behaviors and poor prognosis, whereas the CCCs with positive expression for all SWI/SNF components presented more copy number alterations and a favorable prognosis.

  18. Comprehensive assessment of the expression of the SWI/SNF complex defines two distinct prognostic subtypes of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abou-Taleb, Hisham; Yamaguchi, Ken; Matsumura, Noriomi; Murakami, Ryusuke; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Higasa, Koichiro; Amano, Yasuaki; Abiko, Kaoru; Yoshioka, Yumiko; Hamanishi, Junzo; Koshiyama, Masafumi; Baba, Tsukasa; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Konishi, Ikuo; Mandai, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in the ARID1A tumor-suppressor gene have been frequently identified in ovarian clear cell carcinoma (CCC) cases. BAF250a encoded by ARID1A is a member of the SWI/SNF complex, but the expression and mutation status of other SWI/SNF subunits have not been explored. The current study aimed to elucidate the biological and clinical significance of the SWI/SNF complex subunits, by assessing the expression and mutation status of SWI/SNF subunits, and distinct genomic aberrations associated with their expression. Of 82 CCC specimens, 38 samples presented no BAF250a expression, and 50 samples exhibited the loss of at least one subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. Cases which lack at least one SWI/SNF complex component exhibited significantly more advanced stages, faster growth and stronger nuclear atypia compared with SWI/SNF-positive samples (p<0.05). Although BAF250a expression is not related to poor prognosis, the group presenting the loss of at least one SWI/SNF complex subunit exhibited significantly shorter overall and progression-free survivals (p<0.05). A multivariate analysis suggested that the expression status of the SWI/SNF complex serves as an independent prognostic factor (p<0.005). The cases positive for all SWI/SNF subunits demonstrated significantly greater DNA copy number alterations, such as amplification at chromosomes 8q.24.3 and 20q.13.2-20q.13.33 (including ZNF217) and deletion at chromosomes 13q12.11-13q14.3 (including RB1), 17p13.2-17p13.1 (including TP53) and 19p13.2-19p13.12. In conclusion, the CCCs exhibiting the loss of one or multiple SWI/SNF complex subunits demonstrated aggressive behaviors and poor prognosis, whereas the CCCs with positive expression for all SWI/SNF components presented more copy number alterations and a favorable prognosis. PMID:27340867

  19. The pathway by which the yeast protein kinase Snf1p controls acquisition of sodium tolerance is different from that mediating glucose regulation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Tian; Elbing, Karin; Hohmann, Stefan

    2008-09-01

    It recently became apparent that the highly conserved Snf1p protein kinase plays roles in controlling different cellular processes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in addition to its well-known function in glucose repression/derepression. We have previously reported that Snf1p together with Gis4p controls ion homeostasis by regulating expression of ENA1, which encodes the Ena1p Na(+) extrusion system. In this study we found that Snf1p is rapidly phosphorylated when cells are exposed to NaCl and this phosphorylation is required for the role of Snf1p in Na(+) tolerance. In contrast to activation by low glucose levels, the salt-induced phosphorylation of Snf1p promoted neither phosphorylation nor nuclear export of the Mig1p repressor. The mechanism that prevents Mig1p phosphorylation by active Snf1p under salt stress does not involve either hexokinase PII or the Gis4p regulator. Instead, Snf1p may mediate upregulation of ENA1 expression via the repressor Nrg1p. Activation of Snf1p in response to glucose depletion requires any of the three upstream protein kinases Sak1p, Tos3p and Elm1p, with Sak1p playing the most prominent role. The same upstream kinases were required for salt-induced Snf1p phosphorylation, and also under these conditions Sak1p played the most prominent role. Unexpectedly, however, it appears that Elm1p plays a dual role in acquisition of salt tolerance by activating Snf1p and in a presently unknown parallel pathway. Together, these results indicate that under salt stress Snf1p takes part in a different pathway from that during glucose depletion and this role is performed together as well as in parallel with its upstream kinase Elm1p. Snf1p appears to be part of a wider functional network than previously anticipated and the full complexity of this network remains to be elucidated.

  20. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  1. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  2. Modification of the rotary specimen rack (Lazy Susan) at the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) to permit pneumatic unloading of samples

    SciTech Connect

    Heifer, P.G.; Rusling, D.H.

    1986-07-01

    With a continuing sample load of about 18,000 samples per year, the U.S.G.S. TRIGA facility has installed a modified rotary specimen rack that allows samples to be unloaded from the rack using a closed loop blower system. The radiation exposure to operating personnel is lowered due to remote operation. Time required to unload large numbers of samples is reduced dramatically, and the sample capacity of the lazy susan can be doubled due to design changes of the. irradiation capsule allowed by the pneumatic unloading system. The safety, versatility, time and costs are improved by the addition of the pneumatic unloading lazy susan. (author)

  3. Adaption of a PIN-diode detector as an online neutron monitor for the thermal column of the TRIGA research reactor.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias

    2017-10-01

    A BNCT online neutron monitoring system was tested in a TRIGA reactor, using a silicon PIN-diode with a conversion foil. The setup was tested with different reactor powers at the hot and cold ends of the irradiation channel, using activation foils to compare with measured fluxes. The results demonstrate good reproducibility and show a linear correlation between signal of the PIN-diode and neutron flux at all positions, demonstrating this approach to be suitable for online monitoring of the neutron flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calculation of the Activity Inventory for the TRIGA Reactor at the Medical University of Hannover (MHH) in Preparation for Dismantling the Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hampel, G.; Scheller, F.; Bernnat, W.; Pfister, G.; Klaux, U.; Gerhards, E.

    2002-02-25

    It is planned to dismantle the TRIGA reactor facility at the Medical University of Hannover (MHH). Radioactive waste resulting from this dismantling will be disposed of externally, any remaining materials as well as the building structures will then be measured to ensure there is no residual activity. In preparation for this and to plan the techniques which will be used to dismantle the reactor, calculations were made in order to determine the amount of activity and the dose rates for the reactor tank and its inside components as well as for the biological shield and its radial beam tube.

  5. Formation of a Snf1-Mec1-Atg1 Module on Mitochondria Governs Energy Deprivation-Induced Autophagy by Regulating Mitochondrial Respiration.

    PubMed

    Yi, Cong; Tong, Jingjing; Lu, Puzhong; Wang, Yizheng; Zhang, Jinxie; Sun, Chen; Yuan, Kangning; Xue, Renyu; Zou, Bing; Li, Nianzhong; Xiao, Shuhua; Dai, Chong; Huang, Yuwei; Xu, Liling; Li, Lin; Chen, She; Miao, Di; Deng, Haiteng; Li, Hongliang; Yu, Li

    2017-04-10

    Autophagy is essential for maintaining glucose homeostasis, but the mechanism by which energy deprivation activates autophagy is not fully understood. We show that Mec1/ATR, a member of the DNA damage response pathway, is essential for glucose starvation-induced autophagy. Mec1, Atg13, Atg1, and the energy-sensing kinase Snf1 are recruited to mitochondria shortly after glucose starvation. Mec1 is recruited through the adaptor protein Ggc1. Snf1 phosphorylates Mec1 on the mitochondrial surface, leading to recruitment of Atg1 to mitochondria. Furthermore, the Snf1-mediated Mec1 phosphorylation and mitochondrial recruitment of Atg1 are essential for maintaining mitochondrial respiration during glucose starvation, and active mitochondrial respiration is required for energy deprivation-activated autophagy. Thus, formation of a Snf1-Mec1-Atg1 module on mitochondria governs energy deprivation-induced autophagy by regulating mitochondrial respiration.

  6. Springing into Action: Reg2 Negatively Regulates Snf1 Protein Kinase and Facilitates Recovery from Prolonged Glucose Starvation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Maziarz, Marcin; Shevade, Aishwarya; Barrett, LaKisha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Glucose is the preferred carbon source for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Glucose limitation activates Snf1 protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis that promotes utilization of alternative carbon sources and enforces energy conservation. Snf1 activation requires phosphorylation of its T-loop threonine (Thr210) by upstream kinases. When glucose is abundant, Snf1 is inhibited by Thr210 dephosphorylation. This involves the function of the type 1 protein phosphatase Glc7, which is targeted to Snf1 by a regulatory subunit, Reg1. The reg1 mutation causes increased Snf1 activity and mimics various aspects of glucose limitation, including slower growth. Reg2 is another Glc7 regulatory subunit encoded by a paralogous gene, REG2. Previous evidence indicated that the reg2 mutation exacerbates the Snf1-dependent slow-growth phenotype caused by reg1, suggesting a link between Reg2 and Snf1. Here, we explore this link in more detail and present evidence that Reg2 contributes to Snf1 Thr210 dephosphorylation. Consistent with this role, Reg2 interacts with wild-type Snf1 but not with nonphosphorylatable Snf1-T210A. Reg2 accumulation increases in a Snf1-dependent manner during prolonged glucose deprivation, and glucose-starved cells lacking Reg2 exhibit delayed Snf1 Thr210 dephosphorylation and slower growth recovery upon glucose replenishment. Accordingly, cells lacking Reg2 are outcompeted by wild-type cells in the course of several glucose starvation/replenishment cycles. Collectively, our results support a model in which Reg2-Glc7 contributes to the negative control of Snf1 in response to glucose refeeding after prolonged starvation. The competitive growth advantage provided by Reg2 underscores the evolutionary significance of this paralog for S. cerevisiae. IMPORTANCE The ability of microorganisms to respond to stress is essential for their survival. However, rapid recovery from stress could be equally crucial in competitive environments. Therefore

  7. Complementation of snf1, a mutation affecting global regulation of carbon metabolism in yeast, by a plant protein kinase cDNA.

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, A; Sabelli, P A; Dickinson, J R; Cole, D; Richardson, M; Kreis, M; Shewry, P R; Halford, N G

    1991-01-01

    A cDNA, cRKIN1, encoding a putative homologue of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SNF1-encoded protein-serine/threonine kinase, has been isolated from a library prepared from rye endosperm mRNA. Northern blot analysis demonstrated the presence of cRKIN1-related transcripts in developing endosperms but not in shoots, and Southern blot analysis showed the presence of a small gene family. SNF1 plays a central role in carbon catabolite repression in yeast and expression of the RKIN1 sequence in yeast snf1 mutants restored SNF1 function. This suggests that the RKIN1 protein has a role in the control of carbon metabolism in endosperms of rye. Images PMID:1924320

  8. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  9. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, I.; Yunus, S. M.; Datta, T. K.; Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-01

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30˚ (2θ) at each step and covers 120˚ in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20˚ at each step and covers 120˚ in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  11. A high performance neutron powder diffractometer at 3 MW Triga Mark-II research reactor in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Kamal, I. Yunus, S. M. Datta, T. K. Zakaria, A. K. M.; Das, A. K.; Aktar, S.; Hossain, S.; Berliner, R.; Yelon, W. B.

    2016-07-12

    A high performance neutron diffractometer called Savar Neutron Diffractometer (SAND) was built and installed at radial beam port-2 of TRIGA Mark II research reactor at AERE, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Structural studies of materials are being done by this technique to characterize materials crystallograpohically and magnetically. The micro-structural information obtainable by neutron scattering method is very essential for determining its technological applications. This technique is unique for understanding the magnetic behavior in magnetic materials. Ceramic, steel, electronic and electric industries can be benefited from this facility for improving their products and fabrication process. This instrument consists of a Popovicimonochromator with a large linear position sensitive detector array. The monochromator consists of nine blades of perfect single crystal of silicon with 6 mm thickness each. The monochromator design was optimized to provide maximum flux on 3 mm diameter cylindrical sample with a relatively flat angular dependence of resolution. Five different wave lengths can be selected by orienting the crystal at various angles. A sapphire filter was used before the primary collimator to minimize the first neutron. The detector assembly is composed of 15 linear position sensitive proportional counters placed at either 1.1 m or 1.6 m from the sample position and enclosed in a air pad supported high density polythene shield. Position sensing is obtained by charge division using 1-wide NIM position encoding modules (PEM). The PEMs communicate with the host computer via USB. The detector when placed at 1.1 m, subtends 30° (2θ) at each step and covers 120° in 4 steps. When the detector is placed at 1.6 m it subtends 20° at each step and covers 120° in 6 steps. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The instrument supports both low and high temperature sample environment. The diffractometer is a state-of-the art technology

  12. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea...

  13. Key Role of Ser562/661 in Snf1-Dependent Regulation of Cat8p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis

    PubMed Central

    Charbon, Godefroid; Breunig, Karin D.; Wattiez, Ruddy; Vandenhaute, Jean; Noël-Georis, Isabelle

    2004-01-01

    Utilization of nonfermentable carbon sources by Kluyveromyces lactis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the Snf1p kinase and the Cat8p transcriptional activator, which binds to carbon source-responsive elements of target genes. We demonstrate that KlSnf1p and KlCat8p from K. lactis interact in a two-hybrid system and that the interaction is stronger with a kinase-dead mutant form of KlSnf1p. Of two putative phosphorylation sites in the KlCat8p sequence, serine 661 was identified as a key residue governing KlCat8p regulation. Serine 661 is located in the middle homology region, a regulatory domain conserved among zinc cluster transcription factors, and is part of an Snf1p consensus phosphorylation site. Single mutations at this site are sufficient to completely change the carbon source regulation of the KlCat8p transactivation activity observed. A serine-to-glutamate mutant form mimicking constitutive phosphorylation results in a nearly constitutively active form of KlCat8p, while a serine-to-alanine mutation has the reverse effect. Furthermore, it is shown that KlCat8p phosphorylation depends on KlSNF1. The Snf1-Cat8 connection is evolutionarily conserved: mutation of corresponding serine 562 of ScCat8p gave similar results in S. cerevisiae. The enhanced capacity of ScCat8S562E to suppress the phenotype caused by snf1 strengthens the hypothesis of direct phosphorylation of Cat8p by Snf1p. Unlike that of S. cerevisiae ScCAT8, KlCAT8 transcription is not carbon source regulated, illustrating the prominent role of posttranscriptional regulation of Cat8p in K. lactis. PMID:15121831

  14. Microbiologic effects of SnF2 and NaF mouthrinses in subjects with high caries activity: results after one year.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, N; Klock, B; Camosci, D A; Manwell, M A

    1983-08-01

    Twenty-two adults, considered to have high caries activity, rinsed for one yr with either SnF2 or acidulated NaF mouthrinses. Total colony-forming units and numbers of S. mutans and lactobacilli were estimated from saliva samples. Large reductions were found in the number of recoverable S. mutans in subjects rinsing with SnF2 but not in the NaF group.

  15. Sth1p, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae Snf2p/Swi2p homolog, is an essential ATPase in RSC and differs from Snf/Swi in its interactions with histones and chromatin-associated proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Du, J; Nasir, I; Benton, B K; Kladde, M P; Laurent, B C

    1998-01-01

    The essential Sth1p is the protein most closely related to the conserved Snf2p/Swi2p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Sth1p purified from yeast has a DNA-stimulated ATPase activity required for its function in vivo. The finding that Sth1p is a component of a multiprotein complex capable of ATP-dependent remodeling of the structure of chromatin (RSC) in vitro, suggests that it provides RSC with ATP hydrolysis activity. Three sth1 temperature-sensitive mutations map to the highly conserved ATPase/helicase domain and have cell cycle and non-cell cycle phenotypes, suggesting multiple essential roles for Sth1p. The Sth1p bromodomain is required for wild-type function; deletion mutants lacking portions of this region are thermosensitive and arrest with highly elongated buds and 2C DNA content, indicating perturbation of a unique function. The pleiotropic growth defects of sth1-ts mutants imply a requirement for Sth1p in a general cellular process that affects several metabolic pathways. Significantly, an sth1-ts allele is synthetically sick or lethal with previously identified mutations in histones and chromatin assembly genes that suppress snf/swi, suggesting that RSC interacts differently with chromatin than Snf/Swi. These results provide a framework for understanding the ATP-dependent RSC function in modeling chromatin and its connection to the cell cycle. PMID:9799253

  16. Identification of a novel SNF2/SWI2 protein family member, SRCAP, which interacts with CREB-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Johnston, H; Kneer, J; Chackalaparampil, I; Yaciuk, P; Chrivia, J

    1999-06-04

    The ability of cAMP response-element binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) to function as a co-activator for a number of transcription factors appears to be mediated by its ability to act as a histone acetyltransferase and through its interaction with a number of other proteins (general transcription factors, histone acetyltransferases, and other co-activators). Here we report that CBP also interacts with a novel ATPase termed Snf2-Related CBP Activator Protein (SRCAP). Consistent with this activity, SRCAP contains the conserved ATPase domain found within members of the Snf2 family. Transfection experiments demonstrate that SRCAP is able to activate transcription when expressed as a Gal-SRCAP chimera and that SRCAP also enhances the ability of CBP to activate transcription. The adenoviral protein E1A was found to disrupt interaction between SRCAP and CBP possibly representing a mechanism for E1A-mediated transcriptional repression.

  17. SWI/SNF Protein Component BAF250a Regulates Cardiac Progenitor Cell Differentiation by Modulating Chromatin Accessibility during Second Heart Field Development*

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ienglam; Gao, Xiaolin; Sham, Mai Har; Wang, Zhong

    2012-01-01

    ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes alter the structure of chromatin at specific loci and facilitate tissue-specific gene regulation during development. Several SWI/SNF subunits are required for cardiogenesis. However, the function and mechanisms of SWI/SNF in mediating cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) differentiation during cardiogenesis are not well understood. Our studies of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex identified that BAF250a, a regulatory subunit of the SWI/SNF, plays a key role in CPC differentiation. BAF250a ablation in mouse second heart field (SHF) led to trabeculation defects in the right ventricle, ventricular septal defect, persistent truncus arteriosus, reduced myocardial proliferation, and embryonic lethality around E13. Using an embryonic stem cell culture system that models the formation and differentiation of SHF CPCs in vivo, we have shown that BAF250a ablation in CPCs specifically inhibits cardiomyocyte formation. Moreover, BAF250a selectively regulates the expression of key cardiac factors Mef2c, Nkx2.5, and Bmp10 in SHF CPCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNase I digestion assays indicate that BAF250a regulates gene expression by binding selectively to its target gene promoters and recruiting Brg1, the catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF, to modulate chromatin accessibility. Our results thus identify BAF250a-mediated chromatin remodeling as an essential epigenetic mechanism mediating CPC differentiation. PMID:22621927

  18. BAF250B-associated SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex is required to maintain undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhijiang; Wang, Zhong; Sharova, Lioudmila; Sharov, Alexei A.; Ling, Chen; Piao, Yulan; Aiba, Kazuhiro; Matoba, Ryo; Wang, Weidong; Ko, Minoru S.H.

    2008-01-01

    Whether SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes play roles in embryonic stem (ES) cells remains unknown. Here we show that SWI/SNF complexes are present in mouse ES cells, and their composition is dynamically regulated upon induction of ES cell differentiation. For example, the SWI/SNF purified from undifferentiated ES cells contains a high level of BAF155 and a low level of BAF170 (both of which are homologs of yeast SWI3 protein), whereas that from differentiated cells contains near equal amounts of both. Moreover, the levels of BAF250A and BAF250B decrease, whereas that of BRM increases, during the differentiation of ES cells. The altered expression of SWI/SNF components hinted that these complexes could play roles in ES cell maintenance or differentiation. We therefore generated ES cells with biallelic inactivation of BAF250B, and found that these cells display a reduced proliferation rate and an abnormal cell cycle. Importantly, these cells are deficient in self-renewal capacity of undifferentiated ES cells, and exhibit certain phenotypes of differentiated cells, including reduced expression of several pluripotency-related genes, and increased expression of some differentiation-related genes. These data suggest that the BAF250B-associated SWI/SNF is essential for mouse ES cells to maintain its normal proliferation and pluripotency. The work presented here underscores the importance of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes in pluripotent stem cells. PMID:18323406

  19. Chromatin remodeling by the SWI/SNF complex is essential for transcription mediated by the yeast cell wall integrity MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Belén Sanz, A.; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, Jose Manuel; Díez-Muñiz, Sonia; Nombela, César; Peterson, Craig L.; Arroyo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptional program triggered by cell wall stress is coordinated by Slt2/Mpk1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, and is mostly mediated by the transcription factor Rlm1. Here we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex plays a critical role in orchestrating the transcriptional response regulated by Rlm1. swi/snf mutants show drastically reduced expression of cell wall stress–responsive genes and hypersensitivity to cell wall–interfering compounds. On stress, binding of RNA Pol II to the promoters of these genes depends on Rlm1, Slt2, and SWI/SNF. Rlm1 physically interacts with SWI/SNF to direct its association to target promoters. Finally, we observe nucleosome displacement at the CWI-responsive gene MLP1/KDX1, which relies on the SWI/SNF complex. Taken together, our results identify the SWI/SNF complex as a key element of the CWI MAPK pathway that mediates the chromatin remodeling necessary for adequate transcriptional response to cell wall stress. PMID:22621902

  20. Cooperation between SAGA and SWI/SNF complexes is required for efficient transcriptional responses regulated by the yeast MAPK Slt2

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ana Belén; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cell wall stress is mainly mediated by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through the MAPK Slt2 and the transcription factor Rlm1. Once activated, Rlm1 interacts with the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex which locally alters nucleosome positioning at the target promoters. Here we show that the SAGA complex plays along with the SWI/SNF complex an important role for eliciting both early induction and sustained gene expression upon stress. Gcn5 co-regulates together with Swi3 the majority of the CWI transcriptional program, except for a group of genes which are only dependent on the SWI/SNF complex. SAGA subunits are recruited to the promoter of CWI-responsive genes in a Slt2, Rlm1 and SWI/SNF-dependent manner. However, Gcn5 mediates acetylation and nucleosome eviction only at the promoters of the SAGA-dependent genes. This process is not essential for pre-initiation transcriptional complex assembly but rather increase the extent of the remodeling mediated by SWI/SNF. As a consequence, H3 eviction and Rlm1 recruitment is completely blocked in a swi3Δ gcn5Δ double mutant. Therefore, SAGA complex, through its histone acetylase activity, cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex for the mandatory nucleosome displacement required for full gene expression through the CWI pathway. PMID:27112564

  1. Direct interaction between Rsc6 and Rsc8/Swh3,two proteins that are conserved in SWI/SNF-related complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Treich, I; Ho, L; Carlson, M

    1998-01-01

    The RSC complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is closely related to the SWI/SNF complex. Both complexes are involved in remodeling chromatin structure and they share conserved components. The RSC proteins Sth1, Rsc8/Swh3, Sfh1 and Rsc6 are homologs of the SWI/SNF proteins Swi2/Snf2, Swi3, Snf5 and Swp73 respectively. To investigate the RSC complex, we isolated a temperature-sensitive swh3 allele. A screen for multicopy suppressors yielded plasmids carrying the RSC6 and MAK31 loci. RSC6 also suppressed the formamide sensitivity of a strain with a C-terminal truncation of SWH3 . We show that Swh3 and Rsc6 fusion proteins interact in the two-hybrid system and that the swh3-ts mutation impairs this interaction. Finally, bacterially produced Swh3 and Rsc6 fusion proteins interact in vitro , supporting the genetic evidence for direct interaction between Swh3 and Rsc6 in vivo . We have previously shown that Swh3 also interacts with Sth1. These findings, together with the conservation of these proteins in the SWI/SNF complex and in mammalian SWI/SNF-related complexes, strongly suggest that these proteins form a structural core for the complex. PMID:9685490

  2. Distribution of lichen flora on South Korea.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jae-Seoun; Harada, Hiroshi; Oh, Soon-Ok; Lim, Kwang-Mi; Kang, Eui-Sung; Lee, Seung Mi; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Jae-Sung; Koh, Young Jin

    2004-06-01

    After an overview on the temporary situation of the lichenology in South Korea, localities of 95 macrolichen taxa are reported for South Korea. In this revised lichen flora of South Korea, 16 species are apparently new to the territory. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Korean Lichen Research Institute (KoLRI) at Sunchon National University in Korea, and duplicates have also been donated to the National History Museum and Institute, in Chiba, (CBM) Japan.

  3. Nucleosome remodeling by the SWI/SNF complex is enhanced by yeast High Mobility Group Box (HMGB) proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hepp, Matias I.; Alarcon, Valentina; Dutta, Arnob; Workman, Jerry L.; Gutiérrez, José L.

    2014-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription involves the concerted action of several proteins and protein complexes committed to dynamically alter the surrounding chromatin environment of a gene being activated or repressed. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are key actors in chromatin remodeling, and the SWI/SNF complex is the founding member. While many studies have linked the action of these complexes to specific transcriptional regulation of a large number of genes and much is known about their catalytic activity, less is known about the nuclear elements that can enhance or modulate their activity. A number of studies have found that certain High Mobility Group (HMG) proteins are able to stimulate ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity, but their influence on the different biochemical outcomes of this activity is still unknown. In this work we studied the influence of the yeast Nhp6A, Nhp6B and Hmo1 proteins (HMGB family members) on different biochemical outcomes of yeast SWI/SNF remodeling activity. We found that all these HMG proteins stimulate the sliding activity of ySWI/SNF, while transient exposure of nucleosomal DNA and octamer transfer catalyzed by this complex are only stimulated by Hmo1. Consistently, only Hmo1 stimulates SWI/SNF binding to the nucleosome. Additionally, the sliding activity of another chromatin remodeling complex, ISW1a, is only stimulated by Hmo1. Further analyses show that these differential stimulatory effects of Hmo1 are dependent on the presence of its C-terminal tail, which contains a stretch of acidic and basic residues. PMID:24972368

  4. Biallelic germline and somatic mutations in malignant mesothelioma: multiple mutations in transcription regulators including mSWI/SNF genes.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Otsuki, Taiichiro; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Seiki; Nakano, Takashi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko

    2015-02-01

    We detected low levels of acetylation for histone H3 tail lysines in malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines resistant to histone deacetylase inhibitors. To identify the possible genetic causes related to the low histone acetylation levels, whole-exome sequencing was conducted with MM cell lines established from eight patients. A mono-allelic variant of BRD1 was common to two MM cell lines with very low acetylation levels. We identified 318 homozygous protein-damaging variants/mutations (18-78 variants/mutations per patient); annotation analysis showed enrichment of the molecules associated with mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes and co-activators that facilitate initiation of transcription. In seven of the patients, we detected a combination of variants in histone modifiers or transcription factors/co-factors, in addition to variants in mSWI/SNF. Direct sequencing showed that homozygous mutations in SMARCA4, PBRM1 and ARID2 were somatic. In one patient, homozygous germline variants were observed for SMARCC1 and SETD2 in chr3p22.1-3p14.2. These exhibited extended germline homozygosity and were in regions containing somatic mutations, leading to a loss of BAP1 and PBRM1 expression in MM cell line. Most protein-damaging variants were heterozygous in normal tissues. Heterozygous germline variants were often converted into hemizygous variants by mono-allelic deletion, and were rarely homozygous because of acquired uniparental disomy. Our findings imply that MM might develop through the somatic inactivation of mSWI/SNF complex subunits and/or histone modifiers, including BAP1, in subjects that have rare germline variants of these transcription regulators and/or transcription factors/co-factors, and in regions prone to mono-allelic deletion during oncogenesis.

  5. Time-dependent profiling of metabolites from Snf1 mutant and wild type yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Humston, Elizabeth M; Dombek, Kenneth M; Hoggard, Jamin C; Young, Elton T; Synovec, Robert E

    2008-11-01

    The effect of sampling time in the context of growth conditions on a dynamic metabolic system was investigated in order to assess to what extent a single sampling time may be sufficient for general application, as well as to determine if useful kinetic information could be obtained. A wild type yeast strain (W) was compared to a snf1Delta mutant yeast strain (S) grown in high-glucose medium (R) and in low-glucose medium containing ethanol (DR). Under these growth conditions, different metabolic pathways for utilizing the different carbon sources are expected to be active. Thus, changes in metabolite levels relating to the carbon source in the growth medium were anticipated. Furthermore, the Snf1 protein kinase complex is required to adapt cellular metabolism from fermentative R conditions to oxidative DR conditions. So, differences in intracellular metabolite levels between the W and S yeast strains were also anticipated. Cell extracts were collected at four time points (0.5, 2, 4, 6 h) after shifting half of the cells from R to DR conditions, resulting in 16 sample classes (WR, WDR, SR, SDR) x (0.5, 2, 4, 6 h). The experimental design provided time course data, so temporal dependencies could be monitored in addition to carbon source and strain dependencies. Comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC x GC-TOFMS) was used with discovery-based data mining algorithms ( Anal. Chem. 2006, 78, 5068-5075 (ref 1); J. Chromatogr., A 2008, 1186, 401-411 (ref 2)) to locate regions within the 2D chromatograms (i.e., metabolites) that provided chemical selectivity between the 16 sample classes. These regions were mathematically resolved using parallel factor analysis to positively identify the metabolites and to acquire quantitative results. With these tools, 51 unique metabolites were identified and quantified. Various time course patterns emerged from these data, and principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized as

  6. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    BAZINET, G.D.

    2000-11-03

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted

  7. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  8. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  9. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...

  10. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  11. The SNF1 Kinase Ubiquitin-associated Domain Restrains Its Activation, Activity, and the Yeast Life Span.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Rubin; Postnikoff, Spike; Harkness, Troy A; Arnason, Terra G

    2015-06-19

    The enzyme family of heterotrimeric AMP-dependent protein kinases is activated upon low energy states, conferring a switch toward energy-conserving metabolic pathways through immediate kinase actions on enzyme targets and delayed alterations in gene expression through its nuclear relocalization. This family is evolutionarily conserved, including the presence of a ubiquitin-associated (UBA) motif in most catalytic subunits. The potential for the UBA domain to promote protein associations or direct subcellular location, as seen in other UBA-containing proteins, led us to query whether the UBA domain within the yeast AMP-dependent protein kinase ortholog, SNF1 kinase, was important in these aspects of its regulation. Here, we demonstrate that conserved UBA motif mutations significantly alter SNF1 kinase activation and biological activity, including enhanced allosteric subunit associations and increased oxidative stress resistance and life span. Significantly, the enhanced UBA-dependent longevity and oxidative stress response are at least partially dependent on the Fkh1 and Fkh2 stress response transcription factors, which in turn are shown to influence Snf1 gene expression.

  12. SIRT6 recruits SNF2H to sites of DNA breaks, preventing genomic instability through chromatin remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Toiber, Debra; Erdel, Fabian; Bouazoune, Karim; Silberman, Dafne M.; Zhong, Lei; Mulligan, Peter; Sebastian, Carlos; Cosentino, Claudia; Martinez-Pastor, Barbara; Giacosa, Sofia; D’Urso, Agustina; Näär, Anders M.; Kingston, Robert; Rippe, Karsten; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2013-01-01

    Summary DNA damage is linked to multiple human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration and senescence. Little is known about the role of chromatin accessibility in DNA repair. Here, we find that the histone deacetylase SIRT6 is one of the earliest factors recruited to sites of Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs). SIRT6 recruits the ISWI-chromatin remodeler SNF2H to DSBs, and deacetylates focally histone H3K56. Lack of SIRT6 and SNF2H impairs chromatin remodeling, increasing sensitivity to genotoxic damage and recruitment of downstream factors, such as 53BP1, BRCA1 and RPA. Remarkably, SIRT6 deficient mice exhibit lower levels of chromatin-associated SNF2H in specific tissues, a phenotype accompanied by increased DNA damage. We demonstrate that SIRT6 is critical for recruitment of a chromatin remodeler as an early step in the DNA damage response, indicating that proper unfolding of chromatin plays a rate-limiting role. We present a novel crosstalk between a histone modifier and a chromatin remodeler, regulating a coordinated response to prevent DNA damage. PMID:23911928

  13. HIC1 interacts with a specific subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, ARID1A/BAF250A

    SciTech Connect

    Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Leprince, Dominique

    2009-08-07

    HIC1, a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced in many human cancers encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. HIC1 is also implicated in growth control since it recruits BRG1, one of the two alternative ATPases (BRM or BRG1) of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to repress transcription of E2F1 in quiescent fibroblasts. Here, through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identify ARID1A/BAF250A, as a new HIC1 partner. ARID1A/BAF250A is one of the two mutually exclusive ARID1-containing subunits of SWI/SNF complexes which define subsets of complexes endowed with anti-proliferative properties. Co-immunoprecipitation assays in WI38 fibroblasts and in BRG1-/- SW13 cells showed that endogenous HIC1 and ARID1A proteins interact in a BRG1-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HIC1 does not interact with BRM. Finally, sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-reChIP) experiments demonstrated that HIC1 represses E2F1 through the recruitment of anti-proliferative SWI/SNF complexes containing ARID1A.

  14. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  15. Regulation of Vegetative Phase Change by SWI2/SNF2 Chromatin Remodeling ATPase BRAHMA.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunmin; Guo, Changkui; Zhou, Bingying; Li, Chenlong; Wang, Huasen; Zheng, Ben; Ding, Han; Zhu, Zhujun; Peragine, Angela; Cui, Yuhai; Poethig, Scott; Wu, Gang

    2016-12-01

    Plants progress from a juvenile vegetative phase of development to an adult vegetative phase of development before they enter the reproductive phase. miR156 has been shown to be the master regulator of the juvenile-to-adult transition in plants. However, the mechanism of how miR156 is transcriptionally regulated still remains elusive. In a forward genetic screen, we identified that a mutation in the SWI2/SNF2 chromatin remodeling ATPase BRAHMA (BRM) exhibited an accelerated vegetative phase change phenotype by reducing the expression of miR156, which in turn caused a corresponding increase in the levels of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE genes. BRM regulates miR156 expression by directly binding to the MIR156A promoter. Mutations in BRM not only increased occupancy of the -2 and +1 nucleosomes proximal to the transcription start site at the MIR156A locus but also the levels of trimethylated histone H3 at Lys 27. The precocious phenotype of brm mutant was partially suppressed by a second mutation in SWINGER (SWN), but not by a mutation in CURLEY LEAF, both of which are key components of the Polycomb Group Repressive Complex 2 in plants. Our results indicate that BRM and SWN act antagonistically at the nucleosome level to fine-tune the temporal expression of miR156 to regulate vegetative phase change in Arabidopsis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes and cancer: Mechanistic insights gained from human genomics

    PubMed Central

    Kadoch, Cigall; Crabtree, Gerald R.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 4 years, nearly 100 exome sequencing studies have revealed the high frequency of mutations in the genes encoding the subunits of ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers in human cancer. Most of these mutations are within the genes encoding subunits of the BAF (Brg/Brahma-associated factors) or mSWI/SNF complex, which is one of two dozen predicted ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes in mammals. Considering BAF complexes as a single entity, the 15 subunits encoded by 29 genes are mutated in >20% of human cancer, across a broad range of tumor types. These observations demonstrate that there is little redundancy in the oncogenic function of BAF complexes with the other remodeling complexes, underscoring their unique roles. Several important conclusions emerge from these genomic data: specific subunits appear to be mutated in specific cancers, highlighting tissue-specific protective roles; mutations can function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes; mutations can be homozygous or, more commonly, heterozygous, implying their dosage-sensitive roles in an unknown yet fundamental process used to suppress the genesis of cancer. These new human genetic findings paired with biochemical studies are challenging old ideas on how chromatin remodeling complexes function, generating new hypotheses with respect to their normal and oncogenic mechanisms and highlighting potential avenues for therapeutic intervention in human cancer. PMID:26601204

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Storage Project Fuel Basket Handling Grapple Design Development Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    Acceptance testing of the SNF Fuel Basket Lift Grapple was accomplished to verify the design adequacy. This report shows the results affirming the design. The test was successful in demonstrating the adequacy of the grapple assembly's inconel actuator shaft and engagement balls for in loads excess of design basis loads (3200 pounds), 3X design basis loads (9600 pounds), and 5X design basis loads (16,000 pounds). The test data showed that no appreciable yielding for the inconel actuator shaft and engagement balls at loads in excess of 5X Design Basis loads. The test data also showed the grapple assembly and components to be fully functional after loads in excess of 5X Design Basis were applied and maintained for over 10 minutes. Following testing, each actuator shaft (Item 7) was liquid penetrant inspected per ASME Section 111, Division 1 1989 and accepted per requirements of NF-5350. This examination was performed to insure that no cracking had occurred. The test indicated that no cracking had occurred. The examination reports are included as Appendix C to this document. From this test, it is concluded that the design configuration meets or exceeds the requirements specified in ANSI N 14 6 for Special Lifting Devices for Shipping Containers Weighing 10,000 Pounds (4500 kg) or More.

  18. SWI/SNF- and RSC-catalyzed nucleosome mobilization requires internal DNA loop translocation within nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Peterson, Craig L; Hayes, Jeffrey J

    2011-10-01

    The multisubunit SWI/SNF and RSC complexes utilize energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to mobilize nucleosomes and render the DNA accessible for various nuclear processes. Here we test the idea that remodeling involves intermediates with mobile DNA bulges or loops within the nucleosome by cross-linking the H2A N- or C-terminal tails together to generate protein "loops" that constrict separation of the DNA from the histone surface. Analyses indicate that this intranucleosomal cross-linking causes little or no change in remodeling-dependent exposure of DNA sequences within the nucleosome to restriction enzymes. However, cross-linking inhibits nucleosome mobilization and blocks complete movement of nucleosomes to extreme end positions on the DNA fragments. These results are consistent with evidence that nucleosome remodeling involves intermediates with DNA loops on the nucleosome surface but indicate that such loops do not freely diffuse about the surface of the histone octamer. We propose a threading model for movement of DNA loops around the perimeter of the nucleosome core.

  19. Gene Silencing Associated with SWI/SNF Complex Loss During NSCLC Development

    PubMed Central

    Song, Shujie; Walter, Vonn; Karaca, Mehmet; Li, Ying; Bartlett, Christopher S.; Smiraglia, Dominic J.; Serber, Daniel; Sproul, Christopher D.; Plass, Christoph; Zhang, Jiren; Hayes, D. Neil; Zheng, Yanfang; Weissman, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates gene expression and alters chromatin structures in an ATP-dependent manner. Recent sequencing efforts have shown mutations in BRG1 (SMARCA4), one of two mutually exclusive ATPase subunits in the complex, in a significant number of human lung tumor cell lines and primary non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) clinical specimens. To determine how BRG1 loss fuels tumor progression in NSCLC, molecular profiling was performed after restoration of BRG1 expression or treatment with an HDAC inhibitor or a DNMT inhibitor in a BRG1-deficient NSCLC cells. Importantly, validation studies from multiple cell lines revealed that BRG1 re-expression led to substantial changes in the expression of CDH1, CDH3, EHF and RRAD that commonly undergo silencing by other epigenetic mechanisms during NSCLC development. Furthermore, treatment with DNMT inhibitors did not restore expression of these transcripts indicating that this common mechanism of gene silencing did not account for their loss of expression. Collectively, BRG1 loss is an important mechanism for the epigenetic silencing of target genes during NSCLC development. PMID:24445599

  20. Snf1-like protein kinase Ssp2 regulates glucose derepression in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Fujita, Yasuko; Tohda, Hideki; Takegawa, Kaoru

    2012-02-01

    The function of two fission yeast genes, SPCC74.03c/ssp2(+) and SPAC23H4.02/ppk9(+), encoding an Snf1-like protein kinase were investigated. Deletion of ssp2(+) caused a partial defect in glucose derepression of inv1(+), fbp1(+), and gld1(+) and in assimilation of sucrose and glycerol, while a mutation in ppk9(+) had no apparent effect. Scr1, a transcription factor involved in glucose repression, localized to the nucleus under glucose-rich conditions and to the cytoplasm during glucose starvation in wild-type cells. In contrast, in the ssp2Δ mutant, Scr1 localized to the nucleus in cells grown in glucose-rich medium as well as in glucose-starved cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that Ssp2 is required for the phosphorylation of Scr1 upon glucose deprivation. Mutation of five putative Ssp2 recognition sites in Scr1 prevented glucose derepression of invertase in glucose-starved cells. These results indicate that Ssp2 regulates phosphorylation and subcellular localization of Scr1 in response to glucose.

  1. Snf1-related kinase improves cardiac mitochondrial efficiency and decreases mitochondrial uncoupling

    PubMed Central

    Rines, Amy K.; Chang, Hsiang-Chun; Wu, Rongxue; Sato, Tatsuya; Khechaduri, Arineh; Kouzu, Hidemichi; Shapiro, Jason; Shang, Meng; Burke, Michael A.; Jiang, Xinghang; Chen, Chunlei; Rawlings, Tenley A.; Lopaschuk, Gary D.; Schumacker, Paul T.; Abel, E. Dale; Ardehali, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Ischaemic heart disease limits oxygen and metabolic substrate availability to the heart, resulting in tissue death. Here, we demonstrate that the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-related protein Snf1-related kinase (SNRK) decreases cardiac metabolic substrate usage and mitochondrial uncoupling, and protects against ischaemia/reperfusion. Hearts from transgenic mice overexpressing SNRK have decreased glucose and palmitate metabolism and oxygen consumption, but maintained power and function. They also exhibit decreased uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) and mitochondrial uncoupling. Conversely, Snrk knockout mouse hearts have increased glucose and palmitate oxidation and UCP3. SNRK knockdown in cardiac cells decreases mitochondrial efficiency, which is abolished with UCP3 knockdown. We show that Tribbles homologue 3 (Trib3) binds to SNRK, and downregulates UCP3 through PPARα. Finally, SNRK is increased in cardiomyopathy patients, and SNRK reduces infarct size after ischaemia/reperfusion. SNRK also decreases cardiac cell death in a UCP3-dependent manner. Our results suggest that SNRK improves cardiac mitochondrial efficiency and ischaemic protection. PMID:28117339

  2. The role of BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes in mammalian neural development.

    PubMed

    Son, Esther Y; Crabtree, Gerald R

    2014-09-01

    The BAF (mammalian SWI/SNF) complexes are a family of multi-subunit ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers that use ATP hydrolysis to alter chromatin structure. Distinct BAF complex compositions are possible through combinatorial assembly of homologous subunit families and can serve non-redundant functions. In mammalian neural development, developmental stage-specific BAF assemblies are found in embryonic stem cells, neural progenitors and postmitotic neurons. In particular, the neural progenitor-specific BAF complexes are essential for controlling the kinetics and mode of neural progenitor cell division, while neuronal BAF function is necessary for the maturation of postmitotic neuronal phenotypes as well as long-term memory formation. The microRNA-mediated mechanism for transitioning from npBAF to nBAF complexes is instructive for the neuronal fate and can even convert fibroblasts into neurons. The high frequency of BAF subunit mutations in neurological disorders underscores the rate-determining role of BAF complexes in neural development, homeostasis, and plasticity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Functions of the Snf2/Swi2 family Rad54 motor protein in homologous recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Shannon J.; Heyer, Wolf-Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Homologous recombination is a central pathway to maintain genomic stability and is involved in the repair of DNA damage and replication fork support, as well as accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. Rad54 is a dsDNA-dependent ATPase of the Snf2/Swi2 family of SF2 helicases, although Rad54 lacks classical helicase activity and cannot carry out the strand displacement reactions typical for DNA helicases. Rad54 is a potent and processive motor protein that translocates on dsDNA, potentially executing several functions in recombinational DNA repair. Rad54 acts in concert with Rad51, the central protein of recombination that performs the key reactions of homology search and DNA strand invasion. Here, we will review the role of the Rad54 protein in homologous recombination with an emphasis on mechanistic studies with the yeast and human enzymes. We will discuss how these results relate to in vivo functions of Rad54 during homologous recombination in somatic cells and during meiosis. PMID:21704205

  4. The Antei uranium deposit: A natural analogue of an SNF repository and an underground geodynamic laboratory in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.; Nasimov, R. M.; Hammer, J.; Burmistrov, A. A.; Shchukin, S. I.

    2008-10-01

    The estimation of the long-term stability of crystalline rock massifs with respect to natural and technogenic loads in the course of long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is a special area of surveys at underground research laboratories (URLs). In parallel with these surveys, data on uranium deposits—natural analogues of repositories of SNF consisting of 95% UO2—are used for obtaining insight into the dynamics of radionuclide migration and validating barrier properties of host rocks. Examples of URLs located in granitic massifs of Sweden (Äspö), Canada (Whiteshell), Switzerland (Grimsel), Japan (Mizunami), and Finland (ONKALO), as well as the El Berrocal (Spain), Palmottu (Finland), Sanerliu (China), and Kamaishi (Japan) deposits, are considered in the paper. The objects listed above are distinct in tectonic settings, geology, control of ore mineralization, redox conditions of uranium migration, and character and intensity of filtration and transportation, which predetermine the direction and specific features of research conducted therein. A variant in which a URL and a natural analogue are combined in one object is especially promising for validation of safe long-term isolation of SNF. The Antei vein-stockwork uranium deposit in the southeastern Transbaikal region, localized in Paleozoic granite at a depth of 400 1000 m and opened by mine workings at six levels, is such an object. Its geological features, stress-strain state, and infrastructure of mine workings offer an opportunity to study the entire spectrum of processes proceeding in near-and far-field of an SNF repository. The structural geology, mineralogy and petrography, and petrophysical and tectonophysical features of the deposit at its three lower levels are considered. The sequence of metasomatic alteration of rocks and the dynamics of formation of ore-bearing faults that crosscut prototectonic elements, as well as relationships of physicomechanical properties of rocks as a function of

  5. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  6. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  7. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  8. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-06

    15 Niksch, Larry A., North Korea and Terrorism: The Yokita Megumi Factor. The Korean Journal of Defense Analysis. Spring 2002. pp. 14-16. 16 For...remains were not those of Megumi Yokota or Kaoru Matsuki, as Pyongyang had claimed, and the issue remained contentious at year’s end. Four Japanese

  9. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  10. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-26

    Representative for the DPRK. 41 Smith, Overcoming Humanitarian Dilemmas, p.13 Source: World Food Program, Map Resources. Adapted by CRS. (K. Yancey 3/18/04...2003 e-mail correspondence with Rick Corsino, former WFP Country Director for North Korea. 44 May 2005 e-mail correspondence with Richard Ragan, WFP

  11. The Design and Construction of a Cold Neutron Source for Use in the Cornell University Triga Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Lydia Jane

    A cold neutron source has been designed and constructed for insertion into the 6"-radial beam port of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor for use with a neutron guide tube system. The main differences between this cold source and other existing sources are the use of heat conduction as the method of cooling and the use of mesitylene (1,3,5 -trimethylbenzene; melting point, 228(DEGREES)K; boiling point, 437(DEGREES)K) as the moderating material. This thesis describes the design and construction details of the cold neutron source, discusses its safety aspects, and presents its cryogenic performance curves and also the results of a test of its neutron moderating ability. A closed-cycle helium gas refrigerator, located outside the reactor shielding, cools the 500 cm('3) moderator chamber and its surrounding heat shield by heat conduction through two meters of copper and rod tubing. Moderator temperatures of 23 (+OR-) 3(DEGREES)K have been achieved. Mesitylene, a hydrocarbon, is an effective cold moderator because even at low temperatures the weakly hindered rotational motions of its methyl groups enable the absorption of small amounts of energy ((LESSTHEQ) 0.005 eV) from neutrons. The use of mesitylene simplifies the cold source design because it is a liquid at room temperature and thus, the usual design safeguards required for sources using gaseous moderators are not necessary. Moreover, the flammability of mesitylene is much smaller than that of hydrogen and methane, which are the commonly used cold moderators. A method of transferring and handling the mesitylene, a carcinogen, was devised to ensure minimal contact with this substance. To test the neutron moderating ability of the cold neutron source, an out-of-reactor neutron transmission experiment was performed with the moderator chamber first at room temperature and then at about 23(DEGREES)K. The results indicate that the neutron energy spectrum is strongly shifted to lower energies when the chamber is cold

  12. Design, construction, and demonstration of a neutron beamline and a neutron imaging facility at a Mark-I TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.

    The fleet of research and training reactors is aging, and no new research reactors are planned in the United States. Thus, there is a need to expand the capabilities of existing reactors to meet users' needs. While many research reactors have beam port facilities, the original design of the United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) did not include beam ports. The MInes NEutron Radiography (MINER) facility developed by this thesis and installed at the GSTR provides new capabilities for both researchers and students at the Colorado School of Mines. The facility consists of a number of components, including a neutron beamline and beamstop, an optical table, an experimental enclosure and associated interlocks, a computer control system, a multi-channel plate imaging detector, and the associated electronics. The neutron beam source location, determined through Monte Carlo modeling, provides the best mixture of high neutron flux, high thermal neutron content, and low gamma radiation content. A Monte Carlo n-Particle (MCNP) model of the neutron beam provides researchers with a tool for designing experiments before placing objects in the neutron beam. Experimental multi-foil activation results, compared to calculated multi-foil activation results, verify the model. The MCNP model predicts a neutron beamline flux of 2.2*106 +/- 6.4*105 n/cm2-s based on a source particle rate determined from the foil activation experiments when the reactor is operating at a power of 950 kWt with the beam shutter fully open. The average cadmium ratio of the beamline is 7.4, and the L/D of the neutron beam is approximately 200+/-10. Radiographs of a sensitivity indicator taken using both the digital detector and the transfer foil method provide one demonstration of the radiographic capabilities of the new facility. Calibration fuel pins manufactured using copper and stainless steel surrogate fuel pellets provide additional specimens for demonstration of the new facility and offer a

  13. Cellular senescence regulated by SWI/SNF complex subunits through p53/p21 and p16/pRB pathway.

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Chen, Ying; Feng, Jianguo; Sun, Weichao; Li, Shun; Ou, Mengting; Tang, Liling

    2017-09-01

    SWI/SNF complex is an evolutionarily well-conserved chromatin-remodeling complex, which is implicated in the nucleosomes removing or sliding, impacting on the DNA repair, replication and genes expression regulation. The SWI/SNF complex consists up to 12 protein subunits. The catalytic subunits are BRG1 or BRM, which are exclusive ATPase subunits. BRG1 has been reported to play an important role in cellular senescence. However, The function of non-catalytic subunits involved in cellular senescence is rarely investigated. Therefore, we focused on the senescence regulation roles of SWI/SNF non-catalytic subunits in cellular senescent model induced by H2O2. H2O2 treatment was used to induce cellular senescence models in vitro. Screening the candidate subunits involved in this process by comparing the expression levels of SWI/SNF subunits with/without H2O2 treatment. Over-expression and knockdown the candidate subunits were utilized to investigate the functions and mechanism of the subunits involved in senescence regulation. The expressions of BAF57, BAF60a and SNF5 were changed significantly after H2O2 treatment. Overexpression of the three subunits separately induced cell growth arrest in both HaCaT and GLL19 cells, while knockdown of the subunits separately eased the senescence induced by H2O2 treatment. Results further showed that BAF57, BAF60a and SNF5 regulated cellular senescence via both p53/p21 and p16/pRB pathways, and the three subunits all had a directly interaction with p53. These results indicated that BAF57, BAF60a and SNF5 might act as novel pro-senescence factors in both normal and tumor human skin cells. Therefore, inhibiting expression of the three factors might delay the cellular senescence process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER (MPC) WITH ACD DISPOSAL CONTAINER (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-11-13

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Subsystem Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude MPC compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual MPC design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded MPC performance is similar to an MPC loaded with commercial BWR SNF. Future design efforts will focus on specific MPC vendor designs and BWR MOX SNF designs when they become available.

  15. Generation of a mouse model of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor of the central nervous system through combined deletion of Snf5 and p53.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jessica M Y; Martinez, Daniel; Marsh, Eric D; Zhang, Zhe; Rappaport, Eric; Santi, Mariarita; Curran, Tom

    2015-11-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors arise in several anatomic locations and are associated with poor outcomes. In the brain, these tumors are known as atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT). While genetically engineered models for malignant rhabdoid tumors exist, none of them recapitulate AT/RT, for which preclinical models remain lacking. In the majority of AT/RT, LOH occurs at the genetic locus SNF5 (Ini1/BAF47/Smarcb1), which functions as a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex and a tumor suppressor in familial and sporadic malignant rhabdoid tumors. Therefore, we generated mice in which Snf5 was ablated specifically in nestin-positive and/or glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP)-positive progenitor cells of the developing central nervous system (CNS). Snf5 ablation in nestin-positive cells resulted in early lethality that could not be rescued by loss of p53. However, Snf5 ablation in GFAP-positive cells caused a neurodegenerative phenotype exacerbated by p53 loss. Notably, these double mutants exhibited AT/RT development, associated with an earlier failure in granule neuron migration in the cerebellum, reduced neuronal projections in the hippocampus, degeneration of the corpus callosum, and ataxia and seizures. Gene expression analysis confirmed that the tumors that arose in Snf5/p53 mutant mice were distinct from other neural tumors and most closely resembled human AT/RT. Our findings uncover a novel role for Snf5 in oligodendrocyte generation and survival, and they offer evidence of the first genetically engineered mouse model for AT/RT in the CNS.

  16. Dose calculation in biological samples in a mixed neutron-gamma field at the TRIGA reactor of the University of Mainz.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Tobias; Blaickner, Matthias; Schütz, Christian; Wiehl, Norbert; Kratz, Jens V; Bassler, Niels; Holzscheiter, Michael H; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Otto, Gerd; Hampel, Gabriele

    2010-10-01

    To establish Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) for non-resectable liver metastases and for in vitro experiments at the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz, Germany, it is necessary to have a reliable dose monitoring system. The in vitro experiments are used to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of liver and cancer cells in our mixed neutron and gamma field. We work with alanine detectors in combination with Monte Carlo simulations, where we can measure and characterize the dose. To verify our calculations we perform neutron flux measurements using gold foil activation and pin-diodes. Material and methods. When L-α-alanine is irradiated with ionizing radiation, it forms a stable radical which can be detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The value of the ESR signal correlates to the amount of absorbed dose. The dose for each pellet is calculated using FLUKA, a multipurpose Monte Carlo transport code. The pin-diode is augmented by a lithium fluoride foil. This foil converts the neutrons into alpha and tritium particles which are products of the (7)Li(n,α)(3)H-reaction. These particles are detected by the diode and their amount correlates to the neutron fluence directly. Results and discussion. Gold foil activation and the pin-diode are reliable fluence measurement systems for the TRIGA reactor, Mainz. Alanine dosimetry of the photon field and charged particle field from secondary reactions can in principle be carried out in combination with MC-calculations for mixed radiation fields and the Hansen & Olsen alanine detector response model. With the acquired data about the background dose and charged particle spectrum, and with the acquired information of the neutron flux, we are capable of calculating the dose to the tissue. Conclusion. Monte Carlo simulation of the mixed neutron and gamma field of the TRIGA Mainz is possible in order to characterize the neutron behavior in the thermal column. Currently we also

  17. Independent Action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 Protein in Southern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Steven L.; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Uffman, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  18. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action.

  19. DESIGN OF A CONCRETE SLAB FOR STORAGE OF SNF AND HLW CASKS

    SciTech Connect

    J. Bisset

    2005-02-14

    This calculation documents the design of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) and High-Level Waste (HLW) Cask storage slab for the Aging Area. The design is based on the weights of casks that may be stored on the slab, the weights of vehicles that may be used to move the casks, and the layout shown on the sketch for a 1000 Metric Ton of Heavy Metal (MTHM) storage pad on Attachment 2, Sht.1 of the calculation 170-C0C-C000-00100-000-00A (BSC 2004a). The analytical model used herein is based on the storage area for 8 vertical casks. To simplify the model, the storage area of the horizontal concrete modules and their related shield walls is not included. The heavy weights of the vertical storage casks and the tensile forces due to pullout at the anchorages will produce design moments and shear forces that will envelope those that would occur in the storage area of the horizontal modules. The design loadings will also include snow and live loads. In addition, the design will also reflect pertinent geotechnical data. This calculation will document the preliminary thickness and general reinforcing steel requirements for the slab. This calculation also documents the initial design of the cask anchorage. Other slab details are not developed in this calculation. They will be developed during the final design process. The calculation also does not include the evaluation of the effects of cask drop loads. These will be evaluated in this or another calculation when the exact cask geometry is known.

  20. Planning Document for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cleanliness Inspection Process (OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    PITNER, A.L.

    2000-12-06

    The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) Process Validation Procedure (Stegen 2000) requires that a specified quantity of fuel processed through the Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) be assessed for cleanliness during initial operational and process validation testing. Specifically, these assessments are visual examinations of the fuel, performed to confirm that the PCM adequately cleans the fuel elements of canister sludge. The results of these examinations will be used to demonstrate that residual quantities of canister particulate on fuel elements loaded into Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) are within projected levels used to establish safety basis limits (Sloughter 2000). The fuel assessments, performed as part of the validation process, will be conducted during the Hot Operations portion of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI) of the Fuel Retrieval and Integrated Water Treatment Systems (Pajunen 2000). Hot Operations testing constitutes Phases 3 and 4 of the PSI. The fuel assemblies in all candidate canisters will be thoroughly examined during these test phases (highly degraded fuel assemblies that qualify as scrap are exempt from evaluation). During subsequent production operation of the FRS, only periodic examinations for cleanliness will be performed and documented. This document describes the specific processes and techniques that will be applied in performing the cleanliness assessments, and the methodology used to verify that the documented assessment results conform to Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) requirements. The procedures and processes presented here are in conformance with the Quality Assurance Program Plan for Implementation of the OCRWM Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project (QAPP-OCRWM-001).

  1. A randomized trial of heart failure disease management in skilled nursing facilities (SNF Connect): Lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Daddato, Andrea; Wald, Heidi L; Horney, Carolyn; Fairclough, Diane L; Leister, Erin C; Coors, Marilyn; Capell, Warren H; Boxer, Rebecca S

    2017-06-01

    Conducting clinical trials in skilled nursing facilities is particularly challenging. This manuscript describes facility and patient recruitment challenges and solutions for clinical research in skilled nursing facilities. Lessons learned from the SNF Connect Trial, a randomized trial of a heart failure disease management versus usual care for patients with heart failure receiving post-acute care in skilled nursing facilities, are discussed. Description of the trial design and barriers to facility and patient recruitment along with regulatory issues are presented. The recruitment of Denver-metro skilled nursing facilities was facilitated by key stakeholders of the skilled nursing facilities community. However, there were still a number of barriers to facility recruitment including leadership turnover, varying policies regarding research, fear of litigation and of an increased workload. Engagement of facilities was facilitated by their strong interest in reducing hospital readmissions, marketing potential to hospitals, and heart failure management education for their staff. Recruitment of patients proved difficult and there were few facilitators. Identified patient recruitment challenges included patients being unaware of their heart failure diagnosis, patients overwhelmed with their illness and care, and frequently there was no available proxy for cognitively impaired patients. Flexibility in changing the recruitment approach and targeting skilled nursing facilities with higher rates of admissions helped to overcome some barriers. Recruitment of skilled nursing facilities and patients in skilled nursing facilities for clinical trials is challenging. Strategies to attract both facilities and patients are warranted. These include aligning study goals with facility incentives and flexible recruitment protocols to work with patients in "transition crisis."

  2. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    PICKETT, W.W.

    2000-09-22

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

  3. Corn rootworm-active RNA DvSnf7: Repeat dose oral toxicology assessment in support of human and mammalian safety.

    PubMed

    Petrick, Jay S; Frierdich, Gregory E; Carleton, Stephanie M; Kessenich, Colton R; Silvanovich, Andre; Zhang, Yuanji; Koch, Michael S

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops have been developed and commercialized that utilize double stranded RNAs (dsRNA) to suppress a target gene(s), producing virus resistance, nutritional and quality traits. MON 87411 is a GM maize variety that leverages dsRNAs to selectively control corn rootworm through production of a 240 base pair (bp) dsRNA fragment targeting for suppression the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Snf7 gene (DvSnf7). A bioinformatics assessment found that endogenous corn small RNAs matched ∼450 to 2300 unique RNA transcripts that likely code for proteins in rat, mouse, and human, demonstrating safe dsRNA consumption by mammals. Mice were administered DvSnf7 RNA (968 nucleotides, including the 240 bp DvSnf7 dsRNA) at 1, 10, or 100 mg/kg by oral gavage in a 28-day repeat dose toxicity study. No treatment-related effects were observed in body weights, food consumption, clinical observations, clinical chemistry, hematology, gross pathology, or histopathology endpoints. Therefore, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for DvSnf7 RNA was 100 mg/kg, the highest dose tested. These results demonstrate that dsRNA for insect control does not produce adverse health effects in mammals at oral doses millions to billions of times higher than anticipated human exposures and therefore poses negligible risk to mammals.

  4. Korea and the Yellow Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    NASA image acquired September 24, 2012 City lights at night are a fairly reliable indicator of where people live. But this isn’t always the case, and the Korean Peninsula shows why. As of July 2012, South Korea’s population was estimated at roughly 49 million people, and North Korea’s population was estimated at about half that number. But where South Korea is gleaming with city lights, North Korea has hardly any lights at all—just a faint glimmer around Pyongyang. On September 24, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite captured this nighttime view of the Korean Peninsula. This imagery is from the VIIRS “day-night band,” which detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe signals such as gas flares, auroras, wildfires, city lights, and reflected moonlight. The wide-area image shows the Korean Peninsula, parts of China and Japan, the Yellow Sea, and the Sea of Japan. The white inset box encloses an area showing ship lights in the Yellow Sea. Many of the ships form a line, as if assembling along a watery border. Following the 1953 armistice ending the Korean War, per-capita income in South Korea rose to about 17 times the per-capital income level of North Korea, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency. Worldwide, South Korea ranks 12th in electricity production, and 10th in electricity consumption, per 2011 estimates. North Korea ranks 71st in electricity production, and 73rd in electricity consumption, per 2009 estimates. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day-Night Band data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the Department of Defense. Caption by Michon Scott. Instrument: Suomi NPP - VIIRS Credit: NASA Earth Observatory Click here to view all of the Earth at Night 2012

  5. Functional Interplay of Two Paralogs Encoding SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Accessory Subunits During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Iris; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Cornes, Eric; Fontrodona, Laura; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Ayuso, Cristina; Askjaer, Peter; Cabello, Juan; Cerón, Julián

    2016-03-01

    SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes have been related to several cellular processes such as transcription, regulation of chromosomal stability, and DNA repair. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-3 (also known as swsn-2.1) and its paralog swsn-2.2 encode accessory subunits of SWI/SNF complexes. Using RNA interference (RNAi) assays and diverse alleles we investigated whether ham-3 and swsn-2.2 have different functions during C. elegans development since they encode proteins that are probably mutually exclusive in a given SWI/SNF complex. We found that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 display similar functions in vulva specification, germline development, and intestinal cell proliferation, but have distinct roles in embryonic development. Accordingly, we detected functional redundancy in some developmental processes and demonstrated by RNA sequencing of RNAi-treated L4 animals that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 regulate the expression of a common subset of genes but also have specific targets. Cell lineage analyses in the embryo revealed hyper-proliferation of intestinal cells in ham-3 null mutants whereas swsn-2.2 is required for proper cell divisions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified SWSN-2.2-interacting proteins needed for early cell divisions, such as SAO-1 and ATX-2, and also nuclear envelope proteins such as MEL-28. swsn-2.2 mutants phenocopy mel-28 loss-of-function, and we observed that SWSN-2.2 and MEL-28 colocalize in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SWSN-2.2 is required for correct chromosome segregation and nuclear reassembly after mitosis including recruitment of MEL-28 to the nuclear periphery.

  6. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B.; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C.; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions. PMID:27267444

  7. MITF interacts with the SWI/SNF subunit, BRG1, to promote GATA4 expression in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gaurav; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Wu, Jian; Walsh, Aaron; Liu, Lijun; Williams, Kandace; Joe, Bina; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2015-11-01

    The transcriptional regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the interplay of transcription factors and chromatin remodeling enzymes. The Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and is required for cardiac hypertrophy. However, the transcriptional mechanisms by which MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy have not been elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy by activating transcription of pro-hypertrophy genes through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. In an in vivo model of cardiac hypertrophy, expression of MITF and the BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex increased coordinately in response to pressure overload. Expression of MITF and BRG1 also increased in vitro when cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II or a β-adrenergic agonist. Both MITF and BRG1 were required to increase cardiomyocyte size and activate expression of hypertrophy markers in response to β-adrenergic stimulation. We detected physical interactions between MITF and BRG1 in cardiomyocytes and found that they cooperate to regulate expression of a pro-hypertrophic transcription factor, GATA4. Our data show that MITF binds to the E box element in the GATA4 promoter and facilitates recruitment of BRG1. This is associated with enhanced expression of the GATA4 gene as evidenced by increased Histone3 lysine4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) on the GATA4 promoter. Thus, in hypertrophic cardiomyoctes, MITF is a key transcriptional activator of a pro-hypertrophic gene, GATA4, and this regulation is dependent upon the BRG1 component of the SWI/SNF complex.

  8. A Chemogenomic Screen Reveals Novel Snf1p/AMPK Independent Regulators of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Bozaquel-Morais, Bruno L.; Madeira, Juliana B.; Venâncio, Thiago M.; Pacheco-Rosa, Thiago; Masuda, Claudio A.; Montero-Lomeli, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1p) is a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis and is essential for cell viability. To discover new regulators of its activity, we screened a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to soraphen A, a potent Acc1p inhibitor. The hits identified in the screen (118 hits) were filtered using a chemical-phenotype map to exclude those associated with pleiotropic drug resistance. This enabled the identification of 82 ORFs that are genetic interactors of Acc1p. The main functional clusters represented by these hits were “transcriptional regulation”, “protein post-translational modifications” and “lipid metabolism”. Further investigation of the “transcriptional regulation” cluster revealed that soraphen A sensitivity is poorly correlated with ACC1 transcript levels. We also studied the three top unknown ORFs that affected soraphen A sensitivity: SOR1 (YDL129W), SOR2 (YIL092W) and SOR3 (YJR039W). Since the C18/C16 ratio of lipid acyl lengths reflects Acc1p activity levels, we evaluated this ratio in the three mutants. Deletion of SOR2 and SOR3 led to reduced acyl lengths, suggesting that Acc1p is indeed down-regulated in these strains. Also, these mutants showed no differences in Snf1p/AMPK activation status and deletion of SNF1 in these backgrounds did not revert soraphen A sensitivity completely. Furthermore, plasmid maintenance was reduced in sor2Δ strain and this trait was shared with 18 other soraphen A sensitive hits. In summary, our screen uncovered novel Acc1p Snf1p/AMPK-independent regulators. PMID:28076367

  9. A Chemogenomic Screen Reveals Novel Snf1p/AMPK Independent Regulators of Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase.

    PubMed

    Bozaquel-Morais, Bruno L; Madeira, Juliana B; Venâncio, Thiago M; Pacheco-Rosa, Thiago; Masuda, Claudio A; Montero-Lomeli, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc1p) is a key enzyme in fatty acid biosynthesis and is essential for cell viability. To discover new regulators of its activity, we screened a Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion library for increased sensitivity to soraphen A, a potent Acc1p inhibitor. The hits identified in the screen (118 hits) were filtered using a chemical-phenotype map to exclude those associated with pleiotropic drug resistance. This enabled the identification of 82 ORFs that are genetic interactors of Acc1p. The main functional clusters represented by these hits were "transcriptional regulation", "protein post-translational modifications" and "lipid metabolism". Further investigation of the "transcriptional regulation" cluster revealed that soraphen A sensitivity is poorly correlated with ACC1 transcript levels. We also studied the three top unknown ORFs that affected soraphen A sensitivity: SOR1 (YDL129W), SOR2 (YIL092W) and SOR3 (YJR039W). Since the C18/C16 ratio of lipid acyl lengths reflects Acc1p activity levels, we evaluated this ratio in the three mutants. Deletion of SOR2 and SOR3 led to reduced acyl lengths, suggesting that Acc1p is indeed down-regulated in these strains. Also, these mutants showed no differences in Snf1p/AMPK activation status and deletion of SNF1 in these backgrounds did not revert soraphen A sensitivity completely. Furthermore, plasmid maintenance was reduced in sor2Δ strain and this trait was shared with 18 other soraphen A sensitive hits. In summary, our screen uncovered novel Acc1p Snf1p/AMPK-independent regulators.

  10. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation.

    PubMed

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z

    2016-07-02

    MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions.

  11. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex regulates myocardin-induced smooth muscle-specific gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiliang; Zhang, Min; Fang, Hong; El-Mounayri, Omar; Rodenberg, Jennifer M.; Imbalzano, Anthony N.; Herring, B. Paul

    2009-01-01

    Objective Transcription regulatory complexes comprising myocardin and serum response factor (SRF) are critical for the transcriptional regulation of many smooth muscle-specific genes. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate the activity of these complexes. In the current study, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes in regulating the myogenic activity of myocardin. Methods and Results We found that both Brg1 and Brm are required for maintaining expression of several smooth muscle-specific genes in primary cultures of aortic smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, the ability of myocardin to induce expression of smooth muscle-specific genes is abrogated in cells expressing dominant negative Brg1. In SW13 cells, that lack endogenous Brg1 and Brm1, myocardin is unable to induce expression of smooth muscle-specific genes. Whereas, reconstitution of wild type, or bromodomain mutant forms Brg1 or Brm1, into SW13 cells restored their responsiveness to myocardin. SWI/SNF complexes were found to be required for myocardin to increase SRF binding to the promoters of smooth muscle-specific genes. Brg1 and Brm directly bind to the N-terminus of myocardin, in vitro, through their ATPase domains and Brg1 forms a complex with SRF and myocardin in vivo in smooth muscle cells. Conclusion These data demonstrate that the ability of myocardin to induce smooth muscle-specific gene expression is dependent on its interaction with SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes. PMID:19342595

  12. Erosion protection comparison of stabilised SnF2 , mixed fluoride active and SMFP/arginine-containing dentifrices.

    PubMed

    Eversole, Sandra L; Saunders-Burkhardt, Kymberly; Faller, Robert V

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relative erosion protection potential of marketed dentifrices formulated with either stabilised stannous fluoride (SnF2 ), sodium fluoride (NaF) and/or sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP) using an established laboratory erosion cycling model. Sound enamel cores from extracted, human enamel were cleaned, ground and polished, soaked in pooled saliva (pellicle formation) and treated with a 1:3 slurry of dentifrice and saliva. Specimens were subjected to daily challenges with 1% citric acid, a potentially damaging acid found in common food and drinks. Marketed dentifrices compared were: (1) a stabilised stannous fluoride product formulated with 1,100 ppm F as SnF2 ; (2) a cavity protection product containing 1,100 ppm F as NaF; (3) a cavity protection product comprising a mixed active fluoride system with 1,000 ppm F as SMFP + 450 ppm F as NaF; and (4) a sensitivity product containing 1,450 ppm F as SMFP + 8% arginine bicarbonate. Specimens from Group 1 demonstrated an average loss of 5.5 (±1.2) μm of tooth surface enamel; Groups 2, 3 and 4 lost an average of 18.3 (±0.9) μm, 16.0 (±2.0) μm and 17.1 (±1.1) μm, respectively, of tooth surface enamel. Group 1 provided a statistically significant difference in protection compared with the other products. These results suggest that the marketed dentifrice formulated with stabilised SnF2 may provide enhanced protection of exposed tooth surfaces against dietary acid attack compared with the other products tested. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  13. Protective effects of SnF2 - Part II. Deposition and retention on pellicle-coated enamel.

    PubMed

    Khambe, Deepa; Eversole, Sandra L; Mills, Timothy; Faller, Robert V

    2014-03-01

    Deposition of an acid-resistant barrier onto enamel represents a potentially superior means for delivering protection against dietary, erosive acid challenges. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the ability of a stabilised stannous fluoride (SnF2 ) dentifrice to: (1) deposit a SnF2 barrier layer onto pellicle-coated enamel surfaces; (2) increase the intensity of the barrier layer over time; and (3) be retained on the enamel surface for hours after product use. Squares of human enamel were exposed to pooled saliva for 1 hour (pellicle formation) and separated into six sets. Set 1 was treated with the supernatant of a 1:3 slurry of the test dentifrice (Crest(®) Pro-Health(®) : water for 2 minutes), then rinsed. Set 2 was treated in the same manner and then placed into saliva (6 hours). Set 3 was cycled through seven repeated treatments. Set 4 was treated for seven cycles and then placed into saliva (6 hours). Set 5 was a water control, and set 6 was a water control that remained in saliva for 6 hours. Surface analysis of specimens was done using laser ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Deposition of a barrier layer was demonstrated, beginning with the initial treatment, with Sn (using isotopes (117) Sn + (120) Sn) measured on the enamel surface as the reference marker. Deposition of the barrier layer was greater after seven cycles, and the retention of this layer was highly significant (P = 0.05, anova: 6 hours). This study confirms that: (1) the stabilised SnF2 dentifrice deposits a barrier layer onto the enamel surface, beginning with the first use of the product; (2) this barrier is enhanced following multiple treatments; and (3) the barrier layer is retained on the enamel surface for hours after product use. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  14. Functional Interplay of Two Paralogs Encoding SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Accessory Subunits During Caenorhabditis elegans Development

    PubMed Central

    Ertl, Iris; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Cornes, Eric; Fontrodona, Laura; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Ayuso, Cristina; Askjaer, Peter; Cabello, Juan; Cerón, Julián

    2016-01-01

    SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes have been related to several cellular processes such as transcription, regulation of chromosomal stability, and DNA repair. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-3 (also known as swsn-2.1) and its paralog swsn-2.2 encode accessory subunits of SWI/SNF complexes. Using RNA interference (RNAi) assays and diverse alleles we investigated whether ham-3 and swsn-2.2 have different functions during C. elegans development since they encode proteins that are probably mutually exclusive in a given SWI/SNF complex. We found that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 display similar functions in vulva specification, germline development, and intestinal cell proliferation, but have distinct roles in embryonic development. Accordingly, we detected functional redundancy in some developmental processes and demonstrated by RNA sequencing of RNAi-treated L4 animals that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 regulate the expression of a common subset of genes but also have specific targets. Cell lineage analyses in the embryo revealed hyper-proliferation of intestinal cells in ham-3 null mutants whereas swsn-2.2 is required for proper cell divisions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified SWSN-2.2-interacting proteins needed for early cell divisions, such as SAO-1 and ATX-2, and also nuclear envelope proteins such as MEL-28. swsn-2.2 mutants phenocopy mel-28 loss-of-function, and we observed that SWSN-2.2 and MEL-28 colocalize in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SWSN-2.2 is required for correct chromosome segregation and nuclear reassembly after mitosis including recruitment of MEL-28 to the nuclear periphery. PMID:26739451

  15. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature.

  16. Optimised k0-instrumental neutron activation method using the TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1 reactor at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, M. Â. B. C.; Jaćimović, R.

    2006-08-01

    The Nuclear Technology Development Centre/Brazilian Commission for Nuclear Energy, CDTN/CNEN, is the only Brazilian Institution to apply the k0-standardisation method of instrumental neutron activation technique determining elements using its own nuclear reactor, TRIGA MARK I IPR-R1. After changes in the reactor core configuration, the reactor neutron flux distribution in typical irradiation channels had to be updated, as well as the parameters f and α, needed to apply the k0-method of neutron activation analysis. The neutron flux distribution in the rotary rack was evaluated through the specific count rate of 198Au and the parameters f and α, were determined in five selected channels applying the "Cd-ratio for multi-monitor" method, using a set of Al-(0.1%)Au and Zr (99.8%) monitors. Several reference materials were analysed, indicating the effectiveness of the improved method.

  17. Status of Progress Made Toward Safety Analysis and Technical Site Evaluations for DOE Managed HLW and SNF.

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David; Stein, Emily; Gross, Michael B; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Frederick, Jennifer M; Mariner, Paul

    2016-11-01

    The Spent Fuel and Waste Science and Technology (SFWST) Campaign of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on generic deep geologic disposal systems (i.e., repositories). This report describes specific activities in FY 2016 associated with the development of a Defense Waste Repository (DWR)a for the permanent disposal of a portion of the HLW and SNF derived from national defense and research and development (R&D) activities of the DOE.

  18. Fabrication and testing of a 4-node micro-pocket fission detector array for the Kansas State University TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenberger, Michael A.; Nichols, Daniel M.; Stevenson, Sarah R.; Swope, Tanner M.; Hilger, Caden W.; Unruh, Troy C.; McGregor, Douglas S.; Roberts, Jeremy A.

    2017-08-01

    Advancements in nuclear reactor core modeling and computational capability have encouraged further development of in-core neutron sensors. Micro-Pocket Fission Detectors (MPFDs) have been fabricated and tested previously, but successful testing of these prior detectors was limited to single-node operation with specialized designs. Described in this work is a modular, four-node MPFD array fabricated and tested at Kansas State University (KSU). The four sensor nodes were equally spaced to span the length of the fuel-region of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor core. The encapsulated array was filled with argon gas, serving as an ionization medium in the small cavities of the MPFDs. The unified design improved device ruggedness and simplified construction over previous designs. A 0.315-in. (8-mm) penetration in the upper grid plate of the KSU TRIGA Mk. II research nuclear reactor was used to deploy the array between fuel elements in the core. The MPFD array was coupled to an electronic support system which has been developed to support pulse-mode operation. Neutron-induced pulses were observed on all four sensor channels. Stable device operation was confirmed by testing under steady-state reactor conditions. Each of the four sensors in the array responded to changes in reactor power between 10 kWth and full power (750 kWth). Reactor power transients were observed in real-time including positive transients with periods of 5, 15, and 30 s. Finally, manual reactor power oscillations were observed in real-time.

  19. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-15

    Second- 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within...The White House, Roundtable Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea...2006 through the spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the

  20. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-10

    and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. Korea’s nuclear programs and...the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 30 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan navy intercepted and

  1. Lung Cancer Epidemiology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Oh, Chang-Mo; Kim, Byung-Woo; Woo, Hyeongtaek; Won, Young-Joo; Lee, Jin-Soo

    2017-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to examine the trends in the lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survival after a diagnosis in Korea. Lung cancer incidence data according to the histologic type and mortality data were obtained from the Korea Central Cancer Registry and the Statistics Korea, respectively. The age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were calculated, and the Joinpoint model and age-period-cohort analyses were used to describe the trends in the rates. The 5-year relative survival rates of lung cancer were also calculated. Although the number of new lung cancer cases increased between 1999 and 2012, the age-standardized incidence rate decreased by 0.9% per year in men, whereas the incidence in women increased by 1.7% per year over the same time. Until 2010, the most common histologic type in men was squamous cell carcinoma, then adenocarcinoma prevailed thereafter. Since 1999, the most frequent histological type in women was adenocarcinoma. The lung cancer mortality started to decrease in 2002, with a more apparent decline for the younger age groups in both men and women. Overall, the 5-year relative survival rates have improved significantly from 11.2% for men and 14.7% for women among patients diagnosed between 1993 and 1997 to 19.3% for men and 28.2% for women among patients diagnosed between 2008 and 2012, respectively. An improvement in survival rate was observed for all major histology groups. The epidemiology of lung cancer in Korea has changed over a short time span, with decreasing mortality and improving survival rates. Further study is warranted to determine the cause of these changes.

  2. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-12

    Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per...clarified that “ no funds are provided in this act for energy-related assistance for North Korea.” The House Appropriations Committee report on the other...and Diplomacy, by Larry A. Niksch, and CRS Report RL34256, North Korea’s Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues, by Mary Beth Nikitin. 22 See CRS Report

  3. Foreign Assistance to North Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-09

    Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No . 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response...North Korean denuclearization efforts. Later in the report , the Committee clarifies that “ no funds are provided in this act for energy-related...Nuclear Weapons: Technical Issues, by Mary Beth Nikitin. 19 See CRS Report RL30613, North Korea: Terrorism List Removal, by Larry A. Niksch. 20

  4. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    News , December 1, 2012. U.S.- South Korea Relations Congressional Research Service 7 • China’s rising influence in ...entered into force and will be eliminated completely in the fifth year of the agreement. South Korea also agreed to allow U.S.-based car manufacturers to...sell in South Korea up to 25,000 cars per year per manufacturer as long as they met U.S. safety and environmental standards. This

  5. Distinct roles for the RSC and Swi/Snf ATP-dependent chromatin remodelers in DNA double-strand break repair.

    PubMed

    Chai, Bob; Huang, Jian; Cairns, Bradley R; Laurent, Brehon C

    2005-07-15

    The failure of cells to repair damaged DNA can result in genomic instability and cancer. To efficiently repair chromosomal DNA lesions, the repair machinery must gain access to the damaged DNA in the context of chromatin. Here we report that both the RSC and Swi/Snf ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes play key roles in double-strand break (DSB) repair, specifically by homologous recombination (HR). RSC and Swi/Snf are each recruited to an in vivo DSB site but with distinct kinetics. We show that Swi/Snf is required earlier, at or preceding the strand invasion step of HR, while RSC is required following synapsis for completion of the recombinational repair event.

  6. Serious fungal infections in Korea.

    PubMed

    Huh, K; Ha, Y E; Denning, D W; Peck, K R

    2017-02-04

    Information on the incidence and prevalence of fungal infections is of critical value in public health policy. However, nationwide epidemiological data on fungal infections are scarce, due to a lack of surveillance and funding. The objective of this study was to estimate the disease burden of fungal infections in the Republic of Korea. An actuarial approach using a deterministic model was used for the estimation. Data on the number of populations at risk and the frequencies of fungal infections in those populations were obtained from national statistics reports and epidemiology papers. Approximately 1 million people were estimated to be affected by fungal infections every year. The burdens of candidemia (4.12 per 100,000), cryptococcal meningitis (0.09 per 100,000), and Pneumocystis pneumonia (0.51 per 100,000) in South Korea were estimated to be comparable to those in other countries. The prevalence of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (22.4 per 100,000) was markedly high, probably due to the high burden of tuberculosis in Korea. The low burdens of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (56.9 per 100,000) and severe asthma with fungal sensitization (75.1 per 100,000) warrant further study. Oral candidiasis (539 per 100,000) was estimated to affect a much larger population than noted in previous studies. Our work provides valuable insight on the epidemiology of fungal infections; however, additional studies are needed.

  7. Occupational Neurologic Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Sook; Yun, Yong-Hun; Oh, Myoung-Soon

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a schematic review of the clinical manifestations of occupational neurologic disorders in Korea and discusses the toxicologic implications of these conditions. Vascular encephalopathy, parkinsonism, chronic toxic encephalopathy, cerebellar dysfunction, peripheral neuropathy, and neurodegenerative diseases are common presentations of occupational neurotoxic syndromes in Korea. Few neurotoxins cause patients to present with pathognomic neurologic syndrome. Detailed neurologic examinations and categorization of the clinical manifestations of neurologic disorders will improve the clinical management of occupational neurologic diseases. Physicians must be aware of the typical signs and symptoms of possible exposure to neurotoxins, and they should also pay attention to less-typical, rather-vague symptoms and signs in workers because the toxicologic characteristics of occupational neurologic diseases in Korea have changed from typical patterns to less-typical or equivocal patterns. This shift is likely to be due to several years of low-dose exposure, perhaps combined with the effects of aging, and new types of possibly toxicant-related neurodegenerative diseases. Close collaboration between neurologists and occupational physicians is needed to determine whether neurologic disorders are work-related. PMID:20607045

  8. PP1 phosphatase-binding motif in Reg1 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for interaction with both the PP1 phosphatase Glc7 and the Snf1 protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Tabba, Shadi; Mangat, Simmanjeet; McCartney, Rhonda; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Snf1 kinase, the ortholog of the mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase, is activated by an increase in the phosphorylation of the conserved threonine residue in its activation loop. The phosphorylation status of this key site is determined by changes in the rate of dephosphorylation catalyzed by the yeast PP1 phosphatase Glc7 in a complex with the Reg1 protein. Reg1 and many PP1 phosphatase regulatory subunits utilize some variation of the conserved RVxF motif for interaction with PP1. In the Snf1 pathway, the exact role of the Reg1 protein is uncertain since it binds to both the Glc7 phosphatase and to Snf1, the Glc7 substrate. In this study we sought to clarify the role of Reg1 by separating the Snf1- and Glc7-binding functions. We generated a series of Reg1 proteins, some with deletions of conserved domains and one with two amino acid changes in the RVxF motif. The ability of Reg1 to bind Snf1 and Glc7 required the same domains of Reg1. Further, the RVxF motif that is essential for Reg1 binding to Glc7 is also required for binding to Snf1. Our data suggest that the regulation of Snf1 dephosphorylation is imparted through a dynamic competition between the Glc7 phosphatase and the Snf1 kinase for binding to the PP1 regulatory subunit Reg1. PMID:20170726

  9. Histone H3 Ser10 Phosphorylation-Independent Function of Snf1 and Reg1 Proteins Rescues a gcn5− Mutant in HIS3 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Xu, Xinjing; Singh-Rodriguez, Soumya; Zhao, Yan; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2005-01-01

    Gcn5 protein is a prototypical histone acetyltransferase that controls transcription of multiple yeast genes. To identify molecular functions that act downstream of or in parallel with Gcn5 protein, we screened for suppressors that rescue the transcriptional defects of HIS3 caused by a catalytically inactive mutant Gcn5, the E173H mutant. One bypass of Gcn5 requirement gene (BGR) suppressor was mapped to the REG1 locus that encodes a semidominant mutant truncated after amino acid 740. Reg1(1-740) protein does not rescue the complete knockout of GCN5, nor does it suppress other gcn5− defects, including the inability to utilize nonglucose carbon sources. Reg1(1-740) enhances HIS3 transcription while HIS3 promoter remains hypoacetylated, indicating that a noncatalytic function of Gcn5 is targeted by this suppressor protein. Reg1 protein is a major regulator of Snf1 kinase that phosphorylates Ser10 of histone H3. However, whereas Snf1 protein is important for HIS3 expression, replacing Ser10 of H3 with alanine or glutamate neither attenuates nor augments the BGR phenotypes. Overproduction of Snf1 protein also preferentially rescues the E173H allele. Biochemically, both Snf1 and Reg1(1-740) proteins copurify with Gcn5 protein. Snf1 can phosphorylate recombinant Gcn5 in vitro. Together, these data suggest that Reg1 and Snf1 proteins function in an H3 phosphorylation-independent pathway that also involves a noncatalytic role played by Gcn5 protein. PMID:16287868

  10. SNF3 as High Affinity Glucose Sensor and Its Function in Supporting the Viability of Candida glabrata under Glucose-Limited Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tzu Shan; Chew, Shu Yih; Rangasamy, Premmala; Mohd Desa, Mohd N.; Sandai, Doblin; Chong, Pei Pei; Than, Leslie Thian Lung

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has efficacious nutrient sensing and responsiveness ability. It can be seen through its ability to thrive in diverse range of nutrient limited-human anatomical sites. Therefore, nutrient sensing particularly glucose sensing is thought to be crucial in contributing to the development and fitness of the pathogen. This study aimed to elucidate the role of SNF3 (Sucrose Non Fermenting 3) as a glucose sensor and its possible role in contributing to the fitness and survivability of C. glabrata in glucose-limited environment. The SNF3 knockout strain was constructed and subjected to different glucose concentrations to evaluate its growth, biofilm formation, amphotericin B susceptibility, ex vivo survivability and effects on the transcriptional profiling of the sugar receptor repressor (SRR) pathway-related genes. The CgSNF3Δ strain showed a retarded growth in low glucose environments (0.01 and 0.1%) in both fermentation and respiration-preferred conditions but grew well in high glucose concentration environments (1 and 2%). It was also found to be more susceptible to amphotericin B in low glucose environment (0.1%) and macrophage engulfment but showed no difference in the biofilm formation capability. The deletion of SNF3 also resulted in the down-regulation of about half of hexose transporters genes (four out of nine). Overall, the deletion of SNF3 causes significant reduction in the ability of C. glabrata to sense limited surrounding glucose and consequently disrupts its competency to transport and perform the uptake of this critical nutrient. This study highlighted the role of SNF3 as a high affinity glucose sensor and its role in aiding the survivability of C. glabrata particularly in glucose limited environment. PMID:26648919

  11. The HIR corepressor complex binds to nucleosomes generating a distinct protein/DNA complex resistant to remodeling by SWI/SNF

    PubMed Central

    Prochasson, Philippe; Florens, Laurence; Swanson, Selene K.; Washburn, Michael P.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2005-01-01

    The histone regulatory (HIR) and histone promoter control (HPC) repressor proteins regulate three of the four histone gene loci during the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell cycle. Here, we demonstrate that Hir1, Hir2, Hir3, and Hpc2 proteins form a stable HIR repressor complex. The HIR complex promotes histone deposition onto DNA in vitro and constitutes a novel nucleosome assembly complex. The HIR complex stably binds to DNA and nucleosomes. Furthermore, HIR complex binding to nucleosomes forms a distinct protein/DNA complex resistant to remodeling by SWI/SNF. Thus, the HIR complex is a novel nucleosome assembly complex which functions with SWI/SNF to regulate transcription. PMID:16264190

  12. Effect of NaF, SnF(2), and TiF(4) Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel and Dentin Erosion-Abrasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Comar, Lívia Picchi; Gomes, Marina Franciscon; Ito, Naiana; Salomão, Priscila Aranda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercília; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing TiF(4), NaF, and SnF(2) on tooth erosion-abrasion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were distributed into 10 groups (n = 12): experimental placebo toothpaste (no F); NaF (1450 ppm F); TiF(4) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); TiF(4) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); commercial toothpaste Pro-Health (SnF(2)-1100 ppm F + NaF-350 ppm F, Oral B); commercial toothpaste Crest (NaF-1.500 ppm F, Procter & Gamble); abrasion without toothpaste and only erosion. The erosion was performed 4 × 90 s/day (Sprite Zero). The toothpastes' slurries were applied and the specimens abraded using an electric toothbrush 2 × 15 s/day. Between the erosive and abrasive challenges, the specimens remained in artificial saliva. After 7 days, the tooth wear was evaluated using contact profilometry (μm). The experimental toothpastes with NaF, TiF(4), SnF(2), and Pro-Health showed a significant reduction in enamel wear (between 42% and 54%). Pro-Health also significantly reduced the dentin wear. The toothpastes with SnF(2)/NaF and TiF(4)/NaF showed the best results in the reduction of enamel wear (62-70%) as well as TiF(4), SnF(2), SnF(2)/NaF, and TiF(4)/NaF for dentin wear (64-79%) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the experimental toothpastes containing both conventional and metal fluoride seem to be promising in reducing tooth wear.

  13. SWI/SNF Subunits SMARCA4, SMARCD2 and DPF2 Collaborate in MLL-Rearranged Leukaemia Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, V Adam; Sroczynska, Patrycja; Sankar, Aditya; Miyagi, Satoru; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Helin, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in chromatin structure caused by deregulated epigenetic mechanisms collaborate with underlying genetic lesions to promote cancer. SMARCA4/BRG1, a core component of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complex, has been implicated by its mutational spectrum as exerting a tumour-suppressor function in many solid tumours; recently however, it has been reported to sustain leukaemogenic transformation in MLL-rearranged leukaemia in mice. Here we further explore the role of SMARCA4 and the two SWI/SNF subunits SMARCD2/BAF60B and DPF2/BAF45D in leukaemia. We observed the selective requirement for these proteins for leukaemic cell expansion and self-renewal in-vitro as well as in leukaemia. Gene expression profiling in human cells of each of these three factors suggests that they have overlapping functions in leukaemia. The gene expression changes induced by loss of the three proteins demonstrate that they are required for the expression of haematopoietic stem cell associated genes but in contrast to previous results obtained in mouse cells, the three proteins are not required for the expression of c-MYC regulated genes.

  14. Snf1-independent, glucose-resistant transcription of Adr1-dependent genes in a mediator mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Young, Elton T; Yen, Kuangyu; Dombek, Kenneth M; Law, G Lynn; Chang, Ella; Arms, Erin

    2009-10-01

    Glucose represses transcription of a network of co-regulated genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, ensuring that it is utilized before poorer carbon sources are metabolized. Adr1 is a glucose-regulated transcription factor whose promoter binding and activity require Snf1, the yeast homologue of the AMP-activated protein kinase in higher eukaryotes. In this study we found that a temperature-sensitive allele of MED14, a Mediator middle subunit that tethers the tail to the body, allowed a low level of Adr1-independent ADH2 expression that can be enhanced by Adr1 in a dose-dependent manner. A low level of TATA-independent ADH2 expression was observed in the med14-truncated strain and transcription of ADH2 and other Adr1-dependent genes occurred in the absence of Snf1 and chromatin remodeling coactivators. Loss of ADH2 promoter nucleosomes had occurred in the med14 strain in repressing conditions and did not require ADR1. A global analysis of transcription revealed that loss of Med14 function was associated with both up- and down- regulation of several groups of co-regulated genes, with ADR1-dependent genes being the most highly represented in the upregulated class. Expression of most genes was not significantly affected by the loss of Med14 function.

  15. An innovative way of thinking nuclear waste management - Neutron physics of a reactor directly operating on SNF.

    PubMed

    Merk, Bruno; Litskevich, Dzianis; Bankhead, Mark; Taylor, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    A solution for the nuclear waste problem is the key challenge for an extensive use of nuclear reactors as a major carbon free, sustainable, and applied highly reliable energy source. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) promises a solution for improved waste management. Current strategies rely on systems designed in the 60's for the massive production of plutonium. We propose an innovative strategic development plan based on invention and innovation described with the concept of developments in s-curves identifying the current boundary conditions, and the evolvable objectives. This leads to the ultimate, universal vision for energy production characterized by minimal use of resources and production of waste, while being economically affordable and safe, secure and reliable in operation. This vision is transformed into a mission for a disruptive development of the future nuclear energy system operated by burning of existing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) without prior reprocessing. This highly innovative approach fulfils the sustainability goals and creates new options for P&T. A proof on the feasibility from neutronic point of view is given demonstrating sufficient breeding of fissile material from the inserted SNF. The system does neither require new resources nor produce additional waste, thus it provides a highly sustainable option for a future nuclear system fulfilling the requests of P&T as side effect. In addition, this nuclear system provides enhanced resistance against misuse of Pu and a significantly reduced fuel cycle. However, the new system requires a demand driven rethinking of the separation process to be efficient.

  16. Cell wall synthesis and central carbohydrate metabolism are interconnected by the SNF1/Mig1 pathway in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Rippert, Dorthe; Backhaus, Katja; Rodicio, Rosaura; Heinisch, Jürgen J

    2017-01-01

    The trimeric AMP-activated kinase complex (AMPK) is conserved from yeast to humans and is best known for its role in balancing energy metabolism. Additional functions, including the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis, have been proposed for the SNF1 complex, the baker's yeast homolog of AMPK. We here demonstrate that this function is conserved in the Crabtree-negative milk yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Deletion mutants in the genes encoding the subunits of the trimeric complex (Klsnf1, Klgal83, Klsnf4) displayed increased sensitivities towards cell wall stress agents and a mutant lacking the kinase subunit had a thinner cell wall in transmission electron micrographs as compared to wild type. Epistasis analyses demonstrated that the KlSNF1 complex acts in parallel to cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling and stress sensitivities of Klsnf1 deletions can be suppressed by additional deletions in glycolytic genes (KlPFK1, KlPFK2, KlPGI1) or by a Klmig1 mutant. Western blot analyses of an HA-tagged KlMig1p revealed its phosphorylation on ethanol medium similar to its S. cerevisiae ortholog, but a substantial amount of protein remained phosphorylated even with high glucose concentrations. Application of cell wall stress shifted this equilibrium towards the non-phosphorylated fraction of KlMig1p. We conclude that KlMig1p may exert a negative regulatory function on cell wall biosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. MAX inactivation in small cell lung cancer disrupts MYC-SWI/SNF programs and is synthetic lethal with BRG1.

    PubMed

    Romero, Octavio A; Torres-Diz, Manuel; Pros, Eva; Savola, Suvi; Gomez, Antonio; Moran, Sebastian; Saez, Carmen; Iwakawa, Reika; Villanueva, Alberto; Montuenga, Luis M; Kohno, Takashi; Yokota, Jun; Sanchez-Cespedes, Montse

    2014-03-01

    Our knowledge of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) genetics is still very limited, amplification of L-MYC, N-MYC, and C-MYC being some of the well-established gene alterations. Here, we report our discovery of tumor-specific inactivation of the MYC-associated factor X gene, MAX, in SCLC. MAX inactivation is mutually exclusive with alterations of MYC and BRG1, the latter coding for an ATPase of the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex. We demonstrate that BRG1 regulates the expression of MAX through direct recruitment to the MAX promoter, and that depletion of BRG1 strongly hinders cell growth, specifically in MAX-deficient cells, heralding a synthetic lethal interaction. Furthermore, MAX requires BRG1 to activate neuroendocrine transcriptional programs and to upregulate MYC targets, such as glycolysis-related genes. Finally, inactivation of the MAX dimerization protein, MGA, was also observed in both non-small cell lung cancer and SCLC. Our results provide evidence that an aberrant SWI/SNF-MYC network is essential for lung cancer development.

  18. SWI/SNF remodeling and p300-dependent transcription of histone variant H2ABbd nucleosomal arrays

    PubMed Central

    Angelov, Dimitar; Verdel, André; An, Woojin; Bondarenko, Vladimir; Hans, Fabienne; Doyen, Cécile-Marie; Studitsky, Vassily M; Hamiche, Ali; Roeder, Robert G; Bouvet, Philippe; Dimitrov, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    A histone variant H2ABbd was recently identified, but its function is totally unknown. Here we have studied the structural and functional properties of nucleosome and nucleosomal arrays reconstituted with this histone variant. We show that H2ABbd can replace the conventional H2A in the nucleosome, but this replacement results in alterations of the nucleosomal structure. The remodeling complexes SWI/SNF and ACF are unable to mobilize the variant H2ABbd nucleosome. However, SWI/SNF was able to increase restriction enzyme access to the variant nucleosome and assist the transfer of variant H2ABbd–H2B dimer to a tetrameric histone H3–H4 particle. In addition, the p300- and Gal4-VP16-activated transcription appeared to be more efficient for H2ABbd nucleosomal arrays than for conventional H2A arrays. The intriguing mechanisms by which H2ABbd affects both nucleosome remodeling and transcription are discussed. PMID:15372075

  19. Improving Production of Malonyl Coenzyme A-Derived Metabolites by Abolishing Snf1-Dependent Regulation of Acc1

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Shuobo; Chen, Yun; Siewers, Verena

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) carboxylase (ACCase) plays a central role in carbon metabolism and has been the site of action for the development of therapeutics or herbicides, as its product, malonyl-CoA, is a precursor for production of fatty acids and other compounds. Control of Acc1 activity in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs mainly at two levels, i.e., regulation of transcription and repression by Snf1 protein kinase at the protein level. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for improving the activity of ACCase in S. cerevisiae by abolishing posttranslational regulation of Acc1 via site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that introduction of two site mutations in Acc1, Ser659 and Ser1157, resulted in an enhanced activity of Acc1 and increased total fatty acid content. As Snf1 regulation of Acc1 is particularly active under glucose-limited conditions, we evaluated the effect of the two site mutations in chemostat cultures. Finally, we showed that our modifications of Acc1 could enhance the supply of malonyl-CoA and therefore successfully increase the production of two industrially important products derived from malonyl-CoA, fatty acid ethyl esters and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. PMID:24803522

  20. mSWI/SNF (BAF) Complexes Are Indispensable for the Neurogenesis and Development of Embryonic Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Linh; Rabe, Tamara; Sokpor, Godwin; Seong, Rho H.; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Mansouri, Ahmed; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F.; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a key developmental event through which neurons are generated from neural stem/progenitor cells. Chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes have been reported to play essential roles in the neurogenesis of the central nervous system. However, whether BAF complexes are required for neuron generation in the olfactory system is unknown. Here, we identified onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, which are specifically present in olfactory neural stem cells (oNSCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), respectively. We demonstrated that BAF155 subunit is highly expressed in both oNSCs and ORNs, whereas high expression of BAF170 subunit is observed only in ORNs. We report that conditional deletion of BAF155, a core subunit in both onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, causes impaired proliferation of oNSCs as well as defective maturation and axonogenesis of ORNs in the developing olfactory epithelium (OE), while the high expression of BAF170 is important for maturation of ORNs. Interestingly, in the absence of BAF complexes in BAF155/BAF170 double-conditional knockout mice (dcKO), OE is not specified. Mechanistically, BAF complex is required for normal activation of Pax6-dependent transcriptional activity in stem cells/progenitors of the OE. Our findings unveil a novel mechanism mediated by the mSWI/SNF complex in OE neurogenesis and development. PMID:27611684

  1. Validation of absolute axial neutron flux distribution calculations with MCNP with 197Au(n,γ)198Au reaction rate distribution measurements at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Vladimir; Štancar, Žiga; Snoj, Luka; Trkov, Andrej

    2014-02-01

    The calculation of axial neutron flux distributions with the MCNP code at the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor has been validated with experimental measurements of the (197)Au(n,γ)(198)Au reaction rate. The calculated absolute reaction rate values, scaled according to the reactor power and corrected for the flux redistribution effect, are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of different cross-section libraries on the calculations has been investigated and shown to be minor.

  2. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  3. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  4. How much plutonium does North Korea have?

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-09-01

    U.S. intelligence discovered in the 1980s that North Korea was building a small nuclear reactor. The reactor was described as a gas-cooled, graphite-moderated model similar to those Britian and France used to produce electric power as well as plutonium for nuclear weapons. When Western nations expressed concern about the reactor Russia pressed North Korea to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which it did on December 12, 1985. However, North Korea stalled on signing the required safeguards agreement that allows the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to inspect nuclear facilities until January 1992. Inspections by the IAEA revealed discrepancies with the amounts of plutonium separated as declared by the North Koreans. The IAEA also received reports that two North Korean waste sites were hidden. By February 1993 the IAEA and the North Koreans has reached an impasse: North Koreas initial declarations of plutonium inventory could not be confirmed and North Korea refused to cooperate. At the least, North Korea admits to having separated 100 grams of plutonium. At the most, worst case estimate, they could have a total of 6 - 13 kilograms of separated plutonium. A first nuclear weapon can require up to 10 kilograms of weapon-grade plutonium. Any settlement needs to include a way to insure that the IAEA can verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium that may have been separated in the past. 2 refs.

  5. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  6. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  7. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  8. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  9. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  10. Planning for a Peaceful Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    military service schools , • highlight the range of damage that U.S. and South Korean forces could inflict in a variety of counterstrikes against a North...majority of the North’s so-called 29 “technocrats” have not been educated at places like MIT, the Ivy League, Stanford, or the London School of...recollections that somehow on the flight home from World War II, Korea got caught in a badminton game between the United States and the USSR, and ended up

  11. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm] at p. 147. 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet...Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan

  12. No impact of DvSnf7 RNA on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) adults and larvae in dietary feeding tests

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Uffman, Joshua P.; Meng, Chen; Song, Zihong; Richards, Kathy B.; Beevers, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is the most important managed pollinator species worldwide and plays a critical role in the pollination of a diverse range of economically important crops. This species is important to agriculture and historically has been used as a surrogate species for pollinators to evaluate the potential adverse effects for conventional, biological, and microbial pesticides, as well as for genetically engineered plants that produce pesticidal products. As part of the ecological risk assessment of MON 87411 maize, which expresses a double‐stranded RNA targeting the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), dietary feeding studies with honey bee larvae and adults were conducted. Based on the mode of action of the DvSnf7 RNA in western corn rootworm, the present studies were designed to be of sufficient duration to evaluate the potential for adverse effects on larval survival and development through emergence and adult survival to a significant portion of the adult stage. Testing was conducted at concentrations of DvSnf7 RNA that greatly exceeded environmentally relevant exposure levels based on expression levels in maize pollen. No adverse effects were observed in either larval or adult honey bees at these high exposure levels, providing a large margin of safety between environmental exposure levels and no‐observed–adverse‐effect levels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:287–294. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26011006

  13. No impact of DvSnf7 RNA on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) adults and larvae in dietary feeding tests.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianguo; Levine, Steven L; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Uffman, Joshua P; Meng, Chen; Song, Zihong; Richards, Kathy B; Beevers, Michael H

    2016-02-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is the most important managed pollinator species worldwide and plays a critical role in the pollination of a diverse range of economically important crops. This species is important to agriculture and historically has been used as a surrogate species for pollinators to evaluate the potential adverse effects for conventional, biological, and microbial pesticides, as well as for genetically engineered plants that produce pesticidal products. As part of the ecological risk assessment of MON 87411 maize, which expresses a double-stranded RNA targeting the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), dietary feeding studies with honey bee larvae and adults were conducted. Based on the mode of action of the DvSnf7 RNA in western corn rootworm, the present studies were designed to be of sufficient duration to evaluate the potential for adverse effects on larval survival and development through emergence and adult survival to a significant portion of the adult stage. Testing was conducted at concentrations of DvSnf7 RNA that greatly exceeded environmentally relevant exposure levels based on expression levels in maize pollen. No adverse effects were observed in either larval or adult honey bees at these high exposure levels, providing a large margin of safety between environmental exposure levels and no-observed-adverse-effect levels.

  14. The vacuolar-sorting protein Snf7 is required for export of virulence determinants in members of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex.

    PubMed Central

    da C. Godinho, Rodrigo M.; Crestani, Juliana; Kmetzsch, Lívia; de S. Araujo, Glauber; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C.; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pathogenesis requires a number of extracellularly released virulence factors. Recent studies demonstrating that most fungal extracellular molecules lack secretory tags suggest that unconventional secretion mechanisms and fungal virulence are strictly connected. Proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) have been recently associated with polysaccharide export in the yeast-like human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Snf7 is a key ESCRT operator required for unconventional secretion in Eukaryotes. In this study we generated snf7Δ mutant strains of C. neoformans and its sibling species C. gattii. Lack of Snf7 resulted in important alterations in polysaccharide secretion, capsular formation and pigmentation. This phenotype culminated with loss of virulence in an intranasal model of murine infection in both species. Our data support the notion that Snf7 expression regulates virulence in C. neoformans and C. gattii by ablating polysaccharide and melanin traffic. These results are in agreement with the observation that unconventional secretion is essential for cryptococcal pathogenesis and strongly suggest the occurrence of still obscure mechanisms of exportation of non-protein molecules in Eukaryotes. PMID:25178636

  15. National spent fuel program preliminary report RCRA characteristics of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel DOE-SNF-REP-002. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report presents information on the preliminary process knowledge to be used in characterizing all Department of Energy (DOE)-owned Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) types that potentially exhibit a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic. This report also includes the process knowledge, analyses, and rationale used to preliminarily exclude certain SNF types from RCRA regulation under 40 CFR {section}261.4(a)(4), ``Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste,`` as special nuclear and byproduct material. The evaluations and analyses detailed herein have been undertaken as a proactive approach. In the event that DOE-owned SNF is determined to be a RCRA solid waste, this report provides general direction for each site regarding further characterization efforts. The intent of this report is also to define the path forward to be taken for further evaluation of specific SNF types and a recommended position to be negotiated and established with regional and state regulators throughout the DOE Complex regarding the RCRA-related policy issues.

  16. Pho85p, a cyclin-dependent protein kinase, and the Snf1p protein kinase act antagonistically to control glycogen accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, D; Farkas, I; Roach, P J

    1996-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient levels control multiple cellular processes. Cells lacking the SNF1 gene cannot express glucose-repressible genes and do not accumulate the storage polysaccharide glycogen. The impaired glycogen synthesis is due to maintenance of glycogen synthase in a hyperphosphorylated, inactive state. In a screen for second site suppressors of the glycogen storage defect of snf1 cells, we identified a mutant gene that restored glycogen accumulation and which was allelic with PHO85, which encodes a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family. In cells with disrupted PHO85 genes, we observed hyperaccumulation of glycogen, activation of glycogen synthase, and impaired glycogen synthase kinase activity. In snf1 cells, glycogen synthase kinase activity was elevated. Partial purification of glycogen synthase kinase activity from yeast extracts resulted in the separation of two fractions by phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, both of which phosphorylated and inactivated glycogen synthase. The activity of one of these, GPK2, was inhibited by olomoucine, which potently inhibits cyclin-dependent protein kinases, and contained an approximately 36-kDa species that reacted with antibodies to Pho85p. Analysis of Ser-to-Ala mutations at the three potential Gsy2p phosphorylation sites in pho85 cells implicated Ser-654 and/or Thr-667 in PHO85 control of glycogen synthase. We propose that Pho85p is a physiological glycogen synthase kinase, possibly acting downstream of Snf1p. PMID:8754836

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask and MCO Helium Purge System Design Review Completion Report Project A.5 and A.6

    SciTech Connect

    ARD, K.E.

    2000-04-19

    This report documents the results of the design verification performed on the Cask and Multiple Canister Over-pack (MCO) Helium Purge System. The helium purge system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask Loadout System (CLS) at 100K area. The design verification employed the ''Independent Review Method'' in accordance with Administrative Procedure (AP) EN-6-027-01.

  18. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .../MR to assist in the administration of prescribed therapies included in the plan of care only to the... hospice IDG communicates with the SNF/NF or ICF/MR medical director, the patient's attending physician, and other physicians participating in the provision of care to the patient as needed to coordinate the...

  19. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR... notifies the hospice if— (i) A significant change in a patient's physical, mental, social, or emotional.../MR to assist in the administration of prescribed therapies included in the plan of care only to the...

  20. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On June 30, 2007, the United States and the Republic of Korea...

  1. Rhabdoid and Undifferentiated Phenotype in Renal Cell Carcinoma: Analysis of 32 Cases Indicating a Distinctive Common Pathway of Dedifferentiation Frequently Associated With SWI/SNF Complex Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Agaimy, Abbas; Cheng, Liang; Egevad, Lars; Feyerabend, Bernd; Hes, Ondřej; Keck, Bastian; Pizzolitto, Stefano; Sioletic, Stefano; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt

    2017-02-01

    Undifferentiated (anaplastic) and rhabdoid cell features are increasingly recognized as adverse prognostic findings in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but their molecular pathogenesis has not been studied sufficiently. Recent studies identified alterations in the Switch Sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex as molecular mechanisms underlying dedifferentiation and rhabdoid features in carcinomas of different organs. We herein have analyzed 32 undifferentiated RCCs having in common an undifferentiated (anaplastic) phenotype, prominent rhabdoid features, or both, irrespective of the presence or absence of conventional RCC component. Cases were stained with 6 SWI/SNF pathway members (SMARCB1, SMARCA2, SMARCA4, ARID1A, SMARCC1, and SMARCC2) in addition to conventional RCC markers. Patients were 20 males and 12 females aged 32 to 85 years (mean, 59). A total of 22/27 patients with known stage presented with ≥pT3. A differentiated component varying from microscopic to major component was detected in 20/32 cases (16 clear cell and 2 cases each chromophobe and papillary RCC). The undifferentiated component varied from rhabdoid dyscohesive cells to large epithelioid to small monotonous anaplastic cells. Variable loss of at least 1 SWI/SNF complex subunit was noted in the undifferentiated/rhabdoid component of 21/32 cases (65%) compared with intact or reduced expression in the differentiated component. A total of 15/17 patients (88%) with follow-up died of metastatic disease (mostly within 1 y). Only 2 patients were disease free at last follow-up (1 and 6 y). No difference in survival, age distribution, or sex was observed between the SWI/SNF-deficient and the SWI/SNF-intact group. This is the first study exploring the role of SWI/SNF deficiency as a potential mechanism underlying undifferentiated and rhabdoid phenotype in RCC. Our results highlight the association between the aggressive rhabdoid phenotype and the SWI/SNF complex deficiency, consistent

  2. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  3. Occupational hearing loss in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo Sang

    2010-12-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed.

  4. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  5. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  6. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  7. Resurgence of Mumps in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Routine vaccination against mumps has markedly reduced its incidence. However, the incidence of mumps continuously has increased since 2007. In 2013, a large mumps epidemic occurred in Korea, and this epidemic is still an ongoing problem. This epidemic occurred primarily in school settings and affected vaccinated adolescents, predominantly male students. The recent resurgence of mumps is caused by multiple factors: suboptimal effectiveness of the current mumps vaccines, use of the Rubini strain vaccine, waning immunity in the absence of natural boosting due to the marked reduction in the mumps incidence, genotype mismatch between the vaccine and circulating mumps virus strains, and environmental conditions that foster intense exposures. Containment of mumps outbreaks is challenging because the sensitivity of diagnostic tests is low among vaccinees and control measures are less efficient because of the inherent nature of the mumps virus. Despite the suboptimal vaccine effectiveness in outbreak settings, maintaining the high vaccine coverage is an important strategy to prevent mumps outbreaks, given that the routine use of mumps vaccines has substantially reduced the incidence of mumps and its complications as compared with that in the pre-vaccine era. In order to control the current mumps epidemic and prevent further outbreaks, we need to better understand the dynamics of mumps among vaccinated populations and the changing epidemiology in Korea. Concerted efforts should be made to systematically monitor the immunization status of the Korean population and to improve diagnosis efficiency. Furthermore, more effective mumps vaccines need to be developed in the future. PMID:25844258

  8. RB1CC1 activates the p16 promoter through the interaction with hSNF5.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Yasuko; Chano, Tokuhiro; Ikebuchi, Kaichiro; Inoue, Hirokazu; Isono, Takahiro; Arai, Akihito; Tameno, Hitosuke; Shimada, Taketoshi; Hisa, Yasuo; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2011-10-01

    RB1-inducible coiled-coil 1 (RB1CC1, also known as FIP200) is involved in dephosphorylation and increase of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB1), but the RB1CC1 molecular mechanism in the dephosphorylation of RB1 is not fully understood. We determined that RB1CC1 activates the expression of p16 (also called INK4a/CDKN2a) through the activation of its promoter, using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and p16 promoter-luciferase reporter assays. In addition, RB1CC1 essentially requires binding with hSNF5 (also known as BAF47/INI1, a chromatin-remodeling factor) to activate the p16 promoter, in order to enhance the RB1 pathway and acts as a tumor suppressor. Evaluation of the RB1CC1 mechanism of action is expected to provide useful information for clinical practice and future therapeutic strategies in human cancers.

  9. PICH, a centromere-associated SNF2 family ATPase, is regulated by Plk1 and required for the spindle checkpoint.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Christoph; Körner, Roman; Hofmann, Kay; Nigg, Erich A

    2007-01-12

    We identify PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint "helicase"), a member of the SNF2 ATPase family, as an interaction partner and substrate of Plk1. Following phosphorylation of PICH on the Cdk1 site T1063, Plk1 is recruited to PICH and controls its localization. Starting in prometaphase, PICH accumulates at kinetochores and inner centromeres. Moreover, it decorates threads that form during metaphase before increasing in length and progressively diminishing during anaphase. PICH-positive threads connect sister kinetochores and are dependent on tension, sensitive to DNase, and exacerbated in response to premature loss of cohesins or inhibition of topoisomerase II, suggesting that they represent stretched centromeric chromatin. Depletion of PICH causes the selective loss of Mad2 from kinetochores and completely abrogates the spindle checkpoint, resulting in massive chromosome missegregation. These data identify PICH as a novel essential component of checkpoint signaling. We propose that PICH binds to catenated centromere-related DNA to monitor tension developing between sister kinetochores.

  10. SNF2 chromatin remodeler-family proteins FRG1 and -2 are required for RNA-directed DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Groth, Martin; Stroud, Hume; Feng, Suhua; Greenberg, Maxim V C; Vashisht, Ajay A; Wohlschlegel, James A; Jacobsen, Steven E; Ausin, Israel

    2014-12-09

    DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana is maintained by at least four different enzymes: DNA methyltransferase1 (MET1), chromomethylase3 (CMT3), domains rearranged methyltransferase2 (DRM2), and chromomethylase2 (CMT2). However, DNA methylation is established exclusively by the enzyme DRM2, which acts in the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Some RdDM components belong to gene families and have partially redundant functions, such as the endoribonucleases dicer-like 2, 3, and 4, and involved in de novo2 (IDN2) interactors IDN2-like 1 and 2. Traditional mutagenesis screens usually fail to detect genes if they are redundant, as the loss of one gene can be compensated by a related gene. In an effort to circumvent this issue, we used coexpression data to identify closely related genes that are coregulated with genes in the RdDM pathway. Here we report the discovery of two redundant proteins, SNF2-ring-helicase-like1 and -2 (FRG1 and -2) that are putative chromatin modifiers belonging to the SNF2 family of helicase-like proteins. Analysis of genome-wide bisulfite sequencing shows that simultaneous mutations of FRG1 and -2 cause defects in methylation at specific RdDM targeted loci. We also show that FRG1 physically associates with Su(var)3-9-related SUVR2, a known RdDM component, in vivo. Combined, our results identify FRG1 and FRG2 as previously unidentified components of the RdDM machinery.

  11. SNF2 chromatin remodeler-family proteins FRG1 and -2 are required for RNA-directed DNA methylation

    PubMed Central

    Groth, Martin; Stroud, Hume; Feng, Suhua; Greenberg, Maxim V. C.; Vashisht, Ajay A.; Wohlschlegel, James A.; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Ausin, Israel

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana is maintained by at least four different enzymes: DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE1 (MET1), CHROMOMETHYLASE3 (CMT3), DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE2 (DRM2), and CHROMOMETHYLASE2 (CMT2). However, DNA methylation is established exclusively by the enzyme DRM2, which acts in the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Some RdDM components belong to gene families and have partially redundant functions, such as the endoribonucleases DICER-LIKE 2, 3, and 4, and INVOLVED IN DE NOVO2 (IDN2) interactors IDN2-LIKE 1 and 2. Traditional mutagenesis screens usually fail to detect genes if they are redundant, as the loss of one gene can be compensated by a related gene. In an effort to circumvent this issue, we used coexpression data to identify closely related genes that are coregulated with genes in the RdDM pathway. Here we report the discovery of two redundant proteins, SNF2-RING-HELICASE–LIKE1 and -2 (FRG1 and -2) that are putative chromatin modifiers belonging to the SNF2 family of helicase-like proteins. Analysis of genome-wide bisulfite sequencing shows that simultaneous mutations of FRG1 and -2 cause defects in methylation at specific RdDM targeted loci. We also show that FRG1 physically associates with Su(var)3-9–related SUVR2, a known RdDM component, in vivo. Combined, our results identify FRG1 and FRG2 as previously unidentified components of the RdDM machinery. PMID:25425661

  12. An innovative way of thinking nuclear waste management – Neutron physics of a reactor directly operating on SNF

    PubMed Central

    Litskevich, Dzianis; Bankhead, Mark; Taylor, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    A solution for the nuclear waste problem is the key challenge for an extensive use of nuclear reactors as a major carbon free, sustainable, and applied highly reliable energy source. Partitioning and Transmutation (P&T) promises a solution for improved waste management. Current strategies rely on systems designed in the 60’s for the massive production of plutonium. We propose an innovative strategic development plan based on invention and innovation described with the concept of developments in s-curves identifying the current boundary conditions, and the evolvable objectives. This leads to the ultimate, universal vision for energy production characterized by minimal use of resources and production of waste, while being economically affordable and safe, secure and reliable in operation. This vision is transformed into a mission for a disruptive development of the future nuclear energy system operated by burning of existing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) without prior reprocessing. This highly innovative approach fulfils the sustainability goals and creates new options for P&T. A proof on the feasibility from neutronic point of view is given demonstrating sufficient breeding of fissile material from the inserted SNF. The system does neither require new resources nor produce additional waste, thus it provides a highly sustainable option for a future nuclear system fulfilling the requests of P&T as side effect. In addition, this nuclear system provides enhanced resistance against misuse of Pu and a significantly reduced fuel cycle. However, the new system requires a demand driven rethinking of the separation process to be efficient. PMID:28749952

  13. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  14. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  15. Seaweed Farms in South Korea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    The dark squares that make up the checkerboard pattern in this image are fields of a sort—fields of seaweed. Along the south coast of South Korea, seaweed is often grown on ropes, which are held near the surface with buoys. This technique ensures that the seaweed stays close enough to the surface to get enough light during high tide but doesn’t scrape against the bottom during low tide. The Operational Land Imager (OLI) on Landsat 8 acquired this image of seaweed cultivation in the shallow waters around Sisan Island on January 31, 2014. Home to a thriving aquaculture industry, the south coast of South Korea produces about 90 percent of the country’s seaweed crop. The waters around Sisan are not the only place where aquaculture is common. View the large image to see how ubiquitous seaweed aquaculture is along the coast in Jeollanam-do, the southernmost province on the Korean peninsula. Two main types of seaweed are cultivated in South Korea: Undaria (known as miyeok in Korean, wakame in Japanese) and Pyropia (gim in Korean, nori in Japanese). Both types are used generously in traditional Korean, Japanese, and Chinese food. Since 1970, farmed seaweed production has increased by approximately 8 percent per year. Today, about 90 percent of all the seaweed that humans consume globally is farmed. That may be good for the environment. In comparison to other types of food production, seaweed farming has a light environmental footprint because it does not require fresh water or fertilizer. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen, using Landsat data from the U.S. Geological Survey. Caption by Adam Voiland. Credit: NASA Earth Observatory NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  16. Republic of Korea`s security in northeast Asia. Regional strategic appraisal

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, S.J.

    1996-04-15

    Although the Cold War is over, the security environment in Northeast Asia is not stable. This study summarizes Korea`s national interests from a Korean soldier`s perspective. The threats and issues are described according to the format of a regional strategic appraisal. This study recommends the organization of a Conference on Security and Cooperation in Northeast Asia (CSCNEA). This organization would be composed of the two Koreas(or eventually a reunified Korea), the United States, Japan, China, and Russia. Before the establishment of the organization, the enlargement of bilateral cooperation is recommended.

  17. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  18. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  19. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  20. Measurements of miniature ionization chamber currents in the JSI TRIGA Mark II reactor demonstrate the importance of the delayed contribution to the photon field in nuclear reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radulović, Vladimir; Fourmentel, Damien; Barbot, Loïc; Villard, Jean-François; Kaiba, Tanja; Gašper, Žerovnik; Snoj, Luka

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of experimental locations of a research nuclear reactor implies the determination of neutron and photon flux levels within, with the best achievable accuracy. In nuclear reactors, photon fluxes are commonly calculated by Monte Carlo simulations but rarely measured on-line. In this context, experiments were conducted with a miniature gas ionization chamber (MIC) based on miniature fission chamber mechanical parts, recently developed by the CEA (French Atomic Energy and Alternative Energies Commission) irradiated in the core of the Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, Slovenia. The aim of the study was to compare the measured MIC currents with calculated currents based on simulations with the MCNP6 code. A discrepancy of around 50% was observed between the measured and the calculated currents; in the latter taking into consideration only the prompt photon field. Further experimental measurements of MIC currents following reactor SCRAMs (reactor shutdown with rapid insertions of control rods) provide evidence that over 30% of the total measured signal is due to the delayed photon field, originating from fission and activation products, which are untreated in the calculations. In the comparison between the measured and calculated values, these findings imply an overall discrepancy of less than 20% of the total signal which is still unexplained.

  1. Analytical analyses of startup measurements associated with the first use of LEU fuel in Romania`s 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.; Ciocanescu, M.

    1992-12-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) is located in Pitesti, Romania. Beginning with an HEU core (10 wt% U), the reactor first went critical in November 1979 but was shut down ten years later because of insufficient excess reactivity. Last November the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR), which operates the SSR, received from the ANL RERTR program a shipment of 125 LEU pins fabricated by General Atomics and of the same geometry as the original fuel but with an enrichment of 19.7% 235U and a loading of 45 wt% U. Using 100 of these pins, four LEU clusters, each containing a 5 x 5 square array of fuel rods, were assembled. These four LEU clusters replaced the four most highly burned HEU elements in the SSR. The reactor resumed operations last February with a 35-element mixed HEU/LEU core configuration. In preparation for full power operation of the SSR with this mixed HEU/LEU core, a number of measurements were made. These included control rod calibrations, excess reactivity determinations, worths of experiment facilities, reaction rate distributions, and themocouple measurements of fuel temperatures as a function of reactor power. This paper deals with a comparison of some of these measured reactor parameters with corresponding analytical calculations.

  2. Dose estimation in B16 tumour bearing mice for future irradiation in the thermal column of the TRIGA reactor after B/Gd/LDL adduct infusion.

    PubMed

    Protti, N; Ballarini, F; Bortolussi, S; Bruschi, P; Stella, S; Geninatti, S; Alberti, D; Aime, S; Altieri, S

    2011-12-01

    To test the efficacy of a new (10)B-vector compound, the B/Gd/LDL adduct synthesised at Torino University, in vivo irradiations of murine tumours are in progress at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Pavia University. A localised B16 melanoma tumour is generated in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infused with the adduct. During the irradiation, the mouse will be put in a shield to protect the whole body except the tumour in the back-neck area. To optimise the treatment set-up, MCNP simulations were performed. A very simplified mouse model was built using MCNP geometry capabilities, as well as the geometry of the shield made of 99% (10)B enriched boric acid. A hole in the shield is foreseen in correspondence of the back-neck region. Many configurations of the shield were tested in terms of neutron flux, dose distribution and mean induced activity in the tumour region and in the radiosensitive organs of the mouse. In the final set-up, up to five mice can be treated simultaneously in the reactor thermal column and the neutron fluence in the tumour region for 10 min of irradiation is of about 5×10(12) cm(-2).

  3. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  5. Antiviral treatment of influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2015-06-01

    Antiviral therapy has an important role in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. At present, two classes of antiviral agents, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, are available for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza in Korea. Because of the widespread resistance against adamantanes, neuraminidase inhibitors are mainly used. Because each country has a unique epidemiology of influenza, the proper use of antiviral agents should be determined based on local data. Decisions on the clinical practice in the treatment of influenza in South Korea are guided by the local surveillance data, practice guidelines, health insurance system and the resistance patterns of the circulating influenza viruses. This review highlights the role of antiviral agents in the treatment and outcome of influenza in Korea by providing comprehensive information of their clinical usage in Korea.

  6. Negotiations with North Korea: Lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallucci, Robert L.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, I summarize the events leading to the negotiation of the Agreed Framework with North Korea. I also highlight the threats that result from the current situation, and some of the technical issues relevant to understanding events.

  7. An overview of biotechnology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi; Hahm; Rhee; Han

    1999-03-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, Korea has invested heavily in biotechnology research and development, with the aim of becoming a leading nation in this field. It is important to understand the historical progress of this development in order to appreciate the current state of biotechology in Korea. However, it is equally important to know what research is currently being planned and carried out, and by whom.

  8. Whither Unified Korea? East, West or Center?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-17

    the balance of power in Northeast Asia has been significantly shaped by an enduring Republic of Korea (ROK)-US alliance. Despite the constant threat of...a resumption of hostilities between the two Koreas, the current structure maintains a status quo that assures the balance of power in Northeast Asia...the balance of power imposed on the region since 1953. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report

  9. US Military Presence in a Unified Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-07

    profiles/ap_mp_05.cfm ; Internet; accessed 11 March 2003; and World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York...New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 108, 771, 799, 801, 843. 15 Han Woo-Keun, The History of Korea (Seoul, Korea: The Eul-Yoo Publishing Company...January 2003. 37 World Almanac Education Group, Inc., The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2003 (New York, New York: World Almanac Books, 2003), 218. 38

  10. U.S.-South Korea Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-12

    South Korea and “normalize” the tours of U.S. troops there, including longer stays with family members accompanying them. In May 2011, Senators Carl ...Kim Dae- jung , who in the second attempt was saved only by U.S. intervention. The divisions that opened under Park continue to be felt today...have deepened in South Korea. In 1997, long- time dissident Kim Dae- jung was elected to the presidency, the first time an opposition party had

  11. North Korea: War drums or peace pipes?

    SciTech Connect

    Keeny, S.M. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    President Clinton has wisely seized the opportunity, presented by former President Jimmy Carter`s meeting with North Korea leader Kim Il Sung, for renewed negotiations with Pyongyang on its nuclear program. While a successful outcome cannot be guaranteed, both sides have backed off the mounting confrontation that threatened to lead to either the emergence of a nuclear North Korea or a second Korean war.

  12. Origin of microseism observed in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.; You, S.; Rhie, J.

    2009-12-01

    Ambient seismic noise has been widely used for imaging crustal structure as an alternative passive source, even where traditional seismic imaging is not possible due to low seismicity. Long before the sensational applications of seismic noise, the origin of the noise has already been studied to understand its nature and characteristics for several decades. In this study, we investigate the origin of microseism observed in South Korea. Annual spectrograms in the microseismic frequency range up to 0.4 Hz show coherent peaks at about 0.2 Hz in the winter, which is at the frequency band of the double-frequency microseism. However, the primary microseism is only rarely observed in South Korea when the Pacific typhoon is close to the Southern Sea of Korea. Polarization analysis and noise cross correlation indicate that the energy of the double-frequency microseism comes dominantly from the east of the Korean Peninsula. Comparison of the results from the operational wave model of the Korea Meteorological Administration and seismic data shows a strong correlation of spectral amplitude of seismic data with the significant wave heights and periods of ocean waves, implying that the primary and the double-frequency microseism observed in South Korea are generated at the Southern Sea of Korea and at nearby shorelines of the east coast of Japan, respectively.

  13. The MtSNF4b subunit of the sucrose non-fermenting-related kinase complex connects after-ripening and constitutive defense responses in seeds of Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Bolingue, William; Rosnoblet, Claire; Leprince, Olivier; Vu, Benoit Ly; Aubry, Catherine; Buitink, Julia

    2010-03-01

    Dormant seeds are capable of remaining alive in the hydrated state for extended periods of time without losing vigor, until environmental cues or after-ripening result in the release of dormancy. Here, we investigated the possible role of the regulatory subunit of the sucrose non-fermenting-related kinase complex, MtSNF4b, in dormancy of Medicago truncatula seeds. Expression of MtSNF4b and its involvement in a high-molecular-weight complex are found in dormant seeds, whereas imbibition of fully after-ripened, non-dormant seeds leads to dissociation of the complex. MtSNF4b is capable of complementing the yeast Delta snf4 mutant and of interacting with the MtSnRK1 alpha-subunit in a double hybrid system. Transcriptome analyses on freshly harvested and after-ripened RNAi Mtsnf4b and wild-type embryos implicate MtSNF4b in the defense response in hydrated dormant embryonic tissues, affecting the expression of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism, WRKY transcription factors and pathogenesis-related proteins. Silencing MtSNF4b also increased the speed of after-ripening during dry storage, an effect that appears to be related to a change in base water potential. No significant difference in ABA content or sensitivity was detected between mutant and wild-type seeds. Pharmacological studies using hexoses and sugar analogs revealed that mannose restored germination behavior and expression of the genes PAL, CHR and IFR in RNAi Mtsnf4b seeds towards that of the wild-type, suggesting that MtSNF4b might act upstream of sugar-sensing pathways. Overall, the results suggest that MtSNF4b participates in regulation of a constitutively activated defense response in hydrated, dormant seeds.

  14. SWI/SNF recruitment to a DNA double-strand break by the NuA4 and Gcn5 histone acetyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gwendolyn; Peterson, Craig L

    2015-06-01

    The DNA damage response to double-strand breaks (DSBs) is critical for cellular viability. Recent work has shown that a host of chromatin regulators are recruited to a DSB, and that they are important for the DNA damage response. However, the functional relationships between different chromatin regulators at DSBs remain unclear. Here we describe a conserved functional interaction among the chromatin remodeling enzyme, SWI/SNF, the NuA4 and Gcn5 histone acetyltransferases, and phosphorylation of histone H2A.X (γH2AX). Specifically, we find that the NuA4 and Gcn5 enzymes are both required for the robust recruitment of SWI/SNF to a DSB, which in turn promotes the phosphorylation of H2A.X.

  15. The chromatin remodelling complex WSTF-SNF2h interacts with nuclear myosin 1 and has a role in RNA polymerase I transcription.

    PubMed

    Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Fomproix, Nathalie; Cavellán, Erica; Voit, Renate; Reimer, Georg; Krüger, Tim; Thyberg, Johan; Scheer, Ulrich; Grummt, Ingrid; Farrants, Ann-Kristin Ostlund

    2006-05-01

    Nuclear actin and myosin 1 (NM1) are key regulators of gene transcription. Here, we show by biochemical fractionation of nuclear extracts, protein-protein interaction studies and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays that NM1 is part of a multiprotein complex that contains WICH, a chromatin remodelling complex containing WSTF (Williams syndrome transcription factor) and SNF2h. NM1, WSTF and SNF2h were found to be associated with RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA). RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NM1 and WSTF reduced pre-rRNA synthesis in vivo, and antibodies to WSTF inhibited Pol I transcription on pre-assembled chromatin templates but not on naked DNA. The results indicate that NM1 cooperates with WICH to facilitate transcription on chromatin.

  16. The chromatin remodelling complex WSTF–SNF2h interacts with nuclear myosin 1 and has a role in RNA polymerase I transcription

    PubMed Central

    Percipalle, Piergiorgio; Fomproix, Nathalie; Cavellán, Erica; Voit, Renate; Reimer, Georg; Krüger, Tim; Thyberg, Johan; Scheer, Ulrich; Grummt, Ingrid; Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear actin and myosin 1 (NM1) are key regulators of gene transcription. Here, we show by biochemical fractionation of nuclear extracts, protein–protein interaction studies and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays that NM1 is part of a multiprotein complex that contains WICH, a chromatin remodelling complex containing WSTF (Williams syndrome transcription factor) and SNF2h. NM1, WSTF and SNF2h were found to be associated with RNA polymerase I (Pol I) and ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA). RNA interference-mediated knockdown of NM1 and WSTF reduced pre-rRNA synthesis in vivo, and antibodies to WSTF inhibited Pol I transcription on pre-assembled chromatin templates but not on naked DNA. The results indicate that NM1 cooperates with WICH to facilitate transcription on chromatin. PMID:16514417

  17. Activation of 12/23-RSS-Dependent RAG Cleavage by hSWI/SNF Complex in the Absence of Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Du, Hansen; Ishii, Haruhiko; Pazin, Michael J.; Sen, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Maintenance of genomic integrity during antigen receptor gene rearrangements requires (1) regulated access of the V(D)J recombinase to specific loci and (2) generation of double-strand DNA breaks only after recognition of a pair of matched recombination signal sequences (RSSs). Here we recapitulate both key aspects of regulated recombinase accessibility in a cell-free system using plasmid substrates assembled into chromatin. We show that recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex to both RSSs increases coupled cleavage by RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. SWI/SNF functions by altering local chromatin structure in the absence of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription or histone modifications. These observations demonstrate a direct role for cis-sequence-regulated local chromatin remodeling in RAG1/2-dependent initiation of V(D)J recombination. PMID:18775324

  18. Activation of 12/23-RSS-dependent RAG cleavage by hSWI/SNF complex in the absence of transcription.

    PubMed

    Du, Hansen; Ishii, Haruhiko; Pazin, Michael J; Sen, Ranjan

    2008-09-05

    Maintenance of genomic integrity during antigen receptor gene rearrangements requires (1) regulated access of the V(D)J recombinase to specific loci and (2) generation of double-strand DNA breaks only after recognition of a pair of matched recombination signal sequences (RSSs). Here we recapitulate both key aspects of regulated recombinase accessibility in a cell-free system using plasmid substrates assembled into chromatin. We show that recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex to both RSSs increases coupled cleavage by RAG1 and RAG2 proteins. SWI/SNF functions by altering local chromatin structure in the absence of RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription or histone modifications. These observations demonstrate a direct role for cis-sequence-regulated local chromatin remodeling in RAG1/2-dependent initiation of V(D)J recombination.

  19. Safety assessment for a potential SNF repository and its implication to the proliferation resistance nuclear fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Jeong, M.S.; Seo, C.S.

    2007-07-01

    KAERI is developing the pyro-process technology to minimize the burden on permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel. In addition, KAERI has developed the Korean Reference System for potential spent nuclear fuel disposal since 1997. The deep geologic disposal system is composed of a multi-barrier system in a crystalline rock to dispose of 36,000 MT of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from a CANDU and a PWR. Quite recently, introduction of advanced nuclear fuel cycles such as pyro-processing is a big issue to solve the everlasting disposal problem and to assure the sustainable supply of fuel for reactors. To compare the effect of direct disposal of SNF with that of the high level waste disposal for waste generated from the advanced nuclear fuel cycles, the total system performance assessment for two different schemes is developed; one for direct disposal of SNF and the other for the introduction of the pyro-processing and direct disposal CANDU spent nuclear fuel. The safety indicators to assess the environmental friendliness of the disposal option are annual individual doses, toxicities and risks. Even though many scientists use the toxicity to understand the environmental friendliness of the disposal, scientifically the annual individual doses or risks are meaningful indicators for it. The major mechanisms to determine the doses and risks for direct disposal are as follows: (1) Dissolution mechanisms of uranium dioxides which control the dissolution of most nuclides such as TRU's and most parts of fission products. (2) Instant release fraction of highly soluble nuclides such as I-129, C-135, Tc-99, and others. (3) Retardation and dilution effect of natural and engineered barriers. (4) Dilution effect in the biosphere. The dominant nuclide is I-129 which follows both congruent and instantaneous release modes. Since its long half life associated with the instantaneous release I-129 is dominant well beyond one million. The impact of the TRU's is negligible until the significant

  20. Erosion protection benefits of stabilized SnF2 dentifrice versus an arginine-sodium monofluorophosphate dentifrice: results from in vitro and in situ clinical studies.

    PubMed

    West, N X; He, T; Macdonald, E L; Seong, J; Hellin, N; Barker, M L; Eversole, S L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of these investigations was to assess the ability of two fluoride dentifrices to protect against the initiation and progression of dental erosion using a predictive in vitro erosion cycling model and a human in situ erosion prevention clinical trial for verification of effectiveness. A stabilized stannous fluoride (SnF2) dentifrice (0.454 % SnF2 + 0.077 % sodium fluoride [NaF]; total F = 1450 ppm F) [dentifrice A] and a sodium monofluorophosphate [SMFP]/arginine dentifrice (1.1 % SMFP + 1.5 % arginine; total F = 1450 ppm F) [dentifrice B] were tested in a 5-day in vitro erosion cycling model and a 10-day randomized, controlled, double-blind, two-treatment, four-period crossover in situ clinical trial. In each study, human enamel specimens were exposed to repetitive product treatments using a standardized dilution of test products followed by erosive acid challenges in a systematic fashion. Both studies demonstrated statistically significant differences between the two products, with dentifrice A providing significantly better enamel protection in each study. In vitro, dentifrice A provided a 75.8 % benefit over dentifrice B (p < 0.05, ANOVA), while after 10 days in the in situ model, dentifrice A provided 93.9 % greater protection versus dentifrice B (p < 0.0001, general linear mixed model). These results support the superiority of stabilized SnF2 dentifrices for protecting human teeth against the initiation and progression of dental erosion. Stabilized SnF2 dentifrices may provide more significant benefits to consumers than conventional fluoride dentifrices.