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Sample records for korea triga snf

  1. Assessment results of the South Korea TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, C.M.; Dirk, W.J.; Cottam, R.E.; Paik, S.T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination at the Seoul and the Taejon Research Reactor Facilities in South Korea. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation and storage at the INEEL. The results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. A description of the examination team training, the examination work plan and examination equipment is also included. This paper also explains the technical basis for the examination and physical condition criteria used to determine what, if any, additional packaging would be required for transportation and for the receipt and storage of the fuel at the INEEL. This paper delineates the preparation activities prior to the fuel examinations and includes (1) collecting spent fuel data; (2) preparatory work by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for fuel examination: (3) preparation of a radionuclide report, Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels needed to provide input data for transportation and fuel acceptance at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL); (4) gathering FRR Facility data; and (5) coordination between the INEEL and KAERI. Included, are the unanticipated conditions encountered in the unloading of fuel from the dry storage casks in Taejon in preparation for examination, a description of the damaged condition of the fuel removed from the casks, and the apparent cause of the damages. Lessons learned from all the activities are also addressed. A brief description of the preparatory work for the shipment of the spent fuel from Korea to INEEL is included.

  2. Assessment results of the Indonesian TRIGA SNF to be shipped to INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Jefimoff, J.; Robb, A.K.; Wendt, K.M.; Syarip, I.; Alfa, T.

    1997-10-09

    This paper describes the Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) examination performed by technical personnel from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) at the Bandung and Yogyakarta research reactor facilities in Indonesia. The examination was required before the SNF would be accepted for transportation to and storage at the INEEL. This paper delineates the Initial Preparations prior to the Indonesian foreign research reactor (FRR) fuel examination. The technical basis for the examination, the TRIGA SNF Acceptance Criteria, and the physical condition required for transportation, receipt and storage of the TRIGA SNF at the INEEL is explained. In addition to the initial preparations, preparation descriptions of the Work Plan For TRIGA Fuel Examination, the Underwater Examination Equipment used, and personnel Examination Team Training are included. Finally, the Fuel Examination and Results of the aluminum and stainless steel clad TRIGA fuel examination have been summarized. Lessons learned from all the activities completed to date is provided in an addendum. The initial preparations included: (1) coordination between the INEEL, FRR or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN), DOE-HQ, and the US State Department and Embassy; (2) incorporating Savannah River Site (SRS) FRR experience and lessons learned; (3) collecting both FRR facility and spent fuel data, and issuing a radionuclide report (Radionuclide Mass Inventory, Activity, Decay Heat, and Dose Rate Parametric Data for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuels) needed for transportation and fuel acceptance at the INEEL; and (4) preexamination work at the research reactor for the fuel examination.

  3. Dose Calculations for the Co-Disposal WP-of HLW-Glass and the Triga SNF

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulescu

    1999-08-02

    This calculation is prepared by the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Waste Package Operations (WPO). The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of a codisposal waste package (WP) containing a centrally located Department of Energy (DOE) standardized 18-in. spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, loaded with the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) SNF. This canister is surrounded by five 3-m long canisters, loaded with Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) glass. The results are to support the WP design and radiological analyses.

  4. Dose Rate Calucaltion for the DHL W/DOE SNF Codisposal Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulescu

    2000-02-12

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of the short codisposal waste package (WP) of defense high-level waste (DHLW) and TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The WP contains the TRIGA SNF, in a standardized 18-in. DOE (U.S. Department of Energy) SNF canister, and five 3-m-long Savannah River Site (SRS) DHLW pour glass canisters, which surround the DOE SNF canister.

  5. Status of the TRIGA shipments to the INEEL from Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Mustin, T.; Stump, R.C.; Tyacke, M.J.

    1997-10-09

    This paper reports the activities underway by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for returning Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from foreign research reactors (FRR) in four European countries to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Those countries are Germany, Italy, Romania, and Slovenia. This is part of the ``Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy`` of returning research reactor SNF containing uranium enriched in the US. This paper describes the results of a pre-assessment trip in September, 1997, to these countries, including: history of the reactors and research being performed; inventory of TRIGA SNF; fuel types (stainless steel, aluminum, or Incoloy) and enrichments; and each country`s plans for returning their TRIGA SNF to the INEEL.

  6. TRIGA FUEL PHASE I AND II CRITICALITY CALCULATION

    SciTech Connect

    L. Angers

    1999-11-23

    The purpose of this calculation is to characterize the criticality aspect of the codisposal of TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomic) reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) with Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW). The TRIGA SNF is loaded into a Department of Energy (DOE) standardized SNF canister which is centrally positioned inside a five-canister defense SRS HLW waste package (WP). The objective of the calculation is to investigate the criticality issues for the WP containing the five SRS HLW and DOE SNF canisters in various stages of degradation. This calculation will support the analysis that will be performed to demonstrate the viability of the codisposal concept for the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR).

  7. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  8. Status of the TRIGA shipments to the INEEL from Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Tyacke, M.; George, W.; Petrasek, A.; Stump, R.C.; Patterson, J.

    1997-10-09

    This paper will report on preparations being made for returning Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics (TRIGA) foreign research reactor (FRR) spent fuel from South Korea and Indonesia to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The roles of US Department of Energy, INEEL, and NAC International in implementing a safe shipment are provided. Special preparations necessitated by making a shipment through a west coast port of the US to the INEEL will be explained. The institutional planning and actions needed to meet the unique political and operational environment for making a shipment from Asia to INEEL will be discussed. Facility preparation at both the INEEL and the FRRs is discussed. Cask analysis needed to properly characterize the various TRIGA configurations, compositions, and enrichments is discussed. Shipping preparations will include an explanation of the integrated team of spent fuel transportation specialists, and shipping resources needed to retrieve the fuel from foreign research reactor sites and deliver it to the INEEL.

  9. EXTERNAL CRITICALITY CALCULATION FOR DOE SNF CODISPOSAL WASTE PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    H. Radulescu

    2002-10-18

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the potential for criticality for the fissile material that could accumulate in the near-field (invert) and in the far-field (host rock) beneath the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) codisposal waste packages (WPs) as they degrade in the proposed monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to the following DOE SNF types: Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), Enrico Fermi, Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Fort St. Vrain, Melt and Dilute, Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, and Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomics reactor (TRIGA). The results of this calculation are intended to be used for estimating the probability of criticality in the near-field and in the far-field. There are no limitations on use of the results of this calculation. The calculation is associated with the waste package design and was developed in accordance with the technical work plan, ''Technical Work Plan for: Department of Energy Spent Nuclear Fuel and Plutonium Disposition Work Packages'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC [BSC], 2002a). This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) per the activity evaluation under work package number P6212310Ml in the technical work plan TWP-MGR-MD-0000 10 REV 01 (BSC 2002a).

  10. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    SciTech Connect

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  11. SUMOylation regulates the SNF1 protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Simpson-Lavy, Kobi J; Johnston, Mark

    2013-10-22

    The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major stress sensor of mammalian cells. AMPK's homolog in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the SNF1 protein kinase, is a central regulator of carbon metabolism that inhibits the Snf3/Rgt2-Rgt1 glucose sensing pathway and activates genes involved in respiration. We present evidence that glucose induces modification of the Snf1 catalytic subunt of SNF1 with the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein SUMO, catalyzed by the SUMO (E3) ligase Mms21. Our results suggest that SUMOylation of Snf1 inhibits its function in two ways: by interaction of SUMO attached to lysine 549 with a SUMO-interacting sequence motif located near the active site of Snf1, and by targeting Snf1 for destruction via the Slx5-Slx8 (SUMO-directed) ubiquitin ligase. These findings reveal another way SNF1 function is regulated in response to carbon source.

  12. SNF Project Engineering Process Improvement Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DESAI, S.P.

    2000-02-09

    This plan documents the SNF Project activities and plans to support its engineering process. It describes five SNF Project Engineering initiatives: new engineering procedures, qualification cards process; configuration management, engineering self assessments, and integrated schedule for engineering activities.

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-20

    This document establishes the limits and controls for the significant parameters that could potentially affect the safety and/or quality of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) packaged for processing, transport, and storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in Multi-Canister Overpacks to be transported throughout the SNF Project.

  14. SNF shipping cask shielding analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.O.; Pace, J.V. III

    1996-01-01

    The Waste Management and Remedial Action Division has planned a modification sequence for storage facility 7827 in the Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA). The modification cycle is: (1) modify an empty caisson, (2) transfer the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) of an occupied caisson to a hot cell in building 3525 for inspection and possible repackaging, and (3) return the package to the modified caisson in the SWSA. Although the SNF to be moved is in the solid form, it has different levels of activity. Thus, the following 5 shipping casks will be available for the task: the Loop Transport Carrier, the In- Pile Loop LITR HB-2 Carrier, the 6.5-inch HRLEL Carrier, the HFIR Hot Scrap Carrier, and the 10-inch ORR Experiment Removal Shield Cask. This report describes the shielding tasks for the 5 casks: determination of shielding characteristics, any streaming avenues, estimation of thermal limits, and shielding calculational uncertainty for use in the transportation plan.

  15. TRIGA research reactor activities around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Chesworth, R.H.; Razvi, J.; Whittemore, W.L. )

    1991-11-01

    Recent activities at several overseas TRIGA installations are discussed in this paper, including reactor performance, research programs under way, and plans for future upgrades. The following installations are included: (1) 14,000-kW TRIGA at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania; (2) 2,000-kW TRIGA Mark II at the Institute of Nuclear Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) 3,000-kW TRIGA conversion, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; and (4) other ongoing installations, including a 1,500-kW TRIGA Mark II at Rabat, Morocco, and a 1,000-kW conversion/upgrade at the Institute Asunto Nucleares, Bogota, Columbia.

  16. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  17. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... Requirements § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  18. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... Requirements § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  19. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... Requirements § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  20. 42 CFR 424.20 - Requirements for posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for posthospital SNF care. 424.20... § 424.20 Requirements for posthospital SNF care. Medicare Part A pays for posthospital SNF care furnished by an SNF, or a hospital or CAH with a swing-bed approval, only if the certification...

  1. SWI/SNF complex in disorder

    PubMed Central

    Santen, Gijs W.E.; Kriek, Marjolein; van Attikum, Haico

    2012-01-01

    Heterozygous germline mutations in components of switch/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes were recently identified in patients with non-syndromic intellectual disability, Coffin-Siris syndrome and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome. The common denominator of the phenotype of these patients is severe intellectual disability and speech delay. Somatic and germline mutations in SWI/SNF components were previously implicated in tumor development. This raises the question whether patients with intellectual disability caused by SWI/SNF mutations in the germline are exposed to an increased risk of developing cancer. Here we compare the mutational spectrum of SWI/SNF components in intellectual disability syndromes and cancer, and discuss the implications of the results of this comparison for the patients. PMID:23010866

  2. Technology development for DOE SNF management

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.L.; Einziger, R.E.; Murphy, J.R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the process used to identify technology development needs for the same management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the US Department of Energy (DOE) inventory. Needs were assessed for each of the over 250 fuel types stores at DOE sites around the country for each stage of SNF management--existing storage, transportation, interim storage, and disposal. The needs were then placed into functional groupings to facilitate integration and collaboration among the sites.

  3. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  4. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-04-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  5. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  6. Activation analysis using Cornell TRIGA

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Tim Z.

    1994-07-01

    A major use of the Cornell TRIGA is for activation analysis. Over the years many varieties of samples have been analyzed from a number of fields of interest ranging from geology, archaeology and textiles. More recently the analysis has been extended to high technology materials for applications in optical and semiconductor devices. Trace analysis in high purity materials like Si wafers has been the focus in many instances, while in others analysis of major/minor components were the goals. These analysis has been done using the delayed mode. Results from recent measurements in semiconductors and other materials will be presented. In addition the near future capability of using prompt gamma activation analysis using the Cornell cold neutron beam will be discussed. (author)

  7. ISOTOPIC MODEL FOR COMMERCIAL SNF BURNUP CREDIT

    SciTech Connect

    A.H. Wells

    2004-11-17

    The purpose of this report is to demonstrate a process for selecting bounding depletion parameters, show that they are conservative for pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and establish the range of burnup for which the parameters are conservative. The general range of applicability is for commercial light water reactor (LWR) SNF with initial enrichments between 2.0 and 5.0 weight percent {sup 235}U and burnups between 10 and 50 gigawatt-day per metric ton of uranium (GWd/MTU).

  8. SOURCE TERMS FOR AVERAGE DOE SNF CANISTERS

    SciTech Connect

    K. L. Goluoglu

    2000-06-09

    The objective of this calculation is to generate source terms for each type of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister that may be disposed of at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to generating source terms for average DOE SNF canisters, and is not intended to be used for subsequent calculations requiring bounding source terms. This calculation is to be used in future Performance Assessment calculations, or other shielding or thermal calculations requiring average source terms.

  9. 78 FR 26811 - Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... COMMISSION Dow Chemical Company, Dow TRIGA Research Reactor; License Renewal for the Dow Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor; Supplemental Information and Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Chemical TRIGA Research Reactor,'' to inform the public that the NRC is considering issuance of a...

  10. OREGON STATE UNIVERSITY (OSU) TRAINING RESEARCH ISOTOPE GENERAL ATOMICS (TRIGA) OVERPACK CLOSURE WELDING PROCESS PARAMETER DEVELOPMENT & QUALIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    CANNELL, G.R.

    2006-09-11

    Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the Oregon State University (OSU) TRIGA{reg_sign} Reactor is currently being stored in thirteen 55-gallon drums at the Hanford Site's low-level burial grounds. This fuel is soon to be retrieved from buried storage and packaged into new containers (overpacks) for interim storage at the Hanford Interim Storage Area (ISA). One of the key activities associated with this effort is final closure of the overpack by welding. The OSU fuel is placed into an overpack, a head inserted into the overpack top, and welded closed. Weld quality, for typical welded fabrication, is established through post-weld testing and nondestructive examination (NDE); however, in this case, once the SNF is placed into the overpack, routine testing and NDE are not feasible. An alternate approach is to develop and qualify the welding process/parameters, demonstrate beforehand that they produce the desired weld quality, and then verify parameter compliance during production welding. Fluor engineers have developed a Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) technique and parameters, demonstrating that weld quality requirements for closure of packaged SNF overpacks are met, using this alternate approach. The following reviews the activities performed for this development and qualification effort.

  11. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    LEROY, P.G.

    2000-11-03

    The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project supports the Hanford Site Mission to cleanup the Site by providing safe, economic, environmentally sound management of Site spent nuclear fuel in a manner that reduces hazards by staging it to interim onsite storage and deactivates the 100 K Area facilities.

  12. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  13. [South] Korea.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The Republic of Korea occupies approximately 38,000 square miles in the southern position of a mountaineous peninsula. It shares a land boundary with North Korea. With a population of more than 40 million people, South Korea has 1 of the highest population densities in the world. The language spoken is a Uralic language, closely akin to Japanese, Hungarian, Finnish, and Mongolian, and the traditional religions are Shamanism and Buddhism. Over the course of time, South Korea has been invaded and fought over by its neighbors. The US and the Soviet Union have never been able to reach a unification agreement for North and South Korea. The 3rd Republic era, begun in 1963, saw a time of rapid industrialization and a great deal of economic growth. The 5th Republic began with a new constitution and new elections brought about the election of a president to a 7-year term of office beginning in 1981. Economic growth has been remarkable over the last 25 years despite the fact that North Korea possesses most of the mineral and hydroelectric resources and the existing heavy industrial base built by the Japanese while South Korea has the limited agricultural resources and had, initially, a large unskilled labor pool. Serious industrial growth began in South Korea in the early 1960s and the GNP grew at an annual rate of 10% during the period 1963-78. Current GNP is now, at $2000, well beyond that of its neighbors to the north. The outlook for longterm growth is good; however, the military threat posed by North Korea and the absence of foreign economic assistance has resulted in Korea spending 1/3 of its budget on defense. South Korea is active in international affairs and in the UN. Economic realities have forced Korea to give economics priority in their foreign policy. There has been an on-again, off-again quality to dialogue between the 2 nations. However, the US is committed to maintaining peace on the Korean peninsula. In order to do so, they have supplied manpower and

  14. A Computer Code for TRIGA Type Reactors.

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-09

    Version 00 TRIGAP was developed for reactor physics calculations of the 250 kW TRIGA reactor. The program can be used for criticality predictions, power peaking predictions, fuel element burn-up calculations and data logging, and in-core fuel management and fuel utilization improvement.

  15. A new, highly conserved domain in Swi2/Snf2 is required for SWI/SNF remodeling.

    PubMed

    Sen, Payel; Ghosh, Sujana; Pugh, B Franklin; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2011-11-01

    SWI/SNF is an ATP-dependent remodeler that mobilizes nucleosomes and has important roles in gene regulation. The catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF has an ATP-dependent DNA translocase domain that is essential for remodeling. Besides the DNA translocase domain there are other domains in the catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF that have important roles in mobilizing nucleosomes. One of these domains, termed SnAC (Snf2 ATP Coupling), is conserved in all eukaryotic SWI/SNF complexes and is located between the ATPase and A-T hook domains. Here, we show that the SnAC domain is essential for SWI/SNF activity. The SnAC domain is not required for SWI/SNF complex integrity, efficient nucleosome binding, or recruitment by acidic transcription activators. The SnAC domain is however required in vivo for transcription regulation by SWI/SNF as seen by alternative carbon source growth assays, northern analysis, and genome-wide expression profiling. The ATPase and nucleosome mobilizing activities of SWI/SNF are severely affected when the SnAC domain is removed or mutated. The SnAC domain positively regulates the catalytic activity of the ATPase domain of SWI/SNF to hydrolyze ATP without significantly affecting its affinity for ATP.

  16. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Product Specification

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-12-07

    The process for removal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the K Basins has been divided into major sub-systems. The Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) removes fuel from the existing storage canisters, cleans it, and places it into baskets. The multi-canister overpack (MCO) loading system places the baskets into an MCO that has been pre-loaded in a cask. The cask, containing a loaded MCO, is then transferred to the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility. After drying at the CVD Facility, the cask, and MCO, are transferred to the Canister Storage Building (CSB), where the MCO is removed from the cask, staged, inspected, sealed (by welding), and stored until a suitable permanent disposal option is implemented. The purpose of this document is to specify the process related characteristics of an MCO at the interface between major process systems. The characteristics are derived from the primary technical documents that form the basis for safety analysis and design calculations. This document translates the calculation assumptions into implementation requirements and describes the method of verifying that the requirement is achieved. These requirements are used to define validation test requirements and describe requirements that influence multiple sub-project safety analysis reports. This product specification establishes limits and controls for each significant process parameter at interfaces between major sub-systems that potentially affect the overall safety and/or quality of the SNF packaged for processing, transport, and interim dry storage. The product specifications in this document cover the SNF packaged in MCOs to be transported throughout the SNF Project. The description of the product specifications are organized in the document as follows: Section 2.0--Summary listing of product specifications at each major sub-system interface. Section 3.0--Summary description providing guidance as to how specifications are complied with by equipment design or processing within a major

  17. Monte Carlo modelling of TRIGA research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bakkari, B.; Nacir, B.; El Bardouni, T.; El Younoussi, C.; Merroun, O.; Htet, A.; Boulaich, Y.; Zoubair, M.; Boukhal, H.; Chakir, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Moroccan 2 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at Centre des Etudes Nucléaires de la Maâmora (CENM) achieved initial criticality on May 2, 2007. The reactor is designed to effectively implement the various fields of basic nuclear research, manpower training, and production of radioisotopes for their use in agriculture, industry, and medicine. This study deals with the neutronic analysis of the 2-MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor at CENM and validation of the results by comparisons with the experimental, operational, and available final safety analysis report (FSAR) values. The study was prepared in collaboration between the Laboratory of Radiation and Nuclear Systems (ERSN-LMR) from Faculty of Sciences of Tetuan (Morocco) and CENM. The 3-D continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 5) was used to develop a versatile and accurate full model of the TRIGA core. The model represents in detailed all components of the core with literally no physical approximation. Continuous energy cross-section data from the more recent nuclear data evaluations (ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, and JENDL-3.3) as well as S( α, β) thermal neutron scattering functions distributed with the MCNP code were used. The cross-section libraries were generated by using the NJOY99 system updated to its more recent patch file "up259". The consistency and accuracy of both the Monte Carlo simulation and neutron transport physics were established by benchmarking the TRIGA experiments. Core excess reactivity, total and integral control rods worth as well as power peaking factors were used in the validation process. Results of calculations are analysed and discussed.

  18. NFR TRIGA package design review report

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, M.D.

    1994-08-26

    The purpose of this document is to compile, present and document the formal design review of the NRF TRIGA packaging. The contents of this document include: the briefing meeting presentations, package description, design calculations, package review drawings, meeting minutes, action item lists, review comment records, final resolutions, and released drawings. This design review required more than two meeting to resolve comments. Therefore, there are three meeting minutes and two action item lists.

  19. 14. U.S. TRIGA users conference. Final program and summary of papers

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The following papers were presented at the Conference: Early Development and Use of the TRIGA Reactor; Results of the MCNP Analysis of 20/20 LEU Fuel for the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor; Upgradeable 2MW TRIGA Reactor Design for the Morocco Nuclear Energy Center McClellan Nuclear Radiation Center TRIGA Reactor: Four Years of Operations.

  20. Oncogenesis caused by loss of the SNF5 tumor suppressor is dependent on activity of BRG1, the ATPase of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Sansam, Courtney G; Thom, Christopher S; Metzger, Daniel; Evans, Julia A; Nguyen, Phuong T L; Roberts, Charles W M

    2009-10-15

    Alterations in chromatin play an important role in oncogenic transformation, although the underlying mechanisms are often poorly understood. The SWI/SNF complex contributes to epigenetic regulation by using the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin and thus regulate transcription of target genes. SNF5, a core subunit of the SWI/SNF complex, is a potent tumor suppressor that is specifically inactivated in several types of human cancer. However, the mechanism by which SNF5 mutation leads to cancer and the role of SNF5 within the SWI/SNF complex remain largely unknown. It has been hypothesized that oncogenesis in the absence of SNF5 occurs due to a loss of function of the SWI/SNF complex. Here, we show, however, distinct effects for inactivation of Snf5 and the ATPase subunit Brg1 in primary cells. Further, using both human cell lines and mouse models, we show that cancer formation in the absence of SNF5 does not result from SWI/SNF inactivation but rather that oncogenesis is dependent on continued presence of BRG1. Collectively, our results show that cancer formation in the absence of SNF5 is dependent on the activity of the residual BRG1-containing SWI/SNF complex. These findings suggest that, much like the concept of oncogene addiction, targeted inhibition of SWI/SNF ATPase activity may be an effective therapeutic approach for aggressive SNF5-deficient human tumors.

  1. DESIGN ANALYSIS FOR THE NAVAL SNF WASTE PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-05-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate the design of the naval spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) using the Waste Package Department's (WPD) design methodologies and processes described in the ''Waste Package Design Methodology Report'' (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Management and Operating Contractor] 2000b). The calculations that support the design of the naval SNF WP will be discussed; however, only a sub-set of such analyses will be presented and shall be limited to those identified in the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The objective of this analysis is to describe the naval SNF WP design method and to show that the design of the naval SNF WP complies with the ''Naval Spent Nuclear Fuel Disposal Container System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and Interface Control Document (ICD) criteria for Site Recommendation. Additional criteria for the design of the naval SNF WP have been outlined in Section 6.2 of the ''Waste Package Design Sensitivity Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000c). The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of the naval long WP containing one naval long SNF canister. This WP is representative of the WPs that will contain both naval short SNF and naval long SNF canisters. The following items are included in the scope of this analysis: (1) Providing a general description of the applicable design criteria; (2) Describing the design methodology to be used; (3) Presenting the design of the naval SNF waste package; and (4) Showing compliance with all applicable design criteria. The intended use of this analysis is to support Site Recommendation reports and assist in the development of WPD drawings. Activities described in this analysis were conducted in accordance with the technical product development plan (TPDP) ''Design Analysis for the Naval SNF Waste Package (CRWMS M&O 2000a).

  2. The Chromatin Remodelling Enzymes SNF2H and SNF2L Position Nucleosomes adjacent to CTCF and Other Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Wiechens, Nicola; Gkikopoulos, Triantaffyllos; Schofield, Pieta; Rocha, Sonia; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Within the genomes of metazoans, nucleosomes are highly organised adjacent to the binding sites for a subset of transcription factors. Here we have sought to investigate which chromatin remodelling enzymes are responsible for this. We find that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling enzyme SNF2H plays a major role organising arrays of nucleosomes adjacent to the binding sites for the architectural transcription factor CTCF sites and acts to promote CTCF binding. At many other factor binding sites SNF2H and the related enzyme SNF2L contribute to nucleosome organisation. The action of SNF2H at CTCF sites is functionally important as depletion of CTCF or SNF2H affects transcription of a common group of genes. This suggests that chromatin remodelling ATPase’s most closely related to the Drosophila ISWI protein contribute to the function of many human gene regulatory elements. PMID:27019336

  3. The Chromatin Remodelling Enzymes SNF2H and SNF2L Position Nucleosomes adjacent to CTCF and Other Transcription Factors.

    PubMed

    Wiechens, Nicola; Singh, Vijender; Gkikopoulos, Triantaffyllos; Schofield, Pieta; Rocha, Sonia; Owen-Hughes, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Within the genomes of metazoans, nucleosomes are highly organised adjacent to the binding sites for a subset of transcription factors. Here we have sought to investigate which chromatin remodelling enzymes are responsible for this. We find that the ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling enzyme SNF2H plays a major role organising arrays of nucleosomes adjacent to the binding sites for the architectural transcription factor CTCF sites and acts to promote CTCF binding. At many other factor binding sites SNF2H and the related enzyme SNF2L contribute to nucleosome organisation. The action of SNF2H at CTCF sites is functionally important as depletion of CTCF or SNF2H affects transcription of a common group of genes. This suggests that chromatin remodelling ATPase's most closely related to the Drosophila ISWI protein contribute to the function of many human gene regulatory elements.

  4. DOE SNF technology development necessary for final disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, D.L.; Fillmore, D.L.; Windes, W.E.

    1996-02-01

    Existing technology is inadequate to allow safe disposal of the entire inventory of US Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Needs for SNF technology development were identified for each individual fuel type in the diverse inventory of SNF generated by past, current, and future DOE materials production, as well as SNF returned from domestic and foreign research reactors. This inventory consists of 259 fuel types with different matrices, cladding materials, meat composition, actinide content, and burnup. Management options for disposal of SNF include direct repository disposal, possible including some physical or chemical preparation, or processing to produce a qualified waste form by using existing aqueous processes or new treatment processes. Technology development needed for direct disposal includes drying, mitigating radionuclide release, canning, stabilization, and characterization technologies. While existing aqueous processing technology is fairly mature, technology development may be needed to apply one of these processes to SNF different than for which the process was originally developed. New processes to treat SNF not suitable for disposal in its current form were identified. These processes have several advantages over existing aqueous processes.

  5. SWI/SNF regulates the cellular response to hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Kenneth, Niall S; Mudie, Sharon; van Uden, Patrick; Rocha, Sonia

    2009-02-13

    Hypoxia induces a variety of cellular responses such as cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and autophagy. Most of these responses are mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. To induce target genes, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha requires a chromatin environment conducive to allow binding to specific sequences. Here, we have studied the role of the chromatin-remodeling complex SWI/SNF in the cellular response to hypoxia. We find that SWI/SNF is required for several of the cellular responses induced by hypoxia. Surprisingly, hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha is a direct target of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. SWI/SNF components are found associated with the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha promoter and modulation of SWI/SNF levels results in pronounced changes in hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha expression and its ability to transactivate target genes. Furthermore, impairment of SWI/SNF function renders cells resistant to hypoxia-induced cell cycle arrest. These results reveal a previously uncharacterized dependence of hypoxia signaling on the SWI/SNF complex and demonstrate a new level of control over the hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha system.

  6. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling and human malignancies.

    PubMed

    Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Bièche, Ivan; Guinebretière, Jean-Marc; Bourdeaut, Franck; Delattre, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The SWI/SNF complexes, initially identified in yeast 20 years ago, are a family of multi-subunit complexes that use the energy of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to remodel nucleosomes. Chromatin remodeling processes mediated by the SWI/SNF complexes are critical to the modulation of gene expression across a variety of cellular processes, including stemness, differentiation, and proliferation. The first evidence of the involvement of these complexes in carcinogenesis was provided by the identification of biallelic, truncating mutations of the SMARCB1 gene in malignant rhabdoid tumors, a highly aggressive childhood cancer. Subsequently, genome-wide sequencing technologies have identified mutations in genes encoding different subunits of the SWI/SNF complexes in a large number of tumors. SWI/SNF mutations, and the subsequent abnormal function of SWI/SNF complexes, are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The mechanisms by which perturbation of the SWI/SNF complexes promote oncogenesis are not fully elucidated; however, alterations of SWI/SNF genes obviously play a major part in cancer development, progression, and/or resistance to therapy.

  7. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care coinsurance is the amount chargeable to a beneficiary after the first 20 days of SNF care in a benefit...

  8. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  9. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care coinsurance is the amount chargeable to a beneficiary after the first 20 days of SNF care in a benefit...

  10. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  11. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  12. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care coinsurance is the amount chargeable to a beneficiary after the first 20 days of SNF care in a benefit...

  13. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care coinsurance is the amount chargeable to a beneficiary after the first 20 days of SNF care in a benefit...

  14. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  15. 42 CFR 409.36 - Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. 409... SNF Care § 409.36 Effect of discharge from posthospital SNF care. If a beneficiary is discharged from a facility after receiving posthospital SNF care, he or she is not entitled to additional...

  16. 42 CFR 409.85 - Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance... Coinsurance § 409.85 Skilled nursing facility (SNF) care coinsurance. (a) General provisions. (1) SNF care coinsurance is the amount chargeable to a beneficiary after the first 20 days of SNF care in a benefit...

  17. Swi/Snf dynamics on stress-responsive genes is governed by competitive bromodomain interactions.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gilmore, Joshua; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Workman, Jerry L

    2014-10-15

    The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex functions to alter nucleosome positions by either sliding nucleosomes on DNA or the eviction of histones. The presence of histone acetylation and activator-dependent recruitment and retention of Swi/Snf is important for its efficient function. It is not understood, however, why such mechanisms are required to enhance Swi/Snf activity on nucleosomes. Snf2, the catalytic subunit of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, has been shown to be a target of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase. Our study found that acetylation of Snf2 regulates both recruitment and release of Swi/Snf from stress-responsive genes. Also, the intramolecular interaction of the Snf2 bromodomain with the acetylated lysine residues on Snf2 negatively regulates binding and remodeling of acetylated nucleosomes by Swi/Snf. Interestingly, the presence of transcription activators mitigates the effects of the reduced affinity of acetylated Snf2 for acetylated nucleosomes. Supporting our in vitro results, we found that activator-bound genes regulating metabolic processes showed greater retention of the Swi/Snf complex even when Snf2 was acetylated. Our studies demonstrate that competing effects of (1) Swi/Snf retention by activators or high levels of histone acetylation and (2) Snf2 acetylation-mediated release regulate dynamics of Swi/Snf occupancy at target genes.

  18. Swi/Snf dynamics on stress-responsive genes is governed by competitive bromodomain interactions.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gilmore, Joshua; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Workman, Jerry L

    2014-10-15

    The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex functions to alter nucleosome positions by either sliding nucleosomes on DNA or the eviction of histones. The presence of histone acetylation and activator-dependent recruitment and retention of Swi/Snf is important for its efficient function. It is not understood, however, why such mechanisms are required to enhance Swi/Snf activity on nucleosomes. Snf2, the catalytic subunit of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, has been shown to be a target of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase. Our study found that acetylation of Snf2 regulates both recruitment and release of Swi/Snf from stress-responsive genes. Also, the intramolecular interaction of the Snf2 bromodomain with the acetylated lysine residues on Snf2 negatively regulates binding and remodeling of acetylated nucleosomes by Swi/Snf. Interestingly, the presence of transcription activators mitigates the effects of the reduced affinity of acetylated Snf2 for acetylated nucleosomes. Supporting our in vitro results, we found that activator-bound genes regulating metabolic processes showed greater retention of the Swi/Snf complex even when Snf2 was acetylated. Our studies demonstrate that competing effects of (1) Swi/Snf retention by activators or high levels of histone acetylation and (2) Snf2 acetylation-mediated release regulate dynamics of Swi/Snf occupancy at target genes. PMID:25319830

  19. Swi/Snf dynamics on stress-responsive genes is governed by competitive bromodomain interactions

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Arnob; Gogol, Madelaine; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Smolle, Michaela; Venkatesh, Swaminathan; Gilmore, Joshua; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex functions to alter nucleosome positions by either sliding nucleosomes on DNA or the eviction of histones. The presence of histone acetylation and activator-dependent recruitment and retention of Swi/Snf is important for its efficient function. It is not understood, however, why such mechanisms are required to enhance Swi/Snf activity on nucleosomes. Snf2, the catalytic subunit of the Swi/Snf remodeling complex, has been shown to be a target of the Gcn5 acetyltransferase. Our study found that acetylation of Snf2 regulates both recruitment and release of Swi/Snf from stress-responsive genes. Also, the intramolecular interaction of the Snf2 bromodomain with the acetylated lysine residues on Snf2 negatively regulates binding and remodeling of acetylated nucleosomes by Swi/Snf. Interestingly, the presence of transcription activators mitigates the effects of the reduced affinity of acetylated Snf2 for acetylated nucleosomes. Supporting our in vitro results, we found that activator-bound genes regulating metabolic processes showed greater retention of the Swi/Snf complex even when Snf2 was acetylated. Our studies demonstrate that competing effects of (1) Swi/Snf retention by activators or high levels of histone acetylation and (2) Snf2 acetylation-mediated release regulate dynamics of Swi/Snf occupancy at target genes. PMID:25319830

  20. Options for Burning LWR SNF in LIFE Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, J

    2008-09-09

    We have pursued two processes in parallel for the burning of LWR SNF in the LIFE engine: (1) solid fuel option and (2) liquid fuel option. Approaches with both are discussed. The assigned Topical Report on liquid fuels is attached.

  1. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Startup Plan to Operations

    SciTech Connect

    GREGORY, J.R.

    2000-10-11

    This plan defines the approach that will be used to ensure the transition from initial startup to normal operations of the SNF operations--are performed in a safe, controlled, and deliberate manner. It provides a phased approach that bridges the operations between the completion of the ORR and the return to normal operations. This plan includes management oversight and administrative controls to be implemented and then reduced in a controlled manner until normal operations are authorized by SNF Management.

  2. Special Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha, Ed.; Yeo, Kwang Eung

    The text on special education in Korea is divided into four major sections--a brief history of special education in Korea, the present status of special education in Korea, the special education plan of the Young Kwang Educational Foundation, and directory of schools and classes for the exceptional in Korea. Topics covered include the following:…

  3. Evaluation of Neutron Poison Materials for DOE SNF Disposal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D.W.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-09-01

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors is being consolidated at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for ultimate disposal in the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS). Most of the aluminum-based fuel material contains highly enriched uranium (HEU) (more than 20 percent 235U), which challenges the preclusion of criticality events for disposal periods exceeding 10,000 years. Recent criticality analyses have shown that the addition of neutron absorbing materials (poisons) is needed in waste packages containing DOE SNF canisters fully loaded with Al-SNF under flooded and degraded configurations to demonstrate compliance with the requirement that Keff less than 0.95. Compatibility of poison matrix materials and the Al-SNF, including their relative degradation rate and solubility, are important to maintain criticality control. An assessment of the viability of poison and matrix materials has been conducted, and an experimental corrosion program has been initiated to provide data on degradation rates of poison and matrix materials and Al-SNF materials under repository relevant vapor and aqueous environments. Initial testing includes Al6061, Type 316L stainless steel, and A516Gr55 in synthesized J-13 water vapor at 50 degrees C, 100 degrees C, and 200 degrees C and in condensate water vapor at 100 degrees C. Preliminary results are presented herein.

  4. SNF5 is Involved in Suppression of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression via TGF-Beta 1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongmiao; Zhong, Xinping; Wang, Chunyu; Wang, Shengli; Lin, Lin; Zou, Renlong; Wu, Yi; Sun, Ning; Sun, Ge; Wen, Tao; Chi, Zhi-Hong; Zhao, Yue

    2016-07-01

    SNF5 (SMARCB1/INI1/BAF47), a core subunit of SWI/SNF complex, has been reported to modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis. Genetic evidence has suggested that SNF5 participates in tumor suppression. However, the detailed biological function and underlying mechanisms of SNF5 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression remain unclear. Here, SNF5 expression reduction in HCC tissues compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues has been demonstrated. Importantly, the results showed that reduced SNF5 expression has a strong correlation with worse overall survival of HCC patients. The data demonstrated that knockdown of SNF5 significantly promoted cell growth and migration in Hep3B and HCCLM3 cell lines. Interestingly, it was found that SNF5 suppressed transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) expression, and SNF5 mRNA expression was negatively correlated with TGF-β1 in HCC tissues. Furthermore, depletion of SNF5 attenuated the sensitivity of HCC cells to sorafenib. Thus, the data suggested that SNF5 may participate in HCC suppression, and reduced expression of SNF5 correlates with the poor differentiation and prognosis of HCC, indicating that SNF5 might be an important prognostic biomarker and promising therapeutic target for HCC. Anat Rec, 299:869-877, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27111394

  5. Structure and novel functional mechanism of Drosophila SNF in sex-lethal splicing.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jicheng; Cui, Gaofeng; Li, Congmin; Liu, Cong; Shang, Erchang; Lai, Luhua; Jin, Changwen; Wang, Jiwu; Xia, Bin

    2009-09-03

    Sans-fille (SNF) is the Drosophila homologue of mammalian general splicing factors U1A and U2B'', and it is essential in Drosophila sex determination. We found that, besides its ability to bind U1 snRNA, SNF can also bind polyuridine RNA tracts flanking the male-specific exon of the master switch gene Sex-lethal (Sxl) pre-mRNA specifically, similar to Sex-lethal protein (SXL). The polyuridine RNA binding enables SNF directly inhibit Sxl exon 3 splicing, as the dominant negative mutant SNF(1621) binds U1 snRNA but not polyuridine RNA. Unlike U1A, both RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SNF can recognize polyuridine RNA tracts independently, even though SNF and U1A share very high sequence identity and overall structure similarity. As SNF RRM1 tends to self-associate on the opposite side of the RNA binding surface, it is possible for SNF to bridge the formation of super-complexes between two introns flanking Sxl exon 3 or between a intron and U1 snRNP, which serves the molecular basis for SNF to directly regulate Sxl splicing. Taken together, a new functional model for SNF in Drosophila sex determination is proposed. The key of the new model is that SXL and SNF function similarly in promoting Sxl male-specific exon skipping with SNF being an auxiliary or backup to SXL, and it is the combined dose of SXL and SNF governs Drosophila sex determination.

  6. Thermal Evaluation for the Naval SNF Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Mitchell

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the thermal performance of the naval long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste package (WP) under multiple disposal conditions in a monitored geologic repository (MGR). The scope of this calculation is limited to determination of thermal temperature profiles upon the surface of, and within, the naval long SNF WP. The objective is to develop a temperature profile history within the WP, at time increments up to 10,000 years of emplacement. The results of this calculation are intended to support the Naval SNF WP Analysis and Model Report (AMR) for Site Recommendation (SR). This calculation was performed to the specifications within its Technical Development Plan (TDP) (Ref. 8.16). This calculation is developed and documented in accordance with the AP-3.12Q/REV. 0IICN. 0 procedure, Calculations.

  7. SWI/SNF in cardiac progenitor cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ienglam; Liu, Liu; Sham, Mai Har; Wang, Zhong

    2013-11-01

    Cardiogenesis requires proper specification, proliferation, and differentiation of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs). The differentiation of CPCs to specific cardiac cell types is likely guided by a comprehensive network comprised of cardiac transcription factors and epigenetic complexes. In this review, we describe how the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complexes work synergistically with transcription and epigenetic factors to direct specific cardiac gene expression during CPC differentiation. Furthermore, we discuss how SWI/SNF may prime chromatin for cardiac gene expression at a genome-wide level. A detailed understanding of SWI/SNF-mediated CPC differentiation will provide important insight into the etiology of cardica defects and help design novel therapies for heart disease.

  8. CONTAINMENT EVALUATION OF BREACHED AL-SNF FOR CASK TRANSPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Vinson, D. W.; Sindelar, R. L.; Iyer, N. C.

    2005-11-07

    Aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al-SNF) from foreign and domestic research reactors (FRR/DRR) is being shipped to the Savannah River Site. To enter the U.S., the cask with loaded fuel must be certified to comply with the requirements in the Title 10 of the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The requirements include demonstration of containment of the cask with its contents under normal and accident conditions. Al-SNF is subject to corrosion degradation in water storage, and many of the fuel assemblies are ''failed'' or have through-clad damage. A methodology has been developed with technical bases to show that Al-SNF with cladding breaches can be directly transported in standard casks and maintained within the allowable release rates. The approach to evaluate the limiting allowable leakage rate, L{sub R}, for a cask with breached Al-SNF for comparison to its test leakage rate could be extended to other nuclear material systems. The approach for containment analysis of Al-SNF follows calculations for commercial spent fuel as provided in NUREG/CR-6487 that adopts ANSI N14.5 as a methodology for containment analysis. The material-specific features and characteristics of damaged Al-SNF (fuel materials, fabrication techniques, microstructure, radionuclide inventory, and vapor corrosion rates) that were derived from literature sources and/or developed in laboratory testing are applied to generate the four containment source terms that yield four separate cask cavity activity densities; namely, those from fines; gaseous fission product species; volatile fission product species; and fuel assembly crud. The activity values, A{sub 2}, are developed per the guidance of 10CFR71. The analysis is performed parametrically to evaluate maximum number of breached assemblies and exposed fuel area for a proposed shipment in a cask with a test leakage rate.

  9. Accelerated Closure of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) project

    SciTech Connect

    RUTHERFORD, W.W.

    2001-02-01

    The K East and K West Basins, built in the early 1950s, have been used to store irradiated nuclear fuel from the Hanford N Reactor. This fuel, which is referred to as spent nuclear fuel (SNF), has been stored underwater since 1975 in KE Basin and since 1981 in KW Basin. There are 54,000 N Reactor fuel assemblies in 3,800 canisters in the K West Basin, and 51,000 fuel assemblies in 3,700 canisters in the K East Basin that total 2,100 metric tons of SNF.

  10. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    SciTech Connect

    Usang, M. D. Hamzah, N. S. Abi, M. J. B. Rawi, M. Z. M. Rawi Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-12

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  11. TRIGA MARK-II source term

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Hamzah, N. S.; J. B., Abi M.; M. Z., M. Rawi; Abu, M. P.

    2014-02-01

    ORIGEN 2.2 are employed to obtain data regarding γ source term and the radio-activity of irradiated TRIGA fuel. The fuel composition are specified in grams for use as input data. Three types of fuel are irradiated in the reactor, each differs from the other in terms of the amount of Uranium compared to the total weight. Each fuel are irradiated for 365 days with 50 days time step. We obtain results on the total radioactivity of the fuel, the composition of activated materials, composition of fission products and the photon spectrum of the burned fuel. We investigate the differences of results using BWR and PWR library for ORIGEN. Finally, we compare the composition of major nuclides after 1 year irradiation of both ORIGEN library with results from WIMS. We found only minor disagreements between the yields of PWR and BWR libraries. In comparison with WIMS, the errors are a little bit more pronounced. To overcome this errors, the irradiation power used in ORIGEN could be increased a little, so that the differences in the yield of ORIGEN and WIMS could be reduced. A more permanent solution is to use a different code altogether to simulate burnup such as DRAGON and ORIGEN-S. The result of this study are essential for the design of radiation shielding from the fuel.

  12. SNF5/INI1 Deficiency Redefines Chromatin Remodeling Complex Composition During Tumor Development

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Darmood; Goldfarb, Dennis; Song, Shujie; Cannon, Courtney; Yan, Feng; Sakellariou-Thompson, Donastas; Emanuele, Michael; Major, Michael B.; Weissman, Bernard E.; Kuwahara, Yasumichi

    2014-01-01

    Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors (MRTs), a pediatric cancer that most frequently appears in the kidney and brain, generally lack SNF5 (SMARCB1/INI1), a subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Recent studies have established that multiple SWI/SNF complexes exist due to the presence or absence of different complex members. Therefore, the effect of SNF5 loss upon SWI/SNF complex formation was investigated in human MRT cells. MRT cells and primary human tumors exhibited reduced levels of many complex proteins. Furthermore, re-expression of SNF5 increased SWI/SNF complex protein levels without concomitant increases in mRNA. Proteomic analysis, using mass spectrometry, of MRT cells before and after SNF5 re-expression indicated the recruitment of different components into the complex along with the expulsion of others. IP-Western blotting confirmed these results and demonstrated similar changes in other MRT cell lines. Finally, reduced expression of SNF5 in normal human fibroblasts led to altered levels of these same complex members. These data establish that SNF5 loss during MRT development alters the repertoire of available SWI/SNF complexes, generally disrupting those associated with cellular differentiation. These findings support a model where SNF5 inactivation blocks the conversion of growth promoting SWI/SNF complexes to differentiation inducing ones. Therefore, restoration of these complexes in tumors cells provides an attractive approach for the treatment of malignant rhabdoid tumors. Implications SNF5 loss dramatically alters SWI/SNF complex composition and prevents formation of complexes required for cellular differentiation. PMID:25009291

  13. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Bounding Drop Support Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    1999-11-16

    This report evaluates different drop heights, concrete and other impact media to which the transport package and/or the MCO is dropped. A prediction method is derived for estimating the resultant impact factor for determining the bounding drop case for the SNF Project.

  14. A rationale to target the SWI/SNF complex for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Anja F; Vakoc, Christopher R

    2014-08-01

    SWI/SNF is a multisubunit chromatin-remodeling complex that performs fundamental roles in gene regulation, cell lineage specification, and organismal development. Mutations that inactivate SWI/SNF subunits are found in nearly 20% of human cancers, which indicates that the proper functioning of this complex is necessary to prevent tumor formation in diverse tissues. Recent studies show that SWI/SNF-mutant cancers depend on residual SWI/SNF complexes for their aberrant growth, thus revealing synthetic lethal interactions that could be exploited for therapeutic purposes. Other studies reveal that certain acute leukemias and small cell lung cancers, which lack SWI/SNF mutations, can be vulnerable to inhibition of the SWI/SNF ATPase subunit BRG1, whereas several normal and malignant cell types do not show this sensitivity. Here, we review the emerging evidence that implicates SWI/SNF as a tumor-dependency and candidate drug target in human cancer.

  15. ORIGEN2 calculations supporting TRIGA irradiated fuel data package

    SciTech Connect

    Schmittroth, F.A.

    1996-09-20

    ORIGEN2 calculations were performed for TRIGA spent fuel elements from the Hanford Neutron Radiography Facility. The calculations support storage and disposal and results include mass, activity,and decay heat. Comparisons with underwater dose-rate measurements were used to confirm and adjust the calculations.

  16. CHARACTERISTICS OF NEXT-GENERATION SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) TRANSPORT AND STORAGE CASKS

    SciTech Connect

    Haire, M.J.; Forsberg, C.W.; Matveev, V.Z.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-10-03

    The design of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks used in the present SNF disposition systems has evolved from early concepts about the nuclear fuel cycle. The reality today is much different from that envisioned by early nuclear scientists. Most SNF is placed in pool storage, awaiting reprocessing (as in Russia) or disposal at a geologic SNF repository (as in the United States). Very little transport of SNF occurs. This paper examines the requirements for SNF casks from today's perspective and attempts to answer this question: What type of SNF cask would be produced if we were to start over and design SNF casks based on today's requirements? The characteristics for a next-generation SNF cask system are examined and are found to be essentially the same in Russia and the United States. It appears that the new depleted uranium dioxide (DUO2)-steel cermet material will enable these requirements to be met. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium in which a portion of the 235U isotope has been removed during a uranium enrichment process. The DUO2-steel cermet material is described. The United States and Russia are cooperating toward the development of a next-generation, dual-purpose, storage and transport SNF system.

  17. Lessons learned from CIRFT testing on SNF vibration integrity study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Howard, Rob L.; Scaglione, John M.

    2015-01-01

    A cyclic integrated reversible-bending fatigue tester (CIRFT) was developed to support U.S. NRC and DOE Used Fuel Disposition Campaign studies on high burn-up (HBU) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transportation during normal conditions of transport (NCT). Two devices were developed; the first CIRFT was successfully installed and operated in the ORNL hot-cells in September 2013. Since hot cell testing commenced several HBU SNF samples from both Zr-4 and M5 clads were investigated. The second CIRFT device was developed in February 2014, and has been used to test clad/fuel surrogate rods (stainless steel with alumina pellet inserts). The second CIRFT machine has also been used for sensor development and test sensitivity analyses, as well as loading boundary condition parameter studies. The lessons learned from CIRFT testing will be presented in this paper.

  18. SNF fuel retrieval sub project safety analysis document

    SciTech Connect

    BERGMANN, D.W.

    1999-02-24

    This safety analysis is for the SNF Fuel Retrieval (FRS) Sub Project. The FRS equipment will be added to K West and K East Basins to facilitate retrieval, cleaning and repackaging the spent nuclear fuel into Multi-Canister Overpack baskets. The document includes a hazard evaluation, identifies bounding accidents, documents analyses of the accidents and establishes safety class or safety significant equipment to mitigate accidents as needed.

  19. The Role of SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Hormone Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Sarnowska, Elzbieta; Gratkowska, Dominika M; Sacharowski, Sebastian P; Cwiek, Pawel; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; Siedlecki, Janusz A; Koncz, Csaba; Sarnowski, Tomasz J

    2016-07-01

    SWI/SNF-type ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) are evolutionarily conserved multiprotein machineries controlling DNA accessibility by regulating chromatin structure. We summarize here recent advances highlighting the role of SWI/SNF in the regulation of hormone signaling pathways and their crosstalk in Arabidopsis thaliana. We discuss the functional interdependences of SWI/SNF complexes and key elements regulating developmental and hormone signaling pathways by indicating intriguing similarities and differences in plants and humans, and summarize proposed mechanisms of SWI/SNF action on target loci. We postulate that, given their viability, several plant SWI/SNF mutants may serve as an attractive model for searching for conserved functions of SWI/SNF CRCs in hormone signaling, cell cycle control, and other regulatory pathways.

  20. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2017, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and SNF Payment Models Research. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2017. In addition, it specifies a potentially preventable readmission measure for the Skilled Nursing Facility Value-Based Purchasing Program (SNF VBP), and implements requirements for that program, including performance standards, a scoring methodology, and a review and correction process for performance information to be made public, aimed at implementing value-based purchasing for SNFs. Additionally, this final rule includes additional polices and measures in the Skilled Nursing Facility Quality Reporting Program (SNF QRP). This final rule also responds to comments on the SNF Payment Models Research (PMR) project.

  1. The SNF2H chromatin remodeling enzyme has opposing effects on cytokine gene expression.

    PubMed

    Precht, Patricia; Wurster, Andrea L; Pazin, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Cytokine gene expression is a key control point in the function of the immune system. Cytokine gene regulation is linked to changes in chromatin structure; however, little is known about the remodeling enzymes mediating these changes. Here we investigated the role of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme SNF2H in mouse T cells; to date, SNF2H has not been investigated in T cells. We found that SNF2H repressed expression of IL-2 and other cytokines in activated cells. By contrast, SNF2H activated expression of IL-3. The ISWI components SNF2H and ACF1 bound to the tested loci, suggesting the regulation was direct. SNF2H decreased accessibility at some binding sites within the IL2 locus, and increased accessibility within some IL3 binding sites. The changes in gene expression positively correlated with accessibility changes, suggesting a simple model that accessibility enables transcription. We also found that loss of the ISWI ATPase SNF2H reduced binding to target genes and protein expression of ACF1, a binding partner for SNF2H, suggesting complex formation stabilized ACF1. Together, these findings reveal a direct role for SNF2H in both repression and activation of cytokine genes.

  2. The SNF2H Chromatin Remodeling Enzyme Has Opposing Effects on Cytokine Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Precht, Patricia; Wurster, Andrea L.; Pazin, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Cytokine gene expression is a key control point in the function of the immune system. Cytokine gene regulation is linked to changes in chromatin structure; however, little is known about the remodeling enzymes mediating these changes. Here we investigated the role of the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling enzyme SNF2H in mouse T cells; to date, SNF2H has not been investigated in T cells. We found that SNF2H repressed expression of IL-2 and other cytokines in activated cells. By contrast, SNF2H activated expression of IL-3. The ISWI components SNF2H and ACF1 bound to the tested loci, suggesting the regulation was direct. SNF2H decreased accessibility at some binding sites within the IL2 locus, and increased accessibility within some IL3 binding sites. The changes in gene expression positively correlated with accessibility changes, suggesting a simple model that accessibility enables transcription. We also found that loss of the ISWI ATPase SNF2H reduced binding to target genes and protein expression of ACF1, a binding partner for SNF2H, suggesting complex formation stabilized ACF1. Together, these findings reveal a direct role for SNF2H in both repression and activation of cytokine genes. PMID:20471682

  3. Crystal Structure of the Heterotrimer Core of Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK Homologue SNF1

    SciTech Connect

    Amodeo,G.; Rudolph, M.; Tong, L.

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of energy homeostasis in mammals and is an attractive target for drug discovery against diabetes, obesity and other diseases. The AMPK homologue in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, known as SNF1, is essential for responses to glucose starvation as well as for other cellular processes, although SNF1 seems to be activated by a ligand other than AMP. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.6 resolution of the heterotrimer core of SNF1. The ligand-binding site in the {gamma}-subunit (Snf4) has clear structural differences from that of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe enzyme, although our crystallographic data indicate that AMP can also bind to Snf4. The glycogen-binding domain in the {beta}-subunit (Sip2) interacts with Snf4 in the heterotrimer but should still be able to bind carbohydrates. Our structure is supported by a large body of biochemical and genetic data on this complex. Most significantly, the structure reveals that part of the regulatory sequence in the {alpha}-subunit (Snf1) is sequestered by Snf4, demonstrating a direct interaction between the {alpha}- and {gamma}-subunits and indicating that our structure may represent the heterotrimer core of SNF1 in its activated state.

  4. Regulation of Mec1 kinase activity by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Prabodh; Bao, Yunhe; Xiao, Jing; Luo, Jie; Shen, Jianfeng; Persinger, Jim; Peng, Guang; Ranish, Jeff; Bartholomew, Blaine; Shen, Xuetong

    2015-03-15

    ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes alter chromatin structure through interactions with chromatin substrates such as DNA, histones, and nucleosomes. However, whether chromatin remodeling complexes have the ability to regulate nonchromatin substrates remains unclear. Saccharomyces cerevisiae checkpoint kinase Mec1 (ATR in mammals) is an essential master regulator of genomic integrity. Here we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is capable of regulating Mec1 kinase activity. In vivo, Mec1 activity is reduced by the deletion of Snf2, the core ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. SWI/SNF interacts with Mec1, and cross-linking studies revealed that the Snf2 ATPase is the main interaction partner for Mec1. In vitro, SWI/SNF can activate Mec1 kinase activity in the absence of chromatin or known activators such as Dpb11. The subunit requirement of SWI/SNF-mediated Mec1 regulation differs from that of SWI/SNF-mediated chromatin remodeling. Functionally, SWI/SNF-mediated Mec1 regulation specifically occurs in S phase of the cell cycle. Together, these findings identify a novel regulator of Mec1 kinase activity and suggest that ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes can regulate nonchromatin substrates such as a checkpoint kinase.

  5. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex influences transcription by RNA polymerase I in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinfeng; Anderson, Susan J; French, Sarah L; Sikes, Martha L; Viktorovskaya, Olga V; Huband, Jacalyn; Holcomb, Katherine; Hartman, John L; Beyer, Ann L; Schneider, David A

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a chromatin remodeling complex that affects transcription initiation and elongation by RNA polymerase II. Here we report that SWI/SNF also plays a role in transcription by RNA polymerase I (Pol I) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletion of the genes encoding the Snf6p or Snf5p subunits of SWI/SNF was lethal in combination with mutations that impair Pol I transcription initiation and elongation. SWI/SNF physically associated with ribosomal DNA (rDNA) within the coding region, with an apparent peak near the 5' end of the gene. In snf6Δ cells there was a ∼2.5-fold reduction in rRNA synthesis rate compared to WT, but there was no change in average polymerase occupancy per gene, the number of rDNA gene repeats, or the percentage of transcriptionally active rDNA genes. However, both ChIP and EM analyses showed a small but reproducible increase in Pol I density in a region near the 5' end of the gene. Based on these data, we conclude that SWI/SNF plays a positive role in Pol I transcription, potentially by modifying chromatin structure in the rDNA repeats. Our findings demonstrate that SWI/SNF influences the most robust transcription machinery in proliferating cells.

  6. High-Precision Mass Measurements At TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Knuth, K.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-04-01

    In order to study neutron-rich nuclides far from the valley of stability as well as long-lived actinoids the double Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP has been recently installed at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. Short-lived neutron-rich fission products are produced by thermal neutron-induced fission of an actinoid target installed close to the reactor core. A helium gas-jet system with carbon aerosol particles is used to extract the fission products to the experiment. The Penning trap system has already been commissioned. Off-line mass measurements are routinely performed using a recently developed laser ablation ion source, and the gas-jet system has been tested. An overview of the experiment and current status will be given.

  7. Implementation of an aerodynamic lens for TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grund, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Nagy, Sz.; van de Laar, J. J. W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the optimization of the gas-jet system employed to couple the TRIGA-SPEC experiment to the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. CdI2 aerosol particles suspended in N2 as carrier gas are used for an effective transport of fission products from neutron induced 235 U fission from the target chamber to a surface ion source. Operating conditions of the gas-jet were modified to enable the implementation of an aerodynamic lens, fitting into the limited space available in front of the ion source. The lens boosts the gas-jet efficiency by a factor of 4-10. The characterization of the gas-jet system as well as the design of the aerodynamic lens and efficiency studies are presented and discussed.

  8. TRIGA: Telecommunications Protocol Processing Subsystem Using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Jackson; Pingree, Paula J.; Torgerson, J. Leigh

    2006-01-01

    We present the Telecommunications protocol processing subsystem using Reconfigurable Interoperable Gate Arrays (TRIGA), a novel approach that unifies fault tolerance, error correction coding and interplanetary communication protocol off-loading to implement CCSDS File Delivery Protocol and Datalink layers. The new reconfigurable architecture offers more than one order of magnitude throughput increase while reducing footprint requirements in memory, command and data handling processor utilization, communication system interconnects and power consumption.

  9. Computational analysis of irradiation facilities at the JSI TRIGA reactor.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Luka; Zerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej

    2012-03-01

    Characterization and optimization of irradiation facilities in a research reactor is important for optimal performance. Nowadays this is commonly done with advanced Monte Carlo neutron transport computer codes such as MCNP. However, the computational model in such calculations should be verified and validated with experiments. In the paper we describe the irradiation facilities at the JSI TRIGA reactor and demonstrate their computational characterization to support experimental campaigns by providing information on the characteristics of the irradiation facilities. PMID:22154389

  10. Temperature feedback of TRIGA MARK-II fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usang, M. D.; Minhat, M. S.; Rabir, M. H.; M. Rawi M., Z.

    2016-01-01

    We study the amount of temperature feedback on reactivity for the three types of TRIGA fuel i.. ST8, ST12 and LEU fuel, are used in the TRIGA MARK II reactor in Malaysia Nuclear Agency. We employ WIMSD-5B for the calculation of kin f for a single TRIGA fuel surrounded by water. Typical calculations of TRIGA fuel reactivity are usually limited to ST8 fuel, but in this paper our investigation extends to ST12 and LEU fuel. We look at the kin f of our model at various fuel temperatures and calculate the amount reactivity removed. In one instance, the water temperature is kept at room temperature of 300K to simulate sudden reactivity increase from startup. In another instance, we simulate the sudden temperature increase during normal operation where the water temperature is approximately 320K while observing the kin f at various fuel temperatures. For accidents, two cases are simulated. The first case is for water temperature at 370K and the other is without any water. We observe that the higher Uranium content fuel such as the ST12 and LEU have much smaller contribution to the reactivity in comparison to the often studied ST8 fuel. In fact the negative reactivity coefficient for LEU fuel at high temperature in water is only slightly larger to the negative reactivity coefficient for ST8 fuel in void. The performance of ST8 fuel in terms of negative reactivity coefficient is cut almost by half when it is in void. These results are essential in the safety evaluation of the reactor and should be carefully considered when choices of fuel for core reconfiguration are made.

  11. English Teaching Profile: Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role and status of English instruction in Korea is outlined. The role of English in Korea as a whole, English instruction within the educational system, language teacher training, textbook use, educational administration, educational development and planning, English instruction outside of the educational system, British and American support…

  12. The Geography of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young-Han

    1988-01-01

    Briefly surveys the geography of both North and South Korea, examining mountain ranges, rivers, soil, and climate. Also discusses the economic activities of South Korea, including industrialization, transportation, population, and the urban system. Provides a map of the Korean peninsula and a table of land area and population by province. (GEA)

  13. Carbon Source-dependent assembly of the Snf1p kinase complex in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Corvey, Carsten; Koetter, Peter; Beckhaus, Tobias; Hack, Jeremy; Hofmann, Sandra; Hampel, Martin; Stein, Torsten; Karas, Michael; Entian, Karl-Dieter

    2005-07-01

    The Snf1p/AMP-activated kinases are involved in transcriptional, metabolic, and developmental regulation in response to stress. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Snf1p (Cat1p) is one of the key regulators of carbohydrate metabolism, and cat1 (snf1) mutants fail to grow with non-fermentable carbon sources. In Candida albicans, Snf1p is an essential protein and cells depend on a functional Snf1 kinase even with glucose as carbon source. We investigated the CaSnf1p complex after tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometric analysis and show that the complex composition changes with the carbon source provided. Three subunits were identified, one of which was named CaSnf4p because of its homology to the ScSnf4 protein and the respective CaSNF4 gene could complement a S. cerevisiae snf4 mutant. The other two proteins revealed similarities to the S. cerevisiae kinase beta subunits ScGal83p, ScSip2p, and ScSip1p. Both genes complemented the scaffold function in a S. cerevisiae gal83,sip1,sip2 triple deletion mutant and were named according to their scaffold function as CaKIS1p and CaKIS2p. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization peptide mass fingerprint analysis indicated that CaKis2p is N-terminal myristoylated and the incorporation of CaKis2p in the Snf1p complex was reduced when compared with cells grown with glucose as a carbon source. To verify the different complex assemblies, a stable isotope labeling technique (iTraqtrade mark) was employed, confirming a 3-fold decrease of CaKis2p with ethanol. Yeast two-hybrid analysis confirmed the interaction partners, and these results showed an activator domain for the CaKis2 protein that has not been reported for S. cerevisiae scaffold subunits.

  14. Diverse Roles and Interactions of the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex Revealed Using Global Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Davidov, Eugene; Gianoulis, Tara A.; Zhong, Guoneng; Rozowsky, Joel; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Gerstein, Mark B.; Snyder, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A systems understanding of nuclear organization and events is critical for determining how cells divide, differentiate, and respond to stimuli and for identifying the causes of diseases. Chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes including gene expression, nuclear organization, centromere function, and chromosomal stability, and mutations in SWI/SNF components have been linked to several types of cancer. To better understand the biological processes in which chromatin remodeling proteins participate, we globally mapped binding regions for several components of the SWI/SNF complex throughout the human genome using ChIP-Seq. SWI/SNF components were found to lie near regulatory elements integral to transcription (e.g. 5′ ends, RNA Polymerases II and III, and enhancers) as well as regions critical for chromosome organization (e.g. CTCF, lamins, and DNA replication origins). Interestingly we also find that certain configurations of SWI/SNF subunits are associated with transcripts that have higher levels of expression, whereas other configurations of SWI/SNF factors are associated with transcripts that have lower levels of expression. To further elucidate the association of SWI/SNF subunits with each other as well as with other nuclear proteins, we also analyzed SWI/SNF immunoprecipitated complexes by mass spectrometry. Individual SWI/SNF factors are associated with their own family members, as well as with cellular constituents such as nuclear matrix proteins, key transcription factors, and centromere components, implying a ubiquitous role in gene regulation and nuclear function. We find an overrepresentation of both SWI/SNF-associated regions and proteins in cell cycle and chromosome organization. Taken together the results from our ChIP and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that SWI/SNF facilitates gene regulation and genome function more broadly and through a greater diversity of interactions

  15. Diverse roles and interactions of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex revealed using global approaches.

    PubMed

    Euskirchen, Ghia M; Auerbach, Raymond K; Davidov, Eugene; Gianoulis, Tara A; Zhong, Guoneng; Rozowsky, Joel; Bhardwaj, Nitin; Gerstein, Mark B; Snyder, Michael

    2011-03-01

    A systems understanding of nuclear organization and events is critical for determining how cells divide, differentiate, and respond to stimuli and for identifying the causes of diseases. Chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF have been implicated in a wide variety of cellular processes including gene expression, nuclear organization, centromere function, and chromosomal stability, and mutations in SWI/SNF components have been linked to several types of cancer. To better understand the biological processes in which chromatin remodeling proteins participate, we globally mapped binding regions for several components of the SWI/SNF complex throughout the human genome using ChIP-Seq. SWI/SNF components were found to lie near regulatory elements integral to transcription (e.g. 5' ends, RNA Polymerases II and III, and enhancers) as well as regions critical for chromosome organization (e.g. CTCF, lamins, and DNA replication origins). Interestingly we also find that certain configurations of SWI/SNF subunits are associated with transcripts that have higher levels of expression, whereas other configurations of SWI/SNF factors are associated with transcripts that have lower levels of expression. To further elucidate the association of SWI/SNF subunits with each other as well as with other nuclear proteins, we also analyzed SWI/SNF immunoprecipitated complexes by mass spectrometry. Individual SWI/SNF factors are associated with their own family members, as well as with cellular constituents such as nuclear matrix proteins, key transcription factors, and centromere components, implying a ubiquitous role in gene regulation and nuclear function. We find an overrepresentation of both SWI/SNF-associated regions and proteins in cell cycle and chromosome organization. Taken together the results from our ChIP and immunoprecipitation experiments suggest that SWI/SNF facilitates gene regulation and genome function more broadly and through a greater diversity of interactions than

  16. Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.

    2007-02-28

    Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Safety Basis Implementation Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    TRAWINSKI, B.J.

    2000-02-08

    The objective of the Safety Basis Implementation is to ensure that implementation of activities is accomplished in order to support readiness to move spent fuel from K West Basin. Activities may be performed directly by the Safety Basis Implementation Team or they may be performed by other organizations and tracked by the Team. This strategy will focus on five key elements, (1) Administration of Safety Basis Implementation (general items), (2) Implementing documents, (3) Implementing equipment (including verification of operability), (4) Training, (5) SNF Project Technical Requirements (STRS) database system.

  18. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR UNCANISTERED SNF DISPOSAL CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Ziegler

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) uncanistered spent nuclear fuel (SNF) disposal container system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  19. TRIGA-SPEC: A setup for mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelaer, J.; Krämer, J.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eitel, G.; Ferrer, R.; Geppert, C.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Ketter, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Neugart, R.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Repp, J.; Smorra, C.; Trautmann, N.; Weber, C.

    2008-09-01

    The research reactor TRIGA Mainz is an ideal facility to provide neutron-rich nuclides with production rates sufficiently large for mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic studies. Within the TRIGA-SPEC project, a Penning trap as well as a beamline for collinear laser spectroscopy are being installed. Several new developments will ensure high sensitivity of the trap setup enabling mass measurements even on a single ion. Besides neutron-rich fission products produced in the reactor, also heavy nuclides such as 235U or 252Cf can be investigated for the first time with an off-line ion source. The data provided by the mass measurements will be of interest for astrophysical calculations on the rapid neutron-capture process as well as for tests of mass models in the heavy-mass region. The laser spectroscopic measurements will yield model-independent information on nuclear ground-state properties such as nuclear moments and charge radii of neutron-rich nuclei of refractory elements far from stability. TRIGA-SPEC also serves as a test facility for mass and laser spectroscopic experiments at SHIPTRAP and the low-energy branch of the future GSI facility FAIR. This publication describes the experimental setup as well as its present status.

  20. An RFQ cooler and buncher for the TRIGA-SPEC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Frömmgen, N.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Kaufmann, S.; Krieger, A.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörterhäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Smorra, C.; Will, E.

    2014-01-01

    A linear Paul trap for cooling of ion beams, the former cooler for emittance elimination radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ) at MISTRAL/ISOLDE, has been installed and commissioned at the TRIGA-SPEC experiment located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. It is connected to a hot-surface-ionization ion source and a subsequent mass separator for ionization and pre-separation of neutron-rich fission products as delivered from the reactor. The capability of accumulating and bunching ion beams has been implemented to provide low-emittance ion pulses of 250 ns width containing up to 106 ions. A technical description of the upgraded RFQ as well as its characterization with stable ions is presented. Its installation allows delivery of low-emittance ion bunches to the two branches of the TRIGA-SPEC experiment, namely TRIGA-TRAP and TRIGA-LASER.

  1. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthesis controls yeast gluconeogenesis downstream and independent of SNF1.

    PubMed

    Deroover, Sofie; Ghillebert, Ruben; Broeckx, Tom; Winderickx, Joris; Rolland, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose-6-P (T6P), an intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, was identified as an important regulator of yeast sugar metabolism and signaling. tps1Δ mutants, deficient in T6P synthesis (TPS), are unable to grow on rapidly fermentable medium with uncontrolled influx in glycolysis, depletion of ATP and accumulation of sugar phosphates. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We show that SNF1 deletion restores the tps1Δ growth defect on glucose, suggesting that lack of TPS hampers inactivation of SNF1 or SNF1-regulated processes. In addition to alternative, non-fermentable carbon metabolism, SNF1 controls two major processes: respiration and gluconeogenesis. The tps1Δ defect appears to be specifically associated with deficient inhibition of gluconeogenesis, indicating more downstream effects. Consistently, Snf1 dephosphorylation and inactivation on glucose medium are not affected, as confirmed with an in vivo Snf1 activity reporter. Detailed analysis shows that gluconeogenic Pck1 and Fbp1 expression, protein levels and activity are not repressed upon glucose addition to tps1Δ cells, suggesting a link between the metabolic defect and persistent gluconeogenesis. While SNF1 is essential for induction of gluconeogenesis, T6P/TPS is required for inactivation of gluconeogenesis in the presence of glucose, downstream and independent of SNF1 activity and the Cat8 and Sip4 transcription factors.

  2. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthesis controls yeast gluconeogenesis downstream and independent of SNF1.

    PubMed

    Deroover, Sofie; Ghillebert, Ruben; Broeckx, Tom; Winderickx, Joris; Rolland, Filip

    2016-06-01

    Trehalose-6-P (T6P), an intermediate of trehalose biosynthesis, was identified as an important regulator of yeast sugar metabolism and signaling. tps1Δ mutants, deficient in T6P synthesis (TPS), are unable to grow on rapidly fermentable medium with uncontrolled influx in glycolysis, depletion of ATP and accumulation of sugar phosphates. However, the exact molecular mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We show that SNF1 deletion restores the tps1Δ growth defect on glucose, suggesting that lack of TPS hampers inactivation of SNF1 or SNF1-regulated processes. In addition to alternative, non-fermentable carbon metabolism, SNF1 controls two major processes: respiration and gluconeogenesis. The tps1Δ defect appears to be specifically associated with deficient inhibition of gluconeogenesis, indicating more downstream effects. Consistently, Snf1 dephosphorylation and inactivation on glucose medium are not affected, as confirmed with an in vivo Snf1 activity reporter. Detailed analysis shows that gluconeogenic Pck1 and Fbp1 expression, protein levels and activity are not repressed upon glucose addition to tps1Δ cells, suggesting a link between the metabolic defect and persistent gluconeogenesis. While SNF1 is essential for induction of gluconeogenesis, T6P/TPS is required for inactivation of gluconeogenesis in the presence of glucose, downstream and independent of SNF1 activity and the Cat8 and Sip4 transcription factors. PMID:27189362

  3. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swi/Snf complex can catalyze formation of dimeric nucleosome structures in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Wladyslaw A; Vassiliev, Oleg L

    2010-08-10

    The Swi/Snf chromatin-remodeling complexes, human BAF/PBAF and yeast RSC, can catalyze formation of stably altered dimeric forms of nucleosomes. However, the ability to create remodeled dimers has not yet been reported for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Swi/Snf complex. Despite its similarity with the other Swi/Snf proteins, the yeast Swi/Snf complex features certain structural and functional differences. This raises the question of whether ySwi/Snf can in fact catalyze formation of dimeric nucleosomes. Dimer formation was proposed to have a specific impact on chromatin regulatory effects. Thus, the answer to the above question may be helpful in clarifying the ySwi/Snf functions in vivo and generalizing the notions of the regulatory principles of Swi/Snf family proteins. Here we describe ySwi/Snf-catalyzed formation of nucleosome dimers using mono- and dinucleosome templates assembled from purified histones and DNA of the high-affinity (601) nucleosome positioning sequence. We evaluated effects of nucleosome template geometry on the formation of altered dimers and assayed formation of altered nucleosome pairs on reconstituted dinucleosomes.

  4. The Roles of SNF2/SWI2 Nucleosome Remodeling Enzymes in Blood Cell Differentiation and Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Punit; Lennartsson, Andreas; Ekwall, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Here, we review the role of sucrose nonfermenting (SNF2) family enzymes in blood cell development. The SNF2 family comprises helicase-like ATPases, originally discovered in yeast, that can remodel chromatin by changing chromatin structure and composition. The human genome encodes 30 different SNF2 enzymes. SNF2 family enzymes are often part of multisubunit chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs), which consist of noncatalytic/auxiliary subunit along with the ATPase subunit. However, blood cells express a limited set of SNF2 ATPases that are necessary to maintain the pool of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and drive normal blood cell development and differentiation. The composition of CRCs can be altered by the association of specific auxiliary subunits. Several auxiliary CRC subunits have specific functions in hematopoiesis. Aberrant expressions of SNF2 ATPases and/or auxiliary CRC subunit(s) are often observed in hematological malignancies. Using large-scale data from the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) we observed frequent mutations in genes encoding SNF2 helicase-like enzymes and auxiliary CRC subunits in leukemia. Hence, orderly function of SNF2 family enzymes is crucial for the execution of normal blood cell developmental program, and defects in chromatin remodeling caused by mutations or aberrant expression of these proteins may contribute to leukemogenesis. PMID:25789315

  5. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes and cancer.

    PubMed

    Biegel, Jaclyn A; Busse, Tracy M; Weissman, Bernard E

    2014-09-01

    The identification of mutations and deletions in the SMARCB1 locus in chromosome band 22q11.2 in pediatric rhabdoid tumors provided the first evidence for the involvement of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in cancer. Over the last 15 years, alterations in more than 20 members of the complex have been reported in a variety of human tumors. These include germline mutations and copy number alterations in SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCE1, and PBRM1 that predispose carriers to both benign and malignant neoplasms. Somatic mutations, structural abnormalities, or epigenetic modifications that lead to reduced or aberrant expression of complex members have now been reported in more than 20% of malignancies, including both solid tumors and hematologic disorders in both children and adults. In this review, we will highlight the role of SMARCB1 in cancer as a paradigm for other tumors with alterations in SWI/SNF complex members and demonstrate the broad spectrum of mutations observed in complex members in different tumor types.

  6. Measurements of Fundamental Fluid Physics of SNF Storage Canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Condie, Keith Glenn; Mc Creery, Glenn Ernest; McEligot, Donald Marinus

    2001-09-01

    With the University of Idaho, Ohio State University and Clarksean Associates, this research program has the long-term goal to develop reliable predictive techniques for the energy, mass and momentum transfer plus chemical reactions in drying / passivation (surface oxidation) operations in the transfer and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from wet to dry storage. Such techniques are needed to assist in design of future transfer and storage systems, prediction of the performance of existing and proposed systems and safety (re)evaluation of systems as necessary at later dates. Many fuel element geometries and configurations are accommodated in the storage of spent nuclear fuel. Consequently, there is no one generic fuel element / assembly, storage basket or canister and, therefore, no single generic fuel storage configuration. One can, however, identify generic flow phenomena or processes which may be present during drying or passivation in SNF canisters. The objective of the INEEL tasks was to obtain fundamental measurements of these flow processes in appropriate parameter ranges.

  7. NSNFP Activities in Support of Repository Licensing for Disposal of DOE SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Henry H. Loo; Brett W.. Carlsen; Sheryl L. Morton; Larry L. Taylor; Gregg W. Wachs

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management is in the process of preparing the Yucca Mountain license application for submission to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as the nation’s first geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste. Because the DOE SNF will be part of the license application, there are various components of the license application that will require information relative to the DOE SNF. The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) is the organization that directs the research, development, and testing of treatment, shipment, and disposal technologies for all DOE SNF. This report documents the work activities conducted by the NSNFP and discusses the relationship between these NSNFP technical activities and the license application. A number of the NSNFP activities were performed to provide risk insights and understanding of DOE SNF disposal as well as to prepare for anticipated questions from the regulatory agency.

  8. SWI/SNF-directed stem cell lineage specification: dynamic composition regulates specific stages of skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Toto, Paula Coutinho; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Albini, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes are key regulators of the epigenetic modifications that determine whether stem cells maintain pluripotency or commit toward specific lineages through development and during postnatal life. Dynamic combinatorial assembly of multiple variants of SWI/SNF subunits is emerging as the major determinant of the functional versatility of SWI/SNF. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural and functional properties of the alternative SWI/SNF complexes that direct stem cell fate toward skeletal muscle lineage and control distinct stages of skeletal myogenesis. In particular, we will refer to recent evidence pointing to the essential role of two SWI/SNF components not expressed in embryonic stem cells-the catalytic subunit BRM and the structural component BAF60C-whose induction in muscle progenitors coincides with the expansion of their transcriptional repertoire. PMID:27207468

  9. SWI/SNF-directed stem cell lineage specification: dynamic composition regulates specific stages of skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Toto, Paula Coutinho; Puri, Pier Lorenzo; Albini, Sonia

    2016-10-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes are key regulators of the epigenetic modifications that determine whether stem cells maintain pluripotency or commit toward specific lineages through development and during postnatal life. Dynamic combinatorial assembly of multiple variants of SWI/SNF subunits is emerging as the major determinant of the functional versatility of SWI/SNF. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the structural and functional properties of the alternative SWI/SNF complexes that direct stem cell fate toward skeletal muscle lineage and control distinct stages of skeletal myogenesis. In particular, we will refer to recent evidence pointing to the essential role of two SWI/SNF components not expressed in embryonic stem cells-the catalytic subunit BRM and the structural component BAF60C-whose induction in muscle progenitors coincides with the expansion of their transcriptional repertoire.

  10. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century.

  11. Terrorism in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Soon Joo; Choi, Jin Tae; Arnold, Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    South Korea has experienced > 30 suspected terrorism-related events since 1958, including attacks against South Korean citizens in foreign countries. The most common types of terrorism used have included bombings, shootings, hijackings, and kidnappings. Prior to 1990, North Korea was responsible for almost all terrorism-related events inside of South Korea, including multiple assassination attempts on its presidents, regular kidnappings of South Korean fisherman, and several high-profile bombings. Since 1990, most of the terrorist attacks against South Korean citizens have occurred abroad and have been related to the emerging worldwide pattern of terrorism by international terrorist organizations or deranged individuals. The 1988 Seoul Olympic Games provided a major stimulus for South Korea to develop a national emergency response system for terrorism-related events based on the participation of multiple ministries. The 11 September 2001 World Trade Center and Pentagon attacks and the 2001 United States of America (US) anthrax letter attacks prompted South Korea to organize a new national system of emergency response for terrorism-related events. The system is based on five divisions for the response to specific types of terrorist events, involving conventional terrorism, bioterrorism, chemical terrorism, radiological terrorism, and cyber-terrorism. No terrorism-related events occurred during the 2002 World Cup and Asian Games held in South Korea. The emergency management of terrorism-related events in South Korea is adapting to the changing risk of terrorism in the new century. PMID:15074497

  12. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  13. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  14. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  15. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  16. 42 CFR 413.114 - Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a swing-bed hospital.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... NURSING FACILITIES Specific Categories of Costs § 413.114 Payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by a... provides for payment for posthospital SNF care furnished by rural hospitals and CAHs having a...

  17. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes.

    PubMed

    Strange, Rex Meade; Russelburg, L Peyton; Delaney, Kimberly J

    2016-08-01

    Although the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing has been well characterized, the evolution of spliceosomal proteins is poorly understood. The U1A/U2B″/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both the U1 and U2 small interacting nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The highly constrained nature of this system has inhibited an analysis of co-evolutionary trends between the proteins and their RNA binding targets. Here we report accelerated sequence evolution in the SNF protein family in Phylum Nematoda, which has allowed an analysis of protein:RNA co-evolution. In a comparison of SNF genes from ecdysozoan species, we found a correlation between trans-splicing species (nematodes) and increased phylogenetic branch lengths of the SNF protein family, with respect to their sister clade Arthropoda. In particular, we found that nematodes (~70-80 % of pre-mRNAs are trans-spliced) have experienced higher rates of SNF sequence evolution than arthropods (predominantly cis-spliced) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, this increased evolutionary rate correlates with the reliance on trans-splicing by nematodes, which would alter the role of the SNF family of spliceosomal proteins. We mapped amino acid substitutions to functionally important regions of the SNF protein, specifically to sites that are predicted to disrupt protein:RNA and protein:protein interactions. Finally, we investigated SNF's RNA targets: the U1 and U2 snRNAs. Both are more divergent in nematodes than arthropods, suggesting the RNAs have co-evolved with SNF in order to maintain the necessarily high affinity interaction that has been characterized in other species. PMID:27450547

  18. Review of Flow Models in GOTH_SNF for Spent Fuel MCO Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Kirkpatrick; Chris A. Dahl

    2003-09-01

    The present report is one of a series of three. The series provides an independent technical review of certain aspects of the GOTH_SNF code that is used for accident analysis of the multicanister overpack (MCO) that is proposed for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in the planned repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The work documented in the present report and its two companions was done under the auspices of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. The other reports in the series are DOE/SNF/REP-088 and DOE/SNF/REP-089. This report analyzes the model for flow through the fuel elements that is documented in the SNF report titled MCO Work Book GOTH_SNF Input Data.1 Reference 1 combined the multiple parallel paths through which the hot gases flow vertically inside the MCO into simpler paths. This report examines the assumptions used to combine the paths and concludes that there are other ways to combine the paths than the one used by GOTH_SNF. Two alternatives are analyzed, and the results are compared to those from the model used in GOTH_SNF. Both alternatives produced a higher pressure drop from the top to the bottom of the flow channel for a given flow velocity than did the approximation used in GOTH_SNF. Therefore, for a given pressure drop, the flow velocity given by the GOTH_SNF approximation will be lower than that from either of the two alternatives. The practical consequences of the differences in flow rate are not obvious. One way to evaluate the consequences is to repeat an important MCO calculation on GOTH_SNF using an altered hydraulic diameter (the one that produces the highest pressure drop for a given flow velocity) and see if the conclusions about the safety of the MCO are changed.

  19. Co-evolution of SNF spliceosomal proteins with their RNA targets in trans-splicing nematodes.

    PubMed

    Strange, Rex Meade; Russelburg, L Peyton; Delaney, Kimberly J

    2016-08-01

    Although the mechanism of pre-mRNA splicing has been well characterized, the evolution of spliceosomal proteins is poorly understood. The U1A/U2B″/SNF family (hereafter referred to as the SNF family) of RNA binding spliceosomal proteins participates in both the U1 and U2 small interacting nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs). The highly constrained nature of this system has inhibited an analysis of co-evolutionary trends between the proteins and their RNA binding targets. Here we report accelerated sequence evolution in the SNF protein family in Phylum Nematoda, which has allowed an analysis of protein:RNA co-evolution. In a comparison of SNF genes from ecdysozoan species, we found a correlation between trans-splicing species (nematodes) and increased phylogenetic branch lengths of the SNF protein family, with respect to their sister clade Arthropoda. In particular, we found that nematodes (~70-80 % of pre-mRNAs are trans-spliced) have experienced higher rates of SNF sequence evolution than arthropods (predominantly cis-spliced) at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels. Interestingly, this increased evolutionary rate correlates with the reliance on trans-splicing by nematodes, which would alter the role of the SNF family of spliceosomal proteins. We mapped amino acid substitutions to functionally important regions of the SNF protein, specifically to sites that are predicted to disrupt protein:RNA and protein:protein interactions. Finally, we investigated SNF's RNA targets: the U1 and U2 snRNAs. Both are more divergent in nematodes than arthropods, suggesting the RNAs have co-evolved with SNF in order to maintain the necessarily high affinity interaction that has been characterized in other species.

  20. China and Korea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... article title:  Dust Obscures Liaoning Province, China     View Larger Image ... acquired 16 days apart, covers the Liaoning region of China and parts of northern and western Korea. They contrast a relatively clear ...

  1. Development of the ageing management database of PUSPATI TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, Nurhayati; Maskin, Mazleha; Tom, Phongsakorn Prak; Husain, Nurfazila; Farid, Mohd Fairus Abd; Ramli, Shaharum; Adnan, Amirul Syazwan; Abidin, Nurul Husna Zainal

    2016-01-01

    Since its first criticality in 1982, PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) has been operated for more than 30 years. As RTP become older, ageing problems have been seen to be the prominent issues. In addressing the ageing issues, an Ageing Management (AgeM) database for managing related ageing matters was systematically developed. This paper presents the development of AgeM database taking into account all RTP major Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) and ageing mechanism of these SSCs through the system surveillance program.

  2. Mapping the interaction of Snf1 with TORC1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Vaga, Stefania; Chumnanpuen, Pramote; Kumar, Rahul; Vemuri, Goutham N; Aebersold, Ruedi; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient sensing and coordination of metabolic pathways are crucial functions for all living cells, but details of the coordination under different environmental conditions remain elusive. We therefore undertook a systems biology approach to investigate the interactions between the Snf1 and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We show that Snf1 regulates a much broader range of biological processes compared with TORC1 under both glucose- and ammonium-limited conditions. We also find that Snf1 has a role in upregulating the NADP(+)-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (encoded by GDH3) under derepressing condition, and therefore may also have a role in ammonium assimilation and amino-acid biosynthesis, which can be considered as a convergence of Snf1 and TORC1 pathways. In addition to the accepted role of Snf1 in regulating fatty acid (FA) metabolism, we show that TORC1 also regulates FA metabolism, likely through modulating the peroxisome and β-oxidation. Finally, we conclude that direct interactions between Snf1 and TORC1 pathways are unlikely under nutrient-limited conditions and propose that TORC1 is repressed in a manner that is independent of Snf1. PMID:22068328

  3. Chromatin remodeling enzyme Snf2h regulates embryonic lens differentiation and denucleation.

    PubMed

    He, Shuying; Limi, Saima; McGreal, Rebecca S; Xie, Qing; Brennan, Lisa A; Kantorow, Wanda Lee; Kokavec, Juraj; Majumdar, Romit; Hou, Harry; Edelmann, Winfried; Liu, Wei; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Zavadil, Jiri; Kantorow, Marc; Skoultchi, Arthur I; Stopka, Tomas; Cvekl, Ales

    2016-06-01

    Ocular lens morphogenesis is a model for investigating mechanisms of cellular differentiation, spatial and temporal gene expression control, and chromatin regulation. Brg1 (Smarca4) and Snf2h (Smarca5) are catalytic subunits of distinct ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes implicated in transcriptional regulation. Previous studies have shown that Brg1 regulates both lens fiber cell differentiation and organized degradation of their nuclei (denucleation). Here, we employed a conditional Snf2h(flox) mouse model to probe the cellular and molecular mechanisms of lens formation. Depletion of Snf2h induces premature and expanded differentiation of lens precursor cells forming the lens vesicle, implicating Snf2h as a key regulator of lens vesicle polarity through spatial control of Prox1, Jag1, p27(Kip1) (Cdkn1b) and p57(Kip2) (Cdkn1c) gene expression. The abnormal Snf2h(-/-) fiber cells also retain their nuclei. RNA profiling of Snf2h(-/) (-) and Brg1(-/-) eyes revealed differences in multiple transcripts, including prominent downregulation of those encoding Hsf4 and DNase IIβ, which are implicated in the denucleation process. In summary, our data suggest that Snf2h is essential for the establishment of lens vesicle polarity, partitioning of prospective lens epithelial and fiber cell compartments, lens fiber cell differentiation, and lens fiber cell nuclear degradation. PMID:27246713

  4. Snf1-Dependent Transcription Confers Glucose-Induced Decay upon the mRNA Product

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Katherine A.; Dombek, Kenneth M.

    2015-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the switch from respiratory metabolism to fermentation causes rapid decay of transcripts encoding proteins uniquely required for aerobic metabolism. Snf1, the yeast ortholog of AMP-activated protein kinase, has been implicated in this process because inhibiting Snf1 mimics the addition of glucose. In this study, we show that the SNF1-dependent ADH2 promoter, or just the major transcription factor binding site, is sufficient to confer glucose-induced mRNA decay upon heterologous transcripts. SNF1-independent expression from the ADH2 promoter prevented glucose-induced mRNA decay without altering the start site of transcription. SNF1-dependent transcripts are enriched for the binding motif of the RNA binding protein Vts1, an important mediator of mRNA decay and mRNA repression whose expression is correlated with decreased abundance of SNF1-dependent transcripts during the yeast metabolic cycle. However, deletion of VTS1 did not slow the rate of glucose-induced mRNA decay. ADH2 mRNA rapidly dissociated from polysomes after glucose repletion, and sequences bound by RNA binding proteins were enriched in the transcripts from repressed cells. Inhibiting the protein kinase A pathway did not affect glucose-induced decay of ADH2 mRNA. Our results suggest that Snf1 may influence mRNA stability by altering the recruitment activity of the transcription factor Adr1. PMID:26667037

  5. Proteomic and bioinformatic analysis of mammalian SWI/SNF complexes identifies extensive roles in human malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kadoch, Cigall; Hargreaves, Diana C; Hodges, Courtney; Elias, Laura; Ho, Lena; Ranish, Jeff; Crabtree, Gerald R

    2013-06-01

    Subunits of mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF or BAF) complexes have recently been implicated as tumor suppressors in human malignancies. To understand the full extent of their involvement, we conducted a proteomic analysis of endogenous mSWI/SNF complexes, which identified several new dedicated, stable subunits not found in yeast SWI/SNF complexes, including BCL7A, BCL7B and BCL7C, BCL11A and BCL11B, BRD9 and SS18. Incorporating these new members, we determined mSWI/SNF subunit mutation frequency in exome and whole-genome sequencing studies of primary human tumors. Notably, mSWI/SNF subunits are mutated in 19.6% of all human tumors reported in 44 studies. Our analysis suggests that specific subunits protect against cancer in specific tissues. In addition, mutations affecting more than one subunit, defined here as compound heterozygosity, are prevalent in certain cancers. Our studies demonstrate that mSWI/SNF is the most frequently mutated chromatin-regulatory complex (CRC) in human cancer, exhibiting a broad mutation pattern, similar to that of TP53. Thus, proper functioning of polymorphic BAF complexes may constitute a major mechanism of tumor suppression.

  6. The SWI/SNF tumor suppressor complex: Regulation of promoter nucleosomes and beyond.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ping; Roberts, Charles W M

    2013-01-01

    Nucleosomes, octamers of histones wrapped in 147 bp of DNA, are the basic unit of chromatin. In eukaryotic cells, the placement of nucleosomes along the genome is highly organized, and modulation of this ordered arrangement contributes to regulation of gene expression. The SWI/SNF complex utilizes the energy of ATP hydrolysis to mobilize nucleosomes and remodel chromatin structure. Recently, the complex has also been implicated in oncogenesis as genes encoding multiple SWI/SNF subunits have been found mutated at high frequency across a wide spectrum of cancers. Given that epigenetic aberrations are now characterized as a hallmark of human cancer, hypotheses have been put forth that the SWI/SNF complex inhibits tumor formation by regulating key chromatin functions. To understand how the SWI/SNF complex contributes to nucleosome organization in vivo we performed a genome-wide study in mammalian cells. We found that inactivation of SWI/SNF subunits leads to disruptions of specific nucleosome patterning and a loss of nucleosome occupancy at a large number of promoters. These findings define a direct relationship between the SWI/SNF complex, chromatin structure, and transcriptional regulation. In this extra view, we discuss our findings, their relevance to gene regulation, and possible links to the tumor suppression activities of the SWI/SNF complex.

  7. The spectrum of SWI/SNF mutations, ubiquitous in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Shain, A Hunter; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a multi-subunit chromatin remodeling complex that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to reposition nucleosomes, thereby modulating gene expression. Accumulating evidence suggests that SWI/SNF functions as a tumor suppressor in some cancers. However, the spectrum of SWI/SNF mutations across human cancers has not been systematically investigated. Here, we mined whole-exome sequencing data from 24 published studies representing 669 cases from 18 neoplastic diagnoses. SWI/SNF mutations were widespread across diverse human cancers, with an excess of deleterious mutations, and an overall frequency approaching TP53 mutation. Mutations occurred most commonly in the SMARCA4 enzymatic subunit, and in subunits thought to confer functional specificity (ARID1A, ARID1B, PBRM1, and ARID2). SWI/SNF mutations were not mutually-exclusive of other mutated cancer genes, including TP53 and EZH2 (both previously linked to SWI/SNF). Our findings implicate SWI/SNF as an important but under-recognized tumor suppressor in diverse human cancers, and provide a key resource to guide future investigations.

  8. Transport of fission products with a helium gas-jet at TRIGA-SPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eibach, M.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Herfurth, F.; Geppert, C.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Krämer, J.; Krieger, A.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Smorra, C.

    2010-02-01

    A helium gas-jet system for the transport of fission products from the research reactor TRIGA Mainz has been developed, characterized and tested within the TRIGA-SPEC experiment. For the first time at TRIGA Mainz carbon aerosol particles have been used for the transport of radionuclides from a target chamber with high efficiency. The radionuclides have been identified by means of γ-spectroscopy. Transport time, efficiency as well as the absolute number of transported radionuclides for several species have been determined. The design and the characterization of the gas-jet system are described and discussed.

  9. SNF Interim Storage Canister Corrosion and Surface Environment Investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David G.

    2015-09-01

    This progress report describes work being done at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to assess the localized corrosion performance of container/cask materials used in the interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of particular concern is stress corrosion cracking (SCC), by which a through-wall crack could potentially form in a canister outer wall over time intervals that are shorter than possible dry storage times. In order for SCC to occur, three criteria must be met. A corrosive environment must be present on the canister surface, the metal must susceptible to SCC, and sufficient tensile stress to support SCC must be present through the entire thickness of the canister wall. SNL is currently evaluating the potential for each of these criteria to be met.

  10. Effects of transportation of spent nuclear fuel on repository SNF performance

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Robert

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) destined for emplacement in a repository must be transported to the repository. Most worldwide experience with SNF transportation has been with low burnup SNF, Further, since much of the transported SNF was destined for reprocessing, the integrity of the fuel upon arrival was only a minimal concern. For repository emplacement, the long term performance of many of the barriers is crucial to the analytical predictions of overall performance of the repository over the long time spans which must be considered. As a result, the condition of the SNF after transportation is very important. This evaluation looks at the issues associated with SNF performance in a repository, specifically issues associated with high burnup fuel and transportation effects on cladding conditions. The issues associated with high-burnup fuels include hydride formation and post-irradiation temperatures that can lead to hydrogen embrittlement and hydride reorientation which can affect cladding integrity performance. Issues associated with effects of post-irradiation discharge wet and dry storage of SNF and effects on transportation as they relate to the integrity of the SNF cladding materials include the effects of potential oxidation of the fuel, as well as effects of transportation conditions due to vibration. The evaluation also considers how such issues, and the ability to address them, may be affected by the US DOE canister-based repository design approach. Experience in licensing SNF for transportation will be cited in developing suggestions for addressing these issues, and possible future activities which may be needed to further to address these issues will be identified. (author)

  11. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities for FY 2017, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and SNF Payment Models Research. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2017. In addition, it specifies a potentially preventable readmission measure for the Skilled Nursing Facility Value-Based Purchasing Program (SNF VBP), and implements requirements for that program, including performance standards, a scoring methodology, and a review and correction process for performance information to be made public, aimed at implementing value-based purchasing for SNFs. Additionally, this final rule includes additional polices and measures in the Skilled Nursing Facility Quality Reporting Program (SNF QRP). This final rule also responds to comments on the SNF Payment Models Research (PMR) project. PMID:27529900

  12. Potential dispositioning flowsheets for ICPP SNF and wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, A.L.; Anderson, P.A.; Bendixsen, C.L.

    1995-11-01

    The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INEL), has reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuels for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since 1953. This activity resulted mainly in the recovery of uranium and the management of the resulting wastes. The acidic radioactive high-level liquid waste was routinely stored in stainless steel tanks and then calcined to form a dry granular solid. The calcine is stored in stainless steel bins that are housed in underground concrete vaults. In April 1992, the DOE discontinued the practice of reprocessing irradiated nuclear fuels. This decision has left a legacy of 1.8 million gallons of radioactive liquid wastes (1.5 million gallons of radioactive sodium-bearing liquid wastes and 0.3 million gallons of high-level liquid waste), 3800 cubic meters of calcine waste, and 289 metric tons of heavy metal within unprocessed spent nuclear fuel (SNF) left in inventory at the ICPP. The nation`s radioactive waste policy has been established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA), which requires the final disposal of SNF and radioactive waste in accordance with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) standards. In accordance with these regulations and other legal agreements between the State of Idaho and the DOE, the DOE must, among other requirements, (1) complete a final Environmental Impact Statement by April 30, 1995, (2) evaluate and test sodium-bearing waste pre-treatment technologies, (3) select the sodium-bearing and calcine waste pre-treatment technology, if necessary, by June 1, 1995, and (4) select a technology for converting calcined waste into an appropriate disposal form by June 1, 1995.

  13. Main Principles of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia - 13333

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshnikov, Mikhail

    2013-07-01

    For the last several years the System of the Spent Nuclear Fuel management in Russia was seriously changed. The paper describes the main principles of the changes and the bases of the Perspective System of SNF Management in Russia. Among such the bases there are the theses with the interesting names like 'total knowledge', 'pollutant pays' and 'pay and forget'. There is also a brief description of the modern Russian SNF Management Infrastructure. And an outline of the whole System. The System which is - in case of Russia - is quite necessary to adjust SNF accumulation and to utilize the nuclear heritage. (authors)

  14. Review of Heat Transfer Models in GOTH_SNF for Spent Fuel MCO Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Kirkpatrick; Chris A. Dahl

    2003-09-01

    The present report is one of a series of three. The series provides an independent technical review of certain aspects of the GOTH-SNF code that is used for accident analysis of the multicanister overpack that is proposed for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in the planned repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The work documented in the present report and its two companions was done under the auspices of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. The other two reports in the series are DOE/SNF/REP-0871 and DOE/SNF/REP-089.2

  15. Volumes, Masses, and Surface Areas for Shippingport LWBR Spent Nuclear Fuel in a DOE SNF Canister

    SciTech Connect

    J.W. Davis

    1999-10-22

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate volumes, masses, and surface areas associated with (a) an empty Department of Energy (DOE) 18-inch diameter, 15-ft long spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister, (b) an empty DOE 24-inch diameter, 15-ft long SNF canister, (c) Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) SNF, and (d) the internal basket structure for the 18-in. canister that has been designed specifically to accommodate Seed fuel from the Shippingport LWBR. Estimates of volumes, masses, and surface areas are needed as input to structural, thermal, geochemical, nuclear criticality, and radiation shielding calculations to ensure the viability of the proposed disposal configuration.

  16. Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

    2010-06-01

    To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24°C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

  17. Modification of the Core Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Umar, Efrizon; Fiantini, Rosalina

    2010-06-22

    To accomplish safety requirements, a set of actions has to be performed following the recommendations of the IAEA safety series 35 applied to research reactor. Such actions are considered in modernization of the old system, improving the core cooling system and safety evaluations. Due to the complexity of the process and the difficulty in putting the apparatus in the reactor core, analytical and experimental study on the determination of flow and temperature distribution in the whole coolant channel are difficult to be done. In the present work, a numerical study of flow and temperature distribution in the coolant channel of TRIGA 2000 has been carried out using CFD package. For this study, simulations were carried out on 3-D tested model. The model consists of the reactor tank, thermal and thermalizing column, reflector, rotary specimen rack, chimney, fuel element, primary pipe, diffuser, beam tube and a part of the core are constructed by 1.50 million unstructured tetrahedral cell elements. The results show that for the initial condition (116 fuel elements in the core) and for the inlet temperature of 24 deg. C and the primary velocity of 5.6 m/s, there no boiling phenomena occur in the coolant channel. Due to this result, it is now possible to improve the core cooling system of TRIGA 2000 reactor. Meanwhile, forced flow from the diffuser system only affected the flow pattern in the outside of chimney and put on a small effect to the fluid flow's velocity in the inside of chimney.

  18. SWI/SNF complex in disorder: SWItching from malignancies to intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Santen, Gijs W E; Kriek, Marjolein; van Attikum, Haico

    2012-11-01

    Heterozygous germline mutations in components of switch/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes were recently identified in patients with non-syndromic intellectual disability, Coffin-Siris syndrome and Nicolaides-Baraitser syndrome. The common denominator of the phenotype of these patients is severe intellectual disability and speech delay. Somatic and germline mutations in SWI/SNF components were previously implicated in tumor development. This raises the question whether patients with intellectual disability caused by SWI/SNF mutations in the germline are exposed to an increased risk of developing cancer. Here we compare the mutational spectrum of SWI/SNF components in intellectual disability syndromes and cancer, and discuss the implications of the results of this comparison for the patients. PMID:23010866

  19. An assessment of KW Basin radionuclide activity when opening SNF canisters

    SciTech Connect

    Bergmann, D.W.; Mollerus, F.J.; Wray, J.L.

    1995-02-06

    N Reactor spent fuel is being stored in sealed canisters in the KW Basin. Some of the canisters contain damaged fuel elements. There is the potential for release of Cs 137, Kr 85, H3, and other fission products and transuranics (TRUs) when canisters are opened. Canister opening is required to select and transfer fuel elements to the 300 Area for examination as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Characterization program. This report estimates the amount of radionuclides that can be released from Mark II spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters in KW Basin when canisters are opened for SNF fuel sampling as part of the SNF Characterization Program. The report also assesses the dose consequences of the releases and steps that can be taken to reduce the impacts of these releases.

  20. Recent Optical Transients Found by SNF/PQ: Possible Blazars and a Dwarf Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djorgovski, S. G.; Nugent, P. E.; Glikman, E.; Mahabal, A.; Baltay, C.; Rabinowitz, D.

    2008-09-01

    Further to ATel #1694, additional transients found in the PQ data by the SNF pipeline, not associated with known radio sources, but possibly previously unidentified blazars, judging by their strong variability and blue colors, include:

  1. An Inhibited Conformation for the Protein Kinase Domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae AMPK Homolog Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph, M.; Amodeo, G; Tong, L

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator for controlling cellular energy homeostasis. Its homolog in yeast, SNF1, is activated in response to glucose depletion and other stresses. The catalytic ({alpha}) subunit of AMPK/SNF1 in yeast (Snf1) contains a protein Ser/Thr kinase domain (KD), an auto-inhibitory domain (AID) and a region that mediates interactions with the two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here, the crystal structure of residues 41-440 of Snf1, which include the KD and AID, is reported at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution. The AID is completely disordered in the crystal. A new inhibited conformation of the KD is observed in a DFG-out conformation and with the glycine-rich loop adopting a structure that blocks ATP binding to the active site.

  2. Lithium Storage in Heat-Treated SnF2 /Polyacrylonitrile Anode.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lian; Shen, Lanyao; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Liquan

    2015-06-01

    Tin(II) fluoride (SnF2 ) has a high Li-storage capacity because it stores lithium first by a conversion reaction and then by a Li/Sn alloying/dealloying reaction. A polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-bound SnF2 electrode was heat-treated to enhance the integral electrical contact and the mechanical strength through its cross-linked framework. The heat-treated SnF2 electrode showed reversible capacities of 1047 mAh g(-1) in the first cycle and 902 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles. Part of the excess capacity is due to lithium storage at the Sn/LiF interface, and the other part is assumed to correspond to the presence of reduced SnF2 with protons released during the thermal cross-linking of PAN. PMID:25925247

  3. TRIGA-SPEC: the prototype of MATS and LaSpec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, S.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Düllmann, Ch E.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Geppert, C.; Gorges, C.; Grund, J.; Hammen, M.; Krämer, J.; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W.; Renisch, D.; Schneider, F.; Wendt, K.

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of short-lived nuclei is a challenging task that MATS and LaSpec will handle at the low energy branch of Super-FRS at FAIR. The groundwork for those experiments is laid-out already today at the TRIGA-SPEC facility as a powerful development platform located at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz. The latest status, new developments and first results of commissioning runs are presented here.

  4. Environmental Assessment: Relocation and storage of TRIGA{reg_sign} reactor fuel, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    In order to allow the shutdown of the Hanford 308 Building in the 300 Area, it is proposed to relocate fuel assemblies (101 irradiated, three unirradiated) from the Mark I TRIGA Reactor storage pool. The irradiated fuel assemblies would be stored in casks in the Interim Storage Area in the Hanford 400 Area; the three unirradiated ones would be transferred to another TRIGA reactor. The relocation is not expected to change the offsite exposure from all Hanford Site 300 and 400 Area operations.

  5. Code System to Calculate Mixed Cores in TRIGA Mark II Research Reactor.

    2001-08-29

    Version 00 TRIGLAV is a computer program for reactor calculations of mixed cores in a TRIGA Mark II research reactor. It can be applied for fuel element burn-up calculations, for power and flux distributions calculations and for reactivity predictions. The TRIGLAV program requires the WIMS-D4 program with the original WIMS cross-section library extended for TRIGA reactor specific nuclides. This package includes the code TRIGAC, which is a new version of TRIGAP.

  6. Legal precedents regarding use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal transportation of SNF and HLW

    SciTech Connect

    Bentz, E.J. Jr.; Bentz, C.B.; O`Hora, T.D.; Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Risk assessment has become an increasingly important and essential tool in support of Federal decision-making regarding the handling, storage, disposal, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). This paper analyzes the current statutory and regulatory framework and related legal precedents with regard to SNF and HLW transportation. The authors identify key scientific and technical issues regarding the use and defensibility of risk assessment in Federal decision-making regarding anticipated shipments.

  7. Early-Stage Induction of SWI/SNF Mutations during Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nakazato, Hidetsugu; Takeshima, Hideyuki; Kishino, Takayoshi; Kubo, Emi; Hattori, Naoko; Nakajima, Takeshi; Yamashita, Satoshi; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tachimori, Yuji; Kuniyoshi, Yukio; Ushijima, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is frequently inactivated by somatic mutations of its various components in various types of cancers, and also by aberrant DNA methylation. However, its somatic mutations and aberrant methylation in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) have not been fully analyzed. In this study, we aimed to clarify in ESCC, what components of the SWI/SNF complex have somatic mutations and aberrant methylation, and when somatic mutations of the SWI/SNF complex occur. Deep sequencing of components of the SWI/SNF complex using a bench-top next generation sequencer revealed that eight of 92 ESCCs (8.7%) had 11 somatic mutations of 7 genes, ARID1A, ARID2, ATRX, PBRM1, SMARCA4, SMARCAL1, and SMARCC1. The SMARCA4 mutations were located in the Forkhead (85Ser>Leu) and SNF2 family N-terminal (882Glu>Lys) domains. The PBRM1 mutations were located in a bromodomain (80Asn>Ser) and an HMG-box domain (1,377Glu>Lys). For most mutations, their mutant allele frequency was 31-77% (mean 61%) of the fraction of cancer cells in the same samples, indicating that most of the cancer cells in individual ESCC samples had the SWI/SNF mutations on one allele, when present. In addition, a BeadChip array analysis revealed that a component of the SWI/SNF complex, ACTL6B, had aberrant methylation at its promoter CpG island in 18 of 52 ESCCs (34.6%). These results showed that genetic and epigenetic alterations of the SWI/SNF complex are present in ESCCs, and suggested that genetic alterations are induced at an early stage of esophageal squamous cell carcinogenesis.

  8. SWI/SNF mutant cancers depend upon catalytic and non–catalytic activity of EZH2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kimberly H.; Kim, Woojin; Howard, Thomas P.; Vazquez, Francisca; Tsherniak, Aviad; Wu, Jennifer N.; Wang, Weishan; Haswell, Jeffrey R.; Walensky, Loren D.; Hahn, William C.; Orkin, Stuart H.; Roberts, Charles W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Human cancer genome sequencing has recently revealed that genes encoding subunits of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are frequently mutated across a wide variety of cancers, and several subunits of the complex have been shown to have bona fide tumor suppressor activity1. However, whether mutations in SWI/SNF subunits result in shared dependencies is unknown. Here we show that EZH2, a catalytic subunit of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is essential in all tested cancer cell lines and xenografts harboring mutations of the SWI/SNF subunits ARID1A, PBRM1, and SMARCA4, which are several of the most frequently mutated SWI/SNF subunits in human cancer but that co–occurrence of a Ras pathway mutation correlates with abrogation of this dependence. Surprisingly, we demonstrate that SWI/SNF mutant cancer cells are primarily dependent upon a non–catalytic role of EZH2 in stabilization of the PRC2 complex, and only partially dependent on EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. These results not only reveal a shared dependency of cancers with genetic alterations in SWI/SNF subunits, but also suggest that EZH2 enzymatic inhibitors now in clinical development may not fully suppress the oncogenic activity of EZH2. PMID:26552009

  9. Drying Results of K-Basin Damaged/Corroded SNF Internal Sludge and Surface Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Abrefah, J.; Alexander, D.L.; Marschman, S.C.

    2000-09-21

    Experiments were performed using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)to study the drying behavior of the K-Basin spent nuclear fuel (SNF) internal sludge and two different surface coatings of SNF elements. These measurements were conducted in support of the safety and process analyses of the proposed Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) to move the N-Reactor fuel stored at K-Basin to an interim storage facility. These limited experiments on the corrosion products of K-Basin SNF material were part of the broad studies performed to ascertain the bounding pressurization of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO). Seven SNF internal sludge samples taken from different damage regions of three damaged/corroded outer K-Basin SNF elements were dried. Additionally, two surface coating samples taken from two SNF elements stored at K-West were tested. All the tests were performed in a vacuum atmosphere with the same temperature ramp rate of about 0.4 C/ min. Each TGA test sample was weighed before and after the test on a balance located in the Shielded Analytical Laboratory hot cell. The test samples were vacuum dried in the TGA system for about 24 hours prior to heating them at the rate of 0.4 C/min. The observations from the weight change data are summarized below.

  10. Coevolution of Drosophila snf protein and its snRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sandra G; Hall, Kathleen B

    2010-06-01

    SNF is a protein that is found in the U1 and U2 snRNPs (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins) of Drosophila. Its mammalian counterparts are two homologous proteins, U1A and U2B''. In vivo, these proteins segregate to the U1 and U2 snRNPs, respectively, where they bind distinct RNA hairpins. The RNA binding properties and mechanism of U1A have been studied extensively, but much less is known about SNF and U2B'' binding to their RNA targets. By comparing thermodynamic aspects of SNF-RNA interactions with those of U1A-RNA interactions, we find that SNF binds its RNA targets in a manner that is distinct from that of U1A. In vitro, SNF is able to bind both Drosophila U1 stem-loop II and U2 stem-loop IV with high affinity, although it binds stem-loop II more tightly than it binds stem-loop IV. Intriguingly, SNF is unable to bind human U2 stem-loop IV, which suggests that both the protein and RNAs have coevolved to interact with each other such that a single protein can bind RNAs that are more commonly bound by two distinct proteins.

  11. Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors as Novel Therapeutic Targets in SNF5-Deleted Malignant Rhabdoid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wöhrle, Simon; Jagani, Zainab; Thuery, Anne; Bauer-Probst, Beatrice; Reimann, Flavia; Stamm, Christelle; Pornon, Astrid; Romanet, Vincent; Guagnano, Vito; Brümmendorf, Thomas; Sellers, William R.; Hofmann, Francesco; Roberts, Charles W. M.; Graus Porta, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) are aggressive pediatric cancers arising in brain, kidney and soft tissues, which are characterized by loss of the tumor suppressor SNF5/SMARCB1. MRTs are poorly responsive to chemotherapy and thus a high unmet clinical need exists for novel therapies for MRT patients. SNF5 is a core subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex which affects gene expression by nucleosome remodeling. Here, we report that loss of SNF5 function correlates with increased expression of fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) in MRT cell lines and primary tumors and that re-expression of SNF5 in MRT cells causes a marked repression of FGFR expression. Conversely, siRNA-mediated impairment of SWI/SNF function leads to elevated levels of FGFR2 in human fibroblasts. In vivo, treatment with NVP-BGJ398, a selective FGFR inhibitor, blocks progression of a murine MRT model. Hence, we identify FGFR signaling as an aberrantly activated oncogenic pathway in MRTs and propose pharmacological inhibition of FGFRs as a potential novel clinical therapy for MRTs. PMID:24204904

  12. ARID1a-DNA interactions are required for promoter occupancy by SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Ronald L; Brennan, Jennifer; Schisler, Jonathan C; Serber, Daniel; Patterson, Cam; Magnuson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Every known SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex incorporates an ARID DNA binding domain-containing subunit. Despite being a ubiquitous component of the complex, physiological roles for this domain remain undefined. Here, we show that disruption of ARID1a-DNA binding in mice results in embryonic lethality, with mutant embryos manifesting prominent defects in the heart and extraembryonic vasculature. The DNA binding-defective mutant ARID1a subunit is stably expressed and capable of assembling into a SWI/SNF complex with core catalytic properties, but nucleosome substrate binding and promoter occupancy by ARID1a-containing SWI/SNF complexes (BAF-A) are impaired. Depletion of ARID domain-dependent, BAF-A associations at THROMBOSPONDIN 1 (THBS1) led to the concomitant upregulation of this SWI/SNF target gene. Using a THBS1 promoter-reporter gene, we further show that BAF-A directly regulates THBS1 promoter activity in an ARID domain-dependent manner. Our data not only demonstrate that ARID1a-DNA interactions are physiologically relevant in higher eukaryotes but also indicate that these interactions facilitate SWI/SNF binding to target sites in vivo. These findings support the model wherein cooperative interactions among intrinsic subunit-chromatin interaction domains and sequence-specific transcription factors drive SWI/SNF recruitment.

  13. SWI/SNF-mutant cancers depend on catalytic and non-catalytic activity of EZH2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kimberly H; Kim, Woojin; Howard, Thomas P; Vazquez, Francisca; Tsherniak, Aviad; Wu, Jennifer N; Wang, Weishan; Haswell, Jeffrey R; Walensky, Loren D; Hahn, William C; Orkin, Stuart H; Roberts, Charles W M

    2015-12-01

    Human cancer genome sequencing has recently revealed that genes that encode subunits of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are frequently mutated across a wide variety of cancers, and several subunits of the complex have been shown to have bona fide tumor suppressor activity. However, whether mutations in SWI/SNF subunits result in shared dependencies is unknown. Here we show that EZH2, a catalytic subunit of the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), is essential in all tested cancer cell lines and xenografts harboring mutations of the SWI/SNF subunits ARID1A, PBRM1, and SMARCA4, which are several of the most frequently mutated SWI/SNF subunits in human cancer, but that co-occurrence of a Ras pathway mutation is correlated with abrogation of this dependence. Notably, we demonstrate that SWI/SNF-mutant cancer cells are primarily dependent on a non-catalytic role of EZH2 in the stabilization of the PRC2 complex, and that they are only partially dependent on EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. These results not only reveal a shared dependency of cancers with genetic alterations in SWI/SNF subunits, but also suggest that EZH2 enzymatic inhibitors now in clinical development may not fully suppress the oncogenic activity of EZH2.

  14. South Korea's Economic Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihm, Chon-Sun

    1988-01-01

    Examines South Korea's economic development from being one of the poorest nations in the world in the 1950s to becoming a "rising giant" in international trade. Surveys the path to growth, the reasons for success, and problems and new challenges facing the country as it seeks developed nation status. (GEA)

  15. Dance Education in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byeon, Jae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Despite a structured physical education system and related policies, dance education in Korea largely exists as a course in name only, without achieving its unique goals. It lacks standards within the physical education curriculum, which indicates that dance education is not conducted properly. Thus, the content and level of dance education vary…

  16. Korea's School Grounds Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Joohun

    2003-01-01

    This article describes two projects which Korea has undertaken to improve its school grounds: (1) the Green School Project; and (2) the School Forest Pilot Project. The Korean Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development (MOE&HRI) recently launched the Green School Project centred on existing urban schools with poor outdoor environments.…

  17. Divided Korea: United Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  18. Tri-Gas Pressurization System Testing and Modeling for Cryogenic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, B.; Polsgrove, R.; Stephens, J.; Hedayat, A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of Tri-gas in rocket propulsion systems is somewhat of a new technology. This paper defines Tri-gas as a mixture of gases composed largely of helium with a small percentage of a stoichiometric mixture of hydrogen and oxygen. When exposed to a catalyst the hydrogen and oxygen in the mixture combusts, significantly raising the temperature of the mixture. The increase in enthalpy resulting from the combustion process significantly decreases the required quantity of gas needed to pressurize the ullage of the vehicle propellant tanks. The objective of this effort was to better understand the operating characteristics of Tri-gas in a pressurization system with low temperature applications. In conjunction with ongoing programs at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, an effort has been undertaken to evaluate the operating characteristics of Tri-gas through modeling and bench testing. Through improved understanding of the operating characteristics, the risk of using this new technology in a launch vehicle propulsion system was reduced. Bench testing of Tri-gas was a multistep process that targeted gas characteristics and performance aspects that pose a risk to application in a pressurization system. Pressurization systems are vital to propulsion system performance. Keeping a target ullage pressure in propulsions tanks is necessary to supply propellant at the conditions and flow rates required to maintain desired engine functionality. The first component of testing consisted of sampling Tri-gas sources that had been stagnant for various lengths of time in order to determine the rate at which stratification takes place. Second, a bench test was set up in which Tri-gas was sent through a catalyst bed. This test was designed to evaluate the performance characteristics of Tri-gas, under low temperature inlet temperatures, in a flight-like catalyst bed reactor. The third, most complex, test examined the performance characteristics of Tri-gas at low temperature temperatures

  19. Improvement of operational safety of dual-purpose transport packaging set for naval SNF in storage

    SciTech Connect

    Guskov, Vladimir; Korotkov, Gennady; Barnes, Ella; Snipes, Randy

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In recent ten years a new technology of management of irradiated nuclear fuel (SNF) at the final stage of fuel cycle has been intensely developing on a basis of a new type of casks used for interim storage of SNF and subsequent transportation therein to the place of processing, further storage or final disposal. This technology stems from the concept of a protective cask which provides preservation of its content (SNF) and fulfillment of all other safety requirements for storage and transportation of SNF. Radiation protection against emissions and non-distribution of activity outside the cask is ensured by physical barriers, i.e. all-metal or composite body, shells, inner cavities for irradiated fuel assemblies (SFA), lids with sealing systems. Residual heat release of SFA is discharged to the environment by natural way: through emission and convection of surrounding air. By now more than 100 dual purpose packaging sets TUK-108/1 are in operation in the mode of interim storage and transportation of SNF from decommissioned nuclear powered submarines (NPS). In accordance with certificate, spent fuel is stored in TUK-108/1 on the premises of plants involved in NPS dismantlement for 2 years, whereupon it is transported for processing to PO Mayak. At one Far Eastern plant Zvezda involved in NPS dismantlement there arose a complicated situation due to necessity to extend period of storage of SNF in TUK- 108/1. To ensure safety over a longer period of storage of SNF in TUK-108/1 it is essential to modify conditions of storage by removing of residual water and filling the inner cavity of the cask with an inert gas. Within implementation of the international 1.1- 2 project Development of drying technology for the cask TUK-108/1 intended for naval SNF under the Program, there has been developed the technology of preparation of the cask for long-term storage of SNF in TUK-108/1, the design of a mobile TUK-108

  20. Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6 in hydrothermal solutions-An experimental study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; I-Ming, C.

    1987-01-01

    Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6, which is used as the starting material, in hydrothermal solutions have been studied at 200-602??C and 1 kbar. Experimental results show that intense hydrolysis of Na2SnF6 occurs at high temperatures and that with the rise of temperature the hydrolysis will become more intense. Under the present experimental conditions the most possible existing form of Sn in the hydrothermal solutions is SnF3(OH) or Na2SnF3(OH). In addition, the hydrolysis constants for Na2SnF6 have also been calculated at 200-602??C, and the relationship between Na2SnF6 hydrolysis and temperature is discussed. ?? 1987 Science Press.

  1. Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin Differentially Regulate Expression of Genes of the SNF1-Related Kinase Complex in Tomato Seeds1

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Kent J.; Downie, A. Bruce; Gee, Oliver H.; Alvarado, Veria; Yang, Hong; Dahal, Peetambar

    2003-01-01

    The SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase subfamily plays central roles in metabolic and transcriptional responses to nutritional or environmental stresses. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and mammals, activating and anchoring subunits associate with and regulate the activity, substrate specificity, and cellular localization of the kinase subunit in response to changing nutrient sources or energy demands, and homologous SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) proteins are present in plants. We isolated cDNAs corresponding to the kinase (LeSNF1), regulatory (LeSNF4), and localization (LeSIP1 and LeGAL83) subunits of the SnRK1 complex from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). LeSNF1 and LeSNF4 complemented yeast snf1 and snf4 mutants and physically interacted with each other and with LeSIP1 in a glucose-dependent manner in yeast two-hybrid assays. LeSNF4 mRNA became abundant at maximum dry weight accumulation during seed development and remained high when radicle protrusion was blocked by abscisic acid (ABA), water stress, far-red light, or dormancy, but was low or undetected in seeds that had completed germination or in gibberellin (GA)-deficient seeds stimulated to germinate by GA. In leaves, LeSNF4 was induced in response to ABA or dehydration. In contrast, LeSNF1 and LeGAL83 genes were essentially constitutively expressed in both seeds and leaves regardless of the developmental, hormonal, or environmental conditions. Regulation of LeSNF4 expression by ABA and GA provides a potential link between hormonal and sugar-sensing pathways controlling seed development, dormancy, and germination. PMID:12857836

  2. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by Biochemically Distinct SWI/SNF Complexes.

    PubMed

    Raab, Jesse R; Resnick, Samuel; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-12-01

    Multiple positions within the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex can be filled by mutually exclusive subunits. Inclusion or exclusion of these proteins defines many unique forms of SWI/SNF and has profound functional consequences. Often this complex is studied as a single entity within a particular cell type and we understand little about the functional relationship between these biochemically distinct forms of the remodeling complex. Here we examine the functional relationships among three complex-specific ARID (AT-Rich Interacting Domain) subunits using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation, transcriptome analysis, and transcription factor binding maps. We find widespread overlap in transcriptional regulation and the genomic binding of distinct SWI/SNF complexes. ARID1B and ARID2 participate in wide-spread cooperation to repress hundreds of genes. Additionally, we find numerous examples of competition between ARID1A and another ARID, and validate that gene expression changes following loss of one ARID are dependent on the function of an alternative ARID. These distinct regulatory modalities are correlated with differential occupancy by transcription factors. Together, these data suggest that distinct SWI/SNF complexes dictate gene-specific transcription through functional interactions between the different forms of the SWI/SNF complex and associated co-factors. Most genes regulated by SWI/SNF are controlled by multiple biochemically distinct forms of the complex, and the overall expression of a gene is the product of the interaction between these different SWI/SNF complexes. The three mutually exclusive ARID family members are among the most frequently mutated chromatin regulators in cancer, and understanding the functional interactions and their role in transcriptional regulation provides an important foundation to understand their role in cancer.

  3. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by Biochemically Distinct SWI/SNF Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Raab, Jesse R.; Resnick, Samuel; Magnuson, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Multiple positions within the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex can be filled by mutually exclusive subunits. Inclusion or exclusion of these proteins defines many unique forms of SWI/SNF and has profound functional consequences. Often this complex is studied as a single entity within a particular cell type and we understand little about the functional relationship between these biochemically distinct forms of the remodeling complex. Here we examine the functional relationships among three complex-specific ARID (AT-Rich Interacting Domain) subunits using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation, transcriptome analysis, and transcription factor binding maps. We find widespread overlap in transcriptional regulation and the genomic binding of distinct SWI/SNF complexes. ARID1B and ARID2 participate in wide-spread cooperation to repress hundreds of genes. Additionally, we find numerous examples of competition between ARID1A and another ARID, and validate that gene expression changes following loss of one ARID are dependent on the function of an alternative ARID. These distinct regulatory modalities are correlated with differential occupancy by transcription factors. Together, these data suggest that distinct SWI/SNF complexes dictate gene-specific transcription through functional interactions between the different forms of the SWI/SNF complex and associated co-factors. Most genes regulated by SWI/SNF are controlled by multiple biochemically distinct forms of the complex, and the overall expression of a gene is the product of the interaction between these different SWI/SNF complexes. The three mutually exclusive ARID family members are among the most frequently mutated chromatin regulators in cancer, and understanding the functional interactions and their role in transcriptional regulation provides an important foundation to understand their role in cancer. PMID:26716708

  4. The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex modulates peripheral T cell activation and proliferation by controlling AP-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung Min; Lee, Changjin; Lee, Sung Kyu; Kim, Jieun; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2010-01-22

    The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex has been implicated in the activation and proliferation of T cells. After T cell receptor signaling, the SWI/SNF complex rapidly associates with chromatin and controls gene expression in T cells. However, the process by which the SWI/SNF complex regulates peripheral T cell activation has not been elucidated. In this study, we show that the SWI/SNF complex regulates cytokine production and proliferation of T cells. During T cell activation, the SWI/SNF complex is recruited to the promoter of the transcription factor AP-1, and it increases the expression of AP-1. Increased expression of the SWI/SNF complex resulted in enhanced AP-1 activity, cytokine production, and proliferation of peripheral T cells, whereas knockdown of the SWI/SNF complex expression impaired the AP-1 expression and reduced the activation and proliferation of T cells. Moreover, mice that constitutively expressed the SWI/SNF complex in T cells were much more susceptible to experimentally induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis than the normal mice were. These results suggest that the SWI/SNF complex plays a critical role during T cell activation and subsequent immune responses.

  5. SWI/SNF and Asf1 independently promote derepression of the DNA damage response genes under conditions of replication stress.

    PubMed

    Minard, Laura V; Lin, Ling-ju; Schultz, Michael C

    2011-01-01

    The histone chaperone Asf1 and the chromatin remodeler SWI/SNF have been separately implicated in derepression of the DNA damage response (DDR) genes in yeast cells treated with genotoxins that cause replication interference. Using genetic and biochemical approaches, we have tested if derepression of the DDR genes in budding yeast involves functional interplay between Asf1 and SWI/SNF. We find that Asf1 and SWI/SNF are both recruited to DDR genes under replication stress triggered by hydroxyurea, and have detected a soluble complex that contains Asf1 and the Snf2 subunit of SWI/SNF. SWI/SNF recruitment to DDR genes however does not require Asf1, and deletion of Snf2 does not affect Asf1 occupancy of DDR gene promoters. A checkpoint engagement defect is sufficient to explain the synthetic effect of deletion of ASF1 and SNF2 on derepression of the DDR genes in hydroxyurea-treated cells. Collectively, our results show that the DDR genes fall into a class in which Asf1 and SWI/SNF independently control transcriptional induction.

  6. Preparation for the Recovery of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) at Andreeva Bay, North West Russia - 13309

    SciTech Connect

    Field, D.; McAtamney, N.

    2013-07-01

    Andreeva Bay is located near Murmansk in the Russian Federation close to the Norwegian border. The ex-naval site was used to de-fuel nuclear-powered submarines and icebreakers during the Cold War. Approximately 22,000 fuel assemblies remain in three Dry Storage Units (DSUs) which means that Andreeva Bay has one of the largest stockpiles of highly enriched spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the world. The high contamination and deteriorating condition of the SNF canisters has made improvements to the management of the SNF a high priority for the international community for safety, security and environmental reasons. International Donors have, since 2002, provided support to projects at Andreeva concerned with improving the management of the SNF. This long-term programme of work has been coordinated between the International Donors and responsible bodies within the Russian Federation. Options for the safe and secure management of SNF at Andreeva Bay were considered in 2004 and developed by a number of Russian Institutes with international participation. This consisted of site investigations, surveys and studies to understand the technical challenges. A principal agreement was reached that the SNF would be removed from the site altogether and transported to Russia's reprocessing facility at Mayak in the Urals. The analytical studies provided the information necessary to develop the construction plan for the site. Following design and regulatory processes, stakeholders endorsed the technical solution in April 2007. This detailed the processes, facilities and equipment required to safely remove the SNF and identified other site services and support facilities required on the site. Implementation of this strategy is now well underway with the facilities in various states of construction. Physical works have been performed to address the most urgent tasks including weather protection over one of the DSUs, installation of shielding over the cells, provision of radiation

  7. 77 FR 68155 - The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute TRIGA Reactor: Facility Operating License No. R-84

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... the licensee to operate the AFFRI TRIGA Reactor up to a steady-state thermal power of 1.1 MW for an additional 20 years from the date of issuance. DATES: Submit comments by December 17, 2012. Requests for a... authorize the licensee to operate the AFFRI TRIGA Reactor up to a steady-state thermal power of 1.1 MW...

  8. 76 FR 69296 - University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION University of Utah, University of Utah TRIGA Nuclear Reactor, Notice of Issuance of Renewed... Test Reactor Licensing Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation... University of Utah (UU, the licensee), which authorizes continued operation of the UU TRIGA Nuclear...

  9. 78 FR 5840 - Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Notice of License Termination for University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor, License No. R-115... No. R-115, for the University of Illinois Advanced TRIGA Reactor (ATR). The NRC has terminated the..., Facility Operating License No. R-115 is terminated. The above referenced documents may be examined,...

  10. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  11. White Paper: Multi-purpose canister (MPC) for DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF)

    SciTech Connect

    Knecht, D.A.

    1994-04-01

    The paper examines the issue, What are the advantages, disadvantages, and other considerations for using the MPC concept as part of the strategy for interim storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF? The paper is based in part on the results of an evaluation made for the DOE National Spent Fuel Program by the Waste Form Barrier/Canister Team, which is composed of knowledgeable DOE and DOE-contractor personnel. The paper reviews the MPC and DOE SNF status, provides criteria and other considerations applicable to the issue, and presents an evaluation, conclusions, and recommendations. The primary conclusion is that while most of DOE SNF is not currently sufficiently characterized to be sealed into an MPC, the advantages of standardized packages in handling, reduced radiation exposure, and improved human factors should be considered in DOE SNF program planning. While the design of MPCs for DOE SNF are likely premature at this time, the use of canisters should be considered which are consistent with interim storage options and the MPC design envelope.

  12. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems.

  13. Mechanisms of regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Crozet, Pierre; Margalha, Leonor; Confraria, Ana; Rodrigues, Américo; Martinho, Cláudia; Adamo, Mattia; Elias, Carlos A.; Baena-González, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The SNF1 (sucrose non-fermenting 1)-related protein kinases 1 (SnRKs1) are the plant orthologs of the budding yeast SNF1 and mammalian AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase). These evolutionarily conserved kinases are metabolic sensors that undergo activation in response to declining energy levels. Upon activation, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases trigger a vast transcriptional and metabolic reprograming that restores energy homeostasis and promotes tolerance to adverse conditions, partly through an induction of catabolic processes and a general repression of anabolism. These kinases typically function as a heterotrimeric complex composed of two regulatory subunits, β and γ, and an α-catalytic subunit, which requires phosphorylation of a conserved activation loop residue for activity. Additionally, SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 kinases are controlled by multiple mechanisms that have an impact on kinase activity, stability, and/or subcellular localization. Here we will review current knowledge on the regulation of SNF1/AMPK/SnRK1 by upstream components, post-translational modifications, various metabolites, hormones, and others, in an attempt to highlight both the commonalities of these essential eukaryotic kinases and the divergences that have evolved to cope with the particularities of each one of these systems. PMID:24904600

  14. Structural basis for activation, assembly and membrane binding of ESCRT-III Snf7 filaments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaogeng; Henne, W Mike; Borbat, Peter P; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Freed, Jack H; Mao, Yuxin; Fromme, J Christopher; Emr, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) constitute hetero-oligomeric machines that catalyze multiple topologically similar membrane-remodeling processes. Although ESCRT-III subunits polymerize into spirals, how individual ESCRT-III subunits are activated and assembled together into a membrane-deforming filament remains unknown. Here, we determine X-ray crystal structures of the most abundant ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 in its active conformation. Using pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS), we show that Snf7 activation requires a prominent conformational rearrangement to expose protein-membrane and protein-protein interfaces. This promotes the assembly of Snf7 arrays with ~30 Å periodicity into a membrane-sculpting filament. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that mutations on these protein interfaces halt Snf7 assembly and block ESCRT function. The architecture of the activated and membrane-bound Snf7 polymer provides crucial insights into the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12548.001 PMID:26670543

  15. Extracellular Matrix-Regulated Gene Expression RequiresCooperation of SWI/SNF and Transcription Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ren; Spencer, Virginia A.; Bissell, Mina J.

    2006-05-25

    Extracellular cues play crucial roles in the transcriptional regulation of tissue-specific genes, but whether and how these signals lead to chromatin remodeling is not understood and subject to debate. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays and mammary-specific genes as models, we show here that extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules and prolactin cooperate to induce histone acetylation and binding of transcription factors and the SWI/SNF complex to the {beta}- and ?-casein promoters. Introduction of a dominant negative Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF complex, significantly reduced both {beta}- and ?-casein expression, suggesting that SWI/SNF-dependent chromatin remodeling is required for transcription of mammary-specific genes. ChIP analyses demonstrated that the ATPase activity of SWI/SNF is necessary for recruitment of RNA transcriptional machinery, but not for binding of transcription factors or for histone acetylation. Coimmunoprecipitation analyses showed that the SWI/SNF complex is associated with STAT5, C/EBP{beta}, and glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Thus, ECM- and prolactin-regulated transcription of the mammary-specific casein genes requires the concerted action of chromatin remodeling enzymes and transcription factors.

  16. DAF-16 employs the chromatin remodeller SWI/SNF to promote stress resistance and longevity.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Christian G; Dowen, Robert H; Lourenco, Guinevere F; Kirienko, Natalia V; Heimbucher, Thomas; West, Jason A; Bowman, Sarah K; Kingston, Robert E; Dillin, Andrew; Asara, John M; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-05-01

    Organisms are constantly challenged by stresses and privations and require adaptive responses for their survival. The forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor DAF-16 (hereafter referred to as DAF-16/FOXO) is a central nexus in these responses, but despite its importance little is known about how it regulates its target genes. Proteomic identification of DAF-16/FOXO-binding partners in Caenorhabditis elegans and their subsequent functional evaluation by RNA interference revealed several candidate DAF-16/FOXO cofactors, most notably the chromatin remodeller SWI/SNF. DAF-16/FOXO and SWI/SNF form a complex and globally co-localize at DAF-16/FOXO target promoters. We show that specifically for gene activation, DAF-16/FOXO depends on SWI/SNF, facilitating SWI/SNF recruitment to target promoters, to activate transcription by presumed remodelling of local chromatin. For the animal, this translates into an essential role for SWI/SNF in DAF-16/FOXO-mediated processes, in particular dauer formation, stress resistance and the promotion of longevity. Thus, we give insight into the mechanisms of DAF-16/FOXO-mediated transcriptional regulation and establish a critical link between ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling and lifespan regulation.

  17. Understanding aging in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, G; Eun, K

    1995-12-01

    "This study discusses demographic trends, sociocultural characteristics, and policy choices of aging in [South] Korea.... Although the proportion of the elderly was not so high as to worry about aging before 1990, it is projected that one in eight Koreans will be aged 65 or more in 2020. Because the care for the elderly is mostly expected to be provided by each family, not by the state or Korean society, the role of the family is pivotal in coping with [the] aging problem.... Although adult children currently understand that their aged parents need assistance and support from them, they want to solve the issue of support for the elderly in a way different from the traditional.... This paper examines how the changing attitude toward the old is reflected in family life in terms of living arrangement and physical contacts. This paper also describes and discusses the current situation of various welfare policies on the elderly in Korea."

  18. Welcome to Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Youngah

    2009-04-01

    Distinguished Guests and Speakers, Ladies and Gentlemen! On behalf of the Local Organizing Committee, it is my great privilege to welcome all of you to the Third IUPAP International Conference on Women in Physics. Actually, it is quite timely that this Conference is held here in Seoul, Korea, just eight months after our President Lee Myung-bak was inaugurated, because our new President has placed great emphasis on science and technology, particularly basic research.

  19. Thermal hydraulics modeling of the US Geological Survey TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkaabi, Ahmed K.

    The Geological Survey TRIGA reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW Mark I TRIGA reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. Single channel GSTR thermal hydraulics models built using RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, TRACE, and COMSOL Multiphysics predict the fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures as a function of position in the core. The results from the RELAP5/MOD3.3, RELAP5-3D, and COMSOL models are similar. The TRACE model predicts significantly higher temperatures, potentially resulting from inappropriate convection correlations. To more accurately study the complex fluid flow patterns within the core, this research develops detailed RELAP5/MOD3.3 and COMSOL multichannel models of the GSTR core. The multichannel models predict lower fuel, outer clad, and coolant temperatures compared to the single channel models by up to 16.7°C, 4.8°C, and 9.6°C, respectively, as a result of the higher mass flow rates predicted by these models. The single channel models and the RELAP5/MOD3.3 multichannel model predict that the coolant temperatures in all fuel rings rise axially with core height, as the coolant in these models flows predominantly in the axial direction. The coolant temperatures predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model rise with core height in the B-, C-, and D-rings and peak and then decrease in the E-, F-, and G-rings, as the coolant tends to flow from the bottom sides of the core to the center of the core in this model. Experiments at the GSTR measured coolant temperatures in the GSTR core to validate the developed models. The axial temperature profiles measured in the GSTR show that the flow patterns predicted by the COMSOL multichannel model are consistent with the actual conditions in the core. Adjusting the RELAP5/MOD3.3 single and multichannel models by modifying the axial and cross-flow areas allow them to better predict the GSTR coolant temperatures; however, the adjusted models still fail to predict accurate axial temperature profiles in the E-, F-, and G-rings.

  20. Enhanced amino acid utilization sustains growth of cells lacking Snf1/AMPK.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Guzzi, Cinzia; Reghellin, Veronica; Khoomrung, Sakda; Capusoni, Claudia; Compagno, Concetta; Airoldi, Cristina; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Coccetti, Paola

    2015-07-01

    The metabolism of proliferating cells shows common features even in evolutionary distant organisms such as mammals and yeasts, for example the requirement for anabolic processes under tight control of signaling pathways. Analysis of the rewiring of metabolism, which occurs following the dysregulation of signaling pathways, provides new knowledge about the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation. The key energy regulator in yeast Snf1 and its mammalian ortholog AMPK have earlier been shown to have similar functions at glucose limited conditions and here we show that they also have analogies when grown with glucose excess. We show that loss of Snf1 in cells growing in 2% glucose induces an extensive transcriptional reprogramming, enhances glycolytic activity, fatty acid accumulation and reliance on amino acid utilization for growth. Strikingly, we demonstrate that Snf1/AMPK-deficient cells remodel their metabolism fueling mitochondria and show glucose and amino acids addiction, a typical hallmark of cancer cells.

  1. Dose Calculations for the Codsiposal WP of HLW Glass and the Shippingport LWBR SNF

    SciTech Connect

    G. Radulescu

    1999-11-05

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the surface dose rates of a codisposal waste package (WP) containing an intact seed assembly of the Shippingport light-water breeder reactor (LWBR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) high-level waste (HLW) in glass form. The Shippingport LWBR SNF is loaded in a Department of Energy (DOE) standardized 18-in. canister. The canister is surrounded by five 4.5-m-long Hanford pour canisters containing the HLW glass. Gamma dose rate calculation for the WP containing only the HLW glass is also performed. The results will provide information about the contribution of DOE SNF to the total dose rate on the WP surfaces.

  2. Resveratrol increases glycolytic flux in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via a SNF1-dependet mechanism.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Perez, Luis Alberto; Nava, Gerardo M; González-Hernández, Juan Carlos; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that AMP protein kinase (AMPK) is the main target of the phytochemical resveratrol (RSV) in mammalian cells. Data also indicates that RSV stimulates glucose metabolism; however, the molecular link between RSV and glucose uptake remains unknown. Herein, we provide evidence indicating that RSV stimulates glycolysis via sucrose non-fermenting 1 gene (SNF1, Saccharomyces cerevisiae orthologous of AMPK). S. cerevisiae cultures treated with 30 μM RSV showed an increase in extracellular acidification rate compared to untreated cells, indicating an elevated glycolytic flux. Also, RSV treatment increased transcription levels of two key glycolytic genes, hexokinase 2 (HXK2) and phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), as well as production of NADH. Moreover, RSV treatment inhibited mitochondrial respiration when glucose was used as a carbon source. Importantly, the effects of RSV on glycolysis were dependent of SNF1. Taken together, these findings suggest that SNF1 (AMPK in mammalian systems) is the molecular target of RSV in S. cerevisiae.

  3. A New Way Forward in Cancer Drug Discovery: Inhibiting the SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Complex.

    PubMed

    Zinzalla, Giovanna

    2016-04-15

    Mutations in subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex are found in 20 % of human cancers. At face value, this would appear to indicate that this multiprotein complex is a potent tumour suppressor. However, it has recently emerged that some mutations in the SWI/SNF complex can have a gain-of-function effect and that in other tumours, such as pancreatic cancer, leukaemia, and breast cancer, the wild-type complex is used to drive cancer. Thus, paradoxically, this "tumour suppressor" has become an attractive target for developing anticancer agents. The SWI/SNF complex makes several protein-protein interactions both within the complex and with a wide range of transcription factors, and targeting these protein-protein interactions is emerging as the best approach to modulating the activity of the complex selectively.

  4. Transcriptional activation by pRB and its coordination with SWI/SNF recruitment.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Stephen; Beck, George R; Moran, Elizabeth

    2010-11-01

    A central question in cancer biology is why most tumor susceptibility genes are linked with only limited types of cancer. Human germ-line mutation of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene Rb1 is closely linked with just retinoblastoma and osteosarcoma, although the gene is universally expressed. Functional analysis of pRB and its close relatives, p107 and p130, has largely focused on their roles in repression of proliferation across all tissue types, but genetic evidence indicates an active requirement for pRB in osteoblast differentiation that correlates more directly with osteosarcoma susceptibility. Still, potential promoter targets of pRB and its role in normally differentiating osteoblasts remain insufficiently characterized. Here, an early marker of osteoblast differentiation, alkaline phosphatase, is identified as a direct promoter activation target of pRB. One role of pRB on this promoter is to displace the histone lysine demethylase KDM5A, thereby favoring trimethylation of H3K4, a promoter activation mark. A major new aspect of pRB-mediated transcriptional activation revealed in this promoter analysis is its role in recruitment of an activating SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. SWI/SNF is a critical coordinator of tissue-specific gene expression. In osteoblasts, SWI/SNF complexes containing the BRM ATPase repress osteoblast-specific genes to maintain the precursor state, whereas the alternative ATPase BRG1 distinguishes an activating SWI/SNF complex necessary for RNA polymerase-II recruitment. A switch from BRM to BRG1 on the alkaline phosphatase promoter marks the onset of differentiation and is accomplished in a precise two-step mechanism. Dissociation of BRM-containing SWI/SNF depends on p300, and association of BRG1-containing SWI/SNF depends on pRB.

  5. SWI/SNF complexes are required for full activation of the DNA-damage response.

    PubMed

    Smith-Roe, Stephanie L; Nakamura, Jun; Holley, Darcy; Chastain, Paul D; Rosson, Gary B; Simpson, Dennis A; Ridpath, John R; Kaufman, David G; Kaufmann, William K; Bultman, Scott J

    2015-01-20

    SWI/SNF complexes utilize BRG1 (also known as SMARCA4) or BRM (also known as SMARCA2) as alternative catalytic subunits with ATPase activity to remodel chromatin. These chromatin-remodeling complexes are required for mammalian development and are mutated in ~20% of all human primary tumors. Yet our knowledge of their tumor-suppressor mechanism is limited. To investigate the role of SWI/SNF complexes in the DNA-damage response (DDR), we used shRNAs to deplete BRG1 and BRM and then exposed these cells to a panel of 6 genotoxic agents. Compared to controls, the shRNA knockdown cells were hypersensitive to certain genotoxic agents that cause double-strand breaks (DSBs) associated with stalled/collapsed replication forks but not to ionizing radiation-induced DSBs that arise independently of DNA replication. These findings were supported by our analysis of DDR kinases, which demonstrated a more prominent role for SWI/SNF in the activation of the ATR-Chk1 pathway than the ATM-Chk2 pathway. Surprisingly, γH2AX induction was attenuated in shRNA knockdown cells exposed to a topoisomerase II inhibitor (etoposide) but not to other genotoxic agents including IR. However, this finding is compatible with recent studies linking SWI/SNF with TOP2A and TOP2BP1. Depletion of BRG1 and BRM did not result in genomic instability in a tumor-derived cell line but did result in nucleoplasmic bridges in normal human fibroblasts. Taken together, these results suggest that SWI/SNF tumor-suppressor activity involves a role in the DDR to attenuate replicative stress and genomic instability. These results may also help to inform the selection of chemotherapeutics for tumors deficient for SWI/SNF function.

  6. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex: Its role in maintaining genome stability and preventing tumourigenesis.

    PubMed

    Brownlee, Peter M; Meisenberg, Cornelia; Downs, Jessica A

    2015-08-01

    Genes encoding subunits of the two SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complexes (BAF and PBAF) are mutated in almost 20% of all human cancers. In addition to a role in regulating transcription, recent work from our laboratory and others identified roles for both complexes in DNA damage responses and the maintenance of sister chromatid cohesion, which may have profound impacts on genome stability and contribute to its role as a tumour suppressor. Here, we review some of the transcription-independent functions of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex and discuss these in light of their potential relevance to tumourigenesis.

  7. Beyond Mutations: Additional Mechanisms and Implications of SWI/SNF Complex Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Stefanie B.; Thompson, Kenneth W.; Lu, Li; Reisman, David

    2015-01-01

    SWI/SNF is a major regulator of gene expression. Its role is to facilitate the shifting and exposure of DNA segments within the promoter and other key domains to transcription factors and other essential cellular proteins. This complex interacts with a wide range of proteins and does not function within a single, specific pathway; thus, it is involved in a multitude of cellular processes, including DNA repair, differentiation, development, cell adhesion, and growth control. Given SWI/SNF’s prominent role in these processes, many of which are important for blocking cancer development, it is not surprising that the SWI/SNF complex is targeted during cancer initiation and progression both by mutations and by non-mutational mechanisms. Currently, the understanding of the types of alterations, their frequency, and their impact on the SWI/SNF subunits is an area of intense research that has been bolstered by a recent cadre of NextGen sequencing studies. These studies have revealed mutations in SWI/SNF subunits, indicating that this complex is thus important for cancer development. The purpose of this review is to put into perspective the role of mutations versus other mechanisms in the silencing of SWI/SNF subunits, in particular, BRG1 and BRM. In addition, this review explores the recent development of synthetic lethality and how it applies to this complex, as well as how BRM polymorphisms are becoming recognized as potential clinical biomarkers for cancer risk. Significance: Recent reviews have detailed the occurrence of mutations in nearly all SWI/SNF subunits, which indicates that this complex is an important target for cancer. However, when the frequency of mutations in a given tumor type is compared to the frequency of subunit loss, it becomes clear that other non-mutational mechanisms must play a role in the inactivation of SWI/SNF subunits. Such data indicate that epigenetic mechanisms that are known to regulate BRM may also be involved in the loss of

  8. [SWI/SNF Protein Complexes Participate in the Initiation and Elongation Stages of Drosophila hsp70 Gene Transcription].

    PubMed

    Mazina, M Yu; Nikolenko, Yu V; Krasnov, A N; Vorobyeva, N E

    2016-02-01

    The participation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in the stimulation of the RNA polymerase II binding to gene promotors was demonstrated in all model eukaryotic organisms. It was shown eight years ago that the SWI/SNF complex influence on transcription is not limited to its role in initiation but also includes participation in elongation and alternative splicing. In the current work, we describe the subunit composition of the SWI/SNF complexes participating in initiation, preparing for the elongation and elongation of hsp70 gene transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. The data reveal the high mobility of the SWI/SNF complex composition during the hsp 70 gene transcription process. We suggest a model describing the process of sequential SWI/SNF complex formation during heat-shock induced transcription of the hsp 70 gene. PMID:27215030

  9. Molecular pathways: SWI/SNF (BAF) complexes are frequently mutated in cancer--mechanisms and potential therapeutic insights.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofeng; Haswell, Jeffrey R; Roberts, Charles W M

    2014-01-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes are pleomorphic multisubunit cellular machines that utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to modulate chromatin structure. The complexes interact with transcription factors at promoters and enhancers to modulate gene expression and contribute to lineage specification, differentiation, and development. Initial clues to a role in tumor suppression for SWI/SNF complexes came over a decade ago when the gene encoding the SMARCB1/SNF5 core subunit was found specifically inactivated in nearly all pediatric rhabdoid tumors. In the last three years, cancer-genome sequencing efforts have revealed an unexpectedly high mutation rate of SWI/SNF subunit genes, which are collectively mutated in 20% of all human cancers and approach the frequency of p53 mutations. Here, we provide a background on these newly recognized tumor suppressor complexes, discuss mechanisms implicated in the tumor suppressor activity, and highlight findings that may lead to potential therapeutic targets for SWI/SNF-mutant cancers.

  10. [SWI/SNF Protein Complexes Participate in the Initiation and Elongation Stages of Drosophila hsp70 Gene Transcription].

    PubMed

    Mazina, M Yu; Nikolenko, Yu V; Krasnov, A N; Vorobyeva, N E

    2016-02-01

    The participation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex in the stimulation of the RNA polymerase II binding to gene promotors was demonstrated in all model eukaryotic organisms. It was shown eight years ago that the SWI/SNF complex influence on transcription is not limited to its role in initiation but also includes participation in elongation and alternative splicing. In the current work, we describe the subunit composition of the SWI/SNF complexes participating in initiation, preparing for the elongation and elongation of hsp70 gene transcription in Drosophila melanogaster. The data reveal the high mobility of the SWI/SNF complex composition during the hsp 70 gene transcription process. We suggest a model describing the process of sequential SWI/SNF complex formation during heat-shock induced transcription of the hsp 70 gene.

  11. TRIGA Mark II Criticality Benchmark Experiment with Burned Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Persic, Andreja; Ravnik, Matjaz; Zagar, Tomaz

    2000-12-15

    The experimental results of criticality benchmark experiments performed at the Jozef Stefan Institute TRIGA Mark II reactor are presented. The experiments were performed with partly burned fuel in two compact and uniform core configurations in the same arrangements as were used in the fresh fuel criticality benchmark experiment performed in 1991. In the experiments, both core configurations contained only 12 wt% U-ZrH fuel with 20% enriched uranium. The first experimental core contained 43 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.22 MWd or 2.8% {sup 235}U burned. The last experimental core configuration was composed of 48 fuel elements with average burnup of 1.15 MWd or 2.6% {sup 235}U burned. The experimental determination of k{sub eff} for both core configurations, one subcritical and one critical, are presented. Burnup for all fuel elements was calculated in two-dimensional four-group diffusion approximation using the TRIGLAV code. The burnup of several fuel elements was measured also by the reactivity method.

  12. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. In addition to meeting... residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  13. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR...: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR. In addition to meeting the... of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  14. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. In addition to meeting... residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  15. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR... participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID. In addition to meeting... residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/IID must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  16. 42 CFR 418.112 - Condition of participation: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR. 418.112 Section 418.112 Public Health CENTERS FOR...: Hospices that provide hospice care to residents of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR. In addition to meeting the... of a SNF/NF or ICF/MR must abide by the following additional standards. (a) Standard:...

  17. SWI/SNF mediates polycomb eviction and epigenetic reprogramming of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus.

    PubMed

    Kia, Sima Kheradmand; Gorski, Marcin M; Giannakopoulos, Stavros; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2008-05-01

    Stable silencing of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a tumor suppressor locus occurs in a variety of human cancers, including malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs). MRTs are extremely aggressive cancers caused by the loss of the hSNF5 subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. We found previously that, in MRT cells, hSNF5 is required for p16(INK4a) induction, mitotic checkpoint activation, and cellular senescence. Here, we investigated how the balance between Polycomb group (PcG) silencing and SWI/SNF activation affects epigenetic control of the INK4b-ARF-INK4a locus in MRT cells. hSNF5 reexpression in MRT cells caused SWI/SNF recruitment and activation of p15(INK4b) and p16(INK4a), but not of p14(ARF). Gene activation by hSNF5 is strictly dependent on the SWI/SNF motor subunit BRG1. SWI/SNF mediates eviction of the PRC1 and PRC2 PcG silencers and extensive chromatin reprogramming. Concomitant with PcG complex removal, the mixed lineage leukemia 1 (MLL1) protein is recruited and active histone marks supplant repressive ones. Strikingly, loss of PcG complexes is accompanied by DNA methyltransferase DNMT3B dissociation and reduced DNA methylation. Thus, various chromatin states can be modulated by SWI/SNF action. Collectively, these findings emphasize the close interconnectivity and dynamics of diverse chromatin modifications in cancer and gene control. PMID:18332116

  18. A role for BAF57 in cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulation by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex.

    PubMed

    Hah, Nasun; Kolkman, Annemieke; Ruhl, Donald D; Pijnappel, W W M Pim; Heck, Albert J R; Timmers, H Th Marc; Kraus, W Lee

    2010-06-01

    The SWI/SNF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that plays pivotal roles in gene regulation and cell cycle control. In the present study, we explored the molecular functions of the BAF57 subunit of SWI/SNF in cell cycle control via transcriptional regulation of cell cycle-related genes. We affinity purified SWI/SNF from HeLa cells stably expressing FLAG-tagged BAF47/Ini1 with or without stable short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of BAF57. The subunit composition of the holo-SWI/SNF and BAF57-depleted SWI/SNF complexes from these cells was determined using a quantitative SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture)-based proteomic approach. Depletion of BAF57 resulted in a significant codepletion of BAF180 from the SWI/SNF complex without decreasing total cellular BAF180 levels. In biochemical assays of SWI/SNF activity, the holo-SWI/SNF and BAF57/BAF180-depleted SWI/SNF complexes exhibited similar activities. However, in cell proliferation assays using HeLa cells, knockdown of BAF57 resulted in an accumulation of cells in the G(2)-M phase, inhibition of colony formation, and impaired growth in soft agar. Knockdown of BAF57 also caused transcriptional misregulation of various cell cycle-related genes, especially genes involved in late G(2). Collectively, our results have identified a new role for BAF57 within the SWI/SNF complex that is required for (a) maintaining the proper subunit composition of the complex and (b) cell cycle progression through the transcriptional regulation of a subset of cell cycle-related genes.

  19. Elementary Teacher Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas C.

    This monograph describes elementary teacher education in South Korea and aspects of Korean society that have contributed to the uniqueness of this educative process. Within the context of comparative education, the essay introduces the cultural, social, and institutional attributes of Korea; discusses specifics of the educative process as a…

  20. North Korea: A Geographical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.; Galgano, Francis A., Ed.

    North Korea is a country about the size of the state of New York, inhabited by about 23 million people. It came into existence after the conclusion of World War II following decades of occupation of the Korean Peninsula by the Japanese empire. Dividing the peninsula into North and South Korea was the politically expedient solution to one of the…

  1. Tobacco control in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Kiljun; Kim, Dae Soon; Park, Dong-Jin; Lee, Seon Kui

    2004-01-01

    The Tobacco Business Act and the National Health Promotion Act coexist in Korea, causing conflicts. While the Tobacco Business Act mainly emphasizes the state's financial and economic aspects by describing the operation and control of tobacco business, the National Health Promotion Act states the measures on warnings on the harmful effects of tobacco, prohibition of advertising, and sales limitation for the public's health. In addition to these legal problems, it is not acceptable to continue the Tobacco Business Act, which is completely opposite to the establishment of active social welfare policies for the quality improvement of people's lives. The Tobacco Business Act, whose objective is tobacco business promotion, should be abolished to meet and follow such a desire for health, international trend, and WHO (World Health Organization) FCTC (Framework Convention on Tobacco Control). It would be most proper to ratify the FCTC and abolish the Tobacco Business Act. Also, revision of the National Health Promotion Act is necessary to secure the enforcement and implementation of FCTC in Korea.

  2. Role of SWI/SNF in acute leukemia maintenance and enhancer-mediated Myc regulation

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Junwei; Whyte, Warren A.; Zepeda-Mendoza, Cinthya J.; Milazzo, Joseph P.; Shen, Chen; Roe, Jae-Seok; Minder, Jessica L.; Mercan, Fatih; Wang, Eric; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A.; Campbell, Amy E.; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Shareef, Sarah; Zhu, Zhu; Kendall, Jude; Muhar, Matthias; Haslinger, Christian; Yu, Ming; Roeder, Robert G.; Wigler, Michael H.; Blobel, Gerd A.; Zuber, Johannes; Spector, David L.; Young, Richard A.; Vakoc, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer cells frequently depend on chromatin regulatory activities to maintain a malignant phenotype. Here, we show that leukemia cells require the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex for their survival and aberrant self-renewal potential. While Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, is known to suppress tumor formation in several cell types, we found that leukemia cells instead rely on Brg1 to support their oncogenic transcriptional program, which includes Myc as one of its key targets. To account for this context-specific function, we identify a cluster of lineage-specific enhancers located 1.7 Mb downstream from Myc that are occupied by SWI/SNF as well as the BET protein Brd4. Brg1 is required at these distal elements to maintain transcription factor occupancy and for long-range chromatin looping interactions with the Myc promoter. Notably, these distal Myc enhancers coincide with a region that is focally amplified in ∼3% of acute myeloid leukemias. Together, these findings define a leukemia maintenance function for SWI/SNF that is linked to enhancer-mediated gene regulation, providing general insights into how cancer cells exploit transcriptional coactivators to maintain oncogenic gene expression programs. PMID:24285714

  3. Neurospora WC-1 recruits SWI/SNF to remodel frequency and initiate a circadian cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Kettenbach, Arminja N; Gerber, Scott A; Loros, Jennifer J; Dunlap, Jay C

    2014-09-01

    In the negative feedback loop comprising the Neurospora circadian oscillator, the White Collar Complex (WCC) formed from White Collar-1 (WC-1) and White Collar-2 (WC-2) drives transcription of the circadian pacemaker gene frequency (frq). Although FRQ-dependent repression of WCC has been extensively studied, the mechanism by which the WCC initiates a circadian cycle remains elusive. Structure/function analysis of WC-1 eliminated domains previously thought to transactivate frq expression but instead identified amino acids 100-200 as essential for frq circadian expression. A proteomics-based search for coactivators with WCC uncovered the SWI/SNF (SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable) complex: SWI/SNF interacts with WCC in vivo and in vitro, binds to the Clock box in the frq promoter, and is required both for circadian remodeling of nucleosomes at frq and for rhythmic frq expression; interestingly, SWI/SNF is not required for light-induced frq expression. These data suggest a model in which WC-1 recruits SWI/SNF to remodel and loop chromatin at frq, thereby activating frq expression to initiate the circadian cycle.

  4. SWI/SNF complex deficiency and mismatch repair protein expression in undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; Crook, Maxine L

    2015-08-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma (UEC) is a relatively uncommon but clinically aggressive uterine malignancy. In common with a subset of poorly differentiated carcinomas arising in other sites, UEC may exhibit rhabdoid morphology and be associated with a low-grade tumour component (dedifferentiated carcinoma). Recent studies have implicated inactivation of the SWI/SNF complex subunits in the aforementioned extrauterine tumours. Therefore we have examined INI1 (SMARCB1), BRG1 (SMARCA4), and BAF250a (ARID1A) immunostaining, and also expression of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 in 22 UEC, seventeen of which were dedifferentiated. Abnormal SWI/SNF subunit expression was detected in four dedifferentiated carcinomas including three with loss of BRG1 staining limited to the undifferentiated tumour component and one case with loss of INI1 expression in both low- and high-grade elements; the latter case also showed BAF250a deficiency in the undifferentiated tumour cells. Abnormal MMR protein expression was identified in 13 tumours (59%) including nine with concurrent loss of MLH1 and PMS2. These findings suggest that SWI/SNF subunit alterations may play a role in the progression/ dedifferentiation of endometrial carcinoma, and that SWI/SNF and MMR protein deficiencies may act synergistically in deregulating DNA repair mechanisms in these tumours.

  5. SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in cardiovascular development and disease.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Ariana; Willis, Monte S; Bultman, Scott J

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of congenital heart defects has been recently advanced by whole exome sequencing projects, which have identified de novo mutations in many genes encoding epigenetic regulators. Notably, multiple subunits of switching defective/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complexes have been identified as strong candidates underlying these defects because they physically and functionally interact with cardiogenic transcription factors critical to cardiac development, such as TBX5, GATA-4, and NKX2-5. While these studies indicate a critical role of SWI/SNF complexes in cardiac development and congenital heart disease, many exciting new discoveries have identified their critical role in the adult heart in both physiological and pathological conditions involving multiple cell types in the heart, including cardiomyocytes, vascular endothelial cells, pericytes, and neural crest cells. This review summarizes the role of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes in cardiac development, congenital heart disease, cardiac hypertrophy, and vascular endothelial cell survival. Although the clinical relevance of SWI/SNF mutations has traditionally been focused primarily on their role in tumor suppression, these recent studies illustrate their critical role in the heart whereby they regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of cardiac derived cell lines.

  6. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex regulates germinal center formation by repressing Blimp-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jinwook; Jeon, Shin; Choi, Seungjin; Park, Kyungsoo; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2015-02-17

    Germinal center (GC) reaction is crucial in adaptive immune responses. The formation of GC is coordinated by the expression of specific genes including Blimp-1 and Bcl-6. Although gene expression is critically influenced by the status of chromatin structure, little is known about the role of chromatin remodeling factors for regulation of GC formation. Here, we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is required for GC reactions. Mice lacking Srg3/mBaf155, a core component of the SWI/SNF complex, showed impaired differentiation of GC B and follicular helper T cells in response to T cell-dependent antigen challenge. The SWI/SNF complex regulates chromatin structure at the Blimp-1 locus and represses its expression by interacting cooperatively with Bcl-6 and corepressors. The defect in GC reactions in mice lacking Srg3 was due to the derepression of Blimp-1 as supported by genetic studies with Blimp-1-ablated mice. Hence, our study identifies the SWI/SNF complex as a key mediator in GC reactions by modulating Bcl-6-dependent Blimp-1 repression.

  7. Role of SWI/SNF in acute leukemia maintenance and enhancer-mediated Myc regulation.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junwei; Whyte, Warren A; Zepeda-Mendoza, Cinthya J; Milazzo, Joseph P; Shen, Chen; Roe, Jae-Seok; Minder, Jessica L; Mercan, Fatih; Wang, Eric; Eckersley-Maslin, Melanie A; Campbell, Amy E; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Shareef, Sarah; Zhu, Zhu; Kendall, Jude; Muhar, Matthias; Haslinger, Christian; Yu, Ming; Roeder, Robert G; Wigler, Michael H; Blobel, Gerd A; Zuber, Johannes; Spector, David L; Young, Richard A; Vakoc, Christopher R

    2013-12-15

    Cancer cells frequently depend on chromatin regulatory activities to maintain a malignant phenotype. Here, we show that leukemia cells require the mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex for their survival and aberrant self-renewal potential. While Brg1, an ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, is known to suppress tumor formation in several cell types, we found that leukemia cells instead rely on Brg1 to support their oncogenic transcriptional program, which includes Myc as one of its key targets. To account for this context-specific function, we identify a cluster of lineage-specific enhancers located 1.7 Mb downstream from Myc that are occupied by SWI/SNF as well as the BET protein Brd4. Brg1 is required at these distal elements to maintain transcription factor occupancy and for long-range chromatin looping interactions with the Myc promoter. Notably, these distal Myc enhancers coincide with a region that is focally amplified in ∼3% of acute myeloid leukemias. Together, these findings define a leukemia maintenance function for SWI/SNF that is linked to enhancer-mediated gene regulation, providing general insights into how cancer cells exploit transcriptional coactivators to maintain oncogenic gene expression programs.

  8. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as...

  9. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false North Korea. 746.4 Section 746.4... CONTROLS § 746.4 North Korea. (a) Licensing Requirements. As authorized by section 6 of the Export... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as...

  10. Snf1 Is a Regulator of Lipid Accumulation in Yarrowia lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Seip, John; Jackson, Raymond; He, Hongxian; Zhu, Quinn

    2013-01-01

    In the oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, de novo lipid synthesis and accumulation are induced under conditions of nitrogen limitation (or a high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio). The regulatory pathway responsible for this induction has not been identified. Here we report that the SNF1 pathway plays a key role in the transition from the growth phase to the oleaginous phase in Y. lipolytica. Strains with a Y. lipolytica snf1 (Ylsnf1) deletion accumulated fatty acids constitutively at levels up to 2.6-fold higher than those of the wild type. When introduced into a Y. lipolytica strain engineered to produce omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), Ylsnf1 deletion led to a 52% increase in EPA titers (7.6% of dry cell weight) over the control. Other components of the Y. lipolytica SNF1 pathway were also identified, and their function in limiting fatty acid accumulation is suggested by gene deletion analyses. Deletion of the gene encoding YlSnf4, YlGal83, or YlSak1 significantly increased lipid accumulation in both growth and oleaginous phases compared to the wild type. Furthermore, microarray and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses of the Ylsnf1 mutant identified significantly differentially expressed genes during de novo lipid synthesis and accumulation in Y. lipolytica. Gene ontology analysis found that these genes were highly enriched with genes involved in lipid metabolism. This work presents a new role for Snf1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways in lipid accumulation in this oleaginous yeast. PMID:24056466

  11. Caenorhabditis elegans SWI/SNF subunits control sequential developmental stages in the somatic gonad.

    PubMed

    Large, Edward E; Mathies, Laura D

    2014-03-20

    The Caenorhabditis elegans somatic gonadal precursors (SGPs) are multipotent progenitors that give rise to all somatic tissues of the adult reproductive system. The hunchback and Ikaros-like gene ehn-3 is expressed specifically in SGPs and is required for their development into differentiated tissues of the somatic gonad. To find novel genes involved in SGP development, we used a weak allele of ehn-3 as the basis for a reverse genetic screen. Feeding RNAi was used to screen ∼2400 clones consisting of transcription factors, signaling components, and chromatin factors. The screen identified five members of the C. elegans SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex as genetic enhancers of ehn-3. We characterized alleles of 10 SWI/SNF genes and found that SWI/SNF subunits are required for viability and gonadogenesis. Two conserved SWI/SNF complexes, PBAF and BAF, are defined by their unique array of accessory subunits around a common enzymatic core that includes a catalytic Swi2/Snf2-type ATPase. Tissue-specific RNAi experiments suggest that C. elegans PBAF and BAF complexes control different processes during somatic gonadal development: PBRM-1, a signature subunit of PBAF, is important for normal SGP development, whereas LET-526, the distinguishing subunit of BAF, is required for development of a differentiated cell type, the distal tip cell (DTC). We found that the SWSN-4 ATPase subunit is required for SGP and DTC development. Finally, we provide evidence that C. elegans PBAF subunits and hnd-1/dHand are important for the cell fate decision between SGPs and their differentiated sisters, the head mesodermal cells.

  12. Snf1 Phosphorylates Adenylate Cyclase and Negatively Regulates Protein Kinase A-dependent Transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Raffaele; Tripodi, Farida; Gaggini, Marco; Castoldi, Andrea; Reghellin, Veronica; Nonnis, Simona; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Coccetti, Paola

    2015-10-01

    In eukaryotes, nutrient availability and metabolism are coordinated by sensing mechanisms and signaling pathways, which influence a broad set of cellular functions such as transcription and metabolic pathways to match environmental conditions. In yeast, PKA is activated in the presence of high glucose concentrations, favoring fast nutrient utilization, shutting down stress responses, and boosting growth. On the contrary, Snf1/AMPK is activated in the presence of low glucose or alternative carbon sources, thus promoting an energy saving program through transcriptional activation and phosphorylation of metabolic enzymes. The PKA and Snf1/AMPK pathways share common downstream targets. Moreover, PKA has been reported to negatively influence the activation of Snf1/AMPK. We report a new cross-talk mechanism with a Snf1-dependent regulation of the PKA pathway. We show that Snf1 and adenylate cyclase (Cyr1) interact in a nutrient-independent manner. Moreover, we identify Cyr1 as a Snf1 substrate and show that Snf1 activation state influences Cyr1 phosphorylation pattern, cAMP intracellular levels, and PKA-dependent transcription.

  13. HUMAN SWI/SNF DRIVES SEQUENCE-DIRECTED REPOSITIONING OF NUCLEOSOMES ON C-MYC PROMOTER DNA MINICIRCLES†

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Hillel I.; Lane, Jacqueline M.; Ulyanova, Natalia P.; Schnitzler, Gavin R.

    2008-01-01

    The human SWI/SNF (hSWI/SNF) ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex is a tumor suppressor and essential transcriptional coregulator. SWI/SNF complexes have been shown to alter nucleosome positions, and this activity is likely to be important for their functions. However, previous studies have largely been unable to determine the extent to which DNA sequence might control nucleosome repositioning by SWI/SNF complexes. Here, we employ a minicircle remodeling approach to provide the first evidence that hSWI/SNF moves nucleosomes in a sequence dependent manner, away from nucleosome positioning sequences favored during nucleosome assembly. This repositioning is unaffected by the presence of DNA nicks, and can occur on closed-circular DNAs in the absence of topoisomerases. We observed directed nucleosome movement on minicircles derived from the human SWI/SNF-regulated c-myc promoter, which may contribute to the previously-observed “disruption” of two promoter nucleosomes during c-myc activation in vivo. Our results suggest a model wherein hSWI/SNF-directed nucleosome movement away from default positioning sequences results in sequence-specific regulatory effects. PMID:17877373

  14. Snf1-related protein kinase 1 is needed for growth in a normal day-night light cycle.

    PubMed

    Thelander, Mattias; Olsson, Tina; Ronne, Hans

    2004-04-21

    The yeast Snf1 protein kinase and its animal homologue, the AMP-activated protein kinase, play important roles in metabolic regulation, by serving as energy gauges that turn off energy-consuming processes and mobilize energy reserves during low-energy conditions. The closest homologue of these kinases in plants is Snf1-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1). We have cloned two SnRK1-encoding genes, PpSNF1a and PpSNF1b, in the moss Physcomitrella patens, where gene function can be studied directly by gene targeting in the haploid gametophyte. A snf1a snf1b double knockout mutant is viable, but lacks all Snf1-like protein kinase activity. The mutant has a complex phenotype that includes developmental abnormalities, premature senescence and altered sensitivities to plant hormones. Remarkably, the double knockout mutant also requires continuous light, and is unable to grow in a normal day-night light cycle. This suggests that SnRK1 is needed for metabolic changes that help the plant cope with the dark hours of the night.

  15. An Integrated Marine Propulsion System Utilising TRIGA{sup TM} Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Manach, G.; Monnez, J-P.; Freeman, M.J.; Newell, A.; Brushwood, J.M.; Thompson, A.; Collins, C.; Scholes, N.; Hamilton, P.J.; Beeley, P.A.

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the reactor physics, shielding, thermal hydraulics, reactor dynamics and safety studies conducted to develop a proposed Integrated Marine Propulsion System (IMPS) utilising TRIGA{sup TM} type uranium zirconium hydride fuel. The study has demonstrated that the IMPS plant is feasible and meets the design safety principles and safety criteria imposed on the study. (authors)

  16. Experimental and simulated dosimetry of the university of Utah TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marble, Benjamin James

    Simulated neutron and gamma transport enable the gamma dose to be estimated at the surface of the University of Utah TRIGA Reactor UUTR pool. These results are benchmarked against experimental results for model verification. This model is useful for future licensing and possible reactor power upgrades. MCNP5 was utilized for the UUTR simulation and comparison with thermoluminescent detectors TLDs.

  17. The snf1 gene of Ustilago maydis acts as a dual regulator of cell wall degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Marina; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D; Gold, Scott E

    2010-12-01

    Many fungal plant pathogens are known to produce extracellular enzymes that degrade cell wall elements required for host penetration and infection. Due to gene redundancy, single gene deletions generally do not address the importance of these enzymes in pathogenicity. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) in fungi are often subject to carbon catabolite repression at the transcriptional level such that, when glucose is available, CWDE-encoding genes, along with many other genes, are repressed. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the main players controlling this process is SNF1, which encodes a protein kinase. In this yeast, Snf1p is required to release glucose repression when this sugar is depleted from the growth medium. We have employed a reverse genetic approach to explore the role of the SNF1 ortholog as a potential regulator of CWDE gene expression in Ustilago maydis. We identified U. maydis snf1 and deleted it from the fungal genome. Consistent with our hypothesis, the relative expression of an endoglucanase and a pectinase was higher in the wild type than in the Δsnf1 mutant strain when glucose was depleted from the growth medium. However, when cells were grown in derepressive conditions, the relative expression of two xylanase genes was unexpectedly higher in the Δsnf1 strain than in the wild type, indicating that, in this case, snf1 negatively regulated the expression of these genes. Additionally, we found that, contrary to several other fungal species, U. maydis Snf1 was not required for utilization of alternative carbon sources. Also, unlike in ascomycete plant pathogens, deletion of snf1 did not profoundly affect virulence in U. maydis.

  18. SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes function in noncoding RNA-dependent assembly of nuclear bodies.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Tetsuya; Tanigawa, Akie; Naganuma, Takao; Ohkawa, Yasuyuki; Souquere, Sylvie; Pierron, Gerard; Hirose, Tetsuro

    2015-04-01

    Paraspeckles are subnuclear structures that form around nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Recently, paraspeckles were shown to be functional nuclear bodies involved in stress responses and the development of specific organs. Paraspeckle formation is initiated by transcription of the NEAT1 chromosomal locus and proceeds in conjunction with NEAT1 lncRNA biogenesis and a subsequent assembly step involving >40 paraspeckle proteins (PSPs). In this study, subunits of SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complexes were identified as paraspeckle components that interact with PSPs and NEAT1 lncRNA. EM observations revealed that SWI/SNF complexes were enriched in paraspeckle subdomains depleted of chromatin. Knockdown of SWI/SNF components resulted in paraspeckle disintegration, but mutation of the ATPase domain of the catalytic subunit BRG1 did not affect paraspeckle integrity, indicating that the essential role of SWI/SNF complexes in paraspeckle formation does not require their canonical activity. Knockdown of SWI/SNF complexes barely affected the levels of known essential paraspeckle components, but markedly diminished the interactions between essential PSPs, suggesting that SWI/SNF complexes facilitate organization of the PSP interaction network required for intact paraspeckle assembly. The interactions between SWI/SNF components and essential PSPs were maintained in NEAT1-depleted cells, suggesting that SWI/SNF complexes not only facilitate interactions between PSPs, but also recruit PSPs during paraspeckle assembly. SWI/SNF complexes were also required for Satellite III lncRNA-dependent formation of nuclear stress bodies under heat-shock conditions. Our data suggest the existence of a common mechanism underlying the formation of lncRNA-dependent nuclear body architectures in mammalian cells.

  19. SWI/SNF enzymes promote SOX10- mediated activation of myelin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Marathe, Himangi G; Mehta, Gaurav; Zhang, Xiaolu; Datar, Ila; Mehrotra, Aanchal; Yeung, Kam C; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2013-01-01

    SOX10 is a Sry-related high mobility (HMG)-box transcriptional regulator that promotes differentiation of neural crest precursors into Schwann cells, oligodendrocytes, and melanocytes. Myelin, formed by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, is essential for propagation of nerve impulses. SWI/SNF complexes are ATP dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes that are critical for cellular differentiation. It was recently demonstrated that the BRG1 subunit of SWI/SNF complexes activates SOX10 expression and also interacts with SOX10 to activate expression of OCT6 and KROX20, two transcriptional regulators of Schwann cell differentiation. To determine the requirement for SWI/SNF enzymes in the regulation of genes that encode components of myelin, which are downstream of these transcriptional regulators, we introduced SOX10 into fibroblasts that inducibly express dominant negative versions of the SWI/SNF ATPases, BRM or BRG1. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 have mutations in the ATP binding site and inhibit gene activation events that require SWI/SNF function. Ectopic expression of SOX10 in cells derived from NIH 3T3 fibroblasts led to the activation of the endogenous Schwann cell specific gene, myelin protein zero (MPZ) and the gene that encodes myelin basic protein (MBP). Thus, SOX10 reprogrammed these cells into myelin gene expressing cells. Ectopic expression of KROX20 was not sufficient for activation of these myelin genes. However, KROX20 together with SOX10 synergistically activated MPZ and MBP expression. Dominant negative BRM and BRG1 abrogated SOX10 mediated activation of MPZ and MBP and synergistic activation of these genes by SOX10 and KROX20. SOX10 was required to recruit BRG1 to the MPZ locus. Similarly, in immortalized Schwann cells, BRG1 recruitment to SOX10 binding sites at the MPZ locus was dependent on SOX10 and expression of dominant negative BRG1 inhibited expression of MPZ and MBP in these cells. Thus, SWI/SNF enzymes cooperate with SOX10 to

  20. Korea's developmental program for superconductivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul

    1995-01-01

    Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.

  1. Description of the Canadian particulate-fill waste-package (WP) system for spent-nuclear fuel (SNF) and its applicability to light-water reactor SNF WPs with depleted uranium-dioxide fill

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1997-10-20

    The US is beginning work on an advanced, light-water reactor (LWR), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), waste package (WP) that uses depleted uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) fill. The Canadian nuclear fuel waste management program has completed a 15-year development program of its repository concept for CANadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor SNF. As one option, Canada has developed a WP that uses a glass-bead or silica-sand fill. The Canadian development work on fill materials inside WPs can provide a guide for the development of LWR SNF WPs using depleted uranium (DU) fill materials. This report summarizes the Canadian work, identifies similarities and differences between the Canadian design and the design being investigated in the US to use DU fill, and identifies what information is applicable to the development of a DU fill for LWR SNF WPs. In both concepts, empty WPs are loaded with SNF, the void space between the fuel pins and the outer void space between SNF assemblies and the inner WP wall would be filled with small particles, the WPs are then sealed, and the WPs are placed into the repository.

  2. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling regulates alcohol response behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans and is associated with alcohol dependence in humans.

    PubMed

    Mathies, Laura D; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Austin, Makeda K; Edwards, Alexis C; Riley, Brien P; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2015-03-10

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread and serious problem. Understanding the factors that influence the likelihood of abuse is important for the development of effective therapies. There are both genetic and environmental influences on the development of abuse, but it has been difficult to identify specific liability factors, in part because of both the complex genetic architecture of liability and the influences of environmental stimuli on the expression of that genetic liability. Epigenetic modification of gene expression can underlie both genetic and environmentally sensitive variation in expression, and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the progression to addiction. Here, we identify a role for the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in regulating the behavioral response to alcohol in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that SWI/SNF components are required in adults for the normal behavioral response to ethanol and that different SWI/SNF complexes regulate different aspects of the acute response to ethanol. We showed that the SWI/SNF subunits SWSN-9 and SWSN-7 are required in neurons and muscle for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol. Examination of the members of the SWI/SNF complex for association with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a human population identified allelic variation in a member of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that variation in the regulation of SWI/SNF targets may influence the propensity to develop abuse disorders. Together, these data strongly implicate the chromatin remodeling associated with SWI/SNF complex members in the behavioral responses to alcohol across phyla.

  3. Evaluation of Internal Criticality of the Plutonium Dispostion MOX SNF Waste Form

    SciTech Connect

    A.A. Alsaed

    1999-09-28

    The purpose of this calculation is to perform a parametric study to determine the effects of fission product leaching, assembly collapse, and iron oxide loss ({Delta}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) on the reactivity of a waste package (WP) containing mixed oxide (MOX) spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Previous calculations (CRWMS M&O 1998a) have shown that the criticality control features of the WP are adequate to prevent criticality of a flooded WP for all the enrichment/burnup pairs expected for the MOX SNF. Therefore, the objective of this calculation is to determine the increase in reactivity that might result from possible degradation of the WP criticality control features. Specifically, this calculation tests the sensitivity of effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) to loss (from the WP) of the following: (1) fission product neutron absorbers, or (2) moderator displacement material (principally, the iron oxide that results from the corrosion of carbon steel).

  4. Crystal Structure of the Protein Kinase Domain of Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Snf1

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolph,M.; Amodeo, G.; Bai, Y.; Tong, L.

    2005-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master metabolic regulator, and is an important target for drug development against diabetes, obesity, and other diseases. AMPK is a hetero-trimeric enzyme, with a catalytic ({alpha}) subunit, and two regulatory ({beta} and {gamma}) subunits. Here we report the crystal structure at 2.2 Angstrom resolution of the protein kinase domain (KD) of the catalytic subunit of yeast AMPK (commonly known as SNF1). The Snf1-KD structure shares strong similarity to other protein kinases, with a small N-terminal lobe and a large C-terminal lobe. Two negative surface patches in the structure may be important for the recognition of the substrates of this kinase.

  5. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-02-03

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of the Processing Systems (Garvin 1998) and, the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1997, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 3a. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence, and has been developed for the spent nuclear fuel project (SNFP) Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  6. hSNF5/INI1 inactivation is mainly associated with homozygous deletions and mitotic recombinations in rhabdoid tumors.

    PubMed

    Rousseau-Merck, M F; Versteege, I; Legrand, I; Couturier, J; Mairal, A; Delattre, O; Aurias, A

    1999-07-01

    The chromatin-remodeling hSNF5/INI1 gene has recently been shown to act as a tumor suppressor gene in rhabdoid tumors (RTs). In an attempt to further characterize the main chromosomal mechanisms involved in hSNF5/INI1 inactivation in RTs, we report here the molecular cytogenetic data obtained in 12 cell lines harboring hSNF5/INI1 mutations and/or deletions in relation to the molecular genetic analysis using polymorphic markers extended to both extremities of chromosome 22q. On the whole, mitotic recombination occurring in the proximal part of chromosome 22q, as demonstrated in five cases, and nondisjunction/duplication, highly suspected in two cases (processes leading respectively to partial or complete isodisomy), appear to be major mechanisms associated with hSNF5/INI1 inactivation. Such isodisomy accompanies each of the RTs exhibiting two cytogenetically normal chromosomes 22. This results in homozygosity for the mutation at the hSNF5/INI1 locus. An alternate mechanism accounting for hSNF5/INI1 inactivation observed in these tumors is homozygous deletion in the rhabdoid consensus region. This was observed in each of the four tumors carrying a chromosome 22q abnormality and, in particular, in the three tumors with chromosomal translocations. Only one case of our series illustrates the mutation/deletion classical model proposed for the double-hit inactivation of a tumor suppressor gene. PMID:10397258

  7. New mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that partially relieve both glucose and galactose repression activate the protein kinase Snf1.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Sanz, Pascual; Gancedo, Carlos

    2003-03-01

    We isolated from Saccharomyces cerevisiae two mutants, esc1-1 and ESC3-1, in which genes FBP1, ICL1 or GDH2 were partially derepressed during growth in glucose or galactose. The isolation was done starting with a triple mutant pyc1 pyc2 mth1 unable to grow in glucose-ammonium medium and selecting for mutants able to grow in the non-permissive medium. HXT1 and HXT2 which encode glucose transporters were expressed at high glucose concentrations in both esc1-1 and ESC3-1 mutants, while derepression of invertase at low glucose concentrations was impaired. REG1, cloned as a suppressor of ESC3-1, was not allelic to ESC3-1. Two-hybrid analysis showed an increased interaction of the protein kinase Snf1 with Snf4 in the ESC3-1 mutant; this was not due to mutations in SNF1 or SNF4. ESC3-1 did not bypass the requirement of Snf1 for derepression. We hypothesize that ESC3-1 either facilitates activation of Snf1 or interferes with its glucose-dependent inactivation.

  8. ACTL6a enforces the epidermal progenitor state by suppressing SWI/SNF-dependent induction of KLF4.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaomin; Tang, Jiong; Lopez-Pajares, Vanessa; Tao, Shiying; Qu, Kun; Crabtree, Gerald R; Khavari, Paul A

    2013-02-01

    Somatic progenitors suppress differentiation to maintain tissue self-renewal. The mammalian SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex regulates nucleosome packaging to control differentiation in embryonic and adult stem cells. Catalytic Brg1 and Brm subunits are required for these processes; however, the roles of SWI/SNF regulatory subunits are not fully understood. Here, we show that ACTL6a/BAF53A modulates the SWI/SNF complex to suppress differentiation in epidermis. Conditional loss of ACTL6a resulted in terminal differentiation, cell-cycle exit, and hypoplasia, whereas ectopic expression of ACTL6a promoted the progenitor state. A significant portion of genes regulated by ACTL6a were found to also be targets of KLF4, a known activator of epidermal differentiation. Mechanistically, we show that ACTL6a prevents SWI/SNF complex binding to promoters of KLF4 and other differentiation genes and that SWI/SNF catalytic subunits are required for full induction of KLF4 targets. Thus, ACTL6a controls the epidermal progenitor state by sequestering SWI/SNF to prevent activation of differentiation programs.

  9. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes are associated with cardiac hypertrophy in a genetic rat model of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Aanchal; Joe, Bina; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2013-12-01

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by a sustained increase in cardiomyocyte size and re-activation of the fetal cardiac gene program. Previous studies implicated SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes as regulators of the fetal cardiac gene program in surgical models of cardiac hypertrophy. Although hypertension is a common risk factor for developing cardiac hypertrophy, there has not yet been any investigation into the role of SWI/SNF enzymes in cardiac hypertrophy using genetic models of hypertension. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that components of the SWI/SNF complex are activated and recruited to promoters that regulate the fetal cardiac gene program in hearts that become hypertrophic as a result of salt induced hypertension. Utilizing the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat model, we found that the protein levels of several SWI/SNF subunits required for heart development, Brg1, Baf180, and Baf60c, are elevated in hypertrophic hearts from S rats fed a high salt diet compared with normotensive hearts from Dahl salt-resistant (R) rats fed the same diet. Furthermore, we detected significantly higher levels of SWI/SNF subunit enrichment as well as evidence of more accessible chromatin structure on two fetal cardiac gene promoters in hearts from S rats compared with R rats. Our data implicate SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes as regulators of gene expression in cardiac hypertrophy resulting from salt induced hypertension. Thus we provide novel insights into the epigenetic mechanisms by which salt induced hypertension leads to cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    KURTZ, J.E.

    2000-05-10

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, and radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  11. The clinical significance of SWI/SNF complex in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Numata, Masakatsu; Morinaga, Soichiro; Watanabe, Takuo; Tamagawa, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Shiozawa, Manabu; Nakamura, Yoshiyasu; Kameda, Yoichi; Okawa, Shinichi; Rino, Yasushi; Akaike, Makoto; Masuda, Munetaka; Miyagi, Yohei

    2013-02-01

    Chromatin remodeling factors have been the subject of great interest in oncology. However, little is known about their role in pancreatic cancer. The objective of this study was to clarify the clinical significance of the SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) complex in patients with pancreatic cancer. A total of 68 patients with pancreatic cancer who underwent R0, 1 resection were enrolled. Cancer tissues were processed to tissue microarray, then stained immunohistochemically by using antibody of SWI/SNF components; BRM, BRG1, BAF250a, BAF180 and BAF47. The correlation of expression levels and clinicopathological outcomes were analyzed, followed by the multivariate analysis of prognostic factors for overall survival. The expression levels of the SWI/SNF components were categorized as low or high according to the median value of Histoscore. Statistical analysis revealed that BRM expression was related to tumor size, T factor, M factor, lymphatic invasion and stage BRG1 expression to histology and stage BAF180 expression to tumor size and BAF47 expression to lymphatic invasion, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that high BRM and low BAF180 expression levels were independent predictors of worse survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. High BRM, and low BAF180 were also independent prognostic factors for poor survival in the subgroup with adjuvant gemcitabine. These results suggest that the specific cofactors of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex certainly have roles in pancreatic cancer. High BRM, and low BAF180 are useful biomarkers for poor prognosis in pancreatic cancer.

  12. Unique challenges for storage and disposal of DOE-owned SNF at the INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, T.A.

    1998-03-01

    Non-commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) owned by the Department of Energy presents some unique challenges for interim storage as well as ultimate disposal in a repository. There is an important link between Yucca Mountain Repository work and the future needs of the DOE SNF program. Close coordination and early definition of acceptance criteria are essential. Much of the Yucca Mountain Repository work has focused on commercial SNF which has very high structural integrity and a well documented set of characteristics and burn-up histories. In contrast, DOE non-commercial SNF at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) represents over two hundred fifty fuel types, much of which is degraded. Fuel designs by DOE were centered around various test objectives in experimental reactors. The result was a proliferation of fuel types. Interest in enhanced heat transfer led to use of sodium as a bond between the fuel and cladding. The desire for smaller more compact reactors with higher power densities led to a variety of enrichments from less than 20% to greater than 90%. INEEL has most of the US U-233 spent nuclear fuel, which came from breeder reactor concepts and consideration of a thorium fuel cycle. These various fuel types now must be placed in safe, stable interim dry storage. Emphasis is being placed on the use of commercially available dry storage designs and independent spent fuel storage installations licensed under NRC criteria. A lot of technological development is being done to characterize fuels that do not have the documented fabrication and operational histories of commercial LWR fuels. Program objectives are safe interim storage and least cost transition to geological repository storage.

  13. Occupational Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun A

    2010-01-01

    Korea has industrialized since the 1970s. Pneumoconiosis in coal miners was the most common occupational disease in the 1970s to 1980s. With the industrialization, the use of many chemicals have increased since the 1970s. As a consequence, there were outbreaks of occupational diseases caused by poisonous chemicals, such as heavy metal poisoning, solvent poisoning and occupational asthma in the late 1980s and early 1990s with civil movement for democracy. Many actions have been taken for prevention by the government, employers and employees or unions. In the 1990s most chemical related diseases and pneumoconiosis have rapidly decreased due to improving work environment. In the late 1990s, cerebro-cardiovascular diseases related to job stress or work overloads have abruptly increased especially after the economic crisis in 1998. After the year 2000, musculoskeletal disorders became a major problem especially in assembly lines in the manufacturing industry and they were expanded to the service industry. Mental diseases related to job stress have increased. Infectious diseases increased in health care workers and afforestation workers. Occupational cancers are increasing because of their long latency, although the use of carcinogenic substances are reduced, limited, and even banned. PMID:21258589

  14. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Effects of SNF1 on Maltose Metabolism and Leavening Ability of Baker's Yeast in Lean Dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Lin, Xue; Liu, Xiao-Er; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Maltose metabolism of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression, thereby delaying the dough fermentation. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. The Snf1 protein kinase is well known to be essential for the response to glucose repression and required for transcription of glucose-repressed genes including the maltose-utilization genes (MAL). In this study, the SNF1 overexpression and deletion industrial baker's yeast strains were constructed and characterized in terms of maltose utilization, growth and fermentation characteristics, mRNA levels of MAL genes (MAL62 encoding the maltase and MAL61 encoding the maltose permease) and maltase and maltose permease activities. Our results suggest that overexpression of SNF1 was effective to glucose derepression for enhancing MAL expression levels and enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. These enhancements could result in an 18% increase in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in LSMLD medium (the low sugar model liquid dough fermentation medium) containing glucose and maltose and a 15% increase in leavening ability in lean dough. These findings provide a valuable insight of breeding industrial baker's yeast for rapid fermentation.

  16. SIRT6 recruits SNF2H to DNA break sites, preventing genomic instability through chromatin remodeling.

    PubMed

    Toiber, Debra; Erdel, Fabian; Bouazoune, Karim; Silberman, Dafne M; Zhong, Lei; Mulligan, Peter; Sebastian, Carlos; Cosentino, Claudia; Martinez-Pastor, Barbara; Giacosa, Sofia; D'Urso, Agustina; Näär, Anders M; Kingston, Robert; Rippe, Karsten; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2013-08-22

    DNA damage is linked to multiple human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging. Little is known about the role of chromatin accessibility in DNA repair. Here, we find that the deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is one of the earliest factors recruited to double-strand breaks (DSBs). SIRT6 recruits the chromatin remodeler SNF2H to DSBs and focally deacetylates histone H3K56. Lack of SIRT6 and SNF2H impairs chromatin remodeling, increasing sensitivity to genotoxic damage and recruitment of downstream factors such as 53BP1 and breast cancer 1 (BRCA1). Remarkably, SIRT6-deficient mice exhibit lower levels of chromatin-associated SNF2H in specific tissues, a phenotype accompanied by DNA damage. We demonstrate that SIRT6 is critical for recruitment of a chromatin remodeler as an early step in the DNA damage response, indicating that proper unfolding of chromatin plays a rate-limiting role. We present a unique crosstalk between a histone modifier and a chromatin remodeler, regulating a coordinated response to prevent DNA damage.

  17. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression. PMID:26457678

  18. Histone Acetylation near the Nucleosome Dyad Axis Enhances Nucleosome Disassembly by RSC and SWI/SNF.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Nilanjana; North, Justin A; Dechassa, Mekonnen Lemma; Manohar, Mridula; Prasad, Rashmi; Luger, Karolin; Ottesen, Jennifer J; Poirier, Michael G; Bartholomew, Blaine

    2015-12-01

    Signaling associated with transcription activation occurs through posttranslational modification of histones and is best exemplified by lysine acetylation. Lysines are acetylated in histone tails and the core domain/lateral surface of histone octamers. While acetylated lysines in histone tails are frequently recognized by other factors referred to as "readers," which promote transcription, the mechanistic role of the modifications in the lateral surface of the histone octamer remains unclear. By using X-ray crystallography, we found that acetylated lysines 115 and 122 in histone H3 are solvent accessible, but in biochemical assays they appear not to interact with the bromodomains of SWI/SNF and RSC to enhance recruitment or nucleosome mobilization, as previously shown for acetylated lysines in H3 histone tails. Instead, we found that acetylation of lysines 115 and 122 increases the predisposition of nucleosomes for disassembly by SWI/SNF and RSC up to 7-fold, independent of bromodomains, and only in conjunction with contiguous nucleosomes. Thus, in combination with SWI/SNF and RSC, acetylation of lateral surface lysines in the histone octamer serves as a crucial regulator of nucleosomal dynamics distinct from the histone code readers and writers.

  19. A SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodelling Protein Controls Cytokinin Production through the Regulation of Chromatin Architecture.

    PubMed

    Jégu, Teddy; Domenichini, Séverine; Blein, Thomas; Ariel, Federico; Christ, Aurélie; Kim, Soon-Kap; Crespi, Martin; Boutet-Mercey, Stéphanie; Mouille, Grégory; Bourge, Mickaël; Hirt, Heribert; Bergounioux, Catherine; Raynaud, Cécile; Benhamed, Moussa

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin architecture determines transcriptional accessibility to DNA and consequently gene expression levels in response to developmental and environmental stimuli. Recently, chromatin remodelers such as SWI/SNF complexes have been recognized as key regulators of chromatin architecture. To gain insight into the function of these complexes during root development, we have analyzed Arabidopsis knock-down lines for one sub-unit of SWI/SNF complexes: BAF60. Here, we show that BAF60 is a positive regulator of root development and cell cycle progression in the root meristem via its ability to down-regulate cytokinin production. By opposing both the deposition of active histone marks and the formation of a chromatin regulatory loop, BAF60 negatively regulates two crucial target genes for cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT3 and IPT7) and one cell cycle inhibitor (KRP7). Our results demonstrate that SWI/SNF complexes containing BAF60 are key factors governing the equilibrium between formation and dissociation of a chromatin loop controlling phytohormone production and cell cycle progression.

  20. Regulation of Yeast G Protein Signaling by the Kinases That Activate the AMPK Homolog Snf1

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Sarah T.; Dixit, Gauri; Dohlman, Henrik G.

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular signals, such as nutrients and hormones, cue intracellular pathways to produce adaptive responses. Often, cells must coordinate their responses to multiple signals to produce an appropriate outcome. We showed that components of a glucose-sensing pathway acted on components of a heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide–binding protein (G protein)–mediated pheromone signaling pathway in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that the G protein α subunit Gpa1 was phosphorylated in response to conditions of reduced glucose availability and that this phosphorylation event contributed to reduced pheromone-dependent stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, gene transcription, cell morphogenesis, and mating efficiency. We found that Elm1, Sak1, and Tos3, the kinases that phosphorylate Snf1, the yeast homolog of adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase (AMPK), in response to limited glucose availability, also phosphorylated Gpa1 and contributed to the diminished mating response. Reg1, the regulatory subunit of the phosphatase PP1 that acts on Snf1, was likewise required to reverse the phosphorylation of Gpa1 and to maintain the mating response. Thus, the same kinases and phosphatase that regulate Snf1 also regulate Gpa1. More broadly, these results indicate that the pheromone signaling and glucose-sensing pathways communicate directly to coordinate cell behavior. PMID:24003255

  1. Thermal properties and phase transition in the fluoride, (NH4)3SnF7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartashev, A. V.; Gorev, M. V.; Bogdanov, E. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Laptash, N. M.

    2016-05-01

    Calorimetric, dilatometric and differential thermal analysis studies were performed on (NH4)3SnF7 for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Large entropy (δS0=22 J/mol K) and elastic deformation (δ(ΔV/V)0=0.89%) jumps have proven that the Pa-3↔Pm-3m phase transition is a strong first order structural transformation. A total entropy change of ΔS0=32.5 J/mol K is characteristic for the order-disorder phase transition, and is equal to the sum of entropy changes in the related material, (NH4)3TiF7, undergoing transformation between the two cubic phases through the intermediate phases. Hydrostatic pressure decreases the stability of the high temperature Pm-3m phase in (NH4)3SnF7, contrary to (NH4)3TiF7, characterised by a negative baric coefficient. The effect of experimental conditions on the chemical stability of (NH4)3SnF7 was observed.

  2. Effects of SNF1 on Maltose Metabolism and Leavening Ability of Baker's Yeast in Lean Dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Lin, Xue; Liu, Xiao-Er; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-12-01

    Maltose metabolism of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in lean dough is negatively influenced by glucose repression, thereby delaying the dough fermentation. To improve maltose metabolism and leavening ability, it is necessary to alleviate glucose repression. The Snf1 protein kinase is well known to be essential for the response to glucose repression and required for transcription of glucose-repressed genes including the maltose-utilization genes (MAL). In this study, the SNF1 overexpression and deletion industrial baker's yeast strains were constructed and characterized in terms of maltose utilization, growth and fermentation characteristics, mRNA levels of MAL genes (MAL62 encoding the maltase and MAL61 encoding the maltose permease) and maltase and maltose permease activities. Our results suggest that overexpression of SNF1 was effective to glucose derepression for enhancing MAL expression levels and enzymes (maltase and maltose permease) activities. These enhancements could result in an 18% increase in maltose metabolism of industrial baker's yeast in LSMLD medium (the low sugar model liquid dough fermentation medium) containing glucose and maltose and a 15% increase in leavening ability in lean dough. These findings provide a valuable insight of breeding industrial baker's yeast for rapid fermentation. PMID:26580148

  3. SWI/SNF-Mediated Lineage Determination in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Confers Resistance to Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kevin Hong; Xu, Fuhua; Flowers, Stephen; Williams, Edek A J; Fritton, J Christopher; Moran, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Redirecting the adipogenic potential of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to other lineages, particularly osteoblasts, is a key goal in regenerative medicine. Controlling lineage selection through chromatin remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF, which act coordinately to establish new patterns of gene expression, would be a desirable intervention point, but the requirement for the complex in essentially every lineage pathway has generally precluded selectivity. However, a novel approach now appears possible by targeting the subset of SWI/SNF powered by the alternative ATPase, mammalian brahma (BRM). BRM is not required for development, which has hindered understanding of its contributions, but knockdown genetics here, designed to explore the hypothesis that BRM-SWI/SNF has different regulatory roles in different mesenchymal stem cell lineages, shows that depleting BRM from mesenchymal stem cells has a dramatic effect on the balance of lineage selection between osteoblasts and adipocytes. BRM depletion enhances the proportion of cells expressing markers of osteoblast precursors at the expense of cells able to differentiate along the adipocyte lineage. This effect is evident in primary bone marrow stromal cells as well as in established cell culture models. The altered precursor balance has major physiological significance, which becomes apparent as protection against age-related osteoporosis and as reduced bone marrow adiposity in adult BRM-null mice.

  4. Teaching about Korea--In Wando and Worland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Tim; Bellis, David

    2000-01-01

    Stresses three reasons for teaching about Korea and its people in the United States: (1) Korea's potential assistance in solving environmental issues; (2) the role of Korea in promoting world peace; and (3) the economic potential of Korea. Discusses resources for teaching about Korea and provides an appendix with Internet sites on Korea. (CMK)

  5. Two chemists in two Koreas.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2005-03-01

    Taikyu Ree (1902-92) and Seung Ki Li (1905-96) were the most famous and influential scientists in twentieth-century Korea. Trained at Kyoto Imperial University during the Japanese occupation period (1910-45), both followed parallel career paths until 1945 but after that year those paths began to diverge. In 1948 Taikyu Ree moved to the University of Utah where he ran an informal graduate programme to train Korea chemists during the 1950s and 1960s. He became a model scholar in pursuit of knowledge for its own sake. In 1950 Seung Ki Li moved to North Korea where he succeeded in industrialising a new synthetic fibre from polyvinyl alcohol. He became a popular hero who demonstrated the utility of science. His success also helped Kim Il Sung, North Korea dictator, to consolidate his political ideology of Self-Reliance. Despite their different career patterns in very different circumstances, they shared something common; apolitical views and commitment to their work. An investigation of the careers of these two chemists illustrates the interwoven scientific, ideological and economic developments of South and North Korea during the second half of the twentieth century. PMID:16308924

  6. 15 CFR 746.4 - North Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea), except food and medicines classified as EAR99...) Applications to export or reexport humanitarian items (e.g., blankets, basic footwear, heating oil, and...

  7. Natural and mixed convection in the cylindrical pool of TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, R.; Tiselj, I.; Matkovič, M.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature fields within the pool of the JSI TRIGA MARK II nuclear research reactor were measured to collect data for validation of the thermal hydraulics computational model of the reactor tank. In this context temperature of the coolant was measured simultaneously at sixty different positions within the pool during steady state operation and two transients. The obtained data revealed local peculiarities of the cooling water dynamics inside the pool and were used to estimate the coolant bulk velocity above the reactor core. Mixed natural and forced convection in the pool were simulated with a Computational Fluid Dynamics code. A relatively simple CFD model based on Unsteady RANS turbulence model was found to be sufficient for accurate prediction of the temperature fields in the pool during the reactor operation. Our results show that the simple geometry of the TRIGA pool reactor makes it a suitable candidate for a simple natural circulation benchmark in cylindrical geometry.

  8. Experimental power density distribution benchmark in the TRIGA Mark II reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Stancar, Z.; Radulovic, V.; Podvratnik, M.; Zerovnik, G.; Trkov, A.; Barbot, L.; Domergue, C.; Destouches, C.

    2012-07-01

    In order to improve the power calibration process and to benchmark the existing computational model of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Josef Stefan Inst. (JSI), a bilateral project was started as part of the agreement between the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA) and the Ministry of higher education, science and technology of Slovenia. One of the objectives of the project was to analyze and improve the power calibration process of the JSI TRIGA reactor (procedural improvement and uncertainty reduction) by using absolutely calibrated CEA fission chambers (FCs). This is one of the few available power density distribution benchmarks for testing not only the fission rate distribution but also the absolute values of the fission rates. Our preliminary calculations indicate that the total experimental uncertainty of the measured reaction rate is sufficiently low that the experiments could be considered as benchmark experiments. (authors)

  9. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Tri-gas Thruster Performance Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorado, Vanessa; Grunder, Zachary; Schaefer, Bryce; Sung, Meagan; Pedersen, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Historically, spacecraft reaction control systems have primarily utilized cold gas thrusters because of their inherent simplicity and reliability. However, cold gas thrusters typically have a low specific impulse. It has been determined that a higher specific impulse can be achieved by passing a monopropellant fluid mixture through a catalyst bed prior to expulsion through the thruster nozzle. This research analyzes the potential efficiency improvements from using tri-gas, a mixture of hydrogen, oxygen, and an inert gas, which in this case is helium. Passing tri-gas through a catalyst causes the hydrogen and oxygen to react and form water vapor, ultimately heating the exiting fluid and generating a higher specific impulse. The goal of this project was to optimize the thruster performance by characterizing the effects of varying several system components including catalyst types, catalyst lengths, and initial catalyst temperatures.

  10. Verifying the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method using the TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Soon-Sam; Leyine, S.H.

    1984-07-01

    A new experimental/analytical method has been developed using the Penn State Breazeale (TRIGA) reactor, to measure the k{sub eff} of a damaged core, e.g., the TMI-2 core, and unfold its k{sub infinity} distribution. This new method, the Asymmetric Multiple Position Neutron Source (AMPNS) method, uses the response of several neutron detectors in fixed positions around the core periphery (and possibly in the core) when a neutron source is placed sequentially in different discrete core positions. Experiments have been performed with the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR) and analyzed with appropriate neutron calculations, using PSU-LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II (EXT-II), to verify the method.

  11. Analysis of safety limits of the Moroccan TRIGA MARK II research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erradi, L.; Essadki, H.

    2001-06-01

    The main objective of this study is to check the ability of the Moroccan TRIGA MARK II research reactor, designed to use natural convection cooling, to operate at its nominal power (2 MW) with sufficient safety margins. The neutronic analysis of the core has been performed using Leopard and Mcrac codes and the parameters of interest were the power distributions, the power peaking factors and the core excess reactivity. The thermal hydraulic analysis of the TRIGA core was performed using the French code FLICA designed for transient and study state situations. The main safety related parameters of the core have been evaluated with special emphasises on the following: maximum fuel temperature, minimum DNBR and maximum void fraction. The obtained results confirm the designer predictions except for the void fraction.

  12. Validation of neutron flux redistribution factors in JSI TRIGA reactor due to control rod movements.

    PubMed

    Kaiba, Tanja; Žerovnik, Gašper; Jazbec, Anže; Štancar, Žiga; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-10-01

    For efficient utilization of research reactors, such as TRIGA Mark II reactor in Ljubljana, it is important to know neutron flux distribution in the reactor as accurately as possible. The focus of this study is on the neutron flux redistributions due to control rod movements. For analyzing neutron flux redistributions, Monte Carlo calculations of fission rate distributions with the JSI TRIGA reactor model at different control rod configurations have been performed. Sensitivity of the detector response due to control rod movement have been studied. Optimal radial and axial positions of the detector have been determined. Measurements of the axial neutron flux distribution using the CEA manufactured fission chambers have been performed. The experiments at different control rod positions were conducted and compared with the MCNP calculations for a fixed detector axial position. In the future, simultaneous on-line measurements with multiple fission chambers will be performed inside the reactor core for a more accurate on-line power monitoring system. PMID:26141293

  13. Performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karch, J.; Sobolev, Yu.; Beck, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Hampel, G.; Heil, W.; Kieser, R.; Reich, T.; Trautmann, N.; Ziegner, M.

    2014-04-01

    The performance of the solid deuterium ultra-cold neutron (UCN) source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz with a maximum peak energy of 10MJ is described. The solid deuterium converter with a volume of cm3 (8mol), which is exposed to a thermal neutron fluence of n/cm2, delivers up to 240000 UCN ( m/s) per pulse outside the biological shield at the experimental area. UCN densities of 10 cm3 are obtained in stainless-steel bottles of 10 L. The measured UCN yields compare well with the predictions from a Monte Carlo simulation developed to model the source and to optimize its performance for the upcoming upgrade of the TRIGA Mainz into a user facility for UCN physics.

  14. The nucleosome remodeling complex, Snf/Swi, is required for the maintenance of transcription in vivo and is partially redundant with the histone acetyltransferase, Gcn5.

    PubMed Central

    Sudarsanam, P; Cao, Y; Wu, L; Laurent, B C; Winston, F

    1999-01-01

    Snf/Swi, a nucleosome remodeling complex, is important for overcoming nucleosome-mediated repression of transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have addressed the mechanism by which Snf/Swi controls transcription in vivo of an Snf/Swi-dependent promoter, that of the SUC2 gene. By single-cell analysis, our results show that Snf/Swi is required for activated levels of SUC2 expression in every cell of a population. In addition, Snf/Swi is required for maintenance of SUC2 transcription, suggesting that continuous chromatin remodeling is necessary to maintain an active transcriptional state. Finally, Snf/Swi and Gcn5, a histone acetyltransferase, have partially redundant roles in the control of SUC2 transcription, suggesting a functional overlap between two different mechanisms believed to overcome repression by nucleosomes, nucleosome remodeling and histone acetylation. PMID:10357821

  15. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    2000-11-18

    The mission of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) is to achieve the earliest possible removal of free water from Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs). The MCOs contain metallic uranium SNF that have been removed from the 100K Area fuel storage water basins (i.e., the K East and K West Basins) at the US. Department of Energy Hanford Site in Southeastern Washington state. Removal of free water is necessary to halt water-induced corrosion of exposed uranium surfaces and to allow the MCOs and their SNF payloads to be safely transported to the Hanford Site 200 East Area and stored within the SNF Project Canister Storage Building (CSB). The CVDF is located within a few hundred yards of the basins, southwest of the 165KW Power Control Building and the 105KW Reactor Building. The site area required for the facility and vehicle circulation is approximately 2 acres. Access and egress is provided by the main entrance to the 100K inner area using existing roadways. The CVDF will remove free. water from the MCOs to reduce the potential for continued fuel-water corrosion reactions. The cold vacuum drying process involves the draining of bulk water from the MCO and subsequent vacuum drying. The MCO will be evacuated to a pressure of 8 torr or less and backfilled with an inert gas (helium). The MCO will be sealed, leak tested, and then transported to the CSB within a sealed shipping cask. (The MCO remains within the same shipping Cask from the time it enters the basin to receive its SNF payload until it is removed from the Cask by the CSB MCO handling machine.) The CVDF subproject acquired the required process systems, supporting equipment, and facilities. The cold vacuum drying operations result in an MCO containing dried fuel that is prepared for shipment to the CSB by the Cask transportation system. The CVDF subproject also provides equipment to dispose of solid wastes generated by the cold vacuum drying process and transfer process water removed

  16. Conceptual design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhamad, Shalina Sheik; Hamzah, Mohd Arif Arif B.

    2014-02-01

    Spent fuel transfer cask is used to transfer a spent fuel from the reactor tank to the spent fuel storage or for spent fuel inspection. Typically, the cask made from steel cylinders that are either welded or bolted closed. The cylinder is enclosed with additional steel, concrete, or other material to provide radiation shielding and containment of the spent fuel. This paper will discuss the Conceptual Design of fuel transfer cask for Reactor TRIGA Puspati (RTP).

  17. Validation of the Serpent 2 code on TRIGA Mark II benchmark experiments.

    PubMed

    Ćalić, Dušan; Žerovnik, Gašper; Trkov, Andrej; Snoj, Luka

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is the development and validation of a 3D computational model of TRIGA research reactor using Serpent 2 code. The calculated parameters were compared to the experimental results and to calculations performed with the MCNP code. The results show that the calculated normalized reaction rates and flux distribution within the core are in good agreement with MCNP and experiment, while in the reflector the flux distribution differ up to 3% from the measurements. PMID:26516989

  18. Analysis of JSI TRIGA MARK II reactor physical parameters calculated with TRIPOLI and MCNP.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Tiselj, I; Snoj, L

    2015-03-01

    New computational model of the JSI TRIGA Mark II research reactor was built for TRIPOLI computer code and compared with existing MCNP code model. The same modelling assumptions were used in order to check the differences of the mathematical models of both Monte Carlo codes. Differences between the TRIPOLI and MCNP predictions of keff were up to 100pcm. Further validation was performed with analyses of the normalized reaction rates and computations of kinetic parameters for various core configurations. PMID:25576735

  19. The TRIGA board for a fast muon trigger for E771

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniazzi, L.; Introzzi, G.; Liguori, G.; Nardo', R.; Torre, P.

    1992-05-01

    The muon trigger logic of experiment E771 at Fermilab is described, with emphasis on the design and development of the board dedicated to such a trigger. A programmable gate arrays microchip has been implemented on the TRIGA board, to achieve a flexible kind of trigger. The use of a programmable trigger allows to optimize the signal to background ratio according to the working conditions of the muon detector.

  20. Neutron collimator for neutron radiography applications at tangential port of the TRIGA RC-1 reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, R.; Andreoli, F.; Mattoni, M.; Palomba, M.

    2009-06-01

    At the ENEA TRIGA research reactor (Casaccia Research Center, Rome) a new neutron collimator has been designed and installed at the neutron tangential channel. This collimator, that is part of a neutron/X-ray facility for NDT analysis, was experimentally characterized and optimized in terms of thermal neutron fluence rate, spatial/energetic distribution, photon air KERMA and effective beam diameter. This paper shows the methodologies and the results of the experimental analysis that were carried out.

  1. Production of {sup 99}Mo using LEU and molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mo, S.C.

    1993-12-31

    The production of {sup 99}Mo using Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) and natural molybdenum targets in a 1 MW Triga reactor is investigated. The successive linear programming technique is applied to minimize the target loadings for different yield constraints. The irradiation time is related to the kinetics of the growth and decay of {sup 99}Mo. The feasibility of a neutron generated based {sup 99}Mo production system is discussed.

  2. Fundamental approach to TRIGA steady-state thermal-hydraulic CHF analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-03-30

    Methods are investigated for predicting the power at which critical heat flux (CHF) occurs in TRIGA reactors that rely on natural convection for primary flow. For a representative TRIGA reactor, two sets of functions are created. For the first set, the General Atomics STAT code and the more widely-used RELAP5-3D code are each employed to obtain reactor flow rate as a function of power. For the second set, the Bernath correlation, the 2006 Groeneveld table, the Hall and Mudawar outlet correlation, and each of the four PG-CHF correlations for rod bundles are used to predict the power at which CHF occurs as a function of channel flow rate. The two sets of functions are combined to yield predictions of the power at which CHF occurs in the reactor. A combination of the RELAP5-3D code and the 2006 Groeneveld table predicts 67% more CHF power than does a combination of the STAT code and the Bernath correlation. Replacing the 2006 Groeneveld table with the Bernath CHF correlation (while using the RELAP5-3D code flow solution) causes the increase to be 23% instead of 67%. Additional RELAP5-3D flow-versus-power solutions obtained from Reference 1 and presented in Appendix B for four specific TRIGA reactors further demonstrates that the Bernath correlation predicts CHF to occur at considerably lower power levels than does the 2006 Groeneveld table. Because of the lack of measured CHF data in the region of interest to TRIGA reactors, none of the CHF correlations considered can be assumed to provide the definitive CHF power. It is recommended, however, to compare the power levels of the potential limiting rods with the power levels at which the Bernath and 2006 Groeneveld CHF correlations predict CHF to occur.

  3. Special Education in South Korea: Daegu University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Byung Ha; Rhee, Kun Yong; Burns, Carol; Lerner, Janet W.

    2009-01-01

    Daegu University has enjoyed a long and remarkable history of special education. Daegu University is large University located in Daegu, South Korea, a large city in South Korea that is south of Seoul. Since the 1970's, South Korea has achieved unusual and comprehensive growth in its economy, and the field of special education continued to thrive…

  4. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive... Control published the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''),...

  5. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Zakaria, Norasalwa Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff Anuar, Abul Adli Idris, Hairul Nizam Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-12

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  6. Role of decommissioning plan and its progress for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Norasalwa; Mustafa, Muhammad Khairul Ariff; Anuar, Abul Adli; Idris, Hairul Nizam; Ba'an, Rohyiza

    2014-02-01

    Malaysian nuclear research reactor, the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor, reached its first criticality in 1982, and since then, it has been serving for more than 30 years for training, radioisotope production and research purposes. Realizing the age and the need for its decommissioning sometime in the future, a ground basis of assessment and an elaborative project management need to be established, covering the entire process from termination of reactor operation to the establishment of final status, documented as the Decommissioning Plan. At international level, IAEA recognizes the absence of Decommissioning Plan as one of the factors hampering progress in decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the world. Throughout the years, IAEA has taken initiatives and drawn out projects in promoting progress in decommissioning programmes, like CIDER, DACCORD and R2D2P, for which Malaysia is participating in these projects. This paper highlights the concept of Decommissioning plan and its significances to the Agency. It will also address the progress, way forward and challenges faced in developing the Decommissioning Plan for the PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. The efforts in the establishment of this plan helps to provide continual national contribution at the international level, as well as meeting the regulatory requirement, if need be. The existing license for the operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor does not impose a requirement for a decommissioning plan; however, the renewal of license may call for a decommissioning plan to be submitted for approval in future.

  7. Transition from HEU to LEU fuel in Romania's 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) located in Pitesti, Romania, first went critical in the fall of 1979. Initially, the core configuration for full power operation used 29 fuel clusters each containing a 5 {times} 5 square array of HEU (10 wt%) -- ZrH -- Er (2.8 wt%) fuel-moderator rods (1.295 cm o.d.) clad in Incology. With a total inventory of 35 HEU fuel clusters, burnup considerations required a gradual expansion of the core from 29 to 32 and finally to 35 clusters before the reactor was shut down because of insufficient excess reactivity. At this time each of the original 29 fuel clusters had an overage {sup 235}U burnup in the range from 50 to 62%. Because of the US policy regarding the export of highly enriched uranium, fresh HEU TRIGA replacement fuel is not available. After a number of safety-related measurements, the SSR is expected to resume full power operation in the near future using a mixed core containing five LEU TRIGA clusters of the same geometry as the original fuel but with fuel-moderator rods containing 45 wt% U (19.7% {sup 235}U enrichment) and 1.1 wt% Er. Rods for 14 additional LEU fuel clusters will be fabricated by General Atomics. In support of the SSR mixed core operation numerous neutronic calculations have been performed. This paper presents some of the results of those calculations.

  8. Transition from HEU to LEU fuel in Romania`s 14-MW TRIGA reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bretscher, M.M.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    The 14-MW TRIGA steady state reactor (SSR) located in Pitesti, Romania, first went critical in the fall of 1979. Initially, the core configuration for full power operation used 29 fuel clusters each containing a 5 {times} 5 square array of HEU (10 wt%) -- ZrH -- Er (2.8 wt%) fuel-moderator rods (1.295 cm o.d.) clad in Incology. With a total inventory of 35 HEU fuel clusters, burnup considerations required a gradual expansion of the core from 29 to 32 and finally to 35 clusters before the reactor was shut down because of insufficient excess reactivity. At this time each of the original 29 fuel clusters had an overage {sup 235}U burnup in the range from 50 to 62%. Because of the US policy regarding the export of highly enriched uranium, fresh HEU TRIGA replacement fuel is not available. After a number of safety-related measurements, the SSR is expected to resume full power operation in the near future using a mixed core containing five LEU TRIGA clusters of the same geometry as the original fuel but with fuel-moderator rods containing 45 wt% U (19.7% {sup 235}U enrichment) and 1.1 wt% Er. Rods for 14 additional LEU fuel clusters will be fabricated by General Atomics. In support of the SSR mixed core operation numerous neutronic calculations have been performed. This paper presents some of the results of those calculations.

  9. Gross Gamma Dose Rate Measurements for TRIGA Spent Nuclear Fuel Burnup Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, Philip Lon; Sterbentz, James William

    2001-04-01

    Gross gamma-ray dose rates from six spent TRIGA fuel elements were measured and compared to calculated values as a means to validate the reported element burnups. A newly installed and functional gamma-ray detection subsystem of the In-Cell Examination System was used to perform the measurements and is described in some detail. The analytical methodology used to calculate the corresponding dose rates is presented along with the calculated values. Comparison of the measured and calculated dose rates for the TRIGA fuel elements indicates good agreement (less than a factor of 2 difference). The intent of the subsystem is to measure the gross gamma dose rate and correlate the measurement to a calculated dose rate based on the element s known burnup and other pertinent spent fuel information. Although validation of the TRIGA elements’ burnup is of primary concern in this paper, the measurement and calculational techniques can be used to either validate an element’s reported burnup or provide a burnup estimate for an element with an unknown burnup.

  10. Transport model based on three-dimensional cross-section generation for TRIGA core analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriangchaiporn, Nateekool

    This dissertation addresses the development of a reactor core physics model based on 3-D transport methodology utilizing 3-D multigroup fuel lattice cross-section generation and core calculation for PSBR. The proposed 3-D transport calculation scheme for reactor core simulations is based on the TORT code. The methodology includes development of algorithms for 2-D and 3-D cross-section generation. The fine- and broad-group structures for the TRIGA cross-section generation problems were developed based on the CPXSD (Contributon and Point-wise Cross-Section Driven) methodology that selects effective group structure. Along with the study of cross section generation, the parametric studies for SN calculations were performed to evaluate the impact of the spatial meshing, angular, and scattering order variables and to obtain the suitable values for cross-section collapsing of the TRIGA cell problem. The TRIGA core loading 2 is used to verify and validate the selected effective group structures. Finally, the 13 group structure was selected to use for core calculations. The results agree with continuous energy for eigenvalues and normalized pin power distribution. The Monte Carlo solutions are used as the references.

  11. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

    2010-06-01

    Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

  12. Fluid Flow Characteristic Simulation of the Original TRIGA 2000 Reactor Design Using Computational Fluid Dynamics Code

    SciTech Connect

    Fiantini, Rosalina; Umar, Efrizon

    2010-06-22

    Common energy crisis has modified the national energy policy which is in the beginning based on natural resources becoming based on technology, therefore the capability to understanding the basic and applied science is needed to supporting those policies. National energy policy which aims at new energy exploitation, such as nuclear energy is including many efforts to increase the safety reactor core condition and optimize the related aspects and the ability to build new research reactor with properly design. The previous analysis of the modification TRIGA 2000 Reactor design indicates that forced convection of the primary coolant system put on an effect to the flow characteristic in the reactor core, but relatively insignificant effect to the flow velocity in the reactor core. In this analysis, the lid of reactor core is closed. However the forced convection effect is still presented. This analysis shows the fluid flow velocity vector in the model area without exception. Result of this analysis indicates that in the original design of TRIGA 2000 reactor, there is still forced convection effects occur but less than in the modified TRIGA 2000 design.

  13. Neutron flux characterisation of the Pavia TRIGA Mark II research reactor for radiobiological and microdosimetric applications.

    PubMed

    Alloni, D; Prata, M; Salvini, A; Ottolenghi, A

    2015-09-01

    Nowadays the Pavia TRIGA reactor is available for national and international collaboration in various research fields. The TRIGA Mark II nuclear research reactor of the Pavia University offers different in- and out-core neutron irradiation channels, each characterised by different neutron spectra. In the last two years a campaign of measurements and simulations has been performed in order to guarantee a better characterisation of these different fluxes and to meet the demands of irradiations that require precise information on these spectra in particular for radiobiological and microdosimetric studies. Experimental data on neutron fluxes have been collected analysing and measuring the gamma activity induced in thin target foils of different materials irradiated in different TRIGA experimental channels. The data on the induced gamma activities have been processed with the SAND II deconvolution code and finally compared with the spectra obtained with Monte Carlo simulations. The comparison between simulated and measured spectra showed a good agreement allowing a more precise characterisation of the neutron spectra and a validation of the adopted method. PMID:25958412

  14. Health impact assessment in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Eunjeong; Lee, Youngsoo; Harris, Patrick; Koh, Kwangwook; Kim, Keonyeop

    2011-07-15

    Recently, Health Impact Assessment has gained great attention in Korea. First, the Ministry of Environment introduced HIA within existing Environment Impact Assessment. Second, the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs began an HIA program in 2008 in alliance with Healthy Cities. In this short report, these two different efforts are introduced and their opportunities and challenges discussed. We believe these two approaches complement each other and both need to be strengthened. We also believe that both can contribute to the development of health in policy and project development and ultimately to improvements in the Korean population's health.

  15. Assessment of crosstalks between the Snf1 kinase complex and sphingolipid metabolism in S. cerevisiae via systems biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Borklu Yucel, Esra; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2013-11-01

    Sphingolipids are essential building blocks of the plasma membranes and are highly bioactive in the regulation of diverse cellular functions and pathological processes, a fact which renders the sphingolipid metabolism an important research area. In this study, a computational framework was recruited for the reconstruction of a functional interaction network for sphingolipid metabolism in Baker's yeast, SSN. Gene Ontology (GO) annotations were integrated with functional interaction data of the BIOGRID database and the reconstructed protein interaction network was subjected to topological and descriptive analyses. SSN was of a scale-free nature, following a power law model with γ=1.41. Prominent processes of SSN revealed that the reconstructed network encapsulated the involvement of sphingolipid metabolism in vital cellular processes such as energy homeostasis, cell growth and/or death and synthesis of building blocks. To investigate the potential of SSN for predicting signal transduction pathways regulating and/or being regulated by sphingolipid biosynthesis in yeast, a case study involving the S. cerevisiae counterpart of AMP-activated protein kinase, the Snf1 kinase complex, was conducted. The mutant strain lacking the catalytic α subunit, snf1Δ/snf1Δ, had elevated inositol phosphorylceramide and mannosyl-inositol phosphorylceramide levels, and decreased mannosyl-diinositol phosphorylceramide levels compared to the wild type strain, revealing that Snf1p has a regulatory role in the sphingolipid metabolism. Transcriptome data belonging to that strain available in the literature were mapped onto SSN and the correlated SSN was further investigated to evaluate the possible crosstalk machineries where sphingolipids and Snf1p function in coordination, in other words the crosstalk points between sphingolipid-mediated and Snf1 kinase signalling. The subsequent investigation of the discovered candidate crosstalk processes by performing sensitivity experiments imply a

  16. A compare-and-contrast NMR dynamics study of two related RRMs: U1A and SNF.

    PubMed

    DeKoster, Gregory T; Delaney, Kimberly J; Hall, Kathleen B

    2014-07-01

    The U1A/U2B″/SNF family of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins uses a phylogenetically conserved RNA recognition motif (RRM1) to bind RNA stemloops in U1 and/or U2 small nuclear RNA (snRNA). RRMs are characterized by their α/β sandwich topology, and these RRMs use their β-sheet as the RNA binding surface. Unique to this RRM family is the tyrosine-glutamine-phenylalanine (YQF) triad of solvent-exposed residues that are displayed on the β-sheet surface; the aromatic residues form a platform for RNA nucleobases to stack. U1A, U2B″, and SNF have very different patterns of RNA binding affinity and specificity, however, so here we ask how YQF in Drosophila SNF RRM1 contributes to RNA binding, as well as to domain stability and dynamics. Thermodynamic double-mutant cycles using tyrosine and phenylalanine substitutions probe the communication between those two residues in the free and bound states of the RRM. NMR experiments follow corresponding changes in the glutamine side-chain amide in both U1A and SNF, providing a physical picture of the RRM1 β-sheet surface. NMR relaxation and dispersion experiments compare fast (picosecond to nanosecond) and intermediate (microsecond-to-millisecond) dynamics of U1A and SNF RRM1. We conclude that there is a network of amino acid interactions involving Tyr-Gln-Phe in both SNF and U1A RRM1, but whereas mutations of the Tyr-Gln-Phe triad result in small local responses in U1A, they produce extensive microsecond-to-millisecond global motions throughout SNF that alter the conformational states of the RRM.

  17. SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking CHFR mediated ubiquitination and degradation of its major components

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Inkyung; Sohn, Dong H.; Choi, Jinwook; Kim, Joo Mi; Jeon, Shin; Seol, Jae Hong; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2012-02-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediates the ubiquitination of the major components of the SWI/SNF complex. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHFR mediated-ubiquitination induces the degradation of the major components. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SRG3 stabilizes the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex by blocking the CHFR activity. -- Abstract: The murine SWI/SNF-like BAF complex is an ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complex that functions as a transcriptional regulator in cell proliferation, differentiation and development. The SWI/SNF-like BAF complex consists of several components including core subunits such as BRG1, BAF155/SRG3, BAF47/SNF5/INI1, and BAF170. We have previously shown that the interaction between SRG3/mBAF155 and other components of the complex stabilizes them by attenuating their proteasomal degradation. However, it has not been known how the major components of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex such as BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a are targeted for the ubiquitination and degradation, and how SRG3/mBAF155 protects them from the degradation process. Here we report that CHFR interacts with BRG1, SNF5, and BAF60a of the SWI/SNF-like BAF complex and ubiquitinates them to target for degradation through a proteasome-mediated pathway, and that SRG3/mBAF155 stabilizes these components by blocking their interaction with CHFR.

  18. Review of Uranium Hydriding and Dehydriding Rate Models in GOTH_SNF for Spent Fuel MCO Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    John R. Kirkpatrick; Chris A. Dahl

    2003-09-01

    The present report is one of a series of three. The series provides an independent technical review of certain aspects of the GOTH_SNF code that is used for accident analysis of the multicanister overpack (MCO) that is proposed for permanent storage of spent nuclear fuel in the planned repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The work documented in the present report and its two companions was done under the auspices of the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. The other reports in the series are DOE/SNF/REP-087 and DOE/SNF/REP-088. This report analyzes the model for uranium hydriding and dissociation of the hydride that was documented in the SNF report titled MCO Work Book GOTH_SNF Input Data.1 Reference 1 used a single expression from a model by Bloch and Mintz for both the uranium hydriding and dehydriding reactions. This report compares the results of the GOTH_SNF expression for both phenomena with those from the models proposed by J. B. Condon and further developed by Condon and J. R. Kirkpatrick. The expression for the uranium hydriding rate used in GOTH_SNF (from the model of Bloch and Mintz) gives consistently lower values than those from the models of Condon and Kirkpatrick. This is true for all hydrogen pressures and for all temperatures. For a hydrogen pressure of 1 atm, the hydriding rates given by the models of Condon and Kirkpatrick are zero by the time the temperature reaches 400°C. That is, the term representing the dehydriding reaction has become large enough to overwhelm the term representing the hydriding reaction. The same is true for the expression used in GOTH_SNF. For lower hydrogen pressures, the hydriding rates reach zero at even lower temperatures for the Bloch and Mintz model and also for the Condon and Kirkpatrick models. Uranium dehydriding rates can be calculated for temperatures as high as 2,000°C. The dehydriding rates from GOTH_SNF contain an assumption that there is a 0.22 psia hydrogen pressure in the atmosphere surrounding the

  19. Effect of self-administered daily irrigation with 0.02% SnF2 on periodontal disease activity.

    PubMed

    Boyd, R L; Leggott, P; Quinn, R; Buchanan, S; Eakle, W; Chambers, D

    1985-07-01

    To determine the effect on periodontal health of a daily self-administered irrigation with 0.02% stannous fluoride (SnF2) solution, 28 subjects who had moderate to advanced periodontitis were randomly divided into 3 groups: a control group (n = 9) which used no irrigation, a group (n = 8) which used a self-administered water irrigation device (Water Pik) daily with water (H2O group) and a group (n = 11) which used the Water Pik in a similar manner but with SnF2 solution (SnF2 group). All subjects were instructed in routine tooth brushing and flossing but received no other periodontal treatment. 4 study sites were selected from each patient which had pocket depths greater than 4 mm and bleeding upon probing. Plaque index, gingival index, bleeding tendency, pocket depth, loss of attachment, and microbiologic samples of subgingival plaque for morphologic determinations were collected from all study sites at baseline, 2, 6, and 10 weeks. A cross-over was then initiated for 2 additional monthly checks in which the H2O group changed to SnF2 and the SnF2 group was divided into 2 subgroups which either continued to use SnF2 or changed to H2O. The control group completed the study at the beginning of the crossover. The clinical data showed significantly more improvement in periodontal health during the first 10 weeks for the SnF2 group (p less than 0.01). After cross-over, the clinical data indicated the group that changed from H2O to SnF2 significantly improved their periodontal health, while the group that changed from SnF2 to H2O became worse. The microbiologic data showed trends which agreed with the clinical data during the first 10 weeks but were less significant. After cross-over, the %s of motile rods and spirochetes were too small (0-7%) to establish statistically significant changes considering the accuracy of the technique used. PMID:3860511

  20. Rural Development in South Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Vincent S. R.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews development in rural areas of South Korea since the late nineteenth century, with particular emphasis on rural to urban migration, governmental investment in agriculture, transportation and mass communications, development projects, social leveling processes, upgraded living standards, and cooperative village improvement projects. Journal…

  1. Inclusive Education in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yong-Wook

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the current implementation of inclusive education in South Korea and discuss its challenges. The history of special education is first described followed by an introduction to policies relevant to special and inclusive education. Next, a critical discussion of the state of inclusive education follows built…

  2. Fuel Safety Activities in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Auh, Geun-Sun; Shin, A.D.; Lee, J.S.; Woo, S.W.; Ryu, Y.H.; Kim, Jun-Hwan; Kim, S.K.; Jeong, Y.H.

    2007-07-01

    The current regulatory requirements for fuel performance were based on earlier test data of fresh or low burnup Zircaloy fuels of less than 40 GWD/MTU. Most countries have not changed the current regulatory requirements even if they are actively investigating the high burnup and new cladding alloy effects. Korea agrees with commonly accepted international consensus that although there are technical issues requiring resolutions, these issues do not constitute immediate safety concerns. The high burnup fuel reactor performance experiences of Korea do not show any major problems even if there have been some burnup related fuel failures which are described in the paper. KINS has recommended the industry to have lower fuel failure rates than 1-2 per 50,000 fuel rods. A research project of High Burnup Fuel Safety Tests and Evaluations has started in 2002 under a joint cooperation of KAERI/KNFC/KEPRI and KINS to obtain performance results of high burnup fuel and to develop evaluation technologies of high burnup fuel safety issues. From 1998, KINS has closely monitored and actively participated in international activities such as OECD/NEA CABRI Water Loop Program to reflect on regulatory requirements if needed. KINS will closely monitor the high burnup fuel performances of Korea to strength the regulatory activities if needed. The research activities in Korea including of LOCA and RIA being performed at KAERI with active supports of the industry are summarized in the paper. (authors)

  3. Democratic Citizenship Education in Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eoh, Myung-Ha

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the importance of democratic citizenship education in Korea. Highlights the forces enhancing democratic citizenship education especially the role of the nongovernmental organizations and the Korean Educational Developmental Institute. Considers the various forces inhibiting democratic citizenship education, such as corruption in the…

  4. Life in South Korea Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Seok-Choon

    1988-01-01

    Characterizes the past 40 years in South Korea as a time of modernization, industrialization, urbanization, and internationalization. Discusses Korean religion and social values; family, kinship, and social life; education; housing, food, and clothing; leisure and sports; and the maintenance of national identity. Examines the Korean synthesis of…

  5. Yahak Movement in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Sik

    2004-01-01

    "Yahak" means "night school" in Korean and its history can be traced back to the 1920s when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. This paper will focus on the yahak movement during the years from 1960 to the 1990s. Yahak played an important role in raising workers' consciousness during this democratic movement. Yahak started as a movement trying…

  6. Direct interactions promote eviction of the Sir3 heterochromatin protein by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Manning, Benjamin J.; Peterson, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is a specialized chromatin structure that is central to eukaryotic transcriptional regulation and genome stability. Despite its globally repressive role, heterochromatin must also be dynamic, allowing for its repair and replication. In budding yeast, heterochromatin formation requires silent information regulators (Sirs) Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, and these Sir proteins create specialized chromatin structures at telomeres and silent mating-type loci. Previously, we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme can catalyze the ATP-dependent eviction of Sir3p from recombinant nucleosomal arrays, and this activity enhances early steps of recombinational repair in vitro. Here, we show that the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, Swi2p/Snf2p, interacts with the heterochromatin structural protein Sir3p. Two interaction surfaces are defined, including an interaction between the ATPase domain of Swi2p and the nucleosome binding, Bromo-Adjacent-Homology domain of Sir3p. A SWI/SNF complex harboring a Swi2p subunit that lacks this Sir3p interaction surface is unable to evict Sir3p from nucleosomes, even though its ATPase and remodeling activities are intact. In addition, we find that the interaction between Swi2p and Sir3p is key for SWI/SNF to promote resistance to replication stress in vivo and for establishment of heterochromatin at telomeres. PMID:25453095

  7. Direct interactions promote eviction of the Sir3 heterochromatin protein by the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme.

    PubMed

    Manning, Benjamin J; Peterson, Craig L

    2014-12-16

    Heterochromatin is a specialized chromatin structure that is central to eukaryotic transcriptional regulation and genome stability. Despite its globally repressive role, heterochromatin must also be dynamic, allowing for its repair and replication. In budding yeast, heterochromatin formation requires silent information regulators (Sirs) Sir2p, Sir3p, and Sir4p, and these Sir proteins create specialized chromatin structures at telomeres and silent mating-type loci. Previously, we found that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme can catalyze the ATP-dependent eviction of Sir3p from recombinant nucleosomal arrays, and this activity enhances early steps of recombinational repair in vitro. Here, we show that the ATPase subunit of SWI/SNF, Swi2p/Snf2p, interacts with the heterochromatin structural protein Sir3p. Two interaction surfaces are defined, including an interaction between the ATPase domain of Swi2p and the nucleosome binding, Bromo-Adjacent-Homology domain of Sir3p. A SWI/SNF complex harboring a Swi2p subunit that lacks this Sir3p interaction surface is unable to evict Sir3p from nucleosomes, even though its ATPase and remodeling activities are intact. In addition, we find that the interaction between Swi2p and Sir3p is key for SWI/SNF to promote resistance to replication stress in vivo and for establishment of heterochromatin at telomeres.

  8. G1/S Inhibitors and the SWI/SNF Complex Control Cell-Cycle Exit during Muscle Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ruijtenberg, Suzan; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2015-07-16

    The transition from proliferating precursor cells to post-mitotic differentiated cells is crucial for development, tissue homeostasis, and tumor suppression. To study cell-cycle exit during differentiation in vivo, we developed a conditional knockout and lineage-tracing system for Caenorhabditis elegans. Combined lineage-specific gene inactivation and genetic screening revealed extensive redundancies between previously identified cell-cycle inhibitors and the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. Muscle precursor cells missing either SWI/SNF or G1/S inhibitor function could still arrest cell division, while simultaneous inactivation of these regulators caused continued proliferation and a C. elegans tumor phenotype. Further genetic analyses support that SWI/SNF acts in concert with hlh-1 MyoD, antagonizes Polycomb-mediated transcriptional repression, and suppresses cye-1 Cyclin E transcription to arrest cell division of muscle precursors. Thus, SWI/SNF and G1/S inhibitors provide alternative mechanisms to arrest cell-cycle progression during terminal differentiation, which offers insight into the frequent mutation of SWI/SNF genes in human cancers.

  9. Genetic interaction mapping reveals a role for the SWI/SNF nucleosome remodeler in spliceosome activation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Kristin L; Ryan, Colm J; Xu, Jiewei; Lipp, Jesse J; Nissen, Kelly E; Roguev, Assen; Shales, Michael; Krogan, Nevan J; Guthrie, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Although numerous regulatory connections between pre-mRNA splicing and chromatin have been demonstrated, the precise mechanisms by which chromatin factors influence spliceosome assembly and/or catalysis remain unclear. To probe the genetic network of pre-mRNA splicing in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we constructed an epistatic mini-array profile (E-MAP) and discovered many new connections between chromatin and splicing. Notably, the nucleosome remodeler SWI/SNF had strong genetic interactions with components of the U2 snRNP SF3 complex. Overexpression of SF3 components in ΔSWI/SNF cells led to inefficient splicing of many fission yeast introns, predominantly those with non-consensus splice sites. Deletion of SWI/SNF decreased recruitment of the splicing ATPase Prp2, suggesting that SWI/SNF promotes co-transcriptional spliceosome assembly prior to first step catalysis. Importantly, defects in SWI/SNF as well as SF3 overexpression each altered nucleosome occupancy along intron-containing genes, illustrating that the chromatin landscape both affects--and is affected by--co-transcriptional splicing.

  10. Korea Earth Observation Satellite Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Myung-Jin; Kim, Zeen-Chul

    via Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) as the prime contractor in the area of Korea earth observation satellite program to enhance Korea's space program development capability. In this paper, Korea's on-going and future earth observation satellite programs are introduced: KOMPSAT- 1 (Korea Multi Purpose Satellite-1), KOMPSAT-2 and Communication, Broadcasting and Meteorological Satellite (CBMS) program. KOMPSAT-1 satellite successfully launched in December 1999 with Taurus launch vehicle. Since launch, KOMPSAT-1 is downlinking images of Korea Peninsular every day. Until now, KOMPSAT-1 has been operated more than 2 and half years without any major hardware malfunction for the mission operation. KOMPSAT-1 payload has 6.6m panchromatic spatial resolution at 685 km on-orbit and the spacecraft bus had NASA TOMS-EP (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer-Earth Probe) spacecraft bus heritage designed and built by TRW, U.S.A.KOMPSAT-1 program was international co-development program between KARI and TRW funded by Korean Government. be launched in 2004. Main mission objective is to provide geo-information products based on the multi-spectral high resolution sensor called Multi-Spectral Camera (MSC) which will provide 1m panchromatic and 4m multi-spectral high resolution images. ELOP of Israel is the prime contractor of the MSC payload system and KARI is the total system prime contractor including spacecraft bus development and ground segment. KARI also has the contract with Astrium of Europe for the purpose of technical consultation and hardware procurement. Based on the experience throughout KOMPSAT-1 and KOMPSAT-2 space system development, Korea is expecting to establish the infrastructure of developing satellite system. Currently, KOMPSAT-2 program is in the critical design stage. are scheduled to launch in 2008 and in 2014, respectively. The mission of CBMS consists of two areas. One is of space technology test for the communications mission, and the other is of a real

  11. Ptc1 protein phosphatase 2C contributes to glucose regulation of SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Amparo; Xu, Xinjing; Carlson, Marian

    2013-10-25

    The SNF1/AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPKs) function in energy regulation in eukaryotic cells. SNF1/AMPKs are αβγ heterotrimers that are activated by phosphorylation of the activation loop Thr on the catalytic subunit. Protein kinases that activate SNF1/AMPK have been identified, but the protein phosphatases responsible for dephosphorylation of the activation loop are less well defined. For Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF1/AMPK, Reg1-Glc7 protein phosphatase 1 and Sit4 type 2A-related phosphatase function together to dephosphorylate Thr-210 on the Snf1 catalytic subunit during growth on high concentrations of glucose; reg1Δ and sit4Δ single mutations do not impair dephosphorylation when inappropriate glycogen synthesis, also caused by these mutations, is blocked. We here present evidence that Ptc1 protein phosphatase 2C also has a role in dephosphorylation of Snf1 Thr-210 in vivo. The sit4Δ ptc1Δ mutant exhibited partial defects in regulation of the phosphorylation state of Snf1. The reg1Δ ptc1Δ mutant was viable only when expressing mutant Snf1 proteins with reduced kinase activity, and Thr-210 phosphorylation of the mutant SNF1 heterotrimers was substantially elevated during growth on high glucose. This evidence, together with findings on the reg1Δ sit4Δ mutant, indicates that although Reg1-Glc7 plays the major role, all three phosphatases contribute to maintenance of the Snf1 activation loop in the dephosphorylated state during growth on high glucose. Ptc1 has overlapping functions with Reg1-Glc7 and Sit4 in glucose regulation of SNF1/AMPK and cell viability.

  12. Downregulation of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factor subunits modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Kothandapani, Anbarasi; Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Kahali, Bhaskar; Reisman, David; Patrick, Steve M.

    2012-10-01

    Chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF plays important roles in many cellular processes including transcription, proliferation, differentiation and DNA repair. In this report, we investigated the role of SWI/SNF catalytic subunits Brg1 and Brm in the cellular response to cisplatin in lung cancer and head/neck cancer cells. Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhanced cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Repair kinetics of cisplatin DNA adducts revealed that downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impeded the repair of both intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs). Cisplatin ICL-induced DNA double strand break repair was also decreased in Brg1 and Brm depleted cells. Altered checkpoint activation with enhanced apoptosis as well as impaired chromatin relaxation was observed in Brg1 and Brm deficient cells. Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm did not affect the recruitment of DNA damage recognition factor XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions, but affected ERCC1 recruitment, which is involved in the later stages of DNA repair. Based on these results, we propose that SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex modulates cisplatin cytotoxicity by facilitating efficient repair of the cisplatin DNA lesions. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Stable knockdown of Brg1 and Brm enhances cellular sensitivity to cisplatin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm impedes the repair of cisplatin intrastrand adducts and interstrand crosslinks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Brg1 and Brm deficiency results in impaired chromatin relaxation, altered checkpoint activation as well as enhanced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Downregulation of Brg1 and Brm affects recruitment of ERCC1, but not XPC to cisplatin DNA lesions.

  13. A Green Approach to SNF Reprocessing: Are Common Household Reagents the Answer?

    SciTech Connect

    Peper, Shane M.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Douglas, Matthew

    2008-04-03

    It has been discovered that UO2, the principal component of spent nuclear fuel (SNF), can efficiently be dissolved at room temperature using a combination of common household reagents, namely hydrogen peroxide, baking soda, and ammonia. This rather serendipitous discovery opens up the possibility, for the first time, of considering a non-acidic process for recycling U from SNF. Albeit at the early stages of development, our unconventional dissolution approach possesses many attractive features that could make it a reality in the future. With dissolution byproducts of water and oxygen, our approach poses a minimal threat to the environment. Moreover, the use of common household reagents to afford actinide oxide dissolution suggests a certain degree of economic favorability. With the use of a “closed” digestion vessel as a reaction chamber, our approach has substantial versatility with the option of using either aqueous or gaseous reactant feeds or a combination of both. Our approach distinguishes itself from all existing reprocessing technologies in two important ways. First and foremost, it is an alkaline rather than an acidic process, using mild non-corrosive chemicals under ambient conditions to effect actinide separations. Secondly, it does not dissolve the entire SNF matrix, but rather selectively solubilizes U and other light actinides for subsequent separation, resulting in potentially faster head-end dissolution and fewer downstream separation steps. From a safeguards perspective, the use of oxidizing alkaline solutions to effect actinide separations also potentially offers a degree of inherent proliferation resistance, by allowing the U to be selectively removed from the remaining dissolver solution while keeping Pu grouped with the other minor actinides and fission products. This paper will describe the design and general experimental setup of a “closed” digestion vessel for performing uranium oxide dissolutions under alkaline conditions using

  14. Technical Basis Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Radiation and Contamination Trending Program

    SciTech Connect

    ELGIN, J.C.

    2000-10-02

    This report documents the technical basis for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Program radiation and contamination trending program. The program consists of standardized radiation and contamination surveys of the KE Basin, radiation surveys of the KW basin, radiation surveys of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVD), and radiation surveys of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) with the associated tracking. This report also discusses the remainder of radiological areas within the SNFP that do not have standardized trending programs and the basis for not having this program in those areas.

  15. Radionuclide Inventories for DOE SNF Waste Stream and Uranium/Thorium Carbide Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Goluoglu

    2000-03-28

    The objective of this calculation is to generate radionuclide inventories for the Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) waste stream destined for disposal at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to the calculation of two radionuclide inventories; one for all uranium/thorium carbide fuels in the waste stream and one for the entire waste stream. These inventories will provide input in future screening calculations to be performed by Performance Assessment to determine important radionuclides.

  16. Interrelation of technologies for RW preparation and sites for final isolation of the wastes from pyrochemical processing of SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Gupalo, V.S.; Chistyakov, V.N.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Kormilitsyna, L.A.

    2013-07-01

    For the justification of engineering solutions and practical testing of the radiochemical component of the perspective nuclear power complex with on-site variant of nuclear fuel cycle (NFC), it is planned to establish a multi-functional research-development complex (MFCRC) for radiochemical processing of spent nuclear fuels (SNF) from fast reactors. MFCRC is being established at the NIIAR site, it comprises technological process lines, where innovation pyro-electrochemical and hydrometallurgical technologies are realized, with an option for closing the inter-chain material flows for testing the combined radiochemically converted materials. The technological flowchart for processing at the MFCRC is subdivided into 3 segments: -) complex of the lead operations for dismantling the fuel elements (FE) and fuel assemblies (FA), -) pyrochemical extraction flowchart for processing SNF, and -) hydrometallurgical flowchart for processing SNF. The engineered solutions for the management and disposition of the radioactive wastes from MFCRC are reviewed.

  17. High-temperature Chemical Compatibility of As-fabricated TRIGA Fuel and Type 304 Stainless Steel Cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Jan-Fong Jue; Eric Woolstenhulme; Kurt Terrani; Glenn A. Moore

    2012-09-01

    Chemical interaction between TRIGA fuel and Type-304 stainless steel cladding at relatively high temperatures is of interest from the point of view of understanding fuel behavior during different TRIGA reactor transient scenarios. Since TRIGA fuel comes into close contact with the cladding during irradiation, there is an opportunity for interdiffusion between the U in the fuel and the Fe in the cladding to form an interaction zone that contains U-Fe phases. Based on the equilibrium U-Fe phase diagram, a eutectic can develop at a composition between the U6Fe and UFe2 phases. This eutectic composition can become a liquid at around 725°C. From the standpoint of safe operation of TRIGA fuel, it is of interest to develop better understanding of how a phase with this composition may develop in irradiated TRIGA fuel at relatively high temperatures. One technique for investigating the development of a eutectic phase at the fuel/cladding interface is to perform out-of-pile diffusion-couple experiments at relatively high temperatures. This information is most relevant for lightly irradiated fuel that just starts to touch the cladding due to fuel swelling. Similar testing using fuel irradiated to different fission densities should be tested in a similar fashion to generate data more relevant to more heavily irradiated fuel. This report describes the results for TRIGA fuel/Type-304 stainless steel diffusion couples that were annealed for one hour at 730 and 800°C. Scanning electron microscopy with energy- and wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy was employed to characterize the fuel/cladding interface for each diffusion couple to look for evidence of any chemical interaction. Overall, negligible fuel/cladding interaction was observed for each diffusion couple.

  18. SLC6 family transporter SNF-10 is required for protease-mediated activation of sperm motility in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Fenker, Kristin E; Hansen, Angela A; Chong, Conrad A; Jud, Molly C; Duffy, Brittany A; Norton, J Paul; Hansen, Jody M; Stanfield, Gillian M

    2014-09-01

    Motility of sperm is crucial for their directed migration to the egg. The acquisition and modulation of motility are regulated to ensure that sperm move when and where needed, thereby promoting reproductive success. One specific example of this phenomenon occurs during differentiation of the ameboid sperm of Caenorhabditis elegans as they activate from a round spermatid to a mature, crawling spermatozoon. Sperm activation is regulated by redundant pathways to occur at a specific time and place for each sex. Here, we report the identification of the solute carrier 6 (SLC6) transporter protein SNF-10 as a key regulator of C. elegans sperm activation in response to male protease activation signals. We find that SNF-10 is present in sperm and is required for activation by the male but not by the hermaphrodite. Loss of both snf-10 and a hermaphrodite activation factor render sperm completely insensitive to activation. Using in vitro assays, we find that snf-10 mutant sperm show a specific deficit in response to protease treatment but not to other activators. Prior to activation, SNF-10 is present in the plasma membrane, where it represents a strong candidate to receive signals that lead to subcellular morphogenesis. After activation, it shows polarized localization to the cell body region that is dependent on membrane fusions mediated by the dysferlin FER-1. Our discovery of snf-10 offers insight into the mechanisms differentially employed by the two sexes to accomplish the common goal of producing functional sperm, as well as how the physiology of nematode sperm may be regulated to control motility as it is in mammals.

  19. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE WASTE PACKAGE DESIGN (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    H. Wang

    1997-01-23

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24, 5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR and 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 44 BWR and 24 BWR Uncanistered Fuel (UCF) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond to a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the WP Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude WP compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual WP design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, and to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded WP performance is similar to an WP loaded with commercial BWR SNF.

  20. Physiological and Cellular Responses Caused by RNAi- Mediated Suppression of Snf7 Orthologue in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Ramaseshadri, Parthasarathy; Segers, Gerrit; Flannagan, Ronald; Wiggins, Elizabeth; Clinton, William; Ilagan, Oliver; McNulty, Brian; Clark, Thomas; Bolognesi, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in triggering RNA interference (RNAi) in western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte), providing potential novel opportunities for insect pest control. The putative Snf7 homolog of WCR (DvSnf7) has previously been shown to be an effective RNAi target for insect control, as DvSnf7 RNAi leads to lethality of WCR larvae. Snf7 functions as a part of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) pathway which plays a crucial role in cellular housekeeping by internalization, transport, sorting and lysosomal degradation of transmembrane proteins. To understand the effects that lead to death of WCR larvae by DvSnf7 RNAi, we examined some of the distinct cellular processes associated with ESCRT functions such as de-ubiquitination of proteins and autophagy. Our data indicate that ubiquitinated proteins accumulate in DvSnf7 dsRNA-fed larval tissues and that the autophagy process seems to be impaired. These findings suggest that the malfunctioning of these cellular processes in both midgut and fat body tissues triggered by DvSnf7 RNAi were the main effects leading to the death of WCR. This study also illustrates that Snf7 is an essential gene in WCR and its functions are consistent with biological functions described for other eukaryotes. PMID:23349844

  1. 76 FR 60136 - Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.8, 2012 Fiscal Year Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... the Federal Register on December 27, 2010 (75 FR 81335). Based on the methodologies set forth in 38... AFFAIRS Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.8, 2012 Fiscal Year Update... where the care is provided (See Table ``N'' Acute Inpatient and Table ``O'' SNF geographic factors...

  2. 78 FR 59427 - Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.13, Fiscal Year 2014 Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... the Federal Register on December 20, 2012 (77 FR 75499). Based on the methodologies set forth in 38... AFFAIRS Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.13, Fiscal Year 2014 Update... (SNF) geographic factors found on Web site under ``Reasonable Charges Data Tables).'' The...

  3. 77 FR 55269 - Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.11, 2013; Fiscal Year Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... the Federal Register on December 12, 2011 (76 FR 77328). ] Based on the methodologies set forth in 38... AFFAIRS Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; V3.11, 2013; Fiscal Year Update... where the care is provided (See Table ``N'' Acute Inpatient and Table ``O'' SNF geographic factors...

  4. Development of TRIGA-based experimental device for fiber optics in-core instrumentation testing for VHTRs

    SciTech Connect

    Johns, J. M.; Tsvetkov, P. V.

    2012-07-01

    Given the harsh environments of high temperature reactors, new in-core instrumentation has to be developed, since existing approaches may fail prematurely in VHTRs. The paper discusses ongoing efforts to support progress of suitable advanced in-core instrumentation technologies and develop an experimental approach for evaluation of their performance within VHTRs via emulation of VHTR in-core conditions in TRIGA reactors. Successful completion of the presented computational analysis concludes the first phase of the project. As demonstrated, it is proposed to use a high temperature furnace with fluence equivalency in operating TRIGA reactors. (authors)

  5. The ΣΣ secondary intermediate-energy standard neutron field development at the Romania TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, C.; Gârlea, I.; Dobrea, D.; Aioanei, L.; Kelerman, C.; Gârlea, C.; Gugiu, D.; Datcu, A.; Preda, M.; Pavelescu, M.

    2004-04-01

    The ΣΣ intermediate-energy reference spectrum irradiation facility, operated until 1998 at the VVR-S Reactor from Bucharest, was put into operation at the Romania TRIGA Reactor. This paper presents the experimental devices developed for the ΣΣ system operating at the Steady State Reactor (SSR)-TRIGA core, including the monitoring system, and preliminary neutron characterization results. These results show that the spectrum characteristics are slowly deviating from those for the recommended ΣΣ spectrum. The high-energy neutron tail is slowly increasing, compared with the recommended ΣΣ spectrum and other similar facilities.

  6. PRC2 and SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Kadoch, Cigall; Copeland, Robert A; Keilhack, Heike

    2016-03-22

    The dynamic structure of histones and DNA, also known as chromatin, is regulated by two classes of enzymes: those that mediate covalent modifications on either histone proteins or DNA and those that use the energy generated by ATP hydrolysis to mechanically alter chromatic structure. Both classes of enzymes are often found in large protein complexes. In this review, we describe two such complexes: polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), with the protein methyltransferase EZH2 as its catalytic subunit, and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF). EZH2 catalyzes the methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3, a covalent chromatin modification that is associated with repressed heterochromatin. The catalytic activity of SWI/SNF, in contrast, leads to a state of open chromatin associated with active transcription. In this review, we discuss the biochemical properties of both complexes, outline the principles of their regulation, and describe their opposing roles in normal development, which can be perturbed in disease settings such as cancer. PMID:26836503

  7. The transcriptional regulator ADNP links the BAF (SWI/SNF) complexes with autism.

    PubMed

    Vandeweyer, Geert; Helsmoortel, Céline; Van Dijck, Anke; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Coe, Bradley P; Bernier, Raphael; Gerdts, Jennifer; Rooms, Liesbeth; van den Ende, Jenneke; Bakshi, Madhura; Wilson, Meredith; Nordgren, Ann; Hendon, Laura G; Abdulrahman, Omar A; Romano, Corrado; de Vries, Bert B A; Kleefstra, Tjitske; Eichler, Evan E; Van der Aa, Nathalie; Kooy, R Frank

    2014-09-01

    Mutations in ADNP were recently identified as a frequent cause of syndromic autism, characterized by deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive behavioral patterns. Based on its functional domains, ADNP is a presumed transcription factor. The gene interacts closely with the SWI/SNF complex by direct and experimentally verified binding of its C-terminus to three of its core components. A detailed and systematic clinical assessment of the symptoms observed in our patients allows a detailed comparison with the symptoms observed in other SWI/SNF disorders. While the mutational mechanism of the first 10 patients identified suggested a gain of function mechanism, an 11th patient reported here is predicted haploinsufficient. The latter observation may raise hope for therapy, as addition of NAP, a neuroprotective octapeptide named after the first three amino acids of the sequence NAPVSPIQ, has been reported by others to ameliorate some of the cognitive abnormalities observed in a knockout mouse model. It is concluded that detailed clinical and molecular studies on larger cohorts of patients are necessary to establish a better insight in the genotype phenotype correlation and in the mutational mechanism.

  8. PRC2 and SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Kadoch, Cigall; Copeland, Robert A; Keilhack, Heike

    2016-03-22

    The dynamic structure of histones and DNA, also known as chromatin, is regulated by two classes of enzymes: those that mediate covalent modifications on either histone proteins or DNA and those that use the energy generated by ATP hydrolysis to mechanically alter chromatic structure. Both classes of enzymes are often found in large protein complexes. In this review, we describe two such complexes: polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2), with the protein methyltransferase EZH2 as its catalytic subunit, and the ATP-dependent chromatin remodeler switch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF). EZH2 catalyzes the methylation of lysine 27 on histone H3, a covalent chromatin modification that is associated with repressed heterochromatin. The catalytic activity of SWI/SNF, in contrast, leads to a state of open chromatin associated with active transcription. In this review, we discuss the biochemical properties of both complexes, outline the principles of their regulation, and describe their opposing roles in normal development, which can be perturbed in disease settings such as cancer.

  9. The SWI/SNF ATPases Are Required for Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Madany, Pasil; Akech, Jacqueline; Dobson, Jason R; Douthwright, Stephen; Browne, Gillian; Colby, Jennifer L; Winter, Georg E; Bradner, James E; Pratap, Jitesh; Sluder, Greenfield; Bhargava, Rohit; Chiosea, Simion I; van Wijnen, Andre J; Stein, Janet L; Stein, Gary S; Lian, Jane B; Nickerson, Jeffrey A; Imbalzano, Anthony N

    2015-11-01

    The Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related Gene 1 (BRG1) ATPases are highly conserved homologs that catalyze the chromatin remodeling functions of the multi-subunit human SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes in a mutually exclusive manner. SWI/SNF enzyme subunits are mutated or missing in many cancer types, but are overexpressed without apparent mutation in other cancers. Here, we report that both BRG1 and BRM are overexpressed in most primary breast cancers independent of the tumor's receptor status. Knockdown of either ATPase in a triple negative breast cancer cell line reduced tumor formation in vivo and cell proliferation in vitro. Fewer cells in S phase and an extended cell cycle progression time were observed without any indication of apoptosis, senescence, or alterations in migration or attachment properties. Combined knockdown of BRM and BRG1 showed additive effects in the reduction of cell proliferation and time required for completion of cell cycle, suggesting that these enzymes promote cell cycle progression through independent mechanisms. Knockout of BRG1 or BRM using CRISPR/Cas9 technology resulted in the loss of viability, consistent with a requirement for both enzymes in triple negative breast cancer cells.

  10. Coffin-Siris syndrome is a SWI/SNF complex disorder.

    PubMed

    Tsurusaki, Y; Okamoto, N; Ohashi, H; Mizuno, S; Matsumoto, N; Makita, Y; Fukuda, M; Isidor, B; Perrier, J; Aggarwal, S; Dalal, A B; Al-Kindy, A; Liebelt, J; Mowat, D; Nakashima, M; Saitsu, H; Miyake, N; Matsumoto, N

    2014-06-01

    Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is a congenital disorder characterized by intellectual disability, growth deficiency, microcephaly, coarse facial features, and hypoplastic or absent fifth fingernails and/or toenails. We previously reported that five genes are mutated in CSS, all of which encode subunits of the switch/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF) ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex: SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCE1, ARID1A, and ARID1B. In this study, we examined 49 newly recruited CSS-suspected patients, and re-examined three patients who did not show any mutations (using high-resolution melting analysis) in the previous study, by whole-exome sequencing or targeted resequencing. We found that SMARCB1, SMARCA4, or ARID1B were mutated in 20 patients. By examining available parental samples, we ascertained that 17 occurred de novo. All mutations in SMARCB1 and SMARCA4 were non-truncating (missense or in-frame deletion) whereas those in ARID1B were all truncating (nonsense or frameshift deletion/insertion) in this study as in our previous study. Our data further support that CSS is a SWI/SNF complex disorder.

  11. Epigenetic regulation by BAF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes is indispensable for embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Sokpor, Godwin; Pham, Linh; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-05-18

    The multi-subunit chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF (known as BAF for Brg/Brm-associated factor) complexes play essential roles in development. Studies have shown that the loss of individual BAF subunits often affects local chromatin structure and specific transcriptional programs. However, we do not fully understand how BAF complexes function in development because no animal mutant had been engineered to lack entire multi-subunit BAF complexes. Importantly, we recently reported that double conditional knock-out (dcKO) of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits in mice abolished the presence of the other BAF subunits in the developing cortex. The generated dcKO mutant provides a novel and powerful tool for investigating how entire BAF complexes affect cortical development. Using this model, we found that BAF complexes globally control the key heterochromatin marks, H3K27me2 and -3, by directly modulating the enzymatic activity of the H3K27 demethylases, Utx and Jmjd3. Here, we present further insights into how the scaffolding ability of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits maintains the stability of BAF complexes in the forebrain and throughout the embryo during development. Furthermore, we show that the loss of BAF complexes in the above-described model up-regulates H3K27me3 and impairs forebrain development and embryogenesis. These findings improve our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by the chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF complexes that control embryonic development.

  12. Testing for DNA Tracking by MOT1, a SNF2/SWI2 Protein Family Member

    PubMed Central

    Auble, David T.; Steggerda, Susanne M.

    1999-01-01

    Proteins in the SNF2/SWI2 family use ATP hydrolysis to catalyze rearrangements in diverse protein-DNA complexes. How ATP hydrolysis is coupled to these rearrangements is unknown, however. One attractive model is that these ATPases are ATP-dependent DNA-tracking enzymes. This idea was tested for the SNF2/SWI2 protein family member MOT1. MOT1 is an essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor that uses ATP to dissociate TATA binding protein (TBP) from DNA. By using a series of DNA templates with one or two TATA boxes in combination with binding sites for heterologous DNA binding “roadblock” proteins, the ability of MOT1 to track along DNA was assayed. The results demonstrate that, following ATP-dependent TBP-DNA dissociation, MOT1 dissociates rapidly from the DNA by a mechanism that does not require a DNA end. Template commitment footprinting experiments support the conclusion that ATP-dependent DNA tracking by MOT1 does not occur. These results support a model in which MOT1 drives TBP-DNA dissociation by a mechanism that involves a transient, ATP-dependent interaction with TBP-DNA which does not involve ATP-dependent DNA tracking. PMID:9858565

  13. Role of Snf1p in regulation of intracellular sorting of the lactose and galactose transporter Lac12p in Kluyveromyces lactis.

    PubMed

    Wiedemuth, Christian; Breunig, Karin D

    2005-04-01

    The protein kinase Snf1/AMPK plays a central role in carbon and energy homeostasis in yeasts and higher eukaryotes. To work out which aspects of the Snf1-controlled regulatory network are conserved in evolution, the Snf1 requirement in galactose metabolism was analyzed in the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. Whereas galactose induction was only delayed, K. lactis snf1 mutants failed to accumulate the lactose/galactose H+ symporter Lac12p in the plasma membran,e as indicated by Lac12-green fluorescent protein fusions. In contrast to wild-type cells, the fusion protein was mostly intracellular in the mutant. Growth on galactose and galactose uptake could be restored by the KHT3 gene, which encodes a new transporter of the HXT subfamily of major facilitators These findings indicate a new role of Snf1p in regulation of sugar transport in K. lactis. PMID:15821131

  14. Occupational Psychiatric Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    We searched databases and used various online resources to identify and systematically review all articles on occupational psychiatric disorders among Korean workers published in English and Korean before 2009. Three kinds of occupational psychiatric disorders were studied: disorders related to job stress and mental illness, psychiatric symptoms emerging in victims of industrial injuries, and occupational psychiatric disorders compensated by Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance (IACI). Korea does not maintain official statistical records for occupational psychiatric disorders, but several studies have estimated the number of occupational psychiatric disorders using the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL, formerly KLWC) database. The major compensated occupational psychiatric disorders in Korea were "personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, damage, and dysfunction", "other mental disorders due to brain damage and dysfunction and to physical diseases", "reactions to severe stress and adjustment disorders", and "depressive episodes". The most common work-related psychiatric disorders, excluding accidents, were "neurotic, stress-related, and somatoform disorders" followed by "mood disorders". PMID:21258596

  15. Medical waste management in Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong-Chul; Lee, Cargro; Yoon, Oh-Sub; Kim, Hwidong

    2006-07-01

    The management of medical waste is of great importance due to its potential environmental hazards and public health risks. In the past medical waste was often mixed with municipal solid waste and disposed of in residential waste landfills or improper treatment facilities (e.g. inadequately controlled incinerators) in Korea. In recent years, many efforts have been made by environmental regulatory agencies and waste generators to better manage the waste from healthcare facilities. This paper presents an overview of the current management practices of medical waste in Korea. Information regarding generation, composition, segregation, transportation, and disposal of medical wastes is provided and discussed. Medical waste incineration is identified as the most preferred disposal method and will be the only available treatment option in late 2005. Faced with increased regulations over toxic air emissions (e.g. dioxins and furans), all existing small incineration facilities that do not have air pollution control devices will cease operation in the next few years. Large-scale medical waste incinerators would be responsible for the treatment of medical waste generated by most healthcare facilities in Korea. It is important to point out that there is a great potential to emit air toxic pollutants from such incinerators if improperly operated and managed, because medical waste typically contains a variety of plastic materials such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Waste minimization and recycling, control of toxic air emissions at medical waste incinerators, and alternative treatment methods to incineration are regarded to be the major challenges in the future.

  16. Technical Specifications for the Neutron Radiography Facility (TRIGA Mark 1 Reactor). Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, R.L.; Perfect, J.F.

    1988-04-01

    These Technical Specifications state the limits under which the Neutron Radiography Facility, with its associated TRIGA Mark I Reactor, is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy. These specifications cover operation of the Facility for the purpose of examination of specimens (including contained fissile material) by neutron radiography, for the irradiation of specimens in the pneumatic transfer system and approved in-core or in-pool irradiation facilities and operator training. The Final Safety Analysis Report (TC-344) and its supplements, and these Technical Specifications are the basic safety documents of the Neutron Radiography Facility.

  17. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications.

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Türkmen, Mehmet; Çakir, Tahir; Reyhancan, İskender A; Çolak, Üner; Okka, Muhittin; Kiziltaş, Sahip

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au-Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented.

  18. Determination of the irradiation field at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Nagels, S; Hampel, G; Kratz, J V; Aguilar, A L; Minouchehr, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L; Wortmann, B

    2009-07-01

    For the application of the BNCT for the excorporal treatment of organs at the TRIGA Mainz, the basic characteristics of the radiation field in the thermal column as beam geometry, neutron and gamma ray energies, angular distributions, neutron flux, as well as absorbed gamma and neutron doses must be determined in a reproducible way. To determine the mixed irradiation field thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) made of CaF(2):Tm with a newly developed energy-compensation filter system and LiF:Mg,Ti materials with different (6)Li concentrations and different thicknesses as well as thin gold foils were used.

  19. Cryostat system for investigation on new neutron moderator materials at reactor TRIGA PUSPATI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dris, Zakaria bin; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz bin; Hamid, Nasri A.; Azman, Azraf; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Hafizal

    2016-01-01

    A simple continuous flow (SCF) cryostat was designed to investigate the neutron moderation of alumina in high temperature co-ceramic (HTCC) and polymeric materials such as Teflon under TRIGA neutron environment using a reflected neutron beam from a monochromator. Cooling of the cryostat will be carried out using liquid nitrogen. The cryostat will be built with an aluminum holder for moderator within stainless steel cylinder pipe. A copper thermocouple will be used as the temperature sensor to monitor the moderator temperature inside the cryostat holder. Initial measurements of neutron spectrum after neutron passing through the moderating materials have been carried out using a neutron spectrometer.

  20. Modification of the radial beam port of ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications.

    PubMed

    Akan, Zafer; Türkmen, Mehmet; Çakir, Tahir; Reyhancan, İskender A; Çolak, Üner; Okka, Muhittin; Kiziltaş, Sahip

    2015-05-01

    This paper aims to describe the modification of the radial beam port of ITU (İstanbul Technical University) TRIGA Mark II research reactor for BNCT applications. Radial beam port is modified with Polyethylene and Cerrobend collimators. Neutron flux values are measured by neutron activation analysis (Au-Cd foils). Experimental results are verified with Monte Carlo results. The results of neutron/photon spectrum, thermal/epithermal neutron flux, fast group photon fluence and change of the neutron fluxes with the beam port length are presented. PMID:25746919

  1. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and...

  2. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs) for FY 2016, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and Staffing Data Collection. Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2016. In addition, it specifies a SNF all-cause all-condition hospital readmission measure, as well as adopts that measure for a new SNF Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, and includes a discussion of SNF VBP Program policies we are considering for future rulemaking to promote higher quality and more efficient health care for Medicare beneficiaries. Additionally, this final rule will implement a new quality reporting program for SNFs as specified in the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 (IMPACT Act). It also amends the requirements that a long-term care (LTC) facility must meet to qualify to participate as a skilled nursing facility (SNF) in the Medicare program, or a nursing facility (NF) in the Medicaid program, by establishing requirements that implement the provision in the Affordable Care Act regarding the submission of staffing information based on payroll data. PMID:26242002

  3. Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing Facilities (SNFs) for FY 2016, SNF Value-Based Purchasing Program, SNF Quality Reporting Program, and Staffing Data Collection. Final Rule.

    PubMed

    2015-08-01

    This final rule updates the payment rates used under the prospective payment system (PPS) for skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) for fiscal year (FY) 2016. In addition, it specifies a SNF all-cause all-condition hospital readmission measure, as well as adopts that measure for a new SNF Value-Based Purchasing (VBP) Program, and includes a discussion of SNF VBP Program policies we are considering for future rulemaking to promote higher quality and more efficient health care for Medicare beneficiaries. Additionally, this final rule will implement a new quality reporting program for SNFs as specified in the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014 (IMPACT Act). It also amends the requirements that a long-term care (LTC) facility must meet to qualify to participate as a skilled nursing facility (SNF) in the Medicare program, or a nursing facility (NF) in the Medicaid program, by establishing requirements that implement the provision in the Affordable Care Act regarding the submission of staffing information based on payroll data.

  4. IL-10 transcription is negatively regulated by BAF180, a component of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzyme

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling enzymes play a critical role in the development of T helper lymphocytes, including Th2 cells, and directly program chromatin structure at Th2 cytokine genes. Different versions of SWI/SNF complexes, including BAF and PBAF, have been described based on unique subunit composition. However, the relative role of BAF and PBAF in Th cell function and cytokine expression has not been reported. Results Here we examine the role of the PBAF SWI/SNF complex in Th cell development and gene expression using mice deficient for a PBAF-specific component, BAF180. We find that T cell development in the thymus and lymphoid periphery is largely normal when the BAF180 gene is deleted late in thymic development. However, BAF180-deficient Th2 cells express high levels of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10. BAF180 binds directly to regulatory elements in the Il-10 locus but is replaced by BAF250 BAF complexes in the absence of BAF180, resulting in increased histone acetylation and CBP recruitment to the IL-10 locus. Conclusions These results demonstrate that BAF180 is a repressor of IL-10 transcription in Th2 cells and suggest that the differential recruitment of different SWI/SNF subtypes can have direct consequences on chromatin structure and gene transcription. PMID:22336179

  5. 75 FR 59329 - Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; 2011 Fiscal Year Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 247). Based on the methodologies set forth in 38 CFR 17.101(b), this document provides an... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Reasonable Charges for Inpatient MS-DRGs and SNF Medical Services; 2011 Fiscal Year Update...

  6. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is critical for the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Vachtenheim, Jiri; Ondrusova, Lubica; Borovansky, Jan

    2010-02-12

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is required for melanocyte development, maintenance of the melanocyte-specific transcription, and survival of melanoma cells. MITF positively regulates expression of more than 25 genes in pigment cells. Recently, it has been demonstrated that expression of several MITF downstream targets requires the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, which contains one of the two catalytic subunits, Brm or Brg1. Here we show that the expression of MITF itself critically requires active SWI/SNF. In several Brm/Brg1-expressing melanoma cell lines, knockdown of Brg1 severely compromised MITF expression with a concomitant dowregulation of MITF targets and decreased cell proliferation. Although Brm was able to substitute for Brg1 in maintaining MITF expression and melanoma cell proliferation, sequential knockdown of both Brm and Brg1 in 501mel cells abolished proliferation. In Brg1-null SK-MEL-5 melanoma cells, depletion of Brm alone was sufficient to abrogate MITF expression and cell proliferation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed the binding of Brg1 or Brm to the promoter of MITF. Together these results demonstrate the essential role of SWI/SNF for expression of MITF and suggest that SWI/SNF may be a promissing target in melanoma therapy.

  7. 105-K Basin Material Design Basis Feed Description for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Facilities VOL 2 Sludge

    SciTech Connect

    PEARCE, K.L.

    2000-04-05

    Volume 2 provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories of sludge currently stored within the Hanford Site's 105-K Basin This volume also provides estimated chemical and radionuclide inventories for the sludge streams expected to be generated during Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project activities.

  8. Spent Nuclear Fuel project stage and store K basin SNF in canister storage building functions and requirements. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Womack, J.C.

    1995-10-24

    This document establishes the functions and requirements baseline for the implementation of the Canister Storage Building Subproject. The mission allocated to the Canister Storage Building Subproject is to provide safe, environmentally sound staging and storage of K Basin SNF until a decision on the final disposition is reached and implemented

  9. Mutant p53 cooperates with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex to regulate VEGFR2 in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Pfister, Neil T; Fomin, Vitalay; Regunath, Kausik; Zhou, Jeffrey Y; Zhou, Wen; Silwal-Pandit, Laxmi; Freed-Pastor, William A; Laptenko, Oleg; Neo, Suat Peng; Bargonetti, Jill; Hoque, Mainul; Tian, Bin; Gunaratne, Jayantha; Engebraaten, Olav; Manley, James L; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Neilsen, Paul M; Prives, Carol

    2015-06-15

    Mutant p53 impacts the expression of numerous genes at the level of transcription to mediate oncogenesis. We identified vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), the primary functional VEGF receptor that mediates endothelial cell vascularization, as a mutant p53 transcriptional target in multiple breast cancer cell lines. Up-regulation of VEGFR2 mediates the role of mutant p53 in increasing cellular growth in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) culture conditions. Mutant p53 binds near the VEGFR2 promoter transcriptional start site and plays a role in maintaining an open conformation at that location. Relatedly, mutant p53 interacts with the SWI/SNF complex, which is required for remodeling the VEGFR2 promoter. By both querying individual genes regulated by mutant p53 and performing RNA sequencing, the results indicate that >40% of all mutant p53-regulated gene expression is mediated by SWI/SNF. We surmise that mutant p53 impacts transcription of VEGFR2 as well as myriad other genes by promoter remodeling through interaction with and likely regulation of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Therefore, not only might mutant p53-expressing tumors be susceptible to anti VEGF therapies, impacting SWI/SNF tumor suppressor function in mutant p53 tumors may also have therapeutic potential.

  10. LincRNA-Cox2 Promotes Late Inflammatory Gene Transcription in Macrophages through Modulating SWI/SNF-Mediated Chromatin Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Guoku; Gong, Ai-Yu; Wang, Yang; Ma, Shibin; Chen, Xiqiang; Chen, Jing; Su, Chun-Jen; Shibata, Annemarie; Strauss-Soukup, Juliane K; Drescher, Kristen M; Chen, Xian-Ming

    2016-03-15

    Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are long noncoding transcripts (>200 nt) from the intergenic regions of annotated protein-coding genes. One of the most highly induced lincRNAs in macrophages upon TLR ligation is lincRNA-Cox2, which was recently shown to mediate the activation and repression of distinct classes of immune genes in innate immune cells. We report that lincRNA-Cox2, located at chromosome 1 proximal to the PG-endoperoxide synthase 2 (Ptgs2/Cox2) gene, is an early-primary inflammatory gene controlled by NF-κB signaling in murine macrophages. Functionally, lincRNA-Cox2 is required for the transcription of NF-κB-regulated late-primary inflammatory response genes stimulated by bacterial LPS. Specifically, lincRNA-Cox2 is assembled into the switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF) complex in cells after LPS stimulation. This resulting lincRNA-Cox2/SWI/SNF complex can modulate the assembly of NF-κB subunits to the SWI/SNF complex, and ultimately, SWI/SNF-associated chromatin remodeling and transactivation of the late-primary inflammatory-response genes in macrophages in response to microbial challenge. Therefore, our data indicate a new regulatory role for NF-κB-induced lincRNA-Cox2 as a coactivator of NF-κB for the transcription of late-primary response genes in innate immune cells through modulation of epigenetic chromatin remodeling.

  11. Standardization of Fat:SNF ratio of milk and addition of sprouted wheat fada (semolina) for the manufacture of halvasan.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Apurva H; Patel, H G; Prajapati, P S; Prajapati, J P

    2015-04-01

    Traditional Indian Dairy Products such as Halvasan are manufactured in India using an age old practice. For manufacture of such products industrially, a standard formulation is required. Halvasan is a region specific, very popular heat desiccated milk product but has not been studied scientifically. Fat and Solids-not-fat (SNF) plays an important role in physico-chemical, sensory, textural characteristics and also the shelf life of any milk sweet. Hence for process standardization of Halvasan manufacture, different levels of Fat:SNF ratios i.e. 0.44, 0.55, 0.66 and 0.77 of milk were studied so that an optimum level yielding best organoleptic characteristics in final product can be selected. The product was made from milk standardized to these ratios of Fat:SNF and the product was manufactured as per the method tentatively employed on the basis of characterization of market samples of the product in laboratory. Based on the sensory results obtained, a Fat:SNF ratio of 0.66 for the milk has been selected. In the similar way, for standardizing the rate of addition of fada (semolina); 30, 40, 50 and 60 g fada (semolina) per kg of milk were added and based on the sensory observations, the level of fada (semolina) addition @50 gm/kg of milk was adjudged the best for Halvasan manufacture and hence selected.

  12. Hazard Evaluation for Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Sludge at the Solid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    SCHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-08-22

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) storage basin clean-up project, sludge that has accumulated in the K Basins due to corrosion of damaged irradiated N Reactor will be loaded into containers and placed in interim storage. The Hanford Site Treatment Complex (T Plant) has been identified as the location where the sludge will be stored until final disposition of the material occurs. Long term storage of sludge from the K Basin fuel storage facilities requires identification and analysis of potential accidents involving sludge storage in T Plant. This report is prepared as the initial step in the safety assurance process described in DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports and HNF-PRO-704, Hazards and Accident Analysis Process. This report documents the evaluation of potential hazards and off-normal events associated with sludge storage activities. This information will be used in subsequent safety analyses, design, and operations procedure development to ensure safe storage. The hazards evaluation for the storage of SNF sludge in T-Plant used the Hazards and Operability Analysis (HazOp) method. The hazard evaluation identified 42 potential hazardous conditions. No hazardous conditions involving hazardous/toxic chemical concerns were identified. Of the 42 items identified in the HazOp study, eight were determined to have potential for onsite worker consequences. No items with potential offsite consequences were identified in the HazOp study. Hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker or offsite consequences are candidates for quantitative consequence analysis. The hazardous conditions with potential onsite worker consequences were grouped into two event categories, Container failure due to overpressure - internal to T Plant, and Spill of multiple containers. The two event categories will be developed into accident scenarios that will be quantitatively analyzed to determine release consequences. A third category, Container failure due to

  13. Using NDA Techniques to Improve Safeguards Metrics on Burnup Quantification and Plutonium Content in LWR SNF

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, Steven F; Charlton, William S; Solodov, Alexander A; Ehinger, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    Globally, there exists a long history in reprocessing in evaluation of the shipper/receiver difference (SRD) on spent nuclear fuel (SNF) received and processed. Typically, the declared shipper s values for uranium and plutonium in SNF (based on calculations involving the initial manufacturer s data and reactor operating history) are used as the input quantities to the head-end process of the facility. Problems have been encountered when comparing these values with measured results of the input accountability tank contents. A typical comparison yields a systematic bias indicated as a loss of 5 7 percent of the plutonium (Pu) and approximately 1 percent for the uranium (U). Studies suggest that such deviation can be attributed to the non-linear nature of the axial burnup values of the SNF. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Texas A&M University are co-investigating the development of a new method, via Nondestructive Assay (NDA) techniques, to improve the accuracy in burnup and Pu content quantification. Two major components have been identified to achieve this objective. The first component calculates a measurement-based burnup profile along the axis of a fuel rod. Gamma-ray data is collected at numerous locations along the axis of the fuel rod using a High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector designed for a wide range of gamma-ray energies. Using two fission products, 137Cs and 134Cs, the burnup is calculated at each measurement location and a profile created along the axis of the rod based on the individual measurement locations. The second component measures the U/Pu ratio using an HPGe detector configured for relatively low-energy gamma-rays including x-rays. Fluorescence x-rays from U and Pu are measured and compared to the U/Pu ratio determined from a destructive analysis of the sample. This will be used to establish a relationship between the measured and actual values. This relationship will be combined with the burnup analysis results to establish a relationship

  14. Effect of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex on HIV-1 Tat activated transcription

    PubMed Central

    Agbottah, Emmanuel; Deng, Longwen; Dannenberg, Luke O; Pumfery, Anne; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2006-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency virus (AIDS). Following entry into the host cell, the viral RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA and subsequently integrated into the host genome as a chromatin template. The integrated proviral DNA, along with the specific chromatinized environment in which integration takes place allows for the coordinated regulation of viral transcription and replication. While the specific roles of and interplay between viral and host proteins have not been fully elucidated, numerous reports indicate that HIV-1 retains the ability for self-regulation via the pleiotropic effects of its viral proteins. Though viral transcription is fully dependent upon host cellular factors and the state of host activation, recent findings indicate a complex interplay between viral proteins and host transcription regulatory machineries including histone deacetylases (HDACs), histone acetyltransferases (HATs), cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs), and histone methyltransferases (HMTs). Results Here, we describe the effect of Tat activated transcription at the G1/S border of the cell cycle and analyze the interaction of modified Tat with the chromatin remodeling complex, SWI/SNF. HIV-1 LTR DNA reconstituted into nucleosomes can be activated in vitro using various Tat expressing extracts. Optimally activated transcription was observed at the G1/S border of the cell cycle both in vitro and in vivo, where chromatin remodeling complex, SWI/SNF, was present on the immobilized LTR DNA. Using a number of in vitro binding as well as in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays, we detected the presence of both BRG1 and acetylated Tat in the same complex. Finally, we demonstrate that activated transcription resulted in partial or complete removal of the nucleosome from the start site of the LTR as evidenced by a restriction enzyme accessibility assay. Conclusion We propose a model where unmodified Tat

  15. MITF-independent pro-survival role of BRG1-containing SWI/SNF complex in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ondrušová, Lubica; Vachtenheim, Jiri; Réda, Jiri; Záková, Petra; Benková, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Metastasized malignant melanoma has a poor prognosis because of its intrinsic resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The central role in the melanoma transcriptional network has the transcription factor MITF (microphthalmia-associated transcription factor). It has been shown recently that the expression of MITF and some of its target genes require the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Here we demonstrate that survival of melanoma cells requires functional SWI/SNF complex not only by supporting expression of MITF and its targets and but also by activating expression of prosurvival proteins not directly regulated by MITF. Microarray analysis revealed that besides the MITF-driven genes, expression of proteins like osteopontin, IGF1, TGFß2 and survivin, the factors known to be generally associated with progression of tumors and the antiapoptotic properties, were reduced in acute BRG1-depleted 501mel cells. Western blots and RT-PCR confirmed the microarray findings. These proteins have been verified to be expressed independently of MITF, because MITF depletion did not impair their expression. Because these genes are not regulated by MITF, the data suggests that loss of BRG1-based SWI/SNF complexes negatively affects survival pathways beyond the MITF cascade. Immunohistochemistry showed high expression of both BRM and BRG1 in primary melanomas. Exogenous CDK2, osteopontin, or IGF1 each alone partly relieved the block of proliferation imposed by BRG1 depletion, implicating that more factors, besides the MITF target genes, are involved in melanoma cell survival. Together these results demonstrate an essential role of SWI/SNF for the expression of MITF-dependent and MITF-independent prosurvival factors in melanoma cells and suggest that SWI/SNF may be a potential and effective target in melanoma therapy.

  16. PAS kinase is activated by direct SNF1-dependent phosphorylation and mediates inhibition of TORC1 through the phosphorylation and activation of Pbp1

    PubMed Central

    DeMille, Desiree; Badal, Bryan D.; Evans, J. Brady; Mathis, Andrew D.; Anderson, Joseph F.; Grose, Julianne H.

    2015-01-01

    We describe the interplay between three sensory protein kinases in yeast: AMP-regulated kinase (AMPK, or SNF1 in yeast), PAS kinase 1 (Psk1 in yeast), and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). This signaling cascade occurs through the SNF1-dependent phosphorylation and activation of Psk1, which phosphorylates and activates poly(A)- binding protein binding protein 1 (Pbp1), which then inhibits TORC1 through sequestration at stress granules. The SNF1-dependent phosphorylation of Psk1 appears to be direct, in that Snf1 is necessary and sufficient for Psk1 activation by alternate carbon sources, is required for altered Psk1 protein mobility, is able to phosphorylate Psk1 in vitro, and binds Psk1 via its substrate-targeting subunit Gal83. Evidence for the direct phosphorylation and activation of Pbp1 by Psk1 is also provided by in vitro and in vivo kinase assays, including the reduction of Pbp1 localization at distinct cytoplasmic foci and subsequent rescue of TORC1 inhibition in PAS kinase–deficient yeast. In support of this signaling cascade, Snf1-deficient cells display increased TORC1 activity, whereas cells containing hyperactive Snf1 display a PAS kinase–dependent decrease in TORC1 activity. This interplay between yeast SNF1, Psk1, and TORC1 allows for proper glucose allocation during nutrient depletion, reducing cell growth and proliferation when energy is low. PMID:25428989

  17. RNF20-SNF2H Pathway of Chromatin Relaxation in DNA Double-Strand Break Repair

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Akihiro; Komatsu, Kenshi

    2015-01-01

    Rapid progress in the study on the association of histone modifications with chromatin remodeling factors has broadened our understanding of chromatin dynamics in DNA transactions. In DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair, the well-known mark of histones is the phosphorylation of the H2A variant, H2AX, which has been used as a surrogate marker of DSBs. The ubiquitylation of histone H2B by RNF20 E3 ligase was recently found to be a DNA damage-induced histone modification. This modification is required for DSB repair and regulated by a distinctive pathway from that of histone H2AX phosphorylation. Moreover, the connection between H2B ubiquitylation and the chromatin remodeling activity of SNF2H has been elucidated. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of RNF20-mediated processes and the molecular link to H2AX-mediated processes during DSB repair. PMID:26184323

  18. Microscopic properties of the pinwheel kagome compound Rb(2)Cu(3)SnF(12).

    PubMed

    Grbić, M S; Krämer, S; Berthier, C; Trousselet, F; Cépas, O; Tanaka, H; Horvatić, M

    2013-06-14

    Using (63,65)Cu nuclear magnetic resonance in magnetic fields up to 30 T, we study the microscopic properties of the 12-site valence-bond-solid ground state in the "pinwheel" kagome compound Rb(2)Cu(3)SnF(12). We find that the ground state is characterized by a strong transverse staggered spin polarization whose temperature and field dependence points to a mixing of the singlet and triplet states. This is further corroborated by the field dependence of the gap Δ(H), which has a level anticrossing with a large minimum gap value of ≈ Δ(0)/2, with no evidence of a phase transition down to 1.5 K. By the exact diagonalization of small clusters, we show that the observed anticrossing is mainly due to staggered tilts of the g tensors defined by the crystal structure and reveal symmetry properties of the low-energy excitation spectrum compatible with the absence of level crossing.

  19. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-02

    This document provides the Operations Manual for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The Manual was developed in conjunction with HNF-553, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Final Safety Analysis Report Annex B--Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1999, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, Rev. 4, and the CVDF Final Design Report. The Operations Manual contains general descriptions of all the process, safety and facility systems in the CVDF, a general CVD operations sequence and references to the CVDF System Design Descriptions (SDDs). This manual has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

  20. International University Will Open in North Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that construction is nearing completion on Pyongyang University of Science and Technology in North Korea, in which academics from around the world will teach the best of the country's graduate students. This will be North Korea's first international university and will let the world know that the capacity of their scientists…

  1. Divorce in Korea: Trends and Educational Differentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Raymo, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The authors extend comparative research on educational differences in divorce by analyzing data from Korea. A primary motivation was to assess whether the theoretically unexpected negative educational gradient in divorce in Japan is also observed in Korea. Using vital statistics records for marriages and divorces registered between 1991 and 2006,…

  2. South Korea Powers Ahead with Globalization Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeill, David

    2009-01-01

    For government officials in South Korea, it's a vision worth savoring: Within the next decade, South Korea becomes Southeast Asia's top higher-education destination, poaching thousands of Chinese, Indian, and Japanese students from American universities and overtaking rivals Singapore, Malaysia, and Hong Kong. The higher-education system's…

  3. Teaching about Korea in Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Decar, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Presents 12 study guides for teaching secondary school students about Korean history and culture. The study guides deal with ancient legends, history, family, women's roles, traditions, folk customs, economic development, the division of Korea, the Korean War, links with the United States, and comparisons between North and South Korea. (GEA)

  4. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex exerts both negative and positive control over LET-23/EGFR-dependent vulval induction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Flibotte, Stephane; Kim, Bo Ram; Van de Laar, Emily; Brown, Louise; Moghal, Nadeem

    2016-07-01

    Signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) generates diverse developmental patterns. This requires precise control over the location and intensity of signaling. Elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms is important for understanding development and disease pathogenesis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, LIN-3/EGF induces vulval formation in the mid-body, which requires LET-23/EGFR activation only in P6.p, the vulval progenitor nearest the LIN-3 source. To identify mechanisms regulating this signaling pattern, we screened for mutations that cooperate with a let-23 gain-of-function allele to cause ectopic vulval induction. Here, we describe a dominant gain-of-function mutation in swsn-4, a component of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. Loss-of-function mutations in multiple SWI/SNF components reveal that weak reduction in SWI/SNF activity causes ectopic vulval induction, while stronger reduction prevents adoption of vulval fates, a phenomenon also observed with increasing loss of LET-23 activity. High levels of LET-23 expression in P6.p are thought to locally sequester LIN-3, thereby preventing ectopic vulval induction, with slight reductions in its expression interfering with LIN-3 sequestration, but not vulval fate signaling. We find that SWI/SNF positively regulates LET-23 expression in P6.p descendants, providing an explanation for the similarities between let-23 and SWI/SNF mutant phenotypes. However, SWI/SNF regulation of LET-23 expression is cell-specific, with SWI/SNF repressing its expression in the ALA neuron. The swsn-4 gain-of-function mutation affects the PTH domain, and provides the first evidence that its auto-inhibitory function in yeast Sth1p is conserved in metazoan chromatin remodelers. Finally, our work supports broad use of SWI/SNF in regulating EGFR signaling during development, and suggests that dominant SWI/SNF mutations in certain human congenital anomaly syndromes may be gain-of-functions. PMID:27207389

  5. SWI/SNF factors required for cellular resistance to DNA damage include ARID1A and ARID1B and show interdependent protein stability.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Reiko; Ui, Ayako; Kanno, Shin-Ichiro; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Nagase, Takahiro; Kohno, Takashi; Yasui, Akira

    2014-05-01

    The SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling family contains various protein complexes, which regulate gene expression during cellular development and influence DNA damage response in an ATP- and complex-dependent manner, of which details remain elusive. Recent human genome sequencing of various cancer cells revealed frequent mutations in SWI/SNF factors, especially ARID1A, a variant subunit in the BRG1-associated factor (BAF) complex of the SWI/SNF family. We combined live-cell analysis and gene-suppression experiments to show that suppression of either ARID1A or its paralog ARID1B led to reduced nonhomologous end joining activity of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), decreased accumulation of KU70/KU80 proteins at DSB, and sensitivity to ionizing radiation, as well as to cisplatin and UV. Thus, in contrast to transcriptional regulation, both ARID1 proteins are required for cellular resistance to various types of DNA damage, including DSB. The suppression of other SWI/SNF factors, namely SNF5, BAF60a, BAF60c, BAF155, or BAF170, exhibits a similar phenotype. Of these factors, ARID1A, ARID1B, SNF5, and BAF60c are necessary for the immediate recruitment of the ATPase subunit of the SWI/SNF complex to DSB, arguing that both ARID1 proteins facilitate the damage response of the complex. Finally, we found interdependent protein stability among the SWI/SNF factors, suggesting their direct interaction within the complex and the reason why multiple factors are frequently lost in parallel in cancer cells. Taken together, we show that cancer cells lacking in the expression of certain SWI/SNF factors, including ARID1A, are deficient in DNA repair and potentially vulnerable to DNA damage.

  6. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex exerts both negative and positive control over LET-23/EGFR-dependent vulval induction in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Flibotte, Stephane; Kim, Bo Ram; Van de Laar, Emily; Brown, Louise; Moghal, Nadeem

    2016-07-01

    Signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) generates diverse developmental patterns. This requires precise control over the location and intensity of signaling. Elucidation of these regulatory mechanisms is important for understanding development and disease pathogenesis. In Caenorhabditis elegans, LIN-3/EGF induces vulval formation in the mid-body, which requires LET-23/EGFR activation only in P6.p, the vulval progenitor nearest the LIN-3 source. To identify mechanisms regulating this signaling pattern, we screened for mutations that cooperate with a let-23 gain-of-function allele to cause ectopic vulval induction. Here, we describe a dominant gain-of-function mutation in swsn-4, a component of SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes. Loss-of-function mutations in multiple SWI/SNF components reveal that weak reduction in SWI/SNF activity causes ectopic vulval induction, while stronger reduction prevents adoption of vulval fates, a phenomenon also observed with increasing loss of LET-23 activity. High levels of LET-23 expression in P6.p are thought to locally sequester LIN-3, thereby preventing ectopic vulval induction, with slight reductions in its expression interfering with LIN-3 sequestration, but not vulval fate signaling. We find that SWI/SNF positively regulates LET-23 expression in P6.p descendants, providing an explanation for the similarities between let-23 and SWI/SNF mutant phenotypes. However, SWI/SNF regulation of LET-23 expression is cell-specific, with SWI/SNF repressing its expression in the ALA neuron. The swsn-4 gain-of-function mutation affects the PTH domain, and provides the first evidence that its auto-inhibitory function in yeast Sth1p is conserved in metazoan chromatin remodelers. Finally, our work supports broad use of SWI/SNF in regulating EGFR signaling during development, and suggests that dominant SWI/SNF mutations in certain human congenital anomaly syndromes may be gain-of-functions.

  7. Regulation of a plant SNF1-related protein kinase by glucose-6-phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Toroser, D.; Plaut, Z.; Huber, S.C.

    2000-05-01

    One of the major protein kinases (PK{sub III}) that phosphorylates serine-158 of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), which is responsible for light/dark modulation of activity, is known to be a member of the SNF1-related family of protein kinases. In the present study, the authors have developed a fluorescence-based continuous assay for measurement of PK{sub III} activity. Using the continuous assay, along with the fixed-time-point {sup 32}P-incorporation assay, they demonstrate that PK{sub III} activity is inhibited by glucose-6-phosphate (Glc-6-P). Relative inhibition by Glc-6-P was increased by decreasing pH from 8.5 to 5.5 and by reducing the concentration of Mg{sup 2+} in the assay from 10 to 2 nM. Under likely physiological conditions (PH 7.0 and 2 mM Mg{sup 2+}), 10 nM Glc-6-P inhibited kinase activity approximately 70%. Inhibition by Glc-6-P could not be ascribed to contaminants in the commercial preparations. Other metabolites inhibited PK{sub III} in the following order: Glc-6-P > mannose-6-P, fructose-1,6P{sub 2} > ribose-5-P, 3-PGA, fructose-6-P. Inorganic phosphate, Glc, and AMP were not inhibitory, and free Glc did not reverse the inhibition by Glc-6-P. Because SNF1-related protein kinases are thought to function broadly in the regulation of enzyme activity and gene expression, Glc-6-P inhibition of PK{sub III} activity potentially provides a mechanism for metabolic regulation of the reactions catalyzed by these important protein kinases.

  8. Occupational Hearing Loss in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    In this article, current status of noise exposure in workplaces, trend of workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), and prevalence of NIHL in workers by industry and job category in Korea were reviewed. In addition, trends of research on the audiological effects such as hearing loss from noise and occupational hearing loss from non-noise in Korea were addressed through reports in industrial audiology. Though noise exposure level has improved, noise still shows the highest rate of cases exceeding exposure limit among workplace hazards. NIHL is the most common occupational disease except work-related disease such as musculoskeletal disorders and cerebrovascular diseases, and NIHL prevalence is thought to be much higher than reported in official publications. Noise affecting hearing comes from various sources such as workplaces, military settings, areas with exposure to high noise, and specific noise sources. There is also occupational hearing loss by non-noise including chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals, barotrauma, and trauma due to welding spark. Noise affects daily life through audiological effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus, non-audiological physical effects (e.g., cardiovascular), and psychosocial and behavioral effects. Development of systematic and comprehensive hearing conservation programs for lowering the noise level in workplaces and preventing the NIHL, and preparation of technological, administrative system for its settlement at workplace are urgently needed. PMID:21258593

  9. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing.

  10. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  11. Occupational Neurological Disorders in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a literature review of occupational neurological disorders and related research in Korea, focusing on chemical hazards. We reviewed occupational neurological disorders investigated by the Occupational Safety and Health Research Institute of Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency between 1992 and 2009, categorizing them as neurological disorders of the central nervous system (CNS), of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) or as neurodegenerative disorders. We also examined peer-reviewed journal articles related to neurotoxicology, published from 1984 to 2009. Outbreaks of occupational neurological disorder of the CNS due to inorganic mercury and carbon disulfide poisoning had helped prompt the development of the occupational safety and health system of Korea. Other major neurological disorders of the CNS included methyl bromide intoxication and chronic toxic encephalopathy. Most of the PNS disorders were n-hexane-induced peripheral neuritis, reported from the electronics industry. Reports of manganese-induced Parkinsonism resulted in the introduction of neuroimaging techniques to occupational medicine. Since the late 1990s, the direction of research has been moving toward degenerative disorder and early effect of neurotoxicity. To understand the early effects of neurotoxic chemicals in the preclinical stage, more follow-up studies of a longer duration are necessary. PMID:21258587

  12. Occupational Skin Diseases in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Gi

    2010-01-01

    Skin disease is the most common occupational disease, but the reported number is small in Korea due to a difficulty of detection and diagnosis in time. We described various official statistics and data from occupational skin disease surveillance system, epidemiological surveys and cases published in scientific journals. Until 1981, 2,222 cases of occupational skin disease were reported by Korean employee's regular medical check-up, accounting for 4.9% of the total occupational diseases. There was no subsequent official statistics to figure out occupational skin diseases till 1998. From 1999, the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA) published the number of occupational skin diseases through the statistics of Cause Investigation for Industrial Accidents. A total of 301 cases were reported from 1999 to 2007. Recent one study showed the figures of compensated occupational skin diseases. Many of them belonged to daily-paid workers in the public service, especially forestry workers. Also, it described the interesting cases such as vitiligo and trichloroethylene-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Skin diseases are still important though the number of cases has decreased, and therefore it is recommended to grasp the status of occupational skin diseases through continuous surveillance system and to make policy protecting high-risk group. PMID:21258591

  13. Nutrition policy in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Since 1970s, the economic and social development in South Korea, as well as dietary pattern, has undergone various changes. Concerns for the decreased nutrition quality and physical activities among Koreans, especially young population, call for a need of a holistic approach in national food and nutrition policy. The National Health Promotion Act of 1995 included national interventions and programs to deal with nutrition-related chronic diseases and obesity prevention. A nation-wide monitoring system, which includes nutrition and health examination survey, is being built and run by the Ministry of Health and Welfare and its affiliated organizations every three years. The Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) is another key agency undertaking national food and nutrition policies. The KFDA recently promulgated the national strategic plans for improving food safety and nutrition, focusing on children. Nutrition labelling policy for processed food is managed by KFDA and various education programs are developed and disseminated to enhance the awareness of nutrition labelling. The agency also makes standards and regulates foods for special dietary uses and health functional food. The Rural Development Administration (RDA) is responsible for maintaining the food composition database. Finally, the National School Lunch Program is mainly governed by the Ministry of Education and Human Resources Development. The above central government agencies along with regional health centers are making efforts to promote the healthy eating habits in addition to constructing healthy environment by making laws and programs and by research and social marketing. PMID:18296374

  14. Relative fission product yield determination in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehl, Michael A.

    Fission product yield data sets are one of the most important and fundamental compilations of basic information in the nuclear industry. This data has a wide range of applications which include nuclear fuel burnup and nonproliferation safeguards. Relative fission yields constitute a major fraction of the reported yield data and reduce the number of required absolute measurements. Radiochemical separations of fission products reduce interferences, facilitate the measurement of low level radionuclides, and are instrumental in the analysis of low-yielding symmetrical fission products. It is especially useful in the measurement of the valley nuclides and those on the extreme wings of the mass yield curve, including lanthanides, where absolute yields have high errors. This overall project was conducted in three stages: characterization of the neutron flux in irradiation positions within the U.S. Geological Survey TRIGA Mark I Reactor (GSTR), determining the mass attenuation coefficients of precipitates used in radiochemical separations, and measuring the relative fission products in the GSTR. Using the Westcott convention, the Westcott flux, modified spectral index, neutron temperature, and gold-based cadmium ratios were determined for various sampling positions in the USGS TRIGA Mark I reactor. The differential neutron energy spectrum measurement was obtained using the computer iterative code SAND-II-SNL. The mass attenuation coefficients for molecular precipitates were determined through experiment and compared to results using the EGS5 Monte Carlo computer code. Difficulties associated with sufficient production of fission product isotopes in research reactors limits the ability to complete a direct, experimental assessment of mass attenuation coefficients for these isotopes. Experimental attenuation coefficients of radioisotopes produced through neutron activation agree well with the EGS5 calculated results. This suggests mass attenuation coefficients of molecular

  15. The SWI/SNF Subunit INI1 Contains an N-Terminal Winged Helix DNA Binding Domain that Is a Target for Mutations in Schwannomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Mark D.; Freund, Stefan M.V.; Zinzalla, Giovanna; Bycroft, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Summary SWI/SNF complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. In mammals they play a central role in regulating gene expression during differentiation and proliferation. Mutations in SWI/SNF subunits are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1 subunit is mutated in both malignant rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive childhood cancer, and schwannomatosis, a tumor-predisposing syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the CNS. Here, we show that mutations in INI1 that cause schwannomatosis target a hitherto unidentified N-terminal winged helix DNA binding domain that is also present in the BAF45a/PHF10 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. The domain is structurally related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, which is found in a number of metazoan chromatin-associated proteins. PMID:26073604

  16. The SWI/SNF Subunit INI1 Contains an N-Terminal Winged Helix DNA Binding Domain that Is a Target for Mutations in Schwannomatosis.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark D; Freund, Stefan M V; Zinzalla, Giovanna; Bycroft, Mark

    2015-07-01

    SWI/SNF complexes use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to remodel chromatin. In mammals they play a central role in regulating gene expression during differentiation and proliferation. Mutations in SWI/SNF subunits are among the most frequent gene alterations in cancer. The INI1/hSNF5/SMARCB1 subunit is mutated in both malignant rhabdoid tumor, a highly aggressive childhood cancer, and schwannomatosis, a tumor-predisposing syndrome characterized by mostly benign tumors of the CNS. Here, we show that mutations in INI1 that cause schwannomatosis target a hitherto unidentified N-terminal winged helix DNA binding domain that is also present in the BAF45a/PHF10 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex. The domain is structurally related to the SKI/SNO/DAC domain, which is found in a number of metazoan chromatin-associated proteins.

  17. Recommendations for Carotid Stenting in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hyuk Won; Suh, Sang-il; Jeong, Hae Woong; Suh, Dae Chul

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery angioplasty with stenting (CAS) is being performed in many hospitals in Korea. Most of the guidelines which are being used are similar, but the practical aspects such as techniques are different between hospitals. For example, usage of various protective devices, the oral antiplatelet regimen prior to procedure and placing of temporary pacemaker to prevent bradycardia are different between hospitals. In this article, we summarize and propose the guidelines for CAS which is currently being accepted in Korea. These guidelines may be helpful in providing protocol to neurointerventionalist who perform CAS and to standardize the process including reporting of CAS in the future comparative trials in Korea. PMID:25763292

  18. Chromatin remodeler sucrose nonfermenting 2 homolog (SNF2H) is recruited onto DNA replication origins through interaction with Cdc10 protein-dependent transcript 1 (Cdt1) and promotes pre-replication complex formation.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Nozomi; Yugawa, Takashi; Iizuka, Masayoshi; Kiyono, Tohru; Fujita, Masatoshi

    2011-11-11

    From late mitosis to the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, ORC, CDC6, and Cdt1 form the machinery necessary to load MCM2-7 complexes onto DNA. Here, we show that SNF2H, a member of the ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complex, is recruited onto DNA replication origins in human cells in a Cdt1-dependent manner and positively regulates MCM loading. SNF2H physically interacted with Cdt1. ChIP assays indicated that SNF2H associates with replication origins specifically during the G(1) phase. Binding of SNF2H at origins was decreased by Cdt1 silencing and, conversely, enhanced by Cdt1 overexpression. Furthermore, SNF2H silencing prevented MCM loading at origins and moderately inhibited S phase progression. Although neither SNF2H overexpression nor SNF2H silencing appeared to impact rereplication induced by Cdt1 overexpression, Cdt1-induced checkpoint activation was inhibited by SNF2H silencing. Collectively, these data suggest that SNF2H may promote MCM loading at DNA replication origins via interaction with Cdt1 in human cells. Because efficient loading of excess MCM complexes is thought to be required for cells to tolerate replication stress, Cdt1- and SNF2H-mediated promotion of MCM loading may be biologically relevant for the regulation of DNA replication.

  19. Korea`s choice of a new generation of nuclear plants

    SciTech Connect

    Redding, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The ABWR and SBWR design, both under development at GE, provide the best platform for developing the next generation advanced plants. The ABWR, which is rapidly setting the standard for new nuclear reactor plants, is clearly the best choice to meet the present energy needs of Korea. And through a GE/Korea partnership to develop the plant of the next century, Korea will establish itself as a leader in innovative reactor technology.

  20. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Irwan, M. N.; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy

    2014-09-03

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 58}Co, {sup 60}Co and {sup 65}Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of {sup 152}Eu and {sup 134}Cs were leached out from the spent resin while {sup 60}Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  1. Operation and reactivity measurements of an accelerator driven subcritical TRIGA reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, David Sean

    Experiments were performed at the Nuclear Engineering Teaching Laboratory (NETL) in 2005 and 2006 in which a 20 MeV linear electron accelerator operating as a photoneutron source was coupled to the TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope production, General Atomics) Mark II research reactor at the University of Texas at Austin (UT) to simulate the operation and characteristics of a full-scale accelerator driven subcritical system (ADSS). The experimental program provided a relatively low-cost substitute for the higher power and complexity of internationally proposed systems utilizing proton accelerators and spallation neutron sources for an advanced ADSS that may be used for the burning of high-level radioactive waste. Various instrumentation methods that permitted ADSS neutron flux monitoring in high gamma radiation fields were successfully explored and the data was used to evaluate the Stochastic Pulsed Feynman method for reactivity monitoring.

  2. Recent developments in ion detection techniques for Penning trap mass spectrometry at TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelaer, J.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Ferrer, R.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Ketter, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Repp, J.; Schweikhard, L.; Smorra, C.; Sturm, S.; Ulmer, S.

    2009-12-01

    The highest precision in the determination of nuclear and atomic masses can be achieved by Penning trap mass spectrometry. The mass value is obtained through a measurement of the cyclotron frequency of the stored charged particle. Two different approaches are used at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP for the mass determination: the destructive Time-Of-Flight Ion Cyclotron Resonance (TOF-ICR) technique and the non-destructive Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FT-ICR) method. New developments for both techniques are described, which will improve the detection efficiency and the suppression of contaminations in the case of TOF-ICR. The FT-ICR detection systems will allow for the investigation of an incoming ion bunch from a radioactive-beam facility on the one hand, and for the detection of a single singly charged ion in the Penning trap on the other hand.

  3. A carbon-cluster laser ion source for TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smorra, C.; Blaum, K.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Ketelaer, J.; Ketter, J.; Knuth, K.; Nagy, Sz

    2009-08-01

    A new laser ablation ion source was developed and tested for the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP in order to provide carbon-cluster ions for absolute mass calibration. Ions of different cluster sizes up to C+24 were successfully produced, covering the mass range up to the heavy actinide elements. The ions were captured in a Penning trap, and their time-of-flight cyclotron resonances recorded in order to determine their cyclotron frequency. Furthermore, the same ion source was used to produce GdO+ ions from a gadolinium target in sufficient amount for mass spectrometry purposes. The design of the source and its characteristics are presented. This paper comprises partly the PhD theses of J Ketelaer and C Smorra.

  4. Core Calculation of 1 MWatt PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP) using Monte Carlo MVP Code System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Julia Abdul

    2008-05-01

    The Monte Carlo MVP code system was adopted for the Reaktor TRIGA PUSAPTI (RTP) core calculation. The code was developed by a group of researcher of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) first in 1994. MVP is a general multi-purpose Monte Carlo code for neutron and photon transport calculation and able to estimate an accurate simulation problems. The code calculation is based on the continuous energy method. This code is capable of adopting an accurate physics model, geometry description and variance reduction technique faster than conventional method as compared to the conventional scalar method. This code could achieve higher computational speed by several factors on the vector super-computer. In this calculation, RTP core was modeled as close as possible to the real core and results of keff flux, fission densities and others were obtained.

  5. Accuracy studies with carbon clusters at the Penning trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketelaer, J.; Beyer, T.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eibach, M.; Herfurth, F.; Smorra, C.; Nagy, Sz.

    2010-05-01

    Extensive cross-reference measurements of well-known frequency ratios using various sizes of carbon cluster ions 12Cn + (10≤n≤23) were performed to determine the effects limiting the accuracy of mass measurements at the Penning-trap facility TRIGA-TRAP. Two major contributions to the uncertainty of a mass measurement have been identified. Fluctuations of the magnetic field cause an uncertainty in the frequency ratio due to the required calibration by a reference ion of uf(νref)/νref = 6(2) × 10-11/min × Δt. A mass-dependent systematic shift of the frequency ratio of epsilonm(r)/r = -2.2(2) × 10-9 × (m-mref)/u has been found as well. Finally, the nuclide 197Au was used as a cross-check since its mass is already known with an uncertainty of 0.6 keV.

  6. Determination of α and f parameters at the 14-MW TRIGA reactor at Pitesti, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bărbos, D.; Păunoiu, C.; Roth, C.

    2010-10-01

    For experimental α determination the two-monitor method has been applied to determine α parameter in the irradiation channels at TRIGA 14 MW reactor (SCN Pitesti). The modified two-monitor method by using Cd ratio measurements eliminates the introducing of systematic errors due to the inaccuracy of absolute nuclear data. This characterization of the epithermal neutron spectrum is used in the k0-method of NAA, implemented at the SCN Pitesti. Neutron spectrum parameters were determined in the inner irradiation channel XC-1 and for outer irradiation channels: Beryllium J-6, Beryllium J-7, and Beryllium K-11. For α and f parameter verification a standard reference material denominated ECRM379-1 was analyzed using k0 standardization.

  7. Simulation on reactor TRIGA Puspati core kinetics fueled with thorium (Th) based fuel element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Abdul Aziz; Pauzi, Anas Muhamad; Rahman, Shaik Mohmmed Haikhal Abdul; Zin, Muhamad Rawi Muhammad; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Idris, Faridah Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    In confronting global energy requirement and the search for better technologies, there is a real case for widening the range of potential variations in the design of nuclear power plants. Smaller and simpler reactors are attractive, provided they can meet safety and security standards and non-proliferation issues. On fuel cycle aspect, thorium fuel cycles produce much less plutonium and other radioactive transuranic elements than uranium fuel cycles. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce uranium-233 (233U), which is fissile. By introducing Thorium, the numbers of highly enriched uranium fuel element can be reduced while maintaining the core neutronic performance. This paper describes the core kinetic of a small research reactor core like TRIGA fueled with a Th filled fuel element matrix using a general purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code.

  8. The characteristic assessment of spent ion exchange resin from PUSPATI TRIGA REACTOR (RTP) for immobilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahida, Nurul; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Majid, Amran Ab; Wahab, Mohd Abd; Marzukee, Nik; Paulus, Wilfred; Phillip, Esther; Thanaletchumy, Irwan, M. N.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, spent ion exchange resin generated from PUSPATI TRIGA reactor (RTP) in Malaysian Nuclear Agency were characterized based on the water content, radionuclide content and radionuclide leachability. The result revealed that the water content in the spent resin is 48%. Gamma spectrometry analysis indicated the presence of 134Cs, 137Cs, 152Eu, 54Mn, 58Co, 60Co and 65Zn. The leachability test shows a small concentrations (<1 Bq/l) of 152Eu and 134Cs were leached out from the spent resin while 60Co activity concentrations slightly exceeded the limit generally used for industrial wastewater i.e. 1 Bq/l. Characterization of spent ion exchange resin sampled from RTP show that this characterization is important as a basis to immobilize this radioactive waste using geopolymer technology.

  9. Neutron spectra at two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor loaded with HEU fuel.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Hernández-Dávila, V M; Aguilar, F; Paredes, L; Rivera, T

    2014-01-01

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, one radial and another tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Measurements were carried out with the reactor core loaded with high enriched uranium fuel. Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a (6)LiI(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 in.-diameter high-density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code. For each spectrum total flux, mean energy and ambient dose equivalent were determined. Measured spectra show fission, epithermal and thermal neutrons, being harder in the radial beam port.

  10. Irradiation facility at the TRIGA Mainz for treatment of liver metastases.

    PubMed

    Hampel, G; Wortmann, B; Blaickner, M; Knorr, J; Kratz, J V; Lizón Aguilar, A; Minouchehr, S; Nagels, S; Otto, G; Schmidberger, H; Schütz, C; Vogtländer, L

    2009-07-01

    The TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Mainz provides ideal conditions for duplicating BNCT treatment as performed in Pavia, Italy, in 2001 and 2003 [Pinelli, T., Zonta, A., Altieri, S., Barni, S., Braghieri, A., Pedroni, P., Bruschi, P., Chiari, P., Ferrari, C., Fossati, F., Nano, R., Ngnitejeu Tata, S., Prati, U., Ricevuti, G., Roveda, L., Zonta, C., 2002. TAOrMINA: from the first idea to the application to the human liver. In: Sauerwein et al. (Eds.), Research and Development in Neutron Capture Therapy. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Neutron Capture Therapy, Monduzzi editore, Bologna, pp. 1065-1072]. In order to determine the optimal parameters for the planned therapy and therefore for the design of the thermal column, calculations were conducted using the MCNP-code and the transport code ATTILA. The results of the parameter study as well as a possible configuration for the irradiation of the liver are presented. PMID:19394836

  11. Neutron spectra at two beam ports of a TRIGA Mark III reactor loaded with HEU fuel.

    PubMed

    Vega-Carrillo, H R; Hernández-Dávila, V M; Aguilar, F; Paredes, L; Rivera, T

    2014-01-01

    The neutron spectra have been measured in two beam ports, one radial and another tangential, of the TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor from the National Institute of Nuclear Research in Mexico. Measurements were carried out with the reactor core loaded with high enriched uranium fuel. Two reactor powers, 5 and 10 W, were used during neutron spectra measurements using a Bonner sphere spectrometer with a (6)LiI(Eu) scintillator and 2, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 in.-diameter high-density polyethylene spheres. The neutron spectra were unfolded using the NSDUAZ unfolding code. For each spectrum total flux, mean energy and ambient dose equivalent were determined. Measured spectra show fission, epithermal and thermal neutrons, being harder in the radial beam port. PMID:23746708

  12. Verification of MCNP simulation of neutron flux parameters at TRIGA MK II reactor of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Yavar, A R; Khalafi, H; Kasesaz, Y; Sarmani, S; Yahaya, R; Wood, A K; Khoo, K S

    2012-10-01

    A 3-D model for 1 MW TRIGA Mark II research reactor was simulated. Neutron flux parameters were calculated using MCNP-4C code and were compared with experimental results obtained by k(0)-INAA and absolute method. The average values of φ(th),φ(epi), and φ(fast) by MCNP code were (2.19±0.03)×10(12) cm(-2)s(-1), (1.26±0.02)×10(11) cm(-2)s(-1) and (3.33±0.02)×10(10) cm(-2)s(-1), respectively. These average values were consistent with the experimental results obtained by k(0)-INAA. The findings show a good agreement between MCNP code results and experimental results. PMID:22885391

  13. Fluoride uptake from in situ brushing with a SnF2 and a NaF dentifrice.

    PubMed

    Mobley, M J

    1981-12-01

    Fluoride uptake into decalcified human enamel was determined from in situ brushing with a 0.40% SnF2-calcium pyrophosphate abrasive dentifrice, a 0.243% NaF-silica abrasive dentifrice, and a non-fluoride-silica abrasive placebo dentifrice. Dentifrice treatments were compared using a randomized block test design with 11 panelists, wearing specially fabricated partial dentures that were able to hold two 3-mm-diameter enamel discs in proximal positions. The enamel discs were analyzed for fluoride after two wk of regular use of the test dentifrices. The mean fluoride contents after use of the test dentifrices were 16.0, 8.4, and 4.6 micro/cm2 for the 0.243% NaF, the 0.40% SnF2, and the placebo dentifrice, respectively. The differences in the means were statistically significant. These uptake results correlate well with the reported clinical efficacies of these dentifrices.

  14. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Park, S.; Kim, Y. Y.; Wi, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  15. Korea tidal power and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W. O.; van Walsum, E.

    A study evaluating the tidal power potential on the west coast of Korea is presented. The tidal power plant concept applied to all sites features prefabricated caissons from which the powerhouse and the sluice sections of the plant are built up. In the screening process, all 13 potential sites were compared on the basis of a single basin and single effect schemes operated to produce the maximum amount of energy. The four sites identified as having potential for development (the inner Asan Bay, the outer Asan Bay, the Incheon Bay, and the Garorim Bay) are economically evaluated. It is noted that harbor development and land reclamation can proceed in conjunction with tidal power development.

  16. Space Weather Services of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  17. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis of the Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugart, Nicolas

    The United States Geological Survey TRIGA Reactor (GSTR) is a 1 MW reactor located in Lakewood, Colorado. In support of the GSTR's relicensing efforts, this project developed and validated a Monte Carlo N-Particle Version 5 (MCNP5) model of the GSTR reactor. The model provided estimates of the excess reactivity, power distribution and the fuel temperature, water temperature, void, and power reactivity coefficients for the current and limiting core. The MCNP5 model predicts a limiting core excess reactivity of 6.48 with a peak rod power of 22.2 kW. The fuel and void reactivity coefficients for the limiting core are strongly negative, and the core water reactivity coefficient is slightly positive, consistent with other TRIGA analyses. The average fuel temperature reactivity coefficient of the full power limiting core is -0.0135 /K while the average core void coefficient is -0.069 /K from 0-20 % void. The core water temperature reactivity coefficient is +0.012 /K. Following the neutronics analysis, the project developed RELAP5 and PARET-ANL models of the GSTR hot-rod fuel channel under steady state and transient conditions. The GSTR limiting core, determined as part of this analysis, provides a worst case operating scenario for the reactor. During steady state operations, the hot rod of the limiting core has a peak fuel temperature of 829 K and a minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio of 2.16. After a $3.00 pulse reactivity insertion the fuel reaches a peak temperature is 1070 K. Examining the model results several seconds after a pulse reveals flow instabilities that result from weaknesses in the current two-channel model.

  18. Moving target: Korea`s nuclear proliferation potential. Working paper No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, P.

    1992-10-01

    In early 1992, the nuclear issue was moving so fast in Korea that it bewildered many analysts accustomed to the `glacial` pace of North-South Korean politics since 1953. Korea may spawn a new geopolitical axiom: the longer and harder the freeze, the faster the thaw. This essay seeks to clarify the medium-run trends and possible outcomes that are consistent with this rapidly moving mosaic of events. My purpose is to evaluate the potential for a peaceful resolution of the nuclear dilemma in Korea. First, I outline the basis of Western concern over North Korea`s nuclear activities, and describe the stances taken by the various parties to the Korean conflict on the issue. Next, I analyse the threats emanating from some quarters in Seoul and Washington of attacking North Korea`s nuclear sites-and possible North Korean reprisals. Third, I examine the idea of `challenge inspections` of North Korea`s nuclear program - an alternative that is also discounted as unrealistic. Finally, I sketch a range of possible outcomes of the current impasse, starting with the most optimistic and ending with the most pessimistic (arguably the least likely). None of the key variables underlying these scenarios - the dominant world views in Seoul and Washington, the emphasis on military versus economic power, the ability of the two North Korean elites to achieve mutual understanding - are predetermined. These alternative nuclear futures therefore represent stark choices for, and political challenges to, all parties to the Korean conflict.

  19. Cooperation between SAGA and SWI/SNF complexes is required for efficient transcriptional responses regulated by the yeast MAPK Slt2

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, Ana Belén; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cell wall stress is mainly mediated by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through the MAPK Slt2 and the transcription factor Rlm1. Once activated, Rlm1 interacts with the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex which locally alters nucleosome positioning at the target promoters. Here we show that the SAGA complex plays along with the SWI/SNF complex an important role for eliciting both early induction and sustained gene expression upon stress. Gcn5 co-regulates together with Swi3 the majority of the CWI transcriptional program, except for a group of genes which are only dependent on the SWI/SNF complex. SAGA subunits are recruited to the promoter of CWI-responsive genes in a Slt2, Rlm1 and SWI/SNF-dependent manner. However, Gcn5 mediates acetylation and nucleosome eviction only at the promoters of the SAGA-dependent genes. This process is not essential for pre-initiation transcriptional complex assembly but rather increase the extent of the remodeling mediated by SWI/SNF. As a consequence, H3 eviction and Rlm1 recruitment is completely blocked in a swi3Δ gcn5Δ double mutant. Therefore, SAGA complex, through its histone acetylase activity, cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex for the mandatory nucleosome displacement required for full gene expression through the CWI pathway. PMID:27112564

  20. Cooperation between SAGA and SWI/SNF complexes is required for efficient transcriptional responses regulated by the yeast MAPK Slt2.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ana Belén; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cell wall stress is mainly mediated by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through the MAPK Slt2 and the transcription factor Rlm1. Once activated, Rlm1 interacts with the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex which locally alters nucleosome positioning at the target promoters. Here we show that the SAGA complex plays along with the SWI/SNF complex an important role for eliciting both early induction and sustained gene expression upon stress. Gcn5 co-regulates together with Swi3 the majority of the CWI transcriptional program, except for a group of genes which are only dependent on the SWI/SNF complex. SAGA subunits are recruited to the promoter of CWI-responsive genes in a Slt2, Rlm1 and SWI/SNF-dependent manner. However, Gcn5 mediates acetylation and nucleosome eviction only at the promoters of the SAGA-dependent genes. This process is not essential for pre-initiation transcriptional complex assembly but rather increase the extent of the remodeling mediated by SWI/SNF. As a consequence, H3 eviction and Rlm1 recruitment is completely blocked in a swi3Δ gcn5Δ double mutant. Therefore, SAGA complex, through its histone acetylase activity, cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex for the mandatory nucleosome displacement required for full gene expression through the CWI pathway. PMID:27112564

  1. SWI/SNF protein component BAF250a regulates cardiac progenitor cell differentiation by modulating chromatin accessibility during second heart field development.

    PubMed

    Lei, Ienglam; Gao, Xiaolin; Sham, Mai Har; Wang, Zhong

    2012-07-13

    ATP-dependent SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes alter the structure of chromatin at specific loci and facilitate tissue-specific gene regulation during development. Several SWI/SNF subunits are required for cardiogenesis. However, the function and mechanisms of SWI/SNF in mediating cardiac progenitor cell (CPC) differentiation during cardiogenesis are not well understood. Our studies of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex identified that BAF250a, a regulatory subunit of the SWI/SNF, plays a key role in CPC differentiation. BAF250a ablation in mouse second heart field (SHF) led to trabeculation defects in the right ventricle, ventricular septal defect, persistent truncus arteriosus, reduced myocardial proliferation, and embryonic lethality around E13. Using an embryonic stem cell culture system that models the formation and differentiation of SHF CPCs in vivo, we have shown that BAF250a ablation in CPCs specifically inhibits cardiomyocyte formation. Moreover, BAF250a selectively regulates the expression of key cardiac factors Mef2c, Nkx2.5, and Bmp10 in SHF CPCs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNase I digestion assays indicate that BAF250a regulates gene expression by binding selectively to its target gene promoters and recruiting Brg1, the catalytic subunit of SWI/SNF, to modulate chromatin accessibility. Our results thus identify BAF250a-mediated chromatin remodeling as an essential epigenetic mechanism mediating CPC differentiation.

  2. Convergent structural alterations define SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeler as a central tumor suppressive complex in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Shain, A Hunter; Giacomini, Craig P; Matsukuma, Karen; Karikari, Collins A; Bashyam, Murali D; Hidalgo, Manuel; Maitra, Anirban; Pollack, Jonathan R

    2012-01-31

    Defining the molecular genetic alterations underlying pancreatic cancer may provide unique therapeutic insight for this deadly disease. Toward this goal, we report here an integrative DNA microarray and sequencing-based analysis of pancreatic cancer genomes. Notable among the alterations newly identified, genomic deletions, mutations, and rearrangements recurrently targeted genes encoding components of the SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complex, including all three putative DNA binding subunits (ARID1A, ARID1B, and PBRM1) and both enzymatic subunits (SMARCA2 and SMARCA4). Whereas alterations of each individual SWI/SNF subunit occurred at modest-frequency, as mutational "hills" in the genomic landscape, together they affected at least one-third of all pancreatic cancers, defining SWI/SNF as a major mutational "mountain." Consistent with a tumor-suppressive role, re-expression of SMARCA4 in SMARCA4-deficient pancreatic cancer cell lines reduced cell growth and promoted senescence, whereas its overexpression in a SWI/SNF-intact line had no such effect. In addition, expression profiling analyses revealed that SWI/SNF likely antagonizes Polycomb repressive complex 2, implicating this as one possible mechanism of tumor suppression. Our findings reveal SWI/SNF to be a central tumor suppressive complex in pancreatic cancer.

  3. Cooperation between SAGA and SWI/SNF complexes is required for efficient transcriptional responses regulated by the yeast MAPK Slt2.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Ana Belén; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, José Manuel; Nombela, César; Arroyo, Javier

    2016-09-01

    The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to cell wall stress is mainly mediated by the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway through the MAPK Slt2 and the transcription factor Rlm1. Once activated, Rlm1 interacts with the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex which locally alters nucleosome positioning at the target promoters. Here we show that the SAGA complex plays along with the SWI/SNF complex an important role for eliciting both early induction and sustained gene expression upon stress. Gcn5 co-regulates together with Swi3 the majority of the CWI transcriptional program, except for a group of genes which are only dependent on the SWI/SNF complex. SAGA subunits are recruited to the promoter of CWI-responsive genes in a Slt2, Rlm1 and SWI/SNF-dependent manner. However, Gcn5 mediates acetylation and nucleosome eviction only at the promoters of the SAGA-dependent genes. This process is not essential for pre-initiation transcriptional complex assembly but rather increase the extent of the remodeling mediated by SWI/SNF. As a consequence, H3 eviction and Rlm1 recruitment is completely blocked in a swi3Δ gcn5Δ double mutant. Therefore, SAGA complex, through its histone acetylase activity, cooperates with the SWI/SNF complex for the mandatory nucleosome displacement required for full gene expression through the CWI pathway.

  4. Chromatin remodeling by the SWI/SNF complex is essential for transcription mediated by the yeast cell wall integrity MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Sanz, A Belén; García, Raúl; Rodríguez-Peña, Jose Manuel; Díez-Muñiz, Sonia; Nombela, César; Peterson, Craig L; Arroyo, Javier

    2012-07-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the transcriptional program triggered by cell wall stress is coordinated by Slt2/Mpk1, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) of the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway, and is mostly mediated by the transcription factor Rlm1. Here we show that the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex plays a critical role in orchestrating the transcriptional response regulated by Rlm1. swi/snf mutants show drastically reduced expression of cell wall stress-responsive genes and hypersensitivity to cell wall-interfering compounds. On stress, binding of RNA Pol II to the promoters of these genes depends on Rlm1, Slt2, and SWI/SNF. Rlm1 physically interacts with SWI/SNF to direct its association to target promoters. Finally, we observe nucleosome displacement at the CWI-responsive gene MLP1/KDX1, which relies on the SWI/SNF complex. Taken together, our results identify the SWI/SNF complex as a key element of the CWI MAPK pathway that mediates the chromatin remodeling necessary for adequate transcriptional response to cell wall stress.

  5. Signal-dependent incorporation of MyoD-BAF60c into Brg1-based SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelling complex.

    PubMed

    Forcales, Sonia V; Albini, Sonia; Giordani, Lorenzo; Malecova, Barbora; Cignolo, Luca; Chernov, Andrei; Coutinho, Paula; Saccone, Valentina; Consalvi, Silvia; Williams, Roy; Wang, Kepeng; Wu, Zhenguo; Baranovskaya, Svetlana; Miller, Andrew; Dilworth, F Jeffrey; Puri, Pier Lorenzo

    2012-01-18

    Tissue-specific transcriptional activators initiate differentiation towards specialized cell types by inducing chromatin modifications permissive for transcription at target loci, through the recruitment of SWItch/Sucrose NonFermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodelling complex. However, the molecular mechanism that regulates SWI/SNF nuclear distribution in response to differentiation signals is unknown. We show that the muscle determination factor MyoD and the SWI/SNF subunit BAF60c interact on the regulatory elements of MyoD-target genes in myoblasts, prior to activation of transcription. BAF60c facilitates MyoD binding to target genes and marks the chromatin for signal-dependent recruitment of the SWI/SNF core to muscle genes. BAF60c phosphorylation on a conserved threonine by differentiation-activated p38α kinase is the signal that promotes incorporation of MyoD-BAF60c into a Brg1-based SWI/SNF complex, which remodels the chromatin and activates transcription of MyoD-target genes. Our data support an unprecedented two-step model by which pre-assembled BAF60c-MyoD complex directs recruitment of SWI/SNF to muscle loci in response to differentiation cues.

  6. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    BAZINET, G.D.

    2000-11-03

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. The original version of this document was prepared by Vista Engineering for the SNF Project. The purpose of this revision is to document completion of verification actions that were pending at the time the initial report was prepared. Verification activities for the installed and operational SSCs have been completed. Verification of future additions to the CSB related to the canister cover cap and welding fixture system and MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment will be completed as appropriate for those components. The open items related to verification of those requirements are noted

  7. Biallelic germline and somatic mutations in malignant mesothelioma: multiple mutations in transcription regulators including mSWI/SNF genes.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yoshie; Sato, Ayuko; Tsujimura, Tohru; Otsuki, Taiichiro; Fukuoka, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Seiki; Nakano, Takashi; Hashimoto-Tamaoki, Tomoko

    2015-02-01

    We detected low levels of acetylation for histone H3 tail lysines in malignant mesothelioma (MM) cell lines resistant to histone deacetylase inhibitors. To identify the possible genetic causes related to the low histone acetylation levels, whole-exome sequencing was conducted with MM cell lines established from eight patients. A mono-allelic variant of BRD1 was common to two MM cell lines with very low acetylation levels. We identified 318 homozygous protein-damaging variants/mutations (18-78 variants/mutations per patient); annotation analysis showed enrichment of the molecules associated with mammalian SWI/SNF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes and co-activators that facilitate initiation of transcription. In seven of the patients, we detected a combination of variants in histone modifiers or transcription factors/co-factors, in addition to variants in mSWI/SNF. Direct sequencing showed that homozygous mutations in SMARCA4, PBRM1 and ARID2 were somatic. In one patient, homozygous germline variants were observed for SMARCC1 and SETD2 in chr3p22.1-3p14.2. These exhibited extended germline homozygosity and were in regions containing somatic mutations, leading to a loss of BAP1 and PBRM1 expression in MM cell line. Most protein-damaging variants were heterozygous in normal tissues. Heterozygous germline variants were often converted into hemizygous variants by mono-allelic deletion, and were rarely homozygous because of acquired uniparental disomy. Our findings imply that MM might develop through the somatic inactivation of mSWI/SNF complex subunits and/or histone modifiers, including BAP1, in subjects that have rare germline variants of these transcription regulators and/or transcription factors/co-factors, and in regions prone to mono-allelic deletion during oncogenesis.

  8. Nucleosome remodeling by the SWI/SNF complex is enhanced by yeast high mobility group box (HMGB) proteins.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Matias I; Alarcon, Valentina; Dutta, Arnob; Workman, Jerry L; Gutiérrez, José L

    2014-09-01

    The regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription involves the concerted action of several proteins and protein complexes committed to dynamically alter the surrounding chromatin environment of a gene being activated or repressed. ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes are key factors in chromatin remodeling, and the SWI/SNF complex is the founding member. While many studies have linked the action of these complexes to specific transcriptional regulation of a large number of genes and much is known about their catalytic activity, less is known about the nuclear elements that can enhance or modulate their activity. A number of studies have found that certain High Mobility Group (HMG) proteins are able to stimulate ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activity, but their influence on the different biochemical outcomes of this activity is still unknown. In this work we studied the influence of the yeast Nhp6A, Nhp6B and Hmo1 proteins (HMGB family members) on different biochemical outcomes of yeast SWI/SNF remodeling activity. We found that all these HMG proteins stimulate the sliding activity of ySWI/SNF, while transient exposure of nucleosomal DNA and octamer transfer catalyzed by this complex are only stimulated by Hmo1. Consistently, only Hmo1 stimulates SWI/SNF binding to the nucleosome. Additionally, the sliding activity of another chromatin remodeling complex, ISW1a, is only stimulated by Hmo1. Further analyses show that these differential stimulatory effects of Hmo1 are dependent on the presence of its C-terminal tail, which contains a stretch of acidic and basic residues.

  9. Anteroposterior Limb Skeletal Patterning Requires the Bifunctional Action of SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex in Hedgehog Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Shin; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Graded Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling governs vertebrate limb skeletal patterning along the anteroposterior (AP) axis by regulating the activity of bifunctional Gli transcriptional regulators. The genetic networks involved in this patterning are well defined, however, the epigenetic control of the process by chromatin remodelers remains unknown. Here, we report that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is essential for Shh-driven limb AP patterning. Specific inactivation of Srg3/mBaf155, a core subunit of the remodeling complex, in developing limb buds hampered the transcriptional upregulation of Shh/Gli target genes, including the Shh receptor Ptch1 and its downstream effector Gli1 in the posterior limb bud. In addition, Srg3 deficiency induced ectopic activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in the anterior mesenchyme, resulting in loss of progressive asymmetry. These defects in the Hh pathway accompanied aberrant BMP activity and disruption of chondrogenic differentiation in zeugopod and autopod primordia. Notably, our data revealed that dual control of the Hh pathway by the SWI/SNF complex is essential for spatiotemporal transcriptional regulation of the BMP antagonist Gremlin1, which affects the onset of chondrogenesis. This study uncovers the bifunctional role of the SWI/SNF complex in the Hh pathway to determine the fate of AP skeletal progenitors. PMID:26959361

  10. Dynamic recruitment of functionally distinct Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complexes modulates Pdx1 activity in islet β cells.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian; Guo, Min; Reynolds, Albert; Hara, Manami; Stein, Roland

    2015-03-31

    Pdx1 is a transcription factor of fundamental importance to pancreas formation and adult islet β cell function. However, little is known about the positive- and negative-acting coregulators recruited to mediate transcriptional control. Here, we isolated numerous Pdx1-interacting factors possessing a wide range of cellular functions linked with this protein, including, but not limited to, coregulators associated with transcriptional activation and repression, DNA damage response, and DNA replication. Because chromatin remodeling activities are essential to developmental lineage decisions and adult cell function, our analysis focused on investigating the influence of the Swi/Snf chromatin remodeler on Pdx1 action. The two mutually exclusive and indispensable Swi/Snf core ATPase subunits, Brg1 and Brm, distinctly affected target gene expression in β cells. Furthermore, physiological and pathophysiological conditions dynamically regulated Pdx1 binding to these Swi/Snf complexes in vivo. We discuss how context-dependent recruitment of coregulatory complexes by Pdx1 could impact pancreas cell development and adult islet β cell activity.

  11. ARGONAUTE2 cooperates with SWI/SNF complex to determine nucleosome occupancy at human Transcription Start Sites.

    PubMed

    Carissimi, Claudia; Laudadio, Ilaria; Cipolletta, Emanuela; Gioiosa, Silvia; Mihailovich, Marija; Bonaldi, Tiziana; Macino, Giuseppe; Fulci, Valerio

    2015-02-18

    Argonaute (AGO) proteins have a well-established role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression as key component of the RNA silencing pathways. Recent evidence involves AGO proteins in mammalian nuclear processes such as transcription and splicing, though the mechanistic aspects of AGO nuclear functions remain largely elusive. Here, by SILAC-based interaction proteomics, we identify the chromatin-remodelling complex SWI/SNF as a novel AGO2 interactor in human cells. Moreover, we show that nuclear AGO2 is loaded with a novel class of Dicer-dependent short RNAs (sRNAs), that we called swiRNAs, which map nearby the Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) bound by SWI/SNF. The knock-down of AGO2 decreases nucleosome occupancy at the first nucleosome located downstream of TSSs in a swiRNA-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that in human cells AGO2 binds SWI/SNF and a novel class of sRNAs to establish nucleosome occupancy on target TSSs.

  12. HIC1 interacts with a specific subunit of SWI/SNF complexes, ARID1A/BAF250A

    SciTech Connect

    Van Rechem, Capucine; Boulay, Gaylor; Leprince, Dominique

    2009-08-07

    HIC1, a tumor suppressor gene epigenetically silenced in many human cancers encodes a transcriptional repressor involved in regulatory loops modulating p53-dependent and E2F1-dependent cell survival and stress responses. HIC1 is also implicated in growth control since it recruits BRG1, one of the two alternative ATPases (BRM or BRG1) of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complexes to repress transcription of E2F1 in quiescent fibroblasts. Here, through yeast two-hybrid screening, we identify ARID1A/BAF250A, as a new HIC1 partner. ARID1A/BAF250A is one of the two mutually exclusive ARID1-containing subunits of SWI/SNF complexes which define subsets of complexes endowed with anti-proliferative properties. Co-immunoprecipitation assays in WI38 fibroblasts and in BRG1-/- SW13 cells showed that endogenous HIC1 and ARID1A proteins interact in a BRG1-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrate that HIC1 does not interact with BRM. Finally, sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-reChIP) experiments demonstrated that HIC1 represses E2F1 through the recruitment of anti-proliferative SWI/SNF complexes containing ARID1A.

  13. ARGONAUTE2 cooperates with SWI/SNF complex to determine nucleosome occupancy at human Transcription Start Sites

    PubMed Central

    Carissimi, Claudia; Laudadio, Ilaria; Cipolletta, Emanuela; Gioiosa, Silvia; Mihailovich, Marija; Bonaldi, Tiziana; Macino, Giuseppe; Fulci, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Argonaute (AGO) proteins have a well-established role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression as key component of the RNA silencing pathways. Recent evidence involves AGO proteins in mammalian nuclear processes such as transcription and splicing, though the mechanistic aspects of AGO nuclear functions remain largely elusive. Here, by SILAC-based interaction proteomics, we identify the chromatin-remodelling complex SWI/SNF as a novel AGO2 interactor in human cells. Moreover, we show that nuclear AGO2 is loaded with a novel class of Dicer-dependent short RNAs (sRNAs), that we called swiRNAs, which map nearby the Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) bound by SWI/SNF. The knock-down of AGO2 decreases nucleosome occupancy at the first nucleosome located downstream of TSSs in a swiRNA-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that in human cells AGO2 binds SWI/SNF and a novel class of sRNAs to establish nucleosome occupancy on target TSSs. PMID:25605800

  14. Akirin2 is critical for inducing inflammatory genes by bridging IκB-ζ and the SWI/SNF complex

    PubMed Central

    Tartey, Sarang; Matsushita, Kazufumi; Vandenbon, Alexis; Ori, Daisuke; Imamura, Tomoko; Mino, Takashi; Standley, Daron M; Hoffmann, Jules A; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Akira, Shizuo; Takeuchi, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Transcription of inflammatory genes in innate immune cells is coordinately regulated by transcription factors, including NF-κB, and chromatin modifiers. However, it remains unclear how microbial sensing initiates chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that Akirin2, an evolutionarily conserved nuclear protein, bridges NF-κB and the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex by interacting with BRG1-Associated Factor 60 (BAF60) proteins as well as IκB-ζ, which forms a complex with the NF-κB p50 subunit. These interactions are essential for Toll-like receptor-, RIG-I-, and Listeria-mediated expression of proinflammatory genes including Il6 and Il12b in macrophages. Consistently, effective clearance of Listeria infection required Akirin2. Furthermore, Akirin2 and IκB-ζ recruitment to the Il6 promoter depend upon the presence of IκB-ζ and Akirin2, respectively, for regulation of chromatin remodeling. BAF60 proteins were also essential for the induction of Il6 in response to LPS stimulation. Collectively, the IκB-ζ–Akirin2–BAF60 complex physically links the NF-κB and SWI/SNF complexes in innate immune cell activation. By recruiting SWI/SNF chromatin remodellers to IκB-ζ, transcriptional coactivator for NF-κB, the conserved nuclear protein Akirin2 stimulates pro-inflammatory gene promoters in mouse macrophages during innate immune responses to viral or bacterial infection. PMID:25107474

  15. Anteroposterior Limb Skeletal Patterning Requires the Bifunctional Action of SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complex in Hedgehog Pathway.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Shin; Seong, Rho Hyun

    2016-03-01

    Graded Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling governs vertebrate limb skeletal patterning along the anteroposterior (AP) axis by regulating the activity of bifunctional Gli transcriptional regulators. The genetic networks involved in this patterning are well defined, however, the epigenetic control of the process by chromatin remodelers remains unknown. Here, we report that the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is essential for Shh-driven limb AP patterning. Specific inactivation of Srg3/mBaf155, a core subunit of the remodeling complex, in developing limb buds hampered the transcriptional upregulation of Shh/Gli target genes, including the Shh receptor Ptch1 and its downstream effector Gli1 in the posterior limb bud. In addition, Srg3 deficiency induced ectopic activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway in the anterior mesenchyme, resulting in loss of progressive asymmetry. These defects in the Hh pathway accompanied aberrant BMP activity and disruption of chondrogenic differentiation in zeugopod and autopod primordia. Notably, our data revealed that dual control of the Hh pathway by the SWI/SNF complex is essential for spatiotemporal transcriptional regulation of the BMP antagonist Gremlin1, which affects the onset of chondrogenesis. This study uncovers the bifunctional role of the SWI/SNF complex in the Hh pathway to determine the fate of AP skeletal progenitors.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea.

  17. Antiviral treatment of influenza in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Young June; Lee, Hyunju; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Eun Hwa

    2015-06-01

    Antiviral therapy has an important role in the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza. At present, two classes of antiviral agents, adamantanes and neuraminidase inhibitors, are available for the treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza in Korea. Because of the widespread resistance against adamantanes, neuraminidase inhibitors are mainly used. Because each country has a unique epidemiology of influenza, the proper use of antiviral agents should be determined based on local data. Decisions on the clinical practice in the treatment of influenza in South Korea are guided by the local surveillance data, practice guidelines, health insurance system and the resistance patterns of the circulating influenza viruses. This review highlights the role of antiviral agents in the treatment and outcome of influenza in Korea by providing comprehensive information of their clinical usage in Korea.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-02-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. PMID:25441425

  19. The dynamic evolution of rheumatology in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ho-Youn; Song, Yeong-Wook

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatology was first recognized as a distinct clinical specialty in Korea just 35 years ago. Young professors who were trained in rheumatology in the USA and afterwards returned to Korea contributed substantially to advances in rheumatology clinical practice, educational programmes and research activities. They also established the Korean Rheumatism Association, later renamed the Korean College of Rheumatology. These young rheumatologists had a major role not only in raising the level of clinical and scientific activities, but also in promoting academic exchanges around the Asia-Pacific region, the USA and Europe. Subsequently, Korea's rapid economic growth and high education level enabled rheumatology to advance rapidly. Today, continued efforts are required to raise the standard of clinical and basic research, to optimize clinical practice with regard to new biologic agents, to exploit personalized and targeted therapies for the rheumatic diseases, and to meet the medical demands of Korea's ageing society.

  20. A Pediatric Case of Thelaziasis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Chung Hyuk; Ko, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jung Hyun; Choi, Yu Mi; Lee, Won Wook; Ahn, Sang Ki; Ahn, Myoung Hee; Choi, Kyong Eun

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we intended to report a clinical pediatric case of thelaziasis in Korea. In addition, we briefly reviewed the literature on pediatric cases of thelaziasis in Korea. In the present case, 3 whitish, thread-like eye-worms were detected in a 6-year-old-boy living in an urban area and contracted an ocular infection known as thelaziasis incidentally during ecological agritainment. This is the first report of pediatric thelaziasis in Seoul after 1995. PMID:27417087

  1. Validation of the neutron and gamma fields in the JSI TRIGA reactor using in-core fission and ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Kaiba, Tanja; Radulović, Vladimir; Jazbec, Anže; Rupnik, Sebastjan; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-02-01

    CEA developed fission chambers and ionization chambers were utilized at the JSI TRIGA reactor to measure neutron and gamma fields. The measured axial fission rate distributions in the reactor core are generally in good agreement with the calculated values using the Monte Carlo model of the reactor thus verifying both the computational model and the fission chambers. In future, multiple absolutely calibrated fission chambers could be used for more accurate online reactor thermal power monitoring. PMID:25479432

  2. Characterization and quantification of an in-core neutron irradiation facility at a TRIGA II research reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghara, Sukesh; Charlton, William

    2006-07-01

    Experiments have been performed to characterize the neutron environment at an in-core TRIGA type nuclear research reactor. Steady-state thermal and epithermal neutron environment testing is important for many applications including, materials, electronics and biological cells. A well characterized neutron environment at a research reactor, including energy spectrum and spatial distribution, can be useful to many research communities and for educational research. This paper describes the characterization process and an application of exposing electronics to high neutron fluence.

  3. Validation of the neutron and gamma fields in the JSI TRIGA reactor using in-core fission and ionization chambers.

    PubMed

    Žerovnik, Gašper; Kaiba, Tanja; Radulović, Vladimir; Jazbec, Anže; Rupnik, Sebastjan; Barbot, Loïc; Fourmentel, Damien; Snoj, Luka

    2015-02-01

    CEA developed fission chambers and ionization chambers were utilized at the JSI TRIGA reactor to measure neutron and gamma fields. The measured axial fission rate distributions in the reactor core are generally in good agreement with the calculated values using the Monte Carlo model of the reactor thus verifying both the computational model and the fission chambers. In future, multiple absolutely calibrated fission chambers could be used for more accurate online reactor thermal power monitoring.

  4. RADWASTE SOLUTIONS MISSION ACCOMPLISHED AT HANFORD SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL (SNF) REMOVAL CONCLUDES IN HUGE VICTORY

    SciTech Connect

    GERBER, M.S.

    2004-10-06

    Removing the largest collection of radioactive materials bordering the Columbia River at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in southeast Washington state was successfully completed on a glorious autumn morning in 2004. The Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project, managed for DOE by prime contractor Fluor Hanford, removed more than 2,300 tons (2,100 metric tons [MT]) of irradiated uranium fuel--just over 4.65-million pounds--from a historic reactor area along the river's shore, called the ''Hanford Reach.'' The Project also dried the fuel and placed all of it in safe, dry, interim storage in central Hanford, nine miles from the Columbia and hundreds of feet above the groundwater table, effectively neutralizing the risks formerly posed by the decaying fuel. Removing the nearly 105,000 irradiated, solid metal uranium fuel assemblies--stored for decades underwater in the aging K Basins--marked a cornerstone event in Hanford's long farewell to arms. It was the third major triumph in a ''trifecta'' year at the old site, during which a Fluor Hanford-managed project completed stabilizing and safely packaging nearly 20 tons of plutonium-bearing materials, and another project finished pumping all liquids out of degrading, underground waste tanks. All three successful projects give traction to the vision and promise of DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL), to move wastes and special nuclear material away from the river and into Hanford's Central plateau.

  5. SWI/SNF- and RSC-catalyzed nucleosome mobilization requires internal DNA loop translocation within nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Peterson, Craig L; Hayes, Jeffrey J

    2011-10-01

    The multisubunit SWI/SNF and RSC complexes utilize energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to mobilize nucleosomes and render the DNA accessible for various nuclear processes. Here we test the idea that remodeling involves intermediates with mobile DNA bulges or loops within the nucleosome by cross-linking the H2A N- or C-terminal tails together to generate protein "loops" that constrict separation of the DNA from the histone surface. Analyses indicate that this intranucleosomal cross-linking causes little or no change in remodeling-dependent exposure of DNA sequences within the nucleosome to restriction enzymes. However, cross-linking inhibits nucleosome mobilization and blocks complete movement of nucleosomes to extreme end positions on the DNA fragments. These results are consistent with evidence that nucleosome remodeling involves intermediates with DNA loops on the nucleosome surface but indicate that such loops do not freely diffuse about the surface of the histone octamer. We propose a threading model for movement of DNA loops around the perimeter of the nucleosome core.

  6. p107-Dependent recruitment of SWI/SNF to the alkaline phosphatase promoter during osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Flowers, Stephen; Patel, Parth J; Gleicher, Stephanie; Amer, Kamal; Himelman, Eric; Goel, Shruti; Moran, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    The retinoblastoma protein family is intimately involved in the regulation of tissue specific gene expression during mesenchymal stem cell differentiation. The role of the following proteins, pRB, p107 and p130, is particularly significant in differentiation to the osteoblast lineage, as human germ-line mutations of RB1 greatly increase susceptibility to osteosarcoma. During differentiation, pRB directly targets certain osteogenic genes for activation, including the alkaline phosphatase-encoding gene Alpl. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays indicate that Alpl is targeted by p107 in differentiating osteoblasts selectively during activation with the same dynamics as pRB, which suggests that p107 helps promote Alpl activation. Mouse models indicate overlapping roles for pRB and p107 in bone and cartilage formation, but very little is known about direct tissue-specific gene targets of p107, or the consequences of targeting by p107. Here, the roles of p107 and pRB were compared using shRNA-mediated knockdown genetics in an osteoblast progenitor model, MC3T3-E1 cells. The results show that p107 has a distinct role along with pRB in induction of Alpl. Deficiency of p107 does not impede recruitment of transcription factors recognized as pRB co-activation partners at the promoter; however, p107 is required for the efficient recruitment of an activating SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex, an essential event in Alpl induction.

  7. Suppression of the SWI/SNF Component Arid1a Promotes Mammalian Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuxu; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Kanchwala, Mohammed; Wu, Linwei; Celen, Cemre; Li, Lin; Liang, Hanquan; Zhang, Shuyuan; Maples, Thomas; Nguyen, Liem H; Wang, Sam C; Signer, Robert A J; Sorouri, Mahsa; Nassour, Ibrahim; Liu, Xin; Xu, Jian; Wu, Meng; Zhao, Yong; Kuo, Yi-Chun; Wang, Zhong; Xing, Chao; Zhu, Hao

    2016-04-01

    Mammals have partially lost the extensive regenerative capabilities of some vertebrates, possibly as a result of chromatin-remodeling mechanisms that enforce terminal differentiation. Here, we show that deleting the SWI/SNF component Arid1a substantially improves mammalian regeneration. Arid1a expression is suppressed in regenerating tissues, and genetic deletion of Arid1a increases tissue repair following an array of injuries. Arid1a deficiency in the liver increases proliferation, reduces tissue damage and fibrosis, and improves organ function following surgical resection and chemical injuries. Hepatocyte-specific deletion is also sufficient to increase proliferation and regeneration without excessive overgrowth, and global Arid1a disruption potentiates soft tissue healing in the ear. We show that Arid1a loss reprograms chromatin to restrict promoter access by transcription factors such as C/ebpα, which enforces differentiation, and E2F4, which suppresses cell-cycle re-entry. Thus, epigenetic reprogramming mediated by deletion of a single gene improves mammalian regeneration and suggests strategies to promote tissue repair after injury.

  8. The SWI/SNF BAF-A complex is essential for neural crest development.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Ronald L; Magnuson, Terry

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence indicates that chromatin remodeler mutations underlie the pathogenesis of human neurocristopathies or disorders that affect neural crest cells (NCCs). However, causal relationships among chromatin remodeler subunit mutations and NCC defects remain poorly understood. Here we show that homozygous loss of ARID1A-containing, SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes (BAF-A) in NCCs results in embryonic lethality in mice, with mutant embryos succumbing to heart defects. Strikingly, monoallelic loss of ARID1A in NCCs led to craniofacial defects in adult mice, including shortened snouts and low set ears, and these defects were more pronounced following homozygous loss of ARID1A, with the ventral cranial bones being greatly reduced in size. Early NCC specification and expression of the BRG1 NCC target gene, PLEXINA2, occurred normally in the absence of ARID1A. Nonetheless, mutant embryos displayed incomplete conotruncal septation of the cardiac outflow tract and defects in the posterior pharyngeal arteries, culminating in persistent truncus arteriosus and agenesis of the ductus arteriosus. Consistent with this, migrating cardiac NCCs underwent apoptosis within the circumpharyngeal ridge. Our data support the notion that multiple, distinct chromatin remodeling complexes govern genetically separable events in NCC development and highlight a potential pathogenic role for NCCs in the human BAF complex disorder, Coffin-Siris Syndrome.

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Storage Project Fuel Basket Handling Grapple Design Development Test Report

    SciTech Connect

    CHENAULT, D.M.

    2000-01-06

    Acceptance testing of the SNF Fuel Basket Lift Grapple was accomplished to verify the design adequacy. This report shows the results affirming the design. The test was successful in demonstrating the adequacy of the grapple assembly's inconel actuator shaft and engagement balls for in loads excess of design basis loads (3200 pounds), 3X design basis loads (9600 pounds), and 5X design basis loads (16,000 pounds). The test data showed that no appreciable yielding for the inconel actuator shaft and engagement balls at loads in excess of 5X Design Basis loads. The test data also showed the grapple assembly and components to be fully functional after loads in excess of 5X Design Basis were applied and maintained for over 10 minutes. Following testing, each actuator shaft (Item 7) was liquid penetrant inspected per ASME Section 111, Division 1 1989 and accepted per requirements of NF-5350. This examination was performed to insure that no cracking had occurred. The test indicated that no cracking had occurred. The examination reports are included as Appendix C to this document. From this test, it is concluded that the design configuration meets or exceeds the requirements specified in ANSI N 14 6 for Special Lifting Devices for Shipping Containers Weighing 10,000 Pounds (4500 kg) or More.

  10. A Safety Case Approach for Deep Geologic Disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in Bedded Salt - 13350

    SciTech Connect

    Sevougian, S. David; MacKinnon, Robert J.; Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Frank D.

    2013-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility and utility of developing a defensible safety case for disposal of United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) high-level waste (HLW) and DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a conceptual deep geologic repository that is assumed to be located in a bedded salt formation of the Delaware Basin [1]. A safety case is a formal compilation of evidence, analyses, and arguments that substantiate and demonstrate the safety of a proposed or conceptual repository. We conclude that a strong initial safety case for potential licensing can be readily compiled by capitalizing on the extensive technical basis that exists from prior work on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), other U.S. repository development programs, and the work published through international efforts in salt repository programs such as in Germany. The potential benefits of developing a safety case include leveraging previous investments in WIPP to reduce future new repository costs, enhancing the ability to effectively plan for a repository and its licensing, and possibly expediting a schedule for a repository. A safety case will provide the necessary structure for organizing and synthesizing existing salt repository science and identifying any issues and gaps pertaining to safe disposal of DOE HLW and DOE SNF in bedded salt. The safety case synthesis will help DOE to plan its future R and D activities for investigating salt disposal using a risk-informed approach that prioritizes test activities that include laboratory, field, and underground investigations. It should be emphasized that the DOE has not made any decisions regarding the disposition of DOE HLW and DOE SNF. Furthermore, the safety case discussed herein is not intended to either site a repository in the Delaware Basin or preclude siting in other media at other locations. Rather, this study simply presents an approach for accelerated development of a safety case for a potential

  11. The Antei uranium deposit: A natural analogue of an SNF repository and an underground geodynamic laboratory in granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laverov, N. P.; Petrov, V. A.; Poluektov, V. V.; Nasimov, R. M.; Hammer, J.; Burmistrov, A. A.; Shchukin, S. I.

    2008-10-01

    The estimation of the long-term stability of crystalline rock massifs with respect to natural and technogenic loads in the course of long-term storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is a special area of surveys at underground research laboratories (URLs). In parallel with these surveys, data on uranium deposits—natural analogues of repositories of SNF consisting of 95% UO2—are used for obtaining insight into the dynamics of radionuclide migration and validating barrier properties of host rocks. Examples of URLs located in granitic massifs of Sweden (Äspö), Canada (Whiteshell), Switzerland (Grimsel), Japan (Mizunami), and Finland (ONKALO), as well as the El Berrocal (Spain), Palmottu (Finland), Sanerliu (China), and Kamaishi (Japan) deposits, are considered in the paper. The objects listed above are distinct in tectonic settings, geology, control of ore mineralization, redox conditions of uranium migration, and character and intensity of filtration and transportation, which predetermine the direction and specific features of research conducted therein. A variant in which a URL and a natural analogue are combined in one object is especially promising for validation of safe long-term isolation of SNF. The Antei vein-stockwork uranium deposit in the southeastern Transbaikal region, localized in Paleozoic granite at a depth of 400 1000 m and opened by mine workings at six levels, is such an object. Its geological features, stress-strain state, and infrastructure of mine workings offer an opportunity to study the entire spectrum of processes proceeding in near-and far-field of an SNF repository. The structural geology, mineralogy and petrography, and petrophysical and tectonophysical features of the deposit at its three lower levels are considered. The sequence of metasomatic alteration of rocks and the dynamics of formation of ore-bearing faults that crosscut prototectonic elements, as well as relationships of physicomechanical properties of rocks as a function of

  12. THERMAL EVALUATION OF THE USE OF BWR MOX SNF IN THE MULTI-PURPOSE CANISTER (MPC) WITH ACD DISPOSAL CONTAINER (SCPB: N/A)

    SciTech Connect

    T.L. Lotz

    1995-11-13

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development Department (WPDD) as specified in the Waste Package Implementation Plan (pp. 4-8,4-11,4-24,5-1, and 5-13; Ref. 5.10) and Waste Package Plan (pp. 3-15,3-17, and 3-24; Ref. 5.9). The design data request addressed herein is: (1) Characterize the conceptual 40 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. (2) Characterize the conceptual 24 BWR Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Waste Package (WP) design to show that the design is feasible for use in the MGDS environment when loaded with BWR MOX SNF. The purpose of this analysis is to respond a concern that the long-term disposal thermal issues for the Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) Subsystem Design, if used with SNF designed for a MOX fuel cycle, do not preclude MPC compatibility with the MGDS. The objective of this analysis is to provide thermal parameter information for the conceptual MPC design with disposal container which is loaded with BWR MOX SNF under nominal MGDS repository conditions. The results are intended to show that the design has a reasonable chance to meet the MGDS design requirements for normal MGDS operation, to provide the required guidance to determining the major design issues for future design efforts, and to show that the BWR MOX SNF loaded MPC performance is similar to an MPC loaded with commercial BWR SNF. Future design efforts will focus on specific MPC vendor designs and BWR MOX SNF designs when they become available.

  13. Occupational respiratory cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2010-12-01

    Malignant mesothelioma and lung cancer are representative examples of occupational cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death, and the incidence of malignant mesothelioma is expected to increase sharply in the near future. Although information about lung carcinogen exposure is limited, it is estimated that the number of workers exposed to carcinogens has declined. The first official case of occupational cancer was malignant mesothelioma caused by asbestos exposure in the asbestos textile industry in 1992. Since then, compensation for occupational respiratory cancer has increased. The majority of compensated lung cancer was due to underlying pneumoconiosis. Other main causative agents of occupational lung cancer included asbestos, hexavalent chromium, and crystalline silica. Related jobs included welders, foundry workers, platers, plumbers, and vehicle maintenance workers. Compensated malignant mesotheliomas were associated with asbestos exposure. Epidemiologic studies conducted in Korea have indicated an elevated risk of lung cancer in pneumoconiosis patients, foundry workers, and asbestos textile workers. Occupational respiratory cancer has increased during the last 10 to 20 yr though carcinogen-exposed population has declined in the same period. More efforts to advance the systems for the investigation, prevention and management of occupational respiratory cancer are needed. PMID:21258597

  14. The Diabetes Epidemic in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the foremost public health issues worldwide that can lead to complications in many organ systems, and has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Korea. According to data from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS), about 2.7 million Koreans (8.0%) aged 30 years or older had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in 2013. The prevalence of T2DM increased with age and rose from 5.6% in 2006 to 8.0% in 2013. Using data based on The Health Screening Service of the NHIS, 25% of Korean adults were reported to have prediabetes in 2013. The prevalence of an impaired fasting glucose tended to increase over time from 21.5% in 2006 to 25.0% in 2013. Even though nationwide health screening has been regularly conducted as a public service, the proportion of undiagnosed cases of diabetes was still reported to be on the higher side in the latest study. Based on the results of these epidemic studies, further actions will be needed to effectively implement lifestyle changes on a social level and increase measures for the early detection of diabetes to stem the tide of the epidemic. PMID:27586447

  15. Design Verification Report Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Canister Storage Building (CSB)

    SciTech Connect

    PICKETT, W.W.

    2000-09-22

    The Sub-project W379, ''Spent Nuclear Fuel Canister Storage Building (CSB),'' was established as part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. The primary mission of the CSB is to safely store spent nuclear fuel removed from the K Basins in dry storage until such time that it can be transferred to the national geological repository at Yucca Mountain Nevada. This sub-project was initiated in late 1994 by a series of studies and conceptual designs. These studies determined that the partially constructed storage building, originally built as part of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) Project, could be redesigned to safely store the spent nuclear fuel. The scope of the CSB facility initially included a receiving station, a hot conditioning system, a storage vault, and a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine (MHM). Because of evolution of the project technical strategy, the hot conditioning system was deleted from the scope and MCO welding and sampling stations were added in its place. This report outlines the methods, procedures, and outputs developed by Project W379 to verify that the provided Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs): satisfy the design requirements and acceptance criteria; perform their intended function; ensure that failure modes and hazards have been addressed in the design; and ensure that the SSCs as installed will not adversely impact other SSCs. Because this sub-project is still in the construction/start-up phase, all verification activities have not yet been performed (e.g., canister cover cap and welding fixture system verification, MCO Internal Gas Sampling equipment verification, and As-built verification.). The verification activities identified in this report that still are to be performed will be added to the start-up punchlist and tracked to closure.

  16. Rice SNF2 family helicase ENL1 is essential for syncytial endosperm development.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tomomi; Katoh, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Daisuke; Kagaya, Yasuaki; Sato, Yutaka; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagato, Yasuo; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ono, Akemi; Kinoshita, Tetsu; Takeda, Shin; Hattori, Tsukaho

    2015-01-01

    The endosperm of cereal grains represents the most important source of human nutrition. In addition, the endosperm provides many investigatory opportunities for biologists because of the unique processes that occur during its ontogeny, including syncytial development at early stages. Rice endospermless 1 (enl1) develops seeds lacking an endosperm but carrying a functional embryo. The enl1 endosperm produces strikingly enlarged amoeboid nuclei. These abnormal nuclei result from a malfunction in mitotic chromosomal segregation during syncytial endosperm development. The molecular identification of the causal gene revealed that ENL1 encodes an SNF2 helicase family protein that is orthologous to human Plk1-Interacting Checkpoint Helicase (PICH), which has been implicated in the resolution of persistent DNA catenation during anaphase. ENL1-Venus (enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)) localizes to the cytoplasm during interphase but moves to the chromosome arms during mitosis. ENL1-Venus is also detected on a thread-like structure that connects separating sister chromosomes. These observations indicate the functional conservation between PICH and ENL1 and confirm the proposed role of PICH. Although ENL1 dysfunction also affects karyokinesis in the root meristem, enl1 plants can grow in a field and set seeds, indicating that its indispensability is tissue-dependent. Notably, despite the wide conservation of ENL1/PICH among eukaryotes, the loss of function of the ENL1 ortholog in Arabidopsis (CHR24) has only marginal effects on endosperm nuclei and results in normal plant development. Our results suggest that ENL1 is endowed with an indispensable role to secure the extremely rapid nuclear cycle during syncytial endosperm development in rice. PMID:25327517

  17. SNF1-related protein kinases type 2 are involved in plant responses to cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Anna; Anielska-Mazur, Anna; Bucholc, Maria; Koen, Emmanuel; Szymanska, Katarzyna; Zmienko, Agnieszka; Krzywinska, Ewa; Wawer, Izabela; McLoughlin, Fionn; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Figlerowicz, Marek; Testerink, Christa; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Wendehenne, David; Dobrowolska, Grazyna

    2012-10-01

    Cadmium ions are notorious environmental pollutants. To adapt to cadmium-induced deleterious effects plants have developed sophisticated defense mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways underlying the plant response to cadmium are still elusive. Our data demonstrate that SnRK2s (for SNF1-related protein kinase2) are transiently activated during cadmium exposure and are involved in the regulation of plant response to this stress. Analysis of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Osmotic Stress-Activated Protein Kinase activity in tobacco Bright Yellow 2 cells indicates that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide, produced mainly via an l-arginine-dependent process, contribute to the kinase activation in response to cadmium. SnRK2.4 is the closest homolog of tobacco Osmotic Stress-Activated Protein Kinase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Comparative analysis of seedling growth of snrk2.4 knockout mutants versus wild-type Arabidopsis suggests that SnRK2.4 is involved in the inhibition of root growth triggered by cadmium; the mutants were more tolerant to the stress. Measurements of the level of three major species of phytochelatins (PCs) in roots of plants exposed to Cd(2+) showed a similar (PC2, PC4) or lower (PC3) concentration in snrk2.4 mutants in comparison to wild-type plants. These results indicate that the enhanced tolerance of the mutants does not result from a difference in the PCs level. Additionally, we have analyzed ROS accumulation in roots subjected to Cd(2+) treatment. Our data show significantly lower Cd(2+)-induced ROS accumulation in the mutants' roots. Concluding, the obtained results indicate that SnRK2s play a role in the regulation of plant tolerance to cadmium, most probably by controlling ROS accumulation triggered by cadmium ions.

  18. Seismic noise level variation in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, D.; Shin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The variations of seismic background noise in South Korea have been investigated by means of power spectral analysis. The Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and the Korea Meteorological Administation (KMA) have national wide seismic networks in South Korea, and, in the end of 2007, there are 30 broadband stations which have been operating for more than a year. In this study, we have estimated the power spectral density of seismic noise for 30 broadband stations from 2005 to 2007. Since we estimate PSDs from a large dataset of continuous waveform in this study, a robust PSD estimate of McNamara and Buland (2004) is used. In the frequency range 1-5 Hz, the diurnal variations of noise are observed at most of stations, which are especially larger at coastal stations and at insular than at inland. Some stations shows daily difference of diurnal variations, which represents that cultural activities contribute to the noise level of a station. The variation of number of triggered stations, however, shows that cultural noise has little influence on the detection capability of seismic network in South Korea. Seasonal variations are observed well in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz, while much less found in the frequency range 1-5 Hz. We observed that strong peaks in the range 0.1-0.5 Hz occur at the summer when Pacific typhoons are close to the Korean Peninsula.

  19. Asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma in Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Choi, Sang-Jun; Kang, Daehee

    2009-01-01

    Although importation of asbestos to Korea has decreased, there are growing concerns of its hazardous effects. This paper describes the use and occupational exposure to asbestos, and the incidence and mortality of malignant mesotheliomas in Korea. Asbestos raw material imports from other countries peaked between 1990 and 1995, but importation of asbestos-containing and -processed materials has steadily increased until now. A comprehensive exposure survey was conducted in Korea between 1995 and 2006. The average airborne asbestos concentration was lower than from other countries and steadily decreased during the study period. The number of malignant mesothelioma cases in Korea was 48 in 1998, 39 in 1999, 45 in 2000, 38 in 2001, and 46 in 2002. There were 334 deaths due to malignant mesothelioma and an average of 30.4 deaths per year between 1996 and 2006. The number of deaths attributed to malignant mesothelioma ranged from 16 cases in 1999 to 57 cases in 2006. The magnitude of asbestos-related health problems in Korea has been underestimated due to under-diagnosis, incomplete reports, and shorter duration of exposure. A nationwide surveillance system for asbestos exposure and malignant mesothelioma should therefore be implemented.

  20. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  1. Independent Action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 Protein in Southern Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado Potato Beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Steven L.; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Uffman, Joshua P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action. PMID:25734482

  2. Independent action between DvSnf7 RNA and Cry3Bb1 protein in southern corn rootworm, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi and Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata.

    PubMed

    Levine, Steven L; Tan, Jianguo; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Uffman, Joshua P

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, corn rootworm (CRW)-resistant maize events producing two or more CRW-active Bt proteins have been commercialized to enhance efficacy against the target pest(s) by providing multiple modes of action (MoA). The maize hybrid MON 87411 has been developed that produces the CRW-active Cry3Bb1 Bt protein (hereafter Cry3Bb1) and expresses a RNAi-mediated MoA that also targets CRW. As part of an environmental risk assessment for MON 87411, the potential for an interaction between the CRW-active DvSnf7 RNA (hereafter DvSnf7) and Cry3Bb1 was assessed in 12-day diet incorporation bioassays with the southern corn rootworm (SCR, Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi). The potential for an interaction between DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 was evaluated with two established experimental approaches. The first approach evaluated each substance alone and in combination over three different response levels. For all three response levels, observed responses were shown to be additive and not significantly different from predicted responses under the assumption of independent action. The second approach evaluated the potential for a fixed sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 to decrease the median lethal concentration (LC50) of DvSnf7 and vice-versa. With this approach, the LC50 value of DvSnf7 was not altered by a sub-lethal concentration of Cry3Bb1 and vice-versa. In addition, the potential for an interaction between the Cry3Bb1 and DvSnf7 was tested with Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata), which is sensitive to Cry3Bb1 but not DvSnf7. CPB assays also demonstrated that DvSnf7 does not alter the activity of Cry3Bb1. The results from this study provide multiple lines of evidence that DvSnf7 and Cry3Bb1 produced in MON 87411 have independent action.

  3. 2-Deoxyglucose Impairs Saccharomyces cerevisiae Growth by Stimulating Snf1-Regulated and α-Arrestin-Mediated Trafficking of Hexose Transporters 1 and 3

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, Allyson F.; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini G.; Zhang, Bob B.; Thorner, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    The glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human tumor cells, but its modes of action have not been fully elucidated. Yeast cells lacking Snf1 (AMP-activated protein kinase) are hypersensitive to 2DG. Overexpression of either of two low-affinity, high-capacity glucose transporters, Hxt1 and Hxt3, suppresses the 2DG hypersensitivity of snf1Δ cells. The addition of 2DG or the loss of Snf1 reduces HXT1 and HXT3 expression levels and stimulates transporter endocytosis and degradation in the vacuole. 2DG-stimulated trafficking of Hxt1 and Hxt3 requires Rod1/Art4 and Rog3/Art7, two members of the α-arrestin trafficking adaptor family. Mutations in ROD1 and ROG3 that block binding to the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 eliminate Rod1- and Rog3-mediated trafficking of Hxt1 and Hxt3. Genetic analysis suggests that Snf1 negatively regulates both Rod1 and Rog3, but via different mechanisms. Snf1 activated by 2DG phosphorylates Rod1 but fails to phosphorylate other known targets, such as the transcriptional repressor Mig1. We propose a novel mechanism for 2DG-induced toxicity whereby 2DG stimulates the modification of α-arrestins, which promote glucose transporter internalization and degradation, causing glucose starvation even when cells are in a glucose-rich environment. PMID:25547292

  4. 2-Deoxyglucose impairs Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth by stimulating Snf1-regulated and α-arrestin-mediated trafficking of hexose transporters 1 and 3.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Allyson F; McCartney, Rhonda R; Chandrashekarappa, Dakshayini G; Zhang, Bob B; Thorner, Jeremy; Schmidt, Martin C

    2015-03-01

    The glucose analog 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) inhibits the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and human tumor cells, but its modes of action have not been fully elucidated. Yeast cells lacking Snf1 (AMP-activated protein kinase) are hypersensitive to 2DG. Overexpression of either of two low-affinity, high-capacity glucose transporters, Hxt1 and Hxt3, suppresses the 2DG hypersensitivity of snf1Δ cells. The addition of 2DG or the loss of Snf1 reduces HXT1 and HXT3 expression levels and stimulates transporter endocytosis and degradation in the vacuole. 2DG-stimulated trafficking of Hxt1 and Hxt3 requires Rod1/Art4 and Rog3/Art7, two members of the α-arrestin trafficking adaptor family. Mutations in ROD1 and ROG3 that block binding to the ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 eliminate Rod1- and Rog3-mediated trafficking of Hxt1 and Hxt3. Genetic analysis suggests that Snf1 negatively regulates both Rod1 and Rog3, but via different mechanisms. Snf1 activated by 2DG phosphorylates Rod1 but fails to phosphorylate other known targets, such as the transcriptional repressor Mig1. We propose a novel mechanism for 2DG-induced toxicity whereby 2DG stimulates the modification of α-arrestins, which promote glucose transporter internalization and degradation, causing glucose starvation even when cells are in a glucose-rich environment.

  5. The SWI/SNF subunit/tumor suppressor BAF47/INI1 is essential in cell cycle arrest upon skeletal muscle terminal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Joliot, Véronique; Ait-Mohamed, Ouardia; Battisti, Valentine; Pontis, Julien; Philipot, Ophélie; Robin, Philippe; Ito, Hidenori; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane

    2014-01-01

    Myogenic terminal differentiation is a well-orchestrated process starting with permanent cell cycle exit followed by muscle-specific genetic program activation. Individual SWI/SNF components have been involved in muscle differentiation. Here, we show that the master myogenic differentiation factor MyoD interacts with more than one SWI/SNF subunit, including the catalytic subunit BRG1, BAF53a and the tumor suppressor BAF47/INI1. Downregulation of each of these SWI/SNF subunits inhibits skeletal muscle terminal differentiation but, interestingly, at different differentiation steps and extents. BAF53a downregulation inhibits myotube formation but not the expression of early muscle-specific genes. BRG1 or BAF47 downregulation disrupt both proliferation and differentiation genetic programs expression. Interestingly, BRG1 and BAF47 are part of the SWI/SNF remodeling complex as well as the N-CoR-1 repressor complex in proliferating myoblasts. However, our data show that, upon myogenic differentiation, BAF47 shifts in favor of N-CoR-1 complex. Finally, BRG1 and BAF47 are well-known tumor suppressors but, strikingly, only BAF47 seems essential in the myoblasts irreversible cell cycle exit. Together, our data unravel differential roles for SWI/SNF subunits in muscle differentiation, with BAF47 playing a dual role both in the permanent cell cycle exit and in the regulation of muscle-specific genes.

  6. Genetic variant in SWI/SNF complexes influences hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a new clue for the contribution of chromatin remodeling in carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Rong; Liu, Li; Tian, Yao; Wang, Ying; Tian, Jing; Zhu, Bei-bei; Chen, Wei; Qian, Jia-ming; Zou, Li; Xiao, Min; Shen, Na; Yang, Hong; Lou, Jiao; Qiu, Qian; Ke, Jun-tao; Lu, Xing-hua; Wang, Zhen-ling; Song, Wei; Zhang, Ti; Li, Hui; Wang, Li; Miao, Xiao-ping

    2014-02-21

    Chromatin remodeling has been newly established as an important cancer genome characterization and recent exome and whole-genome sequencing studies of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) showed that recurrent inactivating mutations in SWI/SNF subunits involved in the molecular basis of hepatocarcinogenesis. To test the hypothesis that genetic variants in the key subunits of SWI/SNF complexes may contribute to HCC susceptibility, we systematically assessed associations of genetic variants in SWI/SNF complexes with HCC risk using a two-staged case-control study in Chinese population. A set of 24 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in SWI/SNF complexes were examined in stage 1 with 502 HCC patients and 487 controls and three promising SNPs (SMARCA4 rs11879293, rs2072382 and SMARCB1 rs2267032) were further genotyped in stage 2 comprising 501 cases and 545 controls for validation. SMARCA4 rs11879293 presented consistently significant associations with the risk of HCC at both stages, with an OR of 0.73 (95% CI: 0.62-0.87) using additive model in combined analysis. Moreover, the decreased risk of HCC associated with SMARCA4 rs11879293 AG/AA was more evident among HBsAg positive individuals (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.80) in combined analysis. The study highlighted the potential role of the SWI/SNF complexes in conferring susceptibility to HCC, especially modified HCC risk by HBV infection.

  7. Development of Source-Receptor matrix over South Korea in support of GAINS-Korea model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, K. C.; Woo, J. H.; Kim, H. K.; Lee, Y. M.; Kim, Y.; Heyes, C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Han, J.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive and combined analysis of air pollution and climate change could reveal important synergies of emission control measures, which could be of high policy relevance. IIASA's GAINS model (The Greenhouse gas - Air pollution Interactions and Synergies) has been developed as a tool to identify emission control strategies that achieve given targets on air quality and greenhouse gas emissions at least costs. The GAINS-Korea Model, which is being jointly developed by Konkuk University and IIASA, should play an important role in understanding the impact of air quality improvements across the regions in Korea. Source-Receptor relationships (S-R) is an useful methodology in air pollution studies to determine the areas of origin of chemical compounds at receptor point, and thus be able to target actions to reduce pollutions. The GAINS model can assess the impact of emission reductions of sources on air quality in receptor regions based on S-R matrix, derived from chemical transport model. In order to develop S-R matrix for GAINS-Korea, the CAMx model with PSAT/OSAT tools was applied in this study. The coarse domain covers East Asia, and a nesting domain as main research area was used for Korea peninsula. To evaluate of S-R relationships, a modeling domain is divided into sixteen regions over South Korea with three outside of S. Korea countries (China, N. Korea and Japan) for estimating transboundary contributions. The results of our analysis will be presented at the conference.

  8. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B.; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C.; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions. PMID:27267444

  9. MITF interacts with the SWI/SNF subunit, BRG1, to promote GATA4 expression in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gaurav; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Wu, Jian; Walsh, Aaron; Liu, Lijun; Williams, Kandace; Joe, Bina; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2015-11-01

    The transcriptional regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the interplay of transcription factors and chromatin remodeling enzymes. The Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and is required for cardiac hypertrophy. However, the transcriptional mechanisms by which MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy have not been elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy by activating transcription of pro-hypertrophy genes through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. In an in vivo model of cardiac hypertrophy, expression of MITF and the BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex increased coordinately in response to pressure overload. Expression of MITF and BRG1 also increased in vitro when cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II or a β-adrenergic agonist. Both MITF and BRG1 were required to increase cardiomyocyte size and activate expression of hypertrophy markers in response to β-adrenergic stimulation. We detected physical interactions between MITF and BRG1 in cardiomyocytes and found that they cooperate to regulate expression of a pro-hypertrophic transcription factor, GATA4. Our data show that MITF binds to the E box element in the GATA4 promoter and facilitates recruitment of BRG1. This is associated with enhanced expression of the GATA4 gene as evidenced by increased Histone3 lysine4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) on the GATA4 promoter. Thus, in hypertrophic cardiomyoctes, MITF is a key transcriptional activator of a pro-hypertrophic gene, GATA4, and this regulation is dependent upon the BRG1 component of the SWI/SNF complex. PMID:26388265

  10. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation.

    PubMed

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z

    2016-07-01

    MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions. PMID:27267444

  11. Computational modeling of Repeat1 region of INI1/hSNF5: An evolutionary link with ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Bhutoria, Savita; Kalpana, Ganjam V; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2016-09-01

    The structure of a protein can be very informative of its function. However, determining protein structures experimentally can often be very challenging. Computational methods have been used successfully in modeling structures with sufficient accuracy. Here we have used computational tools to predict the structure of an evolutionarily conserved and functionally significant domain of Integrase interactor (INI)1/hSNF5 protein. INI1 is a component of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex, a tumor suppressor and is involved in many protein-protein interactions. It belongs to SNF5 family of proteins that contain two conserved repeat (Rpt) domains. Rpt1 domain of INI1 binds to HIV-1 Integrase, and acts as a dominant negative mutant to inhibit viral replication. Rpt1 domain also interacts with oncogene c-MYC and modulates its transcriptional activity. We carried out an ab initio modeling of a segment of INI1 protein containing the Rpt1 domain. The structural model suggested the presence of a compact and well defined ββαα topology as core structure in the Rpt1 domain of INI1. This topology in Rpt1 was similar to PFU domain of Phospholipase A2 Activating Protein, PLAA. Interestingly, PFU domain shares similarity with Ubiquitin and has ubiquitin binding activity. Because of the structural similarity between Rpt1 domain of INI1 and PFU domain of PLAA, we propose that Rpt1 domain of INI1 may participate in ubiquitin recognition or binding with ubiquitin or ubiquitin related proteins. This modeling study may shed light on the mode of interactions of Rpt1 domain of INI1 and is likely to facilitate future functional studies of INI1. PMID:27261671

  12. Computational modeling of Repeat1 region of INI1/hSNF5: An evolutionary link with ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Bhutoria, Savita; Kalpana, Ganjam V; Acharya, Seetharama A

    2016-09-01

    The structure of a protein can be very informative of its function. However, determining protein structures experimentally can often be very challenging. Computational methods have been used successfully in modeling structures with sufficient accuracy. Here we have used computational tools to predict the structure of an evolutionarily conserved and functionally significant domain of Integrase interactor (INI)1/hSNF5 protein. INI1 is a component of the chromatin remodeling SWI/SNF complex, a tumor suppressor and is involved in many protein-protein interactions. It belongs to SNF5 family of proteins that contain two conserved repeat (Rpt) domains. Rpt1 domain of INI1 binds to HIV-1 Integrase, and acts as a dominant negative mutant to inhibit viral replication. Rpt1 domain also interacts with oncogene c-MYC and modulates its transcriptional activity. We carried out an ab initio modeling of a segment of INI1 protein containing the Rpt1 domain. The structural model suggested the presence of a compact and well defined ββαα topology as core structure in the Rpt1 domain of INI1. This topology in Rpt1 was similar to PFU domain of Phospholipase A2 Activating Protein, PLAA. Interestingly, PFU domain shares similarity with Ubiquitin and has ubiquitin binding activity. Because of the structural similarity between Rpt1 domain of INI1 and PFU domain of PLAA, we propose that Rpt1 domain of INI1 may participate in ubiquitin recognition or binding with ubiquitin or ubiquitin related proteins. This modeling study may shed light on the mode of interactions of Rpt1 domain of INI1 and is likely to facilitate future functional studies of INI1.

  13. Functional Interplay of Two Paralogs Encoding SWI/SNF Chromatin-Remodeling Accessory Subunits During Caenorhabditis elegans Development.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Iris; Porta-de-la-Riva, Montserrat; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Rubio-Peña, Karinna; Aristizábal-Corrales, David; Cornes, Eric; Fontrodona, Laura; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Ayuso, Cristina; Askjaer, Peter; Cabello, Juan; Cerón, Julián

    2016-03-01

    SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling complexes have been related to several cellular processes such as transcription, regulation of chromosomal stability, and DNA repair. The Caenorhabditis elegans gene ham-3 (also known as swsn-2.1) and its paralog swsn-2.2 encode accessory subunits of SWI/SNF complexes. Using RNA interference (RNAi) assays and diverse alleles we investigated whether ham-3 and swsn-2.2 have different functions during C. elegans development since they encode proteins that are probably mutually exclusive in a given SWI/SNF complex. We found that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 display similar functions in vulva specification, germline development, and intestinal cell proliferation, but have distinct roles in embryonic development. Accordingly, we detected functional redundancy in some developmental processes and demonstrated by RNA sequencing of RNAi-treated L4 animals that ham-3 and swsn-2.2 regulate the expression of a common subset of genes but also have specific targets. Cell lineage analyses in the embryo revealed hyper-proliferation of intestinal cells in ham-3 null mutants whereas swsn-2.2 is required for proper cell divisions. Using a proteomic approach, we identified SWSN-2.2-interacting proteins needed for early cell divisions, such as SAO-1 and ATX-2, and also nuclear envelope proteins such as MEL-28. swsn-2.2 mutants phenocopy mel-28 loss-of-function, and we observed that SWSN-2.2 and MEL-28 colocalize in mitotic and meiotic chromosomes. Moreover, we demonstrated that SWSN-2.2 is required for correct chromosome segregation and nuclear reassembly after mitosis including recruitment of MEL-28 to the nuclear periphery.

  14. MYC interaction with the tumor suppressive SWI/SNF complex member INI1 regulates transcription and cellular transformation.

    PubMed

    Stojanova, Angelina; Tu, William B; Ponzielli, Romina; Kotlyar, Max; Chan, Pak-Kei; Boutros, Paul C; Khosravi, Fereshteh; Jurisica, Igor; Raught, Brian; Penn, Linda Z

    2016-07-01

    MYC is a key driver of cellular transformation and is deregulated in most human cancers. Studies of MYC and its interactors have provided mechanistic insight into its role as a regulator of gene transcription. MYC has been previously linked to chromatin regulation through its interaction with INI1 (SMARCB1/hSNF5/BAF47), a core member of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. INI1 is a potent tumor suppressor that is inactivated in several types of cancers, most prominently as the hallmark alteration in pediatric malignant rhabdoid tumors. However, the molecular and functional interaction of MYC and INI1 remains unclear. Here, we characterize the MYC-INI1 interaction in mammalian cells, mapping their minimal binding domains to functionally significant regions of MYC (leucine zipper) and INI1 (repeat motifs), and demonstrating that the interaction does not interfere with MYC-MAX interaction. Protein-protein interaction network analysis expands the MYC-INI1 interaction to the SWI/SNF complex and a larger network of chromatin regulatory complexes. Genome-wide analysis reveals that the DNA-binding regions and target genes of INI1 significantly overlap with those of MYC. In an INI1-deficient rhabdoid tumor system, we observe that with re-expression of INI1, MYC and INI1 bind to common target genes and have opposing effects on gene expression. Functionally, INI1 re-expression suppresses cell proliferation and MYC-potentiated transformation. Our findings thus establish the antagonistic roles of the INI1 and MYC transcriptional regulators in mediating cellular and oncogenic functions.

  15. MITF interacts with the SWI/SNF subunit, BRG1, to promote GATA4 expression in cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Gaurav; Kumarasamy, Sivarajan; Wu, Jian; Walsh, Aaron; Liu, Lijun; Williams, Kandace; Joe, Bina; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2015-11-01

    The transcriptional regulation of pathological cardiac hypertrophy involves the interplay of transcription factors and chromatin remodeling enzymes. The Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor (MITF) is highly expressed in cardiomyocytes and is required for cardiac hypertrophy. However, the transcriptional mechanisms by which MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy have not been elucidated. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that MITF promotes cardiac hypertrophy by activating transcription of pro-hypertrophy genes through interactions with the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. In an in vivo model of cardiac hypertrophy, expression of MITF and the BRG1 subunit of the SWI/SNF complex increased coordinately in response to pressure overload. Expression of MITF and BRG1 also increased in vitro when cardiomyocytes were stimulated with angiotensin II or a β-adrenergic agonist. Both MITF and BRG1 were required to increase cardiomyocyte size and activate expression of hypertrophy markers in response to β-adrenergic stimulation. We detected physical interactions between MITF and BRG1 in cardiomyocytes and found that they cooperate to regulate expression of a pro-hypertrophic transcription factor, GATA4. Our data show that MITF binds to the E box element in the GATA4 promoter and facilitates recruitment of BRG1. This is associated with enhanced expression of the GATA4 gene as evidenced by increased Histone3 lysine4 tri-methylation (H3K4me3) on the GATA4 promoter. Thus, in hypertrophic cardiomyoctes, MITF is a key transcriptional activator of a pro-hypertrophic gene, GATA4, and this regulation is dependent upon the BRG1 component of the SWI/SNF complex.

  16. Recent meteorite falls in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Y.; Kim, M.; Byun, Y.; Yi, H.; Chang, S.; Choi, J.; Sohn, J.; Moon, H.; Park, J.

    2014-07-01

    In the evening of March 9, 2014, a fireball falling from north to south was observed in South Korea. Multiple explosions were heard and multiple videos recorded in cars from various places, suggesting that the fireball was separated into several pieces. Immediately thereafter, a series of discovery reports about meteorites from the southern part of South Korea followed and, as of today, three meteorites were confirmed and one meteorite, with a mass of about 20 kg, is pending. This discovery of a meteorite in South Korea occurs for the first time in 70 years. The overall trajectory of the fireball matches the area where meteorites were discovered. According to the preliminary analyses, the meteorite is an ordinary chondrite. The origin of the meteorite and its surface properties will be studied.

  17. Korea: Balancing Economic Growth and Social Protection for Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Population aging in Korea is projected to be the most rapid among Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries between 2000 and 2050. However, social spending in Korea remains low, reflecting Korea's relatively young population, limited health and long-term care insurance coverage, and immaturity of its pension system.…

  18. English Immersion and Educational Inequality in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeon, Mihyon

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what immersion English education means in South Korea (henceforth Korea) and examines various related educational practices. The proposal for English immersion from the Presidential Transition Committee of the Lee administration in early 2008 has highlighted immersion education in Korea. Ironically, since the committee's…

  19. Brain Korea 21 Phase II: A New Evaluation Model. Monograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seong, Somi; Popper, Steven W.; Goldman, Charles A.; Evans, David K.

    2008-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the Korea Ministry of Education and Human Resources, in response to concern over the relatively low standing of the nation's universities and researchers, launched the Brain Korea 21 program BK21). BK21 seeks to make Korean research universities globally competitive and to produce more high-quality researchers in Korea. It…

  20. 75 FR 53711 - Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Film From Korea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Department of Commerce (Commerce) issued an antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (56 FR..., Commerce issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (65 FR 11984... issued a continuation of the antidumping duty order on imports of PET film from Korea (70 FR 61118)....

  1. Neutron detection of the Triga Mark III reactor, using nuclear track methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Espinosa, G. Golzarri, J. I.; Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-23

    Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM), based on the neutron-proton interaction is one often employed alternative for neutron detection. In this paper we apply NTM to determine the Triga Mark III reactor operating power and neutron flux. The facility nuclear core, loaded with 85 Highly Enriched Uranium as fuel with control rods in a demineralized water pool, provide a neutron flux around 2 × 10{sup 12} n cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, at the irradiation channel TO-2. The neutron field is measured at this channel, using Landauer{sup ®} PADC as neutron detection material, covered by 3 mm Plexiglas{sup ®} as converter. After exposure, plastic detectors were chemically etched to make observable the formed latent tracks induced by proton recoils. The track density was determined by a custom made Digital Image Analysis System. The resulting average nuclear track density shows a direct proportionality response for reactor power in the range 0.1-7 kW. We indicate several advantages of the technique including the possibility to calibrate the neutron flux density measured at low reactor power.

  2. Testing the applicability of the k0-NAA method at the MINT's TRIGA MARK II reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siong, Wee Boon; Dung, Ho Manh; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Salim, Nazaratul Ashifa Abd.; Elias, Md. Suhaimi

    2006-08-01

    The Analytical Chemistry Laboratory at MINT is using the NAA technique since 1980s and is the only laboratory in Malaysia equipped with a research reactor, namely the TRIGA MARK II. Throughout the years the development of NAA technique has been very encouraging and was made applicable to a wide range of samples. At present, the k0 method has become the preferred standardization method of NAA ( k0-NAA) due to its multi-elemental analysis capability without using standards. Additionally, the k0 method describes NAA in physically and mathematically understandable definitions and is very suitable for computer evaluation. Eventually, the k0-NAA method has been adopted by MINT in 2003, in collaboration with the Nuclear Research Institute (NRI), Vietnam. The reactor neutron parameters ( α and f) for the pneumatic transfer system and for the rotary rack at various locations, as well as the detector efficiencies were determined. After calibration of the reactor and the detectors, the implemented k0 method was validated by analyzing some certified reference materials (including IAEA Soil 7, NIST 1633a, NIST 1632c, NIST 1646a and IAEA 140/TM). The analysis results of the CRMs showed an average u score well below the threshold value of 2 with a precision of better than ±10% for most of the elemental concentrations obtained, validating herewith the introduction of the k0-NAA method at the MINT.

  3. K/sub infinity/-meter concept verified via subcritical-critical TRIGA experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ocampo Mansilla, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a technique for building a device to measure the k/sub infinity/ of a spent nuclear fuel assembly discharged from the core of a nuclear power plant. The device, called a k/sub infinity/-meter, consists of a cross-shaped subcritical assembly, two artificial neutron sources, and two separate neutron counting systems. The central position of the subcritical assembly is used to measure k/sub infinity/ of the spent fuel assembly. The initial subcritical assembly is calibrated to determine its k/sub eff/ and verify the assigned k/sub infinity/ of a selected fuel assembly placed in the central position. Count rates are taken with the fuel assembly of known k/sub infinity/'s placed in the central position and then repeated with a fuel assembly of unknown k/sub infinity/ placed in the central position. The count rate ratio of the unknown fuel assembly to the known fuel assembly is used to determine the k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly. The k/sub infinity/ of the unknown fuel assembly is represented as a polynomial function of the count rate ratios. The coefficients of the polynomial equation are determined using the neutronic codes LEOPARD and EXTERMINATOR-II. The analytical approach has been validated by performing several subcritical/critical experiments, using the Penn State Breazeale TRIGA Reactor (PSBR), and comparing the experimental results with the calculations.

  4. Simulation of Collimator for Neutron Imaging Facility of TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zin, Muhammad Rawi Mohamed; Jamro, Rafhayudi; Yazid, Khairiah; Hussain, Hishamuddin; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Azman, Azraf; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Hamzah, Nai'im Syaugi; Abu, Mohamad Puad

    Neutron Radiography facility in TRIGA MARK II PUSPATI reactor is being upgraded to obtain better image resolution as well as reducing exposure time. Collimator and exposure room are the main components have been designed for fabrication. This article focuses on the simulation part that was carried out to obtain the profile of collimated neutron beam by utilizing the neutron transport protocol code in the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software. Particular interest is in the selection of materials for inlet section of the collimator. Results from the simulation indicates that a combination of Bismuth and Sapphire, each of which has 5.0 cm length that can significantly filter both the gamma radiation and the fast neutrons. An aperture made of Cadmium with 1.0 cm opening diameter provides thermal neutron flux about 1.8 x108 ncm-2s-1 at the inlet, but reduces to 2.7 x106 ncm-2s-1 at the sample plane. Still the flux obtained is expected to reduces exposure time as well as gaining better image resolution.

  5. First production of ultracold neutrons with a solid deuterium source at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz⋆

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, A.; Sobolev, Yu.; Altarev, I.; Eberhardt, K.; Gschrey, A.; Gutsmiedl, E.; Hackl, R.; Hampel, G.; Hartmann, F. J.; Heil, W.; Kratz, J. V.; Lauer, Th.; Liźon Aguilar, A.; Müller, A. R.; Paul, S.; Pokotilovski, Yu.; Schmid, W.; Tassini, L.; Tortorella, D.; Trautmann, N.; Trinks, U.; Wiehl, N.

    2007-11-01

    The production rates of ultracold neutrons (UCN) with a solid deuterium converter have been measured at the pulsed reactor TRIGA Mainz. Exposed to a thermal neutron fluence of ensuremath ˜ 1\\cdot 10^{13} n·cm^-2·pulse^-1, the number of detected very cold and ultracold neutrons ranges up to 200 000 at 7mol of solid deuterium (sD2) in combination with a pre-moderator (mesitylene). About 50% of the measured neutrons can be assigned to UCN with energies E of ensuremath V_F(sD_2)≤ E ≤ V_F(guide) where V F( sD 2) = 105 neV and V F( guide) = 190 neV are the Fermi potentials of the sD2 converter and our stainless steel neutron guides, respectively. Thermal cycling of solid deuterium, which was frozen out from the gas phase, considerably improved the UCN yield, in particular at higher amounts of sD2.

  6. Design of sample carrier for neutron irradiation facility at TRIGA MARK II nuclear reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Y.; Hamid, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.; Ahmad, M. H. A. R. M.; Yusof, M. R.; Yazid, H.; Mohamed, A. A.

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this work is to design a sample carrier for neutron irradiation experiment at beam ports of research nuclear reactor, the Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP). The sample carrier was designed so that irradiation experiment can be performed safely by researchers. This development will resolve the transferring of sample issues faced by the researchers at the facility when performing neutron irradiation studies. The function of sample carrier is to ensure the sample for the irradiation process can be transferred into and out from the beam port of the reactor safely and effectively. The design model used was House of Quality Method (HOQ) which is usually used for developing specifications for product and develop numerical target to work towards and determining how well we can meet up to the needs. The chosen sample carrier (product) consists of cylindrical casing shape with hydraulic cylinders transportation method. The sample placing can be done manually, locomotion was by wheel while shielding used was made of boron materials. The sample carrier design can shield thermal neutron during irradiation of sample so that only low fluencies fast neutron irradiates the sample.

  7. Long-lived activation products in TRIGA Mark II research reactor concrete shield: calculation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žagar, Tomaž; Božič, Matjaž; Ravnik, Matjaž

    2004-12-01

    In this paper, a process of long-lived activity determination in research reactor concrete shielding is presented. The described process is a combination of experiment and calculations. Samples of original heavy reactor concrete containing mineral barite were irradiated inside the reactor shielding to measure its long-lived induced radioactivity. The most active long-lived (γ emitting) radioactive nuclides in the concrete were found to be 133Ba, 60Co and 152Eu. Neutron flux, activation rates and concrete activity were calculated for actual shield geometry for different irradiation and cooling times using TORT and ORIGEN codes. Experimental results of flux and activity measurements showed good agreement with the results of calculations. Volume of activated concrete waste after reactor decommissioning was estimated for particular case of Jožef Stefan Institute TRIGA reactor. It was observed that the clearance levels of some important long-lived isotopes typical for barite concrete (e.g. 133Ba, 41Ca) are not included in the IAEA and EU basic safety standards.

  8. Triga Mark III Reactor Operating Power and Neutron Flux Study by Nuclear Track Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    The operating power of a TRIGA Mark III reactor was studied using Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM). The facility has a Highly Enriched Uranium core that provides a neutron flux of around 2 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1 in the TO-2 irradiation channel. The detectors consisted of a Landauer® CR-39 (allyl diglycol polycarbonate) chip covered with a 3 mm Plexiglas® converter. After irradiation, the detectors were chemically etched in a 6.25M-KOH solution at 60±1 °C for 6 h. Track density was determined by a custom-made Digital Image Analysis System. The results show a direct proportionality between reactor power and average nuclear track density for powers in the range 0.1-7 kW. Data reproducibility and relatively low uncertainty (±3%) were achieved. NTM is a simple, fast and reliable technique that can serve as a complementary procedure to measure reactor operating power. It offers the possibility of calibrating the neutron flux density in any low power reactor.

  9. Critical heat flux in natural convection cooled TRIGA reactors with hexagonal bundle

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Avery, M.; De Angelis, M.; Anderson, M.; Corradini, M.; Feldman, E. E.; Dunn, F. E.; Matos, J. E.

    2012-07-01

    A three-rod bundle Critical Heat Flux (CHF) study at low flow, low pressure, and natural convection condition has been conducted, simulating TRIGA reactors with the hexagonally configured core. The test section is a custom-made trefoil shape tube with three identical fuel pin heater rods located symmetrically inside. The full scale fuel rod is electrically heated with a chopped-cosine axial power profile. CHF experiments were carried out with the following conditions: inlet water subcooling from 30 K to 95 K; pressure from 110 kPa to 230 kPa; mass flux up to 150 kg/m{sup 2}s. About 50 CHF data points were collected and compared with a few existing CHF correlations whose application ranges are close to the testing conditions. Some tests were performed with the forced convection to identify the potential difference between the CHF under the natural convection and forced convection. The relevance of the CHF to test parameters is investigated. (authors)

  10. Neutron detection of the Triga Mark III reactor, using nuclear track methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Raya-Arredondo, R.; Cruz-Galindo, S.; Sajo-Bohus, L.

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear Track Methodology (NTM), based on the neutron-proton interaction is one often employed alternative for neutron detection. In this paper we apply NTM to determine the Triga Mark III reactor operating power and neutron flux. The facility nuclear core, loaded with 85 Highly Enriched Uranium as fuel with control rods in a demineralized water pool, provide a neutron flux around 2 × 1012 n cm-2 s-1, at the irradiation channel TO-2. The neutron field is measured at this channel, using Landauer® PADC as neutron detection material, covered by 3 mm Plexiglas® as converter. After exposure, plastic detectors were chemically etched to make observable the formed latent tracks induced by proton recoils. The track density was determined by a custom made Digital Image Analysis System. The resulting average nuclear track density shows a direct proportionality response for reactor power in the range 0.1-7 kW. We indicate several advantages of the technique including the possibility to calibrate the neutron flux density measured at low reactor power.

  11. Production of 37Ar in The University of Texas TRIGA reactor facility

    SciTech Connect

    Egnatuk, Christine M.; Lowrey, Justin; Biegalski, S.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Haas, Derek A.; Orrell, John L.; Woods, Vincent T.; Keillor, Martin E.

    2011-06-19

    The detection of {sup 37}Ar is important for on-site inspections for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. In an underground nuclear explosion this radionuclide is produced by {sup 40}Ca(n,{alpha}){sup 37}Ar reaction in surrounding soil and rock. With a half-life of 35 days, {sup 37}Ar provides a signal useful for confirming the location of an underground nuclear event. An ultra-low-background proportional counter developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is used to detect {sup 37}Ar, which decays via electron capture. The irradiation of Ar gas at natural enrichment in the 3L facility within the Mark II TRIGA reactor facility at The University of Texas at Austin provides a source of {sup 37}Ar for the calibration of the detector. The {sup 41}Ar activity is measured by the gamma activity using an HPGe detector after the sample is removed from the core. Using the {sup 41}Ar/{sup 37}Ar production ratio and the {sup 41}Ar activity, the amount of {sup 37}Ar created is calculated. The {sup 41}Ar decays quickly (half-life of 109.34 minutes) leaving a radioactive sample of high purity {sup 37}Ar and only trace levels of {sup 39}Ar.

  12. Practical Treatments for Constipation in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Sik; Park, Moo-In; Shin, Jeong-Eun; Jung, Kee-Wook; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, Tae-Hee; Koo, Hoon-Sup

    2012-01-01

    Constipation is a digestive symptom that is frequently seen in clinical practice. Its prevalence has been reported to be 2% to 20%, depending on geographical region. Despite the rapid development of medical science, systematic studies on constipation have been rarely conducted in Korea. Recently, guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of functional gastrointestinal disorders, including constipation, were proposed by The Korean Society of Neurogastroenterology and Motility. These guidelines are expected to reflect the current situation regarding treatment of constipation in Korea. In this paper, practical constipation treatment methods that are in current use will be reviewed with reference to these recent guidelines. PMID:23019388

  13. SNF3 as High Affinity Glucose Sensor and Its Function in Supporting the Viability of Candida glabrata under Glucose-Limited Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Tzu Shan; Chew, Shu Yih; Rangasamy, Premmala; Mohd Desa, Mohd N.; Sandai, Doblin; Chong, Pei Pei; Than, Leslie Thian Lung

    2015-01-01

    Candida glabrata is an emerging human fungal pathogen that has efficacious nutrient sensing and responsiveness ability. It can be seen through its ability to thrive in diverse range of nutrient limited-human anatomical sites. Therefore, nutrient sensing particularly glucose sensing is thought to be crucial in contributing to the development and fitness of the pathogen. This study aimed to elucidate the role of SNF3 (Sucrose Non Fermenting 3) as a glucose sensor and its possible role in contributing to the fitness and survivability of C. glabrata in glucose-limited environment. The SNF3 knockout strain was constructed and subjected to different glucose concentrations to evaluate its growth, biofilm formation, amphotericin B susceptibility, ex vivo survivability and effects on the transcriptional profiling of the sugar receptor repressor (SRR) pathway-related genes. The CgSNF3Δ strain showed a retarded growth in low glucose environments (0.01 and 0.1%) in both fermentation and respiration-preferred conditions but grew well in high glucose concentration environments (1 and 2%). It was also found to be more susceptible to amphotericin B in low glucose environment (0.1%) and macrophage engulfment but showed no difference in the biofilm formation capability. The deletion of SNF3 also resulted in the down-regulation of about half of hexose transporters genes (four out of nine). Overall, the deletion of SNF3 causes significant reduction in the ability of C. glabrata to sense limited surrounding glucose and consequently disrupts its competency to transport and perform the uptake of this critical nutrient. This study highlighted the role of SNF3 as a high affinity glucose sensor and its role in aiding the survivability of C. glabrata particularly in glucose limited environment. PMID:26648919

  14. BRAHMA ATPase of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex acts as a positive regulator of gibberellin-mediated responses in arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Archacki, Rafal; Buszewicz, Daniel; Sarnowski, Tomasz J; Sarnowska, Elzbieta; Rolicka, Anna T; Tohge, Takayuki; Fernie, Alisdair R; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Kotlinski, Maciej; Iwanicka-Nowicka, Roksana; Kalisiak, Katarzyna; Patryn, Jacek; Halibart-Puzio, Joanna; Kamiya, Yuji; Davis, Seth J; Koblowska, Marta K; Jerzmanowski, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA) are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM) ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways.

  15. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  16. Adolescent's sexual problems in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, B S

    1990-07-01

    This article discusses primary contributors of sexual problems among Korean adolescents. As a result of improved nutrition, physical maturity is occurring at an earlier age in Korean youths. On the other hand, marital age has increased; the average age for males to marry is 27.3 years and 24.1 years in females. Hence, these factors extend the time frame between onset of sexual maturity and marriage. Enrollment in schools has risen; middle school registration has increased from 74.2% in 1975 to 99.7% in 1985 and from 43.6% to 78.3% in high schools. Increased enrollment has also been observed at the university level which may promote prolonged educational periods; this focus on education may reduce sexual interest among students. Improved employment opportunities may also influence sexual behavior among adolescents; urban migration can encourage casual relationships. Changes in family structure and sexual morals has promoted liberal attitudes regarding sexual practices. Increased exposure to mass media has affected adolescent sexual problems; 99.1% of the households in 1985 possessed televisions. These sexual problems include onset of sexual intercourse at an earlier age, unwanted pregnancies, increased induced abortions, and early childbirth. Overall, sexual activity in females has risen from 3.6% in 1965 to 14.5% in 1981 and from 18.5% in 1971 for males to 27.7% in 1981. Pre-marital pregnancy rates have continually increased since 1950; this has resulted in a rise of unwed mothers' consultations which reflects adolescent childbirths. Sex-related crime have also increased; rape ranks 3rd in crimes committed by Korean youth. Sex education and family planning should be provided for adolescents. Furthermore, counseling services should be available to youth regarding unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. The Planned Parenthood Federation of Korea provides youth sex telephone services in which adolescents can acquire information on

  17. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of new irradiation channels inside the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor core.

    PubMed

    Chham, E; El Bardouni, T; Benaalilou, K; Boukhal, H; El Bakkari, B; Boulaich, Y; El Younoussi, C; Nacir, B

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to improve the capacity of radioisotope production in the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor, which is considered as one of the most important applications of research reactors. The aim of this study is to enhance the utilization of TRIGA core in the field of neutron activation and ensure an economic use of the fuel. The main idea was to create an additional irradiation channel (IC) inside the core. For this purpose, three new core configurations are proposed, which differ according to the IC position in the core. Thermal neutron flux distribution and other neutronic safety parameters such as power peaking factors, excess reactivity, and control rods worth reactivity were calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) code and neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII evaluation. The calculated thermal flux in the central thimble (CT) and in the added IC for the reconfigured core is compared with the thermal flux in the CT of the existing core, which is taken as a reference. The results show that all the obtained fluxes in CTs are very close to the reference value, while a remarkable difference is observed between the fluxes in the new ICs and reference. This difference depends on the position of IC in the reactor core. To demonstrate that the Moroccan TRIGA reactor could safely operate at 2MW, with new configurations based on new ICs, different safety-related thermal-hydraulic parameters were investigated. The PARET model was used in this study to verify whether the safety margins are met despite the new modifications of the core. The results show that it is possible to introduce new ICs safely in the reactor core, because the obtained values of the parameters are largely far from compromising the safety of the reactor. PMID:27552124

  18. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of new irradiation channels inside the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor core.

    PubMed

    Chham, E; El Bardouni, T; Benaalilou, K; Boukhal, H; El Bakkari, B; Boulaich, Y; El Younoussi, C; Nacir, B

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to improve the capacity of radioisotope production in the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor, which is considered as one of the most important applications of research reactors. The aim of this study is to enhance the utilization of TRIGA core in the field of neutron activation and ensure an economic use of the fuel. The main idea was to create an additional irradiation channel (IC) inside the core. For this purpose, three new core configurations are proposed, which differ according to the IC position in the core. Thermal neutron flux distribution and other neutronic safety parameters such as power peaking factors, excess reactivity, and control rods worth reactivity were calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) code and neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII evaluation. The calculated thermal flux in the central thimble (CT) and in the added IC for the reconfigured core is compared with the thermal flux in the CT of the existing core, which is taken as a reference. The results show that all the obtained fluxes in CTs are very close to the reference value, while a remarkable difference is observed between the fluxes in the new ICs and reference. This difference depends on the position of IC in the reactor core. To demonstrate that the Moroccan TRIGA reactor could safely operate at 2MW, with new configurations based on new ICs, different safety-related thermal-hydraulic parameters were investigated. The PARET model was used in this study to verify whether the safety margins are met despite the new modifications of the core. The results show that it is possible to introduce new ICs safely in the reactor core, because the obtained values of the parameters are largely far from compromising the safety of the reactor.

  19. Disruption of Snf3/Rgt2 glucose sensors decreases lifespan and caloric restriction effectiveness through Mth1/Std1 by adjusting mitochondrial efficiency in yeast.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Young-Yon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2015-01-30

    Down-regulation of intracellular nutrient signal pathways was proposed to be a primary mechanism of caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the link between lifespan and glucose sensors in the plasma membrane was poorly understood in yeast. Herein, a mutant that lacked glucose sensors (snf3Δrgt2Δ) had impaired glucose fermentation, showed decreased chronological lifespan (CLS), and reduced CLS extension by CR. The mutant also had reduced mitochondrial efficiency, as inferred by increased mitochondrial superoxide and decreased ATP levels. Mth1 and Std1, which are downstream effectors of the Snf3/Rgt2 pathway, were required for viability through mitochondrial function but not fermentative metabolism.

  20. Effect of NaF, SnF(2), and TiF(4) Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel and Dentin Erosion-Abrasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Comar, Lívia Picchi; Gomes, Marina Franciscon; Ito, Naiana; Salomão, Priscila Aranda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercília; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing TiF(4), NaF, and SnF(2) on tooth erosion-abrasion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were distributed into 10 groups (n = 12): experimental placebo toothpaste (no F); NaF (1450 ppm F); TiF(4) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); TiF(4) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); commercial toothpaste Pro-Health (SnF(2)-1100 ppm F + NaF-350 ppm F, Oral B); commercial toothpaste Crest (NaF-1.500 ppm F, Procter & Gamble); abrasion without toothpaste and only erosion. The erosion was performed 4 × 90 s/day (Sprite Zero). The toothpastes' slurries were applied and the specimens abraded using an electric toothbrush 2 × 15 s/day. Between the erosive and abrasive challenges, the specimens remained in artificial saliva. After 7 days, the tooth wear was evaluated using contact profilometry (μm). The experimental toothpastes with NaF, TiF(4), SnF(2), and Pro-Health showed a significant reduction in enamel wear (between 42% and 54%). Pro-Health also significantly reduced the dentin wear. The toothpastes with SnF(2)/NaF and TiF(4)/NaF showed the best results in the reduction of enamel wear (62-70%) as well as TiF(4), SnF(2), SnF(2)/NaF, and TiF(4)/NaF for dentin wear (64-79%) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the experimental toothpastes containing both conventional and metal fluoride seem to be promising in reducing tooth wear. PMID:23258978

  1. Effect of NaF, SnF(2), and TiF(4) Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel and Dentin Erosion-Abrasion In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Comar, Lívia Picchi; Gomes, Marina Franciscon; Ito, Naiana; Salomão, Priscila Aranda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercília; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing TiF(4), NaF, and SnF(2) on tooth erosion-abrasion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were distributed into 10 groups (n = 12): experimental placebo toothpaste (no F); NaF (1450 ppm F); TiF(4) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1450 ppm F); SnF(2) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); TiF(4) (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); commercial toothpaste Pro-Health (SnF(2)-1100 ppm F + NaF-350 ppm F, Oral B); commercial toothpaste Crest (NaF-1.500 ppm F, Procter & Gamble); abrasion without toothpaste and only erosion. The erosion was performed 4 × 90 s/day (Sprite Zero). The toothpastes' slurries were applied and the specimens abraded using an electric toothbrush 2 × 15 s/day. Between the erosive and abrasive challenges, the specimens remained in artificial saliva. After 7 days, the tooth wear was evaluated using contact profilometry (μm). The experimental toothpastes with NaF, TiF(4), SnF(2), and Pro-Health showed a significant reduction in enamel wear (between 42% and 54%). Pro-Health also significantly reduced the dentin wear. The toothpastes with SnF(2)/NaF and TiF(4)/NaF showed the best results in the reduction of enamel wear (62-70%) as well as TiF(4), SnF(2), SnF(2)/NaF, and TiF(4)/NaF for dentin wear (64-79%) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the experimental toothpastes containing both conventional and metal fluoride seem to be promising in reducing tooth wear.

  2. Effect of NaF, SnF2, and TiF4 Toothpastes on Bovine Enamel and Dentin Erosion-Abrasion In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Comar, Lívia Picchi; Gomes, Marina Franciscon; Ito, Naiana; Salomão, Priscila Aranda; Grizzo, Larissa Tercília; Magalhães, Ana Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of toothpastes containing TiF4, NaF, and SnF2 on tooth erosion-abrasion. Bovine enamel and dentin specimens were distributed into 10 groups (n = 12): experimental placebo toothpaste (no F); NaF (1450 ppm F); TiF4 (1450 ppm F); SnF2 (1450 ppm F); SnF2 (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); TiF4 (1100 ppm F) + NaF (350 ppm F); commercial toothpaste Pro-Health (SnF2—1100 ppm F + NaF—350 ppm F, Oral B); commercial toothpaste Crest (NaF—1.500 ppm F, Procter & Gamble); abrasion without toothpaste and only erosion. The erosion was performed 4 × 90 s/day (Sprite Zero). The toothpastes' slurries were applied and the specimens abraded using an electric toothbrush 2 × 15 s/day. Between the erosive and abrasive challenges, the specimens remained in artificial saliva. After 7 days, the tooth wear was evaluated using contact profilometry (μm). The experimental toothpastes with NaF, TiF4, SnF2, and Pro-Health showed a significant reduction in enamel wear (between 42% and 54%). Pro-Health also significantly reduced the dentin wear. The toothpastes with SnF2/NaF and TiF4/NaF showed the best results in the reduction of enamel wear (62–70%) as well as TiF4, SnF2, SnF2/NaF, and TiF4/NaF for dentin wear (64–79%) (P < 0.05). Therefore, the experimental toothpastes containing both conventional and metal fluoride seem to be promising in reducing tooth wear. PMID:23258978

  3. Neutron flux measurements at the TRIGA reactor in Vienna for the prediction of the activation of the biological shield.

    PubMed

    Merz, Stefan; Djuricic, Mile; Villa, Mario; Böck, Helmuth; Steinhauser, Georg

    2011-11-01

    The activation of the biological shield is an important process for waste management considerations of nuclear facilities. The final activity can be estimated by modeling using the neutron flux density rather than the radiometric approach of activity measurements. Measurement series at the TRIGA reactor Vienna reveal that the flux density next to the biological shield is in the order of 10(9)cm(-2)s(-1) at maximum power; but it is strongly influenced by reactor installations. The data allow the estimation of the final waste categorization of the concrete according to the Austrian legislation. PMID:21646026

  4. Extraction of pure thermal neutron beam for the proposed PGNAA facility at the TRIGA research reactor of AERE, Savar, Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Sabina; Zaman, M. A.; Islam, S. M. A.; Ahsan, M. H.

    1993-10-01

    A study on collimators and filters for the design of a spectrometer for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) at one of the radial beamports of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at AERE, Savar has been carried out. On the basis of this study a collimator and a filter have been designed for the proposed PGNAA facility. Calculations have been done for measuring neutron flux at various positions of the core of the reactor using the computer code TRIGAP. Gamma dose in the core of the reactor has also been measured experimentally using TLD technique in the present work.

  5. SWI/SNF Subunits SMARCA4, SMARCD2 and DPF2 Collaborate in MLL-Rearranged Leukaemia Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, V Adam; Sroczynska, Patrycja; Sankar, Aditya; Miyagi, Satoru; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Helin, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in chromatin structure caused by deregulated epigenetic mechanisms collaborate with underlying genetic lesions to promote cancer. SMARCA4/BRG1, a core component of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complex, has been implicated by its mutational spectrum as exerting a tumour-suppressor function in many solid tumours; recently however, it has been reported to sustain leukaemogenic transformation in MLL-rearranged leukaemia in mice. Here we further explore the role of SMARCA4 and the two SWI/SNF subunits SMARCD2/BAF60B and DPF2/BAF45D in leukaemia. We observed the selective requirement for these proteins for leukaemic cell expansion and self-renewal in-vitro as well as in leukaemia. Gene expression profiling in human cells of each of these three factors suggests that they have overlapping functions in leukaemia. The gene expression changes induced by loss of the three proteins demonstrate that they are required for the expression of haematopoietic stem cell associated genes but in contrast to previous results obtained in mouse cells, the three proteins are not required for the expression of c-MYC regulated genes.

  6. SWI/SNF Subunits SMARCA4, SMARCD2 and DPF2 Collaborate in MLL-Rearranged Leukaemia Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, Aditya; Miyagi, Satoru; Rundsten, Carsten Friis; Johansen, Jens Vilstrup; Helin, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in chromatin structure caused by deregulated epigenetic mechanisms collaborate with underlying genetic lesions to promote cancer. SMARCA4/BRG1, a core component of the SWI/SNF ATP-dependent chromatin-remodelling complex, has been implicated by its mutational spectrum as exerting a tumour-suppressor function in many solid tumours; recently however, it has been reported to sustain leukaemogenic transformation in MLL-rearranged leukaemia in mice. Here we further explore the role of SMARCA4 and the two SWI/SNF subunits SMARCD2/BAF60B and DPF2/BAF45D in leukaemia. We observed the selective requirement for these proteins for leukaemic cell expansion and self-renewal in-vitro as well as in leukaemia. Gene expression profiling in human cells of each of these three factors suggests that they have overlapping functions in leukaemia. The gene expression changes induced by loss of the three proteins demonstrate that they are required for the expression of haematopoietic stem cell associated genes but in contrast to previous results obtained in mouse cells, the three proteins are not required for the expression of c-MYC regulated genes. PMID:26571505

  7. mSWI/SNF (BAF) Complexes Are Indispensable for the Neurogenesis and Development of Embryonic Olfactory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Christina; Nguyen, Huong; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Pham, Linh; Rabe, Tamara; Patwa, Megha; Sokpor, Godwin; Seong, Rho H; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Mansouri, Ahmed; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-09-01

    Neurogenesis is a key developmental event through which neurons are generated from neural stem/progenitor cells. Chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes have been reported to play essential roles in the neurogenesis of the central nervous system. However, whether BAF complexes are required for neuron generation in the olfactory system is unknown. Here, we identified onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, which are specifically present in olfactory neural stem cells (oNSCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), respectively. We demonstrated that BAF155 subunit is highly expressed in both oNSCs and ORNs, whereas high expression of BAF170 subunit is observed only in ORNs. We report that conditional deletion of BAF155, a core subunit in both onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, causes impaired proliferation of oNSCs as well as defective maturation and axonogenesis of ORNs in the developing olfactory epithelium (OE), while the high expression of BAF170 is important for maturation of ORNs. Interestingly, in the absence of BAF complexes in BAF155/BAF170 double-conditional knockout mice (dcKO), OE is not specified. Mechanistically, BAF complex is required for normal activation of Pax6-dependent transcriptional activity in stem cells/progenitors of the OE. Our findings unveil a novel mechanism mediated by the mSWI/SNF complex in OE neurogenesis and development. PMID:27611684

  8. CRITICALITY CALCULATION FOR THE MOST REACTIVE DEGRADED CONFIGURATIONS OF THE FFTF SNF CODISPOSAL WP CONTAINING AN INTACT IDENT-69 CONTAINER

    SciTech Connect

    D.R. Moscalu

    2002-08-28

    The objective of this calculation is to perform additional degraded mode criticality evaluations of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) codisposed in a 5-Defense High-Level Waste (5-DHLW) Waste Package (WP). The scope of this calculation is limited to the most reactive degraded configurations of the codisposal WP with an almost intact Ident-69 container (breached and flooded but otherwise non-degraded) containing intact FFTF SNF pins. The configurations have been identified in a previous analysis (CRWMS M&O 1999a) and the present evaluations include additional relevant information that was left out of the original calculations. The additional information describes the exact distribution of fissile material in each container (DOE 2002a). The effects of the changes that have been included in the baseline design of the codisposal WP (CRWMS M&O 2000) are also investigated. The calculation determines the effective neutron multiplication factor (k{sub eff}) for selected degraded mode internal configurations of the codisposal waste package. These calculations will support the demonstration of the technical viability of the design solution adopted for disposing of MOX (FFTF) spent nuclear fuel in the potential repository. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (DOE 2002b) per the activity evaluation under work package number P6212310M2 in the technical work plan TWP-MGR-MD-000010 REV 01 (BSC 2002).

  9. mSWI/SNF (BAF) Complexes Are Indispensable for the Neurogenesis and Development of Embryonic Olfactory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Christina; Nguyen, Huong; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Pham, Linh; Rabe, Tamara; Patwa, Megha; Sokpor, Godwin; Seong, Rho H; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Mansouri, Ahmed; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-09-01

    Neurogenesis is a key developmental event through which neurons are generated from neural stem/progenitor cells. Chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes have been reported to play essential roles in the neurogenesis of the central nervous system. However, whether BAF complexes are required for neuron generation in the olfactory system is unknown. Here, we identified onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, which are specifically present in olfactory neural stem cells (oNSCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), respectively. We demonstrated that BAF155 subunit is highly expressed in both oNSCs and ORNs, whereas high expression of BAF170 subunit is observed only in ORNs. We report that conditional deletion of BAF155, a core subunit in both onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, causes impaired proliferation of oNSCs as well as defective maturation and axonogenesis of ORNs in the developing olfactory epithelium (OE), while the high expression of BAF170 is important for maturation of ORNs. Interestingly, in the absence of BAF complexes in BAF155/BAF170 double-conditional knockout mice (dcKO), OE is not specified. Mechanistically, BAF complex is required for normal activation of Pax6-dependent transcriptional activity in stem cells/progenitors of the OE. Our findings unveil a novel mechanism mediated by the mSWI/SNF complex in OE neurogenesis and development.

  10. mSWI/SNF (BAF) Complexes Are Indispensable for the Neurogenesis and Development of Embryonic Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Linh; Rabe, Tamara; Sokpor, Godwin; Seong, Rho H.; Ashery-Padan, Ruth; Mansouri, Ahmed; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F.; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis is a key developmental event through which neurons are generated from neural stem/progenitor cells. Chromatin remodeling BAF (mSWI/SNF) complexes have been reported to play essential roles in the neurogenesis of the central nervous system. However, whether BAF complexes are required for neuron generation in the olfactory system is unknown. Here, we identified onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, which are specifically present in olfactory neural stem cells (oNSCs) and olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), respectively. We demonstrated that BAF155 subunit is highly expressed in both oNSCs and ORNs, whereas high expression of BAF170 subunit is observed only in ORNs. We report that conditional deletion of BAF155, a core subunit in both onscBAF and ornBAF complexes, causes impaired proliferation of oNSCs as well as defective maturation and axonogenesis of ORNs in the developing olfactory epithelium (OE), while the high expression of BAF170 is important for maturation of ORNs. Interestingly, in the absence of BAF complexes in BAF155/BAF170 double-conditional knockout mice (dcKO), OE is not specified. Mechanistically, BAF complex is required for normal activation of Pax6-dependent transcriptional activity in stem cells/progenitors of the OE. Our findings unveil a novel mechanism mediated by the mSWI/SNF complex in OE neurogenesis and development. PMID:27611684

  11. Crisis and Employment: The Case of Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Dongchul; Shin, Sukha

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…

  12. Molecular epidemiology of norovirus in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Geun; Cho, Han-Gil; Paik, Soon-Young

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus is a major cause of viral gastroenteritis and a common cause of foodborne and waterborne outbreaks. Norovirus outbreaks are responsible for economic losses, most notably to the public health and food industry field. Norovirus has characteristics such as low infectious dose, prolonged shedding period, strong stability, great diversity, and frequent genome mutations. Besides these characteristics, they are known for rapid and extensive spread in closed settings such as hospitals, hotels, and schools. Norovirus is well known as a major agent of food-poisoning in diverse settings in South Korea. For these reasons, nationwide surveillance for norovirus is active in both clinical and environmental settings in South Korea. Recent studies have reported the emergence of variants and novel recombinants of norovirus. In this review, we summarized studies on the molecular epidemiology and nationwide surveillance of norovirus in South Korea. This review will provide information for vaccine development and prediction of new emerging variants of norovirus in South Korea. [BMB Reports 2015; 48(2): 61-67] PMID:25441425

  13. Korea targets leadership role in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Matin

    2013-11-01

    The Republic of Korea has transformed itself over the last 50 years from a nation based primarily on agriculture to a hi-tech industrial powerhouse. But now the country is seeing the importance of investing in fundamental science too, as Matin Durrani reports.

  14. Genetic diversity of Lycoris endemic to Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extensive taxonomic relationships among Lycoris Herb. (Amaryllidaceae) taxa native to Korea have not been analyzed previously. This study was carried out to investigate the hybrid origin, genetic diversity, and relationships of Lycoris taxa (L. flavescens, L. uydoensis, L. chejuensis, L. chinensis ...

  15. [[Prevalence of induced abortion in Korea

    PubMed

    Lim, J; Lee, S; Bae, H

    1989-07-01

    The authors analyze recent trends in the prevalence of induced abortions in South Korea. They attempt to determine motivations for abortion, examine its side effects, and investigate the impact of induced abortions on infertility. The focus is on creating recommendations for population policy and maternal and child health care. Data are from the 1988 Korean National Fertility and Family Health Survey. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  16. The Quality of Life in South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Chong-Min

    2009-01-01

    The AsiaBarometer survey of 1,023 respondents shows Life in Korea is highly modernized and digitalized without being much globalized. Despite the modernization and digitalization of their lifestyles, ordinary citizens still prioritize materialistic values more than post-materialistic values, and they remain least satisfied in the material life…

  17. Collaborative Reasoning in China and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Ting; Anderson, Richard C.; Kim, Il-Hee; Li, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Students at two sites in China and one site in Korea engaged in Collaborative Reasoning, an approach to discussion that requires self-management, free participation, and critical thinking. The discontinuity between the usual adult-dominated discourse of Chinese and Korean homes and classrooms and the expected discourse of Collaborative Reasoning…

  18. English Textbooks in Japan and Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuasa, Katsura

    2010-01-01

    English education in Japan and Korea are similar in some respects. Although both countries are not completely but mostly monolingual societies, where citizens do not need English in their daily life, they have begun to realize the importance of English as a tool for international communication, and as a result their English education is becoming…

  19. Country Profiles, The Republic of Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Dae Woo; And Others

    A profile of the Republic of Korea is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: location and description of the country; population (size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition,…

  20. Confirmation of a realistic reactor model for BNCT dosimetry at the TRIGA Mainz

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegner, Markus; Schmitz, Tobias; Hampel, Gabriele; Khan, Rustam; Blaickner, Matthias; Palmans, Hugo; Sharpe, Peter; Böck, Helmuth

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: In order to build up a reliable dose monitoring system for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) applications at the TRIGA reactor in Mainz, a computer model for the entire reactor was established, simulating the radiation field by means of the Monte Carlo method. The impact of different source definition techniques was compared and the model was validated by experimental fluence and dose determinations. Methods: The depletion calculation code ORIGEN2 was used to compute the burn-up and relevant material composition of each burned fuel element from the day of first reactor operation to its current core. The material composition of the current core was used in a MCNP5 model of the initial core developed earlier. To perform calculations for the region outside the reactor core, the model was expanded to include the thermal column and compared with the previously established ATTILA model. Subsequently, the computational model is simplified in order to reduce the calculation time. Both simulation models are validated by experiments with different setups using alanine dosimetry and gold activation measurements with two different types of phantoms. Results: The MCNP5 simulated neutron spectrum and source strength are found to be in good agreement with the previous ATTILA model whereas the photon production is much lower. Both MCNP5 simulation models predict all experimental dose values with an accuracy of about 5%. The simulations reveal that a Teflon environment favorably reduces the gamma dose component as compared to a polymethyl methacrylate phantom. Conclusions: A computer model for BNCT dosimetry was established, allowing the prediction of dosimetric quantities without further calibration and within a reasonable computation time for clinical applications. The good agreement between the MCNP5 simulations and experiments demonstrates that the ATTILA model overestimates the gamma dose contribution. The detailed model can be used for the planning of structural

  1. Application of LiF thermoluminescence dosimeter powders in neutron gamma mixed field dosimetry and dose mapping in the thermal column of a triga Mk II reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Bhaskar; Böck, Helmut; Vana, Norbert

    1987-02-01

    Thermal neutron and fission product gamma dose rates at different positions in the horizontal thermal column of a TRIGA Mk-II reactor, as well as in a cadmium cladded cylindrical cavity embedded in a borated wooden box placed in the thermal column, were assessed with TLD-600 and TLD-700 dosimeter powders.

  2. Implementation of k0-INAA standardisation at ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor, Turkey based on k0-IAEA software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esen, Ayse Nur; Haciyakupoglu, Sevilay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the applicability of k0-INAA method at the Istanbul Technical University TRIGA Mark II research reactor. The neutron spectrum parameters such as epithermal neutron flux distribution parameter (α), thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio (f) and thermal neutron flux (φth) were determined at the central irradiation channel of the ITU TRIGA Mark II research reactor using bare triple-monitor method. HPGe detector calibrations and calculations were carried out by k0-IAEA software. The α, f and φth values were calculated to be -0.009, 15.4 and 7.92·1012 cm-2 s-1, respectively. NIST SRM 1633b coal fly ash and intercomparison samples consisting of clay and sandy soil samples were used to evaluate the validity of the method. For selected elements, the statistical evaluation of the analysis results was carried out by z-score test. A good agreement between certified/reported and experimental values was obtained.

  3. Essential Functional Interactions of Saga, a Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Complex of Spt, Ada, and Gcn5 Proteins, with the Snf/Swi and Srb/Mediator Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, S. M.; Winston, F.

    1997-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Spt20/Ada5 was originally identified by mutations that suppress Ty insertion alleles and by mutations that suppress the toxicity caused by Gal4-VP16 overexpression. Here we present evidence for physical associations between Spt20/Ada5 and three other Spt proteins, suggesting that they exist in a complex. A related study demonstrates that this complex also contains the histone acetyltransferase, Gcn5, and Ada2. This complex has been named SAGA (Spt/Ada/Gcn5 acetyltransferase). To identify functions that genetically interact with SAGA, we have screened for mutations that cause lethality in an spt20Δ/ada5Δ mutant. Our screen identified mutations in SNF2, SIN4, and GAL11. These mutations affect two known transcription complexes: Snf/Swi, which functions in nucleosome remodeling, and Srb/mediator, which is required for regulated transcription by RNA polymerase II. Systematic analysis has demonstrated that spt20Δ/ada5Δand spt7Δ mutations cause lethality with every snf/swi and srb/mediator mutation tested. Furthermore, a gcn5Δ mutation causes severe sickness with snf/swi mutations, but not with srb/mediator mutations. These findings suggest that SAGA has multiple activities and plays critical roles in transcription by RNA polymerase II. PMID:9335585

  4. The vacuolar-sorting protein Snf7 is required for export of virulence determinants in members of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex.

    PubMed Central

    da C. Godinho, Rodrigo M.; Crestani, Juliana; Kmetzsch, Lívia; de S. Araujo, Glauber; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C.; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H.; Rodrigues, Marcio L.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pathogenesis requires a number of extracellularly released virulence factors. Recent studies demonstrating that most fungal extracellular molecules lack secretory tags suggest that unconventional secretion mechanisms and fungal virulence are strictly connected. Proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) have been recently associated with polysaccharide export in the yeast-like human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Snf7 is a key ESCRT operator required for unconventional secretion in Eukaryotes. In this study we generated snf7Δ mutant strains of C. neoformans and its sibling species C. gattii. Lack of Snf7 resulted in important alterations in polysaccharide secretion, capsular formation and pigmentation. This phenotype culminated with loss of virulence in an intranasal model of murine infection in both species. Our data support the notion that Snf7 expression regulates virulence in C. neoformans and C. gattii by ablating polysaccharide and melanin traffic. These results are in agreement with the observation that unconventional secretion is essential for cryptococcal pathogenesis and strongly suggest the occurrence of still obscure mechanisms of exportation of non-protein molecules in Eukaryotes. PMID:25178636

  5. The vacuolar-sorting protein Snf7 is required for export of virulence determinants in members of the Cryptococcus neoformans complex.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Rodrigo M da C; Crestani, Juliana; Kmetzsch, Lívia; Araujo, Glauber de S; Frases, Susana; Staats, Charley C; Schrank, Augusto; Vainstein, Marilene H; Rodrigues, Marcio L

    2014-09-02

    Fungal pathogenesis requires a number of extracellularly released virulence factors. Recent studies demonstrating that most fungal extracellular molecules lack secretory tags suggest that unconventional secretion mechanisms and fungal virulence are strictly connected. Proteins of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) have been recently associated with polysaccharide export in the yeast-like human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Snf7 is a key ESCRT operator required for unconventional secretion in Eukaryotes. In this study we generated snf7Δ mutant strains of C. neoformans and its sibling species C. gattii. Lack of Snf7 resulted in important alterations in polysaccharide secretion, capsular formation and pigmentation. This phenotype culminated with loss of virulence in an intranasal model of murine infection in both species. Our data support the notion that Snf7 expression regulates virulence in C. neoformans and C. gattii by ablating polysaccharide and melanin traffic. These results are in agreement with the observation that unconventional secretion is essential for cryptococcal pathogenesis and strongly suggest the occurrence of still obscure mechanisms of exportation of non-protein molecules in Eukaryotes.

  6. No impact of DvSnf7 RNA on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) adults and larvae in dietary feeding tests.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianguo; Levine, Steven L; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Uffman, Joshua P; Meng, Chen; Song, Zihong; Richards, Kathy B; Beevers, Michael H

    2016-02-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is the most important managed pollinator species worldwide and plays a critical role in the pollination of a diverse range of economically important crops. This species is important to agriculture and historically has been used as a surrogate species for pollinators to evaluate the potential adverse effects for conventional, biological, and microbial pesticides, as well as for genetically engineered plants that produce pesticidal products. As part of the ecological risk assessment of MON 87411 maize, which expresses a double-stranded RNA targeting the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), dietary feeding studies with honey bee larvae and adults were conducted. Based on the mode of action of the DvSnf7 RNA in western corn rootworm, the present studies were designed to be of sufficient duration to evaluate the potential for adverse effects on larval survival and development through emergence and adult survival to a significant portion of the adult stage. Testing was conducted at concentrations of DvSnf7 RNA that greatly exceeded environmentally relevant exposure levels based on expression levels in maize pollen. No adverse effects were observed in either larval or adult honey bees at these high exposure levels, providing a large margin of safety between environmental exposure levels and no-observed-adverse-effect levels. PMID:26011006

  7. National spent fuel program preliminary report RCRA characteristics of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel DOE-SNF-REP-002. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    This report presents information on the preliminary process knowledge to be used in characterizing all Department of Energy (DOE)-owned Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) types that potentially exhibit a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic. This report also includes the process knowledge, analyses, and rationale used to preliminarily exclude certain SNF types from RCRA regulation under 40 CFR {section}261.4(a)(4), ``Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste,`` as special nuclear and byproduct material. The evaluations and analyses detailed herein have been undertaken as a proactive approach. In the event that DOE-owned SNF is determined to be a RCRA solid waste, this report provides general direction for each site regarding further characterization efforts. The intent of this report is also to define the path forward to be taken for further evaluation of specific SNF types and a recommended position to be negotiated and established with regional and state regulators throughout the DOE Complex regarding the RCRA-related policy issues.

  8. Pho85p, a cyclin-dependent protein kinase, and the Snf1p protein kinase act antagonistically to control glycogen accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, D; Farkas, I; Roach, P J

    1996-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, nutrient levels control multiple cellular processes. Cells lacking the SNF1 gene cannot express glucose-repressible genes and do not accumulate the storage polysaccharide glycogen. The impaired glycogen synthesis is due to maintenance of glycogen synthase in a hyperphosphorylated, inactive state. In a screen for second site suppressors of the glycogen storage defect of snf1 cells, we identified a mutant gene that restored glycogen accumulation and which was allelic with PHO85, which encodes a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase family. In cells with disrupted PHO85 genes, we observed hyperaccumulation of glycogen, activation of glycogen synthase, and impaired glycogen synthase kinase activity. In snf1 cells, glycogen synthase kinase activity was elevated. Partial purification of glycogen synthase kinase activity from yeast extracts resulted in the separation of two fractions by phenyl-Sepharose chromatography, both of which phosphorylated and inactivated glycogen synthase. The activity of one of these, GPK2, was inhibited by olomoucine, which potently inhibits cyclin-dependent protein kinases, and contained an approximately 36-kDa species that reacted with antibodies to Pho85p. Analysis of Ser-to-Ala mutations at the three potential Gsy2p phosphorylation sites in pho85 cells implicated Ser-654 and/or Thr-667 in PHO85 control of glycogen synthase. We propose that Pho85p is a physiological glycogen synthase kinase, possibly acting downstream of Snf1p. PMID:8754836

  9. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask and MCO Helium Purge System Design Review Completion Report Project A.5 and A.6

    SciTech Connect

    ARD, K.E.

    2000-04-19

    This report documents the results of the design verification performed on the Cask and Multiple Canister Over-pack (MCO) Helium Purge System. The helium purge system is part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Cask Loadout System (CLS) at 100K area. The design verification employed the ''Independent Review Method'' in accordance with Administrative Procedure (AP) EN-6-027-01.

  10. No impact of DvSnf7 RNA on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) adults and larvae in dietary feeding tests

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Pamela M.; Jensen, Peter D.; Mueller, Geoffrey M.; Uffman, Joshua P.; Meng, Chen; Song, Zihong; Richards, Kathy B.; Beevers, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is the most important managed pollinator species worldwide and plays a critical role in the pollination of a diverse range of economically important crops. This species is important to agriculture and historically has been used as a surrogate species for pollinators to evaluate the potential adverse effects for conventional, biological, and microbial pesticides, as well as for genetically engineered plants that produce pesticidal products. As part of the ecological risk assessment of MON 87411 maize, which expresses a double‐stranded RNA targeting the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), dietary feeding studies with honey bee larvae and adults were conducted. Based on the mode of action of the DvSnf7 RNA in western corn rootworm, the present studies were designed to be of sufficient duration to evaluate the potential for adverse effects on larval survival and development through emergence and adult survival to a significant portion of the adult stage. Testing was conducted at concentrations of DvSnf7 RNA that greatly exceeded environmentally relevant exposure levels based on expression levels in maize pollen. No adverse effects were observed in either larval or adult honey bees at these high exposure levels, providing a large margin of safety between environmental exposure levels and no‐observed–adverse‐effect levels. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:287–294. © 2015 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26011006

  11. No impact of DvSnf7 RNA on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) adults and larvae in dietary feeding tests.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jianguo; Levine, Steven L; Bachman, Pamela M; Jensen, Peter D; Mueller, Geoffrey M; Uffman, Joshua P; Meng, Chen; Song, Zihong; Richards, Kathy B; Beevers, Michael H

    2016-02-01

    The honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) is the most important managed pollinator species worldwide and plays a critical role in the pollination of a diverse range of economically important crops. This species is important to agriculture and historically has been used as a surrogate species for pollinators to evaluate the potential adverse effects for conventional, biological, and microbial pesticides, as well as for genetically engineered plants that produce pesticidal products. As part of the ecological risk assessment of MON 87411 maize, which expresses a double-stranded RNA targeting the Snf7 ortholog (DvSnf7) in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), dietary feeding studies with honey bee larvae and adults were conducted. Based on the mode of action of the DvSnf7 RNA in western corn rootworm, the present studies were designed to be of sufficient duration to evaluate the potential for adverse effects on larval survival and development through emergence and adult survival to a significant portion of the adult stage. Testing was conducted at concentrations of DvSnf7 RNA that greatly exceeded environmentally relevant exposure levels based on expression levels in maize pollen. No adverse effects were observed in either larval or adult honey bees at these high exposure levels, providing a large margin of safety between environmental exposure levels and no-observed-adverse-effect levels.

  12. A theoretical study of SnF2+, SnCl2+, and SnO2+ and their experimental search.

    PubMed

    de Lima Batista, Ana Paula; de Lima, José Carlos Barreto; Franzreb, Klaus; Ornellas, Fernando R

    2012-10-21

    We present a detailed theoretical study of the stability of the gas-phase diatomic dications SnF(2+), SnCl(2+), and SnO(2+) using ab initio computer calculations. The ground states of SnF(2+), SnCl(2+), and SnO(2+) are thermodynamically stable, respectively, with dissociation energies of 0.45, 0.30, and 0.42 eV. Whereas SnF(2+) dissociates into Sn(2+) + F, the long range behaviour of the potential energy curves of SnCl(2+) and SnO(2+) is repulsive and wide barrier heights due to avoided crossing act as a kind of effective dissociation energy. Their equilibrium internuclear distances are 4.855, 5.201, and 4.852 a(0), respectively. The double ionisation energies (T(e)) to form SnF(2+), SnCl(2+), and SnO(2+) from their respective neutral parents are 25.87, 23.71, and 25.97 eV. We combine our theoretical work with the experimental results of a search for these doubly positively charged diatomic molecules in the gas phase. SnO(2+) and SnF(2+) have been observed for prolonged oxygen ((16)O(-)) ion beam sputtering of a tin metal foil and of tin (II) fluoride (SnF(2)) powder, respectively, for ion flight times of about 10(-5) s through a magnetic-sector mass spectrometer. In addition, SnCl(2+) has been detected for (16)O(-) ion surface bombardment of stannous (tin (II)) chloride (SnCl(2)) powder. To our knowledge, SnF(2+) is a novel gas-phase molecule, whereas SnCl(2+) had been detected previously by electron-impact ionization mass spectrometry, and SnO(2+) had been observed before by spark source mass spectrometry as well as by atom probe mass spectrometry. We are not aware of any previous theoretical studies of these molecular systems.

  13. Proteasomes, Sir2, and Hxk2 form an interconnected aging network that impinges on the AMPK/Snf1-regulated transcriptional repressor Mig1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yanhua; Tsuchiyama, Scott; Yang, Ciyu; Bulteau, Anne Laure; He, Chong; Robison, Brett; Tsuchiya, Mitsuhiro; Miller, Delana; Briones, Valeria; Tar, Krisztina; Potrero, Anahi; Friguet, Bertrand; Kennedy, Brian K; Schmidt, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Elevated proteasome activity extends lifespan in model organisms such as yeast, worms and flies. This pro-longevity effect might be mediated by improved protein homeostasis, as this protease is an integral module of the protein homeostasis network. Proteasomes also regulate cellular processes through temporal and spatial degradation of signaling pathway components. Here we demonstrate that the regulatory function of the proteasome plays an essential role in aging cells and that the beneficial impact of elevated proteasome capacity on lifespan partially originates from deregulation of the AMPK signaling pathway. Proteasome-mediated lifespan extension activity was carbon-source dependent and cells with enhancement proteasome function exhibited increased respiratory activity and oxidative stress response. These findings suggested that the pro-aging impact of proteasome upregulation might be related to changes in the metabolic state through a premature induction of respiration. Deletion of yeast AMPK, SNF1, or its activator SNF4 abrogated proteasome-mediated lifespan extension, supporting this hypothesis as the AMPK pathway regulates metabolism. We found that the premature induction of respiration in cells with increased proteasome activity originates from enhanced turnover of Mig1, an AMPK/Snf1 regulated transcriptional repressor that prevents the induction of genes required for respiration. Increasing proteasome activity also resulted in partial relocation of Mig1 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. Collectively, the results argue for a model in which elevated proteasome activity leads to the uncoupling of Snf1-mediated Mig1 regulation, resulting in a premature activation of respiration and thus the induction of a mitohormetic response, beneficial to lifespan. In addition, we observed incorrect Mig1 localization in two other long-lived yeast aging models: cells that overexpress SIR2 or deleted for the Mig1-regulator HXK2. Finally, compromised proteasome function

  14. Loss of expression of the SWI/SNF complex is a frequent event in undifferentiated/dedifferentiated urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Agaimy, Abbas; Bertz, Simone; Cheng, Liang; Hes, Ondrej; Junker, Kerstin; Keck, Bastian; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Stöckle, Michael; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt

    2016-09-01

    Loss of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of dedifferentiated carcinomas from different organs, but its possible role in undifferentiated urothelial carcinoma (UC) has not been studied to date. In this study, we analyzed by immunohistochemistry 14 undifferentiated UCs (11 from bladder and 3 from renal pelvis) with a nondescript anaplastic or rhabdoid morphology, using commercially available antibodies against the SWI/SNF components SMARCB1 (INI1), SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCC1, SMARCC2, and ARID1A. Patients were eight females and six males aged 40 to 84 years (median, 65). All tumors were muscle-invasive (9 were T3-4). A conventional UC component was seen in eight cases and varied from in situ to papillary. The undifferentiated component comprised 60-100 % of the tumors. Histologically, most tumors showed diffuse dyscohesive or pseudoalveolar growth of variably sized cells with frequent rhabdoid features. Transition from conventional to undifferentiated UC was abrupt, except in one case. The undifferentiated component almost always expressed pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 (13/14) and variably vimentin (8/14) and GATA3 (9/14). Complete loss of at least one SWI/SNF subunit limited to the undifferentiated component was detected in 10/14 cases (71 %). SMARCA2 was most frequently lost (six) followed by ARID1A (four), SMARCB1/INI1 (two), SMARCA4 (one), and SMARCC1 (one). This is the first study exploring SWI/SNF expression in undifferentiated UC of the urinary tract. Our results are in line with recent studies reporting involvement of the SWI/SNF complex in the dedifferentiation process of a variety of epithelial neoplasms in different organs, including the urinary tract, and association with aggressive clinical course. PMID:27339451

  15. Loss of expression of the SWI/SNF complex is a frequent event in undifferentiated/dedifferentiated urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Agaimy, Abbas; Bertz, Simone; Cheng, Liang; Hes, Ondrej; Junker, Kerstin; Keck, Bastian; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Stöckle, Michael; Wullich, Bernd; Hartmann, Arndt

    2016-09-01

    Loss of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex has been recently implicated in the pathogenesis of dedifferentiated carcinomas from different organs, but its possible role in undifferentiated urothelial carcinoma (UC) has not been studied to date. In this study, we analyzed by immunohistochemistry 14 undifferentiated UCs (11 from bladder and 3 from renal pelvis) with a nondescript anaplastic or rhabdoid morphology, using commercially available antibodies against the SWI/SNF components SMARCB1 (INI1), SMARCA2, SMARCA4, SMARCC1, SMARCC2, and ARID1A. Patients were eight females and six males aged 40 to 84 years (median, 65). All tumors were muscle-invasive (9 were T3-4). A conventional UC component was seen in eight cases and varied from in situ to papillary. The undifferentiated component comprised 60-100 % of the tumors. Histologically, most tumors showed diffuse dyscohesive or pseudoalveolar growth of variably sized cells with frequent rhabdoid features. Transition from conventional to undifferentiated UC was abrupt, except in one case. The undifferentiated component almost always expressed pan-cytokeratin AE1/AE3 (13/14) and variably vimentin (8/14) and GATA3 (9/14). Complete loss of at least one SWI/SNF subunit limited to the undifferentiated component was detected in 10/14 cases (71 %). SMARCA2 was most frequently lost (six) followed by ARID1A (four), SMARCB1/INI1 (two), SMARCA4 (one), and SMARCC1 (one). This is the first study exploring SWI/SNF expression in undifferentiated UC of the urinary tract. Our results are in line with recent studies reporting involvement of the SWI/SNF complex in the dedifferentiation process of a variety of epithelial neoplasms in different organs, including the urinary tract, and association with aggressive clinical course.

  16. Prophylaxis of human hydrophobia in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yang Ree

    2014-09-01

    Domestic human hydrophobia has not been reported since the one case of 2004 in South Korea, but still a few animal rabies occur persistently since the reemerging stage of rabies from 1993. The government has made efforts to control animal rabies in many aspects, but whether prophylactic strategy for human hydrophobia is performed adequately is in question. The rate of proper post-exposure prophylaxis for animal bite case in 'high-risk region' of rabies is very low with 20% between 2011 and 2013. The National Animal Bite Patient Surveillance targeting 'high-risk region' is missing out animal bite cases who visit directly to hospitals in 'suspect-risk region' of rabies. Little data seems to exist for pre-exposure prophylaxis of domestic hydrophobia. Danger of reoccurrence of human hydrophobia always remain in South Korea. The medical personnel needs to have greater interest on the matter and the government strengthen the management system.

  17. Achievements in and Challenges of Tuberculosis Control in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Han; Yim, Jae-Joon

    2015-11-01

    After the Korean War (1950-1953), nearly 6.5% of South Korea's population had active tuberculosis (TB). In response, South Korea implemented the National Tuberculosis Program in 1962. From 1965 to 1995, the prevalence of bacteriologically confirmed pulmonary TB in South Korea decreased from 940 to 219 cases per 100,000 population. Astounding economic growth might have contributed to this result; however, TB incidence in South Korea remains the highest among high-income countries. The rate of decrease in TB incidence seems to have slowed over the past 15 years. A demographic shift toward an older population, many of whom have latent TB and various concurrent conditions, is challenging TB control efforts in South Korea. The increasing number of immigrants also plays a part in the prolonged battle against TB. A historical review of TB in South Korea provides an opportunity to understand national TB control efforts that are applicable to other parts of the world.

  18. Tritium production, recovery and application in Korea.

    PubMed

    Son, Soon-Hwan; Lee, Sook-Kyung; Kim, Kwang-Sin

    2009-01-01

    Four CANDU reactors have been operating at the site of Wolsong Nuclear Power Generation in Korea. The Wolsong tritium removal facility was constructed to reduce the tritium levels in heavy water systems. This facility was designed to process 100kg/h of tritiated heavy water feed and to produce 99% pure T(2). This recovered tritium will be made available for commercial applications. The initial phases on the tritium applications are made to establish the infrastructure and the tritium controls. PMID:19307127

  19. Economic burden of smoking in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kang, H; Kim, H; Park, T; Jee, S; Nam, C; Park, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To support tobacco control policies in Korea by providing the estimated annual economic burden attributed to cigarette smoking. Methods: The following two different approaches were used to estimate the cost: "disease specific" and "all causes". In the disease specific approach, we focused on estimating direct and indirect costs involved in treatments of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases, and cancer as a result of smoking, by using an epidemiologic approach—the population attributable risk (PAR). To compute PAR, the relative risks of smoking in terms of physician visits, hospital admission, and death were estimated using the Cox proportional hazard model. In the all causes approach, we examined the differences in direct and indirect costs between smokers and non-smokers for all conditions and types of disease. The major data source was the Korea Medical Insurance Corporation cohort study, which had complete records of smoking status as of 1992 for 115 682 male and 67 932 female insured workers. Results: By the disease specific approach, the estimated costs attributable to smoking in 1998 in Korea ranged from US$2269.42 million ($4.89 million per 100 000 population; 0.59% of gross domestic product (GDP)) to $2956.75 million ($6.37 million; 0.78% of GDP). The all causes approach yielded a minimum cost of $3154.75 million ($6.79 million; 0.82% GDP) and a maximum of $4580.25 million ($9.86 million; 1.19% GDP). Conclusion: The study confirms that smoking places a substantial economic burden on Korean society. In light of this, our study provides evidence for a strong need to develop a national policy to effectively control tobacco consumption in Korea. PMID:12612360

  20. Epidemiology of Postherpetic Neuralgia in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Myong-Joo; Kim, Yeon-Dong; Cheong, Yong-Kwan; Park, Seon-Jeong; Choi, Seung-Won; Hong, Hyon-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a disease entity defined as persistent pain after the acute pain of herpes zoster gradually resolves. It is associated with impaired daily activities, resulting in reduced quality of life. General epidemiological data on PHN is necessary for the effective management. However, data on the epidemiology of PHN in Korea is lacking. The aim of this study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of PHN in the general population. We used population-based medical data for 51,448,491 subscribers to the Health Insurance Service in the year of 2013 to analyze of PHN epidemiology in Korea, such as the incidence, regional distribution, seasonal variation, and healthcare resource utilization. Total number of patients and medical cost on PHN were analyzed from 2009 to 2013. Findings indicate that the incidence of PHN in Korea was 2.5 per 1000 person-years, which was strongly correlated with age and sex. There were no differences in seasonal variation or regional distribution. The medical cost increased steadily over the study period. When admitted to general hospitals, patients with PHN were mainly managed in the dermatology and anesthesiology departments. The incidence and prevalence rates of PHN in Koreans appear to be considerably higher compared to those in western populations, while the sex and age predisposition was similar. Considering that the pain associated with PHN can have a marked impact on a patient's quality of life resulting in a medicosocial economic burden, anesthesiology physicians have an important role in primary care in Korea. Future research on the cost-effectiveness of the management of PHN is needed. PMID:27057902